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Sample records for enhanced daily load

  1. Using the Enhanced Daily Load Stimulus Model to Quantify the Mechanical Load and Bone Mineral Density Changes Experienced by Crew Members on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, K. O.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Maender, C. C.; Rice, A. J.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the use of exercise countermeasures during long-duration space missions, bone mineral density (BMD) and predicted bone strength of astronauts continue to show decreases in the lower extremities and spine. This site-specific bone adaptation is most likely caused by the effects of microgravity on the mechanical loading environment of the crew member. There is, therefore, a need to quantify the mechanical loading experienced on Earth and on-orbit to define the effect of a given "dose" of loading on bone homeostasis. Gene et al. recently proposed an enhanced DLS (EDLS) model that, when used with entire days of in-shoe forces, takes into account recently developed theories on the importance of factors such as saturation, recovery, and standing and their effects on the osteogenic response of bone to daily physical activity. This algorithm can also quantify the tinting and type of activity (sit/unload, stand, walk, run or other loaded activity) performed throughout the day. The purpose of the current study was to use in-shoe force measurements from entire typical work days on Earth and on-orbit in order to quantify the type and amount of loading experienced by crew members. The specific aim was to use these measurements as inputs into the EDLS model to determine activity timing/type and the mechanical "dose" imparted on the musculoskeletal system of crew members and relate this dose to changes in bone homeostasis.

  2. Daily Nigerian peak load forecasting using artificial neural network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A daily peak load forecasting technique that uses artificial neural network with seasonal indices is presented in this paper. A neural network of relatively smaller size than the main prediction network is used to predict the daily peak load for a period of one year over which the actual daily load data are available using one ...

  3. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The Clean Water Act Section 303(d) establishes the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program. The purpose of the TMDL program is to identify sources of pollution and...

  4. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  5. Dynamic Regression Intervention Modeling for the Malaysian Daily Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhilah Abdrazak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is a unique country due to having both fixed and moving holidays.  These moving holidays may overlap with other fixed holidays and therefore, increase the complexity of the load forecasting activities. The errors due to holidays’ effects in the load forecasting are known to be higher than other factors.  If these effects can be estimated and removed, the behavior of the series could be better viewed.  Thus, the aim of this paper is to improve the forecasting errors by using a dynamic regression model with intervention analysis.   Based on the linear transfer function method, a daily load model consists of either peak or average is developed.  The developed model outperformed the seasonal ARIMA model in estimating the fixed and moving holidays’ effects and achieved a smaller Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE in load forecast.

  6. Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valor, Enric; Meneu, Vicente; Caselles, Vicente

    2001-08-01

    Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the relationship between electricity load and daily air temperature in Spain, using a population-weighted temperature index. The electricity demand shows a significant trend due to socioeconomic factors, in addition to daily and monthly seasonal effects that have been taken into account to isolate the weather influence on electricity load. The results indicate that the relationship is nonlinear, showing a `comfort interval' of ±3°C around 18°C and two saturation points beyond which the electricity load no longer increases. The analysis has also revealed that the sensitivity of electricity load to daily air temperature has increased along time, in a higher degree for summer than for winter, although the sensitivity in the cold season is always more significant than in the warm season. Two different temperature-derived variables that allow a better characterization of the observed relationship have been used: the heating and cooling degree-days. The regression of electricity data on them defines the heating and cooling demand functions, which show correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.87, and predicts electricity load with standard errors of estimate of ±4% and ±2%, respectively. The maximum elasticity of electricity demand is observed at 7 cooling degree-days and 9 heating degree-days, and the saturation points are reached at 11 cooling degree-days and 13 heating degree-days, respectively. These results are helpful in modeling electricity load behavior for predictive purposes.

  7. Estimating total maximum daily loads with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory; Jones, Susan Cheung

    2017-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Transportation (DOT) and the Rhode Island DOT are assessing and addressing roadway contributions to total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Example analyses for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, suspended sediment, and total zinc in highway runoff were done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with FHWA to simulate long-term annual loads for TMDL analyses with the stochastic empirical loading and dilution model known as SELDM. Concentration statistics from 19 highway runoff monitoring sites in Massachusetts were used with precipitation statistics from 11 long-term monitoring sites to simulate long-term pavement yields (loads per unit area). Highway sites were stratified by traffic volume or surrounding land use to calculate concentration statistics for rural roads, low-volume highways, high-volume highways, and ultraurban highways. The median of the event mean concentration statistics in each traffic volume category was used to simulate annual yields from pavement for a 29- or 30-year period. Long-term average yields for total nitrogen, phosphorus, and zinc from rural roads are lower than yields from the other categories, but yields of sediment are higher than for the low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected water quality constituents from high-volume highways are 1.35 to 2.52 times the associated yields from low-volume highways. The average yields of the selected constituents from ultraurban highways are 1.52 to 3.46 times the associated yields from high-volume highways. Example simulations indicate that both concentration reduction and flow reduction by structural best management practices are crucial for reducing runoff yields.

  8. The osteoporotic vertebral structure is well adapted to the loads of daily life, but not to infrequent "error" loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homminga, J; Van-Rietbergen, B; Lochmüller, E M; Weinans, H; Eckstein, F; Huiskes, R

    2004-03-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures typically have a gradual onset, frequently remain clinically undetected, and do not seem to be related to traumatic events. The osteoporotic vertebrae may therefore be expected to display a less "optimal" bone architecture, leading to an uneven load distribution over the bone material. We evaluated the trabecular load distribution in an osteoporotic and a healthy vertebra under normal daily loading by combining three recent innovations: high resolution computed tomography (microCT) of entire bones, microfinite element analyses (microFEA), and parallel supercomputers. Much to our surprise, the number of highly loaded trabeculae was not higher in the osteoporotic vertebra than in the healthy one under normal daily loads (8% and 9%, respectively). The osteoporotic trabeculae were more oriented in the longitudinal direction, compensating for effects of bone loss and ensuring adequate stiffness for normal daily loading. The increased orientation did, however, make the osteoporotic structure less resistant against collateral "error" loads. In this case, the number of overloaded trabeculae in the osteoporotic vertebra was higher than in the healthy one (13% and 4%, respectively). These results strengthen the paradigm of a strong relationship between bone morphology and external loads applied during normal daily life. They also indicate that vertebral fractures result from actions like forward flexion or lifting, loads that may not be "daily" but are normally not traumatic either. If future clinical imaging techniques would enable such high-resolution images to be obtained in vivo, the combination of microCT and microFEA would produce a powerful tool to diagnose osteoporosis.

  9. Bayesian modeling of the assimilative capacity component of nutrient total maximum daily loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, B. R.

    2008-08-01

    Implementing stream restoration techniques and best management practices to reduce nonpoint source nutrients implies enhancement of the assimilative capacity for the stream system. In this paper, a Bayesian method for evaluating this component of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) load capacity is developed and applied. The joint distribution of nutrient retention metrics from a literature review of 495 measurements was used for Monte Carlo sampling with a process transfer function for nutrient attenuation. Using the resulting histograms of nutrient retention, reference prior distributions were developed for sites in which some of the metrics contributing to the transfer function were measured. Contributing metrics for the prior include stream discharge, cross-sectional area, fraction of storage volume to free stream volume, denitrification rate constant, storage zone mass transfer rate, dispersion coefficient, and others. Confidence of compliance (CC) that any given level of nutrient retention has been achieved is also determined using this approach. The shape of the CC curve is dependent on the metrics measured and serves in part as a measure of the information provided by the metrics to predict nutrient retention. It is also a direct measurement, with a margin of safety, of the fraction of export load that can be reduced through changing retention metrics. For an impaired stream in western Oklahoma, a combination of prior information and measurement of nutrient attenuation was used to illustrate the proposed approach. This method may be considered for TMDL implementation.

  10. Automatic Power Control for Daily Load-following Operation using Model Predictive Control Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Keuk Jong; Kim, Han Gon [KH, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Under the circumstances that nuclear power occupies more than 50%, nuclear power plants are required to be operated on load-following operation in order to make the effective management of electric grid system and enhanced responsiveness to rapid changes in power demand. Conventional reactors such as the OPR1000 and APR1400 have a regulating system that controls the average temperature of the reactor core relation to the reference temperature. This conventional method has the advantages of proven technology and ease of implementation. However, this method is unsuitable for controlling the axial power shape, particularly the load following operation. Accordingly, this paper reports on the development of a model predictive control method which is able to control the reactor power and the axial shape index. The purpose of this study is to analyze the behavior of nuclear reactor power and the axial power shape by using a model predictive control method when the power is increased and decreased for a daily load following operation. The study confirms that deviations in the axial shape index (ASI) are within the operating limit.

  11. Improvement of daily load-following operation for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiguchi, Takashi; Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Sakurai, Mikio; Joge, Toshio; Asami, Kazuo.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, with the increase of the proportion of nuclear power generation to the total amount of power generation of electric power systems, the needs of daily load-following operation of nuclear power stations have heightened, accordingly the study on the method of daily load-following operation has been carried out for BWRs. In this study, by the combined use of the flow rate control of core coolnat being operated easily and the operation of control rods, the BWR system with the daily load-following performance of 100% power output in daytime and 50% power output at night was the target of development. For the purpose, the change of core characteristics during load-following was grasped analytically, and the range of load change was investigated. At the same time, as the first stage of developing operation control and monitoring system, the reactor output-adjusting device which makes generator output automatically follow the target load change pattern by the flow rate control of core coolnat, and the equipment for monitoring core performance on line were developed. The analysis of the method of daily load-following operation in present-day BWRs, the study on the improvement of load-following operation performance, the reactor output-adjusting device are described. (Kako, I.)

  12. Estimation of the mechanical loading of the shoulder joint in daily conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, W.H.K.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to assemble a method to estimate shoulder joint reaction forces, in daily conditions, based on long term collection of ambulatory measurable variables, to obtain the desired long term mechanical load profile of the shoulder. Chapter 2 examines, and discusses one of the

  13. Automatic Control of Reactor Temperature and Power Distribution for a Daily Load following Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Keuk Jong; Kim, Han Gon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    An automatic control method of reactor power and power distribution was developed for a daily load following operation of APR1400. This method used a model predictive control (MPC) methodology having second-order plant data. And it utilized a reactor power ratio and axial shape index as control variables. However, the reactor regulating system of APR1400 is operated by the difference between the average temperature of the reactor core and the reference temperature, which is proportional to the turbine load. Thus, this paper reports on the model predictive control methodology using fourth-order plant data and a reactor temperature instead of the reactor power shape. The purpose of this study is to develop a revised automatic controller and analyze the behavior of the nuclear reactor temperature (Tavg) and the axial shape index (ASI) using the MPC method during a daily load following operation

  14. Interaction between daily load demand curve and management of hydro-thermal generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granelli, G.; Montagna, M.; Pasini, G.; Innorta, M.; Marannino, P.

    1993-01-01

    The influence that the behaviour of the daily load demand curve has on the management of a hydro-thermal generation system is considered. The aim of this paper is to show the improvements that can be achieved by suitable load management techniques capable of flattening the load demand curve. The analysis is carried out by using a hydro-thermal scheduling program and a thermal unit dynamic dispatch procedure. The possibility of properly re-committing the available thermal units is also taken into account. The economical and technical convenience of shutting down less economical thermal units operating near the lower generations limits is verified. Finally, some considerations are made about the possible use of the thermal generation incremental costs as a tool for planning the end users' kWh prices, even in the short term. The results refer to a system with characteristics similar to those of the Italian one. In determining the daily load demand curves, the characteristics of load demand in Italy as well as in other European countries are taken into account

  15. Waste Load Allocation Based on Total Maximum Daily Load Approach Using the Charged System Search (CSS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Faraji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the capability of a charged system search algorithm (CSS in handling water management optimization problems is investigated. First, two complex mathematical problems are solved by CSS and the results are compared with those obtained from other metaheuristic algorithms. In the last step, the optimization model developed by the CSS algorithm is applied to the waste load allocation in rivers based on the total maximum daily load (TMDL concept. The results are presented in Tables and Figures for easy comparison. The study indicates the superiority of the CSS algorithm in terms of its speed and performance over the other metaheuristic algorithms while its precision in water management optimization problems is verified.

  16. Daily intermittent hypoxia enhances walking after chronic spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Heather B.; Jayaraman, Arun; Herrmann, Megan; Mitchell, Gordon S.; Rymer, William Z.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To test the hypothesis that daily acute intermittent hypoxia (dAIH) and dAIH combined with overground walking improve walking speed and endurance in persons with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Methods: Nineteen subjects completed the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants received 15, 90-second hypoxic exposures (dAIH, fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio2] = 0.09) or daily normoxia (dSHAM, Fio2 = 0.21) at 60-second normoxic intervals on 5 consecutive days; dAIH was given alone or combined with 30 minutes of overground walking 1 hour later. Walking speed and endurance were quantified using 10-Meter and 6-Minute Walk Tests. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01272349). Results: dAIH improved walking speed and endurance. Ten-Meter Walk time improved with dAIH vs dSHAM after 1 day (mean difference [MD] 3.8 seconds, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–6.5 seconds, p = 0.006) and 2 weeks (MD 3.8 seconds, 95% CI 0.9–6.7 seconds, p = 0.010). Six-Minute Walk distance increased with combined dAIH + walking vs dSHAM + walking after 5 days (MD 94.4 m, 95% CI 17.5–171.3 m, p = 0.017) and 1-week follow-up (MD 97.0 m, 95% CI 20.1–173.9 m, p = 0.014). dAIH + walking increased walking distance more than dAIH after 1 day (MD 67.7 m, 95% CI 1.3–134.1 m, p = 0.046), 5 days (MD 107.0 m, 95% CI 40.6–173.4 m, p = 0.002), and 1-week follow-up (MD 136.0 m, 95% CI 65.3–206.6 m, p walking improved walking speed and distance in persons with chronic iSCI. The impact of dAIH is enhanced by combination with walking, demonstrating that combinatorial therapies may promote greater functional benefits in persons with iSCI. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that transient hypoxia (through measured breathing treatments), along with overground walking training, improves walking speed and endurance after iSCI. PMID:24285617

  17. A simple approach to estimate daily loads of total, refractory, and labile organic carbon from their seasonal loads in a watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Grace, Johnny M; Zipperer, Wayne C; Hatten, Jeff; Dewey, Janet

    2018-05-22

    Loads of naturally occurring total organic carbons (TOC), refractory organic carbon (ROC), and labile organic carbon (LOC) in streams control the availability of nutrients and the solubility and toxicity of contaminants and affect biological activities through absorption of light and complex metals with production of carcinogenic compounds. Although computer models have become increasingly popular in understanding and management of TOC, ROC, and LOC loads in streams, the usefulness of these models hinges on the availability of daily data for model calibration and validation. Unfortunately, these daily data are usually insufficient and/or unavailable for most watersheds due to a variety of reasons, such as budget and time constraints. A simple approach was developed here to calculate daily loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC in streams based on their seasonal loads. We concluded that the predictions from our approach adequately match field measurements based on statistical comparisons between model calculations and field measurements. Our approach demonstrates that an increase in stream discharge results in increased stream TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads, although high peak discharge did not necessarily result in high peaks of TOC, ROC, and LOC concentrations and loads. The approach developed herein is a useful tool to convert seasonal loads of TOC, ROC, and LOC into daily loads in the absence of measured daily load data.

  18. Daily Peak Load Forecasting Based on Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Daily peak load forecasting is an important part of power load forecasting. The accuracy of its prediction has great influence on the formulation of power generation plan, power grid dispatching, power grid operation and power supply reliability of power system. Therefore, it is of great significance to construct a suitable model to realize the accurate prediction of the daily peak load. A novel daily peak load forecasting model, CEEMDAN-MGWO-SVM (Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the model uses the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN algorithm to decompose the daily peak load sequence into multiple sub sequences. Then, the model of modified grey wolf optimization and support vector machine (MGWO-SVM is adopted to forecast the sub sequences. Finally, the forecasting sequence is reconstructed and the forecasting result is obtained. Using CEEMDAN can realize noise reduction for non-stationary daily peak load sequence, which makes the daily peak load sequence more regular. The model adopts the grey wolf optimization algorithm improved by introducing the population dynamic evolution operator and the nonlinear convergence factor to enhance the global search ability and avoid falling into the local optimum, which can better optimize the parameters of the SVM algorithm for improving the forecasting accuracy of daily peak load. In this paper, three cases are used to test the forecasting accuracy of the CEEMDAN-MGWO-SVM model. We choose the models EEMD-MGWO-SVM (Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition and Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, MGWO-SVM (Support Vector Machine Optimized by Modified Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, GWO-SVM (Support Vector Machine Optimized by Grey Wolf Optimization Algorithm, SVM (Support Vector

  19. Enhanced sensitivity fibre Bragg grating (FBG) load sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Ricardo; Chehura, Edmon; Li, Jin; James, Stephen W; Tatam, Ralph P

    2010-01-01

    The characterization of a load sensor based on the transverse loading of a subsection of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) embedded within a cube of epoxy resin is presented. When the epoxy resin cube is loaded transverse to the axis of the fibre, its deformation transduces the load to a strain along the axis of the optical fibre, which changes the period of the embedded section of the FBG. This creates a spectral dropout within the bandwidth of the FBG, with an absolute wavelength that is linearly dependent on the applied load. This technique enhances the sensitivity of the FBG to transverse loading by a factor of 15, to 2.9 × 10 −2 ± 0.01 nm N −1 , when compared to the direct transverse loading of a bare fibre, and also protects the fibre from mechanical damage at the loading point

  20. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Enhancement and suppression in the visual field under perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Nathan A; Beck, Diane M; Kramer, Arthur F

    2013-01-01

    The perceptual load theory of attention proposes that the degree to which visual distractors are processed is a function of the attentional demands of a task-greater demands increase filtering of irrelevant distractors. The spatial configuration of such filtering is unknown. Here, we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) in conjunction with time-domain event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the distribution of load-induced distractor suppression and task-relevant enhancement in the visual field. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while subjects performed a foveal go/no-go task that varied in perceptual load. Load-dependent distractor suppression was assessed by presenting a contrast reversing ring at one of three eccentricities (2, 6, or 11°) during performance of the go/no-go task. Rings contrast reversed at 8.3 Hz, allowing load-dependent changes in distractor processing to be tracked in the frequency-domain. ERPs were calculated to the onset of stimuli in the load task to examine load-dependent modulation of task-relevant processing. Results showed that the amplitude of the distractor SSVEP (8.3 Hz) was attenuated under high perceptual load (relative to low load) at the most proximal (2°) eccentricity but not at more eccentric locations (6 or 11°). Task-relevant ERPs revealed a significant increase in N1 amplitude under high load. These results are consistent with a center-surround configuration of load-induced enhancement and suppression in the visual field.

  2. Using spatially detailed water-quality data and solute-transport modeling to improve support total maximum daily load development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton-Day, Katherine; Runkel, Robert L.; Kimball, Briant A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatially detailed mass-loading studies and solute-transport modeling using OTIS (One-dimensional Transport with Inflow and Storage) demonstrate how natural attenuation and loading from distinct and diffuse sources control stream water quality and affect load reductions predicted in total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Mass-loading data collected during low-flow from Cement Creek (a low-pH, metal-rich stream because of natural and mining sources, and subject to TMDL requirements) were used to calibrate OTIS and showed spatially variable effects of natural attenuation (instream reactions) and loading from diffuse (groundwater) and distinct sources. OTIS simulations of the possible effects of TMDL-recommended remediation of mine sites showed less improvement to dissolved zinc load and concentration (14% decrease) than did the TMDL (53-63% decrease). The TMDL (1) assumed conservative transport, (2) accounted for loads removed by remediation by subtracting them from total load at the stream mouth, and (3) did not include diffuse-source loads. In OTIS, loads were reduced near their source; the resulting concentration was decreased by natural attenuation and increased by diffuse-source loads during downstream transport. Thus, by not including natural attenuation and loading from diffuse sources, the TMDL overestimated remediation effects at low flow. Use of the techniques presented herein could improve TMDLs by incorporating these processes during TMDL development.

  3. Are daily and weekly load and spot price dynamics in Australia's National Electricity Market governed by episodic nonlinearity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, Phillip; Hinich, Melvin J.; Foster, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we use half hourly spot electricity prices and load data for the National Electricity Market (NEM) of Australia for the period from December 1998 to June 2009 to test for episodic nonlinearity in the dynamics governing daily and weekly cycles in load and spot price time series data. We apply the portmanteau correlation, bicorrelation and tricorrelation tests introduced in Hinich (1996) to the time series of half hourly spot prices and load demand from 7/12/1998 to 30/06/2009 using a FORTRAN 95 program. We find the presence of significant third and fourth-order (nonlinear) serial dependence in the weekly load and spot price data in particular, but to a much more marginal extent, in the daily data. (author)

  4. Enhancement and Suppression in the Visual Field under Perceptual Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A Parks

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual load theory of attention proposes that the degree to which visual distractors are processed is a function of the attentional demands of a task – greater demands increase filtering of irrelevant distractors. The spatial configuration of such filtering is unknown. Here, we used steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs in conjunction with time-domain event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the distribution of load-induced distractor suppression and task-relevant enhancement in the visual field. Electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded while subjects performed a foveal go/no-go task that varied in perceptual load. Load-dependent distractor suppression was assessed by presenting a contrast reversing ring at one of three eccentricities (2°, 6°, or 11° during performance of the go/no-go task. Rings contrast reversed at 8.3 Hz, allowing load-dependent changes in distractor processing to be tracked in the frequency-domain. ERPs were calculated to the onset of stimuli in the load task to examine load-dependent modulation of task-relevant processing. Results showed that the amplitude of the distractor SSVEP (8.3Hz was attenuated under high perceptual load (relative to low load at the most proximal (2° eccentricity but not at more eccentric locations (6˚ or 11˚. Task-relevant ERPs revealed a significant increase in N1 amplitude under high load. These results are consistent with a center-surround configuration of load-induced enhancement and suppression in the visual field.

  5. Economic total maximum daily load for watershed-based pollutant trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A Z; deMonsabert, S M

    2015-04-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the framework of its total maximum daily load (TMDL) program. An innovative approach is presented in this paper that proposes post-TMDL trade by calculating pollutant rights for each pollutant source within a watershed. Several water quality trading programs are currently operating in the USA with an objective to achieve overall pollutant reduction impacts that are equivalent or better than TMDL scenarios. These programs use trading ratios for establishing water quality equivalence among pollutant reductions. The inbuilt uncertainty in modeling the effects of pollutants in a watershed from both the point and nonpoint sources on receiving waterbodies makes WQT very difficult. A higher trading ratio carries with it increased mitigation costs, but cannot ensure the attainment of the required water quality with certainty. The selection of an applicable trading ratio, therefore, is not a simple process. The proposed approach uses an Economic TMDL optimization model that determines an economic pollutant reduction scenario that can be compared with actual TMDL allocations to calculate selling/purchasing rights for each contributing source. The methodology is presented using the established TMDLs for the bacteria (fecal coliform) impaired Muddy Creek subwatershed WAR1 in Rockingham County, Virginia, USA. Case study results show that an environmentally and economically superior trading scenario can be realized by using Economic TMDL model or any similar model that considers the cost of TMDL allocations.

