Sample records for enhanced halo stars

  1. The role of binaries in the enrichment of the early Galactic halo. II. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: CEMP-no stars (United States)

    Hansen, T. T.; Andersen, J.; Nordström, B.; Beers, T. C.; Placco, V. M.; Yoon, J.; Buchhave, L. A.


    Context. The detailed composition of most metal-poor halo stars has been found to be very uniform. However, a fraction of 20-70% (increasing with decreasing metallicity) exhibit dramatic enhancements in their abundances of carbon; these are the so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. A key question for Galactic chemical evolution models is whether this non-standard composition reflects that of the stellar natal clouds or is due to local, post-birth mass transfer of chemically processed material from a binary companion; CEMP stars should then all be members of binary systems. Aims: Our aim is to determine the frequency and orbital parameters of binaries among CEMP stars with and without over-abundances of neutron-capture elements - CEMP-s and CEMP-no stars, respectively - as a test of this local mass-transfer scenario. This paper discusses a sample of 24 CEMP-no stars, while a subsequent paper will consider a similar sample of CEMP-s stars. Methods: High-resolution, low S/N spectra of the stars were obtained at roughly monthly intervals over a time span of up to eight years with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Radial velocities of ~100 m s-1 precision were determined by cross-correlation after each observing night, allowing immediate, systematic follow-up of any variable object. Results: Most programme stars exhibit no statistically significant radial-velocity variation over this period and appear to be single, while four are found to be binaries with orbital periods of 300-2000 days and normal eccentricity; the binary frequency for the sample is 17 ± 9%. The single stars mostly belong to the recently identified low-C band, while the binaries have higher absolute carbon abundances. Conclusions: We conclude that the nucleosynthetic process responsible for the strong carbon excess in these ancient stars is unrelated to their binary status; the carbon was imprinted on their natal molecular clouds in the early Galactic interstellar

  2. The r-process Pattern of a Bright, Highly r-process-enhanced Metal-poor Halo Star at [Fe/H] ∼ ‑2 (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Hansen, Terese; Holmbeck, Erika M.; Beers, Timothy C.; Frebel, Anna; Roederer, Ian U.; Venn, Kim A.; Wallerstein, George; Davis, Christopher Evan; Farrell, Elizabeth M.; Yong, David


    A high-resolution spectroscopic analysis is presented for a new highly r-process-enhanced ([Eu/Fe] = 1.27, [Ba/Eu] = ‑0.65), very metal-poor ([Fe/H] = ‑2.09), retrograde halo star, RAVE J153830.9–180424, discovered as part of the R-Process Alliance survey. At V = 10.86, this is the brightest and most metal-rich r-II star known in the Milky Way halo. Its brightness enables high-S/N detections of a wide variety of chemical species that are mostly created by the r-process, including some infrequently detected lines from elements like Ru, Pd, Ag, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, and Th, with upper limits on Pb and U. This is the most complete r-process census in a very metal-poor r-II star. J1538–1804 shows no signs of s-process contamination, based on its low [Ba/Eu] and [Pb/Fe]. As with many other r-process-enhanced stars, J1538–1804's r-process pattern matches that of the Sun for elements between the first, second, and third peaks, and does not exhibit an actinide boost. Cosmo-chronometric age-dating reveals the r-process material to be quite old. This robust main r-process pattern is a necessary constraint for r-process formation scenarios (of particular interest in light of the recent neutron star merger, GW170817), and has important consequences for the origins of r-II stars. Additional r-I and r-II stars will be reported by the R-Process Alliance in the near future.

  3. Enormous Li Enhancement Preceding Red Giant Phases in Low-mass Stars in the Milky Way Halo (United States)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Bharat Kumar, Yerra; Shi, Jianrong; Suda, Takuma; Zhao, Gang


    Li abundances in the bulk of low-mass metal-poor stars are well reproduced by stellar evolution models adopting a constant initial abundance. However, a small number of stars have exceptionally high Li abundances, for which no convincing models have been established. We report on the discovery of 12 very metal-poor stars that have large excesses of Li, including an object having more than 100 times higher Li abundance than the values found in usual objects, which is the largest excess in metal-poor stars known to date. The sample is distributed over a wide range of evolutionary stages, including five unevolved stars, showing no clear abundance anomaly in other elements. The results indicate the existence of an efficient process to enrich Li in a small fraction of low-mass stars at the main-sequence or subgiant phase. The wide distribution of Li-rich stars along the red giant branch could be explained by the dilution of surface Li by mixing that occurs when the stars evolve into red giants. Our study narrows down the problem to be solved in order to understand the origins of Li excess found in low-mass stars, suggesting the presence of an unknown process that affects the surface abundances preceding red giant phases. This work is based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  4. Connecting Galaxies, Halos, and Star Formation Rates Across Cosmic Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.


    A simple, observationally-motivated model is presented for understanding how halo masses, galaxy stellar masses, and star formation rates are related, and how these relations evolve with time. The relation between halo mass and galaxy stellar mass is determined by matching the observed spatial abundance of galaxies to the expected spatial abundance of halos at multiple epochs--i.e. more massive galaxies are assigned to more massive halos at each epoch. This 'abundance matching' technique has been shown previously to reproduce the observed luminosity- and scale-dependence of galaxy clustering over a range of epochs. Halos at different epochs are connected by halo mass accretion histories estimated from N-body simulations. The halo-galaxy connection at fixed epochs in conjunction with the connection between halos across time provides a connection between observed galaxies across time. With approximations for the impact of merging and accretion on the growth of galaxies, one can then directly infer the star formation histories of galaxies as a function of stellar and halo mass. This model is tuned to match both the observed evolution of the stellar mass function and the normalization of the observed star formation rate--stellar mass relation to z {approx} 1. The data demands, for example, that the star formation rate density is dominated by galaxies with M{sub star} {approx} 10{sup 10.0-10.5} M{sub {circle_dot}} from 0 < z < 1, and that such galaxies over these epochs reside in halos with M{sub vir} {approx} 10{sup 11.5-12.5} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The star formation rate--halo mass relation is approximately Gaussian over the range 0 < z < 1 with a mildly evolving mean and normalization. This model is then used to shed light on a number of issues, including (1) a clarification of 'downsizing', (2) the lack of a sharp characteristic halo mass at which star formation is truncated, and (3) the dominance of star formation over merging to the stellar

  5. Lithium abundances in high- and low-alpha halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.


    A previous study of F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a clear separation in [alpha /Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 < [Fe/H] < -0.7. The kinematics of the stars and models of galaxy formation suggest that the ...

  6. Visibility of stars, halos, and rainbows during solar eclipses. (United States)

    Können, Gunther P; Hinz, Claudia


    The visibility of stars, planets, diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows during the partial and total phases of a solar eclipse is studied. The limiting magnitude during various stages of the partial phase is presented. The sky radiance during totality with respect to noneclipse conditions is revisited and found to be typically 1/4000. The corresponding limiting magnitude is +3.5. At totality, the signal-to-background ratio of diffraction coronas, halos, and rainbows has dropped by a factor of 250. It is found that diffraction coronas around the totally eclipsed Sun may nevertheless occur. Analyses of lunar halo observations during twilight indicate that bright halo displays may also persist during totality. Rainbows during totality seem impossible.

  7. Dark-matter halo mergers as a fertile environment for low-mass Population III star formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovino, S.; Latif, M. A.; Grassi, Tommaso


    While Population III (Pop III) stars are typically thought to be massive, pathways towards lower mass Pop III stars may exist when the cooling of the gas is particularly enhanced. A possible route is enhanced HD cooling during the merging of dark-matter haloes. The mergers can lead to a high...

  8. Mapping Milky Way Halo Structure with Blue Horizontal Branch Stars (United States)

    Martin, Charles; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.


    The use of blue horizontal brach (BHB) and red giant branch stars as tracers of stellar debris streams is a common practice and has been useful in the confirmation of kinematic properties of previously identified streams. This work explores less common ways of untangling the velocity signatures of streams traveling radially to our line of sight, and to peer toward the higher density region of the Galactic Center using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using spectra of BHB stars, we are able to kinematically distinguish moving groups in the Milky Way halo. The results of this thesis advance our knowledge of the following stellar halo substructures: the Pisces Stellar Stream, the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, the Hercules Halo Stream, and the Hermus Stream. A study of red giant stars led to the kinematic discovery of the Pisces Stellar Stream. Red giant stars were also examined to determine that the previously identified velocity signature that was suggested for the Hercules-Aquila Cloud was due to disk star contamination and errors in preliminary SDSS velocities. The Hercules Halo Stream is a previously unidentified structure that could be related to the Hercules-Aquila Cloud, and was discovered as a velocity excess of SDSS BHB stars. We identify a group of 10 stars with similar velocities that are spatially coincident with the Hermus Stream. An orbit is fit to the Hermus Stream that rules out a connection with the Phoenix Stream.This work was supported by NSF grants AST 09-37523, 14-09421, 16-15688, the NASA/NY Space Grant fellowship, and contributions made by The Marvin Clan, Babette Josephs, Manit Limlamai, and the 2015 Crowd Funding Campaign to Support Milky Way Research.

  9. The abundance of boron in three halo stars (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Lambert, David L.; Lemke, Michael


    B abundances for three halo stars: HD 140283, HD 19445, and HD 201891 are presented. Using recent determinations of the Be abundance in HD 140283, B/Be of 10 +5/-4 is found for this star, and similar ratios are inferred for HD 19445 and HD 201891. This ratio is equal to the minimum value of 10 expected from a synthesis of B and Be by high-energy cosmic-ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium. It is shown that the accompanying synthesis of Li by alpha on alpha fusion reactions is probably a minor contributor to the observed 'primordial' Li of halo stars. The observed constant ratios of B/O and Be/O are expected if the principal channel of synthesis involves cosmic-ray CNO nuclei from the supernovae colliding with interstellar protons.

  10. The orbital eccentricity distribution of solar-neighbourhood halo stars (United States)

    Hattori, K.; Yoshii, Y.


    We present theoretical calculations for the differential distribution of stellar orbital eccentricity for a sample of solar-neighbourhood halo stars. Two types of static, spherical gravitational potentials are adopted to define the eccentricity e for given energy E and angular momentum L, such as an isochrone potential and a Navarro-Frenk-White potential that can serve as two extreme ends covering in between any realistic potential of the Milky Way halo. The solar-neighbourhood eccentricity distribution ΔN(e) is then formulated, based on a static distribution function of the form f(E, L) in which the velocity anisotropy parameter β monotonically increases in the radial direction away from the galaxy centre, such that β is below unity (near-isotropic velocity dispersion) in the central region and asymptotically approaches ˜1 (radially anisotropic velocity dispersion) in the far distant region of the halo. We find that ΔN(e) sensitively depends upon the radial profile of β, and this sensitivity is used to constrain such a profile in comparison with some observational properties of ΔNobs(e) recently reported by Carollo et al. In particular, the linear e-distribution and the fraction of higher e stars for their sample of solar-neighbourhood inner-halo stars rule out a constant profile of β, contrary to the opposite claim by Bond et al. Our constraint of β≲ 0.5 at the galaxy centre indicates that the violent relaxation that has acted on the inner halo is effective within a scale radius of ˜10 kpc from the galaxy centre. We argue that our result would help to understand the formation and evolution of the Milky Way halo.

  11. Stellar Mass—Halo Mass Relation and Star Formation Efficiency in High-Mass Halos (United States)

    Kravtsov, A. V.; Vikhlinin, A. A.; Meshcheryakov, A. V.


    We study relation between stellar mass and halo mass for high-mass halos using a sample of galaxy clusters with accurate measurements of stellar masses from optical and ifrared data and total masses from X-ray observations. We find that stellar mass of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) scales as M *,BCG ∝ M 500 αBCG with the best fit slope of α BCG ≈ 0.4 ± 0.1. We measure scatter of M *,BCG at a fixed M 500 of ≈0.2 dex. We show that stellar mass-halo mass relations from abundance matching or halo modelling reported in recent studies underestimate masses of BCGs by a factor of ˜2-4. We argue that this is because these studies used stellar mass functions (SMF) based on photometry that severely underestimates the outer surface brightness profiles of massive galaxies. We show that M * -M relation derived using abundance matching with the recent SMF calibration by Bernardi et al. (2013) based on improved photometry is in a much better agreement with the relation we derive via direct calibration for observed clusters. The total stellar mass of galaxies correlates with total mass M 500 with the slope of ≈0.6 ± 0.1 and scatter of 0.1 dex. This indicates that efficiency with which baryons are converted into stars decreases with increasing cluster mass. The low scatter is due to large contribution of satellite galaxies: the stellar mass in satellite galaxies correlates with M 500 with scatter of ≈0.1 dex and best fit slope of αsat ≈ 0.8 ± 0.1. We show that for a fixed choice of the initial mass function (IMF) total stellar fraction in clusters is only a factor of 3-5 lower than the peak stellar fraction reached in M ≈ 1012 M ⊙ halos. The difference is only a factor of ˜1.5-3 if the IMF becomes progressively more bottom heavy with increasing mass in early type galaxies, as indicated by recent observational analyses. This means that the overall efficiency of star formation in massive halos is only moderately suppressed compared to L * galaxies and

  12. Hypervelocity Stars: From the Galactic Center to the Halo (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.; Geller, Margaret J.; Brown, Warren R.


    Hypervelocity stars (HVSs) traverse the Galaxy from the central black hole to the outer halo. We show that the Galactic potential within 200 pc acts as a high-pass filter preventing low-velocity HVSs from reaching the halo. To trace the orbits of HVSs throughout the Galaxy, we construct two forms of the potential which reasonably represent the observations in the range 5-105 pc: a simple spherically symmetric model and a bulge-disk-halo model. We use the Hills mechanism (disruption of binaries by the tidal field of the central black hole) to inject HVSs into the Galaxy and to compute the observable spatial and velocity distributions of HVSs with masses in the range 0.6-4 M⊙. These distributions reflect the mass function in the Galactic center, properties of binaries in the Galactic center, and aspects of stellar evolution and the injection mechanism. For 0.6-4 M⊙ main-sequence stars, the fraction of unbound HVSs and the asymmetry of the velocity distribution for their bound counterparts increase with stellar mass. The density profiles for unbound HVSs decline with distance from the Galactic center approximately as r-2 (but are steeper for the most massive stars, which evolve off the main sequence during their travel time from the Galactic center); the density profiles for the bound ejecta decline with distance approximately as r-3. In a survey with a limiting magnitude of Vlesssim 23, the detectability of HVSs (unbound or bound) increases with stellar mass.

  13. Keck Spectroscopy of NGVS Sources: Milky Way Halo Star Kinematics (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Toloba, Elisa; Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) Collaboration


    We present a study of the kinematics of main sequence turnoff stars in the halo of the Milky Way based on Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey photometry and Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic follow-up. Specifically, we investigate the properties of the Virgo overdensity and Sagittarius stream Milky Way halo substructures in the foreground of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. We use an inverse concentration (iC) parameter that characterizes the angular size of a source, which is defined by the magnitude difference measured by two different apertures for the same object. After combining this information as well as redshift measured from spectra into a Z vs iC plot, all of the objects are separated clearly into three categories: foreground Milky Way stars, Virgo globular clusters, and background galaxies. Most objects located in unexpected regions in the V_iC plot are subsequently rejected through a rigorous examination due to low spectral quality or bad imaging quality, indicating that our sample selection approach gives a very clean classification. We then select Sagittarius stream stars and Virgo overdensity stars out of the foreground star sample to characterize their distributions of spatial position, radial velocity and metallicity, from which we can probe deeper into the history of structure formation in the Milky Way Galaxy. This research was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation. HZ has been sponsored by China Scholarship Council to carry out this research project at University of California, Santa Cruz.

  14. A Phenomenological Model of Star Formation Efficiency in Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Finnegan, Daniel; Alsheshakly, Ghadeer; Moustakas, John


    The efficiency of star formation in massive dark matter halos is extraordinarily low, less than 10% in >10^13 Msun sized halos. Although many physical processes have been proposed to explain this low efficiency, such as feedback from supermassive black halos and massive stars, this question remains one of the most important outstanding problems in galaxy evolution. To explore this problem, we build a simple phenomenological model to predict the variations in gas fraction and star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass. We compare our model predictions to central galaxy stellar masses and halo masses drawn from the literature, and discuss plans for our future work.

  15. An extremely primitive star in the Galactic halo. (United States)

    Caffau, Elisabetta; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; François, Patrick; Sbordone, Luca; Monaco, Lorenzo; Spite, Monique; Spite, François; Ludwig, Hans-G; Cayrel, Roger; Zaggia, Simone; Hammer, François; Randich, Sofia; Molaro, Paolo; Hill, Vanessa


    The early Universe had a chemical composition consisting of hydrogen, helium and traces of lithium; almost all other elements were subsequently created in stars and supernovae. The mass fraction of elements more massive than helium, Z, is known as 'metallicity'. A number of very metal-poor stars has been found, some of which have a low iron abundance but are rich in carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. For theoretical reasons and because of an observed absence of stars with Z enriched above a critical value of Z, estimated to lie in the range 1.5 × 10(-8) to 1.5 × 10(-6) (ref. 8), although competing theories claiming the contrary do exist. (We use 'low-mass' here to mean a stellar mass of less than 0.8 solar masses, the stars that survive to the present day.) Here we report the chemical composition of a star in the Galactic halo with a very low Z (≤ 6.9 × 10(-7), which is 4.5 × 10(-5) times that of the Sun) and a chemical pattern typical of classical extremely metal-poor stars--that is, without enrichment of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. This shows that low-mass stars can be formed at very low metallicity, that is, below the critical value of Z. Lithium is not detected, suggesting a low-metallicity extension of the previously observed trend in lithium depletion. Such lithium depletion implies that the stellar material must have experienced temperatures above two million kelvin in its history, given that this is necessary to destroy lithium.

  16. Following the Cosmic Evolution of Pristine Gas. I. Implications for Milky Way Halo Stars (United States)

    Sarmento, Richard; Scannapieco, Evan; Pan, Liubin


    We make use of a new subgrid model of turbulent mixing to accurately follow the cosmological evolution of the first stars, the mixing of their supernova (SN) ejecta, and the impact on the chemical composition of the Galactic Halo. Using the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code ramses, we implement a model for the pollution of pristine gas as described in Pan et al. Tracking the metallicity of Pop III stars with metallicities below a critical value allows us to account for the fraction of Zmetallicity is well above {Z}{crit}. We demonstrate that such partially mixed regions account for 0.5 to 0.7 of all Pop III stars formed up to z = 5. Additionally, we track the creation and transport of “primordial metals” (PM) generated by Pop III SNe. These neutron-capture deficient metals are taken up by second-generation stars and likely lead to unique abundance signatures characteristic of carbon-enhanced, metal-poor (CEMP-no) stars. As an illustrative example, we associate primordial metals with abundance ratios used by Keller et al. to explain the source of metals in the star SMSS J031300.36-670839.3, finding good agreement with the observed [Fe/H], [C/H], [O/H], and [Mg/Ca] ratios in CEMP-no Milky Way halo stars. Similar future simulations will aid in further constraining the properties of Pop III stars using CEMP observations, as well as improve predictions of the spatial distribution of Pop III stars, as will be explored by the next generation of ground- and space-based telescopes.

  17. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in different environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, S.; Skúladóttir, Á.; de Bennassuti, M.


    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their possible connections with the chemical elements produced by the first stellar generations is still highly debated. We briefly review observations of CEMP stars in different environments (Galactic stellar halo, ultra-faint, and classical

  18. Halo histories versus Galaxy properties at z = 0 - I. The quenching of star formation (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Conroy, Charlie; Mao, Yao-Yuan


    We test whether halo age and galaxy age are correlated at fixed halo and galaxy mass. The formation histories, and thus ages, of dark matter haloes correlate with their large-scale density ρ, an effect known as assembly bias. We test whether this correlation extends to galaxies by measuring the dependence of galaxy stellar age on ρ. To clarify the comparison between theory and observation, and to remove the strong environmental effects on satellites, we use galaxy group catalogues to identify central galaxies and measure their quenched fraction, fQ, as a function of large-scale environment. Models that match halo age to central galaxy age predict a strong positive correlation between fQ and ρ. However, we show that the amplitude of this effect depends on the definition of halo age: assembly bias is significantly reduced when removing the effects of splashback haloes - those haloes that are central but have passed through a larger halo or experienced strong tidal encounters. Defining age using halo mass at its peak value rather than current mass removes these effects. In Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, at M* ≳ 1010 M⊙ h-2, there is a ∼5 per cent increase in fQ from low-to-high densities, which is in agreement with predictions of dark matter haloes using peak halo mass. At lower stellar mass there is little to no correlation of fQ with ρ. For these galaxies, age matching is inconsistent with the data across the range of halo formation metrics that we tested. This implies that halo formation history has a small but statistically significant impact on quenching of star formation at high masses, while the quenching process in low-mass central galaxies is uncorrelated with halo formation history.

  19. A two-point correlation function for Galactic halo stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Helmi, A.


    We describe a correlation function statistic that quantifies the amount of spatial and kinematic substructure in the stellar halo. We test this statistic using model stellar halo realizations constructed from the Aquarius suite of six high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, in combination


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Luis C.; Geha, Marla; Tollerud, Erik J. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kirby, Evan N. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra, E-mail: [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)


    We present alpha element to iron abundance ratios, [α/Fe], for four stars in the outer stellar halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). The stars were identified as high-likelihood field halo stars by Gilbert et al. and lie at projected distances between 70 and 140 kpc from M31's center. These are the first alpha abundances measured for a halo star in a galaxy beyond the Milky Way. The stars range in metallicity between [Fe/H] = –2.2 and [Fe/H] = –1.4. The sample's average [α/Fe] ratio is +0.20 ± 0.20. The best-fit average value is elevated above solar, which is consistent with rapid chemical enrichment from Type II supernovae. The mean [α/Fe] ratio of our M31 outer halo sample agrees (within the uncertainties) with that of Milky Way inner/outer halo stars that have a comparable range of [Fe/H].

  1. Chemical composition of metal-poor carbon stars in the halo. (United States)

    Kipper, T.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Klochkova, V. G.; Panchuk, V. E.


    In an attempt to increase the sample of metal-deficient late-type (i.e. cool) halo carbon stars analysed (only 3 such stars have previously been analysed spectroscopically), we obtained high-resolution visual spectra of 5 more candidates (and analysed in addition existing archive IR spectra for one of the stars) from the recent catalogue of Sleivyt e & Bartkevicius (1990), HD 25408 (C5,3J), HD 42272 (C5,4 CH), HD 59643 (C6,2CH), HD 189711 (C4,3 CH) and HD 197604 (C4,2 CH). From the spectra we have derived C/O ratios, N/C ratios, and metal abundances. If the oxygen abundance was fixed at logA(O)=7.4/8.3 (assuming that it follows the trend of oxygen overabundance relative to iron found in halo stars in general) we can furthermore derive [C/Fe] and [N/Fe]. New model atmospheres of metal-poor carbon stars were calculated with continuum opacity sources and molecular lines of CO, CN, C_2_, HCN, C_2_H_2_ and C_3_. Two of the stars, HD 25408 and HD 42272, turned out not to be CH stars. The other three stars, although late-type, showed the C/O and [Fe/H] ratios common in early-type CH stars. From the total sample of the six confirmed cool halo-CH stars now analysed, we find evidence that not all metal-poor low mass halo carbon stars can have formed due to mass transfer in binary systems, as is usually assumed. At least 3 of the stars, and possible more, are likely to have formed as intrinsic carbon stars, with some similarities to the carbon star population in the dwarf galaxies.

  2. Linking dwarf galaxies to halo building blocks with the most metal-poor star in Sculptor. (United States)

    Frebel, Anna; Kirby, Evan N; Simon, Joshua D


    Current cosmological models indicate that the Milky Way's stellar halo was assembled from many smaller systems. On the basis of the apparent absence of the most metal-poor stars in present-day dwarf galaxies, recent studies claimed that the true Galactic building blocks must have been vastly different from the surviving dwarfs. The discovery of an extremely iron-poor star (S1020549) in the Sculptor dwarf galaxy based on a medium-resolution spectrum cast some doubt on this conclusion. Verification of the iron-deficiency, however, and measurements of additional elements, such as the alpha-element Mg, are necessary to demonstrate that the same type of stars produced the metals found in dwarf galaxies and the Galactic halo. Only then can dwarf galaxy stars be conclusively linked to early stellar halo assembly. Here we report high-resolution spectroscopic abundances for 11 elements in S1020549, confirming its iron abundance of less than 1/4,000th that of the Sun, and showing that the overall abundance pattern follows that seen in low-metallicity halo stars, including the alpha-elements. Such chemical similarity indicates that the systems destroyed to form the halo billions of years ago were not fundamentally different from the progenitors of present-day dwarfs, and suggests that the early chemical enrichment of all galaxies may be nearly identical.

  3. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: effects of binary evolution at low metallicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, O.R.; Izzard, R.G.


    Recent spectroscopic surveys have revealed a large number of extremely metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo. Many of these stars are being subjected to detailed spectroscopic analysis, and a surprisingly large fraction, about 25 %, turn out to be carbon-rich stars with enhancements of C by as much

  4. Feedback-regulated star formation and escape of LyC photons from mini-haloes during reionization (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Katz, Harley; Haehnelt, Martin; Rosdahl, Joakim; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne


    Reionization in the early Universe is likely driven by dwarf galaxies. Using cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, we study star formation and the escape of Lyman continuum (LyC) photons from mini-haloes with {M_halo}≲ 10^8 {M_{⊙}}. Our simulations include a new thermo-turbulent star formation model, non-equilibrium chemistry and relevant stellar feedback processes (photoionization by young massive stars, radiation pressure and mechanical supernova explosions). We find that feedback reduces star formation very efficiently in mini-haloes, resulting in the stellar mass consistent with the slope and normalization reported in Kimm & Cen and the empirical stellar mass-to-halo mass relation derived in the local Universe. Because star formation is stochastic and dominated by a few gas clumps, the escape fraction in mini-haloes is generally determined by radiation feedback (heating due to photoionization), rather than supernova explosions. We also find that the photon number-weighted mean escape fraction in mini-haloes is higher (˜20-40 per cent) than that in atomic-cooling haloes, although the instantaneous fraction in individual haloes varies significantly. The escape fraction from Pop III stars is found to be significant ( ≳ 10 per cent) only when the mass is greater than ˜100 M⊙. Based on simple analytic calculations, we show that LyC photons from mini-haloes are, despite their high escape fractions, of minor importance for reionization due to inefficient star formation. We confirm previous claims that stars in atomic-cooling haloes with masses 10^8 {M_{⊙}}≲ {M_halo}≲ 10^{11} {M_{⊙}} are likely to be the most important source of reionization.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very metal poor stars in MW halo (Mashonkina+, 2017) (United States)

    Mashonkina, L.; Jablonka, P.; Sitnova, T.; Pakhomov, Yu; North, P.


    Tables 3 and 4 from the article are presented. They include the LTE and NLTE abundances from individual lines and average abundances of the investigated stars in the dSphs Sculptor (Scl), Ursa Minor (UMi), Fornax (Fnx), Sextans (Sex), Bootes I (Boo), UMa II, and Leo IV and the Milky Way (MW) halo. (3 data files).

  6. Why are so many primitive stars observed in the Galaxy halo?

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Carl H; Schild, Rudolph E


    Small values of lithium observed in a small, primitive, Galaxy-Halo star SDSS J102915 + 172927 cannot be explained using the standard cold dark matter CDM theory of star formation, but are easily understood using the Gibson/Schild 1996 hydrogravitationaldynamics (HGD) theory. From HGD, primordial H-4He gas fragments into Earth-mass planets in trillion-planet proto-globular-star-cluster (PGC) clumps at the 300 Kyr time of transition from the plasma epoch, soon after the big bang. The first HGD stars formed from pristine, frictionally-merging, gas-planets within the gently stressed clumps of the early universe, burning most available lithium in brown-dwarfs and hot-stars before creating metals that permit cooler burning. The Caffau halo star is a present day example. CDM first stars (Population III) were massive and promptly exploded, reionizing the gas of the universe and seeding it with metals, thus making the observed star unexplainable. From HGD, CDM and its massive first stars, and re-ionization by Pop III...

  7. Weak Galactic halo-Fornax dSph connection from RR Lyrae stars (United States)

    Fiorentino, G.; Monelli, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Bono, G.; Gallart, C.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Bernard, E. J.; Massari, D.; Braga, V. F.; Dall'Ora, M.


    Aims: For the first time accurate pulsation properties of the ancient variable stars of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) are discussed in the broad context of galaxy formation and evolution. Methods: Homogeneous multi-band BVI optical photometry of spanning twenty years has allowed us to identify and characterize more than 1400 RR Lyrae stars (RRLs) in this galaxy. Results: Roughly 70% are new discoveries. We investigate the period-amplitude distribution and find that Fornax shows a lack of high amplitude (AV ⪆ 0.75 mag) short period fundamental-mode RRLs (P ≲ 0.48 d, HASPs). These objects occur in stellar populations more metal-rich than [Fe/H] -1.5 and they are common in the Galactic halo (hereafter Halo) and in globulars. This evidence suggests that old Fornax stars (older than 10 Gyr) are relatively metal poor. A detailed statistical analysis of the role of the present-day Fornax dSph in reproducing the Halo period distribution shows that it can only account for up to 20% of the Halo when combined with RRLs in massive dwarf galaxies (Sagittarius dSph, Large Magellanic Cloud). This finding indicates that Fornax-like systems played a smaller role than massive dwarfs in building up the Halo. Conclusions: We also discuss the occurrence of HASPs in connection with the luminosity and the early chemical composition of nearby dwarf galaxies. We find that, independently of their individual star formation histories, bright (MV ≲ -13.5 mag) galaxies have HASPs, whereas faint ones (MV ⪆ -11 mag) do not. Interestingly enough, Fornax belongs to a luminosity range (-11 < MV ≲ -13.5 mag) in which the occurrence of HASPs appears to be correlated with the early star formation and chemical enrichment of the host galaxy.

  8. Constraining cosmic scatter in the Galactic halo through a differential analysis of metal-poor stars (United States)

    Reggiani, Henrique; Meléndez, Jorge; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Karakas, Amanda; Placco, Vinicius


    Context. The chemical abundances of metal-poor halo stars are important to understanding key aspects of Galactic formation and evolution. Aims: We aim to constrain Galactic chemical evolution with precise chemical abundances of metal-poor stars (-2.8 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.5). Methods: Using high resolution and high S/N UVES spectra of 23 stars and employing the differential analysis technique we estimated stellar parameters and obtained precise LTE chemical abundances. Results: We present the abundances of Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba. The differential technique allowed us to obtain an unprecedented low level of scatter in our analysis, with standard deviations as low as 0.05 dex, and mean errors as low as 0.05 dex for [X/Fe]. Conclusions: By expanding our metallicity range with precise abundances from other works, we were able to precisely constrain Galactic chemical evolution models in a wide metallicity range (-3.6 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -0.4). The agreements and discrepancies found are key for further improvement of both models and observations. We also show that the LTE analysis of Cr II is a much more reliable source of abundance for chromium, as Cr I has important NLTE effects. These effects can be clearly seen when we compare the observed abundances of Cr I and Cr II with GCE models. While Cr I has a clear disagreement between model and observations, Cr II is very well modeled. We confirm tight increasing trends of Co and Zn toward lower metallicities, and a tight flat evolution of Ni relative to Fe. Our results strongly suggest inhomogeneous enrichment from hypernovae. Our precise stellar parameters results in a low star-to-star scatter (0.04 dex) in the Li abundances of our sample, with a mean value about 0.4 dex lower than the prediction from standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis; we also study the relation between lithium depletion and stellar mass, but it is difficult to assess a correlation due to the limited mass range. We

  9. Evidence for a dispersion in the lithium abundances of extreme halo stars (United States)

    Deliyannis, Constantine P.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Duncan, Douglas K.


    Evidence is presented to the effect that there exists a small dispersion in the lithium abundances of extreme halo dwarfs. This dispersion cannot be accounted for by standard stellar models alone, particularly toward the turnoff, and would thus require early differential Galactic Li enrichment, perhaps independent of metallicity. The magnitude of the dispersion is also consistent with the predictions of evolutionary models of halo stars with rotation, which do not require, but do not rule out either, early Galactic enrichment. These rotational models also predict a significant depletion in the lithium abundance during the stars' lifetime. The rotational models predict that stars which formed with very low initial angular momentum will have lithium abundances measurably above the plateau.

  10. Nearby stars of the Galactic disc and halo - IV (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Klaus


    The Milky Way Galaxy has an age of about 13 billion years. Solar-type stars evolve all the long way to the realm of degenerate objects on essentially this time-scale. This, as well as the particular advantage that the Sun offers through reliable differential spectroscopic analyses, render these stars the ideal tracers for the fossil record of our parent spiral. Astrophysics is a science that is known to be notoriously plagued by selection effects. The present work - with a major focus in this fourth contribution on model atmosphere analyses of spectroscopic binaries and multiple star systems - aims at a volume-complete sample of about 300 nearby F-, G-, and K-type stars that particularly avoids any kinematical or chemical pre-selection from the outset. It thereby provides an unbiased record of the local stellar populations - the ancient thick disc and the much younger thin disc. On this base, the detailed individual scrutiny of the long-lived stars of both populations unveils the thick disc as a single-burst component with a local normalization of no less than 20 per cent. This enormous fraction, combined with its much larger scaleheight, implies a mass for the thick disc that is comparable to that of the thin disc. On account of its completely different mass-to-light ratio the thick disc thereby becomes the dark side of the Milky Way, an ideal major source for baryonic dark matter. This massive, ancient population consequently challenges any gradual build-up scenario for our parent spiral. Even more, on the supposition that the Galaxy is not unusual, the thick disc - as it emerges from this unbiased spectroscopic work - particularly challenges the hierarchical cold-dark-matter-dominated formation picture for spiral galaxies in general.

  11. Is main-sequence galaxy star formation controlled by halo mass accretion? (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.; Behroozi, Peter; Faber, S. M.


    The galaxy stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) is nearly time-independent for z dependent constraints on the relation between SFR and MAR. Despite its simplicity and the simplified treatment of mass growth from mergers, the SHARC model is likely to be a good approximation for central galaxies with M* = 109-1010.5 M⊙ that are on the MS, representing most of the star formation in the Universe. SHARC predictions agree with observed SFRs for galaxies on the MS at low redshifts, agree fairly well at z ˜ 4, but exceed observations at z ≳ 4. Assuming that the interstellar gas mass is constant for each galaxy (the `equilibrium condition' in bathtub models), the SHARC model allows calculation of net mass loading factors for inflowing and outflowing gas. With assumptions about preventive feedback based on simulations, SHARC allows calculation of galaxy metallicity evolution. If galaxy SFRs indeed track halo MARs, especially at low redshifts, that may help explain the success of models linking galaxy properties to haloes (including age-matching) and the similarities between two-halo galaxy conformity and halo mass accretion conformity.

  12. Following The Cosmic Evolution Of Pristine Gas I: Implications For Milky Way Halo Stars


    Sarmento, Richard; Scannapieco, Evan; Pan, Liubin


    We make use of new subgrid model of turbulent mixing to accurately follow the cosmological evolution of the first stars, the mixing of their supernova ejecta, and the impact on the chemical composition of the Galactic Halo. Using the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code RAMSES, we implement a model for the pollution of pristine gas as described in Pan et al. Tracking the metallicity of Pop III stars with metallicities below a critical value allows us to account for the fraction of Z < Z...

  13. Galactic Halo Stars in Phase Space: A Hint of Satellite Accretion? (United States)

    Brook, Chris B.; Kawata, Daisuke; Gibson, Brad K.; Flynn, Chris


    The present-day chemical and dynamical properties of the Milky Way bear the imprint of the Galaxy's formation and evolutionary history. One of the most enduring and critical debates surrounding Galactic evolution is that regarding the competition between ``satellite accretion'' and ``monolithic collapse'' the apparent strong correlation between orbital eccentricity and metallicity of halo stars was originally used as supporting evidence for the latter. While modern-day unbiased samples no longer support the claims for a significant correlation, recent evidence has been presented by Chiba & Beers for the existence of a minor population of high-eccentricity metal-deficient halo stars. It has been suggested that these stars represent the signature of a rapid (if minor) collapse phase in the Galaxy's history. Employing velocity and integrals of motion phase-space projections of these stars, coupled with a series of N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic chemodynamical simulations, we suggest that an alternative mechanism for creating such stars may be the recent accretion of a polar orbit dwarf galaxy.

  14. The first carbon-enhanced metal-poor star found in the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skúladóttir, Á.; Tolstoy, E.; Salvadori, S.; Hill, V.; Pettini, M.; Shetrone, M. D.; Starkenburg, E.

    The origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their possible connection with the chemical elements produced by the first stellar generation is still highly debated. In contrast to the Galactic halo, not many CEMP stars have been found in the dwarf spheroidal galaxies around the Milky

  15. The assembly of the halo system of the Milky Way as revealed by SDSS/SEGUE – The CEMP star connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carollo D.


    Full Text Available In recent years, massive new spectroscopic data sets, such as the over half million stellar spectra obtained during the course of SDSS (in particular its sub-survey SEGUE, have provided the quantitative detail required to formulate a coherent story of the assembly and evolution of the Milky Way. The disk and halo systems of our Galaxy have been shown to be both more complex, and more interesting, than previously thought. Here we concentrate on the halo system of the Milky Way. New data from SDSS/SEGUE has revealed that the halo system comprises at least two components, the inner halo and the outer halo, with demonstrably different characteristics (metallicity distributions, density distributions, kinematics, etc.. In addition to suggesting new ways to examine these data, the inner/outer halo dichotomy has enabled an understanding of at least one long-standing observational result, the increase of the fraction of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP stars with decreasing metallicity.

  16. Weak Galactic Halo-Dwarf Spheroidal Connection from RR Lyrae Stars (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana; Bono, Giuseppe; Monelli, Matteo; Stetson, Peter B.; Tolstoy, Eline; Gallart, Carme; Salaris, Maurizio; Martínez-Vázquez, Clara E.; Bernard, Edouard J.


    We discuss the role that dwarf galaxies may have played in the formation of the Galactic halo (Halo) using RR Lyrae stars (RRL) as tracers of their ancient stellar component. The comparison is performed using two observables (periods, luminosity amplitudes) that are reddening and distance independent. Fundamental mode RRL in 6 dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) and 11 ultra faint dwarf galaxies (~1300) show a Gaussian period distribution well peaked around a mean period of langPabrang = 0.610 ± 0.001 days (σ = 0.03). The Halo RRL (~15,000) are characterized by a broader period distribution. The fundamental mode RRL in all the dSphs apart from Sagittarius are completely lacking in High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) variables, defined as those having P lsim 0.48 days and AV >= 0.75 mag. Such variables are not uncommon in the Halo and among the globular clusters and massive dwarf irregulars. To further interpret this evidence, we considered 18 globulars covering a broad range in metallicity (-2.3 lsim [Fe/H] lsim -1.1) and hosting more than 35 RRL each. The metallicity turns out to be the main parameter, since only globulars more metal-rich than [Fe/H] ~ -1.5 host RRL in the HASP region. This finding suggests that dSphs similar to the surviving ones do not appear to be the major building-blocks of the Halo. Leading physical arguments suggest an extreme upper limit of ~50% to their contribution. On the other hand, massive dwarfs hosting an old population with a broad metallicity distribution (Large Magellanic Cloud, Sagittarius) may have played a primary role in the formation of the Halo.

  17. Predicting galaxy star formation rates via the co-evolution of galaxies and haloes (United States)

    Watson, Douglas F.; Hearin, Andrew P.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Becker, Matthew R.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Skibba, Ramin A.; Reyes, Reinabelle; Zentner, Andrew R.; van den Bosch, Frank C.


    In this paper, we test the age matching hypothesis that the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy of fixed stellar mass is determined by its dark matter halo formation history, e.g. more quiescent galaxies reside in older haloes. We present new Sloan Digital Sky Survey measurements of the galaxy two-point correlation function and galaxy-galaxy lensing as a function of stellar mass and SFR, separated into quenched and star-forming galaxy samples to test this simple model. We find that our age matching model is in excellent agreement with these new measurements. We also find that our model is able to predict: (1) the relative SFRs of central and satellite galaxies, (2) the SFR dependence of the radial distribution of satellite galaxy populations within galaxy groups, rich groups, and clusters and their surrounding larger scale environments, and (3) the interesting feature that the satellite quenched fraction as a function of projected radial distance from the central galaxy exhibits an ˜r-.15 slope, independent of environment. These accurate predictions are intriguing given that we do not explicitly model satellite-specific processes after infall, and that in our model the virial radius does not mark a special transition region in the evolution of a satellite. The success of the model suggests that present-day galaxy SFR is strongly correlated with halo mass assembly history.

  18. Early evolution of the Galactic halo revealed from Hipparcos observations of metal-poor stars (United States)

    Chiba, Masashi; Yoshii, Yuzuru


    The kinematics of 122 red giant and 124 RR Lyrae stars in the solar neighborhood are studied using accurate measurements of their proper motions obtained by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite, combined with their published photometric distances, metal abundances, and radial velocities. A majority of these sample stars have metal abundances of (Fe/H) = -1 or less and thus represent the old stellar populations in the Galaxy. The halo component, with (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less, is characterized by a lack of systemic rotation and a radially elongated velocity ellipsoid. About 16 percent of such metal-poor stars have low orbital eccentricities, and we see no evidence of a correlation between (Fe/H) and e. Based on the model for the e-distribution of orbits, we show that this fraction of low-e stars for (Fe/H) = -1.6 or less is explained by the halo component alone, without introducing the extra disk component claimed by recent workers. This is also supported by the absence of a significant change in the e-distribution with height from the Galactic plane. In the intermediate-metallicity range, we find that stars with disklike kinematics have only modest effects on the distributions of rotational velocities and e for the sample at absolute value of z less than 1 kpc. This disk component appears to constitute only 10 percent for (Fe/H) between -1.6 and -1 and 20 percent for (Fe/H) between -1.4 and -1.

  19. The stellar mass, star formation rate and dark matter halo properties of LAEs at z ˜ 2 (United States)

    Kusakabe, Haruka; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ouchi, Masami; Nakajima, Kimihiko; Goto, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Takuya; Konno, Akira; Harikane, Yuichi; Silverman, John D.; Capak, Peter L.


    We present average stellar population properties and dark matter halo masses of z ˜ 2 Lyα emitters (LAEs) from spectral energy distribution fitting and clustering analysis, respectively, using ≃ 1250 objects (\\mathit {NB387}\\le 25.5) in four separate fields of ≃ 1 deg2 in total. With an average stellar mass of 10.2 ± 1.8 × 108 M⊙ and star formation rate of 3.4 ± 0.4 M⊙ yr-1, the LAEs lie on an extrapolation of the star-formation main sequence (MS) to low stellar mass. Their effective dark matter halo mass is estimated to be 4.0_{-2.9}^{+5.1} × 10^{10}{ }M_{\\odot } with an effective bias of 1.22^{+0.16}_{-0.18}, which is lower than that of z ˜ 2 LAEs (1.8 ± 0.3) obtained by a previous study based on a three times smaller survey area, with a probability of 96%. However, the difference in the bias values can be explained if cosmic variance is taken into account. If such a low halo mass implies a low H I gas mass, this result appears to be consistent with the observations of a high Lyα escape fraction. With the low halo masses and ongoing star formation, our LAEs have a relatively high stellar-to-halo mass ratio (SHMR) and a high efficiency of converting baryons into stars. The extended Press-Schechter formalism predicts that at z = 0 our LAEs are typically embedded in halos with masses similar to that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC); they will also have similar SHMRs to the LMC, if their star formation rates are largely suppressed after z ˜ 2 as some previous studies have reported for the LMC itself.

  20. Li-7 abundances in halo stars: Testing stellar evolution models and the primordial Li-7 abundance (United States)

    Chaboyer, Brian; Demarque, P.


    A large number of stellar evolution models with (Fe/H) = -2.3 and -3.3 have been calculated in order to determine the primordial Li-7 abundance and to test current stellar evolution models by a comparison to the extensive database of accurate Li abundances in extremely metal-poor halo stars observed by Thorburn (1994). Standard models with gray atmospheres do a very good job of fitting the observed Li abundances in stars hotter than approximately 5600 K. They predict a primordial. Li-7 abundance of log N(Li) = 2.24 +/- 0.03. Models which include microscopic diffusion predict a downward curvature in the Li-7 destruction isochrones at hot temperatures which is not present in the observations. Thus, the observations clearly rule out models which include uninhibited microscopic diffusion of Li-7 from the surface of the star. Rotational mixing inhibits the microscopic diffusion and the (Fe/H) = -2.28 stellar models which include both diffusion and rotational mixing provide an excellent match to the mean trend in T(sub eff) which is present in the observations. Both the plateau stars and the heavily depleted cool stars are well fit by these models. The rotational mixing leads to considerable Li-7 depletion in these models and the primordial Li-7 abundance inferred from these models is log N(Li) = 3.08 +/- 0.1. However, the (Fe/H) = -3.28 isochrones reveal problems with the combined models. These isochrones predict a trend of decreasing log N(Li) with increasing T(sub eff) which is not present in the observations. Possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  1. The redshift evolution of the distribution of star formation among dark matter halos as seen in the infrared (United States)

    Béthermin, Matthieu; Wang, Lingyu; Doré, Olivier; Lagache, Guilaine; Sargent, Mark; Daddi, Emanuele; Cousin, Morgane; Aussel, Hervé


    Recent studies have revealed a strong correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass of the majority of star-forming galaxies, the so-called star-forming main sequence. An empirical modeling approach (the 2-SFM framework) that distinguishes between the main sequence and rarer starburst galaxies is capable of reproducing most statistical properties of infrared galaxies, such as number counts, luminosity functions, and redshift distributions. In this paper, we extend this approach by establishing a connection between stellar mass and halo mass with the technique of abundance matching. Based on a few simple assumptions and a physically motivated formalism, our model successfully predicts the (cross-)power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB), the cross-correlation between CIB and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing, and the correlation functions of bright, resolved infrared galaxies measured by Herschel, Planck, ACT, and SPT. We use this model to infer the redshift distribution of CIB-anisotropies and of the CIB × CMB lensing signal, as well as the level of correlation between CIB-anisotropies at different wavelengths. We study the link between dark matter halos and star-forming galaxies in the framework of our model. We predict that more than 90% of cosmic star formation activity occurs in halos with masses between 1011.5 and 1013.5 M⊙. If taking subsequent mass growth of halos into account, this implies that the majority of stars were initially (at z > 3) formed in the progenitors of clusters (Mh(z = 0) > 1013.5 M⊙), then in groups (1012.5 php?id=537"> The effective SEDs are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)


    A very simple physical model of galaxies is one in which the formation of stars is instantaneously regulated by the mass of gas in a reservoir with mass loss scaling with the star-formation rate (SFR). This model links together three different aspects of the evolving galaxy population: (1) the cosmic time evolution of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relative to the growth of halos, (2) the gas-phase metallicities across the galaxy population and over cosmic time, and (3) the ratio of the stellar to dark matter mass of halos. The gas regulator is defined by the gas consumption timescale ({epsilon}{sup -1}) and the mass loading {lambda} of the wind outflow {lambda}{center_dot}SFR. The simplest regulator, in which {epsilon} and {lambda} are constant, sets the sSFR equal to exactly the specific accretion rate of the galaxy; more realistic situations lead to an sSFR that is perturbed from this precise relation. Because the gas consumption timescale is shorter than the timescale on which the system evolves, the metallicity Z is set primarily by the instantaneous operation of the regulator system rather than by the past history of the system. The metallicity of the gas reservoir depends on {epsilon}, {lambda}, and sSFR, and the regulator system therefore naturally produces a Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation if {epsilon} and {lambda} depend on the stellar mass m{sub star}. Furthermore, this relation will be the same at all epochs unless the parameters {epsilon} and {lambda} themselves change with time. A so-called fundamental metallicity relation is naturally produced by these conditions. The overall mass-metallicity relation Z(m{sub star}) directly provides the fraction f{sub star}(m{sub star}) of incoming baryons that are being transformed into stars. The observed Z(m{sub star}) relation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies implies a strong dependence of stellar mass on halo mass that reconciles the different faint-end slopes of the stellar and halo mass

  3. The evolution of the C/O ratio in metal-poor halo stars (United States)

    Akerman, C. J.; Carigi, L.; Nissen, P. E.; Pettini, M.; Asplund, M.


    We report new measurements of carbon and oxygen abundances in 34 F and G dwarf and subgiant stars belonging to the halo population and spanning a range of metallicity from [Fe/H] = -0.7 to -3.2 . The survey is based on observations of four permitted lines of C I near 9100 Å and the O I,λ 7774 triplet, all recorded at high signal-to-noise ratios with the UVES echelle spectrograph on the ESO VLT. The line equivalent widths were analysed with the 1D, LTE, MARCS model atmosphere code to deduce C and O abundances; corrections due to non-LTE and 3D effects are discussed. When combined with similar published data for disk stars, our results confirm the metallicity dependence of the C/O ratio known from previous stellar and interstellar studies: C/O drops by a factor of ˜3-4 as O/H decreases from solar to ˜1/10 solar. Analysed within the context of standard models for the chemical evolution of the solar vicinity, this drop results from the metallicity dependence of the C yields from massive stars with mass loss, augmented by the delayed release of C from stars of low and intermediate mass. The former is, however, always the dominant factor. Our survey has also uncovered tentative evidence to suggest that, as the oxygen abundance decreases below [O/H] = -1, [C/O] may not remain constant at [C/O] = -0.5, as previously thought, but increase again, possibly approaching near-solar values at the lowest metallicities ([O/H] ≲ -3). With the current dataset this is no more than a 3σ effect and it may be due to metallicity-dependent non-LTE corrections to the [C/O] ratio which have not been taken into account. However, its potential importance as a window on the nucleosynthesis by Population III stars is a strong incentive for future work, both observational and theoretical, to verify its reality. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO No. 67.D-0106).

  4. The Eating Habits of Milky Way-mass Halos: Destroyed Dwarf Satellites and the Metallicity Distribution of Accreted Stars (United States)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.


    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (Mvir ˜ 1012.1 M⊙) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with Mstar ˜ 108-1010M⊙. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (108-109 M⊙), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (Mstar 108 M⊙ can contribute a considerable fraction (˜20%-60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil” a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  5. Structures in the Milky Way’s Halo System using the Age Distribution of Field Horizontal-Branch Stars (United States)

    Lentner, Geoffrey; Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Whitten, Deven; Denissenkov, Pavel; Santucci, Rafael; Rossi, Silvia


    Twenty five years ago it was demonstrated that the colors of blue horizontal-branch (BHB) stars in the halo of the Milky Way correlate with age (Preston et al., 1991). More recently, this property of BHB stars has been used to construct chronographic (age) maps of the Galaxy (Santucci et al., 2015; Carollo et al., 2016), which revealed the presence of substructures on the basis of the age contrast between younger accreted satellites with respect to the diffuse halo field stars, and, for the first time, obtained an empirical estimate of the age gradient for the halo of the Galaxy based on field BHB stars. These maps also indicated the presence of an ancient chronographic sphere, including the oldest BHB stars, extending from close to the Galactic center out to some 10-15 kpc.We extend these studies making use of deeper u-band photometry from the recent public data release of the SCUSS survey (Zou et al., 2016). We also describe application of a new grid of ages that takes into account both metallicity and colors for BHB stars.By building deeper chronographic maps we can better explore the age structures that are revealed. Up- coming large surveys, including the public release of Pan-STARRS, as well as photometry from the Dark Energy Survey, will further add to these efforts.This work received partial support from PHY 14-30152; Physics Frontier Center/JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements (JINA-CEE), awarded by the US National Science Foundation.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Alis J.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    We study the mass spectrum of destroyed dwarfs that contribute to the accreted stellar mass of Milky Way (MW)-mass (M{sub vir} ∼ 10{sup 12.1} M{sub ⊙}) halos using a suite of 45 zoom-in dissipationless simulations. Empirical models are employed to relate (peak) subhalo mass to dwarf stellar mass, and we use constraints from z = 0 observations and hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the metallicity distribution of the accreted stellar material. The dominant contributors to the accreted stellar mass are relatively massive dwarfs with M{sub star} ∼ 10{sup 8}–10{sup 10}M{sub ⊙}. Halos with more quiescent accretion histories tend to have lower mass progenitors (10{sup 8}–10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙}), and lower overall accreted stellar masses. Ultra-faint mass (M{sub star} < 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}) dwarfs contribute a negligible amount (≪1%) to the accreted stellar mass and, despite having low average metallicities, supply a small fraction (∼2%–5%) of the very metal-poor stars with [Fe/H] < −2. Dwarfs with masses 10{sup 5} < M{sub star}/M{sub ⊙} < 10{sup 8} provide a substantial amount of the very metal-poor stellar material (∼40%–80%), and even relatively metal-rich dwarfs with M{sub star} > 10{sup 8} M{sub ⊙} can contribute a considerable fraction (∼20%–60%) of metal-poor stars if their metallicity distributions have significant metal-poor tails. Finally, we find that the generic assumption of a quiescent assembly history for the MW halo seems to be in tension with the mass spectrum of its surviving dwarfs. We suggest that the MW could be a “transient fossil”; a quiescent halo with a recent accretion event(s) that disguises the preceding formation history of the halo.

  7. Structure and Kinematics of the Stellar Halos and Thick Disks of the Milky Way Based on Calibration Stars from SDSS DR7 (United States)

    Carollo, D.; Beers, T. C.; Chiba, M.; Norris, J. E.; Freeman, K. C.; Lee, Y. S.


    The structure and kinematics of the recognized stellar components of the Milky Way are explored, based on well-determined atmospheric parameters and kinematic quantities for 32360 “calibration stars” from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and its first extension, (SDSS-II), which included the sub-survey SEGUE: Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Full space motions for a sub-sample of 16920 stars, exploring a local volume within 4 kpc of the Sun, are used to derive velocity ellipsoids for the inner- and outer-halo components of the Galaxy, as well as for the canonical thick-disk and proposed metal-weak thick-disk populations. This new sample of calibration stars represents an increase of 60% relative to the numbers used in a previous analysis. A Maximum Likelihood analysis of a local sub-sample of 16920 calibration stars has been developed in order to extract kinematic information for the major Galactic components (thick disk, inner halo, and outer halo), as well as for the elusive metal-weak thick disk (MWTD). We measure velocity ellipsoids for the thick disk, the MWTD, the inner halo, and the outer halo, demonstrate that the MWTD may be a component that is kinematically and chemically independent of the canonical thick disk (and put limits on the metallicity range of the MWTD), and derive the inferred spatial density profiles of the inner/outer halo components. We also present evidence for tilts in the velocity ellipsoids for stars in our sample as a function of height above the plane, for several ranges in metallicity, and confirm the shift of the observed metallicity distribution function (MDF) from the inner-halo to the outer-halo dominated sample.

  8. Disentangling the Galactic Halo with APOGEE. II. Chemical and Star Formation Histories for the Two Distinct Populations (United States)

    Fernández-Alvar, Emma; Carigi, Leticia; Schuster, William J.; Hayes, Christian R.; Ávila-Vergara, Nancy; Majewski, Steve R.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Zamora, Olga; García-Hernández, Domingo Aníbal; Tang, Baitian; Fernández-Trincado, José G.; Tissera, Patricia; Geisler, Douglas; Villanova, Sandro


    The formation processes that led to the current Galactic stellar halo are still under debate. Previous studies have provided evidence for different stellar populations in terms of elemental abundances and kinematics, pointing to different chemical and star formation histories (SFHs). In the present work, we explore, over a broader range in metallicity (-2.2Experiment (APOGEE). We aim to infer signatures of the initial mass function (IMF) and the SFH from the two α-to-iron versus iron abundance chemical trends for the most APOGEE-reliable α-elements (O, Mg, Si, and Ca). Using simple chemical-evolution models, we infer the upper mass limit (M up) for the IMF and the star formation rate, and its duration for each population. Compared with the low-α population, we obtain a more intense and longer-lived SFH, and a top-heavier IMF for the high-α population.

  9. The dark nemesis of galaxy formation: why hot haloes trigger black hole growth and bring star formation to an end (United States)

    Bower, Richard G.; Schaye, Joop; Frenk, Carlos S.; Theuns, Tom; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; McAlpine, Stuart


    Galaxies fall into two clearly distinct types: `blue-sequence' galaxies which are rapidly forming young stars, and `red-sequence' galaxies in which star formation has almost completely ceased. Most galaxies more massive than 3 × 1010 M⊙ follow the red sequence, while less massive central galaxies lie on the blue sequence. We show that these sequences are created by a competition between star formation-driven outflows and gas accretion on to the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's centre. We develop a simple analytic model for this interaction. In galaxies less massive than 3 × 1010 M⊙, young stars and supernovae drive a high-entropy outflow which is more buoyant than any tenuous corona. The outflow balances the rate of gas inflow, preventing high gas densities building up in the central regions. More massive galaxies, however, are surrounded by an increasingly hot corona. Above a halo mass of ˜1012 M⊙, the outflow ceases to be buoyant and star formation is unable to prevent the build-up of gas in the central regions. This triggers a strongly non-linear response from the black hole. Its accretion rate rises rapidly, heating the galaxy's corona, disrupting the incoming supply of cool gas and starving the galaxy of the fuel for star formation. The host galaxy makes a transition to the red sequence, and further growth predominantly occurs through galaxy mergers. We show that the analytic model provides a good description of galaxy evolution in the EAGLE hydrodynamic simulations. So long as star formation-driven outflows are present, the transition mass scale is almost independent of subgrid parameter choice.

  10. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: disc-halo interactions in radio-selected star-forming galaxies (United States)

    Leslie, S. K.; Bryant, J. J.; Ho, I.-T.; Sadler, E. M.; Medling, A. M.; Groves, B.; Kewley, L. J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Croom, S. M.; Wong, O. I.; Brough, S.; Tescari, E.; Sweet, S. M.; Sharp, R.; Green, A. W.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Allen, J. T.; Fogarty, L. M. R.; Goodwin, M.; Lawrence, J. S.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Owers, M. S.; Richards, S. N.


    In this paper, we compare the radio emission at 1.4 GHz with optical outflow signatures of edge-on galaxies. We report observations of six edge-on star-forming galaxies in the Sydney-AAO Multiobject Integral-field spectrograph Galaxy Survey with 1.4 GHz luminosities >1 × 1021 W Hz-1. Extended minor axis optical emission is detected with enhanced [N II]/H α line ratios and velocity dispersions consistent with galactic winds in three of six galaxies. These galaxies may host outflows driven by a combination of thermal and cosmic ray processes. We find that galaxies with the strongest wind signatures have extended radio morphologies. Our results form a baseline for understanding the driving mechanisms of galactic winds.

  11. Kinematic, Photometric, and Spectroscopic Properties of Faint White Dwarf Stars Discovered in the HALO7D Survey of the Milky Way Galaxy (United States)

    Harris, Madison; Cunningham, Emily; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cheshire, Ishani; Gupta, Nandita


    White dwarf (WD) stars represent the final phase in the life of solar-mass stars. The extreme low luminosity of WDs means that most detailed measurements of such stars are limited to samples in the immediate neighborhood of the Sun in the thin disk of the Milky Way galaxy. We present spectra, line-of-sight (LOS) velocities, and proper motions (PMs) of a sample of faint (m_V ~ 19.0–24.5) white dwarfs (WDs) from the HALO7D survey. HALO7D is a Keck II/DEIMOS spectroscopic survey of unprecedented depth (8–24 hour integrations) in the CANDELS fields of main sequence turnoff stars in the Milky Way's outer halo. Faint WD stars are rare but useful by-products of this survey. We identify the sample of WDs based on their characteristic broad spectral Balmer absorption features, and present a Bayesian method for measuring their LOS velocities. Using their broadband colors, LOS velocities and PMs measured with the Hubble Space Telescope, we identify candidate halo members among the WDs based on the predicted velocity distributions from the Besançon numerical model of stellar populations in the Milky Way galaxy. The WDs found in the HALO7D survey will yield new insights on the old stellar population associated with the Milky Way's thick disk and halo. Funding for this research was provided by the National Science Foundation and NASA/STScI. NG and IC's participation in this research was under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at the University of California Santa Cruz.

  12. Variable Stars in Local Group Galaxies. III. And VII, NGC 147, and NGC 185: Insight into the Building Blocks of the M31 Halo (United States)

    Monelli, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Bernard, E. J.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Bono, G.; Gallart, C.; Dall’Ora, M.; Stetson, P. B.