  6. 76 FR 549 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Notice for the Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... Establishment of the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the Chesapeake Bay AGENCY: Environmental Protection... that when met will assure the attainment and maintenance of all applicable water quality standards for... productive estuaries in the world. Despite significant efforts by federal, state, and local governments and...

  7. 40 CFR 130.7 - Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Total maximum daily loads (TMDL) and individual water quality-based effluent limitations. 130.7 Section 130.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.7 Total...

  8. An ecological function and services approach to total maximum daily load (TMDL) prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert K; Guiliano, David; Swanson, Sherman; Philbin, Michael J; Lin, John; Aron, Joan L; Schafer, Robin J; Heggem, Daniel T

    2014-04-01

    Prioritizing total maximum daily load (TMDL) development starts by considering the scope and severity of water pollution and risks to public health and aquatic life. Methodology using quantitative assessments of in-stream water quality is appropriate and effective for point source (PS) dominated discharge, but less so in watersheds with mostly nonpoint source (NPS) related impairments. For NPSs, prioritization in TMDL development and implementation of associated best management practices should focus on restoration of ecosystem physical functions, including how restoration effectiveness depends on design, maintenance and placement within the watershed. To refine the approach to TMDL development, regulators and stakeholders must first ask if the watershed, or ecosystem, is at risk of losing riparian or other ecologically based physical attributes and processes. If so, the next step is an assessment of the spatial arrangement of functionality with a focus on the at-risk areas that could be lost, or could, with some help, regain functions. Evaluating stream and wetland riparian function has advantages over the traditional means of water quality and biological assessments for NPS TMDL development. Understanding how an ecosystem functions enables stakeholders and regulators to determine the severity of problem(s), identify source(s) of impairment, and predict and avoid a decline in water quality. The Upper Reese River, Nevada, provides an example of water quality impairment caused by NPS pollution. In this river basin, stream and wetland riparian proper functioning condition (PFC) protocol, water quality data, and remote sensing imagery were used to identify sediment sources, transport, distribution, and its impact on water quality and aquatic resources. This study found that assessments of ecological function could be used to generate leading (early) indicators of water quality degradation for targeting pollution control measures, while traditional in-stream water

  9. Enhancing Buyer-Supplier Collaboration through Daily Conversations at Shopfloor Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardon, Thibaut; Arnaud, Nicolas; Villeseche, Florence

    aspect of this interorganizational communication: the conversations that take place between shop-floor employees of partnering firms. Studying such daily conversations in situ affords insights on the foundations of efficient buyer-supplier communication beyond managerial level strategy making. We rely...... on the strategy as practice perspective that emphasizes the strategic role of conversations at all hierarchical levels as a key means by which strategy develops on a daily basis. This paper provides evidence of how daily conversations between shop-floor employees can enhance buyer-supplier collaboration...

  10. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Shock enhancement of cellular materials subjected to intensive pulse loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Fan, J.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Li, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Cellular materials can dissipate a large amount of energy due to their considerable stress plateau, which contributes to their extensive applications in structural design for crashworthiness. However, in some experiments with specimens subjected to intense impact loads, transmitted stress enhancement has been observed, leading to severe damage to the objects protected. Transmitted stress through two-dimensional Voronoi cellular materials as a protective device is qualitatively studied in this paper. Dimensionless parameters of material properties and loading parameters are defined to give critical conditions for shock enhancement and clarify the correlation between the deformations and stress enhancement. The effect of relative density on this amplifying phenomenon is investigated as well. In addition, local strain fields are calculated by using the optimal local deformation gradient, which gives a clear presentation of deformations and possible local non-uniformity in the crushing process. This research provides valuable insight into the reliability of cellular materials as protective structures.

  12. Thoracolumbar spine loading associated with kinematics of the young and the elderly during activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignasiak, Dominika; Rüeger, Andrea; Sperr, Ramona; Ferguson, Stephen J

    2018-03-21

    Excessive mechanical loading of the spine is a critical factor in vertebral fracture initiation. Most vertebral fractures develop spontaneously or due to mild trauma, as physiological loads during activities of daily living might exceed the failure load of osteoporotic vertebra. Spinal loading patterns are affected by vertebral kinematics, which differ between elderly and young individuals. In this study, the effects of age-related changes in spine kinematics on thoracolumbar spinal segmental loading during dynamic activities of daily living were investigated using combined experimental and modeling approach. Forty-four healthy volunteers were recruited into two age groups: young (N = 23, age = 27.1 ± 3.8) and elderly (N = 21, age = 70.1 ± 3.9). The spinal curvature was assessed with a skin-surface device and the kinematics of the spine and lower extremities were recorded during daily living tasks (flexion-extension and stand-sit-stand) with a motion capture system. The obtained data were used as input for a musculoskeletal model with a detailed thoracolumbar spine representation. To isolate the effect of kinematics on predicted loads, other model properties were kept constant. Inverse dynamics simulations were performed in the AnyBody Modeling System to estimate corresponding spinal loads. The maximum compressive loads predicted for the elderly motion patterns were lower than those of the young for L2/L3 and L3/L4 lumbar levels during flexion and for upper thoracic levels during stand-to-sit (T1/T2-T8/T9) and sit-to-stand (T3/T4-T6/T7). However, the maximum loads predicted for the lower thoracic levels (T9/T10-L1/L2), a common site of vertebral fractures, were similar compared to the young. Nevertheless, these loads acting on the vertebrae of reduced bone quality might contribute to a higher fracture risk for the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The osteoporotic vertebral structure is well adapted to the loads of daily life, but not to infrequent "error" loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homminga, J.J.; Rietbergen, van B.; Lochmüller, E.M.; Weinans, H.; Eckstein, F.; Huiskes, R.

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures typically have a gradual onset, frequently remain clinically undetected, and do not seem to be related to traumatic events. The osteoporotic vertebrae may therefore be expected to display a less "optimal" bone architecture, leading to an uneven load distribution over

  14. Enhanced water use efficiency in global terrestrial ecosystems under increasing aerosol loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Chen, Min; Liu, Yaling; Miralles, Diego G.; Wang, Faming

    2017-05-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in the climate system, affecting incoming radiation and cloud formation. Based on a modelling framework that couples ecosystem processes with the atmospheric transfer of radiation, we analyze the effect of aerosols on surface incoming radiation, gross primary productivity (GPP), water losses from ecosystems through evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE, defined as GPP/ET) for 2003–2010 and validate them at global FLUXNET sites. The total diffuse radiation increases under relatively low or intermediate aerosol loadings, but decreases under more polluted conditions. We find that aerosol-induced changes in GPP depend on leaf area index, aerosol loading and cloudiness. Specifically, low and moderate aerosol loadings cause increases in GPP for all plant types, while heavy aerosol loadings result in enhancement (decrease) in GPP for dense (sparse) vegetation. On the other hand, ET is mainly negatively affected by aerosol loadings due to the reduction in total incoming radiation. Finally, WUE shows a consistent rise in all plant types under increasing aerosol loadings. Overall, the simulated daily WUE compares well with observations at 43 eddy-covariance tower sites (R2=0.84 and RMSE=0.01gC (kg H2O)-1) with better performance at forest sites. In addition to the increasing portions of diffuse light, the rise in WUE is also favored by the reduction in radiation- and heat-stress caused by the aerosols, especially for wet and hot climates.

  15. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Paleckis, Mantas Mickevičius, Audrius Snieckus, Vytautas Streckis, Mati Pääsuke, Saulius Rutkauskas, Rasa Steponavičiūtė, Albertas Skurvydas, Sigitas Kamandulis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9 performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP, patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1 steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2 larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3 increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4 increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement.

  16. Fission gas release behavior of MOX fuels under simulated daily-load-follow operation condition. IFA-554/555 test evaluation with FASTGRASS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Ozawa, Takayuki

    2008-03-01

    IFA-554/555 load-follow tests were performed in HALDEN reactor (HBWR) to study the MOX fuel behavior under the daily-load-follow operation condition in the framework of ATR-MOX fuel development in JAEA. IFA-554/555 rig had the instruments of rod inner pressure, fuel center temperature, fuel stack elongation, and cladding elongation. Although the daily-load-follow operation in nuclear power plant is one of the available options for economical improvement, the power change in a short period in this operation causes the change of thermal and mechanical irradiation conditions. In this report, FP gas release behavior of MOX fuel rod was evaluated under the daily-load-follow operation condition with the examination data from IFA-554/555 by using the computation code 'FASTGRASS'. From the computation results of FASTGRASS code which could compute the FP gas release behavior under the transient condition, it could be concluded that FP gas was released due to the relaxation of fuel pellet inner stress and pellet temperature increase, which were caused by the cyclic power change during the daily-load-follow operation. In addition, since the amount of released FP gas decreased during the steady operation after the daily-load-follow, it could be mentioned that the total of FP gas release at the end of life with the daily-load-follow is not so much different from that without the daily-load-follow. (author)

  17. Experimental application of the "total maximum daily load" approach as a tool for WFD implementation in temporary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Porto, A.; De Girolamo, A. M.; Santese, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this presentation, the experience gained in the first experimental use in the UE (as far as we know) of the concept and methodology of the "Total Maximum Daily Load" (TMDL) is reported. The TMDL is an instrument required in the Clean Water Act in U.S.A for the management of water bodies classified impaired. The TMDL calculates the maximum amount of a pollutant that a waterbody can receive and still safely meet water quality standards. It permits to establish a scientifically-based strategy on the regulation of the emission loads control according to the characteristic of the watershed/basin. The implementation of the TMDL is a process analogous to the Programmes of Measures required by the WFD, the main difference being the analysis of the linkage between loads of different sources and the water quality of water bodies. The TMDL calculation was used in this study for the Candelaro River, a temporary Italian river, classified impaired in the first steps of the implementation of the WFD. A specific approach based on the "Load Duration Curves" was adopted for the calculation of nutrient TMDLs due to the more robust approach specific for rivers featuring large changes in river flow compared to the classic approach based on average long term flow conditions. This methodology permits to establish the maximum allowable loads across to the different flow conditions of a river. This methodology enabled: to evaluate the allowable loading of a water body; to identify the sources and estimate their loads; to estimate the total loading that the water bodies can receives meeting the water quality standards established; to link the effects of point and diffuse sources on the water quality status and finally to individuate the reduction necessary for each type of sources. The loads reductions were calculated for nitrate, total phosphorus and ammonia. The simulated measures showed a remarkable ability to reduce the pollutants for the Candelaro River. The use of the Soil and

  18. The Circadian Clock Modulates Global Daily Cycles of mRNA Ribosome Loading[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missra, Anamika; Ernest, Ben; Jia, Qidong; Ke, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Circadian control of gene expression is well characterized at the transcriptional level, but little is known about diel or circadian control of translation. Genome-wide translation state profiling of mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in long day was performed to estimate ribosome loading per mRNA. The experiments revealed extensive translational regulation of key biological processes. Notably, translation of mRNAs for ribosomal proteins and mitochondrial respiration peaked at night. Central clock mRNAs are among those subject to fluctuations in ribosome loading. There was no consistent phase relationship between peak translation states and peak transcript levels. The overlay of distinct transcriptional and translational cycles can be expected to alter the waveform of the protein synthesis rate. Plants that constitutively overexpress the clock gene CCA1 showed phase shifts in peak translation, with a 6-h delay from midnight to dawn or from noon to evening being particularly common. Moreover, cycles of ribosome loading that were detected under continuous light in the wild type collapsed in the CCA1 overexpressor. Finally, at the transcript level, the CCA1-ox strain adopted a global pattern of transcript abundance that was broadly correlated with the light-dark environment. Altogether, these data demonstrate that gene-specific diel cycles of ribosome loading are controlled in part by the circadian clock. PMID:26392078

  19. Replacement of daily load attenuates but does not prevent changes to the musculoskeletal system during bed rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R. Cavanagh, PhD DSc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The dose-response effects of exercise in reduced gravity on musculoskeletal health have not been well documented. It is not known whether or not individualized exercise prescriptions can be effective in preventing the substantial loss in bone mineral density and muscle function that have been observed in space flight and in bed rest. In this study, typical daily loads to the lower extremities were quantified in free-living subjects who were then randomly assigned to control or exercise groups. Subjects were confined to 6-degree head-down bed rest for 84 days. The exercise group performed individually prescribed 1 g loaded locomotor exercise to replace their free-living daily load. Eleven subjects (5 exercise, 6 control completed the protocol. Volumetric bone mineral density results from quantitative computed tomography demonstrated that control subjects lost significant amounts of bone in the intertrochanteric and total hip regions (p  0.0125. Pre-and post-bed rest muscle volumes were calculated from analysis of magnetic resonance imaging data. The exercise group retained a larger percentage of their total quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscle volume (−7.2% ± 5.9, −13.8% ± 6.1, respectively than their control counterparts (−23.3% ± 5.9, −33.0 ± 8.2, respectively; p  0.05. The decline in VO2max was 17% ± 18 in exercising subjects (p  0.05. In summary, the decline in a number of important measures of musculoskeletal and cardiovascular health was attenuated but not eliminated by a subject-specific program of locomotor exercise designed to replace daily load accumulated during free living. We conclude that single daily bouts of exposure to locomotor exercise can play a role in a countermeasures program during bed rest, and perhaps space flight, but are not sufficient in their own right to ensure musculoskeletal or cardiovascular health. Keywords: Space flight, Bed rest, Exercise, Biomechanics, Simulation, Gravity

  20. Evaluation of reactivity and Xe behavior during daily load following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yasunori; Araki, Tsuneyasu; Yamamoto, Fumiaki

    1992-01-01

    A boiling water reactor (BWR) has an excellent load following capability provided by a core flow control, which is used for changing a reactor power level and for compensating the subsequent Xe concentration change. The core characteristics during load following operations are investigated in detail, using our reactor core simulator. Comparisons of changes of the Doppler reactivity, the void reactivity and the Xe reactivity during transients are performed. Also the features of Xe transient during load following operations are shown. It has been shown that the core flow change required to compensate the Xe reactivity change produces much greater change of the void reactivity than that required for power level changes, and that the resulting local power change in the lower part of the core is greater than that in the upper part, because the Xe concentration change in the lower part is hardly compensated by the core flow control. Also the effects of power level changes, cycle patterns, and initial concentration of Xe and I on the Xe transient behavior have been investigated. (author)

  1. Enhanced Sucrose Loading Improves Rice Yield by Increasing Grain Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Lu, Qingtao; Wen, Xiaogang; Lu, Congming

    2015-12-01

    Yield in cereals is a function of grain number and size. Sucrose (Suc), the main carbohydrate product of photosynthesis in higher plants, is transported long distances from source leaves to sink organs such as seeds and roots. Here, we report that transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa) expressing the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) phloem-specific Suc transporter (AtSUC2), which loads Suc into the phloem under control of the phloem protein2 promoter (pPP2), showed an increase in grain yield of up to 16% relative to wild-type plants in field trials. Compared with wild-type plants, pPP2::AtSUC2 plants had larger spikelet hulls and larger and heavier grains. Grain filling was accelerated in the transgenic plants, and more photoassimilate was transported from the leaves to the grain. In addition, microarray analyses revealed that carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism was enhanced in the leaves and grain of pPP2::AtSUC2 plants. Thus, enhancing Suc loading represents a promising strategy to improve rice yield to feed the global population. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  2. TAF11 assembles RISC loading complex to enhance RNAi efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C.; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains Dicer-2(Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here, we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11−/− ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of Drosophila RLC and elucidate a novel cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. PMID:26257286

  3. Daily Peak Load Forecasting of Next Day using Weather Distribution and Comparison Value of Each Nearby Date Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shigenobu; Yukita, Kazuto; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Hiroyuki

    By the development of industry, in recent years; dependence to electric energy is growing year by year. Therefore, reliable electric power supply is in need. However, to stock a huge amount of electric energy is very difficult. Also, there is a necessity to keep balance between the demand and supply, which changes hour after hour. Consequently, to supply the high quality and highly dependable electric power supply, economically, and with high efficiency, there is a need to forecast the movement of the electric power demand carefully in advance. And using that forecast as the source, supply and demand management plan should be made. Thus load forecasting is said to be an important job among demand investment of electric power companies. So far, forecasting method using Fuzzy logic, Neural Net Work, Regression model has been suggested for the development of forecasting accuracy. Those forecasting accuracy is in a high level. But to invest electric power in higher accuracy more economically, a new forecasting method with higher accuracy is needed. In this paper, to develop the forecasting accuracy of the former methods, the daily peak load forecasting method using the weather distribution of highest and lowest temperatures, and comparison value of each nearby date data is suggested.

  4. Development of total maximum daily loads for bacteria impaired watershed using the comprehensive hydrology and water quality simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang M; Brannan, Kevin M; Zeckoski, Rebecca W; Benham, Brian L

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop bacteria total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for the Hardware River watershed in the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA. The TMDL program is an integrated watershed management approach required by the Clean Water Act. The TMDLs were developed to meet Virginia's water quality standard for bacteria at the time, which stated that the calendar-month geometric mean concentration of Escherichia coli should not exceed 126 cfu/100 mL, and that no single sample should exceed a concentration of 235 cfu/100 mL. The bacteria impairment TMDLs were developed using the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF). The hydrology and water quality components of HSPF were calibrated and validated using data from the Hardware River watershed to ensure that the model adequately simulated runoff and bacteria concentrations. The calibrated and validated HSPF model was used to estimate the contributions from the various bacteria sources in the Hardware River watershed to the in-stream concentration. Bacteria loads were estimated through an extensive source characterization process. Simulation results for existing conditions indicated that the majority of the bacteria came from livestock and wildlife direct deposits and pervious lands. Different source reduction scenarios were evaluated to identify scenarios that meet both the geometric mean and single sample maximum E. coli criteria with zero violations. The resulting scenarios required extreme and impractical reductions from livestock and wildlife sources. Results from studies similar to this across Virginia partially contributed to a reconsideration of the standard's applicability to TMDL development.

  5. Thermal loading studies using cooling enhancement and ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, G.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal loading studies are presented for short vertical emplacement, application of cooling enhancement, and drift ventilation. Two 25-m-long heat pipes upward oriented at 45 deg are installed at each emplacement borehole to promote heat transport into the pillar area. In addition, ventilation of the emplacement drifts is assumed for a 2- to 20-yr period. It is concluded that the maximum borehole temperature can be reduced from 230 to 136 C using only the heat pipes, and to 110 C applying the heat pipes together with moderate air cooling. The ventilation along without heat pipes can reduce the temperature to only ∼200 C. It is also demonstrated that the heat transferred from the container area to farther distances into the pillar raises rock temperatures significantly, by 10 to 20 C, and the increase in temperature remains noticeable for at least 1,000 yr. In addition, because of the more efficient heat distribution caused by the heat pipes, lower temperatures will be achieved in the container area together with improved drying and permanent as well as temporary water removal in the pillar area

  6. Daily physical activity enhances resilient resources for symptom management in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Moé; Elavsky, Steriani

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the direct and indirect associations between physical activity and menopausal symptoms. Community-dwelling middle-aged women (N = 103; age range 40-60 years) completed daily Internet surveys at the end of the day and wore an accelerometer for the objective assessment of physical activity for 21-days. 1-1-1 multilevel mediation models were estimated to test whether resilient resources (i.e., positive affect and coping efficacy) mediated the association between physical activity and symptom burden at the between- and within-person level. Analyses demonstrated physical activity had an indirect effect (-0.16) on symptom burden through the enhancement of positive affect at the within-person level (p physical activity on symptom burden at the within-person level was -0.08 (p physical activity may help a woman to cope with her symptoms is through the enhancement of positive affect and coping efficacy on a day-to-day basis. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Vitamin D supplementation in nursing home patients: randomized controlled trial of standard daily dose versus individualized loading dose regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Hugo; Salemink, Dayenne; Roovers, Lian; Taekema, Diana; de Boer, Hans

    2015-05-01

    Supplementation of cholecalciferol 800 IU daily appears to be insufficient to raise vitamin D levels to >75 nmol/l in nursing home (NH) patients. Our objective was to compare the efficacy of an individualized cholecalciferol loading dose (LD) regimen and a daily dose (DD) regimen of cholecalciferol 800 IU in reaching 25-OH vitamin D (25OHD) levels >75 nmol/l. A total of 30 NH patients with 25OHD levels 50 nmol/l were included. Patients were randomized using the minimization method in the LD or DD group. The cholecalciferol LD, calculated with an algorithm based on serum 25OHD level and body weight, was administered in divided doses of 50,000 IU twice a week, followed by a monthly maintenance dose of either 50,000 or 25,000 IU. The DD regimen consisted of cholecalciferol 800 IU daily for 26 weeks. Serum 25OHD, calcium, creatinine, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone were measured, and 2-minute walking test, handgrip strength, and timed get up and go test were assessed at baseline (T 0), after 5 weeks (T 5), 12 weeks (T 12), and 26 weeks (T 26). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients with 25OHD levels >75 nmol/l at T 5. Secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients with 25OHD levels >75 nmol/l at T 26, safety of LD regimen, and improvement of performance tests with normalization of vitamin D levels. Median baseline 25OHD levels (interquartile range) were comparable between the 14 DD and 16 LD patients: 20.9 (15.9-29.6) and 21.7 (16.4-32.8) nmol/l, respectively. Levels of 25OHD >75 nmol/l at T 5 were reached in 79 % of the 14 LD patients, but in none of the 13 DD patients (p 75 nmol/l were reached in 83 % of the 12 LD patients and in 30 % of the ten DD patients (p tests was observed. In NH patients with severe 25OHD deficiency, an individualized calculated cholecalciferol LD is likely to be superior to a DD of cholecalciferol 800 IU in terms of the ability to rapidly normalize vitamin D levels.

  8. Developing strategies to enhance loading efficiency of erythrosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante Lopez, Sandra C.; Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    For diabetics, continuous glucose monitoring and the resulting tighter control of glucose levels ameliorate serious complications from hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Diabetics measure their blood glucose levels multiple times a day by finger pricks, or use implantable monitoring devices. Still, glucose and other analytes in the blood fluctuate throughout the day and the current monitoring methods are invasive, immunogenic, and/or present biodegradation problems. Using carrier erythrocytes loaded with a fluorescent sensor, we seek to develop a biodegradable, efficient, and potentially cost effective method to continuously sense blood analytes. We aim to reintroduce sensor-loaded erythrocytes to the bloodstream and conserve the erythrocytes lifetime of 120 days in the circulatory system. Here, we compare the efficiency of two loading techniques: hypotonic dilution and electroporation. Hypotonic dilution employs hypotonic buffer to create transient pores in the erythrocyte membrane, allowing dye entrance and a hypertonic buffer to restore tonicity. Electroporation relies on controlled electrical pulses that results in reversible pores formation to allow cargo entrance, follow by incubation at 37°C to reseal. As part of the cellular characterization of loaded erythrocytes, we focus on cell size, shape, and hemoglobin content. Cell recovery, loading efficiency and cargo release measurements render optimal loading conditions. The detected fluorescent signal from sensor-loaded erythrocytes can be translated into a direct measurement of analyte levels in the blood stream. The development of a suitable protocol to engineer carrier erythrocytes has profound and lasting implications in the erythrosensor's lifespan and sensing capabilities.