    We present the discovery of 1568 RR Lyrae stars in three of the most luminous M31 satellites: And VII (573), NGC 147 (177), and NGC 185 (818). We use their properties to study the formation history of Local Group spiral haloes, and in particular, to infer about the nature of their possible building blocks by comparison with available data for RR Lyrae stars in the halo and in a sample of satellites of M31 and the Milky Way. We find that the brightest satellites and the halos of both galaxies host a number of High Amplitude Short Period (HASP) RR Lyrae variable stars, which are missing in the faintest satellites. HASP variable stars have been shown by Fiorentino et al. to be tracers of a population of stars as metal-rich as [Fe/H] ≃ ‑1.5 and older than ≃ 10 {Gyr}. This suggests that the metal-rich M31 and MW halo component, which manifests through the HASP phenomenon, comes from massive dwarf galaxy building blocks, as the low-mass dwarfs did not chemically enrich fast enough to produce them. All detected variable stars are new discoveries; in particular, this work presents the first detections of RR Lyrae stars in And VII. Moreover, a number of candidate Anomalous Cepheids, and binary and long-period variable stars have been detected. We provide pulsation properties (period, amplitude, mean magnitude), light curves, and time series photometry for all of the variable stars in the three galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #10430 and #11724.

  13. Evidence for a vanishing 6Li/7Li isotopic signature in the metal-poor halo star HD84937

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, K.; Asplund, M.; Collet, Remo


    The claimed detections of 6Li in the atmospheres of some metal-poor halo stars have lead to speculative additions to the standard model of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the early Universe, as the inferred abundances cannot be explained by Galactic cosmic ray production. A prominent example of a so...

  14. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Kim, Young Kwang; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas; Jung, Jaehun


    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = -1.5 and -2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A(C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP-s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s-process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP-s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  15. Chemical Cartography. I. A Carbonicity Map of the Galactic Halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun; Kim, Young Kwang [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of); Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius; Yoon, Jinmi [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Carollo, Daniela [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Masseron, Thomas [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Jung, Jaehun, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Space Science, and Geology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)


    We present the first map of carbonicity, [C/Fe], for the halo system of the Milky Way, based on a sample of over 100,000 main-sequence turnoff stars with available spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map, which explores distances up to 15 kpc from the Sun, reveals clear evidence for the dual nature of the Galactic halo, based on the spatial distribution of stellar carbonicity. The metallicity distribution functions of stars in the inner- and outer-halo regions of the carbonicity map reproduce those previously argued to arise from contributions of the inner- and outer-halo populations, with peaks at [Fe/H] = −1.5 and −2.2, respectively. From consideration of the absolute carbon abundances for our sample, A (C), we also confirm that the carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in the outer-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP-no stars (those with no overabundances of heavy neutron-capture elements) than of CEMP- s stars (those with strong overabundances of elements associated with the s -process), whereas the stars in the inner-halo region exhibit a higher frequency of CEMP- s stars. We argue that the contrast in the behavior of the CEMP-no and CEMP- s fractions in these regions arises from differences in the mass distributions of the mini-halos from which the stars of the inner- and outer-halo populations formed, which gives rise in turn to the observed dichotomy of the Galactic halo.

  16. Overcooled haloes at z ≥ 10: a route to form low-mass first stars

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, Joaquin; Verde, Licia


    It has been shown by Shchekinov & Vasiliev2006 (SV06) that HD molecules can be an important cooling agent in high redshift z >10 haloes if they undergo mergers under specific conditions so suitable shocks are created. Here we build upon Prieto et al. (2012) who studied in detail the merger-generated shocks, and show that the conditions for HD cooling can be studied by combining these results with a suite of dark-matter only simulations. We have performed a number of dark matter only simulations from cosmological initial conditions inside boxes with sizes from 1 to 4 Mpc. We look for haloes with at least two progenitors of which at least one has mass M > M_cr (z), where M_cr (z) is the SV06 critical mass for HD over-cooling. We find that the fraction of over-cooled haloes with mass between M_cr (z) and 10^{0.2} M_cr (z), roughly below the atomic cooling limit, can be as high as ~ 0.6 at z ~ 10 depending on the merger mass ratio. This fraction decreases at higher redshift reaching a value ~0.2 at z ~ 15. Fo...

  17. Sc and neutron-capture abundances in Galactic low- and high-alpha field halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, D.; Karakas, Amanda I.


    chemical patterns have been attributed to differences in the star formation rate between the two populations and the contribution of low-metallicity, low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the low-alpha population. By comparing the low-alpha population with AGB stellar models, we place constraints...

  18. SMC west halo: a slice of the galaxy that is being tidally stripped?. Star clusters trace age and metallicity gradients (United States)

    Dias, B.; Kerber, L.; Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.; Ortolani, S.


    Context. The evolution and structure of the Magellanic Clouds is currently under debate. The classical scenario in which both the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC, SMC) are orbiting the Milky Way has been challenged by an alternative in which the LMC and SMC are in their first close passage to our Galaxy. The clouds are close enough to us to allow spatially resolved observation of their stars, and detailed studies of stellar populations in the galaxies are expected to be able to constrain the proposed scenarios. In particular, the west halo (WH) of the SMC was recently characterized with radial trends in age and metallicity that indicate tidal disruption. Aims: We intend to increase the sample of star clusters in the west halo of the SMC with homogeneous age, metallicity, and distance derivations to allow a better determination of age and metallicity gradients in this region. Positions are compared with the orbital plane of the SMC from models. Methods: Comparisons of observed and synthetic V(B-V) colour-magnitude diagrams were used to derive age, metallicity, distance, and reddening for star clusters in the SMC west halo. Observations were carried out using the 4.1 m SOAR telescope. Photometric completeness was determined through artificial star tests, and the members were selected by statistical comparison with a control field. Results: We derived an age of 1.23 ± 0.07 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.87 ± 0.07 for the reference cluster NGC 152, compatible with literature parameters. Age and metallicity gradients are confirmed in the WH: 2.6 ± 0.6 Gyr/° and -0.19 ± 0.09 dex/°, respectively. The age-metallicity relation for the WH has a low dispersion in metallicity and is compatible with a burst model of chemical enrichment. All WH clusters seem to follow the same stellar distribution predicted by dynamical models, with the exception of AM-3, which should belong to the counter-bridge. Brück 6 is the youngest cluster in our sample. It is only 130 ± 40 Myr old and

  19. The FMOS-COSMOS Survey of Star-forming Galaxies at Z ˜ 1.6. V: Properties of Dark Matter Halos Containing Hα Emitting Galaxies (United States)

    Kashino, Daichi; More, Surhud; Silverman, John D.; Daddi, Emanuele; Renzini, Alvio; Sanders, David B.; Rodighiero, Giulia; Puglisi, Annagrazia; Kajisawa, Masaru; Valentino, Francesco; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Nagao, Tohru; Arimoto, Nobuo; Sugiyama, Naoshi


    We study the properties of dark matter halos that contain star-forming galaxies at 1.43 ≤ z ≤ 1.74, using the FMOS-COSMOS survey. The sample consists of 516 objects with a detection of the Hα emission line, which represent the star forming population at this epoch, having a stellar mass range of 109.57 ≤ M */M ⊙ ≲ 1011.4 and a star-formation rate range of 15 ≲ SFR/(M ⊙ yr-1) ≲ 600. We measure the projected two-point correlation function while carefully taking into account observational biases, and find a significant clustering amplitude at scales of 0.04-10 h -1 cMpc, with a correlation length {r}0={5.26}-0.62+0.75 {h}-1 {cMpc} and a bias b={2.44}-0.32+0.38. We interpret our clustering measurement using a halo occupation distribution model. The sample galaxies appear to reside in halos with mass {M}{{h}}={4.71}-1.62+1.19× {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ on average, which will likely become present-day halos of mass M h (z = 0) ˜ 2 × 1013 h -1 M ⊙, equivalent to the typical halo mass scale of galaxy groups. We then confirm the decline of the stellar-to-halo mass ratio at M h generation instrument that will provide strong constraints on the galaxy-formation scenario by obtaining precise measurements of galaxy clustering at z > 1.

  20. Weak Galactic halo-Fornax dSph connection from RR Lyrae stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.; Monelli, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Bono, G.; Gallart, C.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Bernard, E. J.; Massari, D.; Braga, V. F.; Dall'Ora, M.


    Aims: For the first time accurate pulsation properties of the ancient variable stars of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) are discussed in the broad context of galaxy formation and evolution. Methods: Homogeneous multi-band BVI optical photometry of spanning twenty years has allowed us to

  1. RR Lyrae variable stars in M31-M33 super-halo (United States)

    Tanakul, Nahathai; Sarajedini, Ata


    RR Lyrae variable stars can serve as powerful probes of their host stellar populations. Information such as distance, metallicity, reddening, and age can be gleaned from their pulsation properties. Therefore, studying them in the nearest spiral galaxies M31 and M33 will yield important information about the early history of these galaxies. The main goals of this study are: 1) To investigate the Oosterhoff type of RR Lyrae stars in M31 and M33 and compare them with the Milky Way to better understand the formation of these galaxies. 2) To investigate the early formation history of these two galaxies through knowledge of their RR Lyrae stars. In order to achieve these goals, we have analyzed 10 fields in M31 and M33 (6 fields in M31 and 4 fields in M33) using archival imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope. Published data for M31, M33, and several M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies are also used to study the global properties of RR Lyrae in these systems. The results are then compared with those in the Milky Way galaxy.

  2. Constraining the galaxy-halo connection over the last 13.3 Gyr: star formation histories, galaxy mergers and structural properties (United States)

    Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Primack, Joel R.; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Faber, S. M.


    We present new determinations of the stellar-to-halo mass relation (SHMR) at z = 0-10 that match the evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function, the star formation rate (SFR)-M* relation and the cosmic SFR. We utilize a compilation of 40 observational studies from the literature and correct them for potential biases. Using our robust determinations of halo mass assembly and the SHMR, we infer star formation histories, merger rates and structural properties for average galaxies, combining star-forming and quenched galaxies. Our main findings are as follows: (1) The halo mass M50 above which 50 per cent of galaxies are quenched coincides with sSFR/sMAR ˜ 1, where sSFR is the specific SFR and sMAR is the specific halo mass accretion rate. (2) M50 increases with redshift, presumably due to cold streams being more efficient at high redshifts, while virial shocks and active galactic nucleus feedback become more relevant at lower redshifts. (3) The ratio sSFR/sMAR has a peak value, which occurs around {M_vir}˜ 2× 10^{11} M_{⊙}. (4) The stellar mass density within 1 kpc, Σ1, is a good indicator of the galactic global sSFR. (5) Galaxies are statistically quenched after they reach a maximum in Σ1, consistent with theoretical expectations of the gas compaction model; this maximum depends on redshift. (6) In-situ star formation is responsible for most galactic stellar mass growth, especially for lower mass galaxies. (7) Galaxies grow inside-out. The marked change in the slope of the size-mass relation when galaxies became quenched, from d log {R_eff}/d log {M_*}˜ 0.35 to ˜2.5, could be the result of dry minor mergers.

  3. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in the SDSS-APOGEE data base (United States)

    Kielty, C. L.; Venn, K. A.; Loewen, N. B.; Shetrone, M. D.; Placco, V. M.; Jahandar, F.; Mészáros, Sz.; Martell, S. L.


    We identify six new carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars ([C/Fe]>+0.7 and [Fe/H] data base following Data Release 12. These stars have chemical compositions typical of metal-poor halo stars, e.g. mean [α/Fe] = +0.24 ± 0.24, based on the APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline results. A lack of heavy-element spectral lines impedes further sub-classification of these CEMP stars, however, based on radial velocity (RV) scatter, we predict most are not CEMP-s stars which are typically found in binary systems. Only one object, 2M15312547+4220551, may be in a binary since it exhibits a scatter in its RV of 1.7 ± 0.6 km s-1 based on three visits over a 25.98 d baseline. Optical observations are now necessary to confirm the stellar parameters and low metallicities of these stars, to determine the heavy-element abundance ratios and improve the precision in the derived abundances, and to examine their CEMP sub-classifications.

  4. The MUSE Hubble Ultra Deep Field Survey. VIII. Extended Lyman-α haloes around high-z star-forming galaxies (United States)

    Leclercq, Floriane; Bacon, Roland; Wisotzki, Lutz; Mitchell, Peter; Garel, Thibault; Verhamme, Anne; Blaizot, Jérémy; Hashimoto, Takuya; Herenz, Edmund Christian; Conseil, Simon; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Inami, Hanae; Contini, Thierry; Richard, Johan; Maseda, Michael; Schaye, Joop; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Akhlaghi, Mohammad; Brinchmann, Jarle; Carollo, Marcella


    We report the detection of extended Lyα haloes around 145 individual star-forming galaxies at redshifts 3 ≤ z ≤ 6 in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field observed with the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at ESO-VLT. Our sample consists of continuum-faint (- 15 ≥ MUV ≥ -22) Lyα emitters (LAEs). Using a 2D, two-component (continuum-like and halo) decomposition of Lyα emission assuming circular exponential distributions, we measure scale lengths and luminosities of Lyα haloes. We find that 80% of our objects having reliable Lyα halo measurements show Lyα emission that is significantly more extended than the UV continuum detected by HST (by a factor ≈4 to >20). The median exponential scale length of the Lyα haloes in our sample is ≈4.5 kpc with a few haloes exceeding 10 kpc. By comparing the maximal detected extent of the Lyα emission with the predicted dark matter halo virial radii of simulated galaxies, we show that the detected Lyα emission of our selected sample of Lyα emitters probes a significant portion of the cold circum-galactic medium of these galaxies (>50% in average). This result therefore shows that there must be significant HI reservoirs in the circum-galactic medium and reinforces the idea that Lyα haloes are ubiquitous around high-redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. Our characterization of the Lyα haloes indicates that the majority of the Lyα flux comes from the halo (≈65%) and that their scale lengths seem to be linked to the UV properties of the galaxies (sizes and magnitudes). We do not observe a significant Lyα halo size evolution with redshift, although our sample for z> 5 is very small. We also explore the diversity of the Lyα line profiles in our sample and we find that the Lyα lines cover a large range of full width at half maximum (FWHM) from 118 to 512 km s-1. While the FWHM does not seem to be correlated to the Lyα scale length, most compact Lyα haloes and those that are not detected with high significance tend

  5. Origins of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars (United States)

    Sharma, Mahavir; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos S.; Cooke, Ryan J.


    We investigate the nature of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Milky Way (MW) analogues selected from the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. The stellar evolution model in EAGLE includes the physics of enrichment by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, winds from massive stars, and Type Ia and Type II supernovae (SNe). In the simulation, star formation in young MW progenitors is bursty due to efficient stellar feedback, which enables poor metal mixing leading to the formation of CEMP stars with extreme abundance patterns. Two classes of CEMP stars emerge: those mostly enriched by low-metallicity Type II SNe with low Fe yields that drive galactic outflows, and those mostly enriched by AGB stars when a gas-poor galaxy accretes pristine gas. The first class resembles CEMP-no stars with high [C/Fe] and low [C/O], the second class resembles CEMP-s stars overabundant in s-process elements and high values of [C/O]. These two enrichment channels explain several trends seen in data: (i) the increase in the scatter and median of [C/O] at low and decreasing [O/H], (ii) the trend of stars with very low [Fe/H] or [C/H] to be of type CEMP-no and (iii) the reduction in the scatter of [α/Fe] with atomic number in metal-poor stars. In this interpretation, CEMP-no stars were enriched by the stars that enabled galaxies to reionize the Universe.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, Toshihiro [Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saito, Yuriko [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao, E-mail: [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)


    Galaxies and massive black holes (BHs) presumably grow via galactic merging events and subsequent BH coalescence. As a case study, we investigate the merging event between the Andromeda galaxy (M31) and a satellite galaxy. We compute the expected observational appearance of the massive BH that was at the center of the satellite galaxy prior to the merger and is currently wandering in the M31 halo. We demonstrate that a radiatively inefficient accretion flow with a bolometric luminosity of a few tens of solar luminosities develops when Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion onto the BH is assumed. We compute the associated broadband spectrum and show that the radio band (observable with EVLA, ALMA, and the Square Kilometre Array) is the best frequency range in which to detect the emission. We also evaluate the mass and the luminosity of the stars bound by the wandering BH and find that such a star cluster is sufficiently luminous that it could correspond to one of the star clusters found by the PAndAS survey. The discovery of a relic massive BH wandering in a galactic halo will provide a direct means of investigating in detail the coevolution of galaxies and BHs. It also means a new population of BHs (off-center massive BHs) and offers targets for clean BH imaging that avoid strong interstellar scattering in the centers of galaxies.

  7. Using r-process enhanced galaxies to estimate the neutron star merger rate at high redshift (United States)

    Roederer, Ian


    The rapid neutron-capture process, or r-process, is one of the fundamental ways that stars produce heavy elements. I describe a new approach that uses the existence of r-process enhanced galaxies, like the recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II, to derive a rate for neutron star mergers at high redshift. This method relies on three assertions. First, several lines of reasoning point to neutron star mergers as a rare yet prolific producer of r-process elements, and one merger event is capable of enriching most of the stars in a low-mass dwarf galaxy. Second, the Local Group is cosmologically representative of the halo mass function at the mass scales of low-luminosity dwarf galaxies, and the volume that their progenitors spanned at high redshifts can be estimated from simulations. Third, many of these dwarf galaxies are extremely old, and the metals found in their stars today date from the earliest times at high redshift. These galaxies occupy a quantifiable volume of the Universe, from which the frequency of r-process enhanced galaxies can be estimated. This frequency may be interpreted as lower limit to the neutron star merger rate at a redshift (z ~ 5-10) that is much higher than is accessible to gravitational wave observatories. I will present a proof of concept demonstration using medium-resolution multi-object spectroscopy from the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) to recover the known r-process galaxy Reticulum II, and I will discuss future plans to apply this method to other Local Group dwarf galaxies.

  8. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars and thermohaline mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stancliffe, R.J.; Glebbeek, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483324X; Izzard, R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836052; Pols, O.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111811155


    One possible scenario for the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars is the accretion of carbon-rich material from a binary companion which may no longer visible. It is generally assumed that the accreted material remains on the surface of the star and does not mix with the interior until

  9. Walraven VBLUW photometry in Basel halo fields. II. Metallicity distribution of F- and G-stars in the direction of SA 141 (South Galactic Pole). (United States)

    Trefzger, Ch. F.; Pel, J. W.; Gabi, S.


    In an earlier paper (Pel et al. 1988, Paper I) photoelectric photometry in the Walraven VBLUW system was presented for magnitude limited samples of F-G stars in three high latitude fields of the Basel halo survey. The stars were selected from the photographic RGU survey using the color criterion (G-R)Basel halo survey contains mostly intermediate population stars. Up to z=900pc a rather steep mean metallicity gradient in the z direction is found: -0.55+/-0.1dex/kpc. This tends to flatten out to -0.18dex/kpc at z=1-2kpc. Including 160 additional fainter stars from the Basel survey for which (less accurate) [Fe/H] values can be estimated from the photographic RGU photometry, we determine an overall mean [Fe/H]-gradient for z=-0.6 and σ[Fe/H]=0.3dex. No attempt is made yet to determine a "best solution" for the three-component fit to the SA 141 data; this will be done in combination with the data for two additional Basel fields, SA 94 and SA 107. The results for SA 141 are consistent with Sandage (1987) who proposed a local density normalization of 10% and a vertical scale height of 1kpc for the thick disk. The observed stellar number-distance distribution for SA 141 is in excellent agreement with the prediction by the three-component model. This is an important independent check on the reliability of our absolute magnitudes and photospheric parameters.

  10. The difference in metallicity distribution functions of halo stars and globular clusters as a function of galaxy type. A tracer of globular cluster formation and evolution (United States)

    Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Kruijssen, J. M. D.; Bastian, N.; Rejkuba, M.; Hilker, M.; Kissler-Patig, M.


    Context. Observations of globular clusters (GCs) and field stars in the halos of the giant elliptical galaxy Cen A and the spiral galaxy M 31 show a large range of cluster-to-star number ratios (or "specific frequencies"). The cluster-to-star ratio decreases with increasing metallicity by over a factor of 100-1000, at all galactocentric radii and with a slope that does not seem to depend on radius. In dwarf galaxies, the GCs are also more metal-poor than the field stars on average. These observations indicate a strong dependence of either the cluster formation efficiency and/or the cluster destruction rate on metallicity and environment. Aims: We aim to explain the observed trends by considering the various effects that influence the cluster-to-star ratio as a function of metallicity, environment and cosmological history. Methods: We discuss the following effects that may influence the observed cluster-to-star ratio: (a) the formation efficiency of GCs; (b) the destruction of embedded GCs by gas expulsion; (c) the maximum masses of GCs; (d) the destruction of GCs by tidal stripping, dynamical friction, and tidal shocks as a function of environment; (e) the hierarchical assembly of GC systems during galaxy formation and the dependence on metallicity. Results: We show that both the cluster formation efficiency and the maximum cluster mass increase with metallicity, so they cannot explain the observed trend. Destruction of GCs by tidal stripping and dynamical friction destroy clusters mostly within the inner few kpc, whereas the cluster-to-star ratio trend is observed over a much larger range of galactocentric radii. We show that cluster destruction by tidal shocks from giant molecular clouds in the high-density formation environments of GCs becomes increasingly efficient towards high galaxy masses and, hence, towards high metallicities. The predicted cluster-to-star ratio decreases by a factor 100-1000 towards high metallicities and should only weakly depend on

  11. The contribution of dissolving star clusters to the population of ultra faint objects in the outer halo of the Milky Way (United States)

    Contenta, Filippo; Gieles, Mark; Balbinot, Eduardo; Collins, Michelle L. M.


    In the last decade, several ultra faint objects (UFOs, MV ≳ -3.5) have been discovered in the outer halo of the Milky Way. For some of these objects, it is not clear whether they are star clusters or (ultra faint) dwarf galaxies. In this work, we quantify the contribution of star clusters to the population of UFOs. We extrapolated the mass and Galactocentric radius distribution of the globular clusters using a population model, finding that the Milky Way contains about 3.3^{+7.3}_{-1.6} star clusters with MV ≳ -3.5 and Galactocentric radius ≥20 kpc. To understand whether dissolving clusters can appear as UFOs, we run a suite of direct N-body models, varying the orbit, the Galactic potential, the binary fraction and the black hole (BH) natal kick velocities. In the analyses, we consider observational biases such as luminosity limit, field stars and line-of-sight projection. We find that star clusters contribute to both the compact and the extended population of UFOs: clusters without BHs appear compact with radii ˜5 pc, while clusters that retain their BHs after formation have radii ≳ 20 pc. The properties of the extended clusters are remarkably similar to those of dwarf galaxies: high-inferred mass-to-light ratios due to binaries, binary properties mildly affected by dynamical evolution, no observable mass segregation and flattened stellar mass function. We conclude that the slope of the stellar mass function as a function of Galactocentric radius and the presence/absence of cold streams can discriminate between dark matter-free and dark matter-dominated UFOs.

  12. The Dark Halo of the Milky Way

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles Alcock


    .... This dark matter is distributed in space differently than the stars, forming a vast, diffuse halo, more spherical than disklike, which occupies more than 1000 times the volume of the disk of stars...

  13. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Skúladóttir, Ása; Tolstoy, Eline


    We investigate the frequency and origin of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars in Local Group dwarf galaxies by means of a statistical, data-calibrated cosmological model for the hierarchical build-up of the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The model self-consistently explains the variation

  14. Artificial halos (United States)

    Selmke, Markus


    Judged by their frequency and beauty, ice halos easily rival rainbows as a prominent atmospheric optics phenomenon. This article presents experimental halo demonstrations of varying complexity. Using a single commercially available hexagonal glass prism, a variety of artificial halos can be simulated. The experiments include laser beam path analysis, a modified classic spinning prism experiment, and a novel Monte-Carlo machine for three-dimensional rotations. Each of these experiments emulates different conditions of certain halo displays, and in combination, they allow a thorough understanding of these striking phenomena.

  15. J0815+4729: A Chemically Primitive Dwarf Star in the Galactic Halo Observed with Gran Telescopio Canarias (United States)

    Aguado, David S.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Rebolo, Rafael


    We report the discovery of the carbon-rich hyper metal-poor unevolved star J0815+4729. This dwarf star was selected from SDSS/BOSS as a metal-poor candidate and follow-up spectroscopic observations at medium resolution were obtained with the Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS) at William Herschel Telescope and the Optical System for Imaging and low-intermediate-Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at Gran Telescopio de Canarias. We use the FERRE code to derive the main stellar parameters, {T}{eff}=6215+/- 82 K, and {log}g=4.7+/- 0.5, an upper limit to the metallicity of [Fe/H] ≤ ‑5.8, and a carbon abundance of [C/Fe] ≥ +5.0, while [α /{Fe}]=0.4 is assumed. The metallicity upper limit is based on the Ca II K line, which at the resolving power of the OSIRIS spectrograph cannot be resolved from possible interstellar calcium. The star could be the most iron-poor unevolved star known and also be among the ones with the largest overabundances of carbon. High-resolution spectroscopy of J0815+4729 will certainly help to derive other important elemental abundances, possibly providing new fundamental constraints on the early stages of the universe, the formation of the first stars, and the properties of the first supernovae. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, on the island of La Palma. Program ID GTC90-15B and the Discretionary Director Time GTC03-16ADDT and also based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT).

  16. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): halo formation times and halo assembly bias on the cosmic web (United States)

    Tojeiro, Rita; Eardley, Elizabeth; Peacock, John A.; Norberg, Peder; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Driver, Simon P.; Henriques, Bruno; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Thomas, Peter; Tonini, Chiara; Wild, Vivienne


    We present evidence for halo assembly bias as a function of geometric environment (GE). By classifying Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) galaxy groups as residing in voids, sheets, filaments or knots using a tidal tensor method, we find that low-mass haloes that reside in knots are older than haloes of the same mass that reside in voids. This result provides direct support to theories that link strong halo tidal interactions with halo assembly times. The trend with GE is reversed at large halo mass, with haloes in knots being younger than haloes of the same mass in voids. We find a clear signal of halo downsizing - more massive haloes host galaxies that assembled their stars earlier. This overall trend holds independently of GE. We support our analysis with an in-depth exploration of the L-Galaxies semi-analytic model, used here to correlate several galaxy properties with three different definitions of halo formation time. We find a complex relationship between halo formation time and galaxy properties, with significant scatter. We confirm that stellar mass to halo mass ratio, specific star formation rate (SFR) and mass-weighed age are reasonable proxies of halo formation time, especially at low halo masses. Instantaneous SFR is a poor indicator at all halo masses. Using the same semi-analytic model, we create mock spectral observations using complex star formation and chemical enrichment histories, which approximately mimic GAMA's typical signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We use these mocks to assert how well potential proxies of halo formation time may be recovered from GAMA-like spectroscopic data.

  17. Galaxy models with live halos

    CERN Document Server

    Sellwood, J A


    Computer models of galaxies are described, in which the disc stars and the halo stars are both treated fully self consistently. These were used to test the validity of the 'rigid halo' approximation usually employed when studying the instabilities of a disc of stars. The models show that very little interaction between the populations occurs while the disc remains nearly axisymmetric, but a strong bar is able to transfer angular momentum from the disc to the halo. The global bar stability of the disc is not greatly affected by the interaction between the two stellar populations, and it is found that a large fraction of the total galactic mass is still required in the spheroidal component if bar formation is to be prevented. (36 refs).

  18. New Star-Like Surfacetexture for Enhanced Hydrodynamic Lubrication Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin M.S.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical modelling and optimization of a new ‘star-like’ geometric texture shape with an aim to improve tribological performance. Initial studies showed that the triangle effect is the most dominant in reducing the friction. Motivated with this, a ‘star-like’ texture shape consisting of a series of triangular spikes around the centre of the texture is proposed. It is hypothesised that by increasing the triangular effect on a texture shape, the converging micro-wedge effect is expected to increase, hence increasing the film pressure and reducing the friction. Using the well-known Reynolds boundary conditions, numerical modelling of surface texturing is implemented via finite difference method. Simulation results showed that the number of apex points of the new ‘star-like’ texture has a significant effect on the film pressure and the friction coefficient. A 6-pointed texture at a texture density of 0.4 is shown to be the optimum shape. The new optimum star-like texture reduces the friction coefficient by 80%, 64.39%, 19.32% and 16.14%, as compared to ellipse, chevron, triangle and circle, respectively. This indicates the potential benefit of the proposed new shape in further enhancing the hydrodynamic lubrication performance of slider bearing contacts.

  19. An ancient metal-poor population in M32, and halo satellite accretion in M31, identified by RR Lyrae stars (United States)

    Sarajedini, Ata; Yang, S.-C.; Monachesi, A.; Lauer, Tod R.; Trager, S. C.


    We present time series photometry of two fields near M32 using archival observations from the Advanced Camera for Surveys Wide Field Channel on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. One field is centred about 2 arcmin from M32, while the other is located 15 arcmin to the south-east of M31. The imaging covers a time baseline sufficient for the identification and characterization of a total number of 1139 RR Lyrae variables of which 821 are ab-type and 318 are c-type. In the field near M32, we find a radial gradient in the density of RR Lyraes relative to the centre of M32. This gradient is consistent with the surface brightness profile of M32, suggesting that a significant number of the RR Lyraes in this region belong to M32. This provides further confirmation that M32 contains an ancient stellar population formed around the same time as the oldest population in M31 and the Milky Way. The RR Lyrae stars in M32 exhibit a mean metal abundance of ≈ -1.42 ± 0.02, which is ≈15 times lower than the metal abundance of the overall M32 stellar population. Moreover, the abundance of RR Lyrae stars normalized to the luminosity of M32 in the field analysed further indicates that the ancient metal-poor population in M32 represents only a very minor component of this galaxy, consistent with the 1-4.5 per cent in mass inferred from the colour-magnitude diagram analysis of Monachesi et al. We also find that the measured reddening of the RR Lyrae stars is consistent with M32 containing little or no dust. In the other field, we find unprecedented evidence for two populations of RR Lyraes in M31 as shown by two distinct sequences among the ab-type variables in the Bailey diagram. When interpreted in terms of metal abundance, one population exhibits a peak at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.3 and the other is at [Fe/H] ≈ -1.9. One possible interpretation of this result is that the more metal-rich population represents the dominant M31 halo, while the metal-poorer group could be a disrupted dwarf

  20. The dark halo of the Milky Way. (United States)

    Alcock, C.


    Most of the matter in the Milky Way is invisible to astronomers. Precise numbers are elusive, but it appears that the dark component is 20 times as massive as the visible disk of stars and gas. This dark matter is distributed in space differently than the stars, forming a vast, diffuse halo, more spherical than disklike, which occupies more than 1000 times the volume of the disk of stars. The composition of this dark halo is unknown, but it may comprise a mixture of ancient, degenerate dwarf stars and exotic, hypothetical elementary particles.

  1. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the

  2. RR Lyrae to understand the Galactic halo (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana


    We present recent results obtained using old variable RR Lyrae stars on the Galactic halo structure and its connection with nearby dwarf galaxies. We compare the period and period-amplitude distributions for a sizeable sample of fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars (RRab) in dwarf spheroidals (~1300 stars) with those in the Galactic halo (~16'000 stars) and globular clusters (~1000 stars). RRab in dwarfs -as observed today- do not appear to follow the pulsation properties shown by those in the Galactic halo, nor they have the same properties as RRab in globulars. Thanks to the OGLE experiment we extended our comparison to massive metal-rich satellites like the dwarf irregular Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf spheroidal. These massive and more metal-rich stellar systems likely have contributed to the Galactic halo formation more than classical dwarf spheroidals. Finally, exploiting the intrinsic nature of RR Lyrae as distance indicators we were able to study the period and period amplitude distributions of RRab within the Halo. It turned out that the inner and the outer Halo do show a difference that may suggest a different formation scenario (in situ vs accreted).

  3. GBT CHANG-ES: Enhancing Radio Halos in Edge-on Galaxies Through Short-Spacing Corrections (United States)

    Trent Braun, Timothy; Kepley, Amanda; Rand, Richard J.; Mason, Brian Scott; CHANG-ES


    We present L- and C-band continuum Stokes I data from the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of 35 edge-on spiral galaxies that are part of the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies, an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES). CHANG-ES is an Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) large program to measure radio continuum emission from the halos of 35 edge-on spiral galaxies in order to address a wide variety of science goals, including constraining the structure of magnetic fields, understanding the origins of radio halos, and probing both cosmic ray transport and cosmic ray driven winds. These goals can be reached by studying radio halo scale heights, spectral index variations with height, and the distribution of intensity and position angle of polarized emission. In particular, we are interested in modeling non-thermal presssure gradients in the gaseous halos of nearby galaxies to predict how they contribute to the decrease in the rotation of extraplanar gas with increasing height off of the galactic midplanes (lagging halos). Ultimately, the study of lagging halos will help us probe the efficacy of gas cycling between the disk and the halo in nearby galaxies. Crucial to this and the rest of the CHANG-ES analysis is the combination of the VLA data (B,C,D configurations in L-band and C,D configurations in C-band) with the GBT data in order to fill in the missing short-spacings in the u-v plane, which increases our sensitivity to large-scale emission and allows us to recover the total flux density. We present preliminary results from two methods of combining single-dish and interferometic data, namely the use of GBT data cubes as a model for the CASA task tclean and combining the Fourier transforms of the images as weighted sums in the u-v plane (feathering). Lastly, we detail our new data reduction pipeline for our wideband GBT continuum data, with an emphasis on the application of a least-squares basket-weaving technique used to remove striping image artifacts that notoriously plague single

  4. First stars X. The nature of three unevolved carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivarani, T.; Beers, T.C.; Bonifacio, P.


    Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov.......Stars: abundances, stars: population II, Galaxy: abundances, stars: AGB and post-AGB Udgivelsesdato: Nov....

  5. New views of the distant stellar halo (United States)

    Sanderson, Robyn E.; Secunda, Amy; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Bochanski, John J.


    Currently, only a small number of Milky Way (MW) stars are known to exist beyond 100 kpc from the Galactic Centre. Though the distribution of these stars in the outer halo is believed to be sparse, they can provide evidence of more recent accretion events than in the inner halo and help map out the MW's dark matter halo to its virial radius. We have re-examined the outermost regions of 11 existing stellar halo models with two synthetic surveys: one mimicking present-day searches for distant M giants and another mimicking RR Lyra (RRL) projections for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). Our models suggest that colour and proper motion cuts currently used to select M giant candidates for follow-up successfully remove nearly all self-contamination from foreground halo dwarf stars and are useful for focusing observations on distant M giants, of which there are thousands to tens of thousands beyond 100 kpc in our models. We likewise expect that LSST will identify comparable numbers of RRLe at these distances. We demonstrate that several observable properties of both tracers, such as proximity of neighbouring stars, proper motions and distances (for RRLe), could help us separate different accreted dwarf galaxies from one another in the distant MW halo. We also discuss prospects for using ratios of M giants to RRLe as a proxy for accretion time, which in the future could provide new constraints on the recent accretion history of our Galaxy.

  6. Observational evidence for enhanced magnetic activity of superflare stars. (United States)

    Karoff, Christoffer; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; De Cat, Peter; Bonanno, Alfio; Fogtmann-Schulz, Alexandra; Fu, Jianning; Frasca, Antonio; Inceoglu, Fadil; Olsen, Jesper; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wei


    Superflares are large explosive events on stellar surfaces one to six orders-of-magnitude larger than the largest flares observed on the Sun throughout the space age. Due to the huge amount of energy released in these superflares, it has been speculated if the underlying mechanism is the same as for solar flares, which are caused by magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Here, we analyse observations made with the LAMOST telescope of 5,648 solar-like stars, including 48 superflare stars. These observations show that superflare stars are generally characterized by larger chromospheric emissions than other stars, including the Sun. However, superflare stars with activity levels lower than, or comparable to, the Sun do exist, suggesting that solar flares and superflares most likely share the same origin. The very large ensemble of solar-like stars included in this study enables detailed and robust estimates of the relation between chromospheric activity and the occurrence of superflares.

  7. A galaxy-halo model for multiple cosmological tracers (United States)

    Bull, Philip


    The information extracted from large galaxy surveys with the likes of DES, DESI, Euclid, LSST, SKA, and WFIRST will be greatly enhanced if the resultant galaxy catalogues can be cross-correlated with one another. Predicting the nature of the information gain, and developing the tools to realize it, depends on establishing a consistent model of how the galaxies detected by each survey trace the same underlying matter distribution. Existing analytic methods, such as halo occupation distribution modelling, are not well suited for this task, and can suffer from ambiguities and tuning issues when applied to multiple tracers. In this paper, we take the first step towards constructing an alternative that provides a common model for the connection between galaxies and dark matter haloes across a wide range of wavelengths (and thus tracer populations). This is based on a chain of parametrized statistical distributions that model the connection between (I) halo mass and bulk physical properties of galaxies, such as star formation rate; and (II) those same physical properties and a variety of emission processes. The result is a flexible parametric model that allows analytic halo model calculations of one-point functions to be carried out for multiple tracers, as well as providing semi realistic galaxy properties for fast mock catalogue generation.

  8. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; /UC, Irvine; Zentner, Andrew R.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Bullock, James S.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo


    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding

  9. Connecting the First Galaxies with Ultrafaint Dwarfs in the Local Group: Chemical Signatures of Population III Stars (United States)

    Jeon, Myoungwon; Besla, Gurtina; Bromm, Volker


    We investigate the star formation history (SFH) and chemical evolution of isolated analogs of Local Group (LG) ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs; stellar mass range of {10}2 {M}⊙ generation of stars down to z = 0. We confirm that reionization, combined with supernova (SN) feedback, is primarily responsible for the truncated star formation in UFDs. Specifically, halos with a virial mass of {M}{vir}≲ 2× {10}9 {M}⊙ form ≳ 90 % of stars prior to reionization. Our work further demonstrates the importance of Population III stars, with their intrinsically high [{{C}}/{Fe}] yields and the associated external metal enrichment, in producing low-metallicity stars ([{Fe}/{{H}}]≲ -4) and carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars. We find that UFDs are composite systems, assembled from multiple progenitor halos, some of which hosted only Population II stars formed in environments externally enriched by SNe in neighboring halos, naturally producing extremely low metallicity Population II stars. We illustrate how the simulated chemical enrichment may be used to constrain the SFHs of true observed UFDs. We find that Leo P analogs can form in halos with {M}{vir}˜ 4× {10}9 {M}⊙ (z = 0). Such systems are less affected by reionization and continue to form stars until z = 0, causing higher-metallicity tails. Finally, we predict the existence of extremely low metallicity stars in LG UFD galaxies that preserve the pure chemical signatures of Population III nucleosynthesis.

  10. Thermohaline mixing and gravitational settling in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stancliffe, R.J.; Glebbeek, E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483324X


    We investigate the formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars via the scenario of mass transfer from a carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch primary to a low-mass companion in a binary system. We explore the extent to which material accreted from a companion star mixes with that of the

  11. Halo-induced large enhancement of soft dipole excitation of 11Li observed via proton inelastic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tanaka


    Full Text Available Proton inelastic scattering off a neutron halo nucleus, 11Li, has been studied in inverse kinematics at the IRIS facility at TRIUMF. The aim was to establish a soft dipole resonance and to obtain its dipole strength. Using a high quality 66 MeV 11Li beam, a strongly populated excited state in 11Li was observed at Ex=0.80±0.02 MeV with a width of Γ=1.15±0.06 MeV. A DWBA (distorted-wave Born approximation analysis of the measured differential cross section with isoscalar macroscopic form factors leads us to conclude that this observed state is excited in an electric dipole (E1 transition. Under the assumption of isoscalar E1 transitions, the strength is evaluated to be extremely large amounting to 30∼296 Weisskopf units, exhausting 2.2%∼21% of the isoscalar E1 energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR value. The large observed strength originates from the halo and is consistent with the simple di-neutron model of 11Li halo.

  12. Halo-induced large enhancement of soft dipole excitation of 11Li observed via proton inelastic scattering (United States)

    Tanaka, J.; Kanungo, R.; Alcorta, M.; Aoi, N.; Bidaman, H.; Burbadge, C.; Christian, G.; Cruz, S.; Davids, B.; Diaz Varela, A.; Even, J.; Hackman, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Henderson, J.; Ishimoto, S.; Kaur, S.; Keefe, M.; Krücken, R.; Leach, K. G.; Lighthall, J.; Padilla Rodal, E.; Randhawa, J. S.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Sanetullaev, A.; Smith, J. K.; Workman, O.; Tanihata, I.


    Proton inelastic scattering off a neutron halo nucleus, 11Li, has been studied in inverse kinematics at the IRIS facility at TRIUMF. The aim was to establish a soft dipole resonance and to obtain its dipole strength. Using a high quality 66 MeV 11Li beam, a strongly populated excited state in 11Li was observed at Ex = 0.80 ± 0.02 MeV with a width of Γ = 1.15 ± 0.06 MeV. A DWBA (distorted-wave Born approximation) analysis of the measured differential cross section with isoscalar macroscopic form factors leads us to conclude that this observed state is excited in an electric dipole (E1) transition. Under the assumption of isoscalar E1 transitions, the strength is evaluated to be extremely large amounting to 30 ∼ 296 Weisskopf units, exhausting 2.2% ∼ 21% of the isoscalar E1 energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) value. The large observed strength originates from the halo and is consistent with the simple di-neutron model of 11Li halo.

  13. Kinematics and chemistry of faint high latitude dwarf carbon stars (United States)

    Yoon, Jinmi; Beers, Timothy C.; Dietz, Sarah; Lee, Young Sun; Placco, Vinicius M.


    The diffuse halo system of the Milky Way is complex, and has been shown to comprise at least two main components: a near-zero net rotation inner-halo and a more rapidly rotating outer-halo component. Studies of the ancient, very metal-poor stars in the Galactic halo system are crucial for understanding its early formation history. The so-called carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are an important subset of the stars in the halo system, which exhibit distinctive kinematic and chemical signatures that can be used to constrain the star-formation histories and assembly of the various Galactic components.We have examined the sample of main-sequence dwarf and other faint high Galactic latitude carbon-enhanced stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey studied by Green (2013). As noted by Green, many of these starsexhibit high proper motions, which have been later claimed to be related to possible binary ejection models Plant et al. (2016). By use of the CEMP sub-classification approach of Yoon et al. (2016), we investigate whether the kinematics of these stars might instead result from their membership in the inner/outer halo populations of the Galaxy.ReferencesGreen, P. 2013, ApJ, 765, 12Plant, K. et al. 2016, AAS 227.34115Yoon, J. et al. 2016, ApJ, in pressAcknowledgementThis work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements).

  14. The FUSE Survey of 0 VI in the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Savage, B. D.; Wakker, B. P.; Sembach, K. R.; Jenkins, E. B.; Moos, H. W.; Shull, J. M.


    This paper summarizes the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study 0 VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from -100 to 100 km/s reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T approx. 3 x 10(exp 5) K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI is not well described by a symmetrical plane-parallel layer of patchy O VI absorption. The simplest departure from such a model that provides a reasonable fit to the observations is a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of n(sub 0)(O VI) = 1.7 x 10(exp -2)/cu cm, a scale height of approx. 2.3 kpc, and a approx. 0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. The distribution of O VI over the sky is poorly correlated with other tracers of gas in the halo, including low and intermediate velocity H I, Ha emission from the warm ionized gas at approx. l0(exp 4) K, and hot X-ray emitting gas at approx. l0(exp 6) K . The O VI has an average velocity dispersion, b approx. 60 km/s and standard deviation of 15 km/s. Thermal broadening alone cannot explain the large observed profile widths. A combination of models involving the radiative cooling of hot fountain gas, the cooling of supernova bubbles in the halo, and the turbulent mixing of warm and hot halo gases is required to explain the presence of O VI and other highly ionized atoms found in the halo. The preferential venting of hot gas from local bubbles and superbubbles into the northern Galactic polar region may explain the enhancement of O VI in the North.

  15. Binary white dwarfs in the halo of the Milky Way (United States)

    van Oirschot, Pim; Nelemans, Gijs; Toonen, Silvia; Pols, Onno; Brown, Anthony G. A.; Helmi, Amina; Portegies Zwart, Simon


    Aims: We study single and binary white dwarfs in the inner halo of the Milky Way in order to learn more about the conditions under which the population of halo stars was born, such as the initial mass function (IMF), the star formation history, or the binary fraction. Methods: We simulate the evolution of low-metallicity halo stars at distances up to ~3 kpc using the binary population synthesis code SeBa. We use two different white dwarf cooling models to predict the present-day luminosities of halo white dwarfs. We determine the white dwarf luminosity functions (WDLFs) for eight different halo models and compare these with the observed halo WDLF of white dwarfs in the SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey. Furthermore, we predict the properties of binary white dwarfs in the halo and determine the number of halo white dwarfs that is expected to be observed with the Gaia satellite. Results: By comparing the WDLFs, we find that a standard IMF matches the observations more accurately than a top-heavy one, but the difference with a bottom-heavy IMF is small. A burst of star formation 13 Gyr ago fits slightly better than a star formation burst 10 Gyr ago and also slightly better than continuous star formation 10-13 Gyr ago. Gaia will be the first instument to constrain the bright end of the field halo WDLF, where contributions from binary WDs are considerable. Many of these will have He cores, of which a handful have atypical surface gravities (log g 0 in our standard model for WD cooling. These so called pre-WDs, if observed, can help us to constrain white dwarf cooling models and might teach us something about the fraction of halo stars that reside in binaries. Appendices are available in electronic form at

  16. Borromean halo, Tango halo, and halo isomers in atomic nuclei (United States)

    Izosimov, Igor


    Structure of the ground and excited states in halo-like nuclei is discussed. Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei.Structure of the halo may be different for the different levels and resonances in atomic nuclei. Isobar analog, double isobar analog, configuration, and double configuration states can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. When the halo structure of the excited state differs from that of the ground state, or the ground state has non-halo structure, the γ-transition from the excited state to the ground state can be essentially hindered, i.e. the formation of a specific type of isomers (halo isomers) becomes possible. B(Mγ) and B(Eγ) values for γ-transitions in 6,7,8Li, 8,9,10Be, 8,10,11B, 10,11,12,13,14C, 13,14,15,16,17N, 15,16,17,19O, and 17F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei which ground state does not exhibit halo structure but the excited state (halo isomer) may have one.

  17. Oxidant and SDS-stable alkaline protease from a halo-tolerant Bacillus clausii I-52: enhanced production and simple purification. (United States)

    Joo, H-S; Chang, C-S


    An investigation was carried out on the enhancement of protease production and simple purification of an oxidant and SDS-stable alkaline protease produced by Bacillus clausii I-52 of industrial significance. The supplementation with 0.4% (w/v) NaCl and 0.05% (w/v) FeSO4.7H2O in a culture medium caused an increase in the protease production. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity with overall recovery of 79% and 10-fold purification from culture supernatant using Diaion HPA75, phenyl-Sepharose and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatographies. The protease was a halo-tolerant enzyme with apparent molecular mass of 28 kDa, and the Km and kcat values for N-Succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe-pNA at 45 degrees C and pH 11.0 were determined to be 83.9 micromol l(-1) and 238.6 s(-1) respectively. Bacillus clausii I-52 was identified as a halo-tolerant bacterium, and the extracellular alkaline protease produced by B. clausii I-52 also showed extreme halo-tolerance. The enzyme stability towards SDS and H2O2 could be increased by adding NaCl or propylene glycol to the enzyme solution. The alkaline protease secreted by B. clausii I-52 is significant from an industrial perspective because of its stability against surfactants and oxidants as well as its tolerance towards high salinity. These enzymatic properties suggest its suitable application for industrial purposes.

  18. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars in SDSS/SEGUE. I. Carbon Abundance Estimation and Frequency of CEMP Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Sun [NMSU, Las Cruces; Beers, Timothy C. [Michigan State U., JINA; Masseron, Thomas [Brussels U.; Plez, Bertrand [U. Montpellier 2, LUPM; Rockosi, Constance M. [Lick Observ.; Sobeck, Jennifer [Chicago U.; Yanny, Brian [Fermilab; Lucatello, Sara [Padua Observ.; Sivarani, Thirupathi [Bangalore, Indian Inst. Astrophys.; Placco, Vinicius M. [Sao Paulo U., IAG; Carollo, Daniela [Macquarie U.


    We describe a method for the determination of stellar [C/Fe] abundance ratios using low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra from the SDSS and SEGUE. By means of a star-by-star comparison with a set of SDSS/SEGUE spectra with available estimates of [C/Fe] based on published high-resolution analyses, we demonstrate that we can measure [C/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra with S/N > 15 to a precision better than 0.35 dex. Using the measured carbon-to-iron abundance ratios obtained by this technique, we derive the frequency of carbon-enhanced stars ([C/Fe] > +0.7) as a function of [Fe/H], for both the SDSS/SEGUE stars and other samples from the literature. We find that the differential frequency slowly rises from almost zero to about 14% at [Fe/H] ~ -2.4, followed by a sudden increase, by about a factor of three, to 39% from [Fe/H] ~ -2.4 to [Fe/H] ~ -3.7. We also examine how the cumulative frequency of CEMP stars varies across different luminosity classes. The giant sample exhibits a cumulative CEMP frequency of 32% for [Fe/H] < -2.5, 31% for [Fe/H] < -3.0, and 33% for [Fe/H] < -3.5. For the main-sequence turnoff stars, we obtain a lower cumulative CEMP frequency, around 10% for [Fe/H] < -2.5. The dwarf population displays a large change in the cumulative frequency for CEMP stars below [Fe/H] = -2.5, jumping from 15% for [Fe/H] < -2.5 to about 75% for [Fe/H] < -3.0. When we impose a restriction with respect to distance from the Galactic mid-plane (|Z| < 5 kpc), the frequency of the CEMP giants does not increase at low metallicity ([Fe/H] < -2.5), but rather, decreases, due to the dilution of C-rich material in stars that have undergone mixing with CNO-processed material from their interiors. The frequency of CEMP stars near the main-sequence turnoff, which are not expected to have experienced mixing, increases for [Fe/H] < -3.0. [abridged

  19. RR Lyrae to build up the Galactic Halo (United States)

    Fiorentino, Giuliana


    We compare the period and period-amplitude distributions for a sizeable sample of rrab in dwarfs (~1300stars) with those in the galactic halo (~14,000stars) and globular clusters (~1000stars). Field rrab show a significant change in their period distribution when moving from the inner (dg~14kpc) halo regions, suggesting that the halo formed from (at least) two dissimilar progenitors or events. Rrab in dwarfs-as observed today-do not appear to follow the pulsation properties shown by those in the galactic halo, nor do they have the same properties as rrls in globulars. Only massive and metal rich satellites likely have mainly contributed to the galactic halo formation, e.g. Sgr dSph.

  20. Extremely metal-poor stars from the cosmic dawn in the bulge of the Milky Way. (United States)

    Howes, L M; Casey, A R; Asplund, M; Keller, S C; Yong, D; Nataf, D M; Poleski, R; Lind, K; Kobayashi, C; Owen, C I; Ness, M; Bessell, M S; Da Costa, G S; Schmidt, B P; Tisserand, P; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Soszyński, I; Pietrzyński, G; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Pietrukowicz, P; Skowron, J; Kozłowski, S; Mróz, P


    The first stars are predicted to have formed within 200 million years after the Big Bang, initiating the cosmic dawn. A true first star has not yet been discovered, although stars with tiny amounts of elements heavier than helium ('metals') have been found in the outer regions ('halo') of the Milky Way. The first stars and their immediate successors should, however, preferentially be found today in the central regions ('bulges') of galaxies, because they formed in the largest over-densities that grew gravitationally with time. The Milky Way bulge underwent a rapid chemical enrichment during the first 1-2 billion years, leading to a dearth of early, metal-poor stars. Here we report observations of extremely metal-poor stars in the Milky Way bulge, including one star with an iron abundance about 10,000 times lower than the solar value without noticeable carbon enhancement. We confirm that most of the metal-poor bulge stars are on tight orbits around the Galactic Centre, rather than being halo stars passing through the bulge, as expected for stars formed at redshifts greater than 15. Their chemical compositions are in general similar to typical halo stars of the same metallicity although intriguing differences exist, including lower abundances of carbon.

  1. Revealing the Cosmic Web-dependent Halo Bias (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Youcai; Lu, Tianhuan; Wang, Huiyuan; Shi, Feng; Tweed, Dylan; Li, Shijie; Luo, Wentao; Lu, Yi; Yang, Lei


    Halo bias is the one of the key ingredients of the halo models. It was shown at a given redshift to be only dependent, to the first order, on the halo mass. In this study, four types of cosmic web environments—clusters, filaments, sheets, and voids—are defined within a state-of-the-art high-resolution N-body simulation. Within these environments, we use both halo-dark matter cross correlation and halo-halo autocorrelation functions to probe the clustering properties of halos. The nature of the halo bias differs strongly between the four different cosmic web environments described here. With respect to the overall population, halos in clusters have significantly lower biases in the {10}11.0˜ {10}13.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ mass range. In other environments, however, halos show extremely enhanced biases up to a factor 10 in voids for halos of mass ˜ {10}12.0 {h}-1 {M}⊙ . Such a strong cosmic web environment dependence in the halo bias may play an important role in future cosmological and galaxy formation studies. Within this cosmic web framework, the age dependency of halo bias is found to be only significant in clusters and filaments for relatively small halos ≲ {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}⊙ .


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olszewski, Edward W.; Saha, Abhijit; Knezek, Patricia; Subramaniam, Annapurni; de Boer, Thomas; Seitzer, Patrick


    Using imaging that shows 4 mag of main-sequence stars, we have discovered that the Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 is surrounded by a halo that is visible from the tidal radius of 700 arcsec (41 pc) to more than 4500 arcsec (> 250 pc). This halo is symmetric and falls in density as a power law of

  3. Halo modelling in chameleon theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombriser, Lucas; Koyama, Kazuya [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Ogden Centre for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    We analyse modelling techniques for the large-scale structure formed in scalar-tensor theories of constant Brans-Dicke parameter which match the concordance model background expansion history and produce a chameleon suppression of the gravitational modification in high-density regions. Thereby, we use a mass and environment dependent chameleon spherical collapse model, the Sheth-Tormen halo mass function and linear halo bias, the Navarro-Frenk-White halo density profile, and the halo model. Furthermore, using the spherical collapse model, we extrapolate a chameleon mass-concentration scaling relation from a ΛCDM prescription calibrated to N-body simulations. We also provide constraints on the model parameters to ensure viability on local scales. We test our description of the halo mass function and nonlinear matter power spectrum against the respective observables extracted from large-volume and high-resolution N-body simulations in the limiting case of f(R) gravity, corresponding to a vanishing Brans-Dicke parameter. We find good agreement between the two; the halo model provides a good qualitative description of the shape of the relative enhancement of the f(R) matter power spectrum with respect to ΛCDM caused by the extra attractive gravitational force but fails to recover the correct amplitude. Introducing an effective linear power spectrum in the computation of the two-halo term to account for an underestimation of the chameleon suppression at intermediate scales in our approach, we accurately reproduce the measurements from the N-body simulations.

  4. AntStar: Enhancing Optimization Problems by Integrating an Ant System and A⁎ Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faisal


    Full Text Available Recently, nature-inspired techniques have become valuable to many intelligent systems in different fields of technology and science. Among these techniques, Ant Systems (AS have become a valuable technique for intelligent systems in different fields. AS is a computational system inspired by the foraging behavior of ants and intended to solve practical optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce the AntStar algorithm, which is swarm intelligence based. AntStar enhances the optimization and performance of an AS by integrating the AS and A⁎ algorithm. Applying the AntStar algorithm to the single-source shortest-path problem has been done to ensure the efficiency of the proposed AntStar algorithm. The experimental result of the proposed algorithm illustrated the robustness and accuracy of the AntStar algorithm.

  5. Modelling the nucleosynthetic properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor RR Lyrae stars


    Stancliffe, Richard J.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Lau, Herbert H. B.; Beers, Timothy C.


    Certain carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars likely obtained their composition via pollution from some of the earliest generations of asymptotic giant branch stars and as such provide important clues to early Universe nucleosynthesis. Recently, Kinman et al. discovered that the highly carbon- and barium-enriched metal-poor star SDSS J1707+58 is in fact an RR Lyrae pulsator. This gives us an object in a definite evolutionary state where the effects of dilution of material during the Main Sequence ...

  6. Halo white dwarfs in the Gaia era

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oirschot, P.; Nelemans, G.; Pols, O.; Helmi, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Brown, A. G. A.; Pugliese, G.; de Koter, A.; Wijburg, M.

    The Galactic Halo is the oldest and most metal-poor component of the Galaxy. It is studied in detail both to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies, as well as the formation and evolution of the earliest stars. With this aim in mind, we plan to couple a population synthesis model to a

  7. Streams in the Aquarius stellar haloes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez, Facundo A.; Helmi, Amina; Cooper, Andrew P.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Navarro, Julio F.; White, Simon D. M.


    We use the very high resolution, fully cosmological simulations from the Aquarius Project, coupled to a semi-analytical model of galaxy formation, to study the phase-space distribution of halo stars in 'solar neighbourhood' like volumes. We find that this distribution is very rich in substructure in

  8. A young star-forming galaxy at z = 3.5 with an extended Ly\\,$α$ halo seen with MUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrício, Vera; Richard, Johan; Verhamme, Anne


    Spatially resolved studies of high redshift galaxies, an essential insight into galaxy formation processes, have been mostly limited to stacking or unusually bright objects. We present here the study of a typical (L$^{*}$, M$_\\star$ = 6 $\\times 10^9$ $M_\\odot$) young lensed galaxy at $z=3...

  9. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.


    We investigate if there is a difference in the lithium abundances of stars belonging to two halo populations of F and G main-sequence stars previously found to differ in [alpha/Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 ...-resolution spectra using MARCS model atmospheres. Furthermore, masses of the stars are determined from the logTeff - logg diagram by interpolating between Yonsei-Yale evolutionary tracks. There is no significant systematic difference in the lithium abundances of high- and low-alpha halo stars. For the large majority...

  10. Forming a Primordial Star in a Relic HII Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shea, Brian


    There has been considerable theoretical debate over whether photoionization and supernova feedback from the first Population III stars facilitate or suppress the formation of the next generation of stars. We present results from an Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement simulation demonstrating the formation of a primordial star within a region ionized by an earlier nearby star. Despite the higher temperatures of the ionized gas and its flow out of the dark matter potential wells, this second star formed within 23 million years of its neighbor's death. The enhanced electron fraction within the HII region catalyzes rapid molecular hydrogen formation that leads to faster cooling in the subsequent star forming halos than in the first halos. This ''second generation'' primordial protostar has a much lower accretion rate because, unlike the first protostar, it forms in a rotationally supported disk of {approx} 10-100 M{center_dot}. In contrast to unpreprocessed regions, such configurations may allow binaries or multiple systems of lower mass stars to form. These first high resolution calculations offer insight into the impact of feedback upon subsequent populations of stars and clearly demonstrate how primordial chemistry promotes the formation of subsequent generations of stars even in the presence of the entropy injected by the first stars into the IGM.

  11. Recoiling supermassive black hole escape velocities from dark matter haloes (United States)

    Choksi, Nick; Behroozi, Peter; Volonteri, Marta; Schneider, Raffaella; Ma, Chung-Pei; Silk, Joseph; Moster, Benjamin


    We simulate recoiling black hole trajectories from z = 20 to z = 0 in dark matter haloes, quantifying how parameter choices affect escape velocities. These choices include the strength of dynamical friction, the presence of stars and gas, the accelerating expansion of the Universe (Hubble acceleration), host halo accretion and motion, and seed black hole mass. Lambda cold dark matter halo accretion increases escape velocities by up to 0.6 dex and significantly shortens return time-scales compared to non-accreting cases. Other parameters change orbit damping rates but have subdominant effects on escape velocities; dynamical friction is weak at halo escape velocities, even for extreme parameter values. We present formulae for black hole escape velocities as a function of host halo mass and redshift. Finally, we discuss how these findings affect black hole mass assembly as well as minimum stellar and halo masses necessary to retain supermassive black holes.