  9. The effect of low-load exercise on joint pain, function, and activities of daily living in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Jason; Ripat, Jacquie

    2018-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis has a lifetime risk of nearly one in two, with obese individuals being most susceptible. While exercise is universally recognized as a critical component for management, unsafe or ineffective exercise frequently leads to exacerbation of joint symptoms. Evaluate the effect of a 12week lower body positive pressure (LBPP) supported low-load treadmill walking program on knee pain, joint function, and performance of daily activities in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Prospective, observational, repeated measures investigation. Community based, multidisciplinary musculoskeletal medicine clinic. Thirty-one patients, aged 50-75, with a BMI ≥25kg/m 2 and radiographic confirmed mild to moderate knee OA. Twelve week LBPP treadmill walking exercise regimen. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were used to quantify joint symptoms and patient function; isokinetic thigh muscle strength was evaluated; and a 10-point VAS was used to quantify acute knee pain while walking. Baseline and follow-up data were compared in order to examine the effect of the 12week exercise intervention. There was a significant difference between baseline and follow-up data: KOOS and COPM scores both improved; thigh muscle strength increased; and acute knee pain during full weight bearing walking diminished significantly. Participation in a 12week LBPP supported treadmill walking exercise regimen significantly enhanced patient function and quality of life, as well as the ability to perform activities of daily living that patient's self-identified as being important, yet difficult to perform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of daily physical activity increases physical fitness of outclinic COPD patients : Results of an exercise counseling program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospes, Gieneke; Bossenbroek, Linda; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; van Hengel, Peter; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.

    Objective: To investigate whether a 12-week pedometer-based exercise counseling strategy is feasible and effectively enhances daily physical activity in outclinic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients who do not participate in a rehabilitation program in a controlled way. Methods: 35

  11. EEG Based Analysis of Cognitive Load Enhance Instructional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Alex; Reiner, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    One of the recommended approaches in instructional design methods is to optimize the value of working memory capacity and avoid cognitive overload. Educational neuroscience offers novel processes and methodologies to analyze cognitive load based on physiological measures. Observing psychophysiological changes when they occur in response to the…

  12. Enhanced catalytic activity of nanoscale platinum islands loaded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... In the present study, different catalysts (∼ 10 nm thick) including metals, noble metals and metal oxides, were loaded in dotted island form over SnO2 thin film for LPG gas detection. A comparison of various catalysts indicated that the presence of platinum dotted islands over SnO2 thin film deposited by r.f. ...

  13. A randomized controlled trial of vitamin D dosing strategies after acute hip fracture: No advantage of loading doses over daily supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrauto Leonardo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There remains uncertainty regarding the appropriate therapeutic management of hip fracture patients. The primary aim of our study was to examine whether large loading doses in addition to daily vitamin D offered any advantage over a simple daily low-dose vitamin D regimen for increasing vitamin D levels. Methods In this randomized controlled study, patients over age 50 with an acute fragility hip fracture were enrolled from two hospital sites in Ontario, Canada. Participants were randomized to one of three loading dose groups: placebo; 50,000 IU vitamin D2; or 100,000 IU D2. Following a placebo/loading dose, all patients received a daily tablet of 1,000 IU vitamin D3 for 90 days. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD was measured at baseline, discharge from acute care (approximately 4-weeks, and 3-months. Results Sixty-five patients were enrolled in the study (44% male. An immediate rise in 25-OHD occurred in the 100,000 group, however there were no significant differences in 25-OHD between the placebo, 50,000 and 100,000 loading dose groups after 4-weeks (69.3, 84.5, 75.6 nmol/L, p = 0.15 and 3-months (86.7, 84.2, 73.3 nmol/L, p = 0.09, respectively. At the end of the study, approximately 75% of the placebo and 50,000 groups had reached the target therapeutic range (75 nmol/L, and 44% of the 100,000 group. Conclusions In correcting vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in elderly patients with hip fracture, our findings suggest that starting with a lower daily dose of Vitamin D3 achieved similar results as providing an additional large loading dose of Vitamin D2. At the end of the study, all three groups were equally effective in attaining improvement in 25-OHD levels. Given that a daily dose of 1,000 IU vitamin D3 (with or without a loading dose resulted in at least 25% of patients having suboptimal vitamin D status, patients with acute hip fracture may benefit from a higher daily dose of vitamin D. Trial registration Clinical

  14. Conditions for enhanced performance of segmented thermoelectrics under load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-08-01

    The Onsager-de Groot-Callen transport theory is used to investigate the performance of double segmented thermoelectrics as generators. We show that such an inhomogeneous device usually performs worse than predicted by the effective transport coefficients. This is caused by the difference of the open circuit Seebeck voltage and the Seebeck voltage under operating conditions. The electrical current and the related interface Peltier effect cause a self-organization of the temperature profile such that the temperature drop across the material with the higher absolute Seebeck coefficient is reduced. However, including Joule heating we derive conditions for the opposite effect resulting in an enhanced power.

  15. New England SPARROW Water-Quality Modeling to Assist with the Development of Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Connecticut River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. B.; Robinson, K. W.; Simcox, A. C.; Johnston, C. M.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission (NEWIPCC), is currently preparing a water-quality model, called SPARROW, to assist in the regional total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies in New England. A model is required to provide estimates of nutrient loads and confidence intervals at unmonitored stream reaches. SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regressions on Watershed Attributes) is a spatially detailed, statistical model that uses regression equations to relate total phosphorus and nitrogen (nutrient) stream loads to pollution sources and watershed characteristics. These statistical relations are then used to predict nutrient loads in unmonitored streams. The New England SPARROW model is based on a hydrologic network of 42,000 stream reaches and associated watersheds. Point source data are derived from USEPA's Permit Compliance System (PCS). Information about nonpoint sources is derived from data such as fertilizer use, livestock wastes, and atmospheric deposition. Watershed characteristics include land use, streamflow, time-of-travel, stream density, percent wetlands, slope of the land surface, and soil permeability. Preliminary SPARROW results are expected in Spring 2002. The New England SPARROW model is proposed for use in the TMDL determination for nutrients in the Connecticut River Basin, upstream of Connecticut. The model will be used to estimate nitrogen loads from each of the upstream states to Long Island Sound. It will provide estimates and confidence intervals of phosphorus and nitrogen loads, area-weighted yields of nutrients by watershed, sources of nutrients, and the downstream movement of nutrients. This information will be used to (1) understand ranges in nutrient levels in surface waters, (2) identify the environmental factors that affect nutrient levels in streams, (3) evaluate monitoring efforts for better determination of

  16. Precipitation isoscapes for New Zealand: enhanced temporal detail using precipitation-weighted daily climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W Troy; Keller, Elizabeth D; Van Hale, Robert; Frew, Russell D; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2016-01-01

    Predictive understanding of precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O in New Zealand faces unique challenges, including high spatial variability in precipitation amounts, alternation between subtropical and sub-Antarctic precipitation sources, and a compressed latitudinal range of 34 to 47 °S. To map the precipitation isotope ratios across New Zealand, three years of integrated monthly precipitation samples were acquired from >50 stations. Conventional mean-annual precipitation δ(2)H and δ(18)O maps were produced by regressions using geographic and annual climate variables. Incomplete data and short-term variation in climate and precipitation sources limited the utility of this approach. We overcome these difficulties by calculating precipitation-weighted monthly climate parameters using national 5-km-gridded daily climate data. This data plus geographic variables were regressed to predict δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and d-excess at all sites. The procedure yields statistically-valid predictions of the isotope composition of precipitation (long-term average root mean square error (RMSE) for δ(18)O = 0.6 ‰; δ(2)H = 5.5 ‰); and monthly RMSE δ(18)O = 1.9 ‰, δ(2)H = 16 ‰. This approach has substantial benefits for studies that require the isotope composition of precipitation during specific time intervals, and may be further improved by comparison to daily and event-based precipitation samples as well as the use of back-trajectory calculations.

  17. Power system security enhancement through direct non-disruptive load control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Badri Narayanan

    The transition to a competitive market structure raises significant concerns regarding reliability of the power grid. A need to build tools for security assessment that produce operating limit boundaries for both static and dynamic contingencies is recognized. Besides, an increase in overall uncertainty in operating conditions makes corrective actions at times ineffective leaving the system vulnerable to instability. The tools that are in place for stability enhancement are mostly corrective and suffer from lack of robustness to operating condition changes. They often pose serious coordination challenges. With deregulation, there have also been ownership and responsibility issues associated with stability controls. However, the changing utility business model and the developments in enabling technologies such as two-way communication, metering, and control open up several new possibilities for power system security enhancement. This research proposes preventive modulation of selected loads through direct control for power system security enhancement. Two main contributions of this research are the following: development of an analysis framework and two conceptually different analysis approaches for load modulation to enhance oscillatory stability, and the development and study of algorithms for real-time modulation of thermostatic loads. The underlying analysis framework is based on the Structured Singular Value (SSV or mu) theory. Based on the above framework, two fundamentally different approaches towards analysis of the amount of load modulation for desired stability performance have been developed. Both the approaches have been tested on two different test systems: CIGRE Nordic test system and an equivalent of the Western Electric Coordinating Council test system. This research also develops algorithms for real-time modulation of thermostatic loads that use the results of the analysis. In line with some recent load management programs executed by utilities, two

  18. Daily treatment with α-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of α-naphthoflavone (αNF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with αNF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg αNF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of αNF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of αNF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  19. Review of revised Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load models from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2013-01-01

    Flow and water-quality models are being used to support the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans for the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in south-central Oregon. For riverine reaches, the RMA-2 and RMA-11 models were used, whereas the CE-QUAL-W2 model was used to simulate pooled reaches. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to review the most upstream of these models, from Link River Dam at the outlet of UKL downstream through the first pooled reach of the Klamath River from Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam. Previous versions of these models were reviewed in 2009 by USGS. Since that time, important revisions were made to correct several problems and address other issues. This review documents an assessment of the revised models, with emphasis on the model revisions and any remaining issues. The primary focus of this review is the 19.7-mile Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River that was simulated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Water spends far more time in the Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach than in the 1-mile Link River reach that connects UKL to the Klamath River, and most of the critical reactions affecting water quality upstream of Keno Dam occur in that pooled reach. This model review includes assessments of years 2000 and 2002 current conditions scenarios, which were used to calibrate the model, as well as a natural conditions scenario that was used as the reference condition for the TMDL and was based on the 2000 flow conditions. The natural conditions scenario included the removal of Keno Dam, restoration of the Keno reef (a shallow spot that was removed when the dam was built), removal of all point-source inputs, and derivation of upstream boundary water-quality inputs from a previously developed UKL TMDL model. This review examined the details of the models, including model algorithms, parameter values, and boundary conditions; the review did not assess the draft Klamath River TMDL or the TMDL allocations

  20. An Enhanced Instantaneous Circulating Current Control for Reactive power and Harmonic Load Sharing in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorzadeh, Iman; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    To address inaccurate load demand sharing problems among parallel inverter-interfaced voltage-controlled distributed generation (DG) units in islanded microgrids with different DG power ratings and mismatched feeder impedances, an enhanced voltage control scheme based on actively compensation of ...

  1. Oridonin Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Enhanced Antitumor Activity in MCF-7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oridonin (ORI, a famous diterpenoid from Chinese herbal medicine, has drawn rising attention for its remarkable apoptosis and autophagy-inducing activity in human cancer therapy, while clinical application of ORI is limited by its strong hydrophobicity and rapid plasma clearance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the antitumor activity of ORI could be enhanced by loading into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs. ORI-loaded SLNs were prepared by hot high pressure homogenization with narrow size distribution and good entrapment efficacy. MTT assay indicated that ORI-loaded SLNs enhanced the inhibition of proliferation against several human cancer cell lines including breast cancer MCF-7 cells, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG 2 cells, and lung carcinoma A549 cells compared with free ORI, while no significant enhancement of toxicity to human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells was shown. Meanwhile, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that ORI-SLNs induced more significant cell cycle arrest at S and decreased cell cycle arrest at G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells than bulk ORI solution. Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V/PI assay indicated that apoptotic rates of cells treated with ORI-loaded SLNs were higher compared with free ORI. In summary, our data indicated that SLNs may be a potential carrier for enhancing the antitumor effect of hydrophobic drug ORI.

  2. Enhancement of Orthodontic Anchor Screw Stability Under Immediate Loading by Ultraviolet Photofunctionalization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Maiko; Motoyoshi, Mitsuru; Inaba, Mizuki; Hagiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    Ultraviolet (UV)-mediated photofunctionalization technology is intended to enhance the osseointegration capability of titanium implants. There are concerns about orthodontic anchor screws loosening under immediate loading protocols in adolescent orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this in vivo study was to evaluate the effects of photofunctionalization on the intrabony stability of orthodontic titanium anchor screws and bone-anchor screw contact under immediate loading in growing rats. Custom-made titanium anchor screws (1.4 mm in diameter and 4.0 mm in length) with or without photofunctionalization pretreatment were placed on the proximal epiphysis of the tibial bone in 6-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and were loaded immediately after placement. After 2 weeks of loading, the stability of the anchor screws was evaluated using a Periotest device, and the bone-anchor screw contact ratio (BSC) was assessed by a histomorphometric analysis using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. In the unloaded group, Periotest values (PTVs) were ~25 for UV-untreated screws and 13 for UVtreated screws (P < .01), while in the immediate-loading group, PTVs were 28 for UV-untreated screws and 16 for UV-treated screws (P < .05). Significantly less screw mobility was observed in both UV-treated groups regardless of the loading protocol. The BSC was increased ~1.8 fold for UV-treated screws, compared with UV-untreated screws, regardless of the loading protocol. Photofunctionalization enhanced the intrabony stability of orthodontic anchor screws under immediate loading in growing rats by increasing bone-anchor screw contact.

  3. Sleep Restriction Enhances the Daily Rhythm of Circulating Levels of Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Erin C; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel; Stuhr, Kara L; Doncheck, Elizabeth; de Wit, Harriet; Hillard, Cecilia J; Van Cauter, Eve

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence from laboratory and epidemiologic studies indicates that insufficient sleep may be a risk factor for obesity. Sleep curtailment results in stimulation of hunger and food intake that exceeds the energy cost of extended wakefulness, suggesting the involvement of reward mechanisms. The current study tested the hypothesis that sleep restriction is associated with activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, a key component of hedonic pathways involved in modulating appetite and food intake. In a randomized crossover study comparing 4 nights of normal (8.5 h) versus restricted sleep (4.5 h) in healthy young adults, we examined the 24-h profiles of circulating concentrations of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and its structural analog 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG). We concomitantly assessed hunger, appetite, and food intake under controlled conditions. A robust daily variation of 2-AG concentrations with a nadir around the middle of the sleep/overnight fast, followed by a continuous increase culminating in the early afternoon, was evident under both sleep conditions but sleep restriction resulted in an amplification of this rhythm with delayed and extended maximum values. Concentrations of 2-OG followed a similar pattern, but with a lesser amplitude. When sleep deprived, participants reported increases in hunger and appetite concomitant with the afternoon elevation of 2-AG concentrations, and were less able to inhibit intake of palatable snacks. Our findings suggest that activation of the eCB system may be involved in excessive food intake in a state of sleep debt and contribute to the increased risk of obesity associated with insufficient sleep. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 495. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Guidelines for enhancing learning curiosity of non-formal student using daily life context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mongkondaw Ornwipa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were: to study learning curiosity within student, teacher and administrators, and to suggest the student of non-formal education learning curiosity by using daily life context. A sample was selected from a group of student of non-formal education for 400 students, categorized to 184 students of secondary education, students of high school education 216, 40 teachers of non-formal education and 20 administrators with district level of the office of the Non - Formal and Informal Education by Multi - Stage Sampling. The research tools were surveyed by using questionnaire of students. The results of the study were as follows and the questionnaire as learning curiosity of the teacher and administrator from the Non - Formal and Informal Education awareness, and transcribing from focus group discussion. The quantitative analysis by the computer program (SPSS for statistical analysis and analyzing qualitative data by content analysis were included. The results of the study were as follows a student learning curiosity was in high level, a student supporting for learning curiosity in occupation was in high level, the teacher opinion for learning curiosity of student was in middle level. The supporting should be academic, Work and family consecutive. The administrator of the Non - Formal and Informal Education thought, learning curiosity of student was in middle level. The student should be gained occupation knowledge for the first, because of their lifestyle in the north eastern of Thailand; they needed to support their family. Almost citizens were agriculturist, gardener, farmer or merchandiser, and then to permit academic education, family and socialization, the occupation developing was given precedence.

  5. Sediment transport dynamics in the Central Himalaya: assessing during monsoon the erosion processes signature in the daily suspended load of the Narayani river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Guillaume; Lavé, Jérôme; Lanord, Christian France; Prassad Gajurel, Ananta

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of mountainous landscapes is the result of competition between tectonic and erosional processes. In response to the creation of topography by tectonics, fluvial, glacial, and hillslope denudation processes erode topography, leading to rock exhumation and sediment redistribution. When trying to better document the links between climate, tectonic, or lithologic controls in mountain range evolution, a detailed understanding of the influence of each erosion process in a given environment is fundamental. At the scale of a whole mountain range, a systematic survey and monitoring of all the geomorphologic processes at work can rapidly become difficult. An alternative approach can be provided by studying the characteristics and temporal evolution of the sediments exported out of the range. In central Himalaya, the Narayani watershed presents contrasted lithologic, geochemical or isotopic signatures of the outcropping rocks as well as of the erosional processes: this particular setting allows conducting such type of approach by partly untangling the myopic vision of the spatial integration at the watershed scale. Based on the acquisition and analysis of a new dataset on the daily suspended load concentration and geochemical characteristics at the mountain outlet of one of the largest Himalayan rivers (drainage area = 30000 km2) bring several important results on Himalayan erosion, and on climatic and process controls. 1. Based on discrete depth sampling and on daily surface sampling of suspended load associated to flow characterization through ADCP measurements, we were first able to integrate sediment flux across a river cross-section and over time. We estimate for 2010 year an equivalent erosion rate of 1.8 +0.35/-0.2 mm/yr, and over the last 15 years, using past sediment load records from the DHM of Nepal, an equivalent erosion rate of 1.6 +0.3/-0.2 mm/yr. These rates are also in close agreement with the longer term ( 500 yrs) denudation rates of 1.7 mm

  6. Hydroxycamptothecin-loaded nanoparticles enhance target drug delivery and anticancer effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT has been shown to have activity against a broad spectrum of cancers. In order to enhance its tissue-specific delivery and anticancer activity, we prepared HCPT-loaded nanoparticles made from poly(ethylene glycol-poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate (PEG-PBLG, and then studied their release characteristics, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and anticancer effects. PEG-PBLG nanoparticles incorporating HCPT were prepared by a dialysis method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to observe the shape and diameter of the nanoparticles. The HCPT release characteristics in vitro were evaluated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC detection method for determining HCPT in rabbit plasma was established. The pharmacokinetic parameters of HCPT/PEG-PBLG nanoparticles were compared with those of HCPT. Results The HCPT-loaded nanoparticles had a core-shell spherical structure, with a core diameter of 200 nm and a shell thickness of 30 nm. Drug-loading capacity and drug encapsulation were 7.5 and 56.8%, respectively. The HCPT release profile was biphasic, with an initial abrupt release, followed by sustained release. The terminal elimination half-lives (t 1/2 β of HCPT and HCPT-loaded nanoparticles were 4.5 and 10.1 h, respectively. Peak concentrations (Cmax of HCPT and HCPT-loaded nanoparticles were 2627.8 and 1513.5 μg/L, respectively. The apparent volumes of distribution of the HCPT and HCPT-loaded nanoparticles were 7.3 and 20.0 L, respectively. Compared with a blank control group, Lovo cell xenografts or Tca8113 cell xenografts in HCPT or HCPT-loaded nanoparticle treated groups grew more slowly and the tumor doubling times were increased. The tumor inhibition effect in the HCPT-loaded nanosphere-treated group was significantly higher than that of the HCPT-treated group (p 0.05. Conclusion Compared to the HCPT- and control-treated groups, the HCPT-loaded nanoparticle

  7. Documentation of a daily mean stream temperature module—An enhancement to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Michael J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Regan, R. Steven; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2017-09-15

    A module for simulation of daily mean water temperature in a network of stream segments has been developed as an enhancement to the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). This new module is based on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Stream Network Temperature model, a mechanistic, one-dimensional heat transport model. The new module is integrated in PRMS. Stream-water temperature simulation is activated by selection of the appropriate input flags in the PRMS Control File and by providing the necessary additional inputs in standard PRMS input files.This report includes a comprehensive discussion of the methods relevant to the stream temperature calculations and detailed instructions for model input preparation.

  8. Enhancing Photocatalytic Performance through Tuning the Interfacial Process between -Assembled and Pt-Loaded Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a simple two-step approach to rutile TiO2-assembled microspheres loaded by Pt with an aim to tune semiconductor-metal interfacial processes for enhancing the photocatalytic performance. Systematic sample characterizations and structural analysis indicate that Pt loading did not produce any significant influences on the lattice structure of TiO2-assembled microspheres. Instead, upon Pt loading, Schottky barrier was formed in the interfaces between microspheres and Pt nanoparticles, which inhabited efficiently the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs essential for the photocatalytic activities. In addition, TiO2 microspheres also showed a capacity of electrons storage and releasing as represented by a high dielectric constant, which increased the utility rate of photogenerated electrons. All these structural advantages contribute to the excellent photocatalytic activity under ultraviolet light irradiation. The interfacial process between microspheres and Pt nanoparticles was further tuned through adjusting the loading Pt content of metal Pt. As a consequence, the best photocatalytic activity on TiO2 was obtained at 0.85 wt% Pt loading, above or below which photocatalytic activity was apparently decreased.

  9. Cyclodextrin-PEG conjugate-wrapped magnetic ferrite nanoparticles for enhanced drug loading and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Israel V. M. V.; Ramasamy, Sivaraj; Mohiyuddin, Shanid; Gopinath, Packirisamy; Manoharan, R.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles are envisaged to overcome the impediments in the methods of targeted drug delivery and hence cure cancer effectively. We report herein, manganese ferrite nanoparticles, coated with β-cyclodextrin-modified polyethylene glycol as a carrier for the drug, camptothecin. The particles are of the size of 100 nm and they show superparamagnetic behaviour. The saturation magnetization does not get diminished on polymer coverage of the nanoparticles. The β-cyclodextrin-polyethylene glycol conjugates are characterized using NMR and mass spectrometric techniques. By coating the magnetic nanoparticles with the cyclodextrin-tethered polymer, the drug-loading capacity is enhanced and the observed release of the drug is slow and sustained. The cell viability of HEK293 and HCT15 cells is evaluated and the cytotoxicity is enhanced when the drug is loaded in the polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles. The noncovalent-binding based and enhanced drug loading on the nanoparticles and the sustained release make the nanocarrier a promising agent for carrying the payload to the target.