  12. StAR Enhances Transcription of Genes Encoding the Mitochondrial Proteases Involved in Its Own Degradation (United States)

    Bahat, Assaf; Perlberg, Shira; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Lauria, Ines; Langer, Thomas


    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is essential for steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex and the gonads. StAR activity facilitates the supply of cholesterol substrate into the inner mitochondrial membranes where conversion of the sterol to a steroid is catalyzed. Mitochondrial import terminates the cholesterol mobilization activity of StAR and leads to mounting accumulation of StAR in the mitochondrial matrix. Our studies suggest that to prevent mitochondrial impairment, StAR proteolysis is executed by at least 2 mitochondrial proteases, ie, the matrix LON protease and the inner membrane complexes of the metalloproteases AFG3L2 and AFG3L2:SPG7/paraplegin. Gonadotropin administration to prepubertal rats stimulated ovarian follicular development associated with increased expression of the mitochondrial protein quality control system. In addition, enrichment of LON and AFG3L2 is evident in StAR-expressing ovarian cells examined by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, reporter studies of the protease promoters examined in the heterologous cell model suggest that StAR expression stimulates up to a 3.5-fold increase in the protease gene transcription. Such effects are StAR-specific, are independent of StAR activity, and failed to occur upon expression of StAR mutants that do not enter the matrix. Taken together, the results of this study suggest the presence of a novel regulatory loop, whereby acute accumulation of an apparent nuisance protein in the matrix provokes a mitochondria to nucleus signaling that, in turn, activates selected transcription of genes encoding the enrichment of mitochondrial proteases relevant for enhanced clearance of StAR. PMID:24422629


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karinkuzhi, Drisya; Goswami, Aruna [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Masseron, Thomas [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)


    We present, for the first time, an abundance analysis of a very metal-poor carbon-enhanced star CD-27 14351 based on a high-resolution ( R  ∼ 48,000) FEROS spectrum. Our abundance analysis performed using local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres shows that the object is a cool star with stellar atmospheric parameters, effective temperature T {sub eff} = 4335 K, surface gravity log g  = 0.5, microturbulence ξ  = 2.42 km s{sup −1}, and metallicity [Fe/H] = −2.6. The star exhibits high carbon and nitrogen abundances with [C/Fe] = 2.89 and [N/Fe] = 1.89. Overabundances of neutron-capture elements are evident in Ba, La, Ce, and Nd, with estimated [X/Fe] > 1, the largest enhancement being seen in Ce with [Ce/Fe] = 2.63. While the first peak s -process elements Sr and Y are found to be enhanced with respect to Fe, ([Sr/Fe] = 1.73 and [Y/Fe] = 1.91), the third peak s -process element Pb could not be detected in our spectrum at the given resolution. Europium, primarily an r -process element also shows an enhancement with [Eu/Fe] = 1.65. With [Ba/Eu] = 0.12, the object CD-27 14351 satisfies the classification criterion for a CEMP-r/s star. The elemental abundance distributions observed in this star are discussed in light of the chemical abundances observed in other CEMP stars in the literature.

  14. Mapping stellar content to dark matter haloes - II. Halo mass is the main driver of galaxy quenching (United States)

    Zu, Ying; Mandelbaum, Rachel


    We develop a simple yet comprehensive method to distinguish the underlying drivers of galaxy quenching, using the clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing of red and blue galaxies in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Building on the iHOD framework developed by Zu & Mandelbaum, we consider two quenching scenarios: (1) a `halo' quenching model in which halo mass is the sole driver for turning off star formation in both centrals and satellites; and (2) a `hybrid' quenching model in which the quenched fraction of galaxies depends on their stellar mass, while the satellite quenching has an extra dependence on halo mass. The two best-fitting models describe the red galaxy clustering and lensing equally well, but halo quenching provides significantly better fits to the blue galaxies above 1011 h-2 M⊙. The halo quenching model also correctly predicts the average halo mass of the red and blue centrals, showing excellent agreement with the direct weak lensing measurements of locally brightest galaxies. Models in which quenching is not tied to halo mass, including an age-matching model in which galaxy colour depends on halo age at fixed M*, fail to reproduce the observed halo mass for massive blue centrals. We find similar critical halo masses responsible for the quenching of centrals and satellites (˜1.5 × 1012 h-1 M⊙), hinting at a uniform quenching mechanism for both, e.g. the virial shock heating of infalling gas. The success of the iHOD halo quenching model provides strong evidence that the physical mechanism that quenches star formation in galaxies is tied principally to the masses of their dark matter haloes rather than the properties of their stellar components.

  15. Isospin in halo nuclei: Borromean halo, tango halo, and halo isomers (United States)

    Izosimov, I. N.


    It is shown that the wave functions for isobaric analog, double isobaric analog, configuration, and double configuration states may simultaneously have components corresponding to nn, np, and pp halos. The difference in the halo structure between the ground and excited states of a nucleus may lead to the formation of halo isomers. A halo structure of both Borromean and tango types can be observed for np configurations. The structure of ground and excited states with various isospins in halo-like nuclei is discussed. The reduced probabilities B( Mλ) and B( Eλ) for gamma transitions in 6-8Li, 8-10Be, 8,10,11B, 10-14C, 13-17N, 15-17,19O, and 17F nuclei are analyzed. Particular attention is given to the cases where the ground state of a nucleus does not have a halo structure, but where its excited state may have it.

  16. Diverse stellar haloes in nearby Milky Way mass disc galaxies (United States)

    Harmsen, Benjamin; Monachesi, Antonela; Bell, Eric F.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Bailin, Jeremy; Radburn-Smith, David J.; Holwerda, Benne W.


    We have examined the resolved stellar populations at large galactocentric distances along the minor axis (from 10 kpc up to between 40 and 75 kpc), with limited major axis coverage, of six nearby highly inclined Milky Way (MW) mass disc galaxies using Hubble Space Telescope data from the Galaxy haloes, Outer discs, Substructure, Thick discs, and Star clusters (GHOSTS) survey. We select red giant branch stars to derive stellar halo density profiles. The projected minor axis density profiles can be approximated by power laws with projected slopes of -2 to -3.7 and a diversity of stellar halo masses of 1-6 × 109 M⊙, or 2-14 per cent of the total galaxy stellar masses. The typical intrinsic scatter around a smooth power-law fit is 0.05-0.1 dex owing to substructure. By comparing the minor and major axis profiles, we infer projected axis ratios c/a at ˜25 kpc between 0.4and0.75. The GHOSTS stellar haloes are diverse, lying between the extremes charted out by the (rather atypical) haloes of the MW and M31. We find a strong correlation between the stellar halo metallicities and the stellar halo masses. We compare our results with cosmological models, finding good agreement between our observations and accretion-only models where the stellar haloes are formed by the disruption of dwarf satellites. In particular, the strong observed correlation between stellar halo metallicity and mass is naturally reproduced. Low-resolution hydrodynamical models have unrealistically high stellar halo masses. Current high-resolution hydrodynamical models appear to predict stellar halo masses somewhat higher than observed but with reasonable metallicities, metallicity gradients, and density profiles.

  17. Rotational mixing in carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars with s-process enrichment (United States)

    Matrozis, E.; Stancliffe, R. J.


    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with s-process enrichment (CEMP-s) are believed to be the products of mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) companion, which has long since become a white dwarf. The surface abundances of CEMP-s stars are thus commonly assumed to reflect the nucleosynthesis output of the first AGB stars. We have previously shown that, for this to be the case, some physical mechanism must counter atomic diffusion (gravitational settling and radiative levitation) in these nearly fully radiative stars, which otherwise leads to surface abundance anomalies clearly inconsistent with observations. Here we take into account angular momentum accretion by these stars. We compute in detail the evolution of typical CEMP-s stars from the zero-age main sequence, through the mass accretion, and up the red giant branch for a wide range of specific angular momentum ja of the accreted material, corresponding to surface rotation velocities, vrot, between about 0.3 and 300 kms-1. We find that only for ja ≳ 1017 cm2s-1 (vrot > 20 kms-1, depending on mass accreted) angular momentum accretion directly causes chemical dilution of the accreted material. This could nevertheless be relevant to CEMP-s stars, which are observed to rotate more slowly, if they undergo continuous angular momentum loss akin to solar-like stars. In models with rotation velocities characteristic of CEMP-s stars, rotational mixing primarily serves to inhibit atomic diffusion, such that the maximal surface abundance variations (with respect to the composition of the accreted material) prior to first dredge-up remain within about 0.4 dex without thermohaline mixing or about 0.5-1.5 dex with thermohaline mixing. Even in models with the lowest rotation velocities (vrot ≲ 1 kms-1), rotational mixing is able to severely inhibit atomic diffusion, compared to non-rotating models. We thus conclude that it offers a natural solution to the problem posed by atomic diffusion and cannot be

  18. The Hamburg/ESO R-process Enhanced Star survey (HERES). XI. The highly r-process-enhanced star CS 29497-004 (United States)

    Hill, V.; Christlieb, N.; Beers, T. C.; Barklem, P. S.; Kratz, K.-L.; Nordström, B.; Pfeiffer, B.; Farouqi, K.


    We report an abundance analysis for the highly r-process-enhanced (r-II) star CS 29497-004, a very metal-poor giant with solar system Teff = 5013 K and [Fe/H] = -2.85, whose nature was initially discovered in the course of the HERES project. Our analysis is based on high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution (R 75 000) VLT/UVES spectra and MARCS model atmospheres under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium, and obtains abundance measurements for a total of 46 elements, 31 of which are neutron-capture elements. As is the case for the other 25 r-II stars currently known, the heavy-element abundance pattern of CS 29497-004 well-matches a scaled solar system second peak r-process-element abundance pattern. We confirm our previous detection of Th, and demonstrate that this star does not exhibit an "actinide boost". Uranium is also detected (log ɛ(U) = -2.20 ± 0.30), albeit with a large measurement error that hampers its use as a precision cosmo-chronometer. Combining the various elemental chronometer pairs that are available for this star, we derive a mean age of 12.2 ± 3.7 Gyr using the theoretical production ratios from published waiting-point approximation models. We further explore the high-entropy wind model (Farouqi et al. 2010, ApJ, 712, 1359) production ratios arising from different neutron richness of the ejecta (Ye), and derive an age of 13.7 ± 4.4 Gyr for a best-fitting Ye = 0.447. The U/Th nuclei-chronometer is confirmed to be the most resilient to theoretical production ratios and yields an age of 16.5 ± 6.6 Gyr. Lead (Pb) is also tentatively detected in CS 29497-004, at a level compatible with a scaled solar r-process, or with the theoretical expectations for a pure r-process in this star. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (Proposal Number 170.D-0010).Table B.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc

  19. Two Stellar Components in the Halo of the Milky Way (United States)


    distributed throughout the primordial interstellar medium by stellar winds and supernovae . Previous work has provided evidence that the halo of the Milky...the number of stars), for samples in which a counter-rotating halo has been claimed, ordered by sample size. The samples listed in the first column...sample by the authors are listed in the third column (see original papers for details). The method of analysis used for each determination is listed : F&W

  20. Thiol-Reactive Star Polymers Display Enhanced Association with Distinct Human Blood Components. (United States)

    Glass, Joshua J; Li, Yang; De Rose, Robert; Johnston, Angus P R; Czuba, Ewa I; Khor, Song Yang; Quinn, John F; Whittaker, Michael R; Davis, Thomas P; Kent, Stephen J


    Directing nanoparticles to specific cell types using nonantibody-based methods is of increasing interest. Thiol-reactive nanoparticles can enhance the efficiency of cargo delivery into specific cells through interactions with cell-surface proteins. However, studies to date using this technique have been largely limited to immortalized cell lines or rodents, and the utility of this technology on primary human cells is unknown. Herein, we used RAFT polymerization to prepare pyridyl disulfide (PDS)-functionalized star polymers with a methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) brush corona and a fluorescently labeled cross-linked core using an arm-first method. PDS star polymers were examined for their interaction with primary human blood components: six separate white blood cell subsets, as well as red blood cells and platelets. Compared with control star polymers, thiol-reactive nanoparticles displayed enhanced association with white blood cells at 37 °C, particularly the phagocytic monocyte, granulocyte, and dendritic cell subsets. Platelets associated with more PDS than control nanoparticles at both 37 °C and on ice, but they were not activated in the duration examined. Association with red blood cells was minor but still enhanced with PDS nanoparticles. Thiol-reactive nanoparticles represent a useful strategy to target primary human immune cell subsets for improved nanoparticle delivery.

  1. ALFA beam halo

    CERN Document Server

    Komarek, Tomas


    This note serves as a final report about CERN Summer Student Programme 2014 project. The beam halo is an undesired phenomenon for physics analyses on particle accelerators. It surrounds the beam core and constitutes an important part of background for signal measurements on some detectors, eg. in the forward region. In this study, the data from the ALFA detector were used, specifically from the run 191373 ($\\beta^*=90\\unit{m}$) and the run 213268 ($\\beta^*=1\\unit{km}$). Using the ROOT framework, a software for beam halo events selection was created and beam halo properties were examined. In the run 213268, excessive beam halo is suspected to be the reason for multiple beam scrapings that occurred. A kinematic reconstruction of beam halo particles is attempted in order to understand beam halo properties in the interaction point. Some further simulations are employed to find constraints for beam halo particles in order to survive in the accelerator for a longer time/many revolutions. This work represents a st...

  2. Modelling the nucleosynthetic properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor RR Lyrae stars (United States)

    Stancliffe, Richard J.; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Lau, Herbert H. B.; Beers, Timothy C.


    Certain carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars likely obtained their composition via pollution from some of the earliest generations of asymptotic giant branch stars and as such provide important clues to early Universe nucleosynthesis. Recently, Kinman et al. discovered that the highly carbon- and barium-enriched metal-poor star SDSS J1707+58 is in fact an RR Lyrae pulsator. This gives us an object in a definite evolutionary state where the effects of dilution of material during the main sequence are minimized owing to the object having passed through first dredge-up. We perform detailed stellar modelling of putative progenitor systems in which we accreted material from asymptotic giant branch stars in the mass range 1-2 M⊙. We investigate how the surface abundances are affected by the inclusion of mechanisms like thermohaline mixing and gravitational settling. While we are able to find a reasonable fit to the carbon and sodium abundances of SDSS J1707+58, suggesting accretion of around 0.1 M⊙ from a 2 M⊙ companion, the strontium and barium abundances remain problematic and this object may have experienced something other than a standard s-process. We have more success in fitting the abundances of the mildly carbon-enriched, metal-poor RR Lyrae pulsator TY Gru (CS 22881-071), which we suggest received 0.1 M⊙ of material from a companion of around 1 M⊙.

  3. Are ancient dwarf satellites the building blocks of the Galactic halo? (United States)

    Spitoni, E.; Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.; Romano, D.


    According to the current cosmological cold dark matter paradigm, the Galactic halo could have been the result of the assemblage of smaller structures. Here we explore the hypothesis that the classical and ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal satellites of the Milky Way have been the building blocks of the Galactic halo by comparing their [α/Fe] and [Ba/Fe] versus [Fe/H] patterns with the ones observed in Galactic halo stars. The α elements deviate substantially from the observed abundances in the Galactic halo stars for [Fe/H] values larger than -2 dex, while they overlap for lower metallicities. On the other hand, for the [Ba/Fe] ratio, the discrepancy is extended at all [Fe/H] values, suggesting that the majority of stars in the halo are likely to have been formed in situ. Therefore, we suggest that [Ba/Fe] ratios are a better diagnostic than [α/Fe] ratios. Moreover, for the first time we consider the effects of an enriched infall of gas with the same chemical abundances as the matter ejected and/or stripped from dwarf satellites of the Milky Way on the chemical evolution of the Galactic halo. We find that the resulting chemical abundances of the halo stars depend on the assumed infall time-scale, and the presence of a threshold in the gas for star formation. In particular, in models with an infall time-scale for the halo around 0.8 Gyr coupled with a threshold in the surface gas density for the star formation (4 M⊙ pc-2), and the enriched infall from dwarf spheroidal satellites, the first halo stars formed show [Fe/H]>-2.4 dex. In this case, to explain [α/Fe] data for stars with [Fe/H]<-2.4 dex, we need stars formed in dSph systems.

  4. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood II. Evidence from stellar abundances of Mn, Cu, Zn, Y, and Ba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul Erik; Schuster, William J.


    Context. Current models of galaxy formation predict that the Galactic halo was assembled hierarchically. By measuring abundance ratios in stars it may be possible to identify substructures in the halo resulting from this process. Aims. A previous study of 94 dwarf stars with −1.6

  5. What's a Halo? (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... of quick or jerky movements, like jumping or dancing pulling or tugging on the halo or attached ...

  6. Structure and substructure in the stellar halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pila Díez, Berenice


    In this thesis we present research on the stellar halo of our Galaxy. In particular we focus on measuring the shape and profile of the stellar halo through photometric techniques and main sequence turnoff point star counts. We also present a cross-correlation algorithm that can detect stellar

  7. Gemini/GRACES spectroscopy of stars in Tri II (United States)

    Venn, K. A.; Starkenburg, E.; Malo, L.; Martin, N.; Laevens, B. P. M.


    The chemical abundance ratios and radial velocities for two stars in the recently discovered Triangulum II faint dwarf galaxy have been determined from high-resolution, medium signal-to-noise ratio spectra from the Gemini Remote Access to CFHT ESPaDonS Spectrograph facility. These stars have stellar parameters and metallicities similar to those derived from their photometry and medium-resolution Ca II triplet spectra, and supports that Triangulum II has a metallicity spread consistent with chemical evolution in a dwarf galaxy. The elemental abundances show that both stars have typical calcium abundances and barium upper limits for their metallicities, but low magnesium and sodium. This chemical composition resembles some stars in dwarf galaxies, attributed to inhomogeneous mixing in a low star formation environment, and/or yields from only a few supernova events. One of our targets (Star40) has an enhancement in potassium, and resembles some stars in the unusual outer halo star cluster, NGC 2419. Our other target (Star46) appears to be a binary based on a change in its radial velocity (Δvrad = 24.5 ±2.1 km s-1). This is consistent with variations found in binary stars in other dwarf galaxies. While this serves as a reminder of the high binary fraction in these ultrafaint dwarf galaxies, this particular object has had little impact on the previous determination of the velocity dispersion in Triangulum II.

  8. Summary of the 2014 Beam-Halo Monitoring Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Alan


    Understanding and controlling beam halo is important for high-intensity hadron accelerators, for high-brightness electron linacs, and for low-emittance light sources. This can only be achieved by developing suitable diagnostics. The main challenge faced by such instrumentation is the high dynamic range needed to observe the halo in the presence of an intense core. In addition, measurements must often be made non-invasively. This talk summarizes the one-day workshop on Beam-Halo Monitoring that was held at SLAC on September 19 last year, immediately following IBIC 2014 in Monterey. Workshop presentations described invasive techniques using wires, screens, or crystal collimators, and non-invasive measurements with gas or scattered electrons. Talks on optical methods showed the close links between observing halo and astronomical problems like observing the solar corona or directly observing a planet orbiting another star.

  9. Two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, W. J.; Moreno, E.; Nissen, Poul Erik


    Context. In Papers I and II of this series, we have found clear indications of the existence of two distinct populations of stars in the solar neighborhood belonging to the metal-rich end of the halo metallicity distribution function. Based on high-resolution, high S/N spectra, it is possible...... to distinguish between “high-alpha” and “low-alpha” components using the [α/Fe] versus [Fe/H] diagram. Aims. Precise relative ages and orbital parameters are determined for 67 halo and 16 thick-disk stars having metallicities in the range −1.4 ... populations in the formation and evolution of the Galaxy. Methods. Ages are derived by comparing the positions of stars in the log Teff–log g diagram with isochrones from the Y2 models interpolated to the exact [Fe/H] and [α/Fe] values of each star. The stellar parameters have been adopted from the preceding...

  10. NetMatchStar: an enhanced Cytoscape network querying app [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinnone


    Full Text Available We present NetMatchStar, a Cytoscape app to find all the occurrences of a query graph in a network and check for its significance as a motif with respect to seven different random models. The query can be uploaded or built from scratch using Cytoscape facilities. The app significantly enhances the previous NetMatch in style, performance and functionality. Notably NetMatchStar allows queries with wildcards.

  11. Dark matter annihilation feedback in cosmological simulations - I: Code convergence and idealized haloes (United States)

    Iwanus, N.; Elahi, P. J.; Lewis, G. F.


    We describe and test a novel dark matter annihilation feedback (DMAF) scheme that has been implemented into the well-known cosmological simulation code GADGET-2. In the models considered here, dark matter can undergo self-annihilation/decay into radiation and baryons. These products deposit energy into the surrounding gas particles and then the dark matter/baryon fluid is self-consistently evolved under gravity and hydrodynamics. We present tests of this new feedback implementation in the case of idealized dark matter haloes with gas components for a range of halo masses, concentrations and annihilation rates. For some dark matter models, DMAF's ability to evacuate gas is enhanced in lower mass, concentrated haloes where the injected energy is comparable to its gravitational binding energy. Therefore, we expect the strongest signs of dark matter annihilation to imprint themselves on to the baryonic structure of concentrated dwarf galaxies through their baryonic fraction and star formation history. Finally, we present preliminary results of the first self-consistent DMAF cosmological box simulations showing that the small-scale substructure is washed out for large annihilation rates.

  12. Spectrum of Sprite Halos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gordillo-Vázquez, F.J.; Luque, A.; Šimek, Milan


    Roč. 116, č. 9 (2011), A09319-A09319 ISSN 0148-0227 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : sprites * halos * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.021, year: 2011

  13. The mean star formation rates of unobscured QSOs: searching for evidence of suppressed or enhanced star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanley, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, C. M.; Rosario, D. J.; Wang, L.; Aird, J. A.; Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Knudsen, K. K.; Michałowski, M. J.; Valiante, E.; De Zotti, G.; Furlanetto, C.; Ivison, R.; Maddox, S.; Smith, M. W. L.


    We investigate the mean star formation rates (SFRs) in the host galaxies of ˜3000 optically selected quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey within the Herschel-ATLAS fields, and a radio-luminous subsample covering the redshift range of z = 0.2-2.5. Using Wide-field Infrared

  14. Star-shaped ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures for enhanced photocatalysis and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, George R.S., E-mail: [Postgraduate Program in Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Nascimento, Cristiane C. [Postgraduate Program in Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sergipe, Glória Campus, Nossa Senhora da Glória, SE (Brazil); Lima, Zenon M. [Postgraduate Program in Industrial Biochemistry, Tiradentes University, Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Teixeira-Neto, Erico [LNNano − Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, Brazilian Center for Research in Energy and Materials, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Costa, Luiz P. [Postgraduate Program in Industrial Biochemistry, Tiradentes University, Aracaju, SE (Brazil); ITPS − Technological and Research Institute of Sergipe, Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Gimenez, Iara F. [Postgraduate Program in Materials Science and Engineering, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)


    Highlights: • A new and simple one-pot method for preparing star-shaped ZnO particles was reported. • ZnO particles were decorated with Ag nanoparticles (SNPs) by a photodeposition method. • The presence of SNC{sup −} ions on ZnO surface prevented uncontrollable growth of SNPs. • ZnO/Ag particles showed plasmon-enhanced photocatalytic activity toward an AZO dye. • SNP improved 16 times the antibacterial activity of ZnO toward 4 bacterial strains. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO) particles with a star-shaped morphology have been synthesized by a novel and simple room-temperature method and decorated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs) for enhanced photocatalysis and bactericide applications. The presence of thiourea during the precipitation of ZnO in alkaline conditions allowed the control of morphological features (e.g. average size and shape) and the surface functionalization with thiocyanate ions (SCN{sup −}). SNPs were deposited into the ZnO surface by a photoreduction method and their sizes could be easily controlled by changing the ZnO/AgNO{sub 3} ratio. The presence of SCN{sup −} on the semiconductor surface prevents uncontrollable growth of Ag nanoparticles into different morphologies and high degrees of polydispersity. XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR and PL were employed for characterizing the structure, morphology and optical properties of the as-obtained pure and hybrid nanostructures. Finally, the hybrid ZnO/Ag particles have shown plasmon-enhanced performance for applications in photocatalysis and antibacterial activity compared to the pure ZnO counterpart. In this work, evaluation of the photodegradation of an aqueous methylene blue solution under UV-A irradiation and the antibacterial activity toward 4 bacterial strains, including Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300, ATCC 25923 and ATCC 33591) and Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853).

  15. The mean star formation rates of unobscured QSOs: searching for evidence of suppressed or enhanced star formation (United States)

    Stanley, F.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, C. M.; Rosario, D. J.; Wang, L.; Aird, J. A.; Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Knudsen, K. K.; Michałowski, M. J.; Valiante, E.; De Zotti, G.; Furlanetto, C.; Ivison, R.; Maddox, S.; Smith, M. W. L.


    We investigate the mean star formation rates (SFRs) in the host galaxies of ˜3000 optically selected quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey within the Herschel-ATLAS fields, and a radio-luminous subsample covering the redshift range of z = 0.2-2.5. Using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Herschel photometry (12-500 μm) we construct composite spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in bins of redshift and active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity. We perform SED fitting to measure the mean infrared luminosity due to star formation, removing the contamination from AGN emission. We find that the mean SFRs show a weak positive trend with increasing AGN luminosity. However, we demonstrate that the observed trend could be due to an increase in black hole (BH) mass (and a consequent increase of inferred stellar mass) with increasing AGN luminosity. We compare to a sample of X-ray selected AGN and find that the two populations have consistent mean SFRs when matched in AGN luminosity and redshift. On the basis of the available virial BH masses, and the evolving BH mass to stellar mass relationship, we find that the mean SFRs of our QSO sample are consistent with those of main sequence star-forming galaxies. Similarly the radio-luminous QSOs have mean SFRs that are consistent with both the overall QSO sample and with star-forming galaxies on the main sequence. In conclusion, on average QSOs reside on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies, and the observed positive trend between the mean SFRs and AGN luminosity can be attributed to BH mass and redshift dependencies.

  16. The radial velocity dispersion profile of the Galactic halo : constraining the density profile of the dark halo of the Milky Way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Morrison, H; Harding, P; Olszewski, EW; Mateo, M; Freeman, KC; Norris, J; Shectman, SA


    We have compiled a new sample of 240 halo objects with accurate distance and radial velocity measurements, including globular clusters, satellite galaxies, field blue horizontal branch (FHB) stars and red giant stars from the Spaghetti survey. The new data lead to a significant increase in the

  17. Global properties of M31's stellar halo from the splash survey. II. Metallicity profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Patterson, Richard J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Geha, Marla C.; Tollerud, Erik J. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kirby, Evan N.; Bullock, James S. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi, E-mail: [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)


    We present the metallicity distribution of red giant branch (RGB) stars in M31's stellar halo, derived from photometric metallicity estimates for over 1500 spectroscopically confirmed RGB halo stars. The stellar sample comes from 38 halo fields observed with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, ranging from 9 to 175 kpc in projected distance from M31's center, and includes 52 confirmed M31 halo stars beyond 100 kpc. While a wide range of metallicities is seen throughout the halo, the metal-rich peak of the metallicity distribution function becomes significantly less prominent with increasing radius. The metallicity profile of M31's stellar halo shows a continuous gradient from 9 to ∼100 kpc, with a magnitude of ∼ – 0.01 dex kpc{sup –1}. The stellar velocity distributions in each field are used to identify stars that are likely associated with tidal debris features. The removal of tidal debris features does not significantly alter the metallicity gradient in M31's halo: a gradient is maintained in fields spanning 10-90 kpc. We analyze the halo metallicity profile, as well as the relative metallicities of stars associated with tidal debris features and the underlying halo population, in the context of current simulations of stellar halo formation. We argue that the large-scale gradient in M31's halo implies M31 accreted at least one relatively massive progenitor in the past, while the field to field variation seen in the metallicity profile indicates that multiple smaller progenitors are likely to have contributed substantially to M31's outer halo.

  18. On the observational characteristics of lithium-enhanced giant stars in comparison with normal red giants† (United States)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Tajitsu, Akito


    While lithium is generally deficient in the atmosphere of evolved giant stars because of the efficient mixing-induced dilution, a small fraction of red giants show unusually strong Li lines indicative of conspicuous abundance excess. With the aim of shedding light on the origin of these peculiar stars, we carried out a spectroscopic study on the observational characteristics of 20 selected bright giants already known to be Li-rich from past studies, in comparison with the reference sample of a large number of normal late G-early K giants. Special attention was paid to clarifying any difference between the two samples from a comprehensive point of view (i.e., with respect to stellar parameters, rotation, activity, kinematic properties, 6Li/7Li ratio, and the abundances of Li, Be, C, O, Na, S, and Zn). Our sample stars are roughly divided into a “bump/clump group” and a “luminous group” according to their positions on the HR diagram. Regarding the former group [1.5 ≲ log (L/L⊙) ≲ 2 and M ∼ 1.5-3 M⊙], Li-enriched giants and normal giants appear practically similar in almost all respects except for Li, suggesting that surface Li enhancement in this group may be a transient episode which normal giants undergo at certain evolutionary stages in their lifetime. Meanwhile, those Li-rich giants belonging to the latter group [log (L/L⊙) ∼ 3 and M ∼ 3-5 M⊙] appear more anomalous in the sense that they tend to show higher rotation as well as higher activity, and that their elemental abundances (especially those derived from high-excitation lines) are apt to show apparent overabundances, though this might be due to a spurious effect reflecting the difficulty of abundance derivation in stars of higher rotation and activity. Our analysis confirmed considerable Be deficiency as well as absence of 6Li as the general characteristics of Li-rich giants under study, which implies that engulfment of planets is rather unlikely for the origin of Li-enrichment.

  19. What to expect from dynamical modelling of galactic haloes (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Han, Jiaxin; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos; Sawala, Till


    Many dynamical models of the Milky Way halo require assumptions that the distribution function of a tracer population should be independent of time (I.e. a steady-state distribution function) and that the underlying potential is spherical. We study the limitations of such modelling by applying a general dynamical model with minimal assumptions to a large sample of galactic haloes from cosmological N-body and hydrodynamical simulations. Using dark matter particles as dynamical tracers, we find that the systematic uncertainties in the measured mass and concentration parameters typically have an amplitude of 25-40 per cent. When stars are used as tracers, however, the systematic uncertainties can be as large as a factor of 2-3. The systematic uncertainties are not reduced by increasing the tracer sample size and vary stochastically from halo to halo. These systematic uncertainties are mostly driven by underestimated statistical noise caused by correlated phase-space structures that violate the steady-state assumption. The number of independent phase-space structures inferred from the uncertainty level sets a limiting sample size beyond which a further increase no longer significantly improves the accuracy of dynamical inferences. The systematic uncertainty level is determined by the halo merger history, the shape and environment of the halo. Our conclusions apply generally to any spherical steady-state model.

  20. Tracking the LHC halo

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso


    In the LHC, beams of 25-ns-spaced proton bunches travel at almost the speed of light and pass through many different devices installed along the ring that monitor their properties. During their whirling motion, beam particles might interact with the collimation instrumentation or with residual gas in the vacuum chambers and this creates the beam halo – an annoying source of background for the physics data. Newly installed CMS sub-detectors are now able to monitor it.   The Beam Halo Monitors (BHM) are installed around the CMS rotating shielding. The BHM are designed and built by University of Minnesota, CERN, Princeton University, INFN Bologna and the National Technical University of Athens. (Image: Andrea Manna). The Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) is a set of 20 Cherenkov radiators – 10-cm-long quartz crystals – installed at each end of the huge CMS detector. Their design goal is to measure the particles that can cause the so-called “machine-induced...

  1. Star-shaped ZnO/Ag hybrid nanostructures for enhanced photocatalysis and antibacterial activity (United States)

    Andrade, George R. S.; Nascimento, Cristiane C.; Lima, Zenon M.; Teixeira-Neto, Erico; Costa, Luiz P.; Gimenez, Iara F.


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) particles with a star-shaped morphology have been synthesized by a novel and simple room-temperature method and decorated with silver nanoparticles (SNPs) for enhanced photocatalysis and bactericide applications. The presence of thiourea during the precipitation of ZnO in alkaline conditions allowed the control of morphological features (e.g. average size and shape) and the surface functionalization with thiocyanate ions (SCN-). SNPs were deposited into the ZnO surface by a photoreduction method and their sizes could be easily controlled by changing the ZnO/AgNO3 ratio. The presence of SCN- on the semiconductor surface prevents uncontrollable growth of Ag nanoparticles into different morphologies and high degrees of polydispersity. XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, UV-vis-NIR and PL were employed for characterizing the structure, morphology and optical properties of the as-obtained pure and hybrid nanostructures. Finally, the hybrid ZnO/Ag particles have shown plasmon-enhanced performance for applications in photocatalysis and antibacterial activity compared to the pure ZnO counterpart. In this work, evaluation of the photodegradation of an aqueous methylene blue solution under UV-A irradiation and the antibacterial activity toward 4 bacterial strains, including Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300, ATCC 25923 and ATCC 33591) and Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853).

  2. Galactic googly: the rotation-metallicity bias in the inner stellar halo of the Milky Way (United States)

    Kafle, Prajwal R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Pradhan, Raj K.; Guglielmo, Magda; Davies, Luke J. M.; Driver, Simon P.


    The first and second moments of stellar velocities encode important information about the formation history of the Galactic halo. However, due to the lack of tangential motion and inaccurate distances of the halo stars, the velocity moments in the Galactic halo have largely remained 'known unknowns'. Fortunately, our off-centric position within the Galaxy allows us to estimate these moments in the galactocentric frame using the observed radial velocities of the stars alone. We use these velocities coupled with the hierarchical Bayesian scheme, which allows easy marginalization over the missing data (the proper motion, and uncertainty-free distance and line-of-sight velocity), to measure the velocity dispersions, orbital anisotropy (β) and streaming motion (vrot) of the halo main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) and K-giant (KG) stars in the inner stellar halo (r ≲ 15 kpc). We study the metallicity bias in kinematics of the halo stars and observe that the comparatively metal-rich ([Fe/H] > -1.4) and the metal-poor ([Fe/H] ≤ -1.4) MSTO samples show a clear systematic difference in vrot ∼ 20-40 km s - 1, depending on how restrictive the spatial cuts to cull the disc contamination are. The bias is also detected in KG samples but with less certainty. Both MSTO and KG populations suggest that the inner stellar halo of the Galaxy is radially biased i.e. σr > σθ or σϕ and β ≃ 0.5. The apparent metallicity contrariety in the rotation velocity among the halo sub-populations supports the co-existence of multiple populations in the galactic halo that may have formed through distinct formation scenarios, i.e. in situ versus accretion.

  3. What is the Milky Way outer halo made of?. High resolution spectroscopy of distant red giants (United States)

    Battaglia, G.; North, P.; Jablonka, P.; Shetrone, M.; Minniti, D.; Díaz, M.; Starkenburg, E.; Savoy, M.


    In a framework where galaxies form hierarchically, extended stellar haloes are predicted to be an ubiquitous feature around Milky Way-like galaxies and to consist mainly of the shredded stellar component of smaller galactic systems. The type of accreted stellar systems are expected to vary according to the specific accretion and merging history of a given galaxy, and so is the fraction of stars formed in situ versus accreted. Analysis of the chemical properties of Milky Way halo stars out to large Galactocentric radii can provide important insights into the properties of the environment in which the stars that contributed to the build-up of different regions of the Milky Way stellar halo formed. In this work we focus on the outer regions of the Milky Way stellar halo, by determining chemical abundances of halo stars with large present-day Galactocentric distances, >15 kpc. The data-set we acquired consists of high resolution HET/HRS, Magellan/MIKE and VLT/UVES spectra for 28 red giant branch stars covering a wide metallicity range, -3.1 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲-0.6. We show that the ratio of α-elements over Fe as a function of [Fe/H] for our sample of outer halo stars is not dissimilar from the pattern shown by MW halo stars from solar neighborhood samples. On the other hand, significant differences appear at [Fe/H] ≳-1.5 when considering chemical abundance ratios such as [Ba/Fe], [Na/Fe], [Ni/Fe], [Eu/Fe], [Ba/Y]. Qualitatively, this type of chemical abundance trends are observed in massive dwarf galaxies, such as Sagittarius and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This appears to suggest a larger contribution in the outer halo of stars formed in an environment with high initial star formation rate and already polluted by asymptotic giant branch stars with respect to inner halo samples. Based on ESO program 093.B-0615(A).Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the University of Texas at Austin, the Pennsylvania State University

  4. On the building blocks of the M31 and Milky Way halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monelli Matteo


    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of the halo of M31 and the Milky Way as traced by the population of RR Lyrae stars, in comparison with the population of such stars preent in satellite dwarf galaxies. We find that both halos and the massive dwarf host a population of high amplitude short period RRab stars, absent in low-mass dwarfs. These stars are explained as the metal-rich tail of the RR Lyrae distribution ([Fe/H] ∼ - 1.5, and thus their existence imply fast chemical enrichment in the host system. Their presence in both halos implies that massive building blocks had an important role in their formation.

  5. Using frequency maps to explore the distribution function of the Milky Way stellar halo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valluri M.


    Full Text Available Resolved surveys of the Milky Way's stellar halo can obtain all 6 phase space coordinates of tens of thousands of individual stars, making it possible to compute their 3-dimensional orbits. When frequency mapping is applied to such orbits they also represent the underlying phase space distribution function since the orbits that the are drawn from 3. A frequency maps clearly separates out the major types of orbits that constitute the DF and their relative abundances. The structure of the frequency maps, especially the locations of resonant orbits, reflects the formation history and shape of the dark matter potential and its orientation relative to the disk. The application of frequency analysis to cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of disk galaxies shows that the orbital families occupied by halo stars and dark matter particles are very similar, implying that stellar halo orbits can be used to constrain the DF of the dark matter halo, possibly impacting the interpretation of results from direct dark matter detection experiments. An application of these methods to a sample of ~ 16,000 Milky Way halo and thick disk stars from the SDSS-SEGUE survey yields a frequency map with strong evidence for resonant trapping of halo stars by the Milky Way disk, in a manner predicted by controlled simulations in which the disk grows adiabatically. The application of frequency analysis methods to current and future phase space data for Milky Way halo stars will provide new insights into the formation history of the different components of the Galaxy and the DF of the halo.

  6. The influence of halo evolution on galaxy structure (United States)

    White, Simon


    If Einstein-Newton gravity holds on galactic and larger scales, then current observations demonstrate that the stars and interstellar gas of a typical bright galaxy account for only a few percent of its total nonlinear mass. Dark matter makes up the rest and cannot be faint stars or any other baryonic form because it was already present and decoupled from the radiation plasma at z = 1000, long before any nonlinear object formed. The weak gravito-sonic waves so precisely measured by CMB observations are detected again at z = 4 as order unity fluctuations in intergalactic matter. These subsequently collapse to form today's galaxy/halo systems, whose mean mass profiles can be accurately determined through gravitational lensing. High-resolution simulations link the observed dark matter structures seen at all these epochs, demonstrating that they are consistent and providing detailed predictions for all aspects of halo structure and growth. Requiring consistency with the abundance and clustering of real galaxies strongly constrains the galaxy-halo relation, both today and at high redshift. This results in detailed predictions for galaxy assembly histories and for the gravitational arena in which galaxies live. Dark halos are not expected to be passive or symmetric but to have a rich and continually evolving structure which will drive evolution in the central galaxy over its full life, exciting warps, spiral patterns and tidal arms, thickening disks, producing rings, bars and bulges. Their growth is closely related to the provision of new gas for galaxy building.

  7. Evolution of star clusters in a cosmological tidal field (United States)

    Rieder, Steven; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Langelaan, Paul; Makino, Junichiro; McMillan, Stephen L. W.; Portegies Zwart, Simon


    We present a method to couple N-body star cluster simulations to a cosmological tidal field, using AMUSE (Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment). We apply this method to star clusters embedded in the CosmoGrid dark matter only Lambda cold dark matter simulation. Our star clusters are born at z = 10 (corresponding to an age of the universe of about 500 Myr) by selecting a dark matter particle and initializing a star cluster with 32 000 stars on its location. We then follow the dynamical evolution of the star cluster within the cosmological environment. We compare the evolution of star clusters in two Milky Way size haloes with a different accretion history. The mass-loss of the star clusters is continuous irrespective of the tidal history of the host halo, but major merger events tend to increase the rate of mass-loss. From the selected two dark matter haloes, the halo that experienced the larger number of mergers tends to drive a smaller mass-loss rate from the embedded star clusters, even though the final masses of both haloes are similar. We identify two families of star clusters: native clusters, which become part of the main halo before its final major merger event, and the immigrant clusters, which are accreted upon or after this event; native clusters tend to evaporate more quickly than immigrant clusters. Accounting for the evolution of the dark matter halo causes immigrant star clusters to retain more mass than when the z = 0 tidal field is taken as a static potential. The reason for this is the weaker tidal field experienced by immigrant star clusters before merging with the larger dark matter halo.

  8. The Eating Habits of Giants and Dwarfs: Chemo-dynamics of Halo Assembly in Nearby Galaxies (United States)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; SAGES Team


    I will present novel results on the halo assembly of nearby galaxies, from dwarfs to the most massive ellipticals, using Subaru imaging and Keck spectroscopy. Field stars, globular clusters, and planetary nebulae are used as wide-field chemo-dynamical tracers, mapping out halo substructures that were previously known and unknown. Comparisons are made with simulations of galaxy formation. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grants AST-0808099, AST-0909237, and AST-1109878.

  9. Cosmic web type dependence of halo clustering (United States)

    Fisher, J. D.; Faltenbacher, A.


    We use the Millennium Simulation to show that halo clustering varies significantly with cosmic web type. Haloes are classified as node, filament, sheet and void haloes based on the eigenvalue decomposition of the velocity shear tensor. The velocity field is sampled by the peculiar velocities of a fixed number of neighbouring haloes, and spatial derivatives are computed using a kernel borrowed from smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The classification scheme is used to examine the clustering of haloes as a function of web type for haloes with masses larger than 1011 h- 1 M⊙. We find that node haloes show positive bias, filament haloes show negligible bias and void and sheet haloes are antibiased independent of halo mass. Our findings suggest that the mass dependence of halo clustering is rooted in the composition of web types as a function of halo mass. The substantial fraction of node-type haloes for halo masses ≳ 2 × 1013 h- 1 M⊙ leads to positive bias. Filament-type haloes prevail at intermediate masses, 1012-1013 h- 1 M⊙, resulting in unbiased clustering. The large contribution of sheet-type haloes at low halo masses ≲ 1012 h- 1 M⊙ generates antibiasing.

  10. Black holes with halos (United States)

    Monten, Ruben; Toldo, Chiara


    We present new AdS4 black hole solutions in N =2 gauged supergravity coupled to vector and hypermultiplets. We focus on a particular consistent truncation of M-theory on the homogeneous Sasaki–Einstein seven-manifold M 111, characterized by the presence of one Betti vector multiplet. We numerically construct static and spherically symmetric black holes with electric and magnetic charges, corresponding to M2 and M5 branes wrapping non-contractible cycles of the internal manifold. The novel feature characterizing these nonzero temperature configurations is the presence of a massive vector field halo. Moreover, we verify the first law of black hole mechanics and we study the thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. We analyze the behavior of the massive vector field condensate across the small-large black hole phase transition and we interpret the process in the dual field theory.

  11. Chemical Abundance Analysis of Three α-poor, Metal-poor Stars in the Ultrafaint Dwarf Galaxy Horologium I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, D.Q.; et al.


    We present chemical abundance measurements of three stars in the ultra-faintdwarf galaxy Horologium I, a Milky Way satellite discovered by the Dark EnergySurvey. Using high resolution spectroscopic observations we measure themetallicity of the three stars as well as abundance ratios of several$\\alpha$-elements, iron-peak elements, and neutron-capture elements. Theabundance pattern is relatively consistent among all three stars, which have alow average metallicity of [Fe/H] $\\sim -2.6$ and are not $\\alpha$-enhanced([$\\alpha$/Fe] $\\sim 0.0$). This result is unexpected when compared to otherlow-metallicity stars in the Galactic halo and other ultra-faint dwarfs andhints at an entirely different mechanism for the enrichment of Hor I comparedto other satellites. We discuss possible scenarios that could lead to thisobserved nucleosynthetic signature including extended star formation, aPopulation III supernova, and a possible association with the Large MagellanicCloud.

  12. Microlensing of unresolved stars as a brown dwarf detection method

    CERN Document Server

    Bouquet, A; Melchior, A L; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Baillon, Paul


    We describe a project of brown dwarf detection in the dark halo of a galaxy using the microlensing effect. We argue that monitoring pixels instead of stars could provide an enhancement in the number of detectable events. We estimate the detection efficiency with a Monte-Carlo simulation. We expect a ten-fold increase with respect to current experiments. To assess the feasibility of this method we have determined the photometric precision of a pixel by comparing several pictures of a same field in the LMC. To be published in the Proceeding of the workshop 'The dark side of the universe...', Roma, Juin 1993,

  13. The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth (United States)

    Zentner, Andrew R.

    I review the excursion set theory with particular attention toward applications to cold dark matter halo formation and growth, halo abundance, and halo clustering. After a brief introduction to notation and conventions, I begin by recounting the heuristic argument leading to the mass function of bound objects given by Press and Schechter. I then review the more formal derivation of the Press-Schechter halo mass function that makes use of excursion sets of the density field. The excursion set formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous other problems. I review the excursion set formalism for describing both halo clustering and bias and the properties of void regions. As one of the most enduring legacies of the excursion set approach and one of its most common applications, I spend considerable time reviewing the excursion set theory of halo growth. This section of the review culminates with the description of two Monte Carlo methods for generating ensembles of halo mass accretion histories. In the last section, I emphasize that the standard excursion set approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and open excursion set theory to new applications. One such assumption is that the height of the barriers that define collapsed objects is a constant function of scale. I illustrate the implementation of the excursion set approach for barriers of arbitrary shape. One such application is the now well-known improvement of the excursion set mass function derived from the "moving" barrier for ellipsoidal collapse. I also emphasize that the statement that halo accretion histories are independent of halo environment in the excursion set approach is not a general prediction of the theory. It is a simplifying assumption. I review the method for constructing correlated random walks of the density field in the more general case. I construct a simple toy model to illustrate that excursion set

  14. Abundance analysis of a CEMP-no star in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Koch, A.; Sivarani, T.


    Carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars bear important imprints of the early chemical enrichment of any stellar system. While these stars are known to exist in copious amounts in the Milky Way halo, detailed chemical abundance data from the faint dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites are still sparse, although the relative fraction of these stars increases with decreasing metallicity. Here, we report the abundance analysis of a metal-poor ([ Fe / H ] = - 2.5 dex), carbon-rich ([C/Fe] = 1.4 dex) star, ALW-8, in the Carina dSph using high-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the ESO/UVES instrument. Its spectrum does not indicate any over-enhancements of neutron capture elements. Thus classified as a CEMP-no star, this is the first detection of this kind of star in Carina. Another of our sample stars, ALW-1, is shown to be a CEMP-s star, but its immediate binarity prompted us to discard it from a detailed analysis. The majority of the 18 chemical elements we measured are typical of Carina's field star population and also agree with CEMP stars in other dSph galaxies. Similar to the only known CEMP-no star in the Sculptor dSph and the weak-r-process star HD 122563, the lack of any strong barium-enhancement is accompanied by a moderate overabundance in yttrium, indicating a weak r-process activity. The overall abundance pattern confirms that, also in Carina, the formation site for CEMP-no stars has been affected by both faint supernovae and by standard core collapse supernovae. Whichever process was responsible for the heavy element production in ALW-8 must be a ubiquitous source to pollute the CEMP-no stars, acting independently of the environment such as in the Galactic halo or in dSphs. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory at Paranal, Chile; Large Programme proposal 171.B- 0520.Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via http://cdsarc


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, A. J.; Conroy, C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wetzel, A. R. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Tinker, J. L., E-mail: [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10013 (United States)


    We investigate the use of the halo mass-gap statistic—defined as the logarithmic difference in mass between the host halo and its most massive satellite subhalo—as a probe of halo age and concentration. A cosmological N-body simulation is used to study N ∼ 25, 000 group/cluster-sized halos in the mass range 10{sup 12.5} < M{sub halo}/M{sub ☉} < 10{sup 14.5}. In agreement with previous work, we find that halo mass-gap is related to halo formation time and concentration. On average, older and more highly concentrated halos have larger halo mass-gaps, and this trend is stronger than the mass-concentration relation over a similar dynamic range. However, there is a large amount of scatter owing to the transitory nature of the satellite subhalo population, which limits the use of the halo mass-gap statistic on an object-by-object basis. For example, we find that 20% of very large halo mass-gap systems (akin to {sup f}ossil groups{sup )} are young and have likely experienced a recent merger between a massive satellite subhalo and the central subhalo. We relate halo mass-gap to the observable stellar mass-gap via abundance matching. Using a galaxy group catalog constructed from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we find that the star formation and structural properties of galaxies at fixed mass show no trend with stellar mass-gap. This is despite a variation in halo age of ≈2.5 Gyr over ≈1.2 dex in stellar mass-gap. Thus, we find no evidence to suggest that the halo formation history significantly affects galaxy properties.

  16. La abundancia de galaxias y halos de materia oscura en el universo CDM (United States)

    Abadi, M. G.; Benítez-Llambay, A.; Ferrero, I.

    A long-standing puzzle of CDM cosmological model concerns to the different shape of the galaxy stellar mass function and the halo mass function on dwarf galaxy scales. Dwarf galaxies are much less numerous than halos massive enough to host them; suggesting a complex non-linear relation between the mass of a galaxy and the mass of its surrounding halo. Usually; this is reconciled by appealing to baryonic processes that can reduce the efficiency of galaxy formation in low-mass halos. Recent work applying the abundance matching technique require that virtually no dwarf galaxies form in halos with virial mass below . We use rotation curves of dwarf galaxies compiled from the literature to explore whether their total enclosed mass is consistent with these constraints. Almost one-half of the dwarfs in our sample are at odds with this restriction; they are in halos with masses substantially below . Using a cosmological simulation of the formation of the Local Group of galaxies we found that ram-pressure stripping against the cosmic web removes baryons from low-mass halos without appealing to feedback or reionization. This mechanism may help to explain the scarcity of dwarf galaxies compared with the numerous low-mass halos expected in CDM and the large diversity of star formation histories and morphologies characteristic of faint galaxies. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  17. Halo formation and evolution: unifying physical properties with structure (United States)

    Ernest, Alllan David; Collins, Matthew P.


    The assembly of matter in the universe proliferates a variety of structures with diverse properties. For example, massive halos of clusters of galaxies have temperatures often an order of magnitude or more higher than the individual galaxy halos within the cluster, or the temperatures of isolated galaxy halos. Giant spiral galaxies contain large quantities of both dark matter and hot gas while other structures like globular clusters appear to have little or no dark matter or gas. Still others, like the dwarf spheroidal galaxies have low gravity and little hot gas, but ironically contain some of the largest fractions of dark matter in the universe. Star forming rates (SFRs) also vary: compare for example the SFRs of giant elliptical galaxies, globular clusters, spiral and starburst galaxies. Furthermore there is evidence that the various structure types have existed over a large fraction of cosmic history. How can this array of variation in properties be reconciled with galaxy halo formation and evolution?We propose a model of halo formation [1] and evolution [2] that is consistent with both primordial nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the isotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The model uses two simple parameters, the total mass and size of a structure, to (1) explain why galaxies have the fractions of dark matter that they do (including why dwarf spheroidals are so dark matter dominated despite their weak gravity), (2) enable an understanding of the black hole-bulge/black hole-dark halo relations, (3) explain how fully formed massive galaxies can occur so early in cosmic history, (4) understand the connection between spiral and elliptical galaxies (5) unify the nature of globular clusters, dwarf spheroidal galaxies and bulges and (6) predict the temperatures of hot gas halos and understand how cool galaxy halos can remain stable in the hot environments of cluster-galaxy halos.[1] Ernest, A. D., 2012, in Prof. Ion Cotaescu (Ed) Advances in Quantum Theory, pp

  18. The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan


    Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated

  19. High-resolution spectroscopic observations of the new CEMP-s star CD -50°776 (United States)

    Roriz, M.; Pereira, C. B.; Drake, N. A.; Roig, F.; Silva, J. V. Sales


    Carbon enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars are a particular class of low-metalicity halo stars whose chemical analysis may provide important contrains to the chemistry evolution of the Galaxy and to the models of mass-transfer and evolution of components in binary systems. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the CEMP star CD -50°776, using high resolution optical spectroscopy. We found that CD -50°776 has a metalicity [Fe/H] = -2.31 and a carbon abundance [C/Fe] = +1.21. Analysing the s-process elements and the europium abundances, we show that this star is actually a CEMP-s star, based on the criteria set in the literature to classify these chemically peculiar objects. We also show that CD -50°776 is a lead star, since it has a ratio [Pb/Ce] = +0.97. In addition, we show that CD -50°776 develops radial velocity variations that may be attributed to the orbital motion in a binary system. The abundance pattern of CD -50°776 is discussed and compared to other CEMP-s stars already reported in the literature to show that this star is a quite exceptional object among the CEMP stars, particularly due to its low nitrogen abundance. Explaining this pattern may require to improve the nucleosynthesis models, and the evolutionary models of mass transfer and binary interaction.

  20. The SUPERBLINK catalog of stars with large proper motions, with enhancements from the first GAIA release. (United States)

    Lepine, Sebastien


    The SUPERBLINK survey of stars with proper motion larger than 40 mas/yr is now complete for the entire sky down to magnitude V=20. The SUPERBLINK catalog provides astrometric and photometric data for a little over 2.7 million individual stars, and identifies their counterparts in a variety of large catalogs including ROSAT in the X-ray, GALEX in the ultraviolet, GAIA and SDSS in the optical, and 2MASS and WISE in the infrared. The addition of GAIA data notably yields proper motions to an accuracy of ~2mas/yr for 94% of the entries. Parallaxes with accuracies better than 10% are also now available for about 155,000 of these stars. Besides from identifying local populations of low-mass stars and white dwarfs, the catalog nows begins to map out with some detail the distribution in velocity space of various local stellar populations, including young M dwarfs and old metal-poor M subdwarfs. The catalog also allows one to search for common proper motion pairs, and other kinematic groups like nearby cluster members, moving group members, and local streams. This demonstrates the potential for nearby star research as more complete data becomes available from the GAIA mission.

  1. Enhanced lithium depletion in Sun-like stars with orbiting planets. (United States)

    Israelian, Garik; Mena, Elisa Delgado; Santos, Nuno C; Sousa, Sergio G; Mayor, Michel; Udry, Stephane; Cerdeña, Carolina Domínguez; Rebolo, Rafael; Randich, Sofia


    The surface abundance of lithium on the Sun is 140 times less than the protosolar value, yet the temperature at the base of the surface convective zone is not hot enough to burn-and hence deplete-Li (refs 2, 3). A large range of Li abundances is observed in solar-type stars of the same age, mass and metallicity as the Sun, but such a range is theoretically difficult to understand. An earlier suggestion that Li is more depleted in stars with planets was weakened by the lack of a proper comparison sample of stars without detected planets. Here we report Li abundances for an unbiased sample of solar-analogue stars with and without detected planets. We find that the planet-bearing stars have less than one per cent of the primordial Li abundance, while about 50 per cent of the solar analogues without detected planets have on average ten times more Li. The presence of planets may increase the amount of mixing and deepen the convective zone to such an extent that the Li can be burned.

  2. The Galaxy-Halo Connection in High-redshift Universe: Details and Evolution of Stellar-to-halo Mass Ratios of Lyman Break Galaxies on CFHTLS Deep Fields (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shogo; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Toshikawa, Jun; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hamana, Takashi; Niino, Yuu; Ichikawa, Kohei; Uchiyama, Hisakazu


    We present the results of clustering analyses of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z˜ 3, 4, and 5 using the final data release of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Deep- and wide-field images of the CFHTLS Deep Survey enable us to obtain sufficiently accurate two-point angular correlation functions to apply a halo occupation distribution analysis. The mean halo masses, calculated as ={10}11.7{--}{10}12.8 {h}-1 {M}⊙ , increase with the stellar-mass limit of LBGs. The threshold halo mass to have a central galaxy, {M}\\min , follows the same increasing trend as the low-z results, whereas the threshold halo mass to have a satellite galaxy, M 1, shows higher values at z=3{--}5 than z=0.5{--}1.5, over the entire stellar mass range. Satellite fractions of dropout galaxies, even at less massive halos, are found to drop sharply, from z = 2 down to less than 0.04, at z=3{--}5. These results suggest that satellite galaxies form inefficiently within dark halos at z=3{--}5, even for less massive satellites with {M}\\star pivot}, which is the halo mass at a peak in the star-formation efficiency, at 3 3. In addition, {M}{{h}}{pivot} and its normalization are found to be almost unchanged during 0< z< 5. Our study provides observational evidence that galaxy formation is ubiquitously most efficient near a halo mass of {M}{{h}}˜ {10}12 {M}⊙ over cosmic time.

  3. The Halo Boundary of Galaxy Clusters in the SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Eric; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Sheth, Ravi K. [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Chang, Chihway; Kravtsov, Andrey [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Adhikari, Susmita; Dalal, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61801 (United States); More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8583 (Japan); Rozo, Eduardo [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rykoff, Eli, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, P.O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    Analytical models and simulations predict a rapid decline in the halo density profile associated with the transition from the “infalling” regime outside the halo to the “collapsed” regime within the halo. Using data from SDSS, we explore evidence for such a feature in the density profiles of galaxy clusters using several different approaches. We first estimate the steepening of the outer galaxy density profile around clusters, finding evidence for truncation of the halo profile. Next, we measure the galaxy density profile around clusters using two sets of galaxies selected on color. We find evidence of an abrupt change in galaxy colors that coincides with the location of the steepening of the density profile. Since galaxies that have completed orbits within the cluster are more likely to be quenched of star formation and thus appear redder, this abrupt change in galaxy color can be associated with the transition from single-stream to multi-stream regimes. We also use a standard model comparison approach to measure evidence for a “splashback”-like feature, but find that this approach is very sensitive to modeling assumptions. Finally, we perform measurements using an independent cluster catalog to test for potential systematic errors associated with cluster selection. We identify several avenues for future work: improved understanding of the small-scale galaxy profile, lensing measurements, identification of proxies for the halo accretion rate, and other tests. With upcoming data from the DES, KiDS, and HSC surveys, we can expect significant improvements in the study of halo boundaries.

  4. Neutron halos in hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Lue, H F; Meng, J; Zhou, S G


    Properties of single-LAMBDA and double-LAMBDA hypernuclei for even-N Ca isotopes ranging from the proton dripline to the neutron dripline are studied using the relativistic continuum Hartree-Bogolyubov theory with a zero-range pairing interaction. Compared with ordinary nuclei, the addition of one or two LAMBDA-hyperons lowers the Fermi level. The predicted neutron dripline nuclei are, respectively, sup 7 sup 5 subLAMBDA Ca and sup 7 sup 6 sub 2 subLAMBDA Ca, as the additional attractive force provided by the LAMBDA-N interaction shifts nuclei from outside to inside the dripline. Therefore, the last bound hypernuclei have two more neutrons than the corresponding ordinary nuclei. Based on the analysis of two-neutron separation energies, neutron single-particle energy levels, the contribution of continuum and nucleon density distribution, giant halo phenomena due to the pairing correlation, and the contribution from the continuum are suggested to exist in Ca hypernuclei similar to those that appear in ordinary ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, Allyson A.; Johnston, Kathryn V. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, Mail Code 5246, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Majewski, Steven R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); and others


    We present a medium-resolution spectroscopic survey of late-type giant stars at mid-Galactic latitudes of (30 Degree-Sign < |b| < 60 Degree-Sign ), designed to probe the properties of this population to distances of {approx}9 kpc. Because M giants are generally metal-rich and we have limited contamination from thin disk stars by the latitude selection, most of the stars in the survey are expected to be members of the thick disk (([Fe/H]) {approx} -0.6) with some contribution from the metal-rich component of the nearby halo. Here we report first results for 1799 stars. The distribution of radial velocity (RV) as a function of l for these stars shows (1) the expected thick disk population and (2) local metal-rich halo stars moving at high speeds relative to the disk, which in some cases form distinct sequences in RV-l space. High-resolution echelle spectra taken for 34 of these ''RV outliers'' reveal the following patterns across the [Ti/Fe]-[Fe/H] plane: 17 of the stars have abundances reminiscent of the populations present in dwarf satellites of the Milky Way, 8 have abundances coincident with those of the Galactic disk and a more metal-rich halo, and 9 of the stars fall on the locus defined by the majority of stars in the halo. The chemical abundance trends of the RV outliers suggest that this sample consists predominantly of stars accreted from infalling dwarf galaxies. A smaller fraction of stars in the RV outlier sample may have been formed in the inner Galaxy and subsequently kicked to higher eccentricity orbits, but the sample is not large enough to distinguish conclusively between this interpretation and the alternative that these stars represent the tail of the velocity distribution of the thick disk. Our data do not rule out the possibility that a minority of the sample could have formed from gas in situ on their current orbits. These results are consistent with scenarios where the stellar halo, at least as probed by M giants, arises

  6. How the First Stars Regulated Star Formation. II. Enrichment by Nearby Supernovae (United States)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wollenberg, Katharina M. J.; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.


    Metals from Population III (Pop III) supernovae led to the formation of less massive Pop II stars in the early universe, altering the course of evolution of primeval galaxies and cosmological reionization. There are a variety of scenarios in which heavy elements from the first supernovae were taken up into second-generation stars, but cosmological simulations only model them on the largest scales. We present small-scale, high-resolution simulations of the chemical enrichment of a primordial halo by a nearby supernova after partial evaporation by the progenitor star. We find that ejecta from the explosion crash into and mix violently with ablative flows driven off the halo by the star, creating dense, enriched clumps capable of collapsing into Pop II stars. Metals may mix less efficiently with the partially exposed core of the halo, so it might form either Pop III or Pop II stars. Both Pop II and III stars may thus form after the collision if the ejecta do not strip all the gas from the halo. The partial evaporation of the halo prior to the explosion is crucial to its later enrichment by the supernova.

  7. Reactions of Proton Halo Nuclei in a Relativistic Optical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Rashdan, M


    The reaction cross section, sigma sub R; of the proton halo nuclei sup 1 sup 7 Ne and sup 1 sup 2 N on Si is calculated using an optical potential derived from the solution of the Dirac-Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equation, starting from the one-boson-exchange potential of Bonn. The nuclear densities are generated from self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the recent Skyrme interaction SKRA. It is found that the enhancement in the reaction cross section found experimentally for the sup 1 sup 7 Ne + Si system in comparison to sup 1 sup 5 O + Si, where sup 1 sup 5 O has been considered as a core of sup 1 sup 7 Ne, is mainly due to the proton halo structure of sup 1 sup 7 Ne which increases the interaction, in the surface and tail regions. Glauber model calculations did not produce this enhancement in sigma sub R for proton halo nuclei

  8. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water (United States)


    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  9. Chemical Abundances of Metal-poor stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venn, Kim A.; Jablonka, Pascale; Hill, Vanessa; Starkenburg, Else; Lemasle, Bertrand; Shetrone, Matthew; Irwin, Mike; Norris, John; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerry; Salvadori, Stephania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline; Bragaglia, A.; Arnaboldi, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Romano, D.


    Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. The slower star formation efficiency make dwarf galaxies ideal systems for testing nucleosynthetic yields. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, and a higher

  10. Moving-mesh cosmology: characteristics of galaxies and haloes (United States)

    Kereš, Dušan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Sijacki, Debora; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars


    We discuss cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation performed with the new moving-mesh code AREPO, which promises higher accuracy compared with the traditional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) technique that has been widely employed for this problem. In this exploratory study, we deliberately limit the complexity of the physical processes followed by the code for ease of comparison with previous calculations, and include only cooling of gas with a primordial composition, heating by a spatially uniform ultraviolet background, and a simple subresolution model for regulating star formation in the dense interstellar medium. We use an identical set of physics in corresponding simulations carried out with the well-tested SPH code GADGET, adopting also the same high-resolution gravity solver. We are thus able to compare both simulation sets on an object-by-object basis, allowing us to cleanly isolate the impact of different hydrodynamical methods on galaxy and halo properties. In accompanying papers, Vogelsberger et al. and Sijacki et al., we focus on an analysis of the global baryonic statistics predicted by the simulation codes, and complementary idealized simulations that highlight the differences between the hydrodynamical schemes. Here we investigate their influence on the baryonic properties of simulated galaxies and their surrounding haloes. We find that AREPO leads to significantly higher star formation rates for galaxies in massive haloes and to more extended gaseous discs in galaxies, which also feature a thinner and smoother morphology than their GADGET counterparts. Consequently, galaxies formed in AREPO have larger sizes and higher specific angular momentum than their SPH correspondents. Interestingly, the more efficient cooling flows in AREPO yield higher densities and lower entropies in halo centres compared to GADGET, whereas the opposite trend is found in halo outskirts. The cooling differences leading to higher star formation rates

  11. Uncovering the hidden iceberg structure of the Galactic halo (United States)

    Moss, Vanessa A.; Di Teodoro, Enrico M.; McClure-Griffiths, Naomi M.; Lockman, Felix; Pisano, D. J.; Price, Daniel; Rees, Glen


    How the Milky Way gets its gas and keeps its measured star formation rate going are both long-standing mysteries in Galactic studies, with important implications for galaxy evolution across the Universe. I will present our recent discovery of two populations of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the halo of the Milky Way: 1) a narrow line-width dense population typical of the majority of bright high velocity cloud (HVC) components, and 2) a fainter, broad line-width diffuse population that aligns well with the population found in very sensitive pointings such as in Lockman et al. (2002). From our existing data, we concluded that the diffuse population likely outweighs the dense HI by a factor of 3. This discovery of diffuse HI, which appears to be prevalent throughout the halo, takes us closer to solving the Galactic mystery of accretion and reveals a gaseous neutral halo hidden from the view of most large-scale surveys. We are currently carrying out deep Parkes observations to investigate these results further, in order to truly uncover the nature of the diffuse HI and determine whether our 3:1 ratio (based on the limited existing data) is consistent with what is seen when Parkes and the 140 ft Green Bank telescope are employed at comparable sensitivity. With these data, through a combination of both known and new sightline measurements, we aim to reveal the structure of the Galactic halo in more detail than ever before.

  12. Prospects for detecting supersymmetric dark matter in the Galactic halo. (United States)

    Springel, V; White, S D M; Frenk, C S; Navarro, J F; Jenkins, A; Vogelsberger, M; Wang, J; Ludlow, A; Helmi, A


    Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the Universe, but its nature is unknown. It is plausibly an elementary particle, perhaps the lightest supersymmetric partner of known particle species. In this case, annihilation of dark matter in the halo of the Milky Way should produce gamma-rays at a level that may soon be observable. Previous work has argued that the annihilation signal will be dominated by emission from very small clumps (perhaps smaller even than the Earth), which would be most easily detected where they cluster together in the dark matter haloes of dwarf satellite galaxies. Here we report that such small-scale structure will, in fact, have a negligible impact on dark matter detectability. Rather, the dominant and probably most easily detectable signal will be produced by diffuse dark matter in the main halo of the Milky Way. If the main halo is strongly detected, then small dark matter clumps should also be visible, but may well contain no stars, thereby confirming a key prediction of the cold dark matter model.

  13. Cosmic Rays in the Disk and Halo of Galaxies (United States)

    Dogiel, V. A.; Breitschwerdt, D.


    We give a review of cosmic ray propagation models. It is shown that the development of the theory of cosmic ray origin leads inevitably to the conclusion that cosmic ray propagation in the Galaxy is determined by effective particle scattering, which is described by spatial diffusion. The Galactic Disk is surrounded by an extended halo, in which cosmic rays are confined before escaping into intergalactic space. For a long time cosmic ray convective outflow from the Galaxy (galactic wind) was believed to be insignificant. However, investigations of hydrodynamic stability and an analysis of ISM dynamics (including cosmic rays) showed that a galactic wind was emanating near the disk, and accelerating towards the halo, reaching its maximum velocity far away from the disk. Therefore convective cosmic ray transport should be important in galactic halos. Recent analysis of the gamma-ray emissivity in the Galactic disk of EGRET data, which showed that cosmic rays are more or less uniformly distributed in the radial direction of the disk, as well as the interpretation of soft X-ray emission in galactic halos, give convincing evidence of the existence of a galactic wind in star forming galaxies.

  14. What is Enhancing the Tidal Disruption Rate of Stars in Post-Starburst Galaxies? (United States)

    Arcavi, Iair


    The search for the tidal disruption of stars by supermassive black holes (tidal disruption events; TDEs) is now yielding exciting results. Recently, we tied several events together into a coherent class of outbursts. This picture offers a surprising new insight: TDEs show a strong (200x) preference for post-starburst galaxies. Why is this? As likely post-merger galaxies, they could harbor a binary black hole in their center, which is expected to increase the rate of TDEs, but only at certain ages after the merger and for certain merger mass ratios. Alternatively, a disturbed central potential or nuclear gas reservoirs may be affecting stellar orbits in the core of the galaxy. Finally, a nuclear over-abundance of A stars (which dominate ground-based galaxy-integrated spectra), evolving to giants, could increase the global cross section for tidal disruption. HST spatial resolution and low surface brightness sensitivity allows us to test each of these options for four post-starburst TDE host galaxies. We will measure post-merger tidal tails, age-date the starburst using individual star cluster colors, map the luminosity profile of the inner 100pc to test for asphericity or double nuclei, and localize the weak line emission and A-star population seen in our galaxy-integrated spectra. We will also perform bulge-disk decompositions to estimate the mass of the central black hole, a crucial test of TDE emission models. Our group has successfully carried out HST analyses of the star cluster populations, tidal tails, and core surface brightness profiles of (non-TDE-host) post-starburst galaxies, a sample which will serve as a control for the observations proposed here.

  15. Tracing Gas Flows from Halo to Disk: Observing the Milky Way's Galactic Fountain (United States)

    Werk, Jessica


    Galactic-scale winds are a common feature of galaxy formation models, and are observed ubiquitously across the star-forming sequence down to 0.5 Msun/yr. However, empirical constraints on the radial density profile and total spatial extent of these winds have been very challenging to obtain. At the same time, direct empirical evidence is scarce for the flows of gas onto galaxy disks that are critical for maintaining star formation. We have devised a simple experiment using blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the halo of the Milky Way that will directly map the location and density of diffuse, ionized gas flows between the Galactic disk and halo. This experiment, initiated in Cycle 23, obtains COS FUV spectra of halo BHB stars that sample a range of scale heights to 13 kpc towards the Northern Galactic pole. In this Cycle, we propose to observe 3 additional BHB stars along the complementary sightline to the South, effectively doubling our sightline sample size and permitting a novel test of the symmetry of gas flows at the disk-halo interface. This program allows us to unambiguously track inflowing and outflowing material from the Milky Way via absorption component blueshifts and redshifts. With BHBs at a range of known distances, we will directly determine changes in the gas density and metal mass as it travels through the disk-halo interface. Our experiment will yield the most detailed constraints on the physical state and energetics of the gas in the Milky Way's Galactic Fountain to date. Such constraints are fundamental to understanding the role of feedback in building the Galactic gaseous halo and the extent to which ongoing gas accretion fuels the ISM.

  16. Star cluster evolution in dark matter dominated galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, Anneke; Hurley, Jarrod; Power, Chris

    We investigate the influence of the external tidal field of a dark matter halo on the dynamical evolution of star clusters using direct N-body simulations, where we assume that the halo is described by a Navarro, Frenk and White mass profile which has an inner density cusp. We assess how varying the

  17. ZOMG - II. Does the halo assembly history influence central galaxies and gas accretion? (United States)

    Romano-Díaz, Emilio; Garaldi, Enrico; Borzyszkowski, Mikolaj; Porciani, Cristiano


    The growth rate and the internal dynamics of galaxy-sized dark-matter haloes depend on their location within the cosmic web. Haloes that sit at the nodes grow in mass till the present time and are dominated by radial orbits. Conversely, haloes embedded in prominent filaments do not change much in size and are dominated by tangential orbits. Using zoom hydrodynamical simulations including star formation and feedback, we study how gas accretes on to these different classes of objects, which, for simplicity, we dub 'accreting' and 'stalled' haloes. We find that all haloes get a fresh supply of newly accreted gas in their inner regions, although this slowly decreases with time, in particular for the stalled haloes. The inflow of new gas is always higher than (but comparable with) that of recycled material. Overall, the cold-gas fraction increases (decreases) with time for the accreting (stalled) haloes. In all cases, a stellar disc and a bulge form at the centre of the simulated haloes. The total stellar mass is in excellent agreement with expectations based on the abundance-matching technique. Many properties of the central galaxies do not seem to correlate with the large-scale environment in which the haloes reside. However, there are two notable exceptions that characterize stalled haloes with respect to their accreting counterparts: (I) The galaxy disc contains much older stellar populations. (II) Its vertical scaleheight is larger by a factor of 2 or more. This thickening is likely due to the heating of the long-lived discs by mergers and close flybys.

  18. The puzzling assembly of the Milky Way halo – contributions from dwarf Spheroidals and globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine S.


    Full Text Available While recent sky surveys have uncovered large numbers of ever fainter Milky Way satellites, their classification as star clusters, low-luminosity galaxies, or tidal overdensities remains often unclear. Likewise, their contributions to the build-up of the halo is yet debated. In this contribution we will discuss the current knowledge of the stellar populations and chemo-dynamics in these puzzling satellites, with a particular focus on dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the globular clusters in the outer Galactic halo. Also the question of whether some of the outermost halo objects are dynamically associated with the (Milky Way halo at all is addressed in terms of proper measurements in the remote Leo I and II dwarf galaxies.

  19. High Angular Momentum Halo Gas: A Feedback and Code-independent Prediction of LCDM (United States)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Oñorbe, Jose; Bullock, James S.; Joung, M. Ryan; Devriendt, Julien; Ceverino, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André


    We investigate angular momentum acquisition in Milky Way-sized galaxies by comparing five high resolution zoom-in simulations, each implementing identical cosmological initial conditions but utilizing different hydrodynamic codes: Enzo, Art, Ramses, Arepo, and Gizmo-PSPH. Each code implements a distinct set of feedback and star formation prescriptions. We find that while many galaxy and halo properties vary between the different codes (and feedback prescriptions), there is qualitative agreement on the process of angular momentum acquisition in the galaxy’s halo. In all simulations, cold filamentary gas accretion to the halo results in ˜4 times more specific angular momentum in cold halo gas (λ cold ≳ 0.1) than in the dark matter halo. At z > 1, this inflow takes the form of inspiraling cold streams that are co-directional in the halo of the galaxy and are fueled, aligned, and kinematically connected to filamentary gas infall along the cosmic web. Due to the qualitative agreement among disparate simulations, we conclude that the buildup of high angular momentum halo gas and the presence of these inspiraling cold streams are robust predictions of Lambda Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation, though the detailed morphology of these streams is significantly less certain. A growing body of observational evidence suggests that this process is borne out in the real universe.

  20. High Angular Momentum Halo Gas: A Feedback and Code-independent Prediction of LCDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, California Baptist University, 8432 Magnolia Ave., Riverside, CA 92504 (United States); Maller, Ariyeh H. [Department of Physics, New York City College of Technology, 300 Jay St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Oñorbe, Jose [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bullock, James S. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Joung, M. Ryan [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Devriendt, Julien [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Rd., Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Ceverino, Daniel [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kereš, Dušan [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Hopkins, Philip F. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)


    We investigate angular momentum acquisition in Milky Way-sized galaxies by comparing five high resolution zoom-in simulations, each implementing identical cosmological initial conditions but utilizing different hydrodynamic codes: Enzo, Art, Ramses, Arepo, and Gizmo-PSPH. Each code implements a distinct set of feedback and star formation prescriptions. We find that while many galaxy and halo properties vary between the different codes (and feedback prescriptions), there is qualitative agreement on the process of angular momentum acquisition in the galaxy’s halo. In all simulations, cold filamentary gas accretion to the halo results in ∼4 times more specific angular momentum in cold halo gas ( λ {sub cold} ≳ 0.1) than in the dark matter halo. At z > 1, this inflow takes the form of inspiraling cold streams that are co-directional in the halo of the galaxy and are fueled, aligned, and kinematically connected to filamentary gas infall along the cosmic web. Due to the qualitative agreement among disparate simulations, we conclude that the buildup of high angular momentum halo gas and the presence of these inspiraling cold streams are robust predictions of Lambda Cold Dark Matter galaxy formation, though the detailed morphology of these streams is significantly less certain. A growing body of observational evidence suggests that this process is borne out in the real universe.

  1. Reconstructing the Accretion History of the Galactic Stellar Halo from Chemical Abundance Ratio Distributions (United States)

    Lee, Duane M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will


    Observational studies of halo stars during the past two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from 11 “MW-like” halos to generate satellite template sets (STSs) of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites, which are composed of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ˜103-4 mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those 11 halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the STS used and the sample size. For certain STSs used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of two. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminosity dwarfs, e.g., ultra-faint dwarfs—precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ˜6-9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us to recover its accretion history—and the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies—across cosmic time.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Duane M. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Johnston, Kathryn V. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York City, NY 10027 (United States); Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will, E-mail: [Department of Statistics, Columbia University, New York City, NY 10027 (United States)


    Observational studies of halo stars during the past two decades have placed some limits on the quantity and nature of accreted dwarf galaxy contributions to the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo by typically utilizing stellar phase-space information to identify the most recent halo accretion events. In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from 11 “MW-like” halos to generate satellite template sets (STSs) of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites, which are composed of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ∼10{sup 3–4} mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those 11 halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the STS used and the sample size. For certain STSs used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of two. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminosity dwarfs, e.g., ultra-faint dwarfs—precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ∼6–9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us to recover its accretion history—and the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies—across cosmic time.

  3. Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan H Nguyen; Mikhail Kandel; Haadi M Shakir; Catherine Best-popescu; Jyothi Arikkath; Minh N Do; Gabriel Popescu


    We present a new approach for retrieving halo-free phase contrast microscopy (hfPC) images by upgrading the conventional PC microscope with an external interferometric module, which generates sufficient data for reversing the halo artifact...

  4. Formation of Milky Way-type stellar haloes in a Λ-CDM cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font A.S.


    Full Text Available Recent observations suggest that the Milky Way stellar halo has a ‘dual nature’, meaning that both dissipational and dissipationless processes play a role in its build-up. The GIMIC suite of cosmological hydro-dynamical simulations show that, for Milky Way-mass haloes, in situ star formation is the dominant factor in the inner < 20 − 30 kpc, while tidal disruption of satellite galaxies contributes primarily to the outer regions. The in situ stars are found to originate in the earlier disc, at redshifts ~ 1– 1.5, and subsequently diffusing out of the disc by dynamical heating associated with mergers. The in situ component has a more flattened shape, a net prograde rotation and more metal-rich populations, in quantitative agreement with the observations. We conclude that the dual nature of the stellar halo is entirely compatible with the currently favoured Λ-CDM model.

  5. Enhancement of dark matter capture by neutron stars in binary systems. (United States)

    Brayeur, Lionel; Tinyakov, Peter


    We study the capture of dark matter particles by neutron stars in close binary systems. By performing a direct numerical simulation, we find that there is a sizable amplification of the rate of dark matter capture by each of the companions. In the case of the binary pulsar PSR J1906+0746 with the orbital period of 4 hours the amplification factor is approximately equal to 3.5. This amplification can be attributed to the energy loss by dark matter particles resulting from their gravitational scattering off moving companions.

  6. Galaxy pairs in the SDSS - XIII. The connection between enhanced star formation and molecular gas properties in galaxy mergers. (United States)

    Violino, Giulio; Ellison, Sara L.; Sargent, Mark; Coppin, Kristen E. K.; Scudder, Jillian M.; Mendel, Trevor J.; Saintonge, Amelie


    We investigate the connection between star formation and molecular gas properties in galaxy mergers at low redshift (z≤0.06). The study we present is based on IRAM 30-m CO(1-0) observations of 11 galaxies with a close companion selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The pairs have mass ratios ≤4, projected separations rp ≤30 kpc and velocity separations ΔV≤300 km s-1, and have been selected to exhibit enhanced specific star formation rates (sSFR). We calculate molecular gas (H2) masses, assigning to each galaxy a physically motivated conversion factor αCO, and we derive molecular gas fractions and depletion times. We compare these quantities with those of isolated galaxies from the extended CO Legacy Data base for the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey sample (xCOLDGASS, Saintonge et al. 2017) with gas quantities computed in an identical way. Ours is the first study which directly compares the gas properties of galaxy pairs and those of a control sample of normal galaxies with rigorous control procedures and for which SFR and H2 masses have been estimated using the same method. We find that the galaxy pairs have shorter depletion times and an average molecular gas fraction enhancement of 0.4 dex compared to the mass matched control sample drawn from xCOLDGASS. However, the gas masses (and fractions) in galaxy pairs and their depletion times are consistent with those of non-mergers whose SFRs are similarly elevated. We conclude that both external interactions and internal processes may lead to molecular gas enhancement and decreased depletion times.

  7. Visibility of halos and rainbows. (United States)

    Gedzelman, S D


    A theory for the visibility of halos and rainbows is presented. The light reaching the observer's eye from the direction of the halo or rainbow is assumed to consist of two parts: (1) a beam of singly scattered sunlight (or moonlight) from a cloud of ice crystals or a rainswath, which, in turn, has suffered depletion by scattering or absorption in its passage to the observer, and (2) the general background brightness. The model is able to account for several long-known qualitative observations concerning halos, namely, that the brightest halos are produced by optically thin cirrostratus clouds (i.e., for which the cloud optical depth tau(c), rainbow the brightness of the beam increases monotonically with the optical depth tau(R) of the sunlit part of the rainswath, but the increase is quite small for tau(R) >/=1. On the other hand, the brightness of the background increases more rapidly with tau(R) for tau(R)> 1 so that the rainbow appears most easily visible for tau(R) less, similar1. This implies that the most easily visible rainbows are produced by light or moderate showers rather than heavy downpours. Finally, suggestions are made for applying the theory to other atmospheric optical phenomena, such as coronas and glories.

  8. Halo Mitigation Using Nonlinear Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnad, Kiran G


    This work shows that halos in beams with space charge effects can be controlled by combining nonlinear focusing and collimation. The study relies on Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations for a one dimensional, continuous focusing model. The PIC simulation results show that nonlinear focusing leads to damping of the beam oscillations thereby reducing the mismatch. It is well established that reduced mismatch leads to reduced halo formation. However, the nonlinear damping is accompanied by emittance growth causing the beam to spread in phase space. As a result, inducing nonlinear damping alone cannot help mitigate the halo. To compensate for this expansion in phase space, the beam is collimated in the simulation and further evolution of the beam shows that the halo is not regenerated. The focusing model used in the PIC is analysed using the Lie Transform perturbation theory showing that by averaging over a lattice period, one can reuduce the focusing force to a form that is identical to that used in the PIC simula...

  9. A search for massive compact halo objects in our galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alock, C.; Axelrod, T.; Cook, K.; Park, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Griest, K.; Stubbs, C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Center for Particle Astrophysics); Freeman, K.; Peterson, B.; Quinn, P.; Rodgers, A. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories); Bennett, D.P.


    MAssive Compact Halo Objects such as brown dwarfs, Jupiters, and black holes are prime candidates to comprise the dark halo of our galaxy. Paczynski noted that these objects (dubbed MACHOs) can be detected via gravitational microlensing of stars in the Magellanic Clouds with the caveat that only about one in 10{sup 6} stars will be lensed at any given time. Our group is currently involved in constructing a dedicated observing system at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Australia. We will use a refurbished 1.27 meter telescope and an innovative two-color CCD camera with 3.4 {times} 10{sup 7} pixels to monitor 10{sup 6} {minus} 10{sup 7} stars in the Magellanic Clouds. During the first year of operation (1991--1992), we hope to detect (or rule out) objects in the mass range 0.001M{sub {circle dot}} {le} M {le} 0.1M{sub {circle dot}}, and after five years, we hope to have covered the range 10{sup {minus}6}M{sub {circle dot}} < M {approx lt} 100M{sub {circle dot}}. 4 refs.

  10. The origin of scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation of central galaxies in the EAGLE simulation (United States)

    Matthee, Jorryt; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Bower, Richard; Theuns, Tom


    We use the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation to study the magnitude and origin of the scatter in the stellar mass-halo mass relation for central galaxies. We separate cause and effect by correlating stellar masses in the baryonic simulation with halo properties in a matched dark matter only (DMO) simulation. The scatter in stellar mass increases with redshift and decreases with halo mass. At z = 0.1, it declines from 0.25 dex at M200, DMO ≈ 1011 M⊙ to 0.12 dex at M200, DMO ≈ 1013 M⊙, but the trend is weak above 1012 M⊙. For M200, DMO < 1012.5 M⊙ up to 0.04 dex of the scatter is due to scatter in the halo concentration. At fixed halo mass, a larger stellar mass corresponds to a more concentrated halo. This is likely because higher concentrations imply earlier formation times and hence more time for accretion and star formation, and/or because feedback is less efficient in haloes with higher binding energies. The maximum circular velocity, Vmax, DMO, and binding energy are therefore more fundamental properties than halo mass, meaning that they are more accurate predictors of stellar mass, and we provide fitting formulae for their relations with stellar mass. However, concentration alone cannot explain the total scatter in the M_star - M_{200, DMO} relation, and it does not explain the scatter in Mstar-Vmax, DMO. Halo spin, sphericity, triaxiality, substructure and environment are also not responsible for the remaining scatter, which thus could be due to more complex halo properties or non-linear/stochastic baryonic effects.

  11. Flows of Baryons through the Milky Way Halo (United States)

    Fox, Andrew J.


    The Milky Way provides an ideal opportunity to study baryon flows in the circumgalactic medium of a star-forming spiral galaxy. High velocity clouds (HVCs) seen in UV absorption toward background AGN probe the multi-phase ionized gas in the Galactic CGM. In this talk new observations from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on Hubble will be presented, focusing on two Galactic regions: the biconical outflow from the Galactic Center, which drives gas into the Fermi Bubbles, and the Smith Cloud, an accreting HVC close to the Galactic disk showing clear signs of fragmentation. These observations allow us to constrain the rates of gas circulation in the Galactic halo.

  12. Enhanced Liquid Metal Micro Droplet Generation by Pneumatic Actuation Based on the StarJet Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Koltay


    Full Text Available We present a novel pneumatic actuation system for generation of liquid metal droplets according to the so-called StarJet method. In contrast to our previous work, the performance of the device has been significantly improved: the maximum droplet generation frequency in continuous mode has been increased to fmax = 11 kHz (formerly fmax = 4 kHz. In addition, the droplet diameter has been reduced to 60 μm. Therefore, a new fabrication process for the silicon nozzle chips has been developed enabling the production of smaller nozzle chips with higher surface quality. The size of the metal reservoir has been increased to hold up to 22 mL liquid metal and the performance and durability of the actuator has been improved by using stainless steel and a second pneumatic connection to control the sheath flow. Experimental results are presented regarding the characterization of the droplet generation, as well as printed metal structures.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunder, Andrea; Storm, J. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Rich, R. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Hawkins, K. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Poleski, R. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Johnson, C. I. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shen, J.; Li, Z.-Y. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Cordero, M. J. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut: Zentrum für Astronomie, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nataf, D. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bono, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Walker, A. R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Koch, A. [Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); De Propris, R. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Soszynski, I.; Pietrzynski, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); and others


    We report on the RR Lyrae variable star, MACHO 176.18833.411, located toward the Galactic bulge and observed within the data from the ongoing Bulge RR Lyrae Radial Velocity Assay, which has the unusual radial velocity of −372 ± 8 km s{sup −1} and true space velocity of −482 ± 22 km s{sup −1} relative to the Galactic rest frame. Located less than 1 kpc from the Galactic center and toward a field at (l, b) = (3, −2.5), this pulsating star has properties suggesting it belongs to the bulge RR Lyrae star population, yet a velocity indicating it is abnormal, at least with respect to bulge giants and red clump stars. We show that this star is most likely a halo interloper and therefore suggest that halo contamination is not insignificant when studying metal-poor stars found within the bulge area, even for stars within 1 kpc of the Galactic center. We discuss the possibility that MACHO 176.18833.411 is on the extreme edge of the bulge RR Lyrae radial velocity distribution, and also consider a more exotic scenario in which it is a runaway star moving through the Galaxy.

  14. Detecting Hot Gaseous Halos of Galaxies with Arcus (United States)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Yunyang; Miller, Matthew; Qu, Zhijie


    A long-lived component of galaxies is the hot extended atmosphere with a temperature near the virial temperature. It can contain a significant fraction of the missing baryons and can act as a reservoir of matter for future generations of stars. This extended hot halo is detected around the Milky Way in absorption and emission lines of highly ionized species (e.g., O VII, O VIII), but weighted to be within about 50 kpc. From current data there are not many high fidelity absorption line detections and the lines are badly under-resolved. These shortcomings will be rectified with Arcus, which will provide high-quality line measurements in several ions for about 50 sight lines. Lines will often be resolved, revealing the dynamics of the hot halo, such as rotation and the turbulence resulting from feedback. We show how metallicities will be determined from a comparison of these absorption lines with existing emission line data. Arcus will detect O VII absorption from similar halos around external galaxies, for the first time, and out to ~R200, if not beyond. Using random lines of sight, Arcus will complete the metal census of the Universe.

  15. Characterizing bursty star formation (United States)

    Emami, Najmeh


    An ongoing area of research in galaxy evolution is the efficiency of star formation as a function of galaxy halo mass. At low mass, it is believed that supernova feedback can expel gas from the galaxy and shut down star formation. However, there are still significant uncertainties in how the momentum/energy of the supernova couple with the gas and the efficiency with which it drives winds. Particularly uncertain are the parameters of the resulting bursts of star formation —amplitudes, durations, and periods — with important implications for interpreting observations of dwarf galaxies. Some hydrodynamical simulations predict order of magnitude bursts (and quenching) on very short (indicators of dwarf galaxies (H-alpha and ultraviolet luminosities) that trace star formation on different time scales (~5 Myr and ~20 Myr, respectively), as well as their relation to the average galaxies of similar stellar mass, to better constrain the parameters of the star formation bursts. We find that the burst amplitude increases with decreasing stellar mass, with amplitudes ranging two orders of magnitude at stellar masses of 10^7. We also find that the star formation is quenched very rapidly, with e-folding times less than 10 Myr in galaxies with stellar masses less than 10^(7.5). We conclude by comparing our results to recent hydrodynamical simulations and discussing the effects of stochastic sampling of the stellar initial mass function.

  16. Globular Cluster Formation at High Density: A Model for Elemental Enrichment with Fast Recycling of Massive-star Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)


    The self-enrichment of massive star clusters by p -processed elements is shown to increase significantly with increasing gas density as a result of enhanced star formation rates and stellar scatterings compared to the lifetime of a massive star. Considering the type of cloud core where a globular cluster (GC) might have formed, we follow the evolution and enrichment of the gas and the time dependence of stellar mass. A key assumption is that interactions between massive stars are important at high density, including interactions between massive stars and massive-star binaries that can shred stellar envelopes. Massive-star interactions should also scatter low-mass stars out of the cluster. Reasonable agreement with the observations is obtained for a cloud-core mass of ∼4 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙} and a density of ∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}. The results depend primarily on a few dimensionless parameters, including, most importantly, the ratio of the gas consumption time to the lifetime of a massive star, which has to be low, ∼10%, and the efficiency of scattering low-mass stars per unit dynamical time, which has to be relatively large, such as a few percent. Also for these conditions, the velocity dispersions of embedded GCs should be comparable to the high gas dispersions of galaxies at that time, so that stellar ejection by multistar interactions could cause low-mass stars to leave a dwarf galaxy host altogether. This could solve the problem of missing first-generation stars in the halos of Fornax and WLM.

  17. Unbound particles in dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Loeb, Abraham; Wechsler, Risa H.


    We investigate unbound dark matter particles in halos by tracing particle trajectories in a simulation run to the far future (a = 100). We find that the traditional sum of kinetic and potential energies is a very poor predictor of which dark matter particles will eventually become unbound from halos. We also study the mass fraction of unbound particles, which increases strongly towards the edges of halos, and decreases significantly at higher redshifts. We discuss implications for dark matter detection experiments, precision calibrations of the halo mass function, the use of baryon fractions to constrain dark energy, and searches for intergalactic supernovae.

  18. Halo scale predictions of symmetron modified gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Khoury, Justin, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center for Particle Cosmology and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)


    We offer predictions of symmetron modified gravity in the neighborhood of realistic dark matter halos. The predictions for the fifth force are obtained by solving the nonlinear symmetron equation of motion in the spherical NFW approximation. In addition, we compare the three major known screening mechanisms: Vainshtein, Chameleon, and Symmetron around such dark matter halos, emphasizing the significant differences between them and highlighting observational tests which exploit these differences. Finally, we demonstrate the host halo environmental screening effect (''blanket screening'') on smaller satellite halos by solving for the modified forces around a density profile which is the sum of satellite and approximate host components.

  19. Labelling HaloTag Fusion Proteins with HaloTag Ligand in Living Cells. (United States)

    Duc, Huy Nguyen; Ren, Xiaojun


    HaloTag has been widely used to label proteins in vitro and in vivo (Los et al., 2008). In this protocol, we describe labelling HaloTag-Cbx fusion proteins by HaloTag ligands for live-cell single-molecule imaging (Zhen et al., 2016).

  20. Labelling HaloTag Fusion Proteins with HaloTag Ligand in Living Cells


    Duc, Huy Nguyen; Ren, Xiaojun


    HaloTag has been widely used to label proteins in vitro and in vivo (Los et al., 2008). In this protocol, we describe labelling HaloTag-Cbx fusion proteins by HaloTag ligands for live-cell single-molecule imaging (Zhen et al., 2016).

  1. IMF of popIII stars. (United States)

    Prieto, J. P.; Leopoldo, I.

    We performed a perturbation analisys of overdensity of a matter within high redshift halos in order to know the distribution in size of objects that can collapse in a first time. In order to see which objects can form stars we performed an analysis of the molecular cooling inside the first formed structures. This analysis give us a possible IMF for the first stars in the Univese.

  2. "New turns from old STaRs": enhancing the capabilities of forensic short tandem repeat analysis. (United States)

    Phillips, Christopher; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Fernandez-Formoso, Luis; García-Magariños, Manuel; Santos, Carla; Fondevila, Manuel; Ballard, David; Syndercombe Court, Denise; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, Maria Victoria


    The field of research and development of forensic STR genotyping remains active, innovative, and focused on continuous improvements. A series of recent developments including the introduction of a sixth dye have brought expanded STR multiplex sizes while maintaining sensitivity to typical forensic DNA. New supplementary kits complimenting the core STRs have also helped improve analysis of challenging identification cases such as distant pairwise relationships in deficient pedigrees. This article gives an overview of several recent key developments in forensic STR analysis: availability of expanded core STR kits and supplementary STRs, short-amplicon mini-STRs offering practical options for highly degraded DNA, Y-STR enhancements made from the identification of rapidly mutating loci, and enhanced analysis of genetic ancestry by analyzing 32-STR profiles with a Bayesian forensic classifier originally developed for SNP population data. As well as providing scope for genotyping larger numbers of STRs optimized for forensic applications, the launch of compact next-generation sequencing systems provides considerable potential for genotyping the sizeable proportion of nucleotide variation existing in forensic STRs, which currently escapes detection with CE. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. On the shoulders of giants: properties of the stellar halo and the Milky Way mass distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafle, Prajwal Raj; Sharma, Sanjib; Lewis, Geraint F.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss, E-mail: [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)


    Halo stars orbit within the potential of the Milky Way, and hence their kinematics can be used to understand the underlying mass distribution. However, the inferred mass distribution depends sensitively on assumptions made on the density and the velocity anisotropy profiles of the tracer population. Also, there is a degeneracy between the parameters of the halo and those of the disk or bulge. Most previous attempts that use halo stars have made arbitrary assumptions about these. In this paper, we decompose the Galaxy into three major components—a bulge, a Miyamoto-Nagai disk, and a Navarro-Frenk-White dark matter halo - and then model the kinematic data of the halo blue horizontal branch and K-giant stars from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. Additionally, we use the gas terminal velocity curve and the Sgr A* proper motion. With the distance of the Sun from the center of the Galaxy R {sub ☉} = 8.5 kpc, our kinematic analysis reveals that the density of the stellar halo has a break at 17.2{sub −1.0}{sup +1.1} kpc and an exponential cutoff in the outer parts starting at 97.7{sub −15.8}{sup +15.6} kpc. Also, we find that the tracer velocity anisotropy is radially biased with β {sub s} = 0.4 ± 0.2 in the outer halo. We measure halo virial mass M {sub vir} to be 0.80{sub −0.16}{sup +0.31}×10{sup 12} M{sub ⊙}, concentration c to be 21.1{sub −8.3}{sup +14.8}, disk mass to be 0.95{sub −0.30}{sup +0.24}×10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙}, disk scale length to be 4.9{sub −0.4}{sup +0.4} kpc, and bulge mass to be 0.91{sub −0.38}{sup +0.31}×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. The halo mass is found to be small, and this has important consequences. The giant stars reveal that the outermost halo stars have low velocity dispersion, but interestingly this suggests a truncation of the stellar halo density rather than a small overall mass of the Galaxy. Our estimates of local escape velocity v{sub esc}=550.9{sub −22.1}{sup +32.4} km s{sup −1} and

  4. On the puzzling plateau in the specific star formation rate at z= 2-7 (United States)

    Weinmann, Simone M.; Neistein, Eyal; Dekel, Avishai


    The observational indications for a constant specific star formation rate (sSFR) in the redshift range z= 2-7 are puzzling in the context of current galaxy-formation models. Despite the tentative nature of the data, their marked conflict with theory motivates a study of the possible implications. The plateau at sSFR ˜ 2 Gyr-1 is hard to reproduce because (a) its level is low compared to the cosmological specific accretion rate at z≥ 6, (b) it is higher than the latter at z˜ 2, (c) the natural correlation between SFR and stellar mass makes it difficult to manipulate their ratio, and (d) a low SFR at a high z makes it hard to produce enough massive galaxies by z˜ 2. Using a flexible semi-analytic model, we explore ad hoc modifications to the standard physical recipes trying to obey the puzzling observational constraints. Successful models involve non-trivial modifications, such as (a) a suppressed SFR at z≥ 4 in galaxies of all masses, by enhanced feedback or reduced SFR efficiency, following an initial active phase at z > 7; (b) a delayed gas consumption into stars, allowing the gas that was prohibited from forming stars or ejected at high z to form stars later in more massive galaxies; and (c) enhanced growth of massive galaxies, in terms of either faster assembly or more efficient starbursts in mergers, or by efficient star formation in massive haloes.

  5. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 2 V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HALOE home page on the WWW is The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite...

  6. Structure Formation inside Triaxial Dark Matter Halos: Galactic Disks, Bulges, and Bars (United States)

    Heller, Clayton H.; Shlosman, Isaac; Athanassoula, E.


    We investigate formation and evolution of galactic disks immersed in assembling live DM halos. Models have been evolved from cosmological initial conditions and represent the collapse of an isolated density perturbation. The baryons include gas participating in star formation (SF) and stars with the energy feedback onto the ISM. We find that (1) the triaxial halo figure tumbling is insignificant and the angular momentum (J) is channeled into the internal circulation, while the baryonic collapse is stopped by the centrifugal barrier; (2) density response of the (disk) baryons is out of phase with DM, thus washing out the inner halo ellipticity; (3) the total J is neatly conserved, even in models accounting for stellar feedback; (4) the specific J for DM is nearly constant, while that for baryons is decreasing; (5) early stage of disk formation resembles the cat's cradle-a small amorphous disk fueled via radial string patterns-followed by growing oval disk whose shape varies with its orientation to the halo major axis; (6) the disk gas layer thins when the SF rate drops below ~5 Msolar yr-1 (7) about half of the baryons remain outside the disk SF region or in the halo as a hot gas; (8) rotation curves appear to be flat and account for the observed disk/halo contributions; (9) a range of bulge-dominated to bulgeless disks was obtained, depending on the stellar feedback parameter, ɛSF: smaller ɛSF leads to a larger and earlier bulge; lower density threshold for SF leads to a smaller, thicker disk; gas gravitational softening mimics a number of intrinsic processes within the ISM; (10) models are characterized by an extensive bar-forming activity; (11) nested bars form in response to the gas inflow along the primary bars, as shown by Heller, Shlosman, and Athanassoula.

  7. RR Lyrae stars as tracers of halo substructures (United States)

    Duffau, Sonia; Vivas, A. Katherina; Navarrete, Camila; Carballo-Bello, Julio; Hajdu, Gergel; Catelan, Márcio


    Three RR Lyrae overdensity candidates in the southern sky have been studied using low resolution spectra obtained with the Goodman spectrograph at SOAR. We search for unidentified velocity peaks indicative of the possible presence of streams within the overdensities. Our results suggest that all three overdensities present an excess of radial velocity signal at high mean radial velocities which cannot be explained as a contribution from any known Galactic component.

  8. Star-pseudopolyrotaxane organized in nanoplatelets for poly(ε-caprolactone)-based nanofibrous scaffolds with enhanced surface reactivity. (United States)

    Oster, Murielle; Hébraud, Anne; Gallet, Sébastien; Lapp, Alain; Pollet, Eric; Avérous, Luc; Schlatter, Guy


    Herein, it is demonstrated that star pseudopolyrotaxanes (star-pPRs) obtained from the inclusion complexation of α-cyclodextrin (CD) and four-branched star poly(ε-caprolactone) (star-PCL) organize into nanoplatelets in dimethyl sulfoxide at 35 °C. This peculiar property, not observed for linear pseudopolyrotaxanes, allows the processing of star-pPRs while preserving their supramolecular assembly. Thus, original PCL:star-pPR core:shell nanofibers are elaborated by coaxial electrospinning. The star-pPR shell ensures the presence of available CD hydroxyl functions on the fiber surface allowing its postfunctionalization. As proof of concept, fluorescein isothiocyanate is grafted. Moreover, the morphology of the fibers is maintained due to the star-pPR shell that acts as a shield, preventing the fiber dissolution during chemical modification. The proposed strategy is simple and avoids the synthesis of polyrotaxanes, i.e., pPR end-capping to prevent the CD dethreading. As PCL is widely used for biomedical applications, this strategy paves the way for simple functionalization with any bioactive molecules. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Insights into the chemical composition of the metal-poor Milky Way halo globular cluster NGC 6426 (United States)

    Hanke, M.; Koch, A.; Hansen, C. J.; McWilliam, A.


    We present our detailed spectroscopic analysis of the chemical composition of four red giant stars in the halo globular cluster NGC 6426. We obtained high-resolution spectra using the Magellan2/MIKE spectrograph, from which we derived equivalent widths and subsequently computed abundances of 24 species of 22 chemical elements. For the purpose of measuring equivalent widths, we developed a new semi-automated tool, called EWCODE. We report a mean Fe content of [Fe/H] =-2.34 ± 0.05 dex (stat.) in accordance with previous studies. At a mean α-abundance of [(Mg, Si, Ca)/3 Fe] = 0.39 ± 0.03 dex, NGC 6426 falls on the trend drawn by the Milky Way halo and other globular clusters at comparably low metallicities. The distribution of the lighter α-elements as well as the enhanced ratio [Zn/Fe] = 0.39 dex could originate from hypernova enrichment of the pre-cluster medium. We find tentative evidence for a spread in the elements Mg, Si, and Zn, indicating an enrichment scenario, where ejecta of evolved massive stars of a slightly older population have polluted a newly born younger one. The heavy element abundances in this cluster fit well into the picture of metal-poor globular clusters, which in that respect appear to be remarkably homogeneous. The pattern of the neutron-capture elements heavier than Zn points toward an enrichment history governed by the r-process with little, if any, sign of s-process contributions. This finding is supported by the striking similarity of our program stars to the metal-poor field star HD 108317. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Equivalent widths and full Table 2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  10. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta


    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  11. Halo abundances and shear in void models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan; Haugbølle, Troels


    We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all...

  12. Analytical halo model of galactic conformity (United States)

    Pahwa, Isha; Paranjape, Aseem


    We present a fully analytical halo model of colour-dependent clustering that incorporates the effects of galactic conformity in a halo occupation distribution framework. The model, based on our previous numerical work, describes conformity through a correlation between the colour of a galaxy and the concentration of its parent halo, leading to a correlation between central and satellite galaxy colours at fixed halo mass. The strength of the correlation is set by a tunable 'group quenching efficiency', and the model can separately describe group-level correlations between galaxy colour (1-halo conformity) and large-scale correlations induced by assembly bias (2-halo conformity). We validate our analytical results using clustering measurements in mock galaxy catalogues, finding that the model is accurate at the 10-20 per cent level for a wide range of luminosities and length-scales. We apply the formalism to interpret the colour-dependent clustering of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find good overall agreement between the data and a model that has 1-halo conformity at a level consistent with previous results based on an SDSS group catalogue, although the clustering data require satellites to be redder than suggested by the group catalogue. Within our modelling uncertainties, however, we do not find strong evidence of 2-halo conformity driven by assembly bias in SDSS clustering.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We propose a form for dark haloes that embodies the fundamental aspect of Milgrom's modified dynamics (MOND): the discrepancy between the visible mass and the Newtonian dynamical mass appears below a critical acceleration. This is a halo having a density distribution, at least to several tens of

  14. Galactic stellar haloes in the CDM model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, A. P.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; White, S. D. M.; Helly, J.; Benson, A. J.; De Lucia, G.; Helmi, A.; Jenkins, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Springel, V.; Wang, J.


    We present six simulations of galactic stellar haloes formed by the tidal disruption of accreted dwarf galaxies in a fully cosmological setting. Our model is based on the Aquarius project, a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations of individual dark matter haloes. We tag subsets of particles in


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Karoline M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; Ostheimer, James C.; Patterson, Richard J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Bullock, James; Tollerud, Erik J. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Geha, Marla C. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kirby, Evan N. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanaka, Mikito; Chiba, Masashi, E-mail: [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)


    We present the surface brightness profile of M31's stellar halo out to a projected radius of 175 kpc. The surface brightness estimates are based on confirmed samples of M31 red giant branch stars derived from Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopic observations. A set of empirical spectroscopic and photometric M31 membership diagnostics is used to identify and reject foreground and background contaminants. This enables us to trace the stellar halo of M31 to larger projected distances and fainter surface brightnesses than previous photometric studies. The surface brightness profile of M31's halo follows a power law with index -2.2 {+-} 0.2 and extends to a projected distance of at least {approx}175 kpc ({approx}2/3 of M31's virial radius), with no evidence of a downward break at large radii. The best-fit elliptical isophotes have b/a = 0.94 with the major axis of the halo aligned along the minor axis of M31's disk, consistent with a prolate halo, although the data are also consistent with M31's halo having spherical symmetry. The fact that tidal debris features are kinematically cold is used to identify substructure in the spectroscopic fields out to projected radii of 90 kpc and investigate the effect of this substructure on the surface brightness profile. The scatter in the surface brightness profile is reduced when kinematically identified tidal debris features in M31 are statistically subtracted; the remaining profile indicates that a comparatively diffuse stellar component to M31's stellar halo exists to large distances. Beyond 90 kpc, kinematically cold tidal debris features cannot be identified due to small number statistics; nevertheless, the significant field-to-field variation in surface brightness beyond 90 kpc suggests that the outermost region of M31's halo is also comprised to a significant degree of stars stripped from accreted objects.

  16. WFIRST: Surveying galactic halos within 10Mpc (United States)

    Courtney, Sol; Johnston, Kathryn; Sanderson, Robyn; WINGS Team


    Three aims of a WFIRST Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (WINGS) of stellar halos are: (i) to look at the global properties of the halos (e.g. radial profile and total content); (ii) to find and interpret structures that are signatures of accretion histories (including luminosity functions, merger rates and orbits); (iii) to find features at widest possible separations in order to constrain the distribution of dark matter. For all of the above purposes, the halos should be observed to the greatest radial extent possible. The extent to which this is possible or interesting will depend on expected densities of the stellar halos as well as contamination by background galaxies at faint magnitudes. This study “observes" the Bullock/Johnston stellar halo models as a guide for these expectations.

  17. Bright Metal-Poor Stars from the Hamburg/ESO Survey. II. A Chemodynamical Analysis (United States)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Carollo, Daniela; Rossi, Silvia; Lee, Young Sun; Frebel, Anna; Norris, John E.; Dietz, Sarah; Masseron, Thomas


    We obtain estimates of stellar atmospheric parameters for a previously published sample of 1777 relatively bright (9Hamburg/ESO Survey. The original Frebel et al. analysis of these stars was able to derive estimates of [Fe/H] and [C/Fe] only for a subset of the sample, due to limitations in the methodology then available. A new spectroscopic analysis pipeline has been used to obtain estimates of {T}{eff}, {log} g, [Fe/H], and [C/Fe] for almost the entire data set. This sample is very local—about 90% of the stars are located within 0.5 kpc of the Sun. We consider the chemodynamical properties of these stars in concert with a similarly local sample of stars from a recent analysis of the Bidelman and MacConnell “weak metal” candidates by Beers et al. We use this combined sample to identify possible members of the halo stream of stars suggested by Helmi et al. and Chiba & Beers, as well as stars that may be associated with stripped debris from the putative parent dwarf of the globular cluster Omega Centauri, suggested to exist by previous authors. We identify a clear increase in the cumulative frequency of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with declining metallicity, as well as an increase in the fraction of CEMP stars with distance from the Galactic plane, consistent with previous results. We also identify a relatively large number of CEMP stars with kinematics consistent with the metal-weak thick-disk population, with possible implications for its origin.

  18. The Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey: A Census of the Stellar Halos of Nearby Luminous Galaxies (United States)

    Merritt, Allison T.


    The Dragonfly Telephoto Array, comprised of 48 individual Canon telephoto lenses operating together as a single telescope, is an innovative approach to low surface brightness imaging and the study of galactic stellar halos in particular. Sub-nanometer coatings on each optical element reduce scattered light from nearby bright stars and compact galaxy centers - typically a key obstacle for integrated light observations - by an order of magnitude, and Dragonfly's large field of view (2x2.6 degrees for a single frame) provides a large-scale view of stellar halos free from substructure biases. Using extremely deep (>30 mag/arcsec^2) optical imaging in g and r bands from the Dragonfly Nearby Galaxies Survey (DNGS), we have characterized the stellar halos of a sample of ~20 nearby luminous galaxies. I will present measurements of the stellar halo mass fractions of these galaxies as a function of stellar mass, morphology, and environment, and discuss the scatter in halo fractions in the context of the galaxies' individual accretion histories.

  19. The halo mass function from the dark ages through the present day (United States)

    Reed, Darren S.; Bower, Richard; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Theuns, Tom


    We use an array of high-resolution N-body simulations to determine the mass function of dark matter haloes at redshifts 10-30. We develop a new method for compensating for the effects of finite simulation volume that allows us to find an approximation to the true `global' mass function. By simulating a wide range of volumes at different mass resolution, we calculate the abundance of haloes of mass 105-12h-1Msolar. This enables us to predict accurately the abundance of the haloes that host the sources that reionize the Universe. In particular, we focus on the small mass haloes (>~105.5-6h-1Msolar) likely to harbour Population III stars where gas cools by molecular hydrogen emission, early galaxies in which baryons cool by atomic hydrogen emission at a virial temperature of ~104K (~107.5-8 h-1Msolar), and massive galaxies that may be observable at redshift ~10. When we combine our data with simulations that include high-mass haloes at low redshift, we find that the best fit to the halo mass function depends not only on the linear overdensity, as is commonly assumed in analytic models, but also on the slope of the linear power spectrum at the scale of the halo mass. The Press-Schechter model gives a poor fit to the halo mass function in the simulations at all epochs; the Sheth-Tormen model gives a better match, but still overpredicts the abundance of rare objects at all times by up to 50 per cent. Finally, we consider the consequences of the recently released WMAP 3-yr cosmological parameters. These lead to much less structure at high redshift, reducing the number of z = 10 `mini-haloes' by more than a factor of two and the number of z = 30 galaxy hosts by nearly four orders of magnitude. Code to generate our best-fitting halo mass function may be downloaded from

  20. Self-Conistent Dynamical Modeling of the Milky Way Halo with Stellar Orbits (United States)

    Valluri, Monica

    Despite significant advances in understanding our Galaxy in the context of LCDM, important questions remain unanswered. LCDM predicts that dark matter halos are triaxial overall, but oblate in regions where baryons dominate. However recent measurements of the shape of the Milky Way (MW) dark matter (DM) halo find it to be very triaxial with a shape and orientation that are significantly at odds with theoretical predictions. The European Space Agency s Gaia satellite will soon map the entire MW giving us six phase-space coordinates, ages and abundances for hundreds of thousands of stars. The PI and a postdoc will build a novel code (based on the Schwarzschild orbit superposition method and orbital frequency mapping), to determine the global shape of the Milky Way's dark matter halo using field stars from Gaia. Our technique will simultaneously yield the self-consistent phase-space distribution function of the stellar halo in the inner 20-30 kpc region. Detailed analysis of correlations between the chemical abundances, ages and orbits of halo stars in this distribution function will enable us to extract clues to the formation history of the MW that are encoded in orbital properties of halo stars. Our technique is unique since we will use independent sets of observational constraints, at small and large radii, to measure the radial variation in halo shape, in conjunction with a strategy tailored to modeling discrete stellar datasets. We will perform end-to-end tests of our new code with mock catalogs generated from state-of-the art cosmological simulations of MW like disk galaxies. Our team has the ideal combination of expertise in dynamical modeling, observations, simulations, and Gaia data analysis and processing necessary to achieve our goals. PI Valluri has significant prior experience with Schwarzschild modeling and the analysis of phase-space distribution functions of simulated halos, Co-I Loebman recently published the first measurement of the shape of the DM

  1. Stellar envelopes of globular clusters embedded in dark mini-haloes (United States)

    Peñarrubia, Jorge; Varri, Anna Lisa; Breen, Philip G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén


    We show that hard encounters in the central regions of globular clusters (GCs) embedded in dark matter (DM) haloes necessarily lead to the formation of gravitationally bound stellar envelopes that extend far beyond the nominal tidal radius of the system. Using statistical arguments and numerical techniques, we derive the equilibrium distribution function of stars ejected from the centre of a non-divergent spherical potential. Independently of the velocity distribution with which stars are ejected, GC envelopes have density profiles that approach asymptotically ρ ∼ r-4 at large distances and become isothermal towards the centre. Adding a DM halo component leaves two clear-cut observational signatures: (i) a flattening, or slightly increase of the projected velocity dispersion profile at large distances, and (ii) an outer surface density profile that is systematically shallower than in models with no DM.

  2. The influence of the enhanced vector meson sector on the properties of the matter of neutron stars. (United States)

    Bednarek, Ilona; Manka, Ryszard; Pienkos, Monika


    This paper gives an overview of the model of a neutron star with non-zero strangeness constructed within the framework of the nonlinear realization of the chiral SU(3)L x SU(3)R symmetry. The emphasis is put on the physical properties of the matter of a neutron star as well as on its internal structure. The obtained solution is particularly aimed at the problem of the construction of a theoretical model of a neutron star matter with hyperons that will give high value of the maximum mass.

  3. Red giant stars from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. I. The general field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. Q.; Zhao, G.; Carrell, K.; Zhao, J. K.; Tan, K. F.; Nissen, P. E.; Wei, P., E-mail:, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)


    We have obtained a sample of ∼22,000 red giant branch (RGB) stars based on stellar parameters, provided by the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and the CH(G)/MgH indices, measured from the included spectra. The Galactic rest-frame velocity of V {sub gsr} versus longitude for the sample shows the existence of several groups of stars from globular clusters and known streams. Excluding these substructures, a sample of ∼16,000 RGB stars from the general field is used to investigate the properties of the thick disk, the inner halo, and the outer halo of our Galaxy. The metallicity and rotational velocity distributions are investigated for stars at 0 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. It is found that the canonical thick disk dominates at 0 kpc < |Z| < 2 kpc and its contribution becomes negligible at |Z| > 3 kpc. The MWTD is present and overlaps with the inner halo at 1 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc. The inner halo starts at 2 kpc < |Z| < 3 kpc and becomes the dominated population for 4 kpc < |Z| < 10 kpc. For halo stars with |Z| > 5 kpc, bimodal metallicity distributions are found for 20 kpc < |Z| < 25 kpc and 35 kpc < RR < 45 kpc, which suggests a dual halo, the inner and the outer halo, as reported in Carollo et al. at low |Z| values. The peak of metallicity for the inner halo is at [Fe/H] ∼ –1.6 and appears to be at [Fe/H] ∼ –2.3 for the outer halo. The transition point from the inner to the outer halo is located at |Z| ∼ 20 kpc and RR ∼ 35 kpc.

  4. Halo assembly bias and the tidal anisotropy of the local halo environment (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Hahn, Oliver; Sheth, Ravi K.


    We study the role of the local tidal environment in determining the assembly bias of dark matter haloes. Previous results suggest that the anisotropy of a halo's environment (i.e, whether it lies in a filament or in a more isotropic region) can play a significant role in determining the eventual mass and age of the halo. We statistically isolate this effect using correlations between the large-scale and small-scale environments of simulated haloes at z = 0 with masses between 1011.6 ≲ (m/h-1M⊙) ≲ 1014.9. We probe the large-scale environment using a novel halo-by-halo estimator of linear bias. For the small-scale environment, we identify a variable αR that captures the tidal anisotropy in a region of radius R = 4R200b around the halo and correlates strongly with halo bias at fixed mass. Segregating haloes by αR reveals two distinct populations. Haloes in highly isotropic local environments (αR ≲ 0.2) behave as expected from the simplest, spherically averaged analytical models of structure formation, showing a negative correlation between their concentration and large-scale bias at all masses. In contrast, haloes in anisotropic, filament-like environments (αR ≳ 0.5) tend to show a positive correlation between bias and concentration at any mass. Our multi-scale analysis cleanly demonstrates how the overall assembly bias trend across halo mass emerges as an average over these different halo populations, and provides valuable insights towards building analytical models that correctly incorporate assembly bias. We also discuss potential implications for the nature and detectability of galaxy assembly bias.

  5. RR Lyrae Stars in M4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehn Charles A


    Full Text Available Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomna, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providiing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. In this poster we present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in both observed RRc stars. In 3 RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6d, 22.4d, and 44.5d.

  6. Dark matter haloes: a multistream view (United States)

    Ramachandra, Nesar S.; Shandarin, Sergei F.


    Mysterious dark matter constitutes about 85 per cent of all masses in the Universe. Clustering of dark matter plays a dominant role in the formation of all observed structures on scales from a fraction to a few hundreds of Mega-parsecs. Galaxies play a role of lights illuminating these structures so they can be observed. The observations in the last several decades have unveiled opulent geometry of these structures currently known as the cosmic web. Haloes are the highest concentrations of dark matter and host luminous galaxies. Currently the most accurate modelling of dark matter haloes is achieved in cosmological N-body simulations. Identifying the haloes from the distribution of particles in N-body simulations is one of the problems attracting both considerable interest and efforts. We propose a novel framework for detecting potential dark matter haloes using the field unique for dark matter-multistream field. The multistream field emerges at the non-linear stage of the growth of perturbations because the dark matter is collisionless. Counting the number of velocity streams in gravitational collapses supplements our knowledge of spatial clustering. We assume that the virialized haloes have convex boundaries. Closed and convex regions of the multistream field are hence isolated by imposing a positivity condition on all three eigenvalues of the Hessian estimated on the smoothed multistream field. In a single-scale analysis of high multistream field resolution and low softening length, the halo substructures with local multistream maxima are isolated as individual halo sites.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopy of OB stars in M31 (United States)

    Hutchings, J. B.; Bianchi, L.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Massey, P.; Morris, S. C.


    We have obtained UV spectra of two luminous hot stars in M31 with the Hubble Space Telescope. The stars are of late O and WN spectral type and lie on opposite sides of M31. We derive UV extinction curves for M31 which differ from both the Galaxy and the LMC. We find differences between the IS absorbers in both lines of sight in M31 and in the Galactic halo. The stellar wind-driven mass loss of the stars is found to be 10 times lower than in similar Galactic stars. One star appears to be an eclipsing W-R binary.

  8. A Comprehensive Analysis of Uncertainties Affecting the Stellar Mass-Halo Mass Relation for 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Conroy, Charlie; Wechsler, Risa H.