  10. Novel sulpiride-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles with enhanced intestinal permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim WM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Waheed M Ibrahim,1 Abdullah H AlOmrani,2 Alaa Eldeen B Yassin31Drug Sector, Saudi Food and Drug Authority, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN, novel drug delivery carriers, can be utilized in enhancing both intestinal permeability and dissolution of poorly absorbed drugs. The aim of this work was to enhance the intestinal permeability of sulpiride by loading into SLN.Methods: A unique ultrasonic melt-emulsification method with minimum stress conditions was used for the preparation of SLN. The mixture of the drug and the melted lipids was simply dispersed in an aqueous solution of a surfactant at a temperature that was 10°C higher than the melting points of the lipids using probe sonication, and was then simultaneously dispersed in cold water. Several formulation parameters were optimized, including the drug-to-lipid ratio, and the types of lipids and surfactants used. The produced SLN were evaluated for their particle size and shape, surface charge, entrapment efficiency, crystallinity of the drug and lipids, and the drug release profile. The rat everted sac intestine model was utilized to evaluate the change in intestinal permeability of sulpiride by loading into SLN.Results: The method adopted allowed successful preparation of SLN with a monodispersed particle size of 147.8–298.8 nm. Both scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic images showed uniform spherical particles and confirmed the sizes determined by the light scattering technique. Combination of triglycerides with stearic acid resulted in a marked increase in zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and drug loading; however, the particle size was increased. The type of surfactant used was critical for particle size

  11. Optimization of enhanced biological phosphorus removal after periods of low loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Haruo; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal is a well-established technology for the treatment of municipal wastewater. However, increased effluent phosphorus concentrations have been reported after periods (days) of low organic loading. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different operating strategies to prevent discharge of effluent after such low-loading periods. Mechanisms leading to these operational problems have been related to the reduction of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and their storage compounds (polyhydroxy alkanoates [PHA]). Increased effluent phosphorus concentrations can be the result of an imbalance between influent loading and PAOs in the system and an imbalance between phosphorus release and uptake rates. The following operating conditions were tested in their ability to prevent a reduction of PHA and of overall biomass during low organic loading conditions: (a) unchanged operation, (b) reduced aeration time, (c) reduced sludge wastage, and (d) combination of reduced aeration time and reduced sludge wastage. Experiments were performed in a laboratory-scale anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor, using acetate as the carbon source. Without operational adjustments, phosphorus-release rates decreased during low-loading periods but recovered rapidly. Phosphorus-uptake rates also decreased, and the recovery typically required several days to increase to normal levels. The combination of reduced aeration time and reduced sludge wastage allowed the maintenance of constant levels of both PHA and overall biomass. A mathematical model was used to explain the influence of the tested operating conditions on PAO and PHA concentrations. While experimental results were in general agreement with model predictions, the kinetic expression for phosphorus uptake deviated significantly for the first 24 hours after low-loading conditions. Mechanisms leading to these deviations need to be further investigated.

  12. Transcription factor assisted loading and enhancer dynamics dictate the hepatic fasting response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Ido; Baek, Songjoon; Presman, Diego M.; Paakinaho, Ville; Swinstead, Erin E.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2017-01-01

    Fasting elicits transcriptional programs in hepatocytes leading to glucose and ketone production. This transcriptional program is regulated by many transcription factors (TFs). To understand how this complex network regulates the metabolic response to fasting, we aimed at isolating the enhancers and TFs dictating it. Measuring chromatin accessibility revealed that fasting massively reorganizes liver chromatin, exposing numerous fasting-induced enhancers. By utilizing computational methods in combination with dissecting enhancer features and TF cistromes, we implicated four key TFs regulating the fasting response: glucocorticoid receptor (GR), cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARA), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB). These TFs regulate fuel production by two distinctly operating modules, each controlling a separate metabolic pathway. The gluconeogenic module operates through assisted loading, whereby GR doubles the number of sites occupied by CREB1 as well as enhances CREB1 binding intensity and increases accessibility of CREB1 binding sites. Importantly, this GR-assisted CREB1 binding was enhancer-selective and did not affect all CREB1-bound enhancers. Single-molecule tracking revealed that GR increases the number and DNA residence time of a portion of chromatin-bound CREB1 molecules. These events collectively result in rapid synergistic gene expression and higher hepatic glucose production. Conversely, the ketogenic module operates via a GR-induced TF cascade, whereby PPARA levels are increased following GR activation, facilitating gradual enhancer maturation next to PPARA target genes and delayed ketogenic gene expression. Our findings reveal a complex network of enhancers and TFs that dynamically cooperate to restore homeostasis upon fasting. PMID:28031249

  13. Enhancement of J estimation for typical nuclear pipes with a circumferential surface crack under tensile load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Doo Ho; Woo, Seung Wan; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin; Chang, Yoon Suk; Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Young Hwan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is to report enhancement of engineering J estimation for semi-elliptical surface cracks under tensile load. Firstly, limitation of the sole solution suggested by Zahoor is shown for reliable structural integrity assessment of thin-walled nuclear pipes. An improved solution is then developed based on extensive 3D FE analyses employing deformation plasticity theory for typical nuclear piping materials. It takes over the structure of the existing solution but provides new tabulated plastic influence functions to cover a wide range of pipe geometry and crack shape. Furthermore, to facilitate easy prediction of the plastic influence function, an alternative simple equation is also developed by using a statistical response surface method. The proposed H 1 values can be used for elastic-plastic fracture analyses of thin-walled pipes with a circumferential surface crack subjected to tensile loading

  14. Enhancement of J estimation for typical nuclear pipes with a circumferential surface crack under tensile load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Doo Ho; Woo, Seung Wan; Choi, Jae Boong; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon Suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jhung, Myung Jo; Choi, Young Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This paper is to report enhancement of engineering J estimation for semi-elliptical surface cracks under tensile load. Firstly, limitation of the sole solution suggested by Zahoor is shown for reliable structural integrity assessment of thin-walled nuclear pipes. An improved solution is then developed based on extensive 3D FE analyses employing deformation plasticity theory for typical nuclear piping materials. It takes over the structure of the existing solution but provides new tabulated plastic influence functions to cover a wide range of pipe geometry and crack shape. Furthermore, to facilitate easy prediction of the plastic influence function, an alternative simple equation is also developed by using a statistical response surface method. The proposed H{sub 1} values can be used for elastic-plastic fracture analyses of thin-walled pipes with a circumferential surface crack subjected to tensile loading

  15. Differential permeation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro/nanoparticles and their in vitro enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankarayan, Raju; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. The main problem encountered when piroxicam is administered orally is its gastric side-effect (ulcer, bleeding and holes in the stomach). Transmucosal delivery and encapsulation of piroxicam in biodegradable particles offer potential advantages over conventional oral delivery. The present study was aimed to develop an alternative to piroxicam-delivery which could overcome the direct contact of the drug at the mucosal membrane and its permeation through the mucosal membrane was studied. To achieve this, the piroxicam was encapsulated in Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (size 1–4 μm, encapsulation efficiency 80–85 %) and nanoparticles (size 151.6 ± 28.6 nm, encapsulation efficiency 92.17 ± 3.08 %). Various formulation process parameters were optimised for the preparation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of optimal size and encapsulation efficiency. Transmucosal permeability of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro- and nanoparticles through the porcine oesophageal mucosa was studied. Using fluorescently labelled PLGA micro- and nanoparticles, size-dependent permeation was demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of different permeation enhancers on the flux rate and permeability coefficient for the permeation of nanoparticles was investigated. The results suggested that amongst the permeation enhancers used the most efficient enhancement of permeation was observed with 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  16. Differential permeation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro/nanoparticles and their in vitro enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankarayan, Raju; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Prashant, E-mail: pmishra@dbeb.iitd.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology (India)

    2013-03-15

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. The main problem encountered when piroxicam is administered orally is its gastric side-effect (ulcer, bleeding and holes in the stomach). Transmucosal delivery and encapsulation of piroxicam in biodegradable particles offer potential advantages over conventional oral delivery. The present study was aimed to develop an alternative to piroxicam-delivery which could overcome the direct contact of the drug at the mucosal membrane and its permeation through the mucosal membrane was studied. To achieve this, the piroxicam was encapsulated in Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (size 1-4 {mu}m, encapsulation efficiency 80-85 %) and nanoparticles (size 151.6 {+-} 28.6 nm, encapsulation efficiency 92.17 {+-} 3.08 %). Various formulation process parameters were optimised for the preparation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of optimal size and encapsulation efficiency. Transmucosal permeability of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro- and nanoparticles through the porcine oesophageal mucosa was studied. Using fluorescently labelled PLGA micro- and nanoparticles, size-dependent permeation was demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of different permeation enhancers on the flux rate and permeability coefficient for the permeation of nanoparticles was investigated. The results suggested that amongst the permeation enhancers used the most efficient enhancement of permeation was observed with 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  17. Differential permeation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro/nanoparticles and their in vitro enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankarayan, Raju; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Prashant

    2013-03-01

    Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for the treatment of musculoskeletal pain. The main problem encountered when piroxicam is administered orally is its gastric side-effect (ulcer, bleeding and holes in the stomach). Transmucosal delivery and encapsulation of piroxicam in biodegradable particles offer potential advantages over conventional oral delivery. The present study was aimed to develop an alternative to piroxicam-delivery which could overcome the direct contact of the drug at the mucosal membrane and its permeation through the mucosal membrane was studied. To achieve this, the piroxicam was encapsulated in Poly (lactide- co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles (size 1-4 μm, encapsulation efficiency 80-85 %) and nanoparticles (size 151.6 ± 28.6 nm, encapsulation efficiency 92.17 ± 3.08 %). Various formulation process parameters were optimised for the preparation of piroxicam-loaded PLGA nanoparticles of optimal size and encapsulation efficiency. Transmucosal permeability of piroxicam-loaded PLGA micro- and nanoparticles through the porcine oesophageal mucosa was studied. Using fluorescently labelled PLGA micro- and nanoparticles, size-dependent permeation was demonstrated. Furthermore, the effect of different permeation enhancers on the flux rate and permeability coefficient for the permeation of nanoparticles was investigated. The results suggested that amongst the permeation enhancers used the most efficient enhancement of permeation was observed with 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate.

  18. Liposomes loaded with contrast material for image enhancement in computed tomography: work in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.J.; Davis, M.A.; DeGaeta, L.R.; Woda, B.; Melchior, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Large unilamellar phospholipid vesicles were prepared and loaded with various radiographic contrast media. Body CT following in vivo adminstration of these vesicles in the rat demonstrated opacification of organs associated with the reticuloendothelial system. Image enhancement in the spleen and liver was dose dependent and was linearly related within the dose range investigated. Clearance of the radiographic contrast material was complete within 24 hours. Diffuse splenic lymphoma following intraperitoneal or intrasplenic injection of lymphoma cells, and solitary lymphoma nodules following intrahepatic injection were readily detected as nonenhanced areas following injection of liposomes

  19. Fullerene–epoxy nanocomposites-enhanced mechanical properties at low nanofiller loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Yavari, Fazel; Rafiee, Javad; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we characterized the mechanical properties of fullerence (C 60 ) epoxy nanocomposites at various weight fractions of fullerene additives in the epoxy matrix. The mechanical properties measured were the Young’s modulus, ultimate tensile strength, fracture toughness, fracture energy, and the material’s resistance to fatigue crack propagation. All of the above properties of the epoxy polymer were significantly enhanced by the fullerene additives at relatively low nanofiller loading fractions (∼0.1 to 1% of the epoxy matrix weight). By contrast, other forms of nanoparticle fillers such as silica, alumina, and titania nanoparticles require up to an order of magnitude higher weight fraction to achieve comparable enhancement in properties.

  20. Apitherapeutics and phage-loaded nanofibers as wound dressings with enhanced wound healing and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhan, Wessam A; Azzazy, Hassan Me

    2017-09-01

    Develop green wound dressings which exhibit enhanced wound-healing ability and potent antibacterial effects. Honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan nanofibers were electrospun and loaded with bee venom, propolis and/or bacteriophage against the multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and examined for their antibacterial, wound-healing ability and cytotoxicity. Among different formulations of nanofibers, honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan-bee venom/bacteriophage exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains (Gram-positive and -negative strains) and achieved nearly complete killing of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. In vivo testing revealed enhanced wound-healing results and cytotoxicity testing proved improved biocompatibility. The developed biocompatible nanofibers represent competitive wound-healing dressings with potent antibacterial and wound-healing activity.

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of capsaicin-loaded microemulsion for enhanced oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuan; Zhang, Jiajia; Zheng, Qianfeng; Wang, Miaomiao; Deng, Wenwen; Li, Qiang; Firempong, Caleb Kesse; Wang, Shengli; Tong, Shanshan; Xu, Ximing; Yu, Jiangnan

    2015-10-01

    Capsaicin, as a food additive, has attracted worldwide concern owing to its pungency and multiple pharmacological effects. However, poor water solubility and low bioavailability have limited its application. This study aims to develop a capsaicin-loaded microemulsion to enhance the oral bioavailability of the anti-neuropathic-pain component, capsaicin, which is poorly water soluble. In this study, the microemulsion consisting of Cremophor EL, ethanol, medium-chain triglycerides (oil phase) and water (external phase) was prepared and characterized (particle size, morphology, stability and encapsulation efficiency). The gastric mucosa irritation test of formulated capsaicin was performed in rats to evaluate its oral feasibility, followed by the pharmacokinetic study in vivo. Under these conditions, the encapsulated capsaicin revealed a faster capsaicin release in vitro coupled with a greater absorption in vivo when compared to the free capsaicin. The oral bioavailability of the formulated capsaicin-loaded microemulsions was 2.64-fold faster than that of free capsaicin. No significant irritation was observed on the mucosa from the pathological section of capsaicin-loaded microemulsion treated stomach. These results indicate that the developed microemulsion represents a safe and orally effective carrier for poorly soluble substances. The formulation could be used for clinical trials and expand the application of capsaicin. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres exhibit enhanced osteoinduction and osteogenicity in large bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Long; Zeng, Jianhua; Yao, Aihua; Tu, Qiquan; Li, Jingtang; Yan, Liang; Tang, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of large bone defects is an osteoinductive, osteoconductive, and osteogenic process that often requires a bone graft for support. Limitations associated with naturally autogenic or allogenic bone grafts have demonstrated the need for synthetic substitutes. The present study investigates the feasibility of using novel hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres as an osteoconductive matrix and a carrier for controlled local delivery of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a potent osteogenic inducer of bone regeneration. Hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres (100±25 μm) with a core (60±18 μm) and a mesoporous shell (180±42 m(2)/g surface area) were prepared by a glass conversion technique and loaded with recombinant human BMP2 (1 μg/mg). There was a gentle burst release of BMP2 from microspheres into the surrounding phosphate-buffered saline in vitro within the initial 48 hours, and continued at a low rate for over 40 days. In comparison with hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres without BMP2 or soluble BMP2 without a carrier, BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres had a significantly enhanced capacity to reconstitute radial bone defects in rabbit, as shown by increased serum alkaline phosphatase; quick and complete new bone formation within 12 weeks; and great biomechanical flexural strength. These results indicate that BMP2-loaded hollow hydroxyapatite microspheres could be a potential new option for bone graft substitutes in bone regeneration.

  3. Oleic Acid enhances all-trans retinoic Acid loading in nano-lipid emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsriwongkul, Akhayachatra; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sila-On, Warisada; Ruktanonchai, Uracha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the enhancement of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) loading in nano-lipid emulsions and stability by using oleic acid. The effect of formulation factors including initial ATRA concentration and the type of oil on the physicochemical properties, that is, percentage yield, percentage drug release, and photostability of formulations, was determined. The solubility of ATRA was increased in the order of oleic acid > MCT > soybean oil > water. The physicochemical properties of ATRA-loaded lipid emulsion, including mean particle diameter and zeta potential, were modulated by changing an initial ATRA concentration as well as the type and mixing ratio of oil and oleic acid as an oil phase. The particles of lipid emulsions had average sizes of less than 250 nm and negative zeta potential. The addition of oleic acid in lipid emulsions resulted in high loading capacity. The photodegradation rate was found to be dependent on the initial drug concentration but independent of the type of oily phase used in this study. The release rates were not affected by initial ATRA concentration but were affected by the type of oil, where oleic acid showed the highest release rate of ATRA from lipid emulsions.

  4. Photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite materials: Photoresponse region extension and quantum yields enhancement via the loading of PANI nanofibers on surface of coordination polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Zhongping; Qi, Ji; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Lu; Wang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To enhance photocatalytic property of coordination polymer in visible light region, polyaniline (PANI) loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst was synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on the surface of coordination polymer. The photocatalytic activity of PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material for degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated. Compared with pure coordination polymer photocatalyst, which can decompose RhB merely under UV light irradiation, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst displays more excellent photocatalytic activity in visible light region. Furthermore, PANI loaded coordination polymer photocatalyst exhibits outstanding stability during the degradation of RhB. - Graphical abstract: PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material, which displays excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light was firstly synthesized through in-situ chemical oxidation of aniline on surface of coordination polymer. Display Omitted - Highlights: • This PANI loaded coordination polymer composite material represents the first conductive polymer loaded coordination polymer composite material. • PANI/coordination polymer composite material displays more excellent photocatalytic activity for the degradation of MO in visible light region. • The “combination” of coordination polymer and PANI will enable us to design high-activity, high-stability and visible light driven photocatalyst in the future

  5. TAF11 Assembles the RISC Loading Complex to Enhance RNAi Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-09-03

    Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains the Dicer-2 (Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein-associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although it is an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11(-/-) ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using the recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of the Drosophila RLC and elucidate a cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vestibular control of standing balance is enhanced with increased cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeehan, Michael A; Woollacott, Marjorie H; Dalton, Brian H

    2017-04-01

    When cognitive load is elevated during a motor task, cortical inhibition and reaction time are increased; yet, standing balance control is often unchanged. This disconnect is likely explained by compensatory mechanisms within the balance system such as increased sensitivity of the vestibulomotor pathway. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased cognitive load on the vestibular control of standing balance. Participants stood blindfolded on a force plate with their head facing left and arms relaxed at their sides for two trials while exposed to continuous electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS). Participants either stood quietly or executed a cognitive task (double-digit arithmetic). Surface electromyography (EMG) and anterior-posterior ground-body forces (APF) were measured in order to evaluate vestibular-evoked balance responses in the frequency (coherence and gain) and time (cumulant density) domains. Total distance traveled for anterior-posterior center of pressure (COP) was assessed as a metric of balance variability. Despite similar distances traveled for COP, EVS-medial gastrocnemius (MG) EMG and EVS-APF coherence and EVS-TA EMG and EVS-MG EMG gain were elevated for multiple frequencies when standing with increased cognitive load. For the time domain, medium-latency peak amplitudes increased by 13-54% for EVS-APF and EVS-EMG relationships with the cognitive task compared to without. Peak short-latency amplitudes were unchanged. These results indicate that reliance on vestibular control of balance is enhanced when cognitive load is elevated. This augmented neural strategy may act to supplement divided cortical processing resources within the balance system and compensate for the acute neuromuscular modifications associated with increased cognitive demand.

  7. Electric-Loading Enhanced Kinetics in Oxide Ceramics: Pore Migration, Sintering and Grain Growth: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, I-Wei [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering

    2018-02-02

    Solid oxide fuel cells and solid oxide electrolysis cells rely on solid electrolytes in which a large ionic current dominates. This project was initiated to investigate microstructural changes in such devices under electrochemical forces, because nominally insignificant processes may couple to the large ionic current to yield non-equilibrium phenomena that alter the microstructure. Our studies had focused on yttria-stabilized cubic zirconia (YSZ) widely used in these devices. The experiments have revealed enhanced grain growth at higher temperatures, pore and gas bubble migration at all temperatures, and the latter also lead to enhanced sintering of highly porous ceramics into fully dense ceramics at unprecedentedly low temperatures. These results have shed light on kinetic processes that fall completely outside the realm of classical ceramic processing. Other fast-oxygen oxide ceramics closely related to, and often used in conjunction with zirconia ceramics, have also be investigated, as are closely related scientific problems in zirconia ceramics. These include crystal structures, defects, diffusion kinetics, oxygen potentials, low temperature sintering, flash sintering, and coarsening theory, and all have resulted in greater clarity in scientific understanding. The knowledge is leveraged to provide new insight to electrode kinetics and near-electrode mixed conductivity and to new materials. In the following areas, our research has resulted in completely new knowledge that defines the state-of-the-art of the field. (a) Electrical current driven non-equilibrium phenomena, (b) Enhanced grain growth under electrochemically reducing conditions, (c) Development of oxygen potential polarization in electrically loaded electrolyte, (d) Low temperature sintering and grain growth, and (e) Structure, defects and cation kinetics of fluorite-structured oxides. Our research has also contributed to synthesis of new energy-relevant electrochemical materials and new understanding

  8. A field studies and modeling approach to develop organochlorine pesticide and PCB total maximum daily load calculations: Case study for Echo Park Lake, Los Angeles, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, V.R., E-mail: vrvasquez@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Curren, J., E-mail: janecurren@yahoo.com [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Lau, S.-L., E-mail: simlin@ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Stenstrom, M.K., E-mail: stenstro@seas.ucla.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States); Suffet, I.H., E-mail: msuffet@ucla.edu [Environmental Science and Engineering Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Echo Park Lake is a small lake in Los Angeles, CA listed on the USA Clean Water Act Section 303(d) list of impaired water bodies for elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue. A lake water and sediment sampling program was completed to support the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDL) to address the lake impairment. The field data indicated quantifiable levels of OCPs and PCBs in the sediments, but lake water data were all below detection levels. The field sediment data obtained may explain the contaminant levels in fish tissue using appropriate sediment-water partitioning coefficients and bioaccumulation factors. A partition-equilibrium fugacity model of the whole lake system was used to interpret the field data and indicated that half of the total mass of the pollutants in the system are in the sediments and the other half is in soil; therefore, soil erosion could be a significant pollutant transport mode into the lake. Modeling also indicated that developing and quantifying the TMDL depends significantly on the analytical detection level for the pollutants in field samples and on the choice of octanol-water partitioning coefficient and bioaccumulation factors for the model. - Research highlights: {yields} Fugacity model using new OCP and PCB field data supports lake TMDL calculations. {yields} OCP and PCB levels in lake sediment were found above levels for impairment. {yields} Relationship between sediment data and available fish tissue data evaluated. {yields} Model provides approximation of contaminant sources and sinks for a lake system. {yields} Model results were sensitive to analytical detection and quantification levels.