    We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between central galaxies and their host dark matter halos, as characterized by the stellar mass - halo mass (SM-HM) relation, with rigorous consideration of uncertainties. Our analysis focuses on results from the abundance matching technique, which assumes that every dark matter halo or subhalo above a specific mass threshold hosts one galaxy. We provide a robust estimate of the SM-HM relation for 0 < z < 1 and discuss the quantitative effects of uncertainties in observed galaxy stellar mass functions (GSMFs) (including stellar mass estimates and counting uncertainties), halo mass functions (including cosmology and uncertainties from substructure), and the abundance matching technique used to link galaxies to halos (including scatter in this connection). Our analysis results in a robust estimate of the SM-HM relation and its evolution from z=0 to z=4. The shape and evolution are well constrained for z < 1. The largest uncertainties at these redshifts are due to stellar mass estimates (0.25 dex uncertainty in normalization); however, failure to account for scatter in stellar masses at fixed halo mass can lead to errors of similar magnitude in the SM-HM relation for central galaxies in massive halos. We also investigate the SM-HM relation to z = 4, although the shape of the relation at higher redshifts remains fairly unconstrained when uncertainties are taken into account. We find that the integrated star formation at a given halo mass peaks at 10-20% of available baryons for all redshifts from 0 to 4. This peak occurs at a halo mass of 7 x 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}} at z = 0 and this mass increases by a factor of 5 to z = 4. At lower and higher masses, star formation is substantially less efficient, with stellar mass scaling as M{sub *} {approx} M{sub h}{sup 2.3} at low masses and M{sub *} {approx} M{sub h}{sup 0.29} at high masses. The typical stellar mass for halos with mass less than 10{sup 12} M

  9. Dark matter haloes in modified gravity and dark energy: interaction rate, small- and large-scale alignment (United States)

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Winther, Hans A.; Mota, David F.; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan


    We study the properties of dark matter haloes in a wide range of modified gravity models, namely, f(R), DGP and interacting dark energy models. We study the effects of modified gravity and dark energy on the internal properties of haloes, such as the spin and the structural parameters. We find that f(R) gravity enhances the median value of the Bullock spin parameter, but could not detect such effects for DGP and coupled dark energy. f(R) also yields a lower median sphericity and oblateness, while coupled dark energy has the opposite effect. However, these effects are very small. We then study the interaction rate of haloes in different gravity and find that only strongly coupled dark energy models enhance the interaction rate. We then quantify the enhancement of the alignment of the spins of interacting halo pairs by modified gravity. Finally, we study the alignment of the major axes of haloes with the large-scale structures. The alignment of the spins of interacting pairs of haloes in DGP and coupled dark energy models show no discrepancy with GR, while f(R) shows a weaker alignment. Strongly coupled dark energy shows a stronger alignment of the halo shape with the large-scale structures.

  10. Can EROS/MACHO be detecting the galactic spheroid instead of the galactic halo?

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian Francesco; Roulet, Esteban


    Models of our galaxy based on dynamical observations predict a spheroid component much heavier than accounted for by direct measurements of star counts and high velocity stars. If, as first suggested by Caldwell and Ostriker, this discrepancy is due to a large population of faint low-mass stars or dark objects in the spheroid, the spheroid could be responsible for microlensing events for sources in the LMC. We show that, although the rate of events is lower than predicted by a galactic halo made of microlensing objects, it is still significant for EROS/MACHO observations. Because of the different matter distributions in the halo and spheroid components, a comparison between microlensing event rates in the LMC, future measurements of microlensing in the galactic bulge and, possibly, in M31 can provide information about the amounts of dark objects in the different galactic components. If the EROS/MACHO collaborations find a deficiency with respect to their halo expectation, when more statistics are available, t...

  11. Effective field theory description of halo nuclei (United States)

    Hammer, H.-W.; Ji, C.; Phillips, D. R.


    Nuclear halos emerge as new degrees of freedom near the neutron and proton driplines. They consist of a core and one or a few nucleons which spend most of their time in the classically-forbidden region outside the range of the interaction. Individual nucleons inside the core are thus unresolved in the halo configuration, and the low-energy effective interactions are short-range forces between the core and the valence nucleons. Similar phenomena occur in clusters of 4He atoms, cold atomic gases near a Feshbach resonance, and some exotic hadrons. In these weakly-bound quantum systems universal scaling laws for s-wave binding emerge that are independent of the details of the interaction. Effective field theory (EFT) exposes these correlations and permits the calculation of non-universal corrections to them due to short-distance effects, as well as the extension of these ideas to systems involving the Coulomb interaction and/or binding in higher angular-momentum channels. Halo nuclei exhibit all these features. Halo EFT, the EFT for halo nuclei, has been used to compute the properties of single-neutron, two-neutron, and single-proton halos of s-wave and p-wave type. This review summarizes these results for halo binding energies, radii, Coulomb dissociation, and radiative capture, as well as the connection of these properties to scattering parameters, thereby elucidating the universal correlations between all these observables. We also discuss how Halo EFT's encoding of the long-distance physics of halo nuclei can be used to check and extend ab initio calculations that include detailed modeling of their short-distance dynamics.

  12. The Outer Halo of the Milky Way as Probed by RR Lyr Variables from the Palomar Transient Facility (United States)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Sesar, Branimir; Bahnolzer, Sophianna; He, Kevin; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Prince, Thomas A.; Bellm, Eric; Laher, Russ R.


    RR Lyrae stars are ideal massless tracers that can be used to study the total mass and dark matter content of the outer halo of the Milky Way (MW). This is because they are easy to find in the light-curve databases of large stellar surveys and their distances can be determined with only knowledge of the light curve. We present here a sample of 112 RR Lyr stars beyond 50 kpc in the outer halo of the MW, excluding the Sgr streams, for which we have obtained moderate-resolution spectra with Deimos on the Keck II Telescope. Four of these have distances exceeding 100 kpc. These were selected from a much larger set of 447 candidate RR Lyr stars that were data-mined using machine-learning techniques applied to the light curves of variable stars in the Palomar Transient Facility database. The observed radial velocities taken at the phase of the variable corresponding to the time of observation were converted to systemic radial velocities in the Galactic standard of rest. From our sample of 112 RR Lyr stars we determine the radial velocity dispersion in the outer halo of the MW to be ∼90 km s‑1 at 50 kpc, falling to about 65 km s‑1 near 100 kpc once a small number of major outliers are removed. With reasonable estimates of the completeness of our sample of 447 candidates and assuming a spherical halo, we find that the stellar density in the outer halo declines as {r}-4. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. SDSS 1507+52: A Halo Cataclysmic Variable? (United States)

    Patterson, Joseph; Thorstensen, John R.; Knigge, Christian


    We report a photometric and spectroscopic study of the peculiar cataclysmic variable SDSS 1507+52. The star shows very deep eclipses on the 67-minute orbital period, and those eclipses are easily separable into white-dwarf and hot-spot components. This leads to tight constraints on binary parameters, with M1 = 0.83(8) M⊙, M2 = 0.057(8) M⊙, R1 = 0.0097(9) R⊙, R2 = 0.097(4) R⊙, q = 0.069(2), and i = 83.18(13)°. Such numbers suggest possible membership among the WZ Sge stars, a common type of dwarf nova. The spectroscopic behavior (strong and broad H emission, double-peaked and showing a classic rotational disturbance during eclipse) is also typical. But the star’s orbital period is shockingly below the “period minimum” of ˜77 minutes that is characteristic of hydrogen-rich CVs; producing such a strange binary will require some tinkering with the theory of cataclysmic-variable evolution. The proper motion is also remarkably high for a star of its distance, which we estimate from photometry and trigonometric parallax as 230 ± 40 pc. This suggests a transverse velocity of 164 ± 30 km s-1 —uncomfortably high if the star belongs to a Galactic-disk population. These difficulties with understanding its evolution and space velocity can be solved if the star belongs to a Galactic-halo population. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory, operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia University, Ohio State University, Ohio University, and the University of Michigan.

  14. Understanding the physics of gas stripping and star-formation quenching of the satellite dwarf galaxies in the Local Group (United States)

    Wetzel, Andrew


    The Milky Way (MW) and M31 are among the best systems to study the physics of the halo environment on galaxy evolution. Nearly all of the satellite dwarf galaxies of the MW and M31 are gas-poor and have quenched star formation. Over 1200 orbits of HST observations of these satellites now provide detailed star-formation histories and proper-motion velocities for full 6-D orbital phase-space, informing both when and where each satellite quenched. However, the lack of sufficiently realistic theoretical models of gas stripping represents a severe limitation to leveraging the astrophysical returns of these HST observations.We propose to use the new Latte cosmological zoom-in hydrodynamic simulations of MW- and M31-mass systems to understand the environmental processes that strip gas from satellite dwarf galaxies and quench their star formation. Our initial Latte simulations form realistic satellite populations, with star-formation histories that agree well HST measurements. These simulations use the state-of-the-art FIRE model for star formation and feedback: this feedback drives strong gas outflows within dwarf galaxies that can enhance the efficiency of ram-pressure stripping within the halo. We will run a new suite of simulations carefully targeted to the Local Group, and we will investigate how the combination of internal feedback and external stripping leads to rapid quenching, as observed by HST. Finally, we will publicly release our satellite galaxy/subhalo catalogs, including their full orbital and star-formation histories, to compare with existing/upcoming HST observations, providing detailed insight into the physics of environmental quenching.

  15. The Origins of Light and Heavy R-process Elements Identified by Chemical Tagging of Metal-poor Stars (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Shigeyama, Toshikazu


    Growing interests in neutron star (NS) mergers as the origin of r-process elements have sprouted since the discovery of evidence for the ejection of these elements from a short-duration γ-ray burst. The hypothesis of a NS merger origin is reinforced by a theoretical update of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers successful in yielding r-process nuclides with A > 130. On the other hand, whether the origin of light r-process elements are associated with nucleosynthesis in NS merger events remains unclear. We find a signature of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers from peculiar chemical abundances of stars belonging to the Galactic globular cluster M15. This finding combined with the recent nucleosynthesis results implies a potential diversity of nucleosynthesis in NS mergers. Based on these considerations, we are successful in the interpretation of an observed correlation between [light r-process/Eu] and [Eu/Fe] among Galactic halo stars and accordingly narrow down the role of supernova nucleosynthesis in the r-process production site. We conclude that the tight correlation by a large fraction of halo stars is attributable to the fact that core-collapse supernovae produce light r-process elements while heavy r-process elements such as Eu and Ba are produced by NS mergers. On the other hand, stars in the outlier, composed of r-enhanced stars ([Eu/Fe] gsim +1) such as CS22892-052, were exclusively enriched by matter ejected by a subclass of NS mergers that is inclined to be massive and consist of both light and heavy r-process nuclides.

  16. Interaction of cosmic rays with cold clouds in galactic haloes (United States)

    Wiener, Joshua; Oh, S. Peng; Zweibel, Ellen G.


    We investigate the effects of cosmic ray (CR) dynamics on cold, dense clouds embedded in a hot, tenuous galactic halo. If the magnetic field does not increase too much inside the cloud, the local reduction in Alfvén speed imposes a bottleneck on CRs streaming out from the star-forming galactic disc. The bottleneck flattens the upstream CR gradient in the hot gas, implying that multiphase structure could have global effects on CR-driven winds. A large CR pressure gradient can also develop on the outward-facing edge of the cloud. This pressure gradient has two independent effects. The CRs push the cloud upwards, imparting it with momentum. On smaller scales, the CRs pressurize cold gas in the fronts, reducing its density, consistent with the low densities of cold gas inferred in recent Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) observations of local L* galaxies. They also heat the material at the cloud edge, broadening the cloud-halo interface and causing an observable change in interface ionic abundances. Due to the much weaker temperature dependence of CR heating relative to thermal-conductive heating, CR mediated fronts have a higher ratio of low-to-high ions compared to conduction fronts, in better agreement with observations. We investigate these effects separately using 1D simulations and analytic techniques.

  17. Degradation of HaloTag-fused nuclear proteins using bestatin-HaloTag ligand hybrid molecules. (United States)

    Tomoshige, Shusuke; Naito, Mikihiko; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru


    We have developed a protein knockdown technology using hybrid small molecules designed as conjugates of a ligand for the target protein and a ligand for ubiquitin ligase cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1). However, this technology has several limitations. Here, we report the development of a novel protein knockdown system to address these limitations. In this system, target proteins are fused with HaloTag to provide a common binding site for a degradation inducer. We designed and synthesized small molecules consisting of alkyl chloride as the HaloTag-binding degradation inducer, which binds to HaloTag, linked to BE04 (2), which binds to cIAP1. Using this system, we successfully knocked down HaloTag-fused cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (HaloTag-CREB1) and HaloTag-fused c-jun (HaloTag-c-jun), which are ligand-unknown nuclear proteins, in living cells. HaloTag-binding degradation inducers can be synthesized easily, and are expected to be useful as biological tools for pan-degradation of HaloTag-fused proteins.

  18. Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres


    Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.

  19. Simulating rainbows and halos in color. (United States)

    Gedzelman, S D


    Geometric optics rainbows and ice-crystal halos that include some effects of a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere and a cloud of finite optical thickness are simulated in color by the use of a Monte Carlo approach.

  20. CAF: Cluster algorithm and a-star with fuzzy approach for lifetime enhancement in wireless sensor networks

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Y.


    Energy is a major factor in designing wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In particular, in the real world, battery energy is limited; thus the effective improvement of the energy becomes the key of the routing protocols. Besides, the sensor nodes are always deployed far away from the base station and the transmission energy consumption is index times increasing with the increase of distance as well. This paper proposes a new routing method for WSNs to extend the network lifetime using a combination of a clustering algorithm, a fuzzy approach, and an A-star method. The proposal is divided into two steps. Firstly, WSNs are separated into clusters using the Stable Election Protocol (SEP) method. Secondly, the combined methods of fuzzy inference and A-star algorithm are adopted, taking into account the factors such as the remaining power, the minimum hops, and the traffic numbers of nodes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has significant effectiveness in terms of balancing energy consumption as well as maximizing the network lifetime by comparing the performance of the A-star and fuzzy (AF) approach, cluster and fuzzy (CF)method, cluster and A-star (CA)method, A-star method, and SEP algorithm under the same routing criteria. 2014 Yali Yuan et al.

  1. Insight into the Formation of the Milky Way Through Cold Halo Substructure. I. The ECHOS of Milky Way Formation (United States)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Lee, Young Sun; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie; Yanny, Brian


    We identify 10—seven for the first time—elements of cold halo substructure (ECHOS) in the volume within 17.5 kpc of the Sun in the inner halo of the Milky Way. Our result is based on the observed spatial and radial velocity distribution of metal-poor main-sequence turnoff (MPMSTO) stars in 137 Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration lines of sight. We point out that the observed radial velocity distribution is consistent with a smooth stellar component of the Milky Way's inner halo overall, but disagrees significantly at the radial velocities that correspond to our detections. We show that all of our detections are statistically significant and that we expect no false positives. These ECHOS represent the observable stellar debris of ancient merger events in the stellar accretion history of the Milky Way, and we use our detections and completeness estimates to infer a formal upper limit of 0.34+0.02 -0.02 on the fraction of the MPMSTO population in the inner halo that belong to ECHOS. Our detections and completeness calculations also suggest that there is a significant population of low fractional overdensity ECHOS in the inner halo, and we predict that 1/3 of the inner halo (by volume) harbors ECHOS with MPMSTO star number densities n ≈ 15 kpc-3. In addition, we estimate that there are of order 103 ECHOS in the entire inner halo. ECHOS are likely older than known surface brightness substructure, so our detections provide us with a direct measure of the accretion history of the Milky Way in a region and time interval that has yet to be fully explored. In concert with previous studies, our result suggests that the level of merger activity has been roughly constant over the past few Gyr and that there has been no accretion of single stellar systems more massive than a few percent of a Milky Way mass in that interval.

  2. Reconstructing the Accretion History of the Galactic Halo Using Stellar Chemical Abundance Ratio Distributions (United States)

    Lee, Duane M.; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Sen, Bodhisattva; Jessop, Will


    In this study we tested the prospects of using 2D chemical abundance ratio distributions (CARDs) found in stars of the stellar halo to determine its formation history. First, we used simulated data from eleven ``MW-like'' halos to generate satellite template sets of 2D CARDs of accreted dwarf satellites which are comprised of accreted dwarfs from various mass regimes and epochs of accretion. Next, we randomly drew samples of ~ 103-4 mock observations of stellar chemical abundance ratios ([α/Fe], [Fe/H]) from those eleven halos to generate samples of the underlying densities for our CARDs to be compared to our templates in our analysis. Finally, we used the expectation-maximization algorithm to derive accretion histories in relation to the satellite template set (STS) used and the sample size. For certain STS used we typically can identify the relative mass contributions of all accreted satellites to within a factor of 2. We also find that this method is particularly sensitive to older accretion events involving low-luminous dwarfs e.g. ultra-faint dwarfs - precisely those events that are too ancient to be seen by phase-space studies of stars and too faint to be seen by high-z studies of the early Universe. Since our results only exploit two chemical dimensions and near-future surveys promise to provide ~ 6-9 dimensions, we conclude that these new high-resolution spectroscopic surveys of the stellar halo will allow us (given the development of new CARD-generating dwarf models) to recover the luminosity function of infalling dwarf galaxies - and the detailed accretion history of the halo - across cosmic time.

  3. Spatial Clustering of Dark Matter Haloes: Secondary Bias, Neighbour Bias, and the Influence of Massive Neighbours on Halo Properties (United States)

    Salcedo, Andrés N.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Sinha, Manodeep; McBride, Cameron K.; Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Weinberg, David H.


    We explore the phenomenon commonly known as halo assembly bias, whereby dark matter haloes of the same mass are found to be more or less clustered when a second halo property is considered, for haloes in the mass range 3.7 × 1011 h-1 M⊙ - 5.0 × 1013 h-1 M⊙. Using the Large Suite of Dark Matter Simulations (LasDamas) we consider nine commonly used halo properties and find that a clustering bias exists if haloes are binned by mass or by any other halo property. This secondary bias implies that no single halo property encompasses all the spatial clustering information of the halo population. The mean values of some halo properties depend on their halo's distance to a more massive neighbour. Halo samples selected by having high values of one of these properties therefore inherit a neighbour bias such that they are much more likely to be close to a much more massive neighbour. This neighbour bias largely accounts for the secondary bias seen in haloes binned by mass and split by concentration or age. However, haloes binned by other mass-like properties still show a secondary bias even when the neighbour bias is removed. The secondary bias of haloes selected by their spin behaves differently than that for other halo properties, suggesting that the origin of the spin bias is different than of other secondary biases.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Felipe A.; Munoz, Ricardo R. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Geha, Marla [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Cote, Patrick; Stetson, Peter [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Simon, Joshua D. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Djorgovski, S. G., E-mail:, E-mail: [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)


    We present a homogeneous study of blue straggler stars across 10 outer halo globular clusters, 3 classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies, and 9 ultra-faint galaxies based on deep and wide-field photometric data taken with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find blue straggler stars to be ubiquitous among these Milky Way satellites. Based on these data, we can test the importance of primordial binaries or multiple systems on blue straggler star formation in low-density environments. For the outer halo globular clusters, we find an anti-correlation between the specific frequency of blue stragglers and absolute magnitude, similar to that previously observed for inner halo clusters. When plotted against density and encounter rate, the frequency of blue stragglers is well fit by a single trend with a smooth transition between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters; this result points to a common origin for these satellites' blue stragglers. The fraction of blue stragglers stays constant and high in the low encounter rate regime spanned by our dwarf galaxies, and decreases with density and encounter rate in the range spanned by our globular clusters. We find that young stars can mimic blue stragglers in dwarf galaxies only if their ages are 2.5 {+-} 0.5 Gyr and they represent {approx}1%-7% of the total number of stars, which we deem highly unlikely. These results point to mass-transfer or mergers of primordial binaries or multiple systems as the dominant blue straggler formation mechanism in low-density systems.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghun [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Gong-Bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100012 (China); Li, Baojiu [Institute of Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)


    We investigate the effect of modified gravity on the specific angular momentum of galactic halos by analyzing the halo catalogs at z = 0 from high-resolution N-body simulations for a f(R) gravity model that meets the solar-system constraint. It is shown that the galactic halos in the f(R) gravity model tend to acquire significantly higher specific angular momentum than those in the standard {Lambda}CDM model. The largest difference in the specific angular momentum distribution between these two models occurs for the case of isolated galactic halos with mass less than 10{sup 11} h {sup -1} M {sub Sun }, which are likely least shielded by the chameleon screening mechanism. As the specific angular momentum of galactic halos is rather insensitive to other cosmological parameters, it can in principle be an independent discriminator of modified gravity. We speculate a possibility of using the relative abundance of low surface brightness galaxies (LSBGs) as a test of general relativity given that the formation of the LSBGs occurs in fast spinning dark halos.

  6. Nanomechanics of HaloTag tethers. (United States)

    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andrés; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M


    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combined with high detachment forces that range up to ∼2000 pN. We use these covalently anchored polyproteins to study the remarkable mechanical properties of HaloTag proteins. We show that the force that triggers unfolding of the HaloTag protein exhibits a 4-fold increase, from 131 to 491 pN, when the direction of the applied force is changed from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Force-clamp experiments reveal that unfolding of the HaloTag protein is twice as sensitive to pulling force compared to protein L and refolds at a slower rate. We show how these properties allow for the long-term observation of protein folding-unfolding cycles at high forces, without interference from the HaloTag tether.

  7. Chemical evolution of star clusters. (United States)

    van Loon, Jacco Th


    I discuss the chemical evolution of star clusters, with emphasis on old Galactic globular clusters (GCs), in relation to their formation histories. GCs are clearly formed in a complex fashion, under markedly different conditions from any younger clusters presently known. Those special conditions must be linked to the early formation epoch of the Galaxy and must not have occurred since. While a link to the formation of GCs in dwarf galaxies has been suggested, present-day dwarf galaxies are not representative of the gravitational potential wells within which the GCs formed. Instead, a formation deep within the proto-Galaxy or within dark-matter mini-haloes might be favoured. Not all GCs may have formed and evolved similarly. In particular, we may need to distinguish Galactic Halo from Galactic Bulge clusters.

  8. Statistics of dark matter substructure - III. Halo-to-halo variance (United States)

    Jiang, Fangzhou; van den Bosch, Frank C.


    We present a study of unprecedented statistical power regarding the halo-to-halo variance of dark matter substructure. Combining N-body simulations and a semi-analytical model, we investigate the variance in subhalo mass fractions and occupation numbers, with an emphasis on their halo-formation-time dependence. We show that the average subhalo mass fraction, fsub, is mainly a function of halo formation time: at fixed formation redshift, the average subhalo mass fraction is virtually independent of halo mass and the mass dependence of fsub therefore mainly manifests the later assembly of more massive haloes. We note that the observational constraints on fsub from gravitational lensing are substantially higher than the median Λcold dark matter predictions, yet marginally lie within the 95th percentile when the halo-to-halo variance is considered. The halo occupation number distribution of subhaloes, P(Nsub|Mhalo), in addition to the well-known super-Poissonity for large 〈Nsub〉, is sub-Poissonian for 〈Nsub〉 ≲ 2. Ignoring this results in systematic errors of the predicted clustering of galaxies of a few percent, with a complicated scale- and luminosity dependence. The non-Poissonity is likely imprinted at accretion, and the dynamical evolution of subhaloes drives the statistics towards Poissonian. Contrary to a recent claim, the non-Poissonity of subhalo occupation statistics does not vanish by selecting haloes with fixed mass and fixed formation redshift. Finally, we use subhalo occupation statistics to put loose constraints on the mass and formation redshift of the Milky Way halo.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmerer, Jennifer; Ivans, Inese I.; Filler, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Francois, Patrick [Paris-Meudon Observatory, France and Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, F-80080 Amiens (France); Charbonnel, Corinne [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Monier, Richard [Laboratoire Hippolyte Fizeau, Universite Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, F-06000 Nice (France); James, Gaeel, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)


    We present the metallicity as traced by the abundance of iron in the retrograde globular cluster NGC 3201, measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 red giant branch stars. A spectroscopic analysis reveals a spread in [Fe/H] in the cluster stars at least as large as 0.4 dex. Star-to-star metallicity variations are supported both through photometry and through a detailed examination of spectra. We find no correlation between iron abundance and distance from the cluster core, as might be inferred from recent photometric studies. NGC 3201 is the lowest mass halo cluster to date to contain stars with significantly different [Fe/H] values.

  10. Dark-ages Reionization and Galaxy Formation Simulation - VIII. Suppressed growth of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Duffy, Alan R.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Angel, Paul W.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.


    We investigate how the hydrostatic suppression of baryonic accretion affects the growth rate of dark matter haloes during the Epoch of Reionization. By comparing halo properties in a simplistic hydrodynamic simulation in which gas only cools adiabatically, with its collisionless equivalent, we find that halo growth is slowed as hydrostatic forces prevent gas from collapsing. In our simulations, at the high redshifts relevant for reionization (between ˜6 and ˜11), haloes that host dwarf galaxies (≲109 M⊙) can be reduced by up to a factor of 2 in mass due to the hydrostatic pressure of baryons. Consequently, the inclusion of baryonic effects reduces the amplitude of the low-mass tail of the halo mass function by factors of 2-4. In addition, we find that the fraction of baryons in dark matter haloes hosting dwarf galaxies at high redshift never exceeds ˜90 per cent of the cosmic baryon fraction. When implementing baryonic processes, including cooling, star formation, supernova feedback and reionization, the suppression effects become more significant with further reductions of 30-60 per cent. Although convergence tests suggest that the suppression may become weaker in higher resolution simulations, this suppressed growth will be important for semi-analytic models of galaxy formation, in which the halo mass inherited from an underlying N-body simulation directly determines galaxy properties. Based on the adiabatic simulation, we provide tables to account for these effects in N-body simulations and present a modification of the halo mass function along with explanatory analytic calculations.

  11. The interstellar halo of spiral galaxies: NGC 891 (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Rand, R. J.; Hester, J. Jeff


    Researchers have detected the Warm Ionized Medium (WIM) phase in the galaxy NGC 891. They found that the radial distribution of the WIM follows the molecular or young star distribution - an expected dependence. The amount of the WIM in this galaxy exceeds that in our Galaxy. The major surprize is the large thickness of the WIM phase - about 9 kpc instead 3 kpc as in our Galaxy. Clearly, this is the most significant result of the observations. The presence of low ionization gas at high z as well as at large galactocentric radii (where young stars are rare) is an important clue to the origin of the halo and observations such as the one reported here provide important data on this crucial question. In particular, the ionization of gas at high absolute z implies that either the UV photons manage to escape from the disk of the galaxy or that the extragalactic UV background plays an important role. The bulk of the WIM in spiral galaxies is a result of star-formation activity and thus these results can be understood by invoking a high star formation rate in NGC 891. Only the concerted action of supernovae can get the gas to the large z-heights as is observed in this galaxy. Support for this view comes from our detection of many worms i.e., bits and pieces of supershells in the form of kilo-parsec long vertical filaments. Researchers also saw a 600-pc size supershell located nearly one kpc above the plane of the galaxy.

  12. Enhancing the rate of tidal disruptions of stars by a self-gravitating disc around a massive central black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šubr L.


    Full Text Available We further study the idea that a self-gravitating accretion disc around a supermassive black hole can increase the rate of gradual orbital decay of stellar trajectories (and hence tidal disruption events by setting some stars on eccentric trajectories. Cooperation between the gravitational field of the disc and the dissipative environment can provide a mechanism explaining the origin of stars that become bound tightly to the central black hole. We examine this process as a function of the black hole mass and conclude that it is most efficient for intermediate central masses of the order of ∼ 104Mʘ. Members of the cluster experience the stage of orbital decay via collisions with an accretion disc and by other dissipative processes, such as tidal effects, dynamical friction and the emission of gravitational waves. Our attention is concentrated on the region of gravitational dominance of the central body. Mutual interaction between stars and the surrounding environment establishes a non-spherical shape and anisotropy of the nuclear cluster. In some cases, the stellar sub-system acquires ring-type geometry. Stars of the nuclear cluster undergo a tidal disruption event as they plunge below the tidal radius of the supermassive black hole.

  13. Simulating Halos with the Caterpillar Project (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The Caterpillar Project is a beautiful series of high-resolution cosmological simulations. The goal of this project is to examine the evolution of dark-matter halos like the Milky Ways, to learn about how galaxies like ours formed. This immense computational project is still in progress, but the Caterpillar team is already providing a look at some of its first results.Lessons from Dark-Matter HalosWhy simulate the dark-matter halos of galaxies? Observationally, the formation history of our galaxy is encoded in galactic fossil record clues, like the tidal debris from disrupted satellite galaxies in the outer reaches of our galaxy, or chemical abundance patterns throughout our galactic disk and stellar halo.But to interpret this information in a way that lets us learn about our galaxys history, we need to first test galaxy formation and evolution scenarios via cosmological simulations. Then we can compare the end result of these simulations to what we observe today.This figure illustrates the difference that mass resolution makes. In the left panel, the mass resolution is 1.5*10^7 solar masses per particle. In the right panel, the mass resolution is 3*10^4 solar masses per particle [Griffen et al. 2016]A Computational ChallengeDue to how computationally expensive such simulations are, previous N-body simulations of the growth of Milky-Way-like halos have consisted of only one or a few halos each. But in order to establish a statistical understanding of how galaxy halos form and find out whether the Milky Ways halo is typical or unusual! it is necessary to simulate a larger number of halos.In addition, in order to accurately follow the formation and evolution of substructure within the dark-matter halos, these simulations must be able to resolve the smallest dwarf galaxies, which are around a million solar masses. This requires an extremely high mass resolution, which adds to the computational expense of the simulation.First OutcomesThese are the challenges faced by

  14. HaloTag is an effective expression and solubilisation fusion partner for a range of fibroblast growth factors. (United States)

    Sun, Changye; Li, Yong; Taylor, Sarah E; Mao, Xianqing; Wilkinson, Mark C; Fernig, David G


    The production of recombinant proteins such as the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is the key to establishing their function in cell communication. The production of recombinant FGFs in E. coli is limited, however, due to expression and solubility problems. HaloTag has been used as a fusion protein to introduce a genetically-encoded means for chemical conjugation of probes. We have expressed 11 FGF proteins with an N-terminal HaloTag, followed by a tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease cleavage site to allow release of the FGF protein. These were purified by heparin-affinity chromatography, and in some instances by further ion-exchange chromatography. It was found that HaloTag did not adversely affect the expression of FGF1 and FGF10, both of which expressed well as soluble proteins. The N-terminal HaloTag fusion was found to enhance the expression and yield of FGF2, FGF3 and FGF7. Moreover, whereas FGF6, FGF8, FGF16, FGF17, FGF20 and FGF22 were only expressed as insoluble proteins, their N-terminal HaloTag fusion counterparts (Halo-FGFs) were soluble, and could be successfully purified. However, cleavage of Halo-FGF6, -FGF8 and -FGF22 with TEV resulted in aggregation of the FGF protein. Measurement of phosphorylation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and of cell growth demonstrated that the HaloTag fusion proteins were biologically active. Thus, HaloTag provides a means to enhance the expression of soluble recombinant proteins, in addition to providing a chemical genetics route for covalent tagging of proteins.

  15. HaloTag is an effective expression and solubilisation fusion partner for a range of fibroblast growth factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changye Sun


    Full Text Available The production of recombinant proteins such as the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs is the key to establishing their function in cell communication. The production of recombinant FGFs in E. coli is limited, however, due to expression and solubility problems. HaloTag has been used as a fusion protein to introduce a genetically-encoded means for chemical conjugation of probes. We have expressed 11 FGF proteins with an N-terminal HaloTag, followed by a tobacco etch virus (TEV protease cleavage site to allow release of the FGF protein. These were purified by heparin-affinity chromatography, and in some instances by further ion-exchange chromatography. It was found that HaloTag did not adversely affect the expression of FGF1 and FGF10, both of which expressed well as soluble proteins. The N-terminal HaloTag fusion was found to enhance the expression and yield of FGF2, FGF3 and FGF7. Moreover, whereas FGF6, FGF8, FGF16, FGF17, FGF20 and FGF22 were only expressed as insoluble proteins, their N-terminal HaloTag fusion counterparts (Halo-FGFs were soluble, and could be successfully purified. However, cleavage of Halo-FGF6, -FGF8 and -FGF22 with TEV resulted in aggregation of the FGF protein. Measurement of phosphorylation of p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase and of cell growth demonstrated that the HaloTag fusion proteins were biologically active. Thus, HaloTag provides a means to enhance the expression of soluble recombinant proteins, in addition to providing a chemical genetics route for covalent tagging of proteins.

  16. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Surrow,B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; Lesser,F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.


    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for the STAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities to STAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of the STAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR will be able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainable throughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  17. A Heavy Flavor Tracker for STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Chen, Y.; Kleinfelder, S.; Koohi, A.; Li, S.; Huang, H.; Tai, A.; Kushpil, V.; Sumbera, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Himmi,A.; Hu, C.; Shabetai, A.; Szelezniak, M.; Valin, I.; Winter, M.; Miller,M.; Surrow, B.; Van Nieuwenhuizen G.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner,L.; Lesser, F.; Matis, H.S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H.G.; Pierpoint, L.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J.H.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.; Kotov, I.


    We propose to construct a Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) for theSTAR experiment at RHIC. The HFT will bring new physics capabilities toSTAR and it will significantly enhance the physics capabilities of theSTAR detector at central rapidities. The HFT will ensure that STAR willbe able to take heavy flavor data at all luminosities attainablethroughout the proposed RHIC II era.

  18. Stars and Star Myths. (United States)

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  19. Gravitationally Consistent Halo Catalogs and Merger Trees for Precision Cosmology (United States)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.


    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at

  20. New halo white dwarf candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (United States)

    Dame, Kyra; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Brown, Warren R.; Williams, Kurtis A.; von Hippel, Ted; Harris, Hugh C.


    We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 57 faint (g = 19-22) high proper motion white dwarfs identified through repeat imaging of ≈3100 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint by Munn et al. We use ugriz and JH photometry to perform a model atmosphere analysis, and identify 10 ultracool white dwarfs with Teff 120 km s-1) and UVW velocities that are more consistent with the halo than the Galactic disc. For typical 0.6 M⊙ white dwarfs, the cooling ages for these halo candidates range from 2.3 to 8.5 Gyr. However, the total main-sequence+white dwarf cooling ages of these stars would be consistent with the Galactic halo if they are slightly undermassive. Given the magnitude limits of the current large-scale surveys, many of the coolest and oldest white dwarfs remain undiscovered in the solar neighbourhood, but upcoming surveys such as Gaia and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find many of these elusive thick disc and halo white dwarfs.

  1. Electric Properties of One-Neutron Halo Nuclei in Halo EFT (United States)

    Braun, Jonas; Hammer, Hans-Werner


    We exploit the separation of scales in weakly-bound nuclei to compute E2 transitions and electric form factors in a halo effective field theory (EFT) framework. The relevant degrees of freedom are the core and the halo neutron. The EFT expansion is carried out in powers of R_{core}/R_{halo}, where R_{core} and R_{halo} denote the length scales of the core and halo, respectively. We include the strong s-wave and d-wave interactions by introducing dimer fields. The dimer propagators are regulated by employing the power divergence subtraction scheme and matched to the effective range expansion in the respective channel. Electromagnetic interactions are included via minimal substitution in the Lagrangian. We demonstrate that, depending on the observable and respective partial wave, additional local gauge-invariant operators contribute in LO, NLO and higher orders.

  2. Dependence of halo bias on mass and environment (United States)

    Shi, Jingjing; Sheth, Ravi K.


    The simplest analyses of halo bias assume that halo mass alone determines halo clustering. However, if the large-scale environment is fixed, then halo clustering is almost entirely determined by environment, and is almost completely independent of halo mass. We show why. Our analysis is useful for studies that use the environmental dependence of clustering to constrain cosmological and galaxy formation models. It also shows why many correlations between galaxy properties and environment are merely consequences of the underlying correlations between haloes and their environments, and provides a framework for quantifying such inherited correlations.

  3. Angular momentum properties of haloes and their baryon content in the Illustris simulation (United States)

    Zjupa, Jolanta; Springel, Volker


    The angular momentum properties of virialized dark matter haloes have been measured with good statistics in collisionless N-body simulations, but an equally accurate analysis of the baryonic spin is still missing. We employ the Illustris simulation suite, one of the first simulations of galaxy formation with full hydrodynamics that produces a realistic galaxy population in a sizeable volume, to quantify the baryonic spin properties for more than ˜320 000 haloes. We first compare the systematic differences between different spin parameter and halo definitions, and the impact of sample selection criteria on the derived properties. We confirm that dark-matter-only haloes exhibit a close to self-similar spin distribution in mass and redshift of lognormal form. However, the physics of galaxy formation radically changes the baryonic spin distribution. While the dark matter component remains largely unaffected, strong trends with mass and redshift appear for the spin of diffuse gas and the formed stellar component. With time, the baryons staying bound to the halo develop a misalignment of their spin vector with respect to dark matter, and increase their specific angular momentum by a factor of ˜1.3 in the non-radiative case and ˜1.8 in the full physics setup at z = 0. We show that this enhancement in baryonic spin can be explained by the combined effect of specific angular momentum transfer from dark matter on to gas during mergers and from feedback expelling low specific angular momentum gas from the halo. Our results challenge certain models for spin evolution and underline the significant changes induced by baryonic physics in the structure of haloes.

  4. Non-contrast-enhanced 4D MR angiography with STAR spin labeling and variable flip angle sampling: a feasibility study for the assessment of Dural Arteriovenous Fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jinhee; Kim, Bom-yi; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin; Kim, Bum-soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Schmitt, Peter [Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Kim, Inseong; Paek, Munyoung [Siemens AG, Healthcare, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of non-contrast-enhanced 4D magnetic resonance angiography (NCE 4D MRA) with signal targeting with alternative radiofrequency (STAR) spin labeling and variable flip angle (VFA) sampling in the assessment of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in the transverse sinus. Nine patients underwent NCE 4D MRA for the evaluation of DAVF in the transverse sinus at 3 T. One patient was examined twice, once before and once after the interventional treatment. All patients also underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and/or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA). For the acquisition of NCE 4D MRA, a STAR spin tagging method was used, and a VFA sampling was applied in the data readout module instead of a constant flip angle. Two readers evaluated the NCE 4D MRA data for the diagnosis of DAVF and its type with consensus. The results were compared with those from DSA and/or CEMRA. All patients underwent NCE 4D MRA without any difficulty. Among seven patients with patent DAVFs, all cases showed an early visualization of the transverse sinus on NCE 4D MRA. Except for one case, the type of DAVF of NCE 4D MRA was agreed with that of reference standard study. Cortical venous reflux (CVR) was demonstrated in two cases out of three patients with CVR. NCE 4D MRA with STAR tagging and VFA sampling is technically and clinically feasible and represents a promising technique for assessment of DAVF in the transverse sinus. Further technical developments should aim at improvements of spatial and temporal coverage. (orig.)

  5. Stability of BEC galactic dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán, F.S.; Lora-Clavijo, F.D.; González-Avilés, J.J.; Rivera-Paleo, F.J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Cd. Universitaria, 58040 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)


    In this paper we show that spherically symmetric BEC dark matter halos, with the sin r/r density profile, that accurately fit galactic rotation curves and represent a potential solution to the cusp-core problem are unstable. We do this by introducing back the density profiles into the fully time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii-Poisson system of equations. Using numerical methods to track the evolution of the system, we found that these galactic halos lose mass at an approximate rate of half of its mass in a time scale of dozens of Myr. We consider this time scale is enough as to consider these halos are unstable and unlikely to be formed. We provide some arguments to show that this behavior is general and discuss some other drawbacks of the model that restrict its viability.

  6. Chemical abundances of the most metal-poor stars in the Milky Way (United States)

    Frebel, Anna


    Studying old, metal-poor stars allows for connecting the present state of the Galactic halo with its long-lasting assembly history. By retaining the chemical information from their formation time in their atmospheres, these low-mass (M ancient stars.

  7. The Chemical Composition Contrast between M3 and M13 Revisited: New Abundances for 28 Giant Stars in M3 (United States)

    Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peterson, Ruth C.; Fulbright, Jon P.


    We report new chemical abundances of 23 bright red giant members of the globular cluster M3, based on high-resolution (R~45,000) spectra obtained with the Keck I telescope. The observations, which involve the use of multislits in the HIRES Keck I spectrograph, are described in detail. Combining these data with a previously reported small sample of M3 giants obtained with the Lick 3 m telescope, we compare metallicities and [X/Fe] ratios for 28 M3 giants with a 35-star sample in the similar-metallicity cluster M13, and with Galactic halo field stars having [Fe/H]=A(Si), we derive little difference in [X/Fe] ratios in the M3, M13, or halo field samples. All three groups exhibit C depletion with advancing evolutionary state beginning at the level of the red giant branch ``bump,'' but the overall depletion of about 0.7-0.9 dex seen in the clusters is larger than that associated with the field stars. The behaviors of O, Na, Mg, and Al are distinctively different among the three stellar samples. Field halo giants and subdwarfs have a positive correlation of Na with Mg, as predicted from explosive or hydrostatic carbon burning in Type II supernova sites. Both M3 and M13 show evidence of high-temperature proton-capture synthesis from the ON, NeNa, and MgAl cycles, while there is no evidence for such synthesis among halo field stars. But the degree of such extreme proton-capture synthesis in M3 is smaller than it is in M13: the M3 giants exhibit only modest deficiencies of O and corresponding enhancements of Na, less extreme overabundances of Al, fewer stars with low Mg and correspondingly high Na, and no indication that O depletions are a function of advancing evolutionary state, as has been claimed for M13. We have also considered NGC 6752, for which Mg isotopic abundances have been reported by Yong et al. Giants in NGC 6752 and M13 satisfy the same anticorrelation of O abundances with the ratio (25Mg+26Mg)/24Mg, which measures the relative contribution of rare to

  8. Exploring Galaxy Halos and the Cosmic Web through X-Ray Spectroscopy (United States)

    Bregman, Joel; Anderson, Mike; Dai, Xinyu; Miller, Matt; Hodges-Kluck, Edmund


    About 90 of the metals produced in the universe and 50 of the baryons are unaccounted for through UV-IR and radio studies of stars and gas. This large amount of gas and metals likely lies in a hot phase 0.5-10E6 K and must be enriched to about 0.2-0.3 of the solar metallicity, so it should be a good absorber of X-rays in the resonance lines of common elements. X-ray absorption lines against background AGNs should show hot extended halos around galaxies out to the virial radius, if not beyond. The outer parts of galaxy groups and some cosmic filaments are other potential sources of absorption. For the Milky Way, high X-ray spectral resolution allows us to determine the dynamics of the hot halo, including the rotation as a function of radius as well as the accretion or outflow rate.

  9. Chemical enrichment of stars due to accretion from the ISM during the Galaxy's assembly


    Shen, S; Kulkarni, G; Madau, P.; Mayer, L.


    Using the Eris zoom-in cosmological simulation of assembly of a Milky Way analogue, we study the chemical enrichment of stars due to accretion of metal-enriched gas from the interstellar medium (ISM) during the Galaxy’s development. We consider metal-poor and old stars in the Galactic halo and bulge through the use of stellar orbits, gas density and metallicity distributions in Eris. Assuming spherically symmetric Bondi–Hoyle accretion, we find that halo and bulge stars accrete metals at the ...

  10. In Vivo Fluorescent Labeling of Tumor Cells with the HaloTag® Technology. (United States)

    Tseng, Jen-Chieh; Benink, Hélène A; McDougall, Mark G; Chico-Calero, Isabel; Kung, Andrew L


    Many fluorescent sensors are currently available for in vitro bio-physiological microscopic imaging. The ability to label cells in living animals with these fluorescent sensors would help translate some of these assays into in vivo applications. To achieve this goal, the first step is to establish a method for selectively labeling target cells with exogenous fluorophores. Here we tested whether the HaloTag® protein tagging system provides specific labeling of xenograft tumors in living animals. After systemic delivery of fluorophore-conjugated ligands, we performed whole animal planar fluorescent imaging to determine uptake in tag-expressing HCT116 xenografts. Our results demonstrate that HaloTag ligands containing red or near-infrared fluorophores have enhanced tumor uptake and are suitable for non-invasive in vivo imaging. Our proof-of-concept results establish feasibility for using HaloTag technology for bio-physiological imaging in living animals.

  11. The H II Region of a Primordial Star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Tom; Wise, John H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bryan, Greg L.; /Columbia U., Astron. Astrophys.


    The concordance model of cosmology and structure formation predicts the formation of isolated very massive stars at high redshifts in dark matter dominated halos of 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 6} Msun. These stars photo-ionize their host primordial molecular clouds, expelling all the baryons from their halos. When the stars die, a relic H II region is formed within which large amounts of molecular hydrogen form which will allow the gas to cool efficiently when gravity assembles it into larger dark matter halos. The filaments surrounding the first star hosting halo are largely shielded and provide the pathway for gas to stream into the halo when the star has died. We present the first fully three dimensional cosmological radiation hydrodynamical simulations that follow all these effects. A novel adaptive ray casting technique incorporates the time dependent radiative transfer around point sources. This approach is fast enough so that radiation transport, kinetic rate equations, and hydrodynamics are solved self-consistently. It retains the time derivative of the transfer equation and is explicitly photon conserving. This method is integrated with the cosmological adaptive mesh refinement code enzo, and runs on distributed and shared memory parallel architectures. Where applicable the three dimensional calculation not only confirm expectations from earlier one dimensional results but also illustrate the multi-fold hydrodynamic complexities of H II regions. In the absence of stellar winds the circumstellar environments of the first supernovae and putative early gamma-ray bursts will be of low density {approx}1 cm{sup -3}. Albeit marginally resolved, ionization front instabilities lead to cometary and elephant trunk like small scale structures reminiscent of nearby star forming regions.

  12. Complex artificial halos for the classroom (United States)

    Selmke, Markus; Selmke, Sarah


    Halos represent a common and imposing atmospheric optics phenomenon whose displays are caused by tiny air-borne ice crystals. Their variety stems from a certain set of orientation classes to which these crystals belong. We present a robust and inexpensive device, made of modular components, that allows for the replication of most of these orientation classes in the laboratory. Under the illumination of light, the corresponding artificial halo counterparts emerge. The mechanical realization of this device allows a thorough understanding and demonstration of these beautiful atmospheric optics phenomena.

  13. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.


    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  14. Very Massive Stars in the Primitive Galaxy, IZw 18 (United States)

    Heap, Sara


    IZw 18 is a local blue, compact dwarf galaxy that meets the requirements for a primitive galaxy: low halo mass greater than 10(exp 9) Msun, strong photoionizing radiation, no galactic outflow, and very low metallicity,log(O/H)+12=7.2. We will describe the properties and evolutionary status of very massive stars in IZw 18, based on UV photometry of individual stars in I Zw 18 and analysis of unresolved ultraviolet spectra of IZw 18-NW obtained with HST.

  15. One-proton halo in 26P and two-proton halo in 27S (United States)

    Ren, Zhongzhou; Chen, Baoqiu; Ma, Zhongyu; Xu, Gongou


    Proton-drip-line nuclei 26P and 27S are studied in the nonlinear relativistic mean-field theory. Calculations show that the mean-square radius of protons in the 2s1/2 state is approximately 18-20 fm2 which is abnormally large as compared with the mean-square radii of proton, neutron, and matter distributions, giving a strong evidence for proton halos in 26P and 27S. This indicates that the size of proton halos is as large as that of neutron halos although there exists the Coulomb barrier in proton-drip-line nuclei.

  16. Feasibility of free-breathing dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of gastric cancer using a golden-angle radial stack-of-stars VIBE sequence: comparison with the conventional contrast-enhanced breath-hold 3D VIBE sequence. (United States)

    Li, Huan-Huan; Zhu, Hui; Yue, Lei; Fu, Yi; Grimm, Robert; Stemmer, Alto; Fu, Cai-Xia; Peng, Wei-Jun


    To investigate the feasibility and diagnostic value of free-breathing, radial, stack-of-stars three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo (GRE) sequence ("golden angle") on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI of gastric cancer. Forty-three gastric cancer patients were divided into cooperative and uncooperative groups. Respiratory fluctuation was observed using an abdominal respiratory gating sensor. Those who breath-held for more than 15 s were placed in the cooperative group and the remainder in the uncooperative group. The 3-T MRI scanning protocol included 3D GRE and conventional breath-hold VIBE (volume-interpolated breath-hold examination) sequences, comparing images quantitatively and qualitatively. DCE-MRI parameters from VIBE images of normal gastric wall and malignant lesions were compared. For uncooperative patients, 3D GRE scored higher qualitatively, and had higher SNRs (signal-to-noise ratios) and CNRs (contrast-to-noise ratios) than conventional VIBE quantitatively. Though 3D GRE images scored lower in qualitative parameters compared with conventional VIBE for cooperative patients, it provided images with fewer artefacts. DCE parameters differed significantly between normal gastric wall and lesions, with higher Ve (extracellular volume) and lower Kep (reflux constant) in gastric cancer. The free-breathing, golden-angle, radial stack-of-stars 3D GRE technique is feasible for DCE-MRI of gastric cancer. Dynamic enhanced images can be used for quantitative analysis of this malignancy. • Golden-angle radial stack-of-stars VIBE aids gastric cancer MRI diagnosis. • The 3D GRE technique is suitable for patients unable to suspend respiration. • Method scored higher in the qualitative evaluation for uncooperative patients. • The technique produced images with fewer artefacts than conventional VIBE sequence. • Dynamic enhanced images can be used for quantitative analysis of gastric cancer.

  17. The Ancient Stars of M32 (United States)

    Mateo, Mario


    The question of whether the dwarf elliptical galaxy M32 contains a population of truly ancient stars has remained unsettled for decades. We recently used HST/WFPC2 to identify for the first time a population of RR Lyr stars in this galaxy. Since these stars are known only to be present in stellar populations older than 8-10 Gyr, we contend that M32 does possess an old stellar component and certainly cannot be comprised of only intermediate-age { 5 Gyr} stars as has been frequently suggested in the literature. Our earlier observations were insufficient to determine even the most basic photometric properties of these stars. Nor could we use the data to identify independent evidence of the old population that could help constrain just what fraction of the galaxy's stars are ancient. We propose new HST/ACS observations to {a} get periods and luminosities of the previously observed RR Lyr stars, {b} search for additional RR Lyr stars in a significantly larger volume of M32, and {c} obtain ultra-deep 2-color photometry to study the ancient main-sequence turnoff region of that galaxy directly, {d} look for radial population gradients in M32, both among the RR Lyr/Horizontal Branch and main-sequence populations, {e} compare the M31/M32 old populations in terms of metallicity spread, and {f} use the RR Lyr stars to precisely determine the relative and possibly the absolute distances of M32 and M31's halo.

  18. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  19. Constraints on the evolution of the relationship between H I mass and halo mass in the last 12 Gyr (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Kulkarni, Girish


    The neutral hydrogen (H I) content of dark matter haloes forms an intermediate state in the baryon cycle that connects the hot shock-heated gas and cold star-forming gas in haloes. Measurement of the relationship between H I mass and halo mass therefore puts important constraints on galaxy formation models. We combine radio observations of H I in emission at low redshift (z ˜ 0) with optical/UV observations of H I in absorption at high redshift (1 < z < 4) to derive constraints on the evolution of the H I-mass-halo-mass (HIHM) relation from redshift z = 4 to 0. We find that one can model the HIHM relation similar to the stellar-mass-halo-mass (SHM) relation at z ˜ 0. At z = 0, haloes with mass 1011.7 M⊙ have the highest H I mass fraction (˜1 per cent), which is about four times smaller than their stellar-mass fraction. We model the evolution of the HIHM relation in a manner similar to that of the SHM relation. Combining this parametrization with a redshift- and mass-dependent modified Navarro-Frenk-White profile for the H I density within a halo, we draw constraints on the evolution of the HIHM relation from the observed H I column density, incidence rate and clustering bias at high redshift. We compare these findings with results from hydrodynamical simulations and other approaches in the literature and find the models to be consistent with each other at the 68 per cent confidence level.

  20. Relations between the Sizes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos at Redshifts 0 < z < 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Fall, S. Michael; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lee, Seong-Kook [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Física, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Wuyts, Stijn, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)


    We derive relations between the effective radii R {sub eff} of galaxies and the virial radii R {sub 200} {sub c} of their dark matter halos over the redshift range 0 < z < 3. For galaxies, we use the measured sizes from deep images taken with Hubble Space Telescope for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey; for halos, we use the inferred sizes from abundance matching to cosmological dark matter simulations via a stellar mass–halo mass (SMHM) relation. For this purpose, we derive a new SMHM relation based on the same selection criteria and other assumptions as for our sample of galaxies with size measurements. As a check on the robustness of our results, we also derive R {sub eff}–R {sub 200} {sub c} relations for three independent SMHM relations from the literature. We find that galaxy R {sub eff} is proportional on average to halo R {sub 200} {sub c}, confirming and extending to high redshifts the z = 0 results of Kravtsov. Late-type galaxies (with low Sérsic index and high specific star formation rate (sSFR)) follow a linear R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, with effective radii at 0.5 < z < 3 close to those predicted by simple models of disk formation; at z < 0.5, the sizes of late-type galaxies appear to be slightly below this prediction. Early-type galaxies (with high Sérsic index and low sSFR) follow a roughly parallel R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, ∼0.2–0.3 dex below the one for late-type galaxies. Our observational results, reinforced by recent hydrodynamical simulations, indicate that galaxies grow quasi-homologously with their dark matter halos.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Samaniego, A.; Avila-Reese, V. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510, México, D.F., México (Mexico); Colín, P. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 72-3 (Xangari), Morelia, Michoacán 58089, México (Mexico)


    By means of N-body + hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations we study the evolution of the inner dark matter and stellar mass distributions of central dwarf galaxies formed in halos of virial masses M{sub v} = (2–3) × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙} at z = 0, both in a warm dark matter (WDM) and cold dark matter (CDM) cosmology. The half-mode mass in the WDM power spectrum of our simulations is M{sub f} = 2 × 10{sup 10} h{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. In the dark matter (DM) only simulations halo density profiles are well described by the Navarro–Frenk–White parametric fit in both cosmologies, though the WDM halos have concentrations lower by factors of 1.5–2.0 than their CDM counterparts. In the hydrodynamic simulations, the effects of baryons significantly flatten the inner density, velocity dispersion, and pseudo phase space density profiles of the WDM halos but not of the CDM ones. The density slope, measured at ≈0.02R{sub v}, α{sub 0.02}, becomes shallow in periods of 2–5 Gyr in the WDM runs. We explore whether this flattening process correlates with the global star formation (SF), M{sub s}/M{sub v} ratio, gas outflow, and internal specific angular momentum histories. We do not find any clear trends, but when α{sub 0.02} is shallower than −0.5, M{sub s}/M{sub v} is always between 0.25% and 1%. We conclude that the main reason for the formation of the shallow core is the presence of strong gas mass fluctuations inside the inner halo, which are a consequence of the feedback driven by a very bursty and sustained SF history in shallow gravitational potentials. Our WDM halos, which assemble late and are less concentrated than the CDM ones, obey these conditions. There are also (rare) CDM systems with extended mass assembly histories that obey these conditions and form shallow cores. The dynamical heating and expansion processes behind the DM core flattening apply also to the stars in such a way that the stellar age and metallicity gradients of the

  2. Star clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieles, M.


    Star clusters are observed in almost every galaxy. In this thesis we address several fundamental problems concerning the formation, evolution and disruption of star clusters. From observations of (young) star clusters in the interacting galaxy M51, we found that clusters are formed in complexes of

  3. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from two classes of EOS's and discuss their implications. Keywords. Neutron stars; phase transition. It is generally believed that the evolutionary journey of a star after it has exhausted all its fuel culminates into the formation of a compact object in the form of a white dwarf, a neutron star or a black hole depending on its mass.

  4. Massive Stars (United States)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva


    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  5. Substructure in the Stellar Halos of the Aquarius Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, Amina; Cooper, A. P.; White, S. D. M.; Cole, S.; Frenk, C. S.; Navarro, J. F.


    We characterize the substructure in the simulated stellar halos of Cooper et al. which were formed by the disruption of satellite galaxies within the cosmological N-body simulations of galactic halos of the Aquarius project. These stellar halos exhibit a wealth of tidal features: broad overdensities

  6. The True Origin of Hypervelocity Stars (United States)

    Gnedin, Oleg


    We propose to obtain WFC3 images of 4 hypervelocity stars in the Galactic halo, in order to conclusively establish their origin. This will be a final epoch of a long-term program to measure precise proper motions in an absolute inertial frame. The origin of these unique stars with extremely large positive radial velocities, in excess of the escape speed from the Galaxy, is consistent only with being ejected by the massive black hole at the Galactic center. Reconstructing the full three-dimensional space motion of these stars, through astrometric proper motions, provides a unique opportunity to measure the shape of the triaxial dark matter halo, at larger distances than is afforded by tidal streams. In Cycles 15 and 17 our team obtained two epochs of observations for these stars with ACS. The accuracy of the proper motion measurement was affected by the CTE degradation in ACS and the unexpected change in the PSF after SM4. The CTE error of HVS3 was unfortunately amplified by the need to use different guide stars and take the second-epoch observations at a 180 degree different orientation. We request third-epoch observations for 4 targets with WFC3 to double the proper motion baseline to 5-6 years and to reduce the systematic error using our newly-developed CTE correction. The new measurement will conclusively confirm or reject the Galactocentric origin of HVSs.

  7. Kinematics of Hα Emitting Stars in Andromeda (United States)

    Ilango, Megha; Ilango, Anita; Damon, Gabriel; Prichard, Laura; Guhathakurta, Puragra; PHAT Collaboration; SPLASH Collaboration


    Studying emission line stars helps improve our understanding of stellar evolution, types of stars, and their environments. In this study, we analyzed stars exhibiting Hα emission (Hα stars) in the Andromeda Galaxy. We used a combination of spectroscopic and photometric diagnostic methods to remove a population of foreground Milky Way (MW) star contaminants from our data set. The Hα stars were selected from a sample of 5295 spectra from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo (SPLASH) survey and accompanying photometric data from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey. Velocities of two classes of Hα stars, main sequence (MS) stars and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, were analyzed through a novel Age-Velocity Difference Correlation (AVDC) method, which utilizes line-of-sight velocity differences (LOSVDs) in order to estimate the age of a rare stellar population. Histograms, weighted means, and weighted standard deviations of the LOSVDs were used to conclude that MS stars are more kinematically coherent than AGB stars, and that Hα stars are kinematically comparable and thus close in age to their non-Hα counterparts. With these results, it can definitively be inferred that mass loss is important in two stages of stellar evolution: massive MS and intermediate mass AGB. We hypothesized that this mass loss could either occur as a normal part of MS and AGB evolution, or that it could be emitted by only a subpopulation of MS and AGB stars throughout their life cycle. Our use of the novel AVDC method sets a precedent for the use of similar methods in predicting the ages of rare stellar subgroups.This research was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at UC Santa Cruz.

  8. Cold streams in early massive hot haloes as the main mode of galaxy formation. (United States)

    Dekel, A; Birnboim, Y; Engel, G; Freundlich, J; Goerdt, T; Mumcuoglu, M; Neistein, E; Pichon, C; Teyssier, R; Zinger, E


    Massive galaxies in the young Universe, ten billion years ago, formed stars at surprising intensities. Although this is commonly attributed to violent mergers, the properties of many of these galaxies are incompatible with such events, showing gas-rich, clumpy, extended rotating disks not dominated by spheroids. Cosmological simulations and clustering theory are used to explore how these galaxies acquired their gas. Here we report that they are 'stream-fed galaxies', formed from steady, narrow, cold gas streams that penetrate the shock-heated media of massive dark matter haloes. A comparison with the observed abundance of star-forming galaxies implies that most of the input gas must rapidly convert to stars. One-third of the stream mass is in gas clumps leading to mergers of mass ratio greater than 1:10, and the rest is in smoother flows. With a merger duty cycle of 0.1, three-quarters of the galaxies forming stars at a given rate are fed by smooth streams. The rarer, submillimetre galaxies that form stars even more intensely are largely merger-induced starbursts. Unlike destructive mergers, the streams are likely to keep the rotating disk configuration intact, although turbulent and broken into giant star-forming clumps that merge into a central spheroid. This stream-driven scenario for the formation of discs and spheroids is an alternative to the merger picture.

  9. New (theoretical) Perspectives on the Galactic Halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A.; Turon, C; Meynadier, F; Arenou, F

    1 discuss recent progress in our understanding of the formation of the stellar halo of the Milky Way in the context of the concordance cosmological model. The Gaia mission will provide unique insights especially into the early assembly of the Galaxy and likely be key in unraveling its merger

  10. Reflection halo twins : subsun and supersun

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konnen, Gunther P.; van der Werf, Siebren Y.


    From an aircraft, a short distinct vertical structure is sometimes seen above the setting sun. Such a feature can be understood as a halo, which is the counterpart of the well-known subsun. Whereas the latter arises from reflections off basal faces of plate-oriented ice crystals illuminated from

  11. Fragmentation inside atomic cooling haloes exposed to Lyman-Werner radiation (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Downes, Turlough P.


    Supermassive stars born in pristine environments in the early Universe hold the promise of being the seeds for the supermassive black holes observed as high redshift quasars shortly after the epoch of reionisation. {H_2} suppression is thought to be crucial in order to negate normal Population III star formation and allow high accretion rates to drive the formation of supermassive stars. Only in the cases where vigorous fragmentation is avoided will a monolithic collapse be successful giving rise to a single massive central object. We investigate the number of fragmentation sites formed in collapsing atomic cooling haloes subject to various levels of background Lyman-Werner flux. The background Lyman-Werner flux manipulates the chemical properties of the gas in the collapsing halo by destroying {H_2}. We find that only when the collapsing gas cloud shifts from the molecular to the atomic cooling regime is the degree of fragmentation suppressed. In our particular case we find that this occurs above a critical Lyman-Werner background of J ˜ 10 J21. The important criterion being the transition to the atomic cooling regime rather than the actual value of J, which will vary locally. Once the temperature of the gas exceeds T ≳ 104 K and the gas transitions to atomic line cooling, then vigorous fragmentation is strongly suppressed.

  12. Planetary nebulae with UVIT: Far ultra-violet halo around the Bow Tie nebula (NGC 40) (United States)

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Sutaria, F.; Murthy, J.; Krishna, S.; Mohan, R.; Ray, A.


    Context. NGC 40 is a planetary nebula with diffuse X-ray emission, suggesting an interaction of the high-speed wind from WC8 central star (CS) with the nebula. It shows strong C IV 1550 Å emission that cannot be explained by thermal processes alone. We present here the first map of this nebula in C IV emission using broad band filters on the Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope (UVIT). Aim. We aim to map the hot C IV-emitting gas and its correspondence with soft X-ray (0.3-8 keV) emitting regions in order to study the shock interaction between the nebula and the ISM. We also aim to illustrate the potential of UVIT for nebular studies. Methods: We carry out a morphological study of images of the nebula obtained at an angular resolution of about 1.3″ in four UVIT filter bands that include C IV 1550 Å and [C II] 2326 Å lines as well as UV continuum. We also make comparisons with X-ray, optical, and IR images from the literature. Results: The [C II] 2326 Å images show the core of the nebula with two lobes on either side of CS similar to [N II]. The C IV emission in the core shows similar morphology and extent to that of diffuse X-ray emission concentrated in nebular condensations. A surprising UVIT discovery is the presence of a large faint far UV (FUV) halo in an FUV filter with λeff of 1608 Å. The UV halo is not present in any other UV filter. The FUV halo is most likely due to UV fluorescence emission from the Lyman bands of H2 molecules. Unlike the optical and IR halo, the FUV halo trails predominantly towards the south-east side of the nebular core, opposite to the CS's proper motion direction. Conclusions: Morphological similarity of C IV 1550 Å and X-ray emission in the core suggests that it results mostly from the interaction of strong CS wind with the nebula. The FUV halo in NGC 40 highlights the extensive existence of H2 molecules in the regions even beyond the optical and IR halos. Thus UV studies are important to estimate the amount of H2, which is

  13. A star-shaped porphyrin-arginine functionalized poly(L-lysine) copolymer for photo-enhanced drug and gene co-delivery. (United States)

    Ma, Dong; Lin, Qian-Ming; Zhang, Li-Ming; Liang, Yuan-Yuan; Xue, Wei


    The co-delivery of drug and gene has become the primary strategy in cancer and other disease therapy. To co-deliver hydrophobic drug and functional gene efficiently into tumor cells, a star-shaped copolymer (PP-PLLD-Arg) with a photochemical internalization effect consisting of a porphyrin (PP) core and arginine-functionalized poly(L-lysine) dendron (PLLD-Arg) arms has been designed, and used to co-deliver docetaxel (DOC) and MMP-9 shRNA plasmid for nasopharyngeal cancer therapy. It was found that PP-PLLD-Arg/MMP-9 nanocomplex showed the photo-enhanced gene transfection efficiency in vitro, and could mediate a significant reduce of MMP-9 protein expression in HNE-1 cells. For co-delivery analysis, the obtained PP-PLLD-Arg/DOC/MMP-9 complexes could induce a more significant apoptosis than DOC or MMP-9 used only, and decreased invasive capacity of HNE-1 cells. Moreover, the star-shaped copolymer exhibited better blood compatibility and lower cytotoxicity compared to PEI-25k in the hemolysis and MTT assays, and also showed a good biocompatibility in vivo. Therefore, PP-PLLD-Arg with suited irradiation is a promising non-toxic and photo-inducible effective drug and gene delivery strategy, which should be encouraged in tumor therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Theoretical Uncertainties in the Halo Mass Function and Halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Zentner, Andrew R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Pittsburgh U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC


    We study the impact of theoretical uncertainty in the dark matter halo mass function and halo bias on dark energy constraints from imminent galaxy cluster surveys. We find that for an optical cluster survey like the Dark Energy Survey, the accuracy required on the predicted halo mass function to make it an insignificant source of error on dark energy parameters is {approx}1%. The analogous requirement on the predicted halo bias is less stringent ({approx}5%), particularly if the observable-mass distribution can be well constrained by other means. These requirements depend upon survey area but are relatively insensitive to survey depth. The most stringent requirements are likely to come from a survey over a significant fraction of the sky that aims to observe clusters down to relatively low mass, M{sub th}{approx} 10{sup 13.7} h{sup -1} M{sub sun}; for such a survey, the mass function and halo bias must be predicted to accuracies of {approx}0.5% and {approx}1%, respectively. These accuracies represent a limit on the practical need to calibrate ever more accurate halo mass and bias functions. We find that improving predictions for the mass function in the low-redshift and low-mass regimes is the most effective way to improve dark energy constraints.

  15. Parametrizing the stellar haloes of galaxies (United States)

    D'Souza, Richard; Kauffman, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; Vegetti, Simona


    We study the stellar haloes of galaxies out to 70-100 kpc as a function of stellar mass and galaxy type by stacking aligned r- and g-band images from a sample of 45 508 galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 9 in the redshift range 0.06 ≤ z ≤ 0.1 and in the mass range 1010.0 M⊙ < M* < 1011.4 M⊙. We derive surface brightness profiles to a depth of almost μr ˜ 32 mag arcsec-2. We find that the ellipticity of the stellar halo is a function of galaxy stellar mass and that the haloes of high-concentration galaxies are more elliptical than those of low-concentration galaxies. Where the g - r colour of the stellar halo can be measured, we find that the stellar light is always bluer than in the main galaxy. The colour of the stellar halo is redder for more massive galaxies. We further demonstrate that the full two-dimensional surface intensity distribution of our galaxy stacks can only be fit through multicomponent Sérsic models. Using the fraction of light in the outer component of the models as a proxy for the fraction of accreted stellar light, we show that this fraction is a function of stellar mass and galaxy type. The fraction of accreted stellar light rises from 30 to 70 per cent and from 2 to 25 per cent for high- and low-concentration galaxies, respectively, over the mass range 1010.0-1011.4 M⊙.

  16. The imprint of reionization on the star formation histories of dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Benítez-Llambay, A.; Navarro, J. F.; Abadi, M. G.; Gottlöber, S.; Yepes, G.; Hoffman, Y.; Steinmetz, M.


    We use a compilation of star formation histories (SFHs) and cosmological simulations to explore the impact of cosmic reionization on nearby isolated dwarf galaxies. Nearby dwarfs show a wide diversity of SFHs; from ancient systems that completed their star formation (SF) ˜10 Gyr ago to young dwarfs that formed the majority of their stars in the past ˜5 Gyr to `two-component' systems characterized by the overlap of old and young stars. As an ensemble, SF in nearby dwarfs dips to lower-than-average rates at intermediate times (4 haloes, affecting especially systems with virial temperatures of ˜2 × 104 K at zreion. SF begins before zreion in systems above this threshold; its associated feedback compounds the effects of reionization, emptying the haloes of gas and leaving behind old stellar systems. In haloes below the threshold at zreion, reionization leads to a delay in the onset of SF that lasts until the halo grows massive enough to allow gas to cool and form stars, leading to a system with a prominent young stellar component. `Two-component' systems may be traced to late accretion events that allow young stars to form in systems slightly above the threshold at zreion. The dearth of intermediate-age stars in nearby dwarfs might be the clearest signature of the imprint of cosmic reionization on the SFHs of dwarf galaxies.

  17. Flickering AGN can explain the strong circumgalactic O VI observed by COS-Halos (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Segers, Marijke; Schaye, Joop; Richings, Alexander J.; Crain, Robert A.


    Proximity zone fossils (PZFs) are ionization signatures around recently active galactic nuclei (AGNs) where metal species in the circumgalactic medium remain overionized after the AGNs have shut off due to their long recombination time scales. We explore cosmological zoom hydrodynamic simulations, using the EAGLE (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) model paired with a non-equilibrium ionization and cooling module including time-variable AGN radiation to model PZFs around star-forming disc galaxies in the z ˜ 0.2 Universe. Previous simulations typically underestimated the O VI content of galactic haloes, but we show that plausible PZF models increase O VI column densities by 2 - 3 × to achieve the levels observed around COS-Halos star-forming galaxies out to 150 kpc. Models with AGN bolometric luminosities ≳ 1043.6erg s- 1, duty cycle fractions ≲ 10 per cent, and AGN lifetimes ≲ 106 yr are the most promising, because their supermassive black holes grow at the cosmologically expected rate and they mostly appear as inactive AGN, consistent with COS-Halos. The central requirement is that the typical star-forming galaxy hosted an active AGN within a time-scale comparable to the recombination time of a high metal ion, which for circumgalactic O VI is ≈107 yr. H I, by contrast, returns to equilibrium much more rapidly due to its low neutral fraction and does not show a significant PZF effect. O VI absorption features originating from PZFs appear narrow, indicating photoionization, and are often well aligned with lower metal ion species. PZFs are highly likely to affect the physical interpretation of circumgalactic high ionization metal lines if, as expected, normal galaxies host flickering AGN.

  18. Exploring Milkyway Halo Substructures with Large-Area Sky Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)


    Over the last two decades, our understanding of the Milky Way has been improved thanks to large data sets arising from large-area digital sky surveys. The stellar halo is now known to be inhabited by a variety of spatial and kinematic stellar substructures, including stellar streams and stellar clouds, all of which are predicted by hierarchical Lambda Cold Dark Matter models of galaxy formation. In this dissertation, we first present the analysis of spectroscopic observations of individual stars from the two candidate structures discovered using an M-giant catalog from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey. The follow-up observations show that one of the candidates is a genuine structure which might be associated with the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure, while the other one is a false detection due to the systematic photometric errors in the survey or dust extinction in low Galactic latitudes. We then presented the discovery of an excess of main sequence turn-off stars in the direction of the constellations of Eridanus and Phoenix from the first-year data of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) – a five-year, 5,000 deg2 optical imaging survey in the Southern Hemisphere. The Eridanus-Phoenix (EriPhe) overdensity is centered around l ~ 285° and b ~ -60° and the Poisson significance of the detection is at least 9σ. The EriPhe overdensity has a cloud-like morphology and the extent is at least ~ 4 kpc by ~ 3 kpc in projection, with a heliocentric distance of about d ~ 16 kpc. The EriPhe overdensity is morphologically similar to the previously-discovered Virgo overdensity and Hercules-Aquila cloud. These three overdensities lie along a polar plane separated by ~ 120° and may share a common origin. In addition to the scientific discoveries, we also present the work to improve the photometric calibration in DES using auxiliary calibration systems, since the photometric errors can cause false detection in first the halo substructure. We present a detailed description of the two

  19. Tracing the first stars and galaxies of the Milky Way (United States)

    Griffen, Brendan F.; Dooley, Gregory A.; Ji, Alexander P.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Gómez, Facundo A.; Frebel, Anna


    We use 30 high-resolution dark matter haloes of the Caterpillar simulation suite to probe the first stars and galaxies of Milky Way-mass systems. We quantify the environment of the high-z progenitors of the Milky Way and connect them to the properties of the host and satellites today. We identify the formation sites of the first generation of Population III (Pop III) stars (z ˜ 25) and first galaxies (z ˜ 22) with several different models based on a minimum halo mass. This includes a simple model for radiative feedback, the primary limitation of the model. Through this method we find approximately 23 000 ± 5000 Pop III potentially star-forming sites per Milky Way-mass host, though this number is drastically reduced to ˜550 star-forming sites if feedback is included. The majority of these haloes identified form in isolation (96 per cent at z = 15) and are not subject to external enrichment by neighbouring haloes (median separation ˜1 kpc at z = 15), though half merge with a system larger than themselves within 1.5 Gyr. Using particle tagging, we additionally trace the Pop III remnant population to z = 0 and find an order of magnitude scatter in their number density at small (i.e. r 50 kpc) galactocentric radii. We provide fitting functions for determining the number of progenitor minihalo and atomic cooling halo systems that present-day satellite galaxies might have accreted since their formation. We determine that observed dwarf galaxies with stellar masses below 104.6 M⊙ are unlikely to have merged with any other star-forming systems.

  20. Galaxy growth in a massive halo in the first billion years of cosmic history (United States)

    Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Hayward, C. C.; Vieira, J. D.; Aravena, M.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. B.; Béthermin, M.; Brodwin, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chapman, S. C.; Chen, Chian-Chou; Crawford, T. M.; Cunningham, D. J. M.; De Breuck, C.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Hezaveh, Y. D.; Lacaille, K.; Litke, K. C.; Lower, S.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Miller, T. B.; Morningstar, W. R.; Murphy, E. J.; Narayanan, D.; Phadke, K. A.; Rotermund, K. M.; Sreevani, J.; Stalder, B.; Stark, A. A.; Strandet, M. L.; Tang, M.; Weiß, A.


    According to the current understanding of cosmic structure formation, the precursors of the most massive structures in the Universe began to form shortly after the Big Bang, in regions corresponding to the largest fluctuations in the cosmic density field. Observing these structures during their period of active growth and assembly—the first few hundred million years of the Universe—is challenging because it requires surveys that are sensitive enough to detect the distant galaxies that act as signposts for these structures and wide enough to capture the rarest objects. As a result, very few such objects have been detected so far. Here we report observations of a far-infrared-luminous object at redshift 6.900 (less than 800 million years after the Big Bang) that was discovered in a wide-field survey. High-resolution imaging shows it to be a pair of extremely massive star-forming galaxies. The larger is forming stars at a rate of 2,900 solar masses per year, contains 270 billion solar masses of gas and 2.5 billion solar masses of dust, and is more massive than any other known object at a redshift of more than 6. Its rapid star formation is probably triggered by its companion galaxy at a projected separation of 8 kiloparsecs. This merging companion hosts 35 billion solar masses of stars and has a star-formation rate of 540 solar masses per year, but has an order of magnitude less gas and dust than its neighbour and physical conditions akin to those observed in lower-metallicity galaxies in the nearby Universe. These objects suggest the presence of a dark-matter halo with a mass of more than 100 billion solar masses, making it among the rarest dark-matter haloes that should exist in the Universe at this epoch.

  1. Characteristic time for halo current growth and rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)


    A halo current flows for part of its path through the plasma edge and for part through the chamber walls and during tokamak disruptions can be as large as tenths of the plasma current. The primary interest in halo currents is the large force that they can exert on machine components particularly if the toriodal rotation of the halo current resonates with a natural oscillation frequency of the tokamak device. Halo currents arise when required to slow down the growth of a kink that is too unstable to be stabilized by the chamber walls. The width of the current channel in the halo plasma is comparable to the amplitude of the kink, and the halo current grows linearly, not exponentially, in time. The current density in the halo is comparable to that of the main plasma body. The rocket force due to plasma flowing out of the halo and recombining on the chamber walls can cause the non-axisymmetric magnetic structure produced by the kink to rotate toroidally at a speed comparable to the halo speed of sound. Gerhardt's observations of the halo current in NSTX shot 141 687 [Nucl. Fusion 53, 023005 (2013)] illustrate many features of the theory of halo currents and are discussed as a summary of the theory.

  2. Dynamics of the Disruption Halo Current Toroidal Asymmetry in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Gerhardt


    This paper describes the dynamics of disruption halo current non-axisymmetries in the lower divertor of the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono, et al. Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]. While. The halo currents typically have a strongly asymmetric structure where they enter the divertor floor, and this asymmetry has been observed to complete up to 7 toroidal revolutions over the duration of the halo current pulse. However, the rotation speed and toroidal extend of the asymmetry can vary significantly during the pulse. The rotation speed, halo current pulse duration, and total number of revolutions tend to be smaller in cases with large halo currents. The halo current pattern is observed to become toroidally symmetric at the end of the halo current pulse. It is proposed that this symmeterization is due to the loss of most or all of the closed field line geometry in the final phase of the vertical displacement event.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falck, Bridget L.; Neyrinck, Mark C.; Szalay, Alexander S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We present the ORIGAMI method of identifying structures, particularly halos, in cosmological N-body simulations. Structure formation can be thought of as the folding of an initially flat three-dimensional manifold in six-dimensional phase space. ORIGAMI finds the outer folds that delineate these structures. Halo particles are identified as those that have undergone shell-crossing along three orthogonal axes, providing a dynamical definition of halo regions that is independent of density. ORIGAMI also identifies other morphological structures: particles that have undergone shell-crossing along 2, 1, or 0 orthogonal axes correspond to filaments, walls, and voids, respectively. We compare this method to a standard friends-of-friends halo-finding algorithm and find that ORIGAMI halos are somewhat larger, more diffuse, and less spherical, though the global properties of ORIGAMI halos are in good agreement with other modern halo-finding algorithms.

  4. Using Tidal Tails to Probe Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Mihos, Chris; Dubinski, John; Hernquist, Lars


    We present a series of numerical simulations of merging galaxies to explore the effect of differing halo mass distributions on the morphology of tidal tails. We employ composite disk/bulge/halo galaxy models which span a range of halo properties from low mass, compact halos to very massive, extended halos, and possess identically flat rotation curves inside a few disk scale lengths. These merger experiments are performed with a range of impact parameters, inclinations and mass ratios for the galaxies as well. Our simulations indicate that even under the most favorable conditions, galaxies with extended dark matter halos produce very anemic tidal tails when merging. In light of several observed mergers which sport prominent tidal tails --- e.g., NGC 7252, NGC 4038/39 (``The Antennae"), NGC 4676, and most spectacularly IRAS 19254-7245 (``The Superantennae") --- our results suggest that galaxy halos may be significantly more compact and less massive than expected in Omega =1 cosmological scenarios.

  5. Predicted space motions for hypervelocity and runaway stars: proper motions and radial velocities for the Gaia Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Brown, Warren R.; Geller, Margaret J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bromley, Benjamin C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)


    We predict the distinctive three-dimensional space motions of hypervelocity stars (HVSs) and runaway stars moving in a realistic Galactic potential. For nearby stars with distances less than 10 kpc, unbound stars are rare; proper motions alone rarely isolate bound HVSs and runaways from indigenous halo stars. At large distances of 20-100 kpc, unbound HVSs are much more common than runaways; radial velocities easily distinguish both from indigenous halo stars. Comparisons of the predictions with existing observations are encouraging. Although the models fail to match observations of solar-type HVS candidates from SEGUE, they agree well with data for B-type HVS and runaways from other surveys. Complete samples of g ≲ 20 stars with Gaia should provide clear tests of formation models for HVSs and runaways and will enable accurate probes of the shape of the Galactic potential.

  6. Baseline Metal Enrichment from Population III Star Formation in Cosmological Volume Simulations (United States)

    Jaacks, Jason; Thompson, Robert; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Bromm, Volker


    We utilize the hydrodynamic and N-body code GIZMO coupled with our newly developed sub-grid Population III (Pop III) Legacy model, designed specifically for cosmological volume simulations, to study the baseline metal enrichment from Pop III star formation at z > 7. In this idealized numerical experiment, we only consider Pop III star formation. We find that our model Pop III star formation rate density (SFRD), which peaks at ˜10-3 M⊙yr-1Mpc-1 near z ˜ 10, agrees well with previous numerical studies and is consistent with the observed estimates for Pop II SFRDs. The mean Pop III metallicity rises smoothly from z = 25 - 7, but does not reach the critical metallicity value, Zcrit = 10-4 Z⊙, required for the Pop III to Pop II transition in star formation mode until z ≃ 7. This suggests that, while individual halos can suppress in-situ Pop III star formation, the external enrichment is insufficient to globally terminate Pop III star formation. The maximum enrichment from Pop III star formation in star forming dark matter halos is Z ˜ 10-2 Z⊙, whereas the minimum found in externally enriched haloes is Z ≳ 10-7 Z⊙. Finally, mock observations of our simulated IGM enriched with Pop III metals produce equivalent widths similar to observations of an extremely metal poor damped Lyman alpha (DLA) system at z = 7.04, which is thought to be enriched by Pop III star formation only.

  7. Precise halo orbit design and optimal transfer to halo orbits from earth using differential evolution (United States)

    Nath, Pranav; Ramanan, R. V.


    The mission design to a halo orbit around the libration points from Earth involves two important steps. In the first step, we design a halo orbit for a specified size and in the second step, we obtain an optimal transfer trajectory design to the halo orbit from an Earth parking orbit. Conventionally, the preliminary design for these steps is obtained using higher order analytical solution and the dynamical systems theory respectively. Refinements of the design are carried out using gradient based methods such as differential correction and pseudo arc length continuation method under the of circular restricted three body model. In this paper, alternative single level schemes are developed for both of these steps based on differential evolution, an evolutionary optimization technique. The differential evolution based scheme for halo orbit design produces precise halo orbit design avoiding the refinement steps. Further, in this approach, prior knowledge of higher order analytical solutions for the halo orbit design is not needed. The differential evolution based scheme for the transfer trajectory, identifies the precise location on the halo orbit that needs minimum energy for insertion and avoids exploration of multiple points. The need of a close guess is removed because the present scheme operates on a set of bounds for the unknowns. The constraint on the closest approach altitude from Earth is handled through objective function. The use of these schemes as the design and analysis tools within the of circular restricted three body model is demonstrated through case studies for missions to the first libration point of Sun-Earth system.

  8. The large-scale structure of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy. I. Global stellar density, morphology and metallicity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Martin, Nicolas F. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de lUniversité, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Lewis, Geraint F. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Peñarrubia, Jorge [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Babul, Arif; Navarro, Julio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Collins, Michelle [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fardal, Mark [University of Massachusetts, Department of Astronomy, LGRT 619-E, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Mackey, A. D. [RSAA, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, PAB, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tanvir, Nial [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Widrow, Lawrence, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)


    We present an analysis of the large-scale structure of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy, based on the Pan-Andromeda Archeological Survey (PAndAS), currently the most complete map of resolved stellar populations in any galactic halo. Despite the presence of copious substructures, the global halo populations follow closely power-law profiles that become steeper with increasing metallicity. We divide the sample into stream-like populations and a smooth halo component (defined as the population that cannot be resolved into spatially distinct substructures with PAndAS). Fitting a three-dimensional halo model reveals that the most metal-poor populations ([Fe/H]<−1.7) are distributed approximately spherically (slightly prolate with ellipticity c/a = 1.09 ± 0.03), with only a relatively small fraction residing in discernible stream-like structures (f {sub stream} = 42%). The sphericity of the ancient smooth component strongly hints that the dark matter halo is also approximately spherical. More metal-rich populations contain higher fractions of stars in streams, with f {sub stream} becoming as high as 86% for [Fe/H]>−0.6. The space density of the smooth metal-poor component has a global power-law slope of γ = –3.08 ± 0.07, and a non-parametric fit shows that the slope remains nearly constant from 30 kpc to ∼300 kpc. The total stellar mass in the halo at distances beyond 2° is ∼1.1 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, while that of the smooth component is ∼3 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. Extrapolating into the inner galaxy, the total stellar mass of the smooth halo is plausibly ∼8 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}. We detect a substantial metallicity gradient, which declines from ([Fe/H]) = –0.7 at R = 30 kpc to ([Fe/H]) = –1.5 at R = 150 kpc for the full sample, with the smooth halo being ∼0.2 dex more metal poor than the full sample at each radius. While qualitatively in line with expectations from cosmological simulations, these observations are of great importance as

  9. Heavy element synthesis in the oldest stars and the early Universe. (United States)

    Cowan, John J; Sneden, Christopher


    The first stars in the Universe were probably quite different from those born today. Composed almost entirely of hydrogen and helium (plus a tiny trace of lithium), they lacked the heavier elements that determine the formation and evolution of younger stars. Although we cannot observe the very first stars--they died long ago in supernovae explosions--they created heavy elements that were incorporated into the next generation. Here we describe how observations of heavy elements in the oldest surviving stars in our Galaxy's halo help us understand the nature of the first stars--those responsible for the chemical enrichment of our Galaxy and Universe.

  10. Degraded RNA transcript stable regions (StaRs) as targets for enhanced forensic RNA body fluid identification. (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Han; Albani, Patricia P; Fleming, Rachel


    The detection of messenger RNA (mRNA) using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) is becoming common practice for forensic body fluid identification. However, the degraded and scarce nature of RNA from forensic samples mean that mRNA transcripts are not consistently detected or remain undetected in practice. Conventional primer design for RT-PCR (and quantitative RT-PCR) includes targeting primers to span exon-exon boundaries or by having the primers on two separate exons, and satisfying common primer thermodynamic criteria. We have found that the conventional placement of primers is not always optimal for obtaining reproducible results from degraded samples. Using massively parallel sequencing data from degraded body fluids, we designed primers to amplify transcript regions of high read coverage, hence, higher stability, and compared these with primers designed using conventional methodology. Our findings are that primers designed for transcript regions of higher read coverage resulted in vastly improved detection of mRNA transcripts that were not previously detected or were not consistently detected in the same samples using conventional primers. We developed a new concept whereby primers targeted to transcript stable regions (StaRs) are able to consistently and specifically amplify a wide range of RNA biomarkers in various body fluids of varying degradation levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Outer Halos of Very Massive Galaxies: BCGs and their DSC in the Magneticum Simulations (United States)

    Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Hoffmann, Tadziu


    Recent hydrodynamic cosmological simulations cover volumes up to Gpc^3 and resolve halos across a wide range of masses and environments, from massive galaxy clusters down to normal galaxies, while following a large variety of physical processes (star formation, chemical enrichment, AGN feedback) to allow a self-consistent comparison to observations at multiple wavelengths. Using the Magneticum simulations, we investigate the buildup of the diffuse stellar component (DSC) around massive galaxies within group and cluster environments. The DSC in our simulations reproduces the spatial distribution of the observed intracluster light (ICL) as well as its kinematic properties remarkably well. For galaxy clusters and groups we find that, although the DSC in almost all cases shows a clear separation from the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) with regard to its dynamic state, the radial stellar density distribution in many halos is often characterized by a single Sersic profile, representing both the BCG component and the DSC, very much in agreement with current observational results. Interestingly, even in those halos that clearly show two components in both the dynamics and the spatial distribution of the stellar component, no correlation between them is evident.

  12. Using artificial neural networks to constrain the halo baryon fraction during reionization (United States)

    Sullivan, David; Iliev, Ilian T.; Dixon, Keri L.


    Radiative feedback from stars and galaxies has been proposed as a potential solution to many of the tensions with simplistic galaxy formation models based on Λcold dark matter, such as the faint end of the ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. The total energy budget of radiation could exceed that of galactic winds and supernovae combined, which has driven the development of sophisticated algorithms that evolve both the radiation field and the hydrodynamical response of gas simultaneously, in a cosmological context. We probe self-feedback on galactic scales using the adaptive mesh refinement, radiative transfer, hydrodynamics, and N-body code RAMSES-RT. Unlike previous studies which assume a homogeneous UV background, we self-consistently evolve both the radiation field and gas to constrain the halo baryon fraction during cosmic reionization. We demonstrate that the characteristic halo mass with mean baryon fraction half the cosmic mean, Mc(z), shows very little variation as a function of mass-weighted ionization fraction. Furthermore, we find that the inclusion of metal cooling and the ability to resolve scales small enough for self-shielding to become efficient leads to a significant drop in Mc when compared to recent studies. Finally, we develop an artificial neural network that is capable of predicting the baryon fraction of haloes based on recent tidal interactions, gas temperature, and mass-weighted ionization fraction. Such a model can be applied to any reionization history, and trivially incorporated into semi-analytical models of galaxy formation.

  13. Star Wreck

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Tinyakov, Peter G; Tkachev, Igor I; Kusenko, Alexander; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Tkachev, Igor I.


    Electroweak models with low-energy supersymmetry breaking predict the existence of stable non-topological solitons, Q-balls, that can be produced in the early universe. The relic Q-balls can accumulate inside a neutron star and gradually absorb the baryons into the scalar condensate. This causes a slow reduction in the mass of the star. When the mass reaches a critical value, the neutron star becomes unstable and explodes. The cataclysmic destruction of the distant neutron stars may be the origin of the gamma-ray bursts.

  14. Neutron Stars (United States)

    Cottam, J.


    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  15. Resolving the Disk-Halo Degeneracy using Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Aniyan, S.; Freeman, K. C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Coccato, L.; Fabricius, M.; Kuijken, K.; Merrifield, M.


    The decomposition of the 21 cm rotation curve of galaxies into contribution from the disk and dark halo depends on the adopted mass to light ratio (M/L) of the disk. Given the vertical velocity dispersion (σ z ) of stars in the disk and its scale height (h z ), the disk surface density and hence the M/L can be estimated. Earlier works have used this technique to conclude that galaxy disks are submaximal. Here we address an important conceptual problem: star-forming spirals have an old (kinematically hot) disk population and a young cold disk population. Both of these populations contribute to the integrated light spectra from which σ z is measured. The measured scale height h z is for the old disk population. In the Jeans equation, σ z and h z must pertain to the same population. We have developed techniques to extract the velocity dispersion of the old disk from integrated light spectra and from samples of planetary nebulae. We present the analysis of the disk kinematics of the galaxy NGC 628 using IFU data in the inner regions and planetary nebulae as tracers in the outer regions of the disk. We demonstrate that using the scale height of the old thin disk with the vertical velocity dispersion of the same population, traced by PNe, results in a maximal disk for NGC 628. Our analysis concludes that previous studies underestimate the disk surface mass density by ~ 2, sufficient to make a maximal disk for NGC 628 appear like a submaximal disk.

  16. The distribution of satellites around massive galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in ZFOURGE/CANDELS: Dependence on star formation activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Papovich, Casey; Quadri, Ryan F.; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Mehrtens, Nicola [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Spitler, Lee R.; Cowley, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Glazebrook, Karl; Nanayakkara, Themiya [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Allen, Rebecca [Australian Astronomical Observatories, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Davé, Romeel [University of the Western Cape, Bellville, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hartley, W. G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Koo, David C. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lu, Yu, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); and others


    We study the statistical distribution of satellites around star-forming and quiescent central galaxies at 1 < z < 3 using imaging from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey and the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey. The deep near-IR data select satellites down to log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 9 at z < 3. The radial satellite distribution around centrals is consistent with a projected Navarro-Frenk-White profile. Massive quiescent centrals, log (M/M {sub ☉}) > 10.78, have ∼2 times the number of satellites compared to star-forming centrals with a significance of 2.7σ even after accounting for differences in the centrals' stellar-mass distributions. We find no statistical difference in the satellite distributions of intermediate-mass quiescent and star-forming centrals, 10.48 < log (M/M {sub ☉}) < 10.78. Compared to the Guo et al. semi-analytic model, the excess number of satellites indicates that quiescent centrals have halo masses 0.3 dex larger than star-forming centrals, even when the stellar-mass distributions are fixed. We use a simple toy model that relates halo mass and quenching, which roughly reproduces the observed quenched fractions and the differences in halo mass between star-forming and quenched galaxies only if galaxies have a quenching probability that increases with halo mass from ∼0 for log (M{sub h} /M {sub ☉}) ∼ 11 to ∼1 for log (M{sub h} /M {sub ☉}) ∼ 13.5. A single halo-mass quenching threshold is unable to reproduce the quiescent fraction and satellite distribution of centrals. Therefore, while halo quenching may be an important mechanism, it is unlikely to be the only factor driving quenching. It remains unclear why a high fraction of centrals remain star-forming even in relatively massive halos.

  17. The Halo B2B Studio (United States)

    Gorzynski, Mark; Derocher, Mike; Mitchell, April Slayden

    Research underway at Hewlett-Packard on remote communication resulted in the identification of three important components typically missing in existing systems. These missing components are: group nonverbal communication capabilities, high-resolution interactive data capabilities, and global services. Here we discuss some of the design elements in these three areas as part of the Halo program at HP, a remote communication system shown to be effective to end-users.

  18. Beam Shape and Halo Monitor Study

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J B; Hori, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    The Beam Shape and Halo Monitor, designed by Masaki Hori, is the main diagnostic tool for the 3 MeV test stand scheduled in 2008. This detector will be able to measure the transverse halo generated in the RFQ and the Chopper-line and to detect and measure the longitudinal halo composed of the incompletely chopped bunches. Its principle of functioning is the following: H- ions hit a carbon foil and generate secondary electrons with the same spatial distribution than the incoming beam and a current depending on an emission coefficient given by the carbon foil. These electrons are accelerated towards a phosphor screen by an electric field applied between accelerating grids. Once the electrons reach the phosphor screen, they generate light which is transmitted to a CCD camera via optic fibers [1]. It is expected to give a time resolution of 1-2ns and a spatial resolution of 1mm. The first test of the BSHM done with a Laser has shown a spatial resolution bigger than 1cm and the time resolution bigger than 2ns[2]. ...

  19. Dissecting Halo Components in IFU Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Merrifield


    Full Text Available While most astronomers are now familiar with tools to decompose images into multiple components such as disks, bulges, and halos, the equivalent techniques for spectral data cubes are still in their infancy. This is unfortunate, as integral field unit (IFU spectral surveys are now producing a mass of data in this format, which we are ill-prepared to analyze effectively. We have therefore been developing new tools to separate out components using this full spectral data. The results of such analyses will prove invaluable in determining not only whether such decompositions have an astrophysical significance, but, where they do, also in determining the relationship between the various elements of a galaxy. Application to a pilot study of IFU data from the cD galaxy NGC 3311 confirms that the technique can separate the stellar halo from the underlying galaxy in such systems, and indicates that, in this case, the halo is older and more metal poor than the galaxy, consistent with it forming from the cannibalism of smaller satellite galaxies. The success of the method bodes well for its application to studying the larger samples of cD galaxies that IFU surveys are currently producing.

  20. The Extended Baryonic Halo of NGC 3923

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Miller


    Full Text Available Galaxy halos and their globular cluster systems build up over time by the accretion of small satellites. We can learn about this process in detail by observing systems with ongoing accretion events and comparing the data with simulations. Elliptical shell galaxies are systems that are thought to be due to ongoing or recent minor mergers. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the baryonic halo—light profile, globular clusters, and shells/streams—of the shell galaxy NGC 3923 from deep Dark Energy Camera (DECam g and i-band imaging. We present the 2D and radial distributions of the globular cluster candidates out to a projected radius of about 185 kpc, or ∼ 37 R e , making this one of the most extended cluster systems studied. The total number of clusters implies a halo mass of M h ∼ 3 × 10 13 M ⊙ . Previous studies had identified between 22 and 42 shells, making NGC 3923 the system with the largest number of shells. We identify 23 strong shells and 11 that are uncertain. Future work will measure the halo mass and mass profile from the radial distributions of the shell, N-body models, and line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD measurements of the shells using the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE.

  1. New Light on Dark Stars Red Dwarfs, Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, I. Neill


    There has been very considerable progress in research into low-mass stars, brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets during the past few years, particularly since the fist edtion of this book was published in 2000. In this new edtion the authors present a comprehensive review of both the astrophysical nature of individual red dwarf and brown dwarf stars and their collective statistical properties as an important Galactic stellar population. Chapters dealing with the observational properies of low-mass dwarfs, the stellar mass function and extrasolar planets have been completely revised. Other chapters have been significantly revised and updated as appropriate, including important new material on observational techniques, stellar acivity, the Galactic halo and field star surveys. The authors detail the many discoveries of new brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets made since publication of the first edition of the book and provide a state-of-the-art review of our current knowledge of very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs a...

  2. The SPLASH Survey: Spectroscopy of Newly Discovered Tidal Streams in the Outer Halo of the Andromeda Galaxy (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; Beaton, R.; Bullock, J.; Chiba, M.; Fardal, M.; Geha, M.; Gilbert, K.; Howley, K.; Iye, M.; Johnston, K.; Kalirai, J.; Kirby, E.; Komiyama, Y.; Majewski, S.; Patterson, R.; Tanaka, M.; Tollerud, E.; SPLASH Collaboration


    We present Keck DEIMOS spectra of stars associated with three newly discovered tidal streams in the remote outer halo of the Andromeda spiral galaxy (M31). Two of these streams, Streams E and F (at Rproj 60 and 100 kpc, respectively, on the NW minor axis), were discovered by members of our collaboration in a deep, wide-field Subaru SuprimeCam imaging survey. The third stream (at Rproj 90 kpc near the SW major axis) was identified by others in their ongoing wide-field CFHT MegaCam survey. Spectroscopic and broadband photometric diagnostics (plus KPNO/Mosaic DDO51 photometry for the SW major axis stream) are used to distinguish between various categories of objects along the line of sight: red giant stars associated with the stream (kinematically cold), red giants in the general M31 field halo population (kinematically hot), and foreground/background contaminants (Milky Way dwarf stars and distant galaxies, respectively). We measure the surface brightness, mean velocity, velocity dispersion, and metallicity distribution of these three new tidal streams, based on spectroscopically confirmed secure red giant members. These measurements should be useful for constraining models of the tidal interactions that produced these streams (e.g. orbit and nature of progenitor). The properties of these new streams are viewed in the context of previously known tidal streams in the M31 halo. A comparison between the statistical properties of M31's tidal streams and state-of-the-art Lambda-CDM simulations provides insight into the details of the hierarchical formation process that leads to the growth of galaxy halos. This research was funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA/STScI.

  3. The PAndAS field of streams: Stellar structures in the milky way halo toward Andromeda and Triangulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A. [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, PAB, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Collins, Michelle L. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Fardal, Mark A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Irwin, Michael J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lewis, Geraint F.; Bate, Nicholas F.; Conn, Anthony R. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McConnachie, Alan W. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Babul, Arif; Navarro, Julio F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia V8P 5C2 (Canada); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Crnojević, Denija; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Peñarrubia, Jorge [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Mackey, A. Dougal [RSAA, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Tanvir, Nial T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Valls-Gabaud, David, E-mail: [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France)


    We reveal the highly structured nature of the Milky Way (MW) stellar halo within the footprint of the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) photometric survey from blue main sequence (MS) and MS turn-off stars. We map no fewer than five stellar structures within a heliocentric range of ∼5-30 kpc. Some of these are known (the Monoceros Ring, the Pisces/Triangulum globular cluster stream), but we also uncover three well-defined stellar structures that could be, at least partly, responsible for the so-called Triangulum/Andromeda and Triangulum/Andromeda 2 features. In particular, we trace a new faint stellar stream located at a heliocentric distance of ∼17 kpc. With a surface brightness of Σ {sub V} ∼ 32-32.5 mag arcsec{sup –2}, it follows an orbit that is almost parallel to the Galactic plane north of M31 and has so far eluded surveys of the MW halo as these tend to steer away from regions dominated by the Galactic disk. Investigating our follow-up spectroscopic observations of PAndAS, we serendipitously uncover a radial velocity signature from stars that have colors and magnitudes compatible with the stream. From the velocity of eight likely member stars, we show that this stellar structure is dynamically cold, with an unresolved velocity dispersion that is lower than 7.1 km s{sup –1} at the 90% confidence level. Along with the width of the stream (300-650 pc), its dynamics point to a dwarf-galaxy-accretion origin. The numerous stellar structures we can map in the MW stellar halo between 5 and 30 kpc and their varying morphology is a testament to the complex nature of the stellar halo at these intermediate distances.

  4. Hydrodynamical simulations of coupled and uncoupled quintessence models - I. Halo properties and the cosmic web (United States)

    Carlesi, Edoardo; Knebe, Alexander; Lewis, Geraint F.; Wales, Scott; Yepes, Gustavo


    We present the results of a series of adiabatic hydrodynamical simulations of several quintessence models (both with a free and an interacting scalar field) in comparison to a standard Λ cold dark matter cosmology. For each we use 2 × 10243 particles in a 250 h-1 Mpc periodic box assuming 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cosmology. In this work we focus on the properties of haloes in the cosmic web at z = 0. The web is classified into voids, sheets, filaments and knots depending on the eigenvalues of the velocity shear tensor, which are an excellent proxy for the underlying overdensity distribution. We find that the properties of objects classified according to their surrounding environment show a substantial dependence on the underlying cosmology; for example, while Vmax shows average deviations of ≈5 per cent across the different models when considering the full halo sample, comparing objects classified according to their environment, the size of the deviation can be as large as 20 per cent. We also find that halo spin parameters are positively correlated to the coupling, whereas halo concentrations show the opposite behaviour. Furthermore, when studying the concentration-mass relation in different environments, we find that in all cosmologies underdense regions have a larger normalization and a shallower slope. While this behaviour is found to characterize all the models, differences in the best-fitting relations are enhanced in (coupled) dark energy models, thus providing a clearer prediction for this class of models.

  5. The Effects of Halo Assembly Bias on Self-Calibration in Galaxy Cluster Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao-Yi; Rozo, Eduardo; Wechsler, Risa H.


    Self-calibration techniques for analyzing galaxy cluster counts utilize the abundance and the clustering amplitude of dark matter halos. These properties simultaneously constrain cosmological parameters and the cluster observable-mass relation. It was recently discovered that the clustering amplitude of halos depends not only on the halo mass, but also on various secondary variables, such as the halo formation time and the concentration; these dependences are collectively termed 'assembly bias'. Applying modified Fisher matrix formalism, we explore whether these secondary variables have a significant impact on the study of dark energy properties using the self-calibration technique in current (SDSS) and the near future (DES, SPT, and LSST) cluster surveys. The impact of the secondary dependence is determined by (1) the scatter in the observable-mass relation and (2) the correlation between observable and secondary variables. We find that for optical surveys, the secondary dependence does not significantly influence an SDSS-like survey; however, it may affect a DES-like survey (given the high scatter currently expected from optical clusters) and an LSST-like survey (even for low scatter values and low correlations). For an SZ survey such as SPT, the impact of secondary dependence is insignificant if the scatter is 20% or lower but can be enhanced by the potential high scatter values introduced by a highly-correlated background. Accurate modeling of the assembly bias is necessary for cluster self-calibration in the era of precision cosmology.

  6. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Previtali, Valentina [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Valishev, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bruce, Roderik [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Redaelli, Stefano [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rossi, Adriana [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Salvachua Ferrando, Belen [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)


    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. We are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were checked to ensure that undesired effects were suppressed. Hardware specifications were based on the Tevatron devices and on preliminary engineering integration studies in the LHC machine. Required resources and a possible timeline were also outlined, together with a brief discussion of alternative halo-removal schemes and of other possible uses of electron lenses to improve the performance of the LHC.

  7. Star Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Buch; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta


    The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol.......The version of the star imager developed for Astrid II is described. All functions and features are described as well as the operations and the software protocol....

  8. Star Polymers. (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G


    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  9. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  10. Tritium Plasma Experiment Upgrade and Improvement of Surface Diagnostic Capabilities at STAR Facility for Enhancing Tritium and Nuclear PMI Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, M.; Taylor, C. N.; Pawelko, R. J.; Cadwallader, L. C.; Merrill, B. J.


    The Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) is a unique high-flux linear plasma device that can handle beryllium, tritium, and neutron-irradiated plasma facing materials, and is the only existing device dedicated to directly study tritium retention and permeation in neutron-irradiated materials with tritium [M. Shimada, Rev. Sci. Instru. 82 (2011) 083503 and and M. Shimada,, Nucl. Fusion 55 (2015) 013008]. The plasma-material-interaction (PMI) determines a boundary condition for diffusing tritium into bulk PFCs, and the tritium PMI is crucial for enhancing fundamental sciences that dictate tritium fuel cycles and safety and are high importance to an FNSF and DEMO. Recently the TPE has undergone major upgrades in its electrical and control systems. New DC power supplies and a new control center enable remote plasma operations from outside of the contamination area for tritium, minimizing the possible exposure risk with tritium and beryllium. We discuss the electrical upgrade, enhanced operational safety, improved plasma performance, and development of optical spectrometer system. This upgrade not only improves operational safety of the worker, but also enhances plasma performance to better simulate extreme plasma-material conditions expected in ITER, Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF), and Demonstration reactor (DEMO). This work was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under the DOE Idaho Field Office contract number DE-AC07-05ID14517.

  11. The “Building Blocks” of Stellar Halos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle A. Oman


    Full Text Available The stellar halos of galaxies encode their accretion histories. In particular, the median metallicity of a halo is determined primarily by the mass of the most massive accreted object. We use hydrodynamical cosmological simulations from the apostle project to study the connection between the stellar mass, the metallicity distribution, and the stellar age distribution of a halo and the identity of its most massive progenitor. We find that the stellar populations in an accreted halo typically resemble the old stellar populations in a present-day dwarf galaxy with a stellar mass ∼0.2–0.5 dex greater than that of the stellar halo. This suggests that had they not been accreted, the primary progenitors of stellar halos would have evolved to resemble typical nearby dwarf irregulars.

  12. Modeling the Gravitational Potential of a Cosmological Dark Matter Halo with Stellar Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, Robyn E. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W 120th St, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Hartke, Johanna; Helmi, Amina, E-mail: [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)


    Stellar streams result from the tidal disruption of satellites and star clusters as they orbit a host galaxy, and can be very sensitive probes of the gravitational potential of the host system. We select and study narrow stellar streams formed in a Milky-Way-like dark matter halo of the Aquarius suite of cosmological simulations, to determine if these streams can be used to constrain the present day characteristic parameters of the halo’s gravitational potential. We find that orbits integrated in both spherical and triaxial static Navarro–Frenk–White potentials reproduce the locations and kinematics of the various streams reasonably well. To quantify this further, we determine the best-fit potential parameters by maximizing the amount of clustering of the stream stars in the space of their actions. We show that using our set of Aquarius streams, we recover a mass profile that is consistent with the spherically averaged dark matter profile of the host halo, although we ignored both triaxiality and time evolution in the fit. This gives us confidence that such methods can be applied to the many streams that will be discovered by the Gaia mission to determine the gravitational potential of our Galaxy.

  13. Fusion reactions with the one-neutron halo nucleus 15C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marley S. T.


    Full Text Available We have for the first time studied the fusion-fission excitation functions for the systems 14,15C + 232Th at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier. At energies below the barrier, the fusion cross section of the halo nucleus 15C showed an enhancement by a factor of 2-5, while the fusion cross section for 14C shows a similar trend to that of 12,13C.

  14. N-body dark matter haloes with simple hierarchical histories (United States)

    Jiang, Lilian; Helly, John C.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.


    We present a new algorithm which groups the subhaloes found in cosmological N-body simulations by structure finders such as SUBFIND into dark matter haloes whose formation histories are strictly hierarchical. One advantage of these `Dhaloes' over the commonly used friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes is that they retain their individual identity in the cases when FoF haloes are artificially merged by tenuous bridges of particles or by an overlap of their outer diffuse haloes. Dhaloes are thus well suited for modelling galaxy formation and their merger trees form the basis of the Durham semi-analytic galaxy formation model, GALFORM. Applying the Dhalo construction to the Λ cold dark matter Millennium II Simulation, we find that approximately 90 per cent of Dhaloes have a one-to-one, bijective match with a corresponding FoF halo. The remaining 10 per cent are typically secondary components of large FoF haloes. Although the mass functions of both types of haloes are similar, the mass of Dhaloes correlates much more tightly with the virial mass, M200, than FoF haloes. Approximately 80 per cent of FoF and bijective and non-bijective Dhaloes are relaxed according to standard criteria. For these relaxed haloes, all three types have similar concentration-M200 relations and, at fixed mass, the concentration distributions are described accurately by log-normal distributions.

  15. Reversed Halo Sign: Presents in Different Pulmonary Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhan

    Full Text Available To observe the incidence of reversed halo sign in different pulmonary diseases and the pathological correspondence of reversed halo sign.Retrospectively studied the high resolution computer tomography scans of all the patients who were admitted in our department with abnormal pulmonary imaging, from 1st of January 2011 to 31st of December 2013, and all the cases with reversed halo sign on the high resolution computer tomography were collected. Clinical data such as pathological findings and confirmed diagnosis of the patients with reversed halo sign on the high resolution computer tomography scan were collected and summarized.Of 1546 abnormal High resolution computer tomography scans 108 had a reverse halo sign present, including 108 cases were observed with reversed halo sign in the high resolution computer tomography, including 40 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis, 43 cases of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, 16 cases of lung cancer, 7 cases of sarcoidosis, and 1 case of pulmonary cryptococcosis, 1 case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Reversed halo sign had a higher incidence in granulomatous diseases (16.28% compared with non-granulomatous diseases (9.97%.Reversed halo sign is relatively non specific; it can be observed in different lung diseases, and different phases of diseases; reversed halo sign is more commonly found in granulomatous diseases compared with non-granulomatous diseases, and is most commonly observed in pulmonary tuberculosis among the granulomatous diseases, and in cryptogenic organizing pneumonia among the non-granulomatous diseases.

  16. Brightest galaxies as halo centre tracers in SDSS DR7 (United States)

    Lange, Johannes U.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Hearin, Andrew; Campbell, Duncan; Zentner, Andrew R.; Villarreal, Antonio; Mao, Yao-Yuan


    Determining the positions of halo centres in large-scale structure surveys is crucial for many cosmological studies. A common assumption is that halo centres correspond to the location of their brightest member galaxies. In this paper, we study the dynamics of brightest galaxies with respect to other halo members in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. Specifically, we look at the line-of-sight velocity and spatial offsets between brightest galaxies and their neighbours. We compare those to detailed mock catalogues, constructed from high-resolution, dark-matter-only N-body simulations, in which it is assumed that satellite galaxies trace dark matter subhaloes. This allows us to place constraints on the fraction fBNC of haloes in which the brightest galaxy is not the central. Compared to previous studies, we explicitly take into account the unrelaxed state of the host haloes, velocity offsets of halo cores and correlations between fBNC and the satellite occupation. We find that fBNC strongly decreases with the luminosity of the brightest galaxy and increases with the mass of the host halo. Overall, in the halo mass range 1013-1014.5 h- 1M⊙ we find fBNC ∼ 30 per cent, in good agreement with a previous study by Skibba et al. We discuss the implications of these findings for studies inferring the galaxy-halo connection from satellite kinematics, models of the conditional luminosity function and galaxy formation in general.

  17. Clustering dark energy and halo abundances (United States)

    Batista, Ronaldo C.; Marra, Valerio


    Within the standard paradigm, dark energy is taken as a homogeneous fluid that drives the accelerated expansion of the universe and does not contribute to the mass of collapsed objects such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. The abundance of galaxy clusters—measured through a variety of channels—has been extensively used to constrain the normalization of the power spectrum: it is an important probe as it allows us to test if the standard ΛCDM model can indeed accurately describe the evolution of structures across billions of years. It is then quite significant that the Planck satellite has detected, via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, less clusters than expected according to the primary CMB anisotropies. One of the simplest generalizations that could reconcile these observations is to consider models in which dark energy is allowed to cluster, i.e., allowing its sound speed to vary. In this case, however, the standard methods to compute the abundance of galaxy clusters need to be adapted to account for the contributions of dark energy. In particular, we examine the case of clustering dark energy—a dark energy fluid with negligible sound speed—with a redshift-dependent equation of state. We carefully study how the halo mass function is modified in this scenario, highlighting corrections that have not been considered before in the literature. We address modifications in the growth function, collapse threshold, virialization densities and also changes in the comoving scale of collapse and mass function normalization. Our results show that clustering dark energy can impact halo abundances at the level of 10%-30%, depending on the halo mass, and that cluster counts are modified by about 30% at a redshift of unity.

  18. Fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Haibin


    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of fast low-energy halo-to-halo transfers between Sun–planet systems is discussed under ephemeris constraints. According to the structure of an invariant manifold, employing an invariant manifold and planetary gravity assist to save fuel consumption is analyzed from the view of orbital energy. Then, a pseudo-manifold is introduced to replace the invariant manifold in such a way that more transfer opportunities are allowed. Fast escape and capture can be achieved along the pseudo-manifold. Furthermore, a global searching method that is based on patched-models is proposed to find an appropriate transfer trajectory. In this searching method, the trajectory is divided into several segments that can be designed under simple dynamical models, and an analytical algorithm is developed for connecting the segments. Earth–Mars and Earth–Venus halo-to-halo transfers are designed to demonstrate the proposed approach. Numerical results show that the transfers that combine the pseudo-manifolds and planetary gravity assist can offer significant fuel consumption and flight time savings over traditional transfer schemes.

  19. How Very Massive Metal-Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization (United States)

    Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom


    The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include nonequilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the case B approximation using adaptively ray-traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of approx.10(exp 6). These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small-scale voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf-sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies, making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately five ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10(exp 6) stellar Mass halos is dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than approx.10(exp 7) Stellar Mass, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15-50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Radiative feedback decreases clumping factors by 25% when compared to simulations without star formation and increases the average temperature of ionized gas to values between 3000 and 10,000 K.

  20. Haloes, molecules and multi-neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques Moreno, F.M


    Away from the equilibrium between protons and neutrons within stable nuclei, many exotic nuclei exist. Most of the known nuclear properties evolve smoothly with exoticism, but some extreme proton-neutron combinations have revealed during the last decade completely new concepts. They will be illustrated through three examples: the extended and dilute halo formed by very weakly bound neutrons, the molecular-like neutron orbitals found in nuclei exhibiting a clustering, and the recently revived debate on the possible existence of neutral nuclei. The different experimental results will be reviewed, and we will see how several properties of these new phenomena can be well understood within relatively simple theoretical approaches. (author)

  1. Clustering and correlations in neutrons haloes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, N.A


    In the present paper clustering and correlations within halo systems is explored. In particular, the application of neutron-neutron interferometry and Dalitz-plot type analyses is presented through the example provided by the dissociation of {sup 14}Be. A novel approach for producing and detection bound neutron clusters is also described. The observation of some 6 events with characteristics consistent with the liberation of a multi-neutron cluster in the breakup of {sup 14}Be - possibly in the channel {sup 10}Be+{sup 4}n - is discussed. (author)

  2. Project ECHO: Electronic Communications from Halo Orbit (United States)

    Borrelli, Jason; Cooley, Bryan; Debole, Marcy; Hrivnak, Lance; Nielsen, Kenneth; Sangmeister, Gary; Wolfe, Matthew


    The design of a communications relay to provide constant access between the Earth and the far side of the Moon is presented. Placement of the relay in a halo orbit about the L2 Earth-Moon Lagrange point allows the satellite to maintain constant simultaneous communication between Earth and scientific payloads on the far side of the Moon. The requirements of NASA's Discovery-class missions adopted and modified for this design are: total project cost should not exceed $150 million excluding launch costs, launch must be provided by Delta-class vehicle, and the satellite should maintain an operational lifetime of 10 to 15 years. The spacecraft will follow a transfer trajectory to the L2 point, after launch by a Delta II 7925 vehicle in 1999. Low-level thrust is used for injection into a stationkeeping-free halo orbit once the spacecraft reaches the L2 point. The shape of this halo orbit is highly elliptical with the maximum excursion from the L2 point being 35000 km. A spun section and despun section connected through a bearing and power transfer assembly (BAPTA) compose the structure of the spacecraft. Communications equipment is placed on the despun section to provide for a stationary dual parabolic offset-feed array antenna system. The dual system is necessary to provide communications coverage during portions of maximum excursion on the halo orbit. Transmissions to the NASA Deep Space Network 34 m antenna include six channels (color video, two voice, scientific data from lunar payloads, satellite housekeeping and telemetry and uplinked commands) using the S- and X-bands. Four radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) provide a total of 1360 W to power onboard systems and any two of the four Hughes 13 cm ion thrusters at once. Output of the ion thrusters is approximately 17.8 mN each with xenon as the propellant. Presence of torques generated by solar pressure on the antenna dish require the addition of a 'skirt' extending from the spun section of the satellite

  3. Universal properties of dark matter halos. (United States)

    Boyarsky, A; Neronov, A; Ruchayskiy, O; Tkachev, I


    We discuss the universal relation between density and size of observed dark matter halos that was recently shown to hold on a wide range of scales, from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters. Predictions of cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulations are consistent with this relation. We demonstrate that this property of ΛCDM can be understood analytically in the secondary infall model. Qualitative understanding given by this model provides a new way to predict which deviations from ΛCDM or large-scale modifications of gravity can affect universal behavior and, therefore, to constrain them observationally.

  4. Accelerated noncontrast-enhanced 4-dimensional intracranial MR angiography using golden-angle stack-of-stars trajectory and compressed sensing with magnitude subtraction. (United States)

    Zhou, Ziwu; Han, Fei; Yu, Songlin; Yu, Dandan; Rapacchi, Stanislas; Song, Hee Kwon; Wang, Danny J J; Hu, Peng; Yan, Lirong


    To evaluate the feasibility and performance of compressed sensing (CS) with magnitude subtraction regularization in accelerating non-contrast-enhanced dynamic intracranial MR angiography (NCE-dMRA). A CS algorithm was introduced in NCE-dMRA by exploiting the sparsity of the magnitude difference of the control and label images. The NCE-dMRA data were acquired using golden-angle stack-of-stars trajectory on six healthy volunteers and one patient with arteriovenous fistula. Images were reconstructed using (i) the proposed magnitude-subtraction CS (MS-CS); (ii) complex-subtraction CS; (iii) independent CS; and (iv) view-sharing with k-space weighted image contrast (KWIC). The dMRA image quality was compared across the four reconstruction strategies. The proposed MS-CS method was further compared with KWIC for temporal fidelity of depicting dynamic flow. The proposed MS-CS method was able to reconstruct NCE-dMRA images with detailed vascular structures and clean background. It provided better subjective image quality than the other two CS strategies (P < 0.05). Compared with KWIC, MS-CS showed similar image quality, but reduced temporal blurring in delineating the fine distal arteries. The MS-CS method is a promising CS technique for accelerating NCE-dMRA acquisition without compromising image quality and temporal fidelity. Magn Reson Med 79:867-878, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Bursts of star formation in computer simulations of dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comins, N.F.


    A three-dimensional Stochastic Self-Propagating Star Formation (SSPSF) model of compact galacies is presented. Two phases of gas, active and inactive, are present, and permanent depletion of gas in the form of long lived, low mass stars and remnants occurs. Similarly, global infall of gas from a galactic halo or through galactic cannibalism is permitted. We base our parameters on the observed properties of the compact blue galaxy I Zw 36. Our results are that bursts of star formation occur much more frequently in these runs than continuous nonbursting star formation, suggesting that the blue compact galaxies are probably undergoing bursts rather than continuous, nonbursting low-level star formation activity.

  6. Unveiling the Nature of Giant Ellipticals and their Stellar Halos with the VST (United States)

    Spavone, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Napolitano, N. R.; Iodice, E.; Grado, A.; Limatola, L.; Cooper, A. P.; Cantiello, M.; Forbes, D. A.; Paolillo, M.; Schipani, P.


    Observations of diffuse starlight in the outskirts of galaxies provide fundamental constraints on the cosmological context of galaxy assembly in the Lambda Cold Dark Matter model, which predicts that galaxies grow through a combination of in-situ star formation and accretion of stars from other galaxies. Accreted stars are expected to dominate in the outer parts of galaxies. Since dynamical timescales are longer in these regions, substructures related to accretion, such as streams and shells, can persist over many Gyr. In this work we use extremely deep g- and i-band images of six massive early- type galaxies (ETGs) from the VEGAS survey to constrain the properties of their accreted stellar components. The wide field of view of OmegaCAM on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST) also allows us to investigate the properties of small stellar systems (such as globular clusters, ultra-compact dwarfs and satellite galaxies) in the halos of our galaxies. By fitting light profiles, and comparing the results to simulations of elliptical galaxy assembly, we have identified signatures of a transition between relaxed and unrelaxed accreted components and can constrain the balance between in-situ and accreted stars.