  9. Doxycycline-loaded coaxial nanofiber coating of titanium implants enhances osseointegration and inhibits Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Seta, Joseph; Chen, Liang; Bergum, Christopher; Zhou, Zhubin; Kanneganti, Praveen; Kast, Rachel E; Auner, Gregory W; Shen, Ming; Markel, David C; Ren, Weiping; Yu, Xiaowei

    2017-07-05

    Few studies have been reported that focus on developing implant surface nanofiber (NF) coating to prevent infection and enhance osseointegration by local drug release. In this study, coaxial doxycycline (Doxy)-doped polycaprolactone/polyvinyl alcohol (PCL/PVA) NFs were directly deposited on a titanium (Ti) implant surface during electrospinning. The interaction of loaded Doxy with both PVA and PCL NFs was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The bonding strength of Doxy-doped NF coating on Ti implants was confirmed by a stand single-pass scratch test. The improved implant osseointegration by PCL/PVA NF coatings in vivo was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, histomorphometry and micro computed tomography (μCT) at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after implantation. The bone contact surface (%) changes of the NF coating group (80%) is significantly higher than that of the no NF group (coating effectively inhibited bacterial infection and enhanced osseointegration in an infected (Staphylococcus aureus) tibia implantation rat model. Doxy released from NF coating inhibited bacterial growth up to 8 weeks in vivo. The maximal push-in force of the Doxy-NF coating (38 N) is much higher than that of the NF coating group (6.5 N) 8 weeks after implantation (p coating doped with Doxy and/or other drugs have great potential in enhancing implant osseointegration and preventing infection.

  10. Enhanced apoptotic and anticancer potential of paclitaxel loaded biodegradable nanoparticles based on chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Umesh; Sharma, Saurabh; Khan, Iliyas; Gothwal, Avinash; Sharma, Ashok K; Singh, Yuvraj; Chourasia, Manish K; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-05-01

    Taxanes have established and proven effectivity against different types of cancers; in particular breast cancers. However, the high hemolytic toxicity and hydrophobic nature of paclitaxel and docetaxel have always posed challenges to achieve safe and effective delivery. Use of bio-degradable materials with an added advantage of nanotechnology could possibly improve the condition so as to achieve better and safe delivery. In the present study paclitaxel loaded chitosan nanoparticles were formulated and optimized using simple w/o nanoemulsion technique. The observed average size, pdi, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and drug loading for the optimized paclitaxel loaded chitosan nanoparticle formulation (PTX-CS-NP-10) was 226.7±0.70nm, 0.345±0.039, 37.4±0.77mV, 79.24±2.95% and 11.57±0.81%; respectively. Nanoparticles were characterized further for size by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In vitro release studies exhibited sustained release pattern and more than 60% release was observed within 24h. Enhanced in vitro anticancer activity was observed as a result of MTT assay against triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. The observed IC 50 values obtained for PTX-CS-NP-10 was 9.36±1.13μM and was almost 1.6 folds (psafe as observed for haemolytic toxicity which was almost 4 folds less (psafe nanoformulation of paclitaxel was developed, characterized and evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Interference mitigation enhancement of switched-based scheme in over-loaded femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes adequate methods to improve the interference mitigation capability of a recently investigated switched-based interference reduction scheme in short-range open-access and over-loaded femtocells. It is assumed that the available orthogonal channels for the femtocell network are distributed among operating access points in close vicinity, where each of which knows its allocated channels a priori. For the case when the feedback links are capacity-limited and the available channels can be universally shared and simultaneously used, the paper presents enhanced schemes to identify a channel to serve the desired scheduled user by maintaining the interference power level within a tolerable range. They attempt to either complement the switched-based scheme by minimum interference channel selection or adopt different interference thresholds on available channels, while aiming to reduce the channels examination load. The performance of the proposed schemes is quantified and then compared with those of the single-threshold switched-based scheme via numerical and simulation results. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Repetitive heterocoagulation of oppositely charged particles for enhancement of magnetic nanoparticle loading into monodisperse silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2010-03-16

    Oppositely charged particles were repetitively heterocoagulated to fabricate highly monodisperse magnetic silica particles with high loading of magnetic nanoparticles. Positively charged magnetic nanoparticles prepared by surface modification with N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TSA) were used to heterocoagulate with silica particles under basic conditions to give rise to negative silica surface charge and prevent the oxidation of the magnetic nanoparticles. The resultant particles of silica core homogeneously coated with the magnetic nanoparticles were further coated with thin silica layer with sodium silicate in order to enhance colloidal stability and avoid desorption of the magnetic nanoparticles from the silica cores. Five repetitions of the heterocoagulation and the silica coating could increase saturation magnetization of the magnetic silica particles to 27.7 emu/g, keeping the coefficient of variation of particle sizes (C(V)) less than 6.5%. Highly homogeneous loading of the magnetic component was confirmed by measuring Fe-to-Si atomic ratios of individual particles with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  13. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Loaded with Baicalin: An Efficient Carrier for Enhanced Antidiabetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wei, Zheng; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Ximing

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that baicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Baicalin is low hydrophilic and poorly absorbed after oral administration. Thus, a suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages of baicalin. The objective of this work was to prepare baicalin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (B-NLCs) for enhanced antidiabetic effects. B-NLCs were prepared by high-pressure homogenization method using Precirol as the solid lipid and Miglyol as the liquid lipid. The properties of the NLCs, such as particle size, zeta potential (ZP), and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), were investigated. The morphology of NLCs was observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, drug release and antidiabetic activity were also studied. The results revealed that B-NLCs particles were uniformly in the nanosize range and of spherical morphology with a mean size of 92 ± 3.1 nm, a ZP of -31.35 ± 3.08 mV, and an EE of 85.29 ± 3.42%. Baicalin was released from NLCs in a sustained manner. In addition, B-NLCs showed a significantly higher antidiabetic efficacy compared with baicalin. B-NLCs described in this study are well-suited for the delivery of baicalin. Currently, herbal medicines have attracted increasing attention as a complementary approach for type 2 diabetesBaicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidationA suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages (poor solubility and low bioavailability) of baicalinNanostructured lipid carriers could enhance the antidiabetic effects of baicalin. Abbreviations used: B-NLCs: Baicalin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, B-SUS: Baicalin Water Suspension, EE: Encapsulation Efficiency, FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose, HbAlc: Glycosylated Hemoglobin, HPLC: High-performance Liquid Chromatography; NLCs: Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, PI: Polydispersity Index, SD: Sprague-Dawley, SLNs: Solid lipid nanoparticles, STZ

  14. Photothermal enhancement of chemotherapy mediated by gold-silica nanoshell-loaded macrophages: in vitro squamous cell carcinoma study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Steen J.; Shih, En-Chung; Peng, Qian; Christie, Catherine; Krasieva, Tatiana; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Moderate hyperthermia (MHT) has been shown to enhance the effects of chemotherapeutic agents in a wide variety of cancers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents with MHT induced by near-infrared (NIR) activation of gold nanoshell (AuNS)-loaded macrophages (Ma). AuNS-loaded murine Ma combined with human FaDu squamous cells, in hybrid monolayers, were subjected to three cytotoxic drugs (doxorubicin, bleomycin, cisplatin) with or without NIR laser irradiation. For all three drugs, efficacy was increased by NIR activation of AuNS-loaded Ma. The results of this in vitro study provide proof-of-concept for the use of AuNS-loaded Ma for photothermal enhancement of the effects of chemotherapy on squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. The effect of COD loading on the granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system and the recoverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shenjing; Sun, Peide; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Lujun; Zheng, Xiongliu; Han, Jingyi; Yan, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effect of varied COD loading (200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 mg L(-1)) on stability and recoverability of granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was investigated during continuously 53-d operation. Results showed that COD loading higher than 500 mg L(-1) could obviously deteriorate the granular EBPR system and result in sludge bulking with filamentous bacteria. High COD loading also changed the transformation patterns of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and inhibited the EPS secretion, which completely destroyed the stability and integrality of granules. Results of FISH indicated that glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other microorganisms had a competitive advantage over PAOs with higher COD loading. The community composition and EBPR performance were recovered irreversibly in long time operation when COD loading was higher than 500 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A single daily dose enhances the adherence to immunosuppressive treatment in kidney transplant recipients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Ichimaru, Naotsugu; Kato, Taigo; Kaimori, Jun-Ya; Okumi, Masayoshi; Yazawa, Koji; Rakugi, Hiromi; Nonomura, Norio; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Takahara, Shiro

    2013-04-01

    Nonadherence to treatment regimens for immunosuppressive agents is one of the major risk factors for allograft failure in kidney transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to estimate the relative effect of daily dosing on treatment adherence, not to identify how patients are non-adherent, in long-term kidney transplant recipients. In January 2009, a cross-sectional, anonymous, and voluntary questionnaire survey was given to kidney transplant recipients who regularly visited Inoue Hospital. A self-reporting questionnaire underestimates nonadherence, but we reasoned that the effect of the dosing regimen should be estimated with relative accuracy by using the generalized ordered logit/partial proportional hazard odds model given that the distribution patterns in the degree of nonadherence have been shown to be similar with other measures. Of 336 eligible patients, 312 (92.9 %) participated in this study. Two hundred seventy-four patients (87.8 %) were more than 3 years post-transplant. Univariate analysis revealed that a single daily dose was significantly associated with better adherence. After controlling for age, sex, time since transplantation, and the number of prescribed drugs, the effect of a single daily dose still remained significant [odds ratio, 0.40 (95 % confidence interval, 0.19-0.81); p = 0.011]. Several sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. To our knowledge, this is the first report that, in long-term kidney transplant recipients, a single daily regimen-one of few modifiable factors-might improve treatment adherence and allograft survival.

  17. Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of

  18. Observation of modulation speed enhancement, frequency modulation suppression, and phase noise reduction by detuned loading in a coupled-cavity semiconductor laser

    OpenAIRE

    Vahala, Kerry; Paslaski, Joel; Yariv, Amnon

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous direct modulation response enhancement, phase noise (linewidth) reduction, and frequency modulation suppression are produced in a coupled-cavity semiconductor laser by the detuned loading mechanism.

  19. Curcumin-docetaxel co-loaded nanosuspension for enhanced anti-breast cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bhanu P; Hazarika, Hemanga; Bharadwaj, Rituraj; Loying, Pojul; Baishya, Rinku; Dash, Suvakanta; Das, Malay K

    2016-08-01

    A curcumin-docetaxel co-loaded nanosuspension with increased anti-breast cancer activity was developed. Curcumin is a potential anticancer agent with p-glycoprotein (p-gp) inhibiting activity may be co-administered with docetaxel as a nanosuspension to enhance its anticancer effect by increasing the oral bioavailability and decreasing drug efflux. Nanosuspensions of curcumin and docetaxel were prepared by precipitation-homozenisation technique and evaluated for particle size, polydispersity, zeta potential and drug release. The in vitro MTT assay was conducted using MCF-7 for anti-breast cancer activity. The in vivo biodistribution by radiolabeling and tumor inhibition study was conducted in mice. Homogenous nanosuspensions of 80 ± 20 nm were obtained with increased solubility. The drugs as nanosuspensions showed higher cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell line compared to their suspensions due to the increased in vitro cellular uptake. Due to this increased solubility, sensitization of tumor cells and inhibition of p-gp the in-vivo results showed greater tumor inhibition rate of up to 70% in MCF-7 treated mice. Histopathological results showed higher apoptotic activity and reduced level of angiogenesis. The in vitro and in vivo study of the nanosuspensions has shown that Co-administration of Curcumin as a p-gp inhibitor with docetaxel may have the potential to increase the anti-breast cancer efficacy of both drugs.

  20. Enhanced phosphate selectivity from wastewater using copper-loaded chelating resin functionalized with polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byungryul; Nam, Juhee; Choi, Jae-Woo; Hong, Seok-Won; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2013-11-01

    In water and wastewater, phosphate is considered a critical contaminant due to cause algae blooms and eutrophication. To meet the stringent regulation of phosphate in water, a new commercial chelating resin functionalized with polyethylenimine was tested for phosphate removal by loading Cu(2+) and Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) to enhance selectivity for phosphate. Batch and column experiments showed that CR20-Cu exhibited high selectivity for phosphate over other strong anions such as sulfate. The average binary phosphate/nitrate and phosphate/sulfate factors for CR20-Cu were calculated to be 7.3 and 4.8, respectively, which were more than 0.97 and 0.22 for a commercial anion exchanger (AMP16). The optimal pH for the phosphate removal efficiency was determined to be 7. According to the fixed-bed column test, the breakthrough sequence for multiple ions was HPO4(2-)>SO4(2-)>NO3(-)>Cl(-). Saturated CR20-Cu can be regenerated using 4% NaCl at pH 7. More than 95% of the phosphate from CR20-Cu was recovered, and the phosphate uptake capacity for CR20-Cu was not reduced after 7 regeneration cycles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced Photocatalytic Properties of Ag-Loaded N-Doped Tio2 Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Dawei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered TiO2 nanotube (TiO2 NT arrays were prepared by anodic oxidizing method on the surface of the Ti substrate. Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube (N-TiO2 NT arrays were carried out by ammonia solution immersion, and Ag nanoparticles loaded N-doped TiO2 nanotube (Ag/N-TiO2 NT arrays were obtained by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR technique. The samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, photoluminescence (PL emission spectra, ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS. The result indicated that the diameter and wall thickness of the TiO2 NT are 100–120 and 20–30 nm, respectively. Moreover, the morphology and structure of the highly ordered TiO2 NTs were not affected by N-doping. Furthermore, Ag nanoparticles were evenly deposited on the surface of TiO2 NTs in the form of elemental silver. Finally, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/N-TiO2 NTs was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange (MO under visible-light irradiation. The Ag/N-TiO2 NTs exhibited enhanced photocatalytic properties, which could reach 95% after 90-min irradiation.

  2. Enhancing pesticide degradation using indigenous microorganisms isolated under high pesticide load in bioremediation systems with vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Núñez, Rafael; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-08-01

    In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-dose cyclophosphamide administered as daily or single dose enhances the antitumor effects of a therapeutic HPV vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shiwen; Lyford-Pike, Sofia; Akpeng, Belinda; Wu, Annie; Hung, Chien-Fu; Hannaman, Drew; Saunders, John R.; Wu, T.-C.

    2012-01-01

    Although therapeutic HPV vaccines are able to elicit systemic HPV-specific immunity, clinical responses have not always correlated with levels of vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells in human clinical trials. This observed discrepancy may be attributable to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in which the CD8+ T cells are recruited. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are cells that can dampen cytotoxic CD8+ T-cell function. Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is a systemic chemotherapeutic agent, which can eradicate immune cells, including inhibitory Tregs. The optimal dose and schedule of CTX administration in combination with immunotherapy to eliminate the Treg population without adversely affecting vaccine-induced T-cell responses is unknown. Therefore, we investigated various dosing and administration schedules of CTX in combination with a therapeutic HPV vaccine in a preclinical tumor model. HPV tumor-bearing mice received either a single preconditioning dose or a daily dose of CTX in combination with the pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) DNA vaccine. Both single and daily dosing of CTX in combination with vaccine had a synergistic anti-tumor effect as compared to monotherapy alone. The potent antitumor responses were attributed to the reduction in Treg frequency and increased infiltration of HPV16 E7-specific CD8+ T cells, which led to higher ratios of CD8+/Treg and CD8+/CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). There was an observed trend toward decreased vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell frequency with daily dosing of CTX. We recommend a single, preconditioning dose of CTX prior to vaccination due to its efficacy, ease of administration, and reduced cumulative adverse effect on vaccine-induced T cells. PMID:23011589

  4. Polyelectrolyte Multicomponent Colloidosomes Loaded with Nisin Z for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Foodborne Resistant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taskeen Niaz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food grade micro- or nano-carrier systems (NCS are being developed to improve the controlled release of antimicrobial agents. To augment the stability of liposomal NCS and to overcome the limitations associated with the use of free bacteriocin (nisin in the food system, multi-component colloidosomes (MCCS were developed by electrostatic interactions between anionic alginate and cationic chitosan (multilayer around phospholipids based liposomes (core. Zeta-sizer results revealed the average diameter of 145 ± 2 nm, 596 ± 3 nm, and 643 ± 5 nm for nano-liposome (NL, chitosomes (chitosan coated NL and MCCS, respectively. Zeta potential values of NCS varied from −4.37 ± 0.16 mV to 33.3 ± 6 mV, thus both chitosomes (CS and MCCS were positively charged. Microstructure analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM revealed relatively higher size of MCCS with smooth and round morphology. TGA and DSC based experiments revealed that MCCS were thermally more stable than uncoated liposomes. Encapsulation efficiency of nisin in MCCS was observed to be 82.9 ± 4.1%, which was significantly higher than NL (56.5 ± 2.5%. FTIR analyses confirmed the cross-linking between sodium alginate and chitosan layer. Both qualitative (growth kinetics and quantitative (colony forming unit antimicrobial assays revealed that nisin loaded MCCS have superior potential to control resistant foodborne pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enterococcus faecalis, (5.8, 5.4, and 6.1 Log CFUmL−1 reduction, respectively as compared to free nisin, loaded NL or CS. Controlled release kinetics data fitted with Korsmeyer–Peppas model suggested that nisin release from MCCS followed Fickian diffusion. Cytotoxic studies on human blood cells and HepG2 cell lines revealed hemocompatibility and non-toxicity of MCCS. Thus, due to enhanced controlled release, stability and biocompatibility; these multi-component colloidosomes can be useful for

  5. Methotrexate loaded polyether-copolyester dendrimers for the treatment of gliomas: enhanced efficacy and intratumoral transport capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanikula, Renu Singh; Argaw, Anteneh; Bouchard, Jean-Francois; Hildgen, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic benefit in glial tumors is often limited due to low permeability of delivery systems across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), drug resistance, and poor penetration into the tumor tissue. In an attempt to overcome these hurdles, polyether-copolyester (PEPE) dendrimers were evaluated as drug carriers for the treatment of gliomas. Dendrimers were conjugated to d-glucosamine as the ligand for enhancing BBB permeability and tumor targeting. The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX)-loaded dendrimers was established against U87 MG and U 343 MGa cells. Permeability of rhodamine-labeled dendrimers and MTX-loaded dendrimers across the in vitro BBB model and their distribution into avascular human glioma tumor spheroids was also studied. Glucosylated dendrimers were found to be endocytosed in significantly higher amounts than nonglucosylated dendrimers by both the cell lines. IC 50 of MTX after loading in dendrimers was lower than that of the free MTX, suggesting that loading MTX in PEPE dendrimers increased its potency. Similar higher activity of MTX-loaded glucosylated and nonglucosylated dendrimers was found in the reduction of tumor spheroid size. These MTX-loaded dendrimers were able to kill even MTX-resistant cells highlighting their ability to overcome MTX resistance. In addition, the amount of MTX-transported across BBB was three to five times more after loading in the dendrimers. Glucosylation further increased the cumulative permeation of dendrimers across BBB and hence increased the amount of MTX available across it. Glucosylated dendrimers distributed through out the avascular tumor spheroids within 6 h, while nonglucosylated dendrimers could do so in 12 h. The results show that glucosamine can be used as an effective ligand not only for targeting glial tumors but also for enhanced permeability across BBB. Thus, glucosylated PEPE dendrimers can serve as potential delivery system for the treatment of gliomas.

  6. Glacier Melt Detection in Complex Terrain Using New AMSR-E Calibrated Enhanced Daily EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, J. M.; Brodzik, M. J.; Hardman, M.

    2016-12-01

    Passive microwave (PM) 18 GHz and 36 GHz horizontally- and vertically-polarized brightness temperatures (Tb) channels from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) have been important sources of information about snow melt status in glacial environments, particularly at high latitudes. PM data are sensitive to the changes in near-surface liquid water that accompany melt onset, melt intensification, and refreezing. Overpasses are frequent enough that in most areas multiple (2-8) observations per day are possible, yielding the potential for determining the dynamic state of the snow pack during transition seasons. AMSR-E Tb data have been used effectively to determine melt onset and melt intensification using daily Tb and diurnal amplitude variation (DAV) thresholds. Due to mixed pixels in historically coarse spatial resolution Tb data, melt analysis has been impractical in ice-marginal zones where pixels may be only fractionally snow/ice covered, and in areas where the glacier is near large bodies of water: even small regions of open water in a pixel severely impact the microwave signal. We use the new enhanced-resolution Calibrated Passive Microwave Daily EASE-Grid 2.0 Brightness Temperature (CETB) Earth System Data Record product's twice daily obserations to test and update existing snow melt algorithms by determining appropriate melt thresholds for both Tb and DAV for the CETB 18 and 36 GHz channels. We use the enhanced resolution data to evaluate melt characteristics along glacier margins and melt transition zones during the melt seasons in locations spanning a wide range of melt scenarios, including the Patagonian Andes, the Alaskan Coast Range, and the Russian High Arctic icecaps. We quantify how improvement of spatial resolution from the original 12.5 - 25 km-scale pixels to the enhanced resolution of 3.125 - 6.25 km improves the ability to evaluate melt timing across boundaries and transition zones in diverse glacial environments.

  7. Bioavailability Enhancement of Paclitaxel via a Novel Oral Drug Delivery System: Paclitaxel-Loaded Glycyrrhizic Acid Micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Heng Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel (PTX, taxol, a classical antitumor drug against a wide range of tumors, shows poor oral bioavailability. In order to improve the oral bioavailability of PTX, glycyrrhizic acid (GA was used as the carrier in this study. This was the first report on the preparation, characterization and the pharmacokinetic study in rats of PTX-loaded GA micelles The PTX-loaded micelles, prepared with ultrasonic dispersion method, displayed small particle sizes and spherical shapes. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC thermograms indicated that PTX was entrapped in the GA micelles and existed as an amorphous state. The encapsulation efficiency was about 90%, and the drug loading rate could reach up to 7.90%. PTX-loaded GA micelles displayed a delayed drug release compared to Taxol in the in vitro release experiment. In pharmacokinetic study via oral administration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0→24 h of PTX-loaded GA micelles was about six times higher than that of Taxol (p < 0.05. The significant oral absorption enhancement of PTX from PTX-loaded GA micelles could be largely due to the increased absorption in jejunum and colon intestine. All these results suggested that GA would be a promising carrier for the oral delivery of PTX.

  8. Collaborative use of virtual patients after a lecture enhances learning with minimal investment of cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, Hesham F; Donkers, Jeroen; Al-Eraky, Mohamed M; Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G

    2018-05-25

    The use of virtual patients (VPs), due to their high complexity and/or inappropriate sequencing with other instructional methods, might cause a high cognitive load, which hampers learning. To investigate the efficiency of instructional methods that involved three different applications of VPs combined with lectures. From two consecutive batches, 171 out of 183 students have participated in lecture and VPs sessions. One group received a lecture session followed by a collaborative VPs learning activity (collaborative deductive). The other two groups received a lecture session and an independent VP learning activity, which either followed the lecture session (independent deductive) or preceded it (independent inductive). All groups were administrated written knowledge acquisition and retention tests as well as transfer tests using two new VPs. All participants completed a cognitive load questionnaire, which measured intrinsic, extraneous and germane load. Mixed effect analysis of cognitive load and efficiency using the R statistical program was performed. The highest intrinsic and extraneous load was found in the independent inductive group, while the lowest intrinsic and extraneous load was seen in the collaborative deductive group. Furthermore, comparisons showed a significantly higher efficiency, that is, higher performance in combination with lower cognitive load, for the collaborative deductive group than for the other two groups. Collaborative use of VPs after a lecture is the most efficient instructional method, of those tested, as it leads to better learning and transfer combined with lower cognitive load, when compared with independent use of VPs, either before or after the lecture.