  7. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  8. The Prevalence of the 22 deg Halo in Cirrus Clouds (United States)

    Diedenhoven, vanBastiaan


    Halos at 22 deg from the sun attributed to randomly-orientated, pristine hexagonal crystals are frequently observed through ice clouds. These frequent sightings of halos formed by pristine crystals pose an apparent inconsistency with the dominance of distorted, nonpristine ice crystals indicated by in situ and remote sensing data. Furthermore, the 46 deg halo, which is associated with pristine hexagonal crystals as well, is observed far less frequently than the 22 deg halo. Considering that plausible mechanisms that could cause crystal distortion such as aggregation, sublimation, riming and collisions are stochastic processes that likely lead to distributions of crystals with varying distortion levels, here the presence of the 22 deg and 46 deg halo features in phase functions of mixtures of pristine and distorted hexagonal ice crystals is examined. We conclude that the 22 deg halo feature is generally present if the contribution by pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is greater than only about 10% in the case of compact particles or columns, and greater than about 40% for plates. The 46 deg halo feature is present only if the mean distortion level is low and the contribution of pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is above about 20%, 50% and 70%, in the case of compact crystals, plates and columns, respectively. These results indicate that frequent sightings of 22 deg halos are not inconsistent with the observed dominance of distorted, non-pristine ice crystals. Furthermore, the low mean distortion levels and large contributions by pristine crystals needed to produce the 461 halo features provide a potential explanation of the common sighting of the 22 deg halo without any detectable 46 deg halo.

  9. 77 FR 75672 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc. (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration, Halo Pharmaceutical... 47114, Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made application... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical, Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of...

  10. 77 FR 16264 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. (United States)


    ... Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Registration; Halo Pharmaceutical... FR 77850, Halo Pharmaceutical Inc., 30 North Jefferson Road, Whippany, New Jersey 07981, made... determined that the registration of Halo Pharmaceutical Inc. to manufacture the listed basic classes of...

  11. Convergence properties of halo merger trees; halo and substructure merger rates across cosmic history (United States)

    Poole, Gregory B.; Mutch, Simon J.; Croton, Darren J.; Wyithe, Stuart


    We introduce GBPTREES: an algorithm for constructing merger trees from cosmological simulations, designed to identify and correct for pathological cases introduced by errors or ambiguities in the halo finding process. GBPTREES is built upon a halo matching method utilizing pseudo-radial moments constructed from radially sorted particle ID lists (no other information is required) and a scheme for classifying merger tree pathologies from networks of matches made to-and-from haloes across snapshots ranging forward-and-backward in time. Focusing on SUBFIND catalogues for this work, a sweep of parameters influencing our merger tree construction yields the optimal snapshot cadence and scanning range required for converged results. Pathologies proliferate when snapshots are spaced by ≲0.128 dynamical times; conveniently similar to that needed for convergence of semi-analytical modelling, as established by Benson et al. Total merger counts are converged at the level of ∼5 per cent for friends-of-friends (FoF) haloes of size np ≳ 75 across a factor of 512 in mass resolution, but substructure rates converge more slowly with mass resolution, reaching convergence of ∼10 per cent for np ≳ 100 and particle mass mp ≲ 109 M⊙. We present analytic fits to FoF and substructure merger rates across nearly all observed galactic history (z ≤ 8.5). While we find good agreement with the results presented by Fakhouri et al. for FoF haloes, a slightly flatter dependence on merger ratio and increased major merger rates are found, reducing previously reported discrepancies with extended Press-Schechter estimates. When appropriately defined, substructure merger rates show a similar mass ratio dependence as FoF rates, but with stronger mass and redshift dependencies for their normalization.

  12. Direct Detection of Galactic Halo Dark Matter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    B. R. Oppenheimer; N. C. Hambly; A. P. Digby; S. T. Hodgkin; D. Saumon


    .... Recent observations indirectly suggest that as much as half of this "dark matter" may be in the form of old, very cool white dwarfs, the remnants of an ancient population of stars as old as the galaxy itself...

  13. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  14. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  15. Do Low Luminosity Stars Matter? (United States)

    Ruiz, María Teresa


    Historically, low luminosity stars have attracted very little attention, in part because they are difficult to see except with large telescopes, however, by neglecting to study them we are leaving out the vast majority of stars in the Universe. Low mass stars evolve very slowly, it takes them trillions of years to burn their hydrogen, after which, they just turn into a He white dwarf, without ever going through the red giant phase. This lack of observable evolution partly explains the lack of interest in them. The search for the “missing mass” in the galactic plane turned things around and during the 60s and 70s the search for large M/L objects placed M-dwarfs and cool WDs among objects of astrophysical interest. New fields of astronomical research, like BDs and exoplanets appeared as spin-offs from efforts to find the “missing mass”. The search for halo white dwarfs, believed to be responsible for the observed microlensing events, is pursued by several groups. The progress in these last few years has been tremendous, here I present highlights some of the great successes in the field and point to some of the still unsolved issues.

  16. Abundances of the light elements from UV (HST) and red (ESO) spectra in the very old star HD 84937 (United States)

    Spite, M.; Peterson, R. C.; Gallagher, A. J.; Barbuy, B.; Spite, F.


    Aims: In order to provide a better basis for the study of mechanisms of nucleosynthesis of the light elements beyond hydrogen and helium in the oldest stars, the abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, P, S, K, and Ca have been derived from UV-HST and visible-ESO high resolution spectra in the old, very metal-poor star HD 84937, at a metallicity that is 1/200 that of the Sun's. For this halo main-sequence turnoff star, the abundance determination of P and S are the first published determinations. Methods: The LTE profiles of the lines were computed and fitted to the observed spectra. Wherever possible, we compared the abundances derived from the UV spectrum to abundances derived from the visible or near-infrared spectra, and also corrected the derived abundances for non-LTE effects. Three-dimensional (3D) CO5BOLD model atmospheres have been used to determine the abundances of C and O from molecular CH and OH bands. Results: The abundances of these light elements relative to iron in HD 84937 are found to agree well with the abundances of these elements in classical metal-poor stars. Our HD 84937 carbon abundance determination points toward a solar (or mildly enhanced above solar) value of [C/Fe]. The modest overabundance of the α elements of even atomic number Z, typical of halo turnoff stars, is confirmed in this example. The odd-Z element P is found to be somewhat deficient in HD 84937, at [P/Fe] = -0.32, which is again consistent with the handful of existing determinations for turnoff stars of such low metallicity. We show that the abundance of oxygen, deduced from the OH band from 3D computations, is not compatible with the abundance deduced from the red oxygen triplet. This incompatibility is explained by the existence of a chromosphere heating the shallow layers of the atmosphere where the OH band, in 3D computations, is mainly formed. Conclusions: The abundance ratios are compared to the predictions of models of galactic nucleosynthesis and evolution. Based on

  17. Homogeneous Photometry VI: Variable Stars in the Leo I Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy (United States)

    Stetson, Peter B.; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Bono, Giuseppe; Bernard, Edouard J.; Monelli, Matteo; Iannicola, Giacinto; Gallart, Carme; Ferraro, Ivan


    We have characterized the pulsation properties of 164 candidate RR Lyrae variables (RRLs) and 55 candidate Anomalous and/or short-period Cepheids in Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy. On the basis of its RRLs Leo I is confirmed to be an Oosterhoff-intermediate type galaxy, like several other dwarfs. We show that in their pulsation properties, the RRLs representing the oldest stellar population in the galaxy are not significantly different from those of five other nearby, isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies. A similar result is obtained when comparing them to RR Lyrae stars in recently discovered ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. We are able to compare the period distributions and period-amplitude relations for a statistically significant sample of ab type RR Lyrae stars in dwarf galaxies (~1300stars) with those in the Galactic halo field (~14,000stars) and globular clusters (~1000stars). Field RRLs show a significant change in their period distribution when moving from the inner (dG14kpc) halo regions. This suggests that the halo formed from (at least) two dissimilar progenitors or types of progenitor. Considered together, the RRLs in classical dwarf spheroidal and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies-as observed today-do not appear to follow the well defined pulsation properties shown by those in either the inner or the outer Galactic halo, nor do they have the same properties as RRLs in globular clusters. In particular, the samples of fundamental-mode RRLs in dwarfs seem to lack High Amplitudes and Short Periods ("HASP":AV>1.0mag and P <0.48d) when compared with those observed in the Galactic halo field and globular clusters. The observed properties of RRLs do not support the idea that currently existing classical dwarf spheroidal and ultra-faint dwarf galaxies are surviving representative examples of the original building blocks of the Galactic halo.

  18. Baryon acoustic oscillations in 2D. II. Redshift-space halo clustering in N-body simulations (United States)

    Nishimichi, Takahiro; Taruya, Atsushi


    We measure the halo power spectrum in redshift space from cosmological N-body simulations, and test the analytical models of redshift distortions particularly focusing on the scales of baryon acoustic oscillations. Remarkably, the measured halo power spectrum in redshift space exhibits a large-scale enhancement in amplitude relative to the real-space clustering, and the effect becomes significant for the massive or highly biased halo samples. These findings cannot be simply explained by the so-called streaming model frequently used in the literature. By contrast, a physically motivated perturbation theory model developed in the previous paper reproduces the halo power spectrum very well, and the model combining a simple linear scale-dependent bias can accurately characterize the clustering anisotropies of halos in two dimensions, i.e., line-of-sight and its perpendicular directions. The results highlight the significance of nonlinear coupling between density and velocity fields associated with two competing effects of redshift distortions, i.e., Kaiser and Finger-of-God effects, and a proper account of this effect would be important in accurately characterizing the baryon acoustic oscillations in two dimensions.

  19. Alternative techniques for beam halo measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Welsch, CP; Burel, B; Lefèvre, T; Chapman, T; Pilon, MJ


    In future high intensity, high energy accelerators it must be ensured that particle losses are minimized, as activation of the vacuum chambers or other components makes maintenance and upgrade work time consuming and costly. It is imperative to have a clear understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to halo formation and to have the possibility to test available theoretical models with an adequate experimental setup. Measurements based on optical transition radiation (OTR) are a well-established technique for measurements of the transverse beam profile. However, in order to be suitable for halo measurements as well, the dynamic range of the final image acquisition system needs to be high, being able to cover at least five orders of magnitude in intensity changes. Here, the performance of a standard acquisition system as it is used in the CLIC test facility (CTF3) is compared to a step-by-step measurement with a small movable photo multiplier tube and an innovative camera system based on charge injection de...

  20. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  1. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly


    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to supress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will descri...

  2. Group Finding in the Stellar Halo Using Photometric Surveys: Current Sensitivity and Future Prospects (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Majewski, Steven R.; Bullock, James; Muñoz, Ricardo R.


    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) provided the first deep and global photometric catalogs of stars in our halo and not only clearly mapped its structure but also demonstrated the ubiquity of substructure within it. Future surveys promise to push such catalogs to ever increasing depths and larger numbers of stars. This paper examines what can be learned from current and future photometric databases using group-finding techniques. We compare groups recovered from a sample of M-giants from 2MASS with those found in synthetic surveys of simulated ΛCDM stellar halos that were built entirely from satellite accretion events and demonstrate broad consistency between the properties of the two sets. We also find that these recovered groups are likely to represent the majority of high-luminosity (L > 5 × 106 L sun) satellites accreted within the last 10 Gyr and on orbits with apocenters within 100 kpc. However, the sensitivity of the M-giant survey to accretion events that were either ancient from low-luminosity objects or those on radial orbits is limited because of the low number of stars, bias toward high-metallicity stars, and the shallow depth (distance explored only out to 100 kpc from the Sun). We examine the extent to which these limitations are addressed by current and future surveys, in particular catalogs of main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars from SDSS and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and of RR Lyrae stars from LSST or PanSTARRS. The MSTO and RR Lyrae surveys are more sensitive to low-luminosity events (L ~ 105 L sun or less) than the 2MASS M-giant sample. Additionally, RR Lyrae surveys, with superior depth, are also good at detecting events on highly eccentric orbits whose debris tends to lie beyond 100 kpc. When combined we expect these photometric surveys to provide a comprehensive picture of the last 10 Gyr of Galactic accretion. Events older than this are too phase mixed to be discovered. Pushing

  3. The Number of Supernovae From Primordial Stars in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, J


    Recent simulations of the formation of the first luminous objects in the universe predict isolated very massive stars to form in dark matter halos with virial temperatures large enough to allow significant amounts of molecular hydrogen to form. We construct a semi-analytic model based on the Press-Schechter formalism and calibrate the minimum halos mass that may form a primordial star with the results from extensive adaptive mesh refinement simulations. The model also includes star formation in objects with virial temperatures in excess of ten thousand Kelvin. The free parameters are tuned to match the optical depth measurements by the WMAP satellite. The models explicitly includes the negative feedback of the destruction of molecular hydrogen by a soft UV background which is computed self-consistently. We predict high redshift supernova rates as one of the most promising tools to test the current scenario of primordial star formation. The supernova rate from primordial stars peaks at redshifts {approx}20. Using an analytic model for the luminosities of pair-instability supernovae we predict observable magnitudes and discuss possible observational strategies. Such supernovae would release enough metals corresponding to a uniform enrichment to a few hundred thousands of solar metalicity. If some of these stars produce gamma ray bursts our rates will be directly applicable to understanding the anticipated results from the SWIFT satellite. This study highlights the great potential for the James Webb space telescope in probing cosmic structure at redshifts greater than 20.

  4. Is the dark halo of our Galaxy spherical?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmi, A


    It has been recently claimed that the confined structure of the debris from the Sagittarius dwarf implies that the dark matter halo of our Galaxy should be nearly spherical, in strong contrast with predictions from cold dark matter simulations, where dark haloes are found to have typical density

  5. Investigating Halo and Ceiling Effects in Student Evaluations of Instruction (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W.; English, Taylor; Irons, Jessica; Henslee, Amber M.


    Many measurement biases affect student evaluations of instruction (SEIs). However, two have been relatively understudied: halo effects and ceiling/floor effects. This study examined these effects in two ways. To examine the halo effect, using a videotaped lecture, we manipulated specific teacher behaviors to be "good" or "bad"…

  6. Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002):

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Disk response to a lopsided halo potential (Jog 1997, 2002):. consider small (few %) perturbation in potential. --- solve equations of motion using epicyclic theory. The symmetric disk potential = ψ_0 (R ) = Vc 2 ln R. and the perturbation halo potential = Vc 2 εlop cos φ ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Center for Computational Science, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Rieder, Steven; Portegies Zwart, Simon [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Makino, Junichiro [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Groen, Derek [Centre for Computational Science, Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Nitadori, Keigo [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (Japan); De Laat, Cees [Section System and Network Engineering, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); McMillan, Stephen [Department of Physics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hiraki, Kei [Department of Creative Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo (Japan); Harfst, Stefan, E-mail: [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Technical University Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)


    We present the results of the ''Cosmogrid'' cosmological N-body simulation suites based on the concordance LCDM model. The Cosmogrid simulation was performed in a 30 Mpc box with 2048{sup 3} particles. The mass of each particle is 1.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }, which is sufficient to resolve ultra-faint dwarfs. We found that the halo mass function shows good agreement with the Sheth and Tormen fitting function down to {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }. We have analyzed the spherically averaged density profiles of the three most massive halos which are of galaxy group size and contain at least 170 million particles. The slopes of these density profiles become shallower than -1 at the innermost radius. We also find a clear correlation of halo concentration with mass. The mass dependence of the concentration parameter cannot be expressed by a single power law, however a simple model based on the Press-Schechter theory proposed by Navarro et al. gives reasonable agreement with this dependence. The spin parameter does not show a correlation with the halo mass. The probability distribution functions for both concentration and spin are well fitted by the log-normal distribution for halos with the masses larger than {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. The subhalo abundance depends on the halo mass. Galaxy-sized halos have 50% more subhalos than {approx}10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} halos have.

  8. The Cosmogrid Simulation: Statistical Properties of Small Dark Matter Halos (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Rieder, Steven; Makino, Junichiro; Portegies Zwart, Simon; Groen, Derek; Nitadori, Keigo; de Laat, Cees; McMillan, Stephen; Hiraki, Kei; Harfst, Stefan


    We present the results of the "Cosmogrid" cosmological N-body simulation suites based on the concordance LCDM model. The Cosmogrid simulation was performed in a 30 Mpc box with 20483 particles. The mass of each particle is 1.28 × 105 M ⊙, which is sufficient to resolve ultra-faint dwarfs. We found that the halo mass function shows good agreement with the Sheth & Tormen fitting function down to ~107 M ⊙. We have analyzed the spherically averaged density profiles of the three most massive halos which are of galaxy group size and contain at least 170 million particles. The slopes of these density profiles become shallower than -1 at the innermost radius. We also find a clear correlation of halo concentration with mass. The mass dependence of the concentration parameter cannot be expressed by a single power law, however a simple model based on the Press-Schechter theory proposed by Navarro et al. gives reasonable agreement with this dependence. The spin parameter does not show a correlation with the halo mass. The probability distribution functions for both concentration and spin are well fitted by the log-normal distribution for halos with the masses larger than ~108 M ⊙. The subhalo abundance depends on the halo mass. Galaxy-sized halos have 50% more subhalos than ~1011 M ⊙ halos have.

  9. Influence of halo doping profiles on MOS transistor mismatch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andricciola, P.; Tuinhout, H.


    Halo implants are used in modern CMOS technology to reduce the short channel effect. However, the lateral non-uniformity of the channel doping has been proven to degenerate the mismatch performance. With this paper we want to discuss the influence of the halo profile on MOS transistor mismatch. The

  10. A Hidden Radio Halo in the Galaxy Cluster A1682?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High sensitivity observations of radio halos in galaxy clusters at frequencies ≤ 330 MHz are still relatively rare, and very little is known compared to the classical 1.4 GHz images. The few radio halos imaged down to 150–240 MHz show a considerable spread in size, morphology and spectral properties. All clusters ...

  11. Double folding model analysis of elastic scattering of halo nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    features of halo nuclei largely affect the interaction with light and heavy targets at low bombarding energies and have created tremendous interest in the study of nuclear reac- tions. Elastic scattering is sensitive to the nature of the surface of nuclei and hence it is effective in studying halo nuclei. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol.

  12. The Connection between Radio Halos and Cluster Mergers and the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the statistical properties of the radio halo population in galaxy clusters. Radio bi-modality is observed in galaxy clusters: a fraction of clusters host giant radio halos while a majority of clusters do not show evidence of diffuse cluster-scale radio emission. The radio bi-modality has a correspondence in terms of ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howley, K. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Van der Marel, R.; Kalirai, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Geha, M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Yniguez, B. [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Kirby, E. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cuillandre, J.-C. [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, 65-1238 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Gilbert, K., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)


    As part of the SPLASH survey of the Andromeda (M31) system, we have obtained Keck/DEIMOS spectra of the compact elliptical (cE) satellite M32. This is the first resolved-star kinematical study of any cE galaxy. In contrast to most previous kinematical studies that extended out to r {approx}< 30'' {approx} 1 r {sup eff} {sub I} {approx} 100 pc, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile out to r {approx} 250'' and higher order Gauss-Hermite moments out to r {approx} 70''. We achieve this by combining integrated-light spectroscopy at small radii (where crowding/blending are severe) with resolved stellar spectroscopy at larger radii, using spatial and kinematical information to account statistically for M31 contamination. The rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile extend well beyond the radius (r {approx} 150'') where the isophotes are distorted. Unlike NGC 205, another close dwarf companion of M31, M32's kinematics appear regular and symmetric and do not show obvious sharp gradients across the region of isophotal elongation and twists. We interpret M31's kinematics using three-integral axisymmetric dynamical equilibrium models constructed using Schwarzschild's orbit superposition technique. Models with a constant mass-to-light ratio can fit the data remarkably well. However, since such a model requires an increasing tangential anisotropy with radius, invoking the presence of an extended dark halo may be more plausible. Such an extended dark halo is definitely required to bind a half-dozen fast-moving stars observed at the largest radii, but these stars may not be an equilibrium component of M32.

  14. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC


    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a

  15. Emission-line stars in M31 from the SPLASH and PHAT surveys


    Prichard, Laura J.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Hamren, Katherine M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Dorman, Claire E.; Seth, Anil C.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Damon, Gabriel A.; Ilango, Anita; Ilango, Megha


    We present a sample of 224 stars that emit H$\\alpha$ (H$\\alpha$ stars) in the Andromeda galaxy (M31). The stars were selected from $\\sim$ 5000 spectra, collected as part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo survey using Keck II/DEIMOS. We used six-filter Hubble Space Telescope photometry from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury survey to classify and investigate the properties of the H$\\alpha$ stars. We identified five distinct categories of H$\\alp...

  16. Determining the Halo Mass Scale Where Galaxies Lose Their Gas (United States)

    Rudnick, Gregory; Jablonka, Pascale; Moustakas, John; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Zaritsky, Dennis; Jaffé, Yara L.; De Lucia, Gabriella; Desai, Vandana; Halliday, Claire; Just, Dennis; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Poggianti, Bianca


    A major question in galaxy formation is how the gas supply that fuels activity in galaxies is modulated by their environment. We use spectroscopy of a set of well-characterized clusters and groups at 0.4 10.4) of these old galaxies with weak [O II] emission. We use line ratios and compare to studies of local early-type galaxies to conclude that this gas is likely excited by post-AGB stars and hence represents a diffuse gas component in the galaxies. For cluster and group galaxies the fraction with EW([O II]) > 5 Å is f [O II] = {0.08}-0.02+0.03 and f [O II] = {0.06}-0.04+0.07, respectively. For field galaxies we find f [O II] = {0.27}-0.06+0.07, representing a 2.8σ difference between the [O II] fractions for old galaxies between the different environments. We conclude that a population of old galaxies in all environments has ionized gas that likely stems from stellar mass loss. In the field galaxies also experience gas accretion from the cosmic web, and in groups and clusters these galaxies have had their gas accretion shut off by their environment. Additionally, galaxies with emission preferentially avoid the virialized region of the cluster in position-velocity space. We discuss the implications of our results, among which is that gas accretion shutoff is likely effective at group halo masses (log { M }/{{ M }}⊙ > 12.8) and that there are likely multiple gas removal processes happening in dense environments. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the ESO Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal through ESO program 166.A-0162.

  17. Elastic scattering and reaction mechanisms of the halo nucleus $^{11}$Be around the Coulomb barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Di Pietro, A; Fisichella, M; Borge, M J G; Randisi, G; Milin, M; Figuera, P; Gomez-Camacho, J; Raabe, R; Amorini, F; Fraile, L M; Rizzo, F; Zadro, M; Torresi, D; Wenander, F; Pellegriti, M G; Papa, M; Jeppesen, H; Santonocito, D; Scuderi, V; Acosta, L; Perez-Bernal, F; Tengblad, O; Lattuada, M; Musumarra, A; Scalia, G; Maira Vidal, A; Voulot, D


    Collisions induced by $^{9}$Be, $^{10}$Be, $^{11}$Be on a $^{64}$Zn target at the same c. m. energy were studied. For the first time, strong effects of the $^{11}$Be halo structure on elastic-scattering and reaction mechanisms at energies near the Coulomb barrier are evidenced experimentally. The elastic-scattering cross section of the $^{11}$Be halo nucleus shows unusual behavior in the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak angular region. The extracted total-reaction cross section for the $^{11}$Be collision is more than double the ones measured in the collisions induced by $^{9}$Be, $^{10}$Be. It is shown that such a strong enhancement of the total-reaction cross section with $^{11}$Be is due to transfer and breakup processes.

  18. Particle-core analysis of beam halo formation in anisotropic beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ikegami, M


    We have derived a method to apply the particle-core analysis to coasting beams executing general envelope oscillation which is a superposition of two normal modes. Applying this method to transversely isotropic and anisotropic beams, the effects of simultaneous excitation of two normal modes on halo development mechanism have been explored. We find that, in isotropic cases with the same emittance and external focusing strength in the two transverse directions, single-particle motion exhibits strong chaosity in wide parameter space due to the resonance overlap of two 2:1 particle-core resonances. The strong chaosity is expected to result in an increase of halo intensity enhancing the chance for the particles to gain excess energy through resonant interaction with the core. Of particular importance is the result that the resonance overlap can be avoided by introducing appropriate anisotropy provided that the beam density is lower than a certain threshold. The avoidance of the resonance overlap suppresses chaosi...

  19. What sets the central structure of dark matter haloes? (United States)

    Ogiya, Go; Hahn, Oliver


    Dark matter (DM) haloes forming near the thermal cut-off scale of the density perturbations are unique, since they are the smallest objects and form through monolithic gravitational collapse, while larger haloes contrastingly have experienced mergers. While standard cold dark matter (CDM) simulations readily produce haloes that follow the universal Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile with an inner slope, ρ ∝ r-α, with α = 1, recent simulations have found that when the free-streaming cut-off expected for the CDM model is resolved, the resulting haloes follow nearly power-law density profiles of α ∼ 1.5. In this paper, we study the formation of density cusps in haloes using idealized N-body simulations of the collapse of proto-haloes. When the proto-halo profile is initially cored due to particle free-streaming at high redshift, we universally find ∼r-1.5 profiles irrespective of the proto-halo profile slope outside the core and large-scale non-spherical perturbations. Quite in contrast, when the proto-halo has a power-law profile, then we obtain profiles compatible with the NFW shape when the density slope of the proto-halo patch is shallower than a critical value, αini ∼ 0.3, while the final slope can be steeper for αini ≳ 0.3. We further demonstrate that the r-1.5 profiles are sensitive to small-scale noise, which gradually drives them towards an inner slope of -1, where they become resilient to such perturbations. We demonstrate that the r-1.5 solutions are in hydrostatic equilibrium, largely consistent with a simple analytic model, and provide arguments that angular momentum appears to determine the inner slope.

  20. Testing baryon-induced core formation in ΛCDM: A comparison of the DC14 and coreNFW dark matter halo models on galaxy rotation curves (United States)

    Allaert, F.; Gentile, G.; Baes, M.


    Recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations suggest that baryonic processes, and in particular supernova feedback following bursts of star formation, can alter the structure of dark matter haloes and transform primordial cusps into shallower cores. To assess whether this mechanism offers a solution to the long-standing cusp-core controversy, simulated haloes must be compared to real dark matter haloes inferred from galaxy rotation curves. For this purpose, two new dark matter density profiles were recently derived from simulations of galaxies in complementary mass ranges: the DC14 halo (1010 study, but strongly refuted by another. A next important question is whether, despite their different approaches, the two models converge to the same solution in the mass range where both should be appropriate. To investigate this, we tested the DC14 and coreNFW halo models on the rotation curves of a selection of galaxies with halo masses in the range 4 × 109M⊙ - 7 × 1010M⊙ and compared their predictions. We further applied the DC14 model to a set of rotation curves at higher halo masses, up to 9 × 1011M⊙, to verify the agreement with the cosmological scaling relations. Both models are generally able to reproduce the observed rotation curves, in line with earlier results, and the predicted dark matter haloes are consistent with the cosmological c-Mhalo and M∗-Mhalo relations. We find that the DC14 and coreNFW models are also in fairly good agreement with each other, even though DC14 tends to predict slightly less extended cores and somewhat more concentrated haloes than coreNFW. While the quality of the fits is generally similar for both halo models, DC14 does perform significantly better than coreNFW for three galaxies. In each of these cases, the problem for coreNFW is related to connection of the core size to the stellar half-mass radius, although we argue that it is justifiable to relax this connection for NGC 3741. A larger core radius brings the core

  1. Assessment of brain maturation in the preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Xueying, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Wen [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Guosheng [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Huang, Li [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Bingxiao [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Sirun [Department of Medical Imaging Center, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xu, Jing [Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)


    Purpose: To assess the brain maturation of preterm infants using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and enhanced T2 star weighted angiography (ESWAN). Materials and methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), DTI and ESWAN were performed in 60 preterm infants and 21 term controls. 60 preterm infants were subgrouped to two groups according to the age at imaging: before and at term-equivalent age (TEA). Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map from DTI, T{sub 2}* and R{sub 2}* maps from ESWAN were post-processed at an off-line workstation. The values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}* and R{sub 2}* from the posterior limb of internal capsule (PLIC), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital white matter (OWM) and lentiform nuclei (LN) were determined. These parameters were compared between preterm and term infants. Correlations of DTI and ESWAN parameters with the gestational age, postmenstrual age and postnatal age were analyzed. Results: ADCs of FWM, OWM and LN, and T{sub 2}* values of the PLIC and LN were higher in the preterm infants at TEA compared with the term controls. The correlations were existed between the postmenstrual age and the values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}*, R{sub 2}* from the PLIC, values of ADC, T{sub 2}*, R{sub 2}* from the LN, T{sub 2}* value from the OWM. The correlations were also found between the postnatal age and the values of FA, ADC, T{sub 2}* from the PLIC, and T{sub 2}* value from the LN. Conclusion: The maturity of preterm brain around TEA was different from that of term controls and appeared to be independent of the prematurity at birth. T{sub 2}* was one of valuable indices to evaluate brain maturation in preterm infants.

  2. [Halos and multifocal intraocular lenses: origin and interpretation]. (United States)

    Alba-Bueno, F; Vega, F; Millán, M S


    To present the theoretical and experimental characterization of the halo in multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL). The origin of the halo in a MIOL is the overlaying of 2 or more images. Using geometrical optics, it can be demonstrated that the diameter of each halo depends on the addition of the lens (ΔP), the base power (P(d)), and the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the «non-focused» focus. In the image plane that corresponds to the distance focus, the halo diameter (δH(d)) is given by: δH(d)=d(pn) ΔP/P(d), where d(pn) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the near focus. Analogously, in the near image plane the halo diameter (δH(n)) is: δH(n)=d(pd) ΔP/P(d), where d(pd) is the diameter of the IOL that contributes to the distance focus. Patients perceive halos when they see bright objects over a relatively dark background. In vitro, the halo can be characterized by analyzing the intensity profile of the image of a pinhole that is focused by each of the foci of a MIOL. A comparison has been made between the halos induced by different MIOL of the same base power (20D) in an optical bench. As predicted by theory, the larger the addition of the MIOL, the larger the halo diameter. For large pupils and with MIOL with similar aspheric designs and addition (SN6AD3 vs ZMA00), the apodized MIOL has a smaller halo diameter than a non-apodized one in distance vision, while in near vision the size is very similar, but the relative intensity is higher in the apodized MIOL. When comparing lenses with the same diffractive design, but with different spherical-aspheric base design (SN60D3 vs SN6AD3), the halo in distance vision of the spherical MIOL is larger, while in near vision the spherical IOL induces a smaller halo, but with higher intensity due to the spherical aberration of the distance focus in the near image. In the case of a trifocal-diffractive IOL (AT LISA 839MP) the most noticeable characteristic is the double-halo formation due to the 2 non

  3. Global Properties of M31’s Stellar Halo from the SPLASH Survey. III. Measuring the Stellar Velocity Dispersion Profile (United States)

    Gilbert, Karoline M.; Tollerud, Erik; Beaton, Rachael L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Bullock, James S.; Chiba, Masashi; Kalirai, Jason S.; Kirby, Evan N.; Majewski, Steven R.; Tanaka, Mikito


    We present the velocity dispersion of red giant branch stars in M31’s halo, derived by modeling the line-of-sight velocity distribution of over 5000 stars in 50 fields spread throughout M31’s stellar halo. The data set was obtained as part of the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo (SPLASH) Survey, and covers projected radii of 9 to 175 kpc from M31’s center. All major structural components along the line of sight in both the Milky Way (MW) and M31 are incorporated in a Gaussian Mixture Model, including all previously identified M31 tidal debris features in the observed fields. The probability that an individual star is a constituent of M31 or the MW, based on a set of empirical photometric and spectroscopic diagnostics, is included as a prior probability in the mixture model. The velocity dispersion of stars in M31’s halo is found to decrease only mildly with projected radius, from 108 km s‑1 in the innermost radial bin (8.2 to 14.1 kpc) to ∼80 to 90 km s‑1 at projected radii of ∼40–130 kpc, and can be parameterized with a power law of slope ‑0.12 ± 0.05. The quoted uncertainty on the power-law slope reflects only the precision of the method, although other sources of uncertainty we consider contribute negligibly to the overall error budget. The data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  4. Star Formation in Merging Clusters of Galaxies (United States)

    Mansheim, Alison Seiler

    abstracts of each paper. The Chapter 1 contains an introduction to the topic and motivation to fill a vacuum in knowledge using our hypothesis. Chapter 4, following the meat of the thesis in Chapters 2 and 3, gives closure and looks to the future. In Chapter 2, we investigate star formation in DLSCL J0916.2+2953, a dissociative merger of two clusters at z = 0.53 that has progressed 1.1 +1.3-0.4 Gyr since first pass-through. We attempt to reveal the effects a collision may have had on the evolution of the cluster galaxies by tracing their star formation history. We probe current and recent activity to identify a possible star formation event at the time of the merger using EW(Hdelta), EW(OII) and Dn(4000) measured from the composite spectra of 64 cluster and 153 coeval field galaxies. We supplement Keck DEIMOS spectra with DLS and HST imaging to determine the color, stellar mass, and morphology of each galaxy and conduct a comprehensive study of the populations in this complex structure. Spectral results indicate the average cluster and cluster red sequence galaxies experienced no enhanced star formation relative to the surrounding field during the merger, ruling out a predominantly merger-quenched population. We find that the average blue galaxy in the North cluster is currently active and in the South cluster is currently post-starburst having undergone a recent star formation event. While the North activity could be latent or long-term merger effects, a young blue stellar population and irregular geometry suggest the cluster was still forming prior the collision. While the South activity coincides with the time of the merger, the blue early-type population could be a result of secular cluster processes. The evidence suggests that the dearth or surfeit of activity is indiscernible from normal cluster galaxy evolution. In Chapter 3, we examine the effects of an impending cluster merger on galaxies in the large scale structure (LSS) RX Cl J0910 at z =1.105. Using multi

  5. Dark matter seeding and the kinematics and rotation of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: [Institut d' Astrophysique, UPMC, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beecroft Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)


    Self-annihilation of dark matter accreted from the galactic halo in the inner regions of neutron stars may significantly affect their kinematical properties, namely velocity kicks and rotation patterns. We find that if a stable long-lived single or multiple strangelet off-center seed forms leading to an asymmetric ejection of matter and radiation, there is a significant modification in linear and angular momentum observables of the star.

  6. Detection of brown dwarfs by the micro-lensing of unresolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Baillon, Paul; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Kaplan, J; Baillon, Paul; Bouquet, Alain; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Kaplan, Jean


    The presence of brown dwarfs in the dark galactic halo could be detected through their gravitational lensing effect and experiments under way monitor about one million stars to observe a few lensing events per year. We show that if the photon flux from a galaxy is measured with a good precision, it is not necessary to resolve the stars and besides more events could be observed.

  7. HST/ACS Observations of RR Lyrae Stars in Six Ultra-Deep Fields of M31 (United States)

    Jeffery, E. J.; Smith, E.; Brown, T. M.; Sweigart, A. V.; Kalirai, J. S.; Ferguson, H. C.; Guhathakurta, P.; Renzini, A.; Rich, R. M.


    We present HST/ACS observations of RR Lyrae variable stars in six ultra deep fields of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), including parts of the halo, disk, and giant stellar stream. Past work on the RR Lyrae stars in M31 has focused on various aspects of the stellar populations that make up the galaxy s halo, including their distances and metallicities. This study builds upon this previous work by increasing the spatial coverage (something that has been lacking in previous studies) and by searching for these variable stars in constituents of the galaxy not yet explored. Besides the 55 RR Lyrae stars we found in our initial field located 11kpc from the galactic nucleus, we find additional RR Lyrae stars in four of the remaining five ultra deep fields as follows: 21 in the disk, 24 in the giant stellar stream, 3 in the halo field 21kpc from the galactic nucleus, and 5 in one of the halo fields at 35kpc. No RR Lyrae were found in the second halo field at 35kpc. The RR Lyrae populations of these fields appear to mostly be of Oosterhoff I type, although the 11kpc field appears to be intermediate or mixed. We will discuss the properties of these stars including period and reddening distributions. We calculate metallicities and distances for the stars in each of these fields using different methods and compare the results, to an extent that has not yet been done. We compare these methods not just on RR Lyrae in our M31 fields, but also on a data set of Milky Way field RR Lyrae stars.

  8. Historic halo displays as weather indicator: Criteria and examples (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar L.; Neuhäuser, Ralph


    There are numerous celestial signs reported in historic records, many of them refer to atmospheric ("sub-lunar") phenomena, such as ice halos and aurorae. In an interdisciplinary collaboration between astrophysics and cultural astronomy, we noticed that celestial observations including meteorological phenomena are often misinterpreted, mostly due to missing genuine criteria: especially ice crystal halos were recorded frequently in past centuries for religious reasons, but are mistaken nowadays often for other phenomena like aurorae. Ice halo displays yield clear information on humidity and temperature in certain atmospheric layers, and thereby indicate certain weather patterns. Ancient so-called rain makers used halo observations for weather forecast; e.g., a connection between certain halo displays and rain a few day later is statistically significant. Ice halos exist around sun and moon and are reported for both (they can stay for several days): many near, middle, and far eastern records from day- and night-time include such observations with high frequency. (Partly based on publications on halos by D.L. Neuhäuser & R. Neuhäuser, available at

  9. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly


    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z < 2.3 to push for the development of halo occupation distribution using Vmax. The data and the analysis code are made publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  10. Meet the family - the catalog of known hot subdwarf stars (United States)

    Geier, Stephan; Østensen, Roy H.; Nemeth, Peter; Heber, Ulrich; Gentile Fusillo, Nicola P.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Telting, John H.; Green, Elizabeth M.; Schaffenroth, Johannes


    In preparation for the upcoming all-sky data releases of the Gaia mission, we compiled a catalog of known hot subdwarf stars and candidates drawn from the literature and yet unpublished databases. The catalog contains 5613 unique sources and provides multi-band photometry from the ultraviolet to the far infrared, ground based proper motions, classifications based on spectroscopy and colors, published atmospheric parameters, radial velocities and light curve variability information. Using several different techniques, we removed outliers and misclassified objects. By matching this catalog with astrometric and photometric data from the Gaia mission, we will develop selection criteria to construct a homogeneous, magnitude-limited all-sky catalog of hot subdwarf stars based on Gaia data. As first application of the catalog data, we present the quantitative spectral analysis of 280 sdB and sdOB stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. Combining our derived parameters with state-of-the-art proper motions, we performed a full kinematic analysis of our sample. This allowed us to separate the first significantly large sample of 78 sdBs and sdOBs belonging to the Galactic halo. Comparing the properties of hot subdwarfs from the disk and the halo with hot subdwarf samples from the globular clusters ! Cen and NGC 2808, we found the fraction of intermediate He-sdOBs in the field halo population to be significantly smaller than in the globular clusters.

  11. Evolution of Star Formation and H I Gas Content in Galaxy Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birenbaum, Adam; Hess, K. M.; Wilcots, E. M.

    We present an analysis of the neutral hydrogen gas (H I) content, star formation histories, and distribution of galaxies in groups as a function of their parent halo mass. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey α.40 data release allows us to study the H I properties of 742 galaxy groups in the volume

  12. Detection of the Red Giant Branch Stars in the M82 Using the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Madore, B.; Sakai, S.


    We present color-magnitude diagrams and luminosity functions or stars in two halo regions of the irregular galaxy in M82, based on F555W and F814W photometry taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  13. Spectroscopic Analysis of Planetary Host Stars (United States)

    Rittipruk, P.; Yushchenko, A.; Kang, Y. W.


    We observed the high resolution spectra of extra-solar planet host stars. The spectroscopic data of host stars were observed using the CHIRON echelle spectrometer and R-C Spectrograph for magnetic activity on the SMART-1.5 meter telescope at CTIO, Chile. The analysis of spectroscopic data was performed using URAN and SYNTHE programs. These spectra allow us to determine the effective temperatures, surface gravities, microturbulent velocities and, finally, the chemical composition of the hosts was obtained by spectrum synthesis. One of the targets, namely HD 47536, the host of two planets, appeared to be a halo star with overabundances of neutron capture elements. The effective temperature and the surface gravity of this star are 4400 K and log=1.5 respectively, the iron is underabundant by 0.6 dex. The heavy elements (up to thorium, Z=90) show the overabundances with respect to iron. The signs of accretion of interstellar gas are found in the atmosphere of this star.

  14. Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium stellar spectroscopy with 1D and 3D models - II. Chemical properties of the Galactic metal-poor disk and the halo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergemann, Maria; Collet, Remo; Schönrich, Ralph


    /Fe] ratios close to solar even at [Fe/H] ~ -2. This is at variance with results of classical abundance analyses based on local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and 1D model stellar atmospheres, which argue for a constant elevated [Mg/Fe] in metal-poor stars of the Galactic thick disk and halo.......We have analysed high-resolution spectra of 328 stars and derived Mg abundances using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) spectral line formation calculations and plane-parallel model stellar atmospheres derived from the mean stratification of 3D hydrodynamical surface convection simulations...

  15. Pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M?rcio


    The most recent and comprehensive book on pulsating stars which ties the observations to our present understanding of stellar pulsation and evolution theory.  Written by experienced researchers and authors in the field, this book includes the latest observational results and is valuable reading for astronomers, graduate students, nuclear physicists and high energy physicists.

  16. Stars Underground

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean Leyder


    An imaginary voyage in time where we were witness of the birth of the universe itself, the time of the Big-Bang 15 billion years ago. Particules from the very first moments of time : protons, neutrons and electrons, and also much more energetic one. These particules are preparing to interact collider and generating others which will be the birth to the stars ........

  17. Simulating neutron star mergers as r-process sources in ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Scannapieco, Evan


    To explain the high observed abundances of r-process elements in local ultrafaint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, we perform cosmological zoom simulations that include r-process production from neutron star mergers (NSMs). We model star formation stochastically and simulate two different haloes with total masses ≈108 M⊙ at z = 6. We find that the final distribution of [Eu/H] versus [Fe/H] is relatively insensitive to the energy by which the r-process material is ejected into the interstellar medium, but strongly sensitive to the environment in which the NSM event occurs. In one halo, the NSM event takes place at the centre of the stellar distribution, leading to high levels of r-process enrichment such as seen in a local UFD, Reticulum II (Ret II). In a second halo, the NSM event takes place outside of the densest part of the galaxy, leading to a more extended r-process distribution. The subsequent star formation occurs in an interstellar medium with shallow levels of r-process enrichment that results in stars with low levels of [Eu/H] compared to Ret II stars even when the maximum possible r-process mass is assumed to be ejected. This suggests that the natal kicks of neutron stars may also play an important role in determining the r-process abundances in UFD galaxies, a topic that warrants further theoretical investigation.

  18. Non-LTE analysis of copper abundances for the two distinct halo populations in the solar neighborhood


    Yan, H. L.; Shi, J. R.; Nissen, P. E.; Zhao, G.


    Two distinct halo populations were found in the solar neighborhood by a series of works. They can be clearly separated by [alpha\\Fe] and several other elemental abundance ratios including [Cu/Fe]. Very recently, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) study revealed that relatively large departures exist between LTE and non-LTE results in copper abundance analysis. We aim to derive the copper abundances for the stars from the sample of Nissen et al (2010) with both LTE and non-LTE cal...

  19. The H α luminosity-dependent clustering of star-forming galaxies from z ˜ 0.8 to ˜2.2 with HiZELS (United States)

    Cochrane, R. K.; Best, P. N.; Sobral, D.; Smail, I.; Wake, D. A.; Stott, J. P.; Geach, J. E.


    We present clustering analyses of identically selected star-forming galaxies in three narrow redshift slices (at z = 0.8, 1.47 and 2.23), from the High-Redshift(Z) Emission Line Survey (HiZELS), a deep, near-infrared narrow-band survey. The HiZELS samples span the peak in the cosmic star formation rate density, identifying typical star-forming galaxies at each epoch. Narrow-band samples have well-defined redshift distributions and are therefore ideal for clustering analyses. We quantify the clustering of the three samples, and of H α luminosity-selected subsamples, initially using simple power-law fits to the two-point correlation function. We extend this work to link the evolution of star-forming galaxies and their host dark matter haloes over cosmic time using sophisticated dark matter halo models. We find that the clustering strength, r0, and the bias of galaxy populations relative to the clustering of dark matter increase linearly with H α luminosity (and, by implication, star formation rate) at all three redshifts, as do the host dark matter halo masses of the HiZELS galaxies. The typical galaxies in our samples are star-forming centrals, residing in haloes of mass Mhalo ˜ a few times 1012 M⊙. We find a remarkably tight redshift-independent relation between the H α luminosity scaled by the characteristic luminosity, L_{H α }/L_{H α }^{*}(z), and the minimum host dark matter halo mass of central galaxies. This reveals that the dark matter halo environment is a strong driver of galaxy star formation rate and therefore of the evolution of the star formation rate density in the Universe.

  20. Stellar halos: a rosetta stone for galaxy formation and cosmology (United States)

    Inglis Read, Justin


    Stellar halos make up about a percent of the total stellar mass in galaxies. Yet their old age and long phase mixing times make them living fossil records of galactic history. In this talk, I review the latest simulations of structure formation in our standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter cosmology. I discuss the latest predictions for stellar halos and the relationship between the stellar halo light and the underlying dark matter. Finally, I discuss how these simulations compare to observations of the Milky Way and Andromeda and, ultimately, what this means for our cosmological model and the formation history of the Galaxy.

  1. Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma : Radiologic significance of hypoechoic halo sign on sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young Eok; Moon, Haeng Jin; Lee, Eun Ja; Ahn, In Oak [Gyeong Sang National Univ., College of Medicine, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of the hypoechoic halo sign in peripheral cholangiocarcinoma. Seventeen sonograms of 17 patients with peripheral cholangiocarcinoma histologically proven by either percutaneous needle biopsy (n=16) or surgical biopsy (n=1) were retrospectively reviewed. The size, margin, homogeneity and internal echogenicity of the masses as well as their peritumoral ductal dilatation and intratumoral calcification were ascertained, and the presence of a hypoechoic halo, and if present, its thickness and type, were also determined. We arbitrarily defined a 'thin' and 'thick' halo respectively, as one with a thickness less than of less than 3 mm, and 3 mm or more, and classified halos as 'intratumoral', 'extratumoral', or 'mixed'. Tumor diameter ranged from 4 to 13.5 (mean,7.3)cm, and the margin was well-defined in 15 cases (smooth: n=2; lobulated: n=13) and irregular in two. Echogenicity was slightly heterogeneous in 11 cases, severely heterogeneous in three, and hemogeneous in three, while the central portion was hyperechoic in eight cases, isoechoic in seven, and hypoechoic in only two. A hypoechoic halo was detected in 10 of 15 tumors (67%) with isoechoic centers. In evaluating the halo, two cases in which the mass was hypoechoic were excluded. All ten hypoechoic halos were at least 3 (range, 4-13; mean, 8.3) mm thick; in two cases the presence of a halo was equivocal, and in three there was no halo. Eight of ten halos were the mixed type, two were intratumoral, and none were extratumoral. Peritumoral ductal dilatation was seen in four cases (24%), but no internal calcification was observed. US showed that the margins of peripheral cholangiocarcinomas were mostly well-defined and smooth (12%) or lobulated (76%), and that masses were mainly heterogeneous (64%) A hypoechoic halo, which in all cases was thick and in 80% of cases was mixed, was noted in 67% of tumors with a hyper (47

  2. Evolution of Southern Hemisphere spring air masses observed by HALOE (United States)

    Pierce, R. Bradley; Grose, William L.; Russell, James M., III; Tuck, Adrian F.


    The evolution of Southern Hemisphere air masses observed by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) during September 21 through October 15, 1992, is investigated using isentropic trajectories computed from United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) assimilated winds and temperatures. Maps of constituent concentrations are obtained by accumulation of air masses from previous HALOE occultations. Lagged correlations between initial and subsequent HALOE observations of the same air mass are used to validate the air mass trajectories. High correlations are found for lag times as large as 10 days. Frequency distributions of the air mass constituent concentrations are used to examine constituent distributions in and around the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex.

  3. Star Products and Applications


    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira


    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  4. Normal and outlying populations of the Milky Way stellar halo at [Fe/H] <–2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Judith G. [Palomar Observatory, Mail Stop 249-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Königstuhl 12, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Thompson, Ian; McWilliam, Andrew; Shectman, Stephen [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Reimers, Dieter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Wisotzki, Lutz [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kirby, Evan, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)


    From detailed abundance analysis of >100 Hamburg/ESO candidate extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars we find 45 with [Fe/H] < –3.0 dex. We identify a heretofore unidentified group: Ca-deficient stars with sub-solar [Ca/Fe] ratios and the lowest neutron-capture abundances; the Ca-deficient group comprises ∼10% of the sample, excluding Carbon stars. Our radial velocity distribution shows that the carbon-enhanced stars with no s-process enhancements, CEMP-no, and which do not show C{sub 2} bands are not preferentially binary systems. Ignoring Carbon stars, approximately 15% of our sample are strong (≥5σ) outliers in one or more elements between Mg and Ni; this rises to ∼19% if very strong (≥10σ) outliers for Sr and Ba are included. Examples include: HE0305–0554 with the lowest [Ba/H] known; HE1012–1540 and HE2323–0256, two (non-velocity variable) C-rich stars with very strong [Mg,Al/Fe] enhancements; and HE1226–1149, an extremely r-process rich star.

  5. The immitigable nature of assembly bias: the impact of halo definition on assembly bias (United States)

    Villarreal, Antonio S.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Purcell, Chris W.; van den Bosch, Frank C.; Diemer, Benedikt; Lange, Johannes U.; Wang, Kuan; Campbell, Duncan


    Dark matter halo clustering depends not only on halo mass, but also on other properties such as concentration and shape. This phenomenon is known broadly as assembly bias. We explore the dependence of assembly bias on halo definition, parametrized by spherical overdensity parameter, Δ. We summarize the strength of concentration-, shape-, and spin-dependent halo clustering as a function of halo mass and halo definition. Concentration-dependent clustering depends strongly on mass at all Δ. For conventional halo definitions (Δ ˜ 200 - 600 m), concentration-dependent clustering at low mass is driven by a population of haloes that is altered through interactions with neighbouring haloes. Concentration-dependent clustering can be greatly reduced through a mass-dependent halo definition with Δ ˜ 20 - 40 m for haloes with M200 m ≲ 1012 h-1M⊙. Smaller Δ implies larger radii and mitigates assembly bias at low mass by subsuming altered, so-called backsplash haloes into now larger host haloes. At higher masses (M200 m ≳ 1013 h-1M⊙) larger overdensities, Δ ≳ 600 m, are necessary. Shape- and spin-dependent clustering are significant for all halo definitions that we explore and exhibit a relatively weaker mass dependence. Generally, both the strength and the sense of assembly bias depend on halo definition, varying significantly even among common definitions. We identify no halo definition that mitigates all manifestations of assembly bias. A halo definition that mitigates assembly bias based on one halo property (e.g. concentration) must be mass dependent. The halo definitions that best mitigate concentration-dependent halo clustering do not coincide with the expected average splashback radii at fixed halo mass.

  6. The Cation−π Interaction Enables a Halo-Tag Fluorogenic Probe for Fast No-Wash Live Cell Imaging and Gel-Free Protein Quantification (United States)


    The design of fluorogenic probes for a Halo tag is highly desirable but challenging. Previous work achieved this goal by controlling the chemical switch of spirolactones upon the covalent conjugation between the Halo tag and probes or by incorporating a “channel dye” into the substrate binding tunnel of the Halo tag. In this work, we have developed a novel class of Halo-tag fluorogenic probes that are derived from solvatochromic fluorophores. The optimal probe, harboring a benzothiadiazole scaffold, exhibits a 1000-fold fluorescence enhancement upon reaction with the Halo tag. Structural, computational, and biochemical studies reveal that the benzene ring of a tryptophan residue engages in a cation−π interaction with the dimethylamino electron-donating group of the benzothiadiazole fluorophore in its excited state. We further demonstrate using noncanonical fluorinated tryptophan that the cation−π interaction directly contributes to the fluorogenicity of the benzothiadiazole fluorophore. Mechanistically, this interaction could contribute to the fluorogenicity by promoting the excited-state charge separation and inhibiting the twisting motion of the dimethylamino group, both leading to an enhanced fluorogenicity. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the probe in no-wash direct imaging of Halo-tagged proteins in live cells. In addition, the fluorogenic nature of the probe enables a gel-free quantification of fusion proteins expressed in mammalian cells, an application that was not possible with previously nonfluorogenic Halo-tag probes. The unique mechanism revealed by this work suggests that incorporation of an excited-state cation−π interaction could be a feasible strategy for enhancing the optical performance of fluorophores and fluorogenic sensors. PMID:28221782

  7. The Cation-π Interaction Enables a Halo-Tag Fluorogenic Probe for Fast No-Wash Live Cell Imaging and Gel-Free Protein Quantification. (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Miao, Kun; Dunham, Noah P; Liu, Hongbin; Fares, Matthew; Boal, Amie K; Li, Xiaosong; Zhang, Xin


    The design of fluorogenic probes for a Halo tag is highly desirable but challenging. Previous work achieved this goal by controlling the chemical switch of spirolactones upon the covalent conjugation between the Halo tag and probes or by incorporating a "channel dye" into the substrate binding tunnel of the Halo tag. In this work, we have developed a novel class of Halo-tag fluorogenic probes that are derived from solvatochromic fluorophores. The optimal probe, harboring a benzothiadiazole scaffold, exhibits a 1000-fold fluorescence enhancement upon reaction with the Halo tag. Structural, computational, and biochemical studies reveal that the benzene ring of a tryptophan residue engages in a cation-π interaction with the dimethylamino electron-donating group of the benzothiadiazole fluorophore in its excited state. We further demonstrate using noncanonical fluorinated tryptophan that the cation-π interaction directly contributes to the fluorogenicity of the benzothiadiazole fluorophore. Mechanistically, this interaction could contribute to the fluorogenicity by promoting the excited-state charge separation and inhibiting the twisting motion of the dimethylamino group, both leading to an enhanced fluorogenicity. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the probe in no-wash direct imaging of Halo-tagged proteins in live cells. In addition, the fluorogenic nature of the probe enables a gel-free quantification of fusion proteins expressed in mammalian cells, an application that was not possible with previously nonfluorogenic Halo-tag probes. The unique mechanism revealed by this work suggests that incorporation of an excited-state cation-π interaction could be a feasible strategy for enhancing the optical performance of fluorophores and fluorogenic sensors.

  8. Stochastic-hydrodynamic model of halo formation in charged particle beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Cufaro Petroni


    Full Text Available The formation of the beam halo in charged particle accelerators is studied in the framework of a stochastic-hydrodynamic model for the collective motion of the particle beam. In such a stochastic-hydrodynamic theory the density and the phase of the charged beam obey a set of coupled nonlinear hydrodynamic equations with explicit time-reversal invariance. This leads to a linearized theory that describes the collective dynamics of the beam in terms of a classical Schrödinger equation. Taking into account space-charge effects, we derive a set of coupled nonlinear hydrodynamic equations. These equations define a collective dynamics of self-interacting systems much in the same spirit as in the Gross-Pitaevskii and Landau-Ginzburg theories of the collective dynamics for interacting quantum many-body systems. Self-consistent solutions of the dynamical equations lead to quasistationary beam configurations with enhanced transverse dispersion and transverse emittance growth. In the limit of a frozen space-charge core it is then possible to determine and study the properties of stationary, stable core-plus-halo beam distributions. In this scheme the possible reproduction of the halo after its elimination is a consequence of the stationarity of the transverse distribution which plays the role of an attractor for every other distribution.

  9. Cluster abundance in chameleon f(R) gravity I: toward an accurate halo mass function prediction (United States)

    Cataneo, Matteo; Rapetti, David; Lombriser, Lucas; Li, Baojiu


    We refine the mass and environment dependent spherical collapse model of chameleon f(R) gravity by calibrating a phenomenological correction inspired by the parameterized post-Friedmann framework against high-resolution N-body simulations. We employ our method to predict the corresponding modified halo mass function, and provide fitting formulas to calculate the enhancement of the f(R) halo abundance with respect to that of General Relativity (GR) within a precision of lesssim 5% from the results obtained in the simulations. Similar accuracy can be achieved for the full f(R) mass function on the condition that the modeling of the reference GR abundance of halos is accurate at the percent level. We use our fits to forecast constraints on the additional scalar degree of freedom of the theory, finding that upper bounds competitive with current Solar System tests are within reach of cluster number count analyses from ongoing and upcoming surveys at much larger scales. Importantly, the flexibility of our method allows also for this to be applied to other scalar-tensor theories characterized by a mass and environment dependent spherical collapse.

  10. Conceptual design of hollow electron lenses for beam halo control in the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio; Valishev, Alexander; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Adriana; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen


    Collimation with hollow electron beams is a technique for halo control in high-power hadron beams. It is based on an electron beam (possibly pulsed or modulated in intensity) guided by strong axial magnetic fields which overlaps with the circulating beam in a short section of the ring. The concept was tested experimentally at the Fermilab Tevatron collider using a hollow electron gun installed in one of the Tevatron electron lenses. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) and the European FP7 HiLumi LHC Design Study, we are proposing a conceptual design for applying this technique to the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A prototype hollow electron gun for the LHC was built and tested. The expected performance of the hollow electron beam collimator was based on Tevatron experiments and on numerical tracking simulations. Halo removal rates and enhancements of halo diffusivity were estimated as a function of beam and lattice parameters. Proton beam core lifetimes and emittance growth rates were check...

  11. Magnetized High Velocity Clouds in the Galactic Halo: A New Distance Constraint (United States)

    Grønnow, Asger; Tepper-García, Thor; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; McClure-Griffiths, N. M.


    High velocity gas that does not conform to Galactic rotation is observed throughout the Galaxy’s halo. One component of this gas, H I high velocity clouds (HVCs), have attracted attention since their discovery in the 1960s and remain controversial in terms of their origins, largely due to the lack of reliable distance estimates. The recent discovery of enhanced magnetic fields toward HVCs has encouraged us to explore their connection to cloud evolution, kinematics, and survival as they fall through the magnetized Galactic halo. For a reasonable model of the halo magnetic field, most infalling clouds see transverse rather than radial field lines. We find that significant compression (and thereby amplification) of the ambient magnetic field occurs in front of the cloud and in the tail of material stripped from the cloud. The compressed transverse field attenuates hydrodynamical instabilities. This delays cloud destruction, though not indefinitely. The observed {\\boldsymbol{B}} field compression is related to the cloud’s distance from the Galactic plane. As a result, the observed rotation measure provides useful distance information on a cloud’s location.

  12. Reconstruction of halo power spectrum from redshift-space galaxy distribution: cylinder-grouping method and halo exclusion effect (United States)

    Okumura, Teppei; Takada, Masahiro; More, Surhud; Masaki, Shogo


    The peculiar velocity field measured by redshift-space distortions (RSD) in galaxy surveys provides a unique probe of the growth of large-scale structure. However, systematic effects arise when including satellite galaxies in the clustering analysis. Since satellite galaxies tend to reside in massive haloes with a greater halo bias, the inclusion boosts the clustering power. In addition, virial motions of the satellite galaxies cause a significant suppression of the clustering power due to non-linear RSD effects. We develop a novel method to recover the redshift-space power spectrum of haloes from the observed galaxy distribution by minimizing the contamination of satellite galaxies. The cylinder-grouping method (CGM) we study effectively excludes satellite galaxies from a galaxy sample. However, we find that this technique produces apparent anisotropies in the reconstructed halo distribution over all the scales which mimic RSD. On small scales, the apparent anisotropic clustering is caused by exclusion of haloes within the anisotropic cylinder used by the CGM. On large scales, the misidentification of different haloes in the large-scale structures, aligned along the line of sight, into the same CGM group causes the apparent anisotropic clustering via their cross-correlation with the CGM haloes. We construct an empirical model for the CGM halo power spectrum, which includes correction terms derived using the CGM window function at small scales as well as the linear matter power spectrum multiplied by a simple anisotropic function at large scales. We apply this model to a mock galaxy catalogue at z = 0.5, designed to resemble Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) CMASS galaxies, and find that our model can predict both the monopole and quadrupole power spectra of the host haloes up to k < 0.5 {{h Mpc^{-1}}} to within 5 per cent.

  13. Formation of the First Star Clusters and Massive Star Binaries by Fragmentation of Filamentary Primordial Gas Clouds (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Yoshida, Naoki; Sakurai, Yuya; Fujii, Michiko S.


    We perform a set of cosmological simulations of early structure formation incorporating baryonic streaming motions. We present a case where a significantly elongated gas cloud with ∼104 solar mass (M ⊙) is formed in a pre-galactic (∼107 M ⊙) dark halo. The gas streaming into the halo compresses and heats the massive filamentary cloud to a temperature of ∼10,000 Kelvin. The gas cloud cools rapidly by atomic hydrogen cooling, and then by molecular hydrogen cooling down to ∼400 Kelvin. The rapid decrease of the temperature and hence of the Jeans mass triggers fragmentation of the filament to yield multiple gas clumps with a few hundred solar masses. We estimate the mass of the primordial star formed in each fragment by adopting an analytic model based on a large set of radiation hydrodynamics simulations of protostellar evolution. The resulting stellar masses are in the range of ∼50–120 M ⊙. The massive stars gravitationally attract each other and form a compact star cluster. We follow the dynamics of the star cluster using a hybrid N-body simulation. We show that massive star binaries are formed in a few million years through multi-body interactions at the cluster center. The eventual formation of the remnant black holes will leave a massive black hole binary, which can be a progenitor of strong gravitational wave sources similar to those recently detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO).