  9. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Long term operation of continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules was operated at different COD concentrations (200, 300 and 400mgL(-)(1)) to investigate the effect of COD loading on this system. The results showed that when the COD concentration in influent was increased to 400mgL(-)(1), the anaerobic COD removal efficiency and total phosphorus removal efficiency reduced obviously and the settling ability of granules deteriorated due to the proliferation of filamentous bacteria. Moreover, high COD loading inhibited the EPS secretion and destroyed the stability of granules. Results of high-through pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading. The performance of system, settling ability of granules and proportion of PAOs gradually recovered to the initial level after the COD concentration was reduced to 200mgL(-)(1) on day 81. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Small organic compounds enhance antigen loading of class II major histocompatibility complex proteins by targeting the polymorphic P1 pocket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höpner, Sabine; Dickhaut, Katharina; Hofstätter, Maria

    2006-01-01

    the peptide loading rate. The effect was evident only for an allelic subset and strictly correlated with the presence of glycine at the dimorphic position beta86 of the HLA-DR molecule. The residue forms the floor of the conserved pocket P1, located in the peptide binding site of MHC molecule. Apparently......, transient occupation of this pocket by the organic compound stabilizes the peptide-receptive conformation permitting rapid antigen loading. This interaction appeared restricted to the larger Gly(beta86) pocket and allowed striking enhancements of T cell responses for antigens presented by these "adamantyl......-susceptible" MHC molecules. As catalysts of antigen loading, compounds targeting P1 may be useful molecular tools to amplify the immune response. The observation, however, that the ligand repertoire can be affected through polymorphic sites form the outside may also imply that environmental factors could induce...

  12. Enhancement of urban heat load through social inequalities on an example of a fictional city King's Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuvela-Aloise, M.

    2017-03-01

    The numerical model MUKLIMO_3 is used to simulate the urban climate of an imaginary city as an illustrative example to demonstrate that the residential areas with deprived socio-economic conditions can exhibit an enhanced heat load at night, and thus more disadvantageous environmental conditions, compared with the areas of higher socio-economic status. The urban climate modelling simulations differentiate between orographic, natural landscape, building and social effects, where social differences are introduced by selection of location, building type and amount of vegetation. The model results show that the increase of heat load can be found in the areas inhabited by the poor population as a combined effect of natural and anthropogenic factors. The unfavourable location in the city and the building type, consisting of high density, low housing with high fraction of pavement and small amount of vegetation contribute to the formation of excessive heat load. This abstract example shows that the enhancement of urban heat load can be linked to the concept of a socially stratified city and is independent of the historical development of any specific city.

  13. Method to support Total Maximum Daily Load development using hydrologic alteration as a surrogate to address aquatic life impairment in New Jersey streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, Jonathan G.; Riskin, Melissa L.; Reilly, Pamela A.; Colarullo, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 ambient monitoring sites in New Jersey have been identified by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) in its integrated water-quality monitoring and assessment report (that is, the 305(b) Report on general water quality and 303(d) List of waters that do not support their designated uses) as being impaired with respect to aquatic life; however, no unambiguous stressors (for example, nutrients or bacteria) have been identified. Because of the indeterminate nature of the broad range of possible impairments, surrogate measures that more holistically encapsulate the full suite of potential environmental stressors need to be developed. Streamflow alteration resulting from anthropogenic changes in the landscape is one such surrogate. For example, increases in impervious surface cover (ISC) commonly cause increases in surface runoff, which can result in “flashy” hydrology and other changes in the stream corridor that are associated with streamflow alteration. The NJDEP has indicated that methodologies to support a hydrologically based Total Maximum Daily Load (hydro-TMDL) need to be developed in order to identify hydrologic targets that represent a minimal percent deviation from a baseline condition (“minimally altered”) as a surrogate measure to meet criteria in support of designated uses. The primary objective of this study was to develop an applicable hydro-TMDL approach to address aquatic-life impairments associated with hydrologic alteration for New Jersey streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the NJDEP, identified 51 non- to moderately impaired gaged streamflow sites in the Raritan River Basin for evaluation. Quantile regression (QR) analysis was used to compare flow and precipitation records and identify baseline hydrographs at 37 of these sites. At sites without an appropriately long period of record (POR) or where a baseline hydrograph could not be identified with QR, a rainfall-runoff model was used

  14. Enhancement of skin wound healing with decellularized scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid and epidermal growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Zhongchun; Ma, Huan; Wu, Zhengzheng [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zeng, Huilan [Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li, Zhizhong [Department of Bone, The First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Yuechun; Liu, Gexiu [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Xu, Bin; Lin, Yongliang; Zhang, Peng [Grandhope Biotech Co., Ltd., Building D, #408, Guangzhou International Business Incubator, Guangzhou Science Park, Guangzhou 510663, Guangdong (China); Wei, Xing, E-mail: wei70@hotmail.com [Institute of Biomedicine, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Key Lab for Genetic Medicine of Guangdong Province, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Current therapy for skin wound healing still relies on skin transplantation. Many studies were done to try to find out ways to replace skin transplantation, but there is still no effective alternative therapy. In this study, decellularized scaffolds were prepared from pig peritoneum by a series of physical and chemical treatments, and scaffolds loaded with hyaluronic acid (HA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were tested for their effect on wound healing. MTT assay showed that EGF increased NIH3T3 cell viability and confirmed that EGF used in this study was biologically active in vitro. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that HA stably attached to scaffolds even after soaking in PBS for 48 h. ELISA assay showed that HA increased the adsorption of EGF to scaffolds and sustained the release of EGF from scaffolds. Animal study showed that the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF recovered best among all 4 groups and had wound healing rates of 49.86%, 70.94% and 87.41% respectively for days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery compared to scaffolds alone with wound healing rates of 29.26%, 42.80% and 70.14%. In addition, the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF alone were smaller than no EGF scaffolds on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery. Hematoxylin–Eosin (HE) staining confirmed these results by showing that on days 10, 15 and 20 post-surgery, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF than scaffolds alone. In addition, the thicker epidermis and dermis layers were also observed in the wounds covered with scaffolds containing EGF than scaffolds alone. Skin appendages were observed on day 20 only in the wound covered with scaffolds containing HA and EGF. These results demonstrate that the scaffolds containing HA and EGF can enhance wound healing. - Highlights: • HA can increase the adsorption of EGF to decellularized scaffolds. • HA can sustain the release of EGF from

  15. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hormonal modulation of novelty processing in women: Enhanced under working memory load with high dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-to-dehydroepiandrosterone ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale, Sónia; Selinger, Lenka; Martins, João Martin; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; Escera, Carles

    2016-11-10

    Several studies have suggested that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) may enhance working memory and attention, yet current evidence is still inconclusive. The balance between both forms of the hormone might be crucial regarding the effects that DHEA and DHEAS exert on the central nervous system. To test the hypothesis that higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratios might enhance working memory and/or involuntary attention, we studied the DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio in relation to involuntary attention and working memory processing by recording the electroencephalogram of 22 young women while performing a working memory load task and a task without working memory load in an audio-visual oddball paradigm. DHEA and DHEAS were measured in saliva before each task. We found that a higher DHEAS-to-DHEA ratio was related to enhanced auditory novelty-P3 amplitudes during performance of the working memory task, indicating an increased processing of the distracter, while on the other hand there was no difference in the processing of the visual target. These results suggest that the balance between DHEAS and DHEA levels modulates involuntary attention during the performance of a task with cognitive load without interfering with the processing of the task-relevant visual stimulus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance Enhancement and Load Reduction on Wind Turbines Using Inflow Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard

    . The load variations on a wind turbine can be alleviated using either yaw or pitch actuation. A method is presented for alleviating load variations using yaw control, and it is shown how the method can be efficiently applied for decreasing the load variations that are caused by a vertical wind shear...... wind energy research is focused on decreasing the cost of the energy that can be produced from the wind. The cost of energy can for example be decreased by ensuring that wind turbines are operated in a way that ensures that the maximum amount of energy is extracted, and that the turbines are not loaded...... excessively. The operation of a wind turbine is governed by a number of controllers that are based on a series of sensors and actuators. Classical wind turbine control utilizes sensors for measuring turbine parameters such as rotor speed, power and shaft torque, as well as actuators for applying generator...

  18. Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensor for ISS (EDLS-ISS), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) propose to develop a stand-alone 6-DOF load sensing system that collects biomechanical...

  19. Interference mitigation enhancement of switched-based scheme in over-loaded femtocells

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine; Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    -based scheme by minimum interference channel selection or adopt different interference thresholds on available channels, while aiming to reduce the channels examination load. The performance of the proposed schemes is quantified and then compared with those

  20. Preparation and characterization of tungsten-loaded titanium dioxide photocatalyst for enhanced dye degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saepurahman; Abdullah, M.A.; Chong, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 photocatalyst has been successfully prepared and characterized. TEM analysis showed that the photocatalysts were nanosize with the tungsten species forming layers of coverage on the surface of TiO 2 , but not in clustered form. This was confirmed by XRD and FT-Raman analyses where tungsten species were well dispersed at lower loading ( 3 at higher loadings (>12 mol%). In addition, loading with tungsten could stabilize the anatase phase from transforming into inactive rutile phase and did not shift the optical absorption to the visible region as shown by DRUV-vis analysis. PZC value of TiO 2 was found at 6.4, but the presence of tungsten at 6.5 mol% WO 3 , decreased the PZC value to 3. Tungsten-loaded TiO 2 was superior to unmodified TiO 2 with 2-fold increase in degradation rate of methylene blue, and equally effective for the degradation of different class of dyes such as methyl violet and methyl orange at 1 mol% WO 3 loading.

  1. Enhanced IMC design of load disturbance rejection for integrating and unstable processes with slow dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Gao, Furong

    2011-04-01

    In view of the deficiencies in existing internal model control (IMC)-based methods for load disturbance rejection for integrating and unstable processes with slow dynamics, a modified IMC-based controller design is proposed to deal with step- or ramp-type load disturbance that is often encountered in engineering practices. By classifying the ways through which such load disturbance enters into the process, analytical controller formulae are correspondingly developed, based on a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control structure that allows for separate optimization of load disturbance rejection from setpoint tracking. An obvious merit is that there is only a single adjustable parameter in the proposed controller, which in essence corresponds to the time constant of the closed-loop transfer function for load disturbance rejection, and can be monotonically tuned to meet a good trade-off between disturbance rejection performance and closed-loop robust stability. At the same time, robust tuning constraints are given to accommodate process uncertainties in practice. Illustrative examples from the recent literature are used to show effectiveness and merits of the proposed method for different cases of load disturbance. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Anticholinergic load negatively correlates with recovery of cognitive activities of daily living for geriatric patients after stroke in the convalescent stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, E; Hirai, T; Seki, T; Hidaka, S; Hamamoto, T

    2018-05-16

    Anticholinergic drugs are associated with risks of falls, confusion and cognitive dysfunction. However, the effect of anticholinergic drug use on rehabilitation outcomes after a stroke is poorly documented. We therefore aimed to establish whether the anticholinergic load was associated with functional recovery among geriatric patients convalescing after stroke. Consecutive geriatric stroke patients admitted and discharged from a convalescence rehabilitation ward between 2010 and 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Anticholinergic load was assessed by the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS), and functional recovery was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM). The primary outcome was cognitive FIM (FIM-C) gain, but we also assessed the interaction of other putative factors identified from univariate analysis. Multivariate analyses were performed, adjusting for confounding factors. We included 418 participants (171 males, 247 females) with a median age of 78 years (interquartile range, 72-84 years). Multiple regression analysis revealed that ARS change, length of stay, and epilepsy were independently and negatively correlated with cognitive FIM gain. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the "Comprehension" and "Memory" items of the cognitive FIM gain were independently and negatively associated with anticholinergic load. A causal relationship cannot be established, but increased ARS scores during hospitalization may predict limited cognitive functional improvement in geriatric patients after stroke. Alternatively, cognitive impairment may lead to increased use of anticholinergic drugs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Enhancing antibacterium and strength of cellulosic paper by coating triclosan-loaded nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Ni, Yonghao; Sun, Bo

    2015-03-06

    The nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) was used as substrates to carry triclosan (TCS), which was then applied as a coating agent for impacting antibacterial property to paper while also improving its strength. The TCS-loaded NFC material was further characterized. UV-vis spectra results showed that a characteristic absorption band at 282 nm was observed, which was attributed to triclosan, confirming its successful loading onto NFC. The antibacterial activity tests indicated that the coated paper exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, and the growth inhibition of bacteria (GIB) increased as the loading amount of triclosan coated on paper increased. The GIB can reach 98.7% when the 0.023 g TCS-loaded NFC was coated on paper. Meanwhile, the tensile and tear index of the coated paper increased by 18.0% and 26.4%, respectively compared to the blank paper. Therefore, the triclosan-loaded paper could be potentially used in the medical field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Organosilane functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for enhanced loading and controlled release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Peng; Southon, Peter D; Kepert, Cameron J; Liu Zongwen

    2012-01-01

    The surfaces of naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes were functionalized with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), which was found to have a substantial effect on the loading and subsequent release of a model dye molecule. APTES was mostly anchored at the internal lumen surface of halloysite through covalent grafting, forming a functionalized surface covered by aminopropyl groups. The dye loading of the functionalized halloysite was 32% greater than that of the unmodified sample, and the release from the functionalized halloysite was dramatically prolonged as compared to that from the unmodified one. Dye release was prolonged at low pH and the release at pH 3.5 was approximately three times slower than that at pH 10.0. These results demonstrate that organosilane functionalization makes pH an external trigger for controlling the loading of guest on halloysite and the subsequent controlled release. (paper)

  5. Organosilane functionalization of halloysite nanotubes for enhanced loading and controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Southon, Peter D; Liu, Zongwen; Kepert, Cameron J

    2012-09-21

    The surfaces of naturally occurring halloysite nanotubes were functionalized with γ-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), which was found to have a substantial effect on the loading and subsequent release of a model dye molecule. APTES was mostly anchored at the internal lumen surface of halloysite through covalent grafting, forming a functionalized surface covered by aminopropyl groups. The dye loading of the functionalized halloysite was 32% greater than that of the unmodified sample, and the release from the functionalized halloysite was dramatically prolonged as compared to that from the unmodified one. Dye release was prolonged at low pH and the release at pH 3.5 was approximately three times slower than that at pH 10.0. These results demonstrate that organosilane functionalization makes pH an external trigger for controlling the loading of guest on halloysite and the subsequent controlled release.

  6. New load cycling strategy for enhanced durability of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Sobi; Jeppesen, Christian; Steenberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a new operational strategy to increase the lifetime of a high temperature proton exchange membrane (HT-PEMFCs) fuel cell system by using load cycling patterns to reduce the phosphoric acid loss from the fuel cell. Four single cells were operated under.......8 Acm-2 for the higher end, were selected for the load cycling operation. The relaxation time, which is the period of time spent at low current density operation, is varied to understand how the performance over prolonged period behaves. The duration of the high current density operation is selected...... based on the relaxation time in order to have the same average current density of (0.55 Acm-2 ) for all the cells. Cell 5, with a relaxation time of 2 min performs best and shows lower degradation rate of 36 μVh-1 compared to other load cycling cells with smaller relaxation times. The cell operated...

  7. Gold nanoparticles capped with benzalkonium chloride and poly (ethylene imine) for enhanced loading and skin permeability of 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safwat, Mohamed A; Soliman, Ghareb M; Sayed, Douaa; Attia, Mohamed A

    2017-11-01

    To enhance 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) permeability through the skin by loading onto gold nanoparticles (GNPs) capped with two cationic ligands, benzalkonium chloride (BC) or poly (ethylene imine) (PEI). Whereas 5-FU has excellent efficacy against many cancers, its poor permeability through biological membranes and several adverse effects limit its clinical benefits. BC and PEI were selected to stabilize GNPs and to load 5-FU through ionic interactions. 5-FU/BC-GNPs and 5-FU/PEI-GNPs were prepared at different 5-FU/ligand molar ratios and different pH values and were evaluated using different techniques. GNPs stability was tested as a function of salt concentration and storage time. 5-FU release from BC- and PEI-GNPs was evaluated as a function of solution pH. Ex vivo permeability studies of different 5-FU preparations were carried out using mice skin. 5-FU-loaded GNPs size and surface charge were dependent on the 5-FU/ligand molar ratios. 5-FU entrapment efficiency and loading capacity were dependent on the used ligand, 5-FU/ligand molar ratio and solution pH. Maximum drug entrapment efficiency of 59.0 ± 1.7% and 46.0 ± 1.1% were obtained for 5-FU/BC-GNPs and 5-FU/PEI-GNPs, respectively. 5-FU-loaded GNPs had good stability against salinity and after storage for 4 months at room temperature and at 4 °C. In vitro 5-FU release was pH- and ligand-dependent where slower release was observed at higher pH and for 5-FU/BC-GNPs. 5-FU permeability through mice skin was significantly higher for drug-loaded GNPs compared with drug-ligand complex or drug aqueous solution. Based on these results, BC- and PEI-GNPs might find applications as effective topical delivery systems of 5-FU.

  8. Enhanced systemic exposure of saquinavir via the concomitant use of curcumin-loaded solid dispersion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Sung-Whan; Choi, Hoo-Kyun; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2013-08-16

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin-loaded solid dispersion on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir in rats. Solid dispersion (SD) formulation was prepared with Solutol® HS15 to improve the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. Subsequently, its inhibition effect on P-gp mediated cellular efflux was examined by using NCI/ADR-RES cells overexpressing P-gp. Compared to the untreated curcumin, SD formulation enhanced the cellular uptake of rhodamine-123, a P-gp substrate by approximately 3 folds in NCI/ADR-RES cells. The oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of saquinavir were also determined in rats with/without curcumin in the different formulations. Compared to the control given saquinavir alone, curcumin-loaded solid dispersion significantly (p<0.05) increased the oral exposure of saquinavir in rats, while it did not affect the intravenous pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. The AUC and Cmax of oral saquinavir increased by 3.8- and 2.7-folds, respectively in the presence of curcumin-loaded solid dispersion. In contrast, the untreated curcumin did not affect the oral pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. These results suggest that SD formulation of curcumin should be effective to improve the in vivo effectiveness of curcumin as an absorption enhancer, leading to the improved oral exposure of saquinavir. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioflavonoid Fisetin Loaded α-Tocopherol-Poly(lactic acid)-Based Polymeric Micelles for Enhanced Anticancer Efficacy in Breast Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, De-Zhong; Wang, Yu-Xia

    2017-02-01

    In this study, tocopherol based polymeric micelles were successfully prepared to enhance the anticancer effect of fisetin (FIS) in breast cancer cells. The drug-loaded carrier was characterized in terms of physicochemical and in vivo parameters. Compared to FIS, FIS-TPN showed higher cellular uptake in MCF-7 breast cancer cells as revealed by CLSM and flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity assay results clearly showed that the free FIS and FIS-TPN exhibited a typical dose-dependent toxic effect in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Especially, enhanced cytotoxic effect of FIS was observed when loaded in a nanocarrier. Free FIS induced a ~11% apoptosis whereas FIS-TPN induced a significantly greater apoptosis of ~20% by the end of 24 h. At 48 h, similar trend continued and free FIS showed ~30% of apoptosis whereas ~42% cell apoptosis was observed in FIS-TPN treated group. Notably, migration of cancer cell was significantly inhibited when treated with FIS-TPN formulations. The FIS-TPN significantly reduced to tumor burden and H&E staining showed the lowest tumor volume and higher cell apoptosis. All the findings suggest that the fisetin-loaded TPGS-PLA polymeric micelles serve as a potential candidate and promising alternative for the effective treatment of breast cancers.

  10. Effectively enhanced load transfer by interfacial reactions in multi-walled carbon nanotube reinforced Al matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Weiwei; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Keiko; Nomura, Naoyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    The thermal expansion response of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforced Al matrix composites was employed to discuss the improvement of the load transfer at the interface between the MWCNTs and the Al matrix. An aluminum carbide (Al_4C_3) nanostructure at the end of the MWCNTs, incorporated in the Al matrix, was produced by appropriate heat-treatment. The stress contrast around the Al_4C_3 observed in the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) image revealed the evidence of a trace of friction, which would lead to the enhancement of the anchor effect from the Al matrix. This anchor effect of Al_4C_3 may hinder the local interfacial slippage and constrain the deformation of the Al matrix. As a result, the thermal expansion behavior became linear and reversible under cyclic thermal load. It is concluded that the formation of Al_4C_3 could effectively enhance the load transfer in MWCNT/Al composites. The yield strength of MWCNT/Al composites was substantially increased under the appropriate quantity of Al_4C_3 produced at the MWCNT-Al interface by precisely controlled heat-treatment.

  11. Multi-objective Extremum Seeking Control for Enhancement of Wind Turbine Power Capture with Load Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yan; Li, Yaoyu; Rotea, Mario A.

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective in below rated wind speed (Region 2) is to maximize the turbine's energy capture. Due to uncertainty, variability of turbine characteristics and lack of inexpensive but precise wind measurements, model-free control strategies that do not use wind measurements such as Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) have received significant attention. Based on a dither-demodulation scheme, ESC can maximize the wind power capture in real time despite uncertainty, variabilities and lack of accurate wind measurements. The existing work on ESC based wind turbine control focuses on power capture only. In this paper, a multi-objective extremum seeking control strategy is proposed to achieve nearly optimum wind energy capture while decreasing structural fatigue loads. The performance index of the ESC combines the rotor power and penalty terms of the standard deviations of selected fatigue load variables. Simulation studies of the proposed multi-objective ESC demonstrate that the damage-equivalent loads of tower and/or blade loads can be reduced with slight compromise in energy capture.

  12. Measuring Cognitive Load and Cognition: Metrics for Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This critical and reflective literature review examines international research published over the last decade to summarise the different kinds of measures that have been used to explore cognitive load and critiques the strengths and limitations of those focussed on the development of direct empirical approaches. Over the last 40 years, cognitive…

  13. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  14. Performance enhancement and load reduction on wind turbines using inflow measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abildgaard Kragh, K.

    2013-06-15

    Wind energy is being applied at a larger and larger scale worldwide, and is one of the technologies eligible for accommodating the increasing demand for renewable energy. However, wind energy is still not competitive compared to technologies that are based on fossil energy sources. Therefore, much wind energy research is focused on decreasing the cost of the energy that can be produced from the wind. The cost of energy can for example be decreased by ensuring that wind turbines are operated in a way that ensures that the maximum amount of energy is extracted, and that the turbines are not loaded excessively. The operation of a wind turbine is governed by a number of controllers that are based on a series of sensors and actuators. Classical wind turbine control utilizes sensors for measuring turbine parameters such as rotor speed, power and shaft torque, as well as actuators for applying generator torque and collective pitch angle changes. Thus, classical wind turbine control schemes are based on measurements of the effects of the inflow on the turbine. Therefore, the reactions of the control system to the inflow changes are inherently delayed compared to the actual inflow changes. Because of the inherent delay of the control system, the ability of the system to react promptly to inflow changes is limited. Control schemes that are based on inflow measurements have been developed to overcome the limitations of the classical wind turbine control system. By measuring the inflow directly, actuation can be initiated instantly as the inflow changes. If the inflow is measured upstream of the turbine, actuation can be initiated prior to the occurrence of a wind speed change at the turbine. Hereby, even the actuator delay can be compensated for. Upstream inflow measurements could for example be acquired using ''Light Detection and Ranging''. In this thesis, the potentials for improving the power production and decreasing the load variations of horizontal axis upwind turbines

  15. Non-noble metal Cu-loaded TiO2 for enhanced photocatalytic H2 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Wei Jian; Zhang, Chun; Ho, Ghim Wei

    2013-01-21

    Here we have demonstrated the preparation of high-quality, monodispersed and tunable phases of Cu nanoparticles. Structural and chemical composition studies depict the evolution of Cu-Cu(2)O-CuO nanoparticles at various process stages. The loading of Cu and Cu oxide nanoparticles on TiO(2) catalyst has enhanced the photocatalytic H(2) production. Comparatively, H(2) treatment produces well-dispersed Cu nanoparticles with thin oxide shells that show the highest H(2) production amongst the samples. The relatively higher photocatalytic performance is deemed to result from reduced structural defects, higher surface area and dispersivity as well as favorable charge transfer, which inhibits recombination. The Cu nanoparticles are shown to be a promising alternative to noble metal-loaded TiO(2) catalyst systems due to their low cost and high performance in photocatalytic applications.