  14. N-body simulations of slow tidal encounters and the formation of galactic halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekel, A.; Lecar, M.; Shaham, J.


    Slow hyperbolic encounters, between a 250-body spherical system (a halo) and a few-body perturber of comparable total mass, are studied by means of N-body simulations. The tidal effect on a system which initially has a decreasing M(R)/R profile (rhoproportionalR/sup -3/) is to produce, or extend, and inner region of constant M/R, to encompass 50 to 70% of the bound mass. In the process, gradual stripping of up to one-third of the stars from the regions outside the half-radius R/sub h/ takes place, and no relaxed extended envelope forms. The flat inner profile is retained under tandem encounters while the outer parts are continuously stripped. These tidal effects are important whenever the closest approach distance of the centers of mass is less than about 5R/sub h/, and whenever their relative velocities are not much larger than the internal dispersion velocities.

  15. Enhanced sources of acoustic power surrounding AR11429


    Donea, Alina; Hanson, Christopher


    Multi-frequency power maps of the local acoustic oscillations show acoustic enhancements (\\acoustic-power halos") at high frequencies surrounding large active region. Computational seismic holography reveals a high-frequency \\acoustic-emission halo", or \\seismic glory" surrounding large active regions. In this study, we have applied computational seismic holography to map the seismic seismic source density surrounding AR 11429. Studies of HMI/SDO Doppler data, shows that the "acoustic halos" ...

  16. On the galaxy-halo connection in the EAGLE simulation (United States)

    Desmond, Harry; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wechsler, Risa H.; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop


    Empirical models of galaxy formation require assumptions about the correlations between galaxy and halo properties. These may be calibrated against observations or inferred from physical models such as hydrodynamical simulations. In this Letter, we use the EAGLE simulation to investigate the correlation of galaxy size with halo properties. We motivate this analysis by noting that the common assumption of angular momentum partition between baryons and dark matter in rotationally supported galaxies overpredicts both the spread in the stellar mass-size relation and the anticorrelation of size and velocity residuals, indicating a problem with the galaxy-halo connection it implies. We find the EAGLE galaxy population to perform significantly better on both statistics, and trace this success to the weakness of the correlations of galaxy size with halo mass, concentration and spin at fixed stellar mass. Using these correlations in empirical models will enable fine-grained aspects of galaxy scalings to be matched.

  17. Impact of Neutrinos on Dark Matter Halo Environment (United States)

    Court, Travis; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco


    The spatial clustering of galaxies is commonly used to infer the shape of the matter power spectrum and therefore to place constraints on the value of the cosmological parameters. In order to extract the maximum information from galaxy surveys it is required to provide accurate theoretical predictions. The first step to model galaxy clustering is to understand the spatial distribution of the structures where they reside: dark matter halos. I will show that the clustering of halos does not depend only on mass, but on other quantities like local matter overdensity. I will point out that halo clustering is also sensitive to the local overdensity of the cosmic neutrino background. I will show that splitting halos according to neutrino overdensity induces a very large scale-dependence bias, an effect that may lead to a new technique to constraint the sum of the neutrino masses.

  18. Planetary nebulae as kinematic tracers of galaxy stellar halos (United States)

    Coccato, Lodovico


    The kinematic and dynamical properties of galaxy stellar halos are difficult to measure because of the faint surface brightness that characterizes these regions. Spiral galaxies can be probed using the radio Hi emission; on the contrary, early-type galaxies contain less gas, therefore alternative kinematic tracers need to be used. Planetary nebulae (PNe) can be easily detected far out in the halo thanks to their bright emission lines. It is therefore possible to map the halo kinematics also in early-type galaxies, typically out to 5 effective radii or beyond. Thanks to the recent spectroscopic surveys targeting extra-galactic PNe, we can now rely on a few tens of galaxies where the kinematics of the stellar halos are measured. Here, I will review the main results obtained in this field in the last decades.

  19. Halo performance on low light level image intensifiers (United States)

    Cui, Dongxu; Ren, Ling; Chang, Benkang; Shi, Feng; Shi, Jifang; Qian, Yunsheng; Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju

    To analyze the formation mechanism of the halo on low light level image intensifiers and the influencing factors on the halo size, a halo tester has been designed. Under the illumination between 10-2 lx and 10-4 lx, we use the tester to collect a 0.1922 mm hole image directly with CoolSNAPK4 charge-coupled device (CCD) in a darkroom. The practical measurement result shows that the amplification ratio is 343.4. Then we put the super second and third generation image intensifiers after the hole, and the halo sizes of the hole images on the screens are determined as 0.2388 and 0.5533 mm respectively. The results are helpful to improve the quality of the low light level image intensifiers.

  20. UARS Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT V001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Level 3AT data product consists of daily vertical profiles of temperature, aerosol extinction and concentrations of HCl,...

  1. Revisiting Scaling Relations for Giant Radio Halos in Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Cassano, R.; Ettori, S.; Brunetti, G.; Giacintucci, S.; Pratt, G. W.; Venturi, T.; Kale, R.; Dolag, K.; Markevitch, Maxim L.


    Many galaxy clusters host megaparsec-scale radio halos, generated by ultrarelativistic electrons in the magnetized intracluster medium. Correlations between the synchrotron power of radio halos and the thermal properties of the hosting clusters were established in the last decade, including the connection between the presence of a halo and cluster mergers. The X-ray luminosity and redshift-limited Extended GMRT Radio Halo Survey provides a rich and unique dataset for statistical studies of the halos. We uniformly analyze the radio and X-ray data for the GMRT cluster sample, and use the new Planck Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) catalog to revisit the correlations between the power of radio halos and the thermal properties of galaxy clusters. We find that the radio power at 1.4 GHz scales with the cluster X-ray (0.1-2.4 keV) luminosity computed within R(sub 500) as P(sub 1.4) approx. L(2.1+/-0.2) - 500). Our bigger and more homogenous sample confirms that the X-ray luminous (L(sub 500) > 5 × 10(exp 44) erg/s)) clusters branch into two populations-radio halos lie on the correlation, while clusters without radio halos have their radio upper limits well below that correlation. This bimodality remains if we excise cool cores from the X-ray luminosities. We also find that P(sub 1.4) scales with the cluster integrated SZ signal within R(sub 500), measured by Planck, as P(sub 1.4) approx. Y(2.05+/-0.28) - 500), in line with previous findings. However, contrary to previous studies that were limited by incompleteness and small sample size, we find that "SZ-luminous" Y(sub 500) > 6×10(exp -5) Mpc(exp 2) clusters show a bimodal behavior for the presence of radio halos, similar to that in the radio-X-ray diagram. Bimodality of both correlations can be traced to clusters dynamics, with radio halos found exclusively in merging clusters. These results confirm the key role of mergers for the origin of giant radio halos, suggesting that they trigger the relativistic particle acceleration.

  2. Testing approximate predictions of displacements of cosmological dark matter halos (United States)

    Munari, Emiliano; Monaco, Pierluigi; Koda, Jun; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano


    We present a test to quantify how well some approximate methods, designed to reproduce the mildly non-linear evolution of perturbations, are able to reproduce the clustering of DM halos once the grouping of particles into halos is defined and kept fixed. The following methods have been considered: Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT) up to third order, Truncated LPT, Augmented LPT, MUSCLE and COLA. The test runs as follows: halos are defined by applying a friends-of-friends (FoF) halo finder to the output of an N-body simulation. The approximate methods are then applied to the same initial conditions of the simulation, producing for all particles displacements from their starting position and velocities. The position and velocity of each halo are computed by averaging over the particles that belong to that halo, according to the FoF halo finder. This procedure allows us to perform a well-posed test of how clustering of the matter density and halo density fields are recovered, without asking to the approximate method an accurate reconstruction of halos. We have considered the results at z=0,0.5,1, and we have analysed power spectrum in real and redshift space, object-by-object difference in position and velocity, density Probability Distribution Function (PDF) and its moments, phase difference of Fourier modes. We find that higher LPT orders are generally able to better reproduce the clustering of halos, while little or no improvement is found for the matter density field when going to 2LPT and 3LPT. Augmentation provides some improvement when coupled with 2LPT, while its effect is limited when coupled with 3LPT. Little improvement is brought by MUSCLE with respect to Augmentation. The more expensive particle-mesh code COLA outperforms all LPT methods, and this is true even for mesh sizes as large as the inter-particle distance. This test sets an upper limit on the ability of these methods to reproduce the clustering of halos, for the cases when these objects are

  3. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  4. Vaporization in comets - The icy grain halo of Comet West (United States)

    Ahearn, M. F.; Cowan, J. J.


    The variation with heliocentric distance of the production rates of various species in Comet West (1975n = 1976 VI) is explained with a cometary model consisting of a CO2 dominated nucleus plus a halo of icy grains of H2O or clathrate hydrate. It is concluded that the parents of CN and C3 are released primarily from the nucleus but that the parent of C2 is released primarily from the halo of icy grains.

  5. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi


    Rismayanti, Rebekka


    : This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. This con...

  6. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) di PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi


    Rebekka Rismayanti


    Abstract: This research aims to describe the effectiveness of Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) in PT Halo Rumah Bernyanyi which, from the perspective of marketing strategy, could be studied by analyzing the segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Using case-study method with in-depth interview, the result shows that the implementation of IMC at PT Halo Rumah Bernyayi is arranged in one single strategy and tend to neglect the complexities of running multi-brand family karaoke-house. ...

  7. Non-Gaussianity and Excursion Set Theory: Halo Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adshead, Peter [Enrico Fermi Institute, Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Baxter, Eric J. [Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lidz, Adam [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    We study the impact of primordial non-Gaussianity generated during inflation on the bias of halos using excursion set theory. We recapture the familiar result that the bias scales as $k^{-2}$ on large scales for local type non-Gaussianity but explicitly identify the approximations that go into this conclusion and the corrections to it. We solve the more complicated problem of non-spherical halos, for which the collapse threshold is scale dependent.

  8. MD 1691: Active halo control using tune ripple at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Fitterer, Miriam; Fiascaris, Maria; Nisbet, David; Thiesen, Hugues; Valentino, Gianluca; Xu, Chen; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    In this MD we performed halo excitation through tune ripple. This consists in an excitation that introduces new resonance sidebands around the existing resonance lines. In presence of sufficient detuning with amplitude, these sidebands can in principle affect only the dynamics of the halo particles at large amplitudes. Tune ripple was induced through a current modulation of the warm trim quadrupoles in IR7. This is the first time this method is experimentally tested at the LHC.

  9. Nano-mechanics of HaloTag Tethers


    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L.; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andres; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M.


    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an AFM cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end, and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combi...

  10. The globular cluster-dark matter halo connection (United States)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael


    I present a simple phenomenological model for the observed linear scaling of the stellar mass in old globular clusters (GCs) with $z=0$ halo mass in which the stellar mass in GCs scales linearly with progenitor halo mass at $z=6$ above a minimum halo mass for GC formation. This model reproduces the observed $M_{\\rm GCs}-M_{\\rm halo}$ relation at $z=0$ and results in a prediction for the minimum halo mass at $z=6$ required for hosting one GC: $M_{\\rm min}(z=6)=1.07 \\times 10^9\\,M_{\\odot}$. Translated to $z=0$, the mean threshold mass is $M_{\\rm halo}(z=0) \\approx 2\\times 10^{10}\\,M_{\\odot}$. I explore the observability of GCs in the reionization era and their contribution to cosmic reionization, both of which depend sensitively on the (unknown) ratio of GC birth mass to present-day stellar mass, $\\xi$. Based on current detections of $z \\gtrsim 6$ objects with $M_{1500} 10$ are strongly disfavored; this, in turn, has potentially important implications for GC formation scenarios. Even for low values of $\\xi$, some observed high-$z$ galaxies may actually be GCs, complicating estimates of reionization-era galaxy ultraviolet luminosity functions and constraints on dark matter models. GCs are likely important reionization sources if $5 \\lesssim \\xi \\lesssim 10$. I also explore predictions for the fraction of accreted versus in situ GCs in the local Universe and for descendants of systems at the halo mass threshold of GC formation (dwarf galaxies). An appealing feature of the model presented here is the ability to make predictions for GC properties based solely on dark matter halo merger trees.

  11. Rainbow's Stars


    Garattini, Remo; Mandanici, Gianluca


    In recent years, a growing interest in the equilibrium of compact astrophysical objects like white dwarf and neutron stars has been manifested. In particular, various modifications due to Planck-scale energy effects have been considered. In this paper we analyze the modification induced by gravity’s rainbow on the equilibrium configurations described by the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff (TOV) equation. Our purpose is to explore the possibility that the rainbow Planck-scale deformation of space-t...

  12. The Physical Nature of Subdwarf A Stars: White Dwarf Impostors (United States)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.


    We address the physical nature of subdwarf A-type (sdA) stars and their possible link to extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs). The two classes of objects are confused in low-resolution spectroscopy. However, colors and proper motions indicate that sdA stars are cooler and more luminous, and thus larger in radius, than published ELM WDs. We demonstrate that surface gravities derived from pure hydrogen models suffer a systematic ˜1 dex error for sdA stars, likely explained by metal line blanketing below 9000 K. A detailed study of five eclipsing binaries with radial velocity orbital solutions and infrared excess establishes that these sdA stars are metal-poor ≃1.2 M ⊙ main sequence stars with ≃0.8 M ⊙ companions. While WDs must exist at sdA temperatures, only ˜1% of a magnitude-limited sdA sample should be ELM WDs. We conclude that the majority of sdA stars are metal-poor A-F type stars in the halo, and that recently discovered pulsating ELM WD-like stars with no obvious radial velocity variations may be SX Phe variables, not pulsating WDs.

  13. The Physical Nature of Subdwarf A Stars: White Dwarf Impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Warren R. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK, 73019 (United States)


    We address the physical nature of subdwarf A-type (sdA) stars and their possible link to extremely low mass (ELM) white dwarfs (WDs). The two classes of objects are confused in low-resolution spectroscopy. However, colors and proper motions indicate that sdA stars are cooler and more luminous, and thus larger in radius, than published ELM WDs. We demonstrate that surface gravities derived from pure hydrogen models suffer a systematic ∼1 dex error for sdA stars, likely explained by metal line blanketing below 9000 K. A detailed study of five eclipsing binaries with radial velocity orbital solutions and infrared excess establishes that these sdA stars are metal-poor ≃1.2 M {sub ⊙} main sequence stars with ≃0.8 M {sub ⊙} companions. While WDs must exist at sdA temperatures, only ∼1% of a magnitude-limited sdA sample should be ELM WDs. We conclude that the majority of sdA stars are metal-poor A–F type stars in the halo, and that recently discovered pulsating ELM WD-like stars with no obvious radial velocity variations may be SX Phe variables, not pulsating WDs.

  14. The abundance and environment of dark matter haloes (United States)

    Metuki, Ofer; Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda


    An open question in cosmology and the theory of structure formation is to what extent does environment affect the properties of galaxies and haloes. The present paper aims at shedding light on this problem. The paper focuses on the analysis of a dark matter only simulation and it addresses the issue of how the environment affects the abundance of haloes, which are assigned four attributes: their virial mass, an ambient density calculated with an aperture that scales with Rvir (ΔM), a fixed-aperture (ΔR) ambient density, and a cosmic web classification (i.e. voids, sheets, filaments, and knots, as defined by the V-web algorithm). ΔM is the mean density around a halo evaluated within a sphere of a radius of 5Rvir, where Rvir is the virial radius. ΔR is the density field Gaussian smoothed with R = 4 h-1 Mpc, evaluated at the centre of the halo. The main result of the paper is that the difference between haloes in different web elements stems from the difference in their mass functions, and does not depend on their adaptive-aperture ambient density. A dependence on the fixed-aperture ambient density is induced by the cross-correlation between the mass of a halo and its fixed-aperture ambient density.

  15. Stellar-to-halo mass relation of cluster galaxies (United States)

    Niemiec, Anna; Jullo, Eric; Limousin, Marceau; Giocoli, Carlo; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrant, Hendrik; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Leauthaud, Alexie; Makler, Martin; Moraes, Bruno; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Shan, Huanyuan; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli; Van Waerbeke, Ludovic


    In the formation of galaxy groups and clusters, the dark matter haloes containing satellite galaxies are expected to be tidally stripped in gravitational interactions with the host. We use galaxy-galaxy weak lensing to measure the average mass of dark matter haloes of satellite galaxies as a function of projected distance to the centre of the host, since stripping is expected to be greater for satellites closer to the centre of the cluster. We further classify the satellites according to their stellar mass: Assuming that the stellar component of the galaxy is less disrupted by tidal stripping, stellar mass can be used as a proxy of the infall mass. We study the stellar-to-halo mass relation of satellites as a function of the cluster-centric distance to measure tidal stripping. We use the shear catalogues of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) science verification archive, the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the CFHT Stripe 82 surveys, and we select satellites from the redMaPPer catalogue of clusters. For galaxies located in the outskirts of clusters, we find a stellar-to- halo mass relation in good agreement with the theoretical expectations from Moster et al. for central galaxies. In the centre of the cluster, we find that this relation is shifted to smaller halo mass for a given stellar mass. We interpret this finding as further evidence for tidal stripping of dark matter haloes in high-density environments.

  16. Nano-mechanics of HaloTag Tethers (United States)

    Popa, Ionel; Berkovich, Ronen; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Badilla, Carmen L.; Rivas-Pardo, Jaime Andres; Taniguchi, Yukinori; Kawakami, Masaru; Fernandez, Julio M.


    The active site of the Haloalkane Dehydrogenase (HaloTag) enzyme can be covalently attached to a chloroalkane ligand providing a mechanically strong tether, resistant to large pulling forces. Here we demonstrate the covalent tethering of protein L and I27 polyproteins between an AFM cantilever and a glass surface using HaloTag anchoring at one end, and thiol chemistry at the other end. Covalent tethering is unambiguously confirmed by the observation of full length polyprotein unfolding, combined with high detachment forces that range up to ~2000 pN. We use these covalently anchored polyproteins to study the remarkable mechanical properties of HaloTag proteins. We show that the force that triggers unfolding of the HaloTag protein exhibits a four-fold increase, from 131 pN to 491 pN, when the direction of the applied force is changed from the C-terminus to the N-terminus. Force-clamp experiments reveal that unfolding of the HaloTag protein is twice more sensitive to pulling force compared to protein L, and refolds at a slower rate. We show how these properties allow for the long-term observation of protein folding-unfolding cycles at high forces, without interference from the HaloTag tether. PMID:23909704

  17. Cold dark matter. 1: The formation of dark halos (United States)

    Gelb, James M.; Bertschinger, Edmund


    We use numerical simulations of critically closed cold dark matter (CDM) models to study the effects of numerical resolution on observable quantities. We study simulations with up to 256(exp 3) particles using the particle-mesh (PM) method and with up to 144(exp 3) particles using the adaptive particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method. Comparisons of galaxy halo distributions are made among the various simulations. We also compare distributions with observations, and we explore methods for identifying halos, including a new algorithm that finds all particles within closed contours of the smoothed density field surrounding a peak. The simulated halos show more substructure than predicted by the Press-Schechter theory. We are able to rule out all omega = 1 CDM models for linear amplitude sigma(sub 8) greater than or approximately = 0.5 because the simulations produce too many massive halos compared with the observations. The simulations also produce too many low-mass halos. The distribution of halos characterized by their circular velocities for the P3M simulations is in reasonable agreement with the observations for 150 km/s less than or = V(sub circ) less than or = 350 km/s.

  18. Comparison of Intra-cluster and M87 Halo Orphan Globular Clusters in the Virgo Cluster (United States)

    Louie, Tiffany Kaye; Tuan, Jin Zong; Martellini, Adhara; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Toloba, Elisa; Peng, Eric; Longobardi, Alessia; Lim, Sungsoon


    We present a study of “orphan” globular clusters (GCs) — GCs with no identifiable nearby host galaxy — discovered in NGVS, a 104 deg2 CFHT/MegaCam imaging survey. At the distance of the Virgo cluster, GCs are bright enough to make good spectroscopic targets and many are barely resolved in good ground-based seeing. Our orphan GC sample is derived from a subset of NGVS-selected GC candidates that were followed up with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy. While our primary spectroscopic targets were candidate GC satellites of Virgo dwarf elliptical and ultra-diffuse galaxies, many objects turned out to be non-satellites based on a radial velocity mismatch with the Virgo galaxy they are projected close to. Using a combination of spectral characteristics (e.g., absorption vs. emission), Gaussian mixture modeling of radial velocity and positions, and extreme deconvolution analysis of ugrizk photometry and image morphology, these non-satellites were classified into: (1) intra-cluster GCs (ICGCs) in the Virgo cluster, (2) GCs in the outer halo of M87, (3) foreground Milky Way stars, and (4) background galaxies. The statistical distinction between ICGCs and M87 halo GCs is based on velocity distributions (mean of 1100 vs. 1300 km/s and dispersions of 700 vs. 400 km/s, respectively) and radial distribution (diffuse vs. centrally concentrated, respectively). We used coaddition to increase the spectral SNR for the two classes of orphan GCs and measured the equivalent widths (EWs) of the Mg b and H-beta absorption lines. These EWs were compared to single stellar population models to obtain mean age and metallicity estimates. The ICGCs and M87 halo GCs have = –0.6+/–0.3 and –0.4+/–0.3 dex, respectively, and mean ages of >~ 5 and >~ 10 Gyr, respectively. This suggests the M87 halo GCs formed in relatively high-mass galaxies that avoided being tidally disrupted by M87 until they were close to the cluster center, while IGCCs formed in relatively low-mass galaxies that were

  19. Design of CMS Beam Halo Monitor system

    CERN Document Server



    A fast and directional monitoring system for the CMS experiment is designed to provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of beam background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The background detection is based on Cherenkov radiation produced in synthetic fused silica read out by a fast, UV sensitive photomultiplier tube. Twenty detector units per end will be azimuthally distributed around the rotating shielding of CMS, covering ~408 cm2 at 20.6m from the interaction point, at a radius of ~180 cm. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. A robust multi-layered shielding will enclose each detector unit to protect the photomultiplier tube from the magnetic field and to eliminate the occupancy from low energy particles. The design of the front-end units is validated by experimental results. An overview of the new sy...

  20. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics (United States)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.


    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  1. Beam halo collimation in heavy ion synchrotrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Strašík


    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic study of the halo collimation of ion beams from proton up to uranium in synchrotrons. The projected Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research synchrotron SIS100 is used as a reference case. The concepts are separated into fully stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{92+} and partially stripped (e.g., ^{238}U^{28+} ion collimation. An application of the two-stage betatron collimation system, well established for proton accelerators, is intended also for fully stripped ions. The two-stage system consists of a primary collimator (a scattering foil and secondary collimators (bulky absorbers. Interaction of the particles with the primary collimator (scattering, momentum losses, and nuclear interactions was simulated by using fluka. Particle-tracking simulations were performed by using mad-x. Finally, the dependence of the collimation efficiency on the primary ion species was determined. The influence of the collimation system adjustment, lattice imperfections, and beam parameters was estimated. The concept for the collimation of partially stripped ions employs a thin stripping foil in order to change their charge state. These ions are subsequently deflected towards a dump location using a beam optical element. The charge state distribution after the stripping foil was obtained from global. The ions were tracked by using mad–x.

  2. Performance of the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration


    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of radiation hard synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes for a direction sensitive measurement. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and received data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed i...

  3. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080684; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D.P.; Stifter, K.


    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes. The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few ns resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is readout by IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providi...

  4. HaloPROTACS: Use of Small Molecule PROTACs to Induce Degradation of HaloTag Fusion Proteins. (United States)

    Buckley, Dennis L; Raina, Kanak; Darricarrere, Nicole; Hines, John; Gustafson, Jeffrey L; Smith, Ian E; Miah, Afjal H; Harling, John D; Crews, Craig M


    Small molecule-induced protein degradation is an attractive strategy for the development of chemical probes. One method for inducing targeted protein degradation involves the use of PROTACs, heterobifunctional molecules that can recruit specific E3 ligases to a desired protein of interest. PROTACs have been successfully used to degrade numerous proteins in cells, but the peptidic E3 ligase ligands used in previous PROTACs have hindered their development into more mature chemical probes or therapeutics. We report the design of a novel class of PROTACs that incorporate small molecule VHL ligands to successfully degrade HaloTag7 fusion proteins. These HaloPROTACs will inspire the development of future PROTACs with more drug-like properties. Additionally, these HaloPROTACs are useful chemical genetic tools, due to their ability to chemically knock down widely used HaloTag7 fusion proteins in a general fashion.

  5. Self-consistent semi-analytic models of the first stars (United States)

    Visbal, Eli; Haiman, Zoltán; Bryan, Greg L.


    We have developed a semi-analytic framework to model the large-scale evolution of the first Population III (Pop III) stars and the transition to metal-enriched star formation. Our model follows dark matter halos from cosmological N-body simulations, utilizing their individual merger histories and three-dimensional positions, and applies physically motivated prescriptions for star formation and feedback from Lyman-Werner (LW) radiation, hydrogen ionizing radiation, and external metal enrichment due to supernovae winds. This method is intended to complement analytic studies, which do not include clustering or individual merger histories, and hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, which include detailed physics, but are computationally expensive and have limited dynamic range. Utilizing this technique, we compute the cumulative Pop III and metal-enriched star formation rate density (SFRD) as a function of redshift at z ≥ 20. We find that varying the model parameters leads to significant qualitative changes in the global star formation history. The Pop III star formation efficiency and the delay time between Pop III and subsequent metal-enriched star formation are found to have the largest impact. The effect of clustering (i.e. including the three-dimensional positions of individual halos) on various feedback mechanisms is also investigated. The impact of clustering on LW and ionization feedback is found to be relatively mild in our fiducial model, but can be larger if external metal enrichment can promote metal-enriched star formation over large distances.

  6. Gravitational fragmentation in turbulent primordial gas and the initial mass function of Population III stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Paul C.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Glover, Simon C.O.; /ZAH, Heidelberg; Klessen, Ralf S.; /ZAH, Heidelberg /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bromm, Volker; /Texas U., Astron. Dept.


    We report results from numerical simulations of star formation in the early universe that focus on the dynamical behavior of metal-free gas under different initial and environmental conditions. In particular we investigate the role of turbulence, which is thought to ubiquitously accompany the collapse of high-redshift halos. We distinguish between two main cases: the birth of Population III.1 stars - those which form in the pristine halos unaffected by prior star formation - and the formation of Population III.2 stars - those forming in halos where the gas is still metal free but has an increased ionization fraction. This latter case can arise either from exposure to the intense UV radiation of stellar sources in neighboring halos, or from the high virial temperatures associated with the formation of massive halos, that is, those with masses greater than {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub {circle_dot}}. We find that turbulent primordial gas is highly susceptible to fragmentation in both cases, even for turbulence in the subsonic regime, i.e. for rms velocity dispersions as low as 20 % of the sound speed. Contrary to our original expectations, fragmentation is more vigorous and more widespread in pristine halos compared to pre-ionized ones. We therefore predict Pop III.1 stars to be on average of somewhat lower mass, and form in larger groups, than Pop III.2 stars. We find that fragment masses cover over two orders of magnitude, indicating that the resulting Population III initial mass function was significantly extended in mass as well. Our results suggest that the details of the fragmentation process depend on the local properties of the turbulent velocity field and hence we expect considerable variations in the resulting stellar mass spectrum in different halos. In particular, the lowest-mass objects in our sample should have survived to the present day and could potentially provide a unique record of the physical conditions of stellar birth in the primordial universe

  7. GRB 980425 host: [C II], [O I], and CO lines reveal recent enhancement of star formation due to atomic gas inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, M. J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Wardlow, J. L.


    Context. Accretion of gas from the intergalactic medium is required to fuel star formation in galaxies. We have recently suggested that this process can be studied using host galaxies of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Aims. Our aim is to test this possibility by studying in detail the properties of gas...

  8. Stellar Stream and Halo Structure in the Andromeda Galaxy from a Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey (United States)

    Komiyama, Yutaka; Chiba, Masashi; Tanaka, Mikito; Tanaka, Masayuki; Kirihara, Takanobu; Miki, Yohei; Mori, Masao; Lupton, Robert H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kalirai, Jason S.; Gilbert, Karoline; Kirby, Evan; Lee, Myun Gyoon; Jang, In Sung; Sharma, Sanjib; Hayashi, Kohei


    We present wide and deep photometry of the northwestern part of the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) using Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. The survey covers a 9.2 deg2 field in the g, i, and NB515 bands and shows a clear red giant branch (RGB) of M31's halo stars and a pronounced red clump (RC) feature. The spatial distribution of RC stars shows a prominent stream feature, the Northwestern (NW) Stream, and a diffuse substructure in the southern part of our survey field. We estimate the distances based on the RC method and obtain (m{--}M) = 24.63 ± 0.191 (random) ± 0.057 (systematic) and 24.29 ± 0.211 (random) ± 0.057 (systematic) mag for the NW Stream and diffuse substructure, respectively, implying that the NW Stream is located behind M31, whereas the diffuse substructure is located in front of it. We also estimate line-of-sight distances along the NW Stream and find that the southern part of the stream is ∼20 kpc closer to us relative to the northern part. The distance to the NW Stream inferred from the isochrone fitting to the color–magnitude diagram favors the RC-based distance, but the tip of the RGB (TRGB)-based distance estimated for NB515-selected RGB stars does not agree with it. The surface number density distribution of RC stars across the NW Stream is found to be approximately Gaussian with an FWHM of ∼25 arcmin (5.7 kpc), with a slight skew to the southwest side. That along the NW Stream shows a complicated structure, including variations in number density and a significant gap in the stream. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  9. Growth of First Galaxies: Impacts of Star Formation and Stellar Feedback (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Nagamine, Kentaro; Zhu, Qirong; Khochfar, Sadegh; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio


    Recent observations have detected galaxies at high-redshift z˜ 6{--}11, and revealed the diversity of their physical properties, from normal star-forming galaxies to starburst galaxies. To understand the properties of these observed galaxies, it is crucial to understand the star formation (SF) history of high-redshift galaxies under the influence of stellar feedback. In this work, we present the results of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with zoom-in initial conditions, and investigate the formation of the first galaxies and their evolution toward observable galaxies at z˜ 6. We focus on three different galaxies that end up in halos with masses {M}{{h}}=2.4× {10}10 {h}-1 {M}⊙ (Halo-10), 1.6× {10}11 {h}-1 {M}⊙ (Halo-11), and 0.7× {10}12 {h}-1 {M}⊙ (Halo-12) at z = 6. Our simulations also probe the impacts of different subgrid assumptions, I.e., SF efficiency and cosmic reionization, on SF histories in the first galaxies. We find that SF occurs intermittently due to supernova (SN) feedback at z≳ 10, and then it proceeds more smoothly as the halo mass grows at lower redshifts. Galactic disks are destroyed due to SN feedback, while galaxies in simulations with no feedback or lower SF efficiency models can sustain a galactic disk for long periods ≳ 10 {Myr}. The expulsion of gas at the galactic center also affects the inner dark matter density profile for a short period. Our simulated galaxies in Halo-11 and Halo-12 reproduce the SF rates and stellar masses of observed Lyα emitters at z˜ 7{--}8 fairly well given the observational uncertainties.

  10. Synthesis of star-branched PLA-b-PMPC copolymer micelles as long blood circulation vectors to enhance tumor-targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Li-xia [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Jin, E-mail: [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Ke; He, Li-gang; Qian, Xiao-ming; Liu, Chao-yong; Wang, Li-mei; Yang, Xin-qi [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sun, Jinjin [Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300211 (China); Ren, Yu [Tianjin Research Center of Basic Medical Science, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Kang, Chun-sheng, E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Yuan, Xu-bo, E-mail: [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)


    Star-branched amphiphilic copolymer nanocarriers with high-density zwitterionic shell show great promise in drug delivery due to their controllable small size and excellent anti-biofouling properties. This gives the hydrophobic cargo with high stability and long blood circulation in vivo. In the present study, star-branched polylactic acid and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) copolymers with (AB{sub 3}){sub 3}–type architecture (PLA-b-PMPC{sub 3}){sub 3} were conceived as drug vectors, and the copolymers were synthesized by an “arm-first” approach via the combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and the click reaction. The self-assembled star-branched copolymer micelles (sCPM) had an average diameter of about 64.5 nm and exhibited an ultra-hydrophilic surface with an ultralow water contact angle of about 12.7°, which efficiently suppressed the adhesion of serum proteins. In vivo experiments showed that the sCPM loading strongly enhanced the blood circulation time of DiI and the plasma half-life of DiI in sCPM was 19.3 h. The relative accumulation concentration in tumor of DiI delivered by sCPM was 2.37-fold higher than that of PLA-PEG, at 4 h after intravenous injection. These results demonstrated that the star-branched copolymer (PLA-b-PMPC{sub 3}){sub 3} is a promising alternative carrier material for intravenous delivery versus classic PEG-modified strategies. - Highlights: • Star-branched amphiphilic copolymer micelles (sCPM) with zwitterionic shells were prepared. • sCPM possess an ultra-hydrophilic surface and thus inhibited the protein absorption. • sCPM can effectively prolong the cargo’s plasma circulation time. • sCPM can enhance the cargo’s passive tumor-targeted delivery.

  11. The evolution of supermassive Population III stars (United States)

    Haemmerlé, Lionel; Woods, T. E.; Klessen, Ralf S.; Heger, Alexander; Whalen, Daniel J.


    Supermassive primordial stars forming in atomically cooled haloes at z ˜ 15-20 are currently thought to be the progenitors of the earliest quasars in the Universe. In this picture, the star evolves under accretion rates of 0.1-1 M⊙ yr-1 until the general relativistic instability triggers its collapse to a black hole at masses of ˜105 M⊙. However, the ability of the accretion flow to sustain such high rates depends crucially on the photospheric properties of the accreting star, because its ionizing radiation could reduce or even halt accretion. Here we present new models of supermassive Population III protostars accreting at rates 0.001-10 M⊙ yr-1, computed with the GENEVA stellar evolution code including general relativistic corrections to the internal structure. We compute for the first time evolutionary tracks in the mass range M > 105 M⊙. We use the polytropic stability criterion to estimate the mass at which the collapse occurs, which has been shown to give a lower limit of the actual mass at collapse in recent hydrodynamic simulations. We find that at accretion rates higher than 0.01 M⊙ yr-1, the stars evolve as red, cool supergiants with surface temperatures below 104 K towards masses >105 M⊙. Moreover, even with the lower rates 0.001 M_{⊙} yr{^{-1}}origin of the first quasars. We provide numerical tables for the surface properties of our models.

  12. When stars collide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glebbeek, E.; Pols, O.R.


    When two stars collide and merge they form a new star that can stand out against the background population in a star cluster as a blue straggler. In so called collision runaways many stars can merge and may form a very massive star that eventually forms an intermediate mass blackhole. We have

  13. Tidal breakup of triple stars in the Galactic Centre (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Gualandris, Alessia


    The last decade has seen the detection of fast moving stars in the Galactic halo, the so-called hypervelocity stars (HVSs). While the bulk of this population is likely the result of a close encounter between a stellar binary and the supermassive black hole (MBH) in the Galactic Centre (GC), other mechanims may contribute fast stars to the sample. Few observed HVSs show apparent ages which are shorter than the flight time from the GC, thereby making the binary disruption scenario unlikely. These stars may be the result of the breakup of a stellar triple in the GC which led to the ejection of a hypervelocity binary (HVB). If such binary evolves into a blue straggler star due to internal processes after ejection, a rejuvenation is possible that make the star appear younger once detected in the halo. A triple disruption may also be responsible for the presence of HVBs, of which one candidate has now been observed. We present a numerical study of triple disruptions by the MBH in the GC and find that the most likely outcomes are the production of single HVSs and single/binary stars bound to the MBH, while the production of HVBs has a probability ≲ 1% regardless of the initial parameters. Assuming a triple fraction of ≈10% results in an ejection rate of ≲ 1{ Gyr}^{-1}, insufficient to explain the sample of HVSs with lifetimes shorter than their flight time. We conclude that alternative mechanisms are responsible for the origin of such objects and HVBs in general.



    Zackrisson, Erik; Scott, Pat; Rydberg, Claes-Erik; Iocco, Fabio; Edvardsson, Bengt; Ostlin, Goran; Sivertsson, Sofia; Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom; Gondolo, Paolo


    The first stars in the history of the universe are likely to form in the dense central regions of similar to 10(5)-10(6) M-circle dot cold dark matter halos at z approximate to 10-50. The annihilation of dark matter particles in these environments may lead to the formation of so-called dark stars, which are predicted to be cooler, larger, more massive, and potentially more long-lived than conventional population III stars. Here, we investigate the prospects of detecting high-redshift dark sta...

  15. The shape of the invisible halo: N-body simulations on parallel supercomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, M.S.; Zurek, W.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quinn, P.J. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories); Salmon, J.K. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA))


    We study the shapes of halos and the relationship to their angular momentum content by means of N-body (N {approximately} 10{sup 6}) simulations. Results indicate that in relaxed halos with no apparent substructure: (i) the shape and orientation of the isodensity contours tends to persist throughout the virialised portion of the halo; (ii) most ({approx}70%) of the halos are prolate; (iii) the approximate direction of the angular momentum vector tends to persist throughout the halo; (iv) for spherical shells centered on the core of the halo the magnitude of the specific angular momentum is approximately proportional to their radius; (v) the shortest axis of the ellipsoid which approximates the shape of the halo tends to align with the rotation axis of the halo. This tendency is strongest in the fastest rotating halos. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  16. A possible formation scenario for dwarf spheroidal galaxies - III. Adding star formation histories to the fiducial model (United States)

    Alarcón Jara, A. G.; Fellhauer, M.; Matus Carrillo, D. R.; Assmann, P.; Urrutia Zapata, F.; Hazeldine, J.; Aravena, C. A.


    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are regarded as the basic building blocks in the formation of larger galaxies and are the most dark matter dominated systems in the Universe, known so far. There are several models that attempt to explain their formation and evolution, but they have problems modelling the formation of isolated dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Here, we will explain a possible formation scenario in which star clusters form inside the dark matter halo of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. These star clusters suffer from low star formation efficiency and dissolve while orbiting inside the dark matter halo. Thereby, they build the faint luminous components that we observe in dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In this paper, we study this model by adding different star formation histories to the simulations and compare the results with our previous work and observational data to show that we can explain the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  17. Star Formation-Driven Winds in the Early Universe (United States)

    Peek, Matthew; Lundgren, Britt; Brammer, Gabriel


    Measuring the extent of star formation-driven winds from galaxies in the early universe is crucial for understanding of how galaxies evolve over cosmic time. Using WFC3/IR grism data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have measured the star formation rates and star formation rate surface densities of several hundred galaxies at redshift (z) = 1, when the universe was roughly half its present age. The galaxies we examine are also probed by background quasars, whose spectra provide information about the extent of metal-enriched gas in their halos. We use a computational pipeline to measure the density of the star formation in each galaxy and correlate these measurements with detections of Mg II absorption in nearby quasar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our preliminary results support a model in which galaxies with high SFR surface densities drive metal-enriched gas out of the disk and into these galaxies’ extended halos, where that gas is detected in the spectra of more distant quasars.

  18. HaloTag as a reporter gene: positron emission tomography imaging with 64Cu-labeled second generation HaloTag ligands


    Hong, Hao; Benink, Hélène A.; Uyeda, H. Tetsuo; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Zhang, Yin; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Barnhart, Todd E.; Fan, Frank; Cai, Weibo


    The goal of this study is to employ the HaloTag technology for positron emission tomography (PET), which involves two components: the HaloTag protein (a modified hydrolase which covalently binds to synthetic ligands) and HaloTag ligands (HTLs). 4T1 murine breast cancer cells were stably transfected to express HaloTag protein on the surface (termed as 4T1-HaloTag-ECS, ECS denotes extracellular surface). Two new HTLs were synthesized and termed NOTA-HTL2G-S and NOTA-HTL2G-L (2G indicates second...

  19. HaloTag technology: a versatile platform for biomedical applications. (United States)

    England, Christopher G; Luo, Haiming; Cai, Weibo


    Exploration of protein function and interaction is critical for discovering links among genomics, proteomics, and disease state; yet, the immense complexity of proteomics found in biological systems currently limits our investigational capacity. Although affinity and autofluorescent tags are widely employed for protein analysis, these methods have been met with limited success because they lack specificity and require multiple fusion tags and genetic constructs. As an alternative approach, the innovative HaloTag protein fusion platform allows protein function and interaction to be comprehensively analyzed using a single genetic construct with multiple capabilities. This is accomplished using a simplified process, in which a variable HaloTag ligand binds rapidly to the HaloTag protein (usually linked to the protein of interest) with high affinity and specificity. In this review, we examine all current applications of the HaloTag technology platform for biomedical applications, such as the study of protein isolation and purification, protein function, protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions, biological assays, in vitro cellular imaging, and in vivo molecular imaging. In addition, novel uses of the HaloTag platform are briefly discussed along with potential future applications.

  20. Deep brain transcranial magnetic stimulation using variable "Halo coil" system (United States)

    Meng, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Crowther, L. J.; Xu, Z.; Qu, J.; Jiles, D. C.


    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has the potential to treat various neurological disorders non-invasively and safely. The "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate deeper regions of the brain with lower surface to deep-brain field ratio compared to other coil configurations. The existing "Halo coil" configuration is fixed and is limited in varying the site of stimulation in the brain. We have developed a new system based on the current "Halo coil" design along with a graphical user interface system that enables the larger coil to rotate along the transverse plane. The new system can also enable vertical movement of larger coil. Thus, this adjustable "Halo coil" configuration can stimulate different regions of the brain by adjusting the position and orientation of the larger coil on the head. We have calculated magnetic and electric fields inside a MRI-derived heterogeneous head model for various positions and orientations of the coil. We have also investigated the mechanical and thermal stability of the adjustable "Halo coil" configuration for various positions and orientations of the coil to ensure safe operation of the system.

  1. Halo-Independent Direct Detection Analyses Without Mass Assumptions

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Adam J.; Kahn, Yonatan; McCullough, Matthew


    Results from direct detection experiments are typically interpreted by employing an assumption about the dark matter velocity distribution, with results presented in the $m_\\chi-\\sigma_n$ plane. Recently methods which are independent of the DM halo velocity distribution have been developed which present results in the $v_{min}-\\tilde{g}$ plane, but these in turn require an assumption on the dark matter mass. Here we present an extension of these halo-independent methods for dark matter direct detection which does not require a fiducial choice of the dark matter mass. With a change of variables from $v_{min}$ to nuclear recoil momentum ($p_R$), the full halo-independent content of an experimental result for any dark matter mass can be condensed into a single plot as a function of a new halo integral variable, which we call $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$. The entire family of conventional halo-independent $\\tilde{g}(v_{min})$ plots for all DM masses are directly found from the single $\\tilde{h}(p_R)$ plot through a simple re...

  2. Chemical analysis of eight giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6366 (United States)

    Puls, Arthur A.; Brito, Alan Alves; Campos, Fabíola; Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz


    The metal-rich Galactic globular cluster NGC 6366 is the fifth closest to the Sun. Despite its interest, it has received scarce attention, and little is known about its internal structure. Its kinematics suggests a link to the halo, but its metallicity indicates otherwise. We present a detailed chemical analysis of eight giant stars of NGC 6366, using high resolution and high quality spectra (R > 40 000, S/N > 60) obtained at the VLT (8.2 m) and CFHT (3.6 m) telescopes. We attempted to characterize its chemistry and to search for evidence of multiple stellar populations. The atmospheric parameters were derived using the method of excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines and from those atmospheric parameters we calculated the abundances for other elements and found that none of the elements measured presents star-to-star variation greater than the uncertainties. We compared the derived abundances with those of other globular clusters and field stars available in the literature. We determined a mean [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.03 for NGC 6366 and found some similarity of this object with M 71, another inner halo globular cluster. The Na-O anticorrelation extension is short and no star-to-star variation in Al is found. The presence of second generation stars is not evident in NGC 6366.

  3. First images from the PIONIER/VLTI optical interferometry imaging survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluska, J.; Malbet, F.; Berger, J.-P.; Benisty, M.; Lazareff, B.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Baron, F.; Dominik, C.; Isella, A.; Juhasz, A.; Kraus, S.; Lachaume, R.; Ménard, F.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Monnier, J.D.; Pinte, C.; Thi, W.-F.; Thiebaut, E.; Zins, G.


    The close environment of Herbig stars starts to be revealed step by step and it appears to be quite complex. Many physical phenomena interplay: the dust sublimation causing a puffed-up inner rim, a dusty halo, a dusty wind or an inner gaseous component. To investigate more deeply these regions,

  4. Role of Massive Stars in the Evolution of Primitive Galaxies (United States)

    Heap, Sara


    An important factor controlling galaxy evolution is feedback from massive stars. It is believed that the nature and intensity of stellar feedback changes as a function of galaxy mass and metallicity. At low mass and metallicity, feedback from massive stars is mainly in the form of photoionizing radiation. At higher mass and metallicity, it is in stellar winds. IZw 18 is a local blue, compact dwarf galaxy that meets the requirements for a primitive galaxy: low halo mass greater than 10(exp 9)Msun, strong photoionizing radiation, no galactic outflow, and very low metallicity,log(O/H)+12=7.2. We will describe the properties of massive stars and their role in the evolution of IZw 18, based on analysis of ultraviolet images and spectra obtained with HST.

  5. Properties of dark matter haloes as a function of local environment density (United States)

    Lee, Christoph T.; Primack, Joel R.; Behroozi, Peter; Rodríguez-Puebla, Aldo; Hellinger, Doug; Dekel, Avishai


    We study how properties of discrete dark matter haloes depend on halo environment, characterized by the mass density around the haloes on scales from 0.5 to 16 h-1 Mpc. We find that low-mass haloes (those less massive than the characteristic mass MC of haloes collapsing at a given epoch) in high-density environments have lower accretion rates, lower spins, higher concentrations and rounder shapes than haloes in median density environments. Haloes in median- and low-density environments have similar accretion rates and concentrations, but haloes in low-density environments have lower spins and are more elongated. Haloes of a given mass in high-density regions accrete material earlier than haloes of the same mass in lower density regions. All but the most massive haloes in high-density regions are losing mass (i.e. being stripped) at low redshifts, which causes artificially lowered NFW scale radii and increased concentrations. Tidal effects are also responsible for the decreasing spins of low-mass haloes in high-density regions at low redshifts z spins because they lack nearby haloes whose tidal fields can spin them up. We also show that the simulation density distribution is well fit by an extreme value distribution, and that the density distribution becomes broader with cosmic time.

  6. Subdural abscess associated with halo-pin traction. (United States)

    Garfin, S R; Botte, M J; Triggs, K J; Nickel, V L


    Osteomyelitis and intracranial abscess are among the most serious complications that have been reported in association with the use of the halo device. The cases of five patients who had formation of an intracranial abscess related to the use of a halo cervical immobilizer are described. All of the infections resolved after drainage of the abscess, débridement, and parenteral administration of antibiotics. Meticulous care of the pin sites is essential to avoid this serious complication. Additionally, since all of the infections were associated with prolonged halo-skeletal traction, this technique should be used with caution and with an awareness of the possible increased risks of pin-site infection and of formation of a subdural abscess.

  7. Direct photoassociation of halo molecules in ultracold 86 Sr (United States)

    Aman, J. A.; Hill, Joshua; Killian, T. C.


    We investigate the creation of 1S0 +1S0 halo molecules in strontium 86 through direct photoassociation in an optical dipole trap. We drive two photon Raman transitions near-resonance with a molecular level of the 1S0 +3P1 interatomic potential as the intermediate state. This provides large Frank-Condon factors and allows us to observe resonances for the creation of halo molecules through higher order Raman processes. The halo molecule is bound by EB 85 kHz at low excitation-laser intensity, but experiments show large AC Stark shifts of the molecular binding energy. These conditions suggest that STIRAP should be very effective for improving molecular conversion efficiency. Further experiments in a 3D lattice will explore molecular lifetimes and collision rates. Travel support provided by Shell Corporation.

  8. Axionic dark matter signatures in various halo models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vergados, J.D., E-mail: [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM), University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005 (Australia); Semertzidis, Y.K. [Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)


    In the present work we study possible signatures in the Axion Dark Matter searches. We focus on the dependence of the expected width in resonant cavities for various popular halo models, leading to standard velocity distributions, e.g. Maxwell–Boltzmann, as well as phase-mixed and non-virialized axionic dark matter (flows, caustic rings). We study, in particular, the time dependence of the resonance width (modulation) arising from such models. We find that the difference between the maximum (in June) and the minimum (in December) can vary by about 10% in the case of standard halos. In the case of mixed phase halos the variation is a bit bigger and for caustic rings the maximum is expected to occur a bit later. Experimentally such a modulation is observable with present technology.

  9. Particle ejection during mergers of dark matter halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carucci, Isabella P.; Sparre, Martin; Hansen, Steen H. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, Copenhagen, 2100 Denmark (Denmark); Joyce, Michael, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et Hautes Énergies, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CNRS IN2P3 UMR 7585, 4 Place Jussieu, Paris Cedex 05, 75752 France (France)


    Dark matter halos are built from accretion and merging. During merging some of the dark matter particles may be ejected with velocities higher than the escape velocity. We use both N-body simulations and single-particle smooth-field simulations to demonstrate that rapid changes to the mean field potential are responsible for such ejection, and in particular that dynamical friction plays no significant role in it. Studying a range of minor mergers, we find that typically between 5–15% of the particles from the smaller of the two merging structures are ejected. We also find that the ejected particles originate essentially from the small halo, and more specifically are particles in the small halo which pass later through the region in which the merging occurs.

  10. Simulation Studies of the Helium and Lead Observatory (HALO) (United States)

    Sanford, Nikki; Scholberg, Kate


    Simulation studies for were conducted for the Helium and Lead Observatory (HALO), the supernova neutrino detector at SNOLAB, Sudbury, Ontario. HALO consists of 79 tons of lead, with 128 ^3He counters which detect the scattered lead neutrons resulting from incoming neutrinos. Improvements were made to the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation's geometry by the addition of water boxes and plastic baseboards, which serve to reflect scattered neutrons back towards counters, and shield against outside neutrons and gammas. Several box designs were created, and the resulting event detection efficiencies and labeling of 1n and 2n events were studied. It was found that these additions cause a 2% efficiency increase, a slight improvement of correctly labeled events, and are a significant improvement to the HALO simulation.

  11. Three-body halo nuclei in an effective theory framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canham, David L.


    The universal properties and structure of halo nuclei composed of two neutrons (2n) and a core are investigated within an effective quantum mechanics framework. We construct an effective interaction potential that exploits the separation of scales in halo nuclei and treat the nucleus as an effective three-body system, which to leading order is described by the large S-wave scattering lengths in the underlying two-body subsystems. The uncertainty from higher orders in the expansion is quantified through theoretical error bands. First, we investigate the possibility to observe excited Efimov states in 2n halo nuclei. Based on the experimental data, {sup 20}C is the only halo nucleus candidate to possibly have an Efimov excited state, with an energy less than 7 keV below the scattering threshold. Second, we study the structure of {sup 20}C and other 2n halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate their matter density form factors, radii, and two-neutron opening angles. We then make a systematic improvement upon these calculations by extending the effective potential to the next-to-leading order. To this order, we require an additional two-body parameter, which we tune to the effective range of the interaction. In addition to range corrections to the 2n halo nuclei results, we show corrections to the Efimov effect in the three-boson system. Furthermore, we explore universality in the linear range corrections to the Efimov spectrum. Finally, we study the scattering of D{sup 0} and D{sup *0} mesons and their antiparticles off the X(3872) in an effective field theory for short-range interactions. We present results for the S-wave scattering amplitude, total interaction cross section and S-wave scattering length. (orig.)

  12. Capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract. (United States)

    Palomo-Álvarez, Catalina; Puell, María C


    To examine the capacity of straylight and disk halo size to diagnose cataract. Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain. Prospective study. Straylight, disk halo radius, and high-contrast corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) measurements were compared between patients with age-related cataract and age-matched normal-sighted control subjects by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) receiver operating characteristic. Measurements were made in 53 eyes of 53 patients with a mean age of 67.94 years ± 7.11 (SD) and 31 eyes of 31 controls with a mean age 66.06 ± 5.43 years. Significantly worse (P cataract group than in the control group (1.17 ± 0.11 log[s], 2.10 ± 0.16 log arcmin, and 0.08 ± 0.08 logMAR). Significant differences in AUCs were observed for disk halo radius (0.89 ± 0.04) versus straylight (0.77 ± 0.05) (P = .03) and disk halo radius versus CDVA (0.72 ± 0.05) (P = .001). The comparison of disk halo radius versus the discriminant function with input from CDVA and straylight (0.80 ± 0.05) was at the limit of significance only (0.091 ± 0.05, P = .051). Although all 3 variables discriminated well between normal eyes and eyes with cataract, the disk halo radius showed the best diagnostic capacity. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors. (United States)

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua


    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms.

  14. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors (United States)

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua


    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms. PMID:26198233

  15. Signatures of compact halos of sterile-neutrino dark matter (United States)

    Kühnel, Florian; Ohlsson, Tommy


    We investigate compact halos of sterile-neutrino dark matter and examine observable signatures with respect to neutrino and photon emission. Primarily, we consider two cases: primordial black-hole halos and ultracompact minihalos. In both cases, we find that there exists a broad range of possible parameter choices such that detection in the near future with x-ray and gamma-ray telescopes might be well possible. In fact, for energies above 10 TeV, the neutrino telescope IceCube would be a splendid detection machine for such macroscopic dark-matter candidates.

  16. Dynamical Constraints On The Galaxy-Halo Connection (United States)

    Desmond, Harry


    Dark matter halos comprise the bulk of the universe's mass, yet must be probed by the luminous galaxies that form within them. A key goal of modern astrophysics, therefore, is to robustly relate the visible and dark mass, which to first order means relating the properties of galaxies and halos. This may be expected not only to improve our knowledge of galaxy formation, but also to enable high-precision cosmological tests using galaxies and hence maximise the utility of future galaxy surveys. As halos are inaccessible to observations - as galaxies are to N-body simulations - this relation requires an additional modelling step.The aim of this thesis is to develop and evaluate models of the galaxy-halo connection using observations of galaxy dynamics. In particular, I build empirical models based on the technique of halo abundance matching for five key dynamical scaling relations of galaxies - the Tully-Fisher, Faber-Jackson, mass-size and mass discrepancy-acceleration relations, and Fundamental Plane - which relate their baryon distributions and rotation or velocity dispersion profiles. I then develop a statistical scheme based on approximate Bayesian computation to compare the predicted and measured values of a number of summary statistics describing the relations' important features. This not only provides quantitative constraints on the free parameters of the models, but also allows absolute goodness-of-fit measures to be formulated. I find some features to be naturally accounted for by an abundance matching approach and others to impose new constraints on the galaxy-halo connection; the remainder are challenging to account for and may imply galaxy-halo correlations beyond the scope of basic abundance matching.Besides providing concrete statistical tests of specific galaxy formation theories, these results will be of use for guiding the inputs of empirical and semi-analytic galaxy formation models, which require galaxy-halo correlations to be imposed by hand. As

  17. New Signatures of the Milky Way Formation in the Local Halo and Inner-halo Streamers in the Era of Gaia (United States)

    Re Fiorentin, Paola; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Spagna, Alessandro; Curir, Anna


    We explore the vicinity of the Milky Way through the use of spectrophotometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and high-quality proper motions derived from multi-epoch positions extracted from the Guide Star Catalog II database. In order to identify and characterize streams as relics of the Milky Way formation, we start with classifying, selecting, and studying 2417 subdwarfs with [{Fe}/{{H}}] \\lt -1.5 up to 3 kpc away from the Sun as tracers of the local halo system. Then, through phase-space analysis, we find statistical evidence of five discrete kinematic overdensities among 67 of the fastest-moving stars and compare them to high-resolution N-body simulations of the interaction between a Milky Way-like galaxy and orbiting dwarf galaxies with four representative cases of merging histories. The observed overdensities can be interpreted as fossil substructures consisting of streamers torn from their progenitors; such progenitors appear to be satellites on prograde and retrograde orbits on different inclinations. In particular, of the five detected overdensities, two appear to be associated, yielding 21 additional main-sequence members, with the stream of Helmi et al. that our analysis confirms is on a high-inclination prograde orbit. The three newly identified kinematic groups could be associated with the retrograde streams detected by Dinescu and Kepley et al.; whatever their origin, the progenitor(s) would be on retrograde orbit(s) and inclination(s) within the range 10^\\circ \\div60^\\circ . Finally, we use our simulations to investigate the impact of observational errors and compare the current picture to the promising prospect of highly improved data expected from the Gaia mission.

  18. Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Blagrave, K.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.


    We present new measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross-frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants (cosmic microwave background anisotropies, Galactic dust, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission), and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum is measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ℓ ~ 150 to 2500. The bispectrum due to the clustering of dusty, star-forming galaxies is measured from ℓ ~ 130 to 1100, with a total signal to noise ratio of around 6, 19, and 29 at 217, 353, and 545 GHz, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter haloes hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxies with dark matter haloes and their subhaloes, using a parametrized relation between the dust-processed infrared luminosity and (sub-)halo mass. The two approaches simultaneously fit all auto- and cross-power spectra very well. We find that the star formation history is well constrained up to redshifts around 2, and agrees with recent estimates of the obscured star-formation density using Spitzer and Herschel. However, at higher redshift, the accuracy of the star formation history measurement is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the spectral energy distribution of CIB galaxies. We also find that the mean halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation is log (Meff/M⊙) = 12

  19. Comparing semi-analytic particle tagging and hydrodynamical simulations of the Milky Way's stellar halo (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Le Bret, Theo; Pontzen, Andrew


    Particle tagging is an efficient, but approximate, technique for using cosmological N-body simulations to model the phase-space evolution of the stellar populations predicted, for example, by a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation. We test the technique developed by Cooper et al. (which we call stings here) by comparing particle tags with stars in a smooth particle hydrodynamic (SPH) simulation. We focus on the spherically averaged density profile of stars accreted from satellite galaxies in a Milky Way (MW)-like system. The stellar profile in the SPH simulation can be recovered accurately by tagging dark matter (DM) particles in the same simulation according to a prescription based on the rank order of particle binding energy. Applying the same prescription to an N-body version of this simulation produces a density profile differing from that of the SPH simulation by ≲10 per cent on average between 1 and 200 kpc. This confirms that particle tagging can provide a faithful and robust approximation to a self-consistent hydrodynamical simulation in this regime (in contradiction to previous claims in the literature). We find only one systematic effect, likely due to the collisionless approximation, namely that massive satellites in the SPH simulation are disrupted somewhat earlier than their collisionless counterparts. In most cases, this makes remarkably little difference to the spherically averaged distribution of their stellar debris. We conclude that, for galaxy formation models that do not predict strong baryonic effects on the present-day DM distribution of MW-like galaxies or their satellites, differences in stellar halo predictions associated with the treatment of star formation and feedback are much more important than those associated with the dynamical limitations of collisionless particle tagging.

  20. Exploring Simulated Early Star Formation in the Context of the Ultrafaint Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Corlies, Lauren; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Wise, John H.


    Ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) are typically assumed to have simple, stellar populations with star formation ending at reionization. Yet as the observations of these galaxies continue to improve, their star formation histories (SFHs) are revealed to be more complicated than previously thought. In this paper, we study how star formation, chemical enrichment, and mixing proceed in small, dark matter halos at early times using a high-resolution, cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation. The goals are to inform the future use of analytic models and to explore observable properties of the simulated halos in the context of UFD data. Specifically, we look at analytic approaches that might inform metal enrichment within and beyond small galaxies in the early Universe. We find that simple assumptions for modeling the extent of supernova-driven winds agree with the simulation on average whereas inhomogeneous mixing and gas flows have a large effect on the spread in simulated stellar metallicities. In the context of the UFDs, this work demonstrates that simulations can form halos with a complex SFH and a large spread in the metallicity distribution function within a few hundred Myr in the early Universe. In particular, bursty and continuous star formation are seen in the simulation and both scenarios have been argued from the data. Spreads in the simulated metallicities, however remain too narrow and too metal-rich when compared to the UFDs. Future work is needed to help reduce these discrepancies and advance our interpretation of the data.