  16. Eye closure helps memory by reducing cognitive load and enhancing visualisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vredeveldt, Annelies; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2011-10-01

    Closing the eyes helps memory. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the eyeclosure effect by exposing 80 eyewitnesses to different types of distraction during the witness interview: blank screen (control), eyes closed, visual distraction, and auditory distraction. We examined the cognitive load hypothesis by comparing any type of distraction (visual or auditory) with minimal distraction (blank screen or eyes closed). We found recall to be significantly better when distraction was minimal, providing evidence that eyeclosure reduces cognitive load. We examined the modality-specific interference hypothesis by comparing the effects of visual and auditory distraction on recall of visual and auditory information. Visual and auditory distraction selectively impaired memory for information presented in the same modality, supporting the role of visualisation in the eyeclosure effect. Analysis of recall in terms of grain size revealed that recall of basic information about the event was robust, whereas recall of specific details was prone to both general and modality-specific disruptions.

  17. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-05-08

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin.

  18. Stability Enhancement Based on Virtual Impedance for DC Microgrids with Constant Power Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Sun, Kai; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study th....... It can be seen that by using the proposed stabilizers, the unstable poles induced by the CPLs are forced to move into the stable region. The proposed method is verified by the MATLAB/Simulink model of multi-stage DC microgrids with three distributed power generation units.......In this paper, a converter-based DC microgrid is studied. By considering the impact of each component in DC microgrids on system stability, a multi-stage configuration is employed, which includes the source stage, interface converter stage between buses and common load stage. In order to study...... the overall stability of the above DC microgrid with constant power loads (CPLs), a comprehensive small-signal model is derived by analyzing the interface converters in each stage. The instability issue induced by the CPLs is revealed by using the criteria of impedance matching. Meanwhile, virtual...

  19. Selective loads periodization attenuates biochemical disturbances and enhances performance in female futsal players during competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricelli Endrigo Ruppel da Rocha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of selective loads periodization on physical performance and biochemical parameters in professional female futsal players during competitive season. Twelve elite female futsal players from Kindermann team (Brazil participated in the study. Variables of physical performance and erythrogram, leukogram, plasma cortisol, plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA in the beginning of the preparatory period (PP, in the competitive period (CP and in the final competitive period (FCP were evaluated. Using selective loads periodization, all variables of physical performance increased (p < .01 during CP and were maintained during FCP (p < .05. White blood cells did not modify during CP and the increase of FCP in 28% remained within normal ranges. Plasma cortisol also increased during CP (p < .01 and was within the normal ranges during FCP. Plasma IgA also was within the normal ranges during CP and FCP. Selective loads periodization is adequate and attends the requirements of the sport during competitive season in female futsal players.

  20. Enhanced method of fast re-routing with load balancing in software-defined networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshko, Oleksandr; Yeremenko, Oleksandra

    2017-11-01

    A two-level method of fast re-routing with load balancing in a software-defined network (SDN) is proposed. The novelty of the method consists, firstly, in the introduction of a two-level hierarchy of calculating the routing variables responsible for the formation of the primary and backup paths, and secondly, in ensuring a balanced load of the communication links of the network, which meets the requirements of the traffic engineering concept. The method provides implementation of link, node, path, and bandwidth protection schemes for fast re-routing in SDN. The separation in accordance with the interaction prediction principle along two hierarchical levels of the calculation functions of the primary (lower level) and backup (upper level) routes allowed to abandon the initial sufficiently large and nonlinear optimization problem by transiting to the iterative solution of linear optimization problems of half the dimension. The analysis of the proposed method confirmed its efficiency and effectiveness in terms of obtaining optimal solutions for ensuring balanced load of communication links and implementing the required network element protection schemes for fast re-routing in SDN.

  1. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT–epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of −19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and −60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm −1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs–epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  2. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT-epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-04-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of -19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and -60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm-1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs-epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  3. An enhanced particle swarm optimization for dynamic economic dispatch problem considering valve-point loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriyanyong, P. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper described the use of an enhanced particle swarm optimization (PSO) model to address the problem of dynamic economic dispatch (DED). A modified heuristic search method was incorporated into the PSO model. Both smooth and non-smooth cost functions were considered. The enhanced PSO model not only utilized the basic PSO algorithm in order to seek the optimal solution for the DED problem, but it also used a modified heuristic method to deal with constraints and increase the possibility of finding a feasible solution. In order to validate the enhanced PSO model, it was used and tested on 10-unit systems considering both smooth and non-smooth cost functions characteristics. The experimental results were also compared to other methods. The proposed technique was found to be better than other approaches. The enhanced PSO model outperformed others with respect to quality, stability and reliability. 23 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  4. Enhancing Accuracy of Sediment Total Load Prediction Using Evolutionary Algorithms (Case Study: Gotoorchay River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Roshangar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exact prediction of transported sediment rate by rivers in water resources projects is of utmost importance. Basically erosion and sediment transport process is one of the most complexes hydrodynamic. Although different studies have been developed on the application of intelligent models based on neural, they are not widely used because of lacking explicitness and complexity governing on choosing and architecting of proper network. In this study, a Genetic expression programming model (as an important branches of evolutionary algorithems for predicting of sediment load is selected and investigated as an intelligent approach along with other known classical and imperical methods such as Larsen´s equation, Engelund-Hansen´s equation and Bagnold´s equation. Materials and Methods: In this study, in order to improve explicit prediction of sediment load of Gotoorchay, located in Aras catchment, Northwestern Iran latitude: 38°24´33.3˝ and longitude: 44°46´13.2˝, genetic programming (GP and Genetic Algorithm (GA were applied. Moreover, the semi-empirical models for predicting of total sediment load and rating curve have been used. Finally all the methods were compared and the best ones were introduced. Two statistical measures were used to compare the performance of the different models, namely root mean square error (RMSE and determination coefficient (DC. RMSE and DC indicate the discrepancy between the observed and computed values. Results and Discussions: The statistical characteristics results obtained from the analysis of genetic programming method for both selected model groups indicated that the model 4 including the only discharge of the river, relative to other studied models had the highest DC and the least RMSE in the testing stage (DC= 0.907, RMSE= 0.067. Although there were several parameters applied in other models, these models were complicated and had weak results of prediction. Our results showed that the model 9

  5. LOAD-ENHANCED MOVEMENT QUALITY SCREENING AND TACTICAL ATHLETICISM: AN EXTENSION OF EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Stephen M; Schmitz, Randy J; Rhea, Christopher K; Ross, Scott E

    2017-06-01

    Military organizations use movement quality screening for prediction of injury risk and performance potential. Currently, evidence of an association between movement quality and performance is limited. Recent work has demonstrated that external loading strengthens the relationship between movement screens and performance outcomes. Such loading may therefore steer us toward robust implementations of movement quality screens while maintaining their appeal as cost effective, field-expedient tools. The purpose of the current study was to quantify the effect of external load-bearing on the relationship between clinically rated movement quality and tactical performance outcomes while addressing the noted limitations. Crossover Trial. Fifty young adults (25 male, 25 female, 22.98 ± 3.09 years, 171.95 ± 11.46 cm, 71.77 ± 14.03 kg) completed the Functional Movement Screen™ with (FMS™W) and without (FMS™C) a weight vest in randomized order. Following FMS™ testing, criterion measures of tactical performance were administered, including agility T-Tests, sprints, a 400-meter run, the Mobility for Battle (MOB) course, and a simulated casualty rescue. For each performance outcome, regression models were selected via group lasso with smoothed FMS™ item scores as candidate predictor variables. For all outcomes, proportion of variance accounted for was greater in FMS™W (R 2 = ;0.22 [T-Test], 0.29 [Sprint], 0.17 [400 meter], 0.29 [MOB], and 0.11 [casualty rescue]) than in FMS™C (R 2 = ;0.00 [T-Test], 0.11 [Sprint], 0.00 [400 meter], 0.19 [MOB], and 0.00 [casualty rescue]). From the FMS™W condition, beneficial performance effects (ptactical performance ability. Future designs should seek to identify mechanisms explaining this effect. 3.

  6. CdS loaded on coal based activated carbon nanofibers with enhanced photocatalytic property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jixi; Guo, Mingxi; Jia, Dianzeng; Song, Xianli; Tong, Fenglian

    2016-08-01

    The coal based activated carbon nanofibers (CBACFs) were prepared by electrospinning a mixture of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and acid treated coal. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanoparticles loaded on CBACFs were fabricated by solvothermal method. The obtained samples were characterized by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. The results reveal that the CdS nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surfaces of CBACFs. The CdS/CBACFs nanocomposites exhibited higher photoactivity for photodegradation of methyl blue (MB) under visible light irradiation than pure CdS nanoparticles. CBACFs can be used as low cost support materials for the preparation of nanocomposites with high photocatalytic activity.

  7. Validated Loads Prediction Models for Offshore Wind Turbines for Enhanced Component Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koukoura, Christina

    To improve the reliability of offshore wind turbines, accurate prediction of their response is required. Therefore, validation of models with site measurements is imperative. In the present thesis a 3.6MW pitch regulated-variable speed offshore wind turbine on a monopole foundation is built...... are used for the modification of the sub-structure/foundation design for possible material savings. First, the background of offshore wind engineering, including wind-wave conditions, support structure, blade loading and wind turbine dynamics are presented. Second, a detailed description of the site...

  8. Ultrasound-enhanced delivery of doxorubicin/all-trans retinoic acid-loaded nanodiamonds into tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanan; Zeng, Deping; Wang, Zhenyu; Fang, Liaoqiong; Li, Faqi; Wang, Zhibiao

    2018-03-14

    To build up a combined therapy strategy to address limitations of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and improve the efficiency of tumor therapy. A pH-sensitive nanocomplex for co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) was developed based on nanodiamonds (DOX/ATRA-NDs) to enhance intracellular retention of drugs. Meanwhile, ultrasound was employed to enhance tumor vascular penetration of DOX-ATRA-NDs. The distribution of DOX/ATRA-NDs in the tumor tissues increased threefold when ultrasound was applied at 1 MHz and 0.6 W/cm 2 . Comparing with unmodified chemotherapeutics, the combined therapy induced more tumor cells apoptosis and greater tumor growth inhibition in both liver and breast tumor models. DOX-ATRA-NDs demonstrate great potential in clinical applications.

  9. Enhancing Extreme Heat Health-Related Intervention and Preparedness Activities Using Remote Sensing Analysis of Daily Surface Temperature, Surface Observation Networks and Ecmwf Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R. L.; Booth, J.; Hondula, D.; Ross, K. W.; Stuyvesant, A.; Alm, G.; Baghel, E.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme heat causes more human fatalities in the United States than any other natural disaster, elevating the concern of heat-related mortality. Maricopa County Arizona is known for its high heat index and its sprawling metropolitan complex which makes this region a perfect candidate for human health research. Individuals at higher risk are unequally spatially distributed, leaving the poor, homeless, non-native English speakers, elderly, and the socially isolated vulnerable to heat events. The Arizona Department of Health Services, Arizona State University and NASA DEVELOP LaRC are working to establish a more effective method of placing hydration and cooling centers in addition to enhancing the heat warning system to aid those with the highest exposure. Using NASA's Earth Observation Systems from Aqua and Terra satellites, the daily spatial variability within the UHI was quantified over the summer heat seasons from 2005 - 2014, effectively establishing a remotely sensed surface temperature climatology for the county. A series of One-way Analysis of Variance revealed significant differences between daily surface temperature averages of the top 30% of census tracts within the study period. Furthermore, synoptic upper tropospheric circulation patterns were classified to relate surface weather types and heat index. The surface weather observation networks were also reviewed for analyzing the veracity of the other methods. The results provide detailed information regarding nuances within the UHI effect and will allow pertinent recommendations regarding the health department's adaptive capacity. They also hold essential components for future policy decision-making regarding appropriate locations for cooling centers and efficient warning systems.

  10. Batch medication of intestinal infections in nursery pigs—A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of treatment strategy, type of antibiotic and bacterial load on average daily weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Nicolai Rosager; Pedersen, Ken Steen; Hansen, Christian Fink

    2017-01-01

    after weaning) on average daily weight gain (ADG); (2) to compare the effect of treatment with doxycycline or tylosine on diarrhoea prevalence, pathogenic bacterial load, and ADG; (3) to evaluate PCR testing of faecal pen floor samples as a diagnostic tool for determining the optimal time of treatment...... difference (p = 0.04) of mean diarrhoea prevalence on day 21 of the study between pens treated with tylosine (0.254, 95% CI: 0.184–0.324), and doxycycline (0.167, 95% CI: 0.124–0.210). The type of antibiotic compound was not found to have a significant effect on ADG (p = 0.209). (3) Pigs starting treatment...... was achieved when treatment was initiated 14 days after weaning in pens where intestinal pathogens were detected. Doxycycline was more effective in reducing diarrhoea and LI excretion levels than treatment with tylosine....

  11. Enhancement of temozolomide stability by loading in chitosan-carboxylated polylactide-based nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Martino, Antonio; Kucharczyk, Pavel; Capakova, Zdenka; Humpolicek, Petr; Sedlarik, Vladimir, E-mail: sedlarik@ft.utb.cz [Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Centre of Polymer Systems, University Institute (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-15

    In the presented work, amphiphilic nanoparticles based on chitosan and carboxy-enriched polylactic acid have been prepared to improve the stability of the pro-drug temozolomide in physiological media by encapsulation. The carrier, with a diameter in the range of 150–180 nm, was able to accommodate up to 800 μg of temozolomide per mg of polymer. The obtained formulation showed good stability in physiological condition and preparation media up to 1 month. Temozolomide loaded inside the carrier exhibited greater stability than the free drug, in particular in simulated physiological solution at pH 7.4 where the hydrolysis in the inactive metabolite was clearly delayed. CS-SPLA nanoparticles demonstrated a pH-dependent TMZ release kinetics with the opportunity to increase or decrease the rate. Mass spectroscopy, UV-Vis analysis, and in vitro cell tests confirmed the improvement in temozolomide stability and effectiveness when loaded into the polymeric carrier, in comparison with the free drug.

  12. Enhancing Learners' Problem Solving Performance in Mathematics: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhlamini, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the effect of implementing a context-based problem solving instruction (CBPSI) to enhance the problem solving performance of high school mathematics learners. Primarily, the pilot study aimed: (1) to evaluate the efficiency of data collection instruments; and, (2) to test the efficacy of CBPSI…

  13. A Study of Cognitive Load for Enhancing Student’s Quantitative Literacy in Inquiry Lab Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraeni, E.; Rahman, T.; Alifiani, D. P.; Khoerunnisa, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Students often find it difficult to appreciate the relevance of the role of quantitative analysis and concept attainment in the science class. This study measured student cognitive load during the inquiry lab of the respiratory system to improve quantitative literacy. Participants in this study were 40 11th graders from senior high school in Indonesia. After students learned, their feelings about the degree of mental effort that it took to complete the learning tasks were measured by 28 self-report on a 4-point Likert scale. The Task Complexity Worksheet were used to asses processing quantitative information and paper based test were applied to assess participants’ concept achievements. The results showed that inquiry instructional induced a relatively low mental effort, high processing information and high concept achievments.

  14. Does cluster loading enhance lower body power development in preseason preparation of elite rugby union players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Pickering, Stuart L; Newton, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether cluster training led to improved power training adaptations in the preseason preparation of elite level rugby union players. Eighteen highly trained athletes were divided into 2 training groups, a traditional training (TT, N = 9) group and a cluster training (CT, N = 9) group before undertaking 8 weeks of lower body resistance training. Force-velocity-power profiling in the jump squat movement was undertaken, and maximum strength was assessed in the back squat before and after the training intervention. Two-way analysis of variance and magnitude-based inferences were used to assess changes in maximum strength and force, velocity, and power values pretraining to posttraining. Both TT and CT groups significantly (p benefit of cluster type loading in training prescription for lower body power development.

  15. Sliding contact loading enhances the tensile properties of mesenchymal stem cell-seeded hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of cartilage tissue engineering is to recapitulate the functional properties and structural features of native articular cartilage. While there has been some success in generating near-native compressive properties, the tensile properties of cell-seeded constructs remain poor, and key features of cartilage, including inhomogeneity and anisotropy, are generally absent in these engineered constructs. Therefore, in an attempt to instill these hallmark properties of cartilage in engineered cell-seeded constructs, we designed and characterized a novel sliding contact bioreactor to recapitulate the mechanical stimuli arising from physiologic joint loading (two contacting cartilage layers. Finite element modeling of this bioreactor system showed that tensile strains were direction-dependent, while both tensile strains and fluid motion were depth-dependent and highest in the region closest to the contact surface. Short-term sliding contact of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-seeded agarose improved chondrogenic gene expression in a manner dependent on both the axial strain applied and transforming growth factor-β supplementation. Using the optimized loading parameters derived from these short-term studies, long-term sliding contact was applied to MSC-seeded agarose constructs for 21 d. After 21 d, sliding contact significantly improved the tensile properties of MSC-seeded constructs and elicited alterations in type II collagen and proteoglycan accumulation as a function of depth; staining for these matrix molecules showed intense localization in the surface regions. These findings point to the potential of sliding contact to produce engineered cartilage constructs that begin to recapitulate the complex mechanical features of the native tissue.

  16. Curcumin-Loaded Blood-Stable Polymeric Micelles for Enhancing Therapeutic Effect on Erythroleukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Feirong; Chen, Dan; Teng, Xin; Ge, Junhua; Ning, Xianfeng; Shen, Ya-Ling; Li, Jian; Wang, Shanfeng

    2017-08-07

    Curcumin has high potential in suppressing many types of cancer and overcoming multidrug resistance in a multifaceted manner by targeting diverse molecular targets. However, the rather low systemic bioavailability resulted from its poor solubility in water and fast metabolism/excretion in vivo has hampered its applications in cancer therapy. To increase the aqueous solubility of curcumin while retaining the stability in blood circulation, here we report curcumin-loaded copolymer micelles with excellent in vitro and in vivo stability and antitumor efficacy. The two copolymers used for comparison were methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-phenylalanine end-capped mPEG-PCL (mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc)). In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation against human pancreatic SW1990 cell line showed that the delivery of curcumin in mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micelles to cancer cells was efficient and dosage-dependent. The pharmacokinetics in ICR mice indicated that intravenous (i.v.) administration of curcumin/mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micelles could retain curcumin in plasma much better than curcumin/mPEG-PCL micelles. Biodistribution results in Sprague-Dawley rats also showed higher uptake and slower elimination of curcumin into liver, lung, kidney, and brain, and lower uptake into heart and spleen of mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micelles, as compared with mPEG-PCL micelles. Further in vivo efficacy evaluation in multidrug-resistant human erythroleukemia K562/ADR xenograft model revealed that i.v. administration of curcumin-loaded mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micelles significantly delayed tumor growth, which was attributed to the improved stability of curcumin in the bloodstream and increased systemic bioavailability. The mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc) micellar system is promising in overcoming the key challenge of curcumin's to promote its applications in cancer therapy.

  17. Dry Gel Containing Optimized Felodipine-Loaded Transferosomes: a Promising Transdermal Delivery System to Enhance Drug Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohammed Ali; Aboul-Einien, Mona Hassan; El Taweel, Mai Magdy

    2018-04-30

    Felodipine has a very low bioavailability due to first-pass metabolism. The aim of this study was to enhance its bioavailability by transdermal application. Felodipine-loaded transferosomes were prepared by thin-film hydration using different formulation variables. An optimized formula was designed using statistical experimental design. The independent variables were the used edge activator, its molar ratio to phosphatidylcholine, and presence or absence of cholesterol. The responses were entrapment efficiency of transferosomes, their size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and percent drug released after 8 h. The optimized formula was subjected to differential scanning calorimetry studies and its stability on storage at 4°C for 6 months was estimated. This formula was improved by incorporation of different permeation enhancers where ex vivo drug flux through mice skin was estimated and the best improved formula was formulated in a gel and lyophilized. The prepared gel was subjected to in vivo study using Plendil® tablets as a reference. According to the calculated desirability, the optimized transferosome formula was that containing sodium deoxycholate as edge activator at 5:1 M ratio to phosphatidylcholine and no cholesterol. The thermograms of this formula indicated the incorporation of felodipine inside the prepared vesicles. None of the tested parameters differed significantly on storage. The lyophilized gel of labrasol-containing formula was chosen for in vivo study. The relative bioavailability of felodipine from the designed gel was 1.7. In conclusion, topically applied lyophilized gel containing felodipine-loaded transferosomes is a promising transdermal delivery system to enhance its bioavailability.

  18. Enhancement of Radiotherapeutic Efficacy by Paclitaxel-Loaded ph-Sensitive Block Copolymer Micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinhyang, C.; Jaesook, P.; Dong-Hoon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is a major modality for cancer treatment, but its efficacy is often compromised by the resistance caused by tumor-specific microenvironment including acidosis and hypoxia. For an effective RT, concurrent administration of radiosensitizer with RT has been emphasized. However, most anticancer agents enhancing radiotherapeutic efficacy have obstacles such as poor solubility and severe toxicity. Paclitaxel (PTX), a well-known radiosensitizer, is insoluble in water and needs toxic solvent like Cremophor EL. Nano materials in drug delivery systems have been utilized for improving the drawbacks of anti-cancer drugs. Solubilization, tumor accumulation, and toxicity attenuation of drug by nano materials are suitable for enhancement of radiotherapeutic efficacy. In this study, PTX was incorporated into ph-sensitive block copolymer micelle (psm-PTX), polyethylene glycol-graft-poly(β-amino ester), and pre clinically evaluated for its effect on RT. The size of psm-PTX was 125. 4.4±nm at ph 7.4. psm-PTX released PTX rapidly in the acidic condition (ph 6.5), while it was reasonably stable in the physiologic condition (ph 7.4). The clonogenic assay showed that psm-PTX greatly sensitized human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells to radiation. In the xenograft tumor model, the combination of psm-PTX and radiation significantly delayed the tumor growth. These results demonstrated the feasibility of psm-PTX to enhance the chemo radiotherapeutic efficacy.

  19. Enhancing national Daily Landslide Hazard Assessments through inter-agency collaboration; lessons learned from storm Desmond (UK)/Synne (Norway), Dec 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boje, Søren; Devoli, Graziella; Sund, Monica; Freeborough, Katy; Dijkstra, Tom; Reeves, Helen; Banks, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    The Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and the British Geological Survey (BGS) compile daily landslide hazard assessments (DLHA) in their respective countries. NVE DLHA has been operational since 2013 and provides national daily assessments based on quantitative thresholds related to daily hydro-meteorological forecasts coupled with qualitative expert analysis of these forecasts. The BGS DLHA has been operational since 2012 and this is predominantly based on expert evaluation of antecedent hydro-meteorological conditions and triggering rainfall across Great Britain (GB). In both cases, the hydro-meteorological evaluation is coupled with observations derived from proprietary datasets on landslide events and landslide potential in order to specify, and limit, the spatial extent of the potentially impacted area. However, the DLHA are strongly driven by hydro-meteorological forecasts. In December 2015, a large extra-tropical cyclone developed over the Atlantic and delivered record-breaking precipitation over parts of the UK and Norway. The meteorological services started naming these events to enhance public uptake and awareness and the storms were named as Desmond (the 4th large storm in 2015/16 in the UK) and Synne (the 5th storm in 2015 in Norway). Desmond arrived in earnest on the 5th of December and brought intense precipitation and strong winds over a 48-hour period. In Cumbria (NW-England) record precipitation was measured (341.4 mm in 24-hour at Honister Pass which is more than twice the monthly average), with 48-hour accumulations exceeding 400 mm. Synne arrived shortly after in Norway and was also characterised by excessive rainfall of 140 mm in 24-hour, 236 mm in 48-hour and 299 mm in 72-hour at Maudal, SW-Norway. Both organisations managed to issue appropriate advance warnings, operating individually. In Norway, warnings were issued some 2 days in advance with a yellow level communicated on Friday 4th and an orange warning the 5th and 6

  20. Enhanced performance and durability of low catalyst loading PEM water electrolyser based on a short-side chain perfluorosulfonic ionomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siracusano, Stefania; Baglio, Vincenzo; Van Dijk, Nicholas; Merlo, Luca; Aricò, Antonino Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    cm"−"2, showed excellent stability for the MEA with total noble metal catalyst loading of 1.6 mg·cm"−"2 (cell voltage increase ∼5 μV/h). Moderate degradation rate (cell voltage increase ∼15 μV/h) was recorded for the low loading 0.5 mg·cm"−"2, MEA. Similar stability characteristics were observed in durability tests at 3 A·cm"−"2. These high performance and stability characteristics were attributed to the enhanced proton conductivity and good stability of the novel membrane, the optimized structural properties of the Ir and Ru oxide solid solution and the enrichment of Ir species on the surface for the anodic catalyst.

  1. Ag-loaded TiO2/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilaki, E.; Georgaki, I.; Vernardou, D.; Vamvakaki, M.; Katsarakis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticles were loaded on TiO 2 by chemical reduction. • TiO 2 /Ag and TiO 2 samples were deposited on reduced graphene oxide (rGO). • Their performance was evaluated via methylene blue removal under visible-light. • TiO 2 /Ag/rGO presented superior activity compared to TiO 2 , TiO 2 /Ag and TiO 2 /rGO. - Abstract: In this work, Ag nanoparticles were loaded by chemical reduction onto TiO 2 P25 under different loadings ranging from 1 up to 4 wt% and hydrothermally deposited on reduced graphene oxide sheets. Chemical reduction was determined to be an effective preparation approach for Ag attachment to titania, leading to the formation of small silver nanoparticles with an average diameter of 4.2 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the hybrid nanocomposite materials was evaluated via methylene blue (MB) dye removal under visible-light irradiation. The rate of dye decolorization was found to depend on the metal loading, showing an increase till a threshold value of 3 wt%, above which the rate drops. Next, the as prepared sample of TiO 2 /Ag of better photocatalytic response, i.e., at a 3 wt% loading value, was hydrothermally deposited on a platform of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) of tunable content (mass ratio). TiO 2 /Ag/rGO coupled nanocomposite presented significantly enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to the TiO 2 /Ag, TiO 2 /rGO composites and bare P25 titania semiconductor photocatalysts. In particular, after 45 min of irradiation almost complete decolorization of the dye was observed for the TiO 2 /Ag/rGO nanocatalyst, while the respective removal efficiency was 92% for TiO 2 /Ag, 93% for TiO 2 /rGO and only 80% for the bare TiO 2 nanoparticles. This simple step by step preparation strategy allows for optimum exploitation of the advanced properties of metal plasmonic effect and reduced graphene oxide as the critical host for boosting the overall photocatalytic activity towards visible-light.

  2. Delay-active damage versus non-local enhancement for anisotropic damage dynamics computations with alternated loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmorat, R.; Chambart, M.; Gatuingt, F.; Guilbaud, D.

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic damage thermodynamics framework allows to model the concrete-like materials behavior and in particular their dissymmetric tension/compression response. To deal with dynamics applications such as impact, it is furthermore necessary to take into account the strain rate effect observed experimentally. This is done in the present work by means of anisotropic visco-damage, by introducing a material strain rate effect in the cases of positive hydrostatic stresses only. The proposed delay-damage law assumes no viscous effect in compression as the consideration of inertia effects proves sufficient to model the apparent material strength increase. High-rate dynamics applications imply to deal with wave propagation and reflection which can generate alternated loading in the impacted structure. In order to do so, the key concept of active damage is defined and introduced within both the damage criterion and the delay-damage evolution law. At the structural level, strain localization often leads to spurious mesh dependency. Three-dimensional Finite Element computations of dynamic tensile tests by spalling are presented, with visco-damage and either without or with non-local enhancement. Delay-damage, as introduced, regularizes the solution in fast dynamics. The location of the macro-crack initiated is found influenced by non-local regularization. The strain rate range in which each enhancement, delay-damage or non-local enhancement, has a regularizing effect is studied. (authors)

  3. Remote handling dynamical modelling: assessment on new approach to enhance positioning accuracy with heavy load manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarina-Sasia, T.; David, O.; Dubus, G.; Perrot, Y.; Riwain, A.

    2007-01-01

    In vessel maintenance work in Fusion Tokamak will be carried out with help several sets of robotic devices. Heavy loads handling in constrained space is identified by all players of the RH community as a key-issue in the latest Fusion Tokamak facilities. To deal with high-level dexterity tasks, high payload to mass ratio and limited operating space, RH equipment designers can only propose systems whose mechanical flexibility is no longer negligible and need to be taken into account in the control scheme. Traditional approaches where control system only includes a linear model of deformation of the structure leads to poor positioning accuracy. Uncontrolled or under evaluated errors could be damaging for in-vessel components during maintenance operations in the Tokamak facility. To address the control of complex flexible systems, we will investigate the use of specific mechanical software that combines both finite element and kinematical joints analyses, with a strong-coupled formulation, to perform system dynamics simulations. This procedure will be applied on a single axis mock up robotic joint with highly flexible structure. A comparison of experimental results with the traditional linear approach and the specified software model will be carried out. Benefits introduced by this new approach will finally be assessed in view of RH design or specification in the field of RH in Fusion Tokamak scale such as ITER. (orig.)

  4. A coupled nuclear reactor thermal energy storage system for enhanced load following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alameri, Saeed A.; King, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants operate most economically at a constant power level, providing base load electric power. In an energy grid containing a high fraction of renewable power sources, nuclear reactors may be subject to significantly variable power demands. These variable power demands can negatively impact the effective capacity factor of the reactor and result in severe economic penalties. Coupling a nuclear reactor to a large thermal energy storage block will allow the reactor to better respond to variable power demands. In the system described in this paper, a Prismatic core Advanced High Temperature Reactor supplies constant power to a lithium chloride molten salt thermal energy storage block that provides thermal power as needed to a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system. During normal operation, the thermal energy storage block stores thermal energy during the night for use in the times of peak demand during the day. In this case, the nuclear reactor stays at a constant thermal power level. After a loss of forced circulation, the reactor reaches a shut down state in less than half an hour and the average fuel, graphite and coolant temperatures remain well within the design limits over the duration of the transient, demonstrating the inherent safety of the coupled system. (author)

  5. Chlorogenic acid loaded chitosan nanoparticles with sustained release property, retained antioxidant activity and enhanced bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaiyaraja Nallamuthu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, chlorogenic acid (CGA, a phenolic compound widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, was encapsulated into chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The particles exhibited the size and zeta potential of 210 nm and 33 mV respectively. A regular, spherical shaped distribution of nanoparticles was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and the success of entrapment was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The encapsulation efficiency of CGA was at about 59% with the loading efficiency of 5.2%. In vitro ABTS assay indicated that the radical scavenging activity of CAG was retained in the nanostructure and further, the release kinetics study revealed the burst release of 69% CGA from nanoparticles at the end of 100th hours. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats showed a lower level of Cmax, longer Tmax, longer MRT, larger AUC0–t and AUC0–∞ for the CGA nanoparticles compared to free CGA. Collectively, these results suggest that the synthesised nanoparticle with sustained release property can therefore ease the fortification of food-matrices targeted for health benefits through effective delivery of CGA in body.

  6. Enhanced therapeutic benefit of quercetin-loaded phytosome nanoparticles in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Fattah, Abeer I; Fathy, Mohamed M; Ali, Zeinab Y; El-Garawany, Abd El-Rahman A; Mohamed, Ehsan K

    2017-06-01

    Quercetin, a dietary flavonol phytoestrogen, has many health benefits but it is poorly absorbed when administered orally. To improve its bioavailability, we prepared quercetin-loaded phytosome nanoparticles (QP) using the thin film hydration method. The prepared nano-formulations were characterized using different techniques. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the homogeneously spherical, well and uniformly dispersed, nano-sized nature of QP. Dynamic light scattering measurements of QP (70 ± 7.44 nm) also confirmed this. Stability of the formed nanoparticles was established via zeta potential determination. The prepared QP exhibited very high encapsulation efficiency (98.4%). The estrogenic activity of QP, concerning inflammation, oxidative stress, bone, lipid profile, blood glucose level and weight gain, was investigated in ovariectomized rat model using 10 and 50 mg/kg/day oral doses for 4 weeks. Treatment with QP showed significant increase in serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and glutathione content. Whereas, it significantly decreased serum alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, malondialdehyde level, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and glucose level and improved lipid profile. Consequently, the results obtained confirm the superiority of QP over free quercetin at the same doses as a promising hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced load current delivery from the SHIVA Star vacuum inductive store/plasma flow switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.; Baker, W.L.; Beason, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental results reported here were obtained from passively integrated Rogowski coils mounted in the SHIVA Star device and B located in the load and transfer regions of the device. The integrator time constant was 100 μs. Current measurements accuracy is estimated to be 5% for the Rogowski coils and 10% for B probes. B probes indicated peak currents of 13.5 MA at the breech and 13.0 MA at the muzzle with 650 ns 10-90% rise time. B probes in the implosion region indicated a current greater than 9.4 MA inside 5.5 cm radius; at that time, the muzzle current was 10.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time was 170 ns. The innermost probe indicated 7.3 MA inside 3.2 cm; at that time, the muzzle current was 9.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time at 3.2 cm was 300 ns. Timing anomalies suggested some azimuthal current asymmetry in the implosion region. The data indicate greater than 90% current delivery from the gun muzzle to just outside the initial position implosion foil and 70-80% current delivery from the gun muzzle to the partially imploded foil

  8. Curcumin loaded nano globules for solubility enhancement: preparation, characterization and ex vivo release study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Ahuja, Alka; Ali, Javed; Baboota, Sanjula

    2012-11-01

    Curcumin in spite of being an effective chemotherapeutic agent against different type of cancer, suffer from the problem of low systemic bioavailability due to low aqueous solubility, extensive intestinal metabolism and first-pass metabolism when administered via the oral route. The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the potential of nano globules based nanoemulsion formulation for the solubility enhancement of curcumin. The nano globules based formulation was developed using Labrafac Lipophile WL 1349, Unitop FFT 40, PEG 400 and distilled water as an oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and aqueous phase respectively using aqueous titration method. Furthermore, different formulations were subjected to physical stability and consequently evaluated for ex vivo permeation using small intestine. The optimized formulation had small average globule diameter of 58 nm with zeta potential of -32 mv which indicated long-term dispersion stability. The globules were spherical in shape as observed by Transmission electron microscopy. During ex vivo study, the release of curcumin from nanoemulsion was 96.21% and 98.1% in 6 h and 12 h respectively whereas CU suspension was release up to 28.2% at the end of 12 h. This indicated the enhancement of solubility of curcumin in aqueous solution which is the rate limiting step in the absorption of curcumin in the intestine.

  9. Postexercise blood flow restriction does not enhance muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Nakada, Satoshi; Ohta, Takahisa; Ishii, Naokata

    2018-05-01

    To test the applicability of postexercise blood flow restriction (PEBFR) in practical training programmes, we investigated whether PEBFR enhances muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise (RE). Seven men completed an eight-week RE programme for knee extensor muscles. Employing a within-subject design, one leg was subjected to RE + PEBFR, whereas contralateral leg to RE only. On each exercise session, participants performed three sets of unilateral knee extension exercise at approximately 70% of their one-repetition maximum for RE leg first, and then performed three sets for RE + PEBFR leg. Immediately after completion of the third set, the proximal portion of the RE + PEBFR leg was compressed with an air-pressure cuff for 5 min at a pressure ranging from 100 to 150 mmHg. If participants could perform 10 repetitions for three sets in two consecutive exercise sessions, the work load was increased by 5% at the next exercise session. Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor muscles were measured before and after the eight-week training period and after the subsequent eight-week detraining period. There was a main effect of time but no condition × time interaction or main effect of condition for muscle thickness and strength. Both muscle thickness and strength increased after the training period independent of the condition. This result suggests that PEBFR would not be an effective training method at least in an early phase of adaptation to high-load resistance exercise. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Covalent Coupling of Organophosphorus Hydrolase Loaded Quantum Dots to Carbon Nanotube/Au Nanocomposite for Enhanced Detection of Methyl Parathion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Wenjuan; Zhang, Weiying; Liu, Deli; Li, Haibing; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    An amperometric biosensor for highly selective and sensitive determination of methyl parathion (MP) was developed based on dual signal amplification: (1) a large amount of introduced enzyme on the electrode surface and (2) synergistic effects of nanoparticles towards enzymatic catalysis. The fabrication process includes (1) electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles by a multi-potential step technique at multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film pre-cast on a glassy carbon electrode and (2) immobilization of methyl parathion degrading enzyme (MPDE) onto a modified electrode through CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) covalent attachment. The introduced MWCNT and gold nanoparticles significantly increased the surface area and exhibited synergistic effects towards enzymatic catalysis. CdTe QDs are further used as carriers to load a large amount of enzyme. As a result of these two important enhancement factors, the proposed biosensor exhibited extremely sensitive, perfectly selective, and rapid response to methyl parathion in the absence of a mediator.

  11. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8...... mmol/l) before the glucose challenge the increase in blood glucose from 4.2 +/- 1.7 to 15.2 +/- 2.3 mmol/l was accompanied by an enhancement of GFR from 128 +/- 15 to 132 +/- 14 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.030) and of RPF from 534 +/- 116 to 562 +/- 105 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.023). By contrast oral...... glucose load to the nine patients with hyperglycaemia (greater than 8 mmol/l) during baseline conditions raising blood glucose from 11.9 +/- 2.0 to 19.6 +/- 1.5 mmol/l was accompanied by a reduction in GFR from 149 +/- 15 to 139 +/- 9 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p less than 0.001) while RPF was unchanged...

  12. Tadalafil inclusion in microporous silica as effective dissolution enhancer: optimization of loading procedure and molecular state characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehanna, Mohammed M; Motawaa, Adel M; Samaha, Magda W

    2011-05-01

    Tadalafil is an efficient drug used to treat erectile dysfunction characterized by poor water solubility, which has a negative influence on its bioavailability. Utilization of microporous silica represents an effective and facile technology to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs. Our strategy involved directly introducing tadalafil as guest molecule into microporous silica as host material by incipient wetness impregnation method. To optimize tadalafil inclusion, response surface methodology (RSM) using 3(3) factorial design was utilized. Furthermore, to investigate the molecular state of tadalafil, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetery, thermal gravimetrical analysis, nitrogen adsorption, and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were carried out. The results obtained pointed out that the quantity of microporous silica was the predominant factor that increased the loading efficiency. For the optimized formula, the loading efficiency was 42.50 wt %. Adsorption-desorption experiments indicated that tadalafil has been introduced into the micropores. Powder XRD and differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed that tadalafil is arranged in amorphous form. In addition, the dissolution rate of tadalafil from the microporous silica was faster than that of free drug. Amorphous tadalafil occluded in microporous silica did not crystallize over 3 months. These findings contributed in opening a new strategy concerning the utilization of porous silica for the dissolution rate enhancement. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Enhanced Load Power Sharing Accuracy in Droop-Controlled DC Microgrids with Both Mesh and Radial Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqi Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rational power sharing among different interface converters should be determined by the converter capacity. In order to guarantee that each converter operates at the ideal condition, considering the radial and mesh configuration, a modified strategy for load power sharing accuracy enhancement in droop-controlled DC microgrid is proposed in this paper. Two compensating terms which include averaging output power control and averaging DC voltage control of neighboring converters are employed. Since only the information of the neighboring converter is used, the complexity of the communication network can be reduced. The rational distribution of load power for different line resistance conditions is realized by using modified droop control that can be regarded as a distributed approach. Low bandwidth communication is used for exchanging sampled information between different converters. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method for different network configurations and line resistances under different communication delay is analyzed in detail. Simulation results derived from a DC microgrid with three converters is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink to verify the proposed approach. Experimental results from a 3 × 10 kW prototype also show the performance of the proposed modified droop control scheme.

  14. Enhanced oxygen reduction activity and solid oxide fuel cell performance with a nanoparticles-loaded cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Liu, Li; Zhao, Zhe; Tu, Baofeng; Ou, Dingrong; Cui, Daan; Wei, Xuming; Chen, Xiaobo; Cheng, Mojie

    2015-03-11

    Reluctant oxygen-reduction-reaction (ORR) activity has been a long-standing challenge limiting cell performance for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in both centralized and distributed power applications. We report here that this challenge has been tackled with coloading of (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSM) and Y2O3 stabilized zirconia (YSZ) nanoparticles within a porous YSZ framework. This design dramatically improves ORR activity, enhances fuel cell output (200-300% power improvement), and enables superior stability (no observed degradation within 500 h of operation) from 600 to 800 °C. The improved performance is attributed to the intimate contacts between nanoparticulate YSZ and LSM particles in the three-phase boundaries in the cathode.

  15. Calcium channel blockers, more than diuretics, enhance vascular protective effects of angiotensin receptor blockers in salt-loaded hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichiro Yamamoto

    Full Text Available The combination therapy of an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB with a calcium channel blocker (CCB or with a diuretic is favorably recommended for the treatment of hypertension. However, the difference between these two combination therapies is unclear. The present work was undertaken to examine the possible difference between the two combination therapies in vascular protection. Salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP were divided into 6 groups, and they were orally administered (1 vehicle, (2 olmesartan, an ARB, (3 azelnidipine, a CCB, (4 hydrochlorothiazide, a diuretic, (5 olmesartan combined with azelnidipine, or (6 olmesartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide. Olmesartan combined with either azelnidipine or hydrochlorothiazide ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling in SHRSP more than did monotherapy with either agent. However, despite a comparable blood pressure lowering effect between the two treatments, azelnidipine enhanced the amelioration of vascular endothelial dysfunction and remodeling by olmesartan to a greater extent than did hydrochlorothiazide in salt-loaded SHRSP. The increased enhancement by azelnidipine of olmesartan-induced vascular protection than by hydrochlorothiazide was associated with a greater amelioration of vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activation, superoxide, mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and with a greater activation of the Akt/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS pathway. These results provided the first evidence that a CCB potentiates the vascular protective effects of an ARB in salt-sensitive hypertension, compared with a diuretic, and provided a novel rationale explaining the benefit of the combination therapy with an ARB and a CCB.

  16. Enhanced Ungual Permeation of Terbinafine HCl Delivered Through Liposome-Loaded Nail Lacquer Formulation Optimized by QbD Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral H; Jobanputra, Amee

    2018-01-01

    The present investigation focused on developing, optimizing, and evaluating a novel liposome-loaded nail lacquer formulation for increasing the transungual permeation flux of terbinafine HCl for efficient treatment of onychomycosis. A three-factor, three-level, Box-Behnken design was employed for optimizing process and formulation parameters of liposomal formulation. Liposomes were formulated by thin film hydration technique followed by sonication. Drug to lipid ratio, sonication amplitude, and sonication time were screened as independent variables while particle size, PDI, entrapment efficiency, and zeta potential were selected as quality attributes for liposomal formulation. Multiple regression analysis was employed to construct a second-order quadratic polynomial equation and contour plots. Design space (overlay plot) was generated to optimize a liposomal system, with software-suggested levels of independent variables that could be transformed to desired responses. The optimized liposome formulation was characterized and dispersed in nail lacquer which was further evaluated for different parameters. Results depicted that the optimized terbinafine HCl-loaded liposome formulation exhibited particle size of 182 nm, PDI of 0.175, zeta potential of -26.8 mV, and entrapment efficiency of 80%. Transungual permeability flux of terbinafine HCl through liposome-dispersed nail lacquer formulation was observed to be significantly higher in comparison to nail lacquer with a permeation enhancer. The developed formulation was also observed to be as efficient as pure drug dispersion in its antifungal activity. Thus, it was concluded that the developed formulation can serve as an efficient tool for enhancing the permeability of terbinafine HCl across human nail plate thereby improving its therapeutic efficiency.

  17. Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariyoshi, K; Berry, N; Cham, F

    2003-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load was examined in a cohort of a population in Guinea-Bissau among whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is endemic. Geometric mean of HIV-2 RNA load among HTLV-I-coinfected subjects was significantly lower than that in subjects...... infected with HIV-2 alone (212 vs. 724 copies/mL; P=.02). Adjusted for age, sex, and HIV status, the risk of death increased with HTLV-I provirus load; mortality hazard ratio was 1.59 for each log10 increase in HTLV-I provirus copies (P=.038). There is no enhancing effect of HTLV-I coinfection on HIV-2...... disease, but high HTLV-I provirus loads may contribute to mortality....

  18. Enhanced protein loading on a planar Si(111)-H surface with second generation NTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Han, Huan-Mei; Liu, Hong-Bo; Xiao, Shou-jun

    2010-08-01

    A Si(111)-H surface was modified via a direct reaction between Si-H and 1-undecylenic acid (UA) under microwave irradiation to form molecular monolayers with terminal carboxyl groups. After esterifying carboxylic acid being esterified with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), aminobutyl nitrilotriacetic acid (ANTA) was bound to the silicon surface through amidation (pH = 8.0) between its primary amino group and NHS-ester, producing nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) anions. Then hexa-histidine tagged thioredoxin-urodilatin (his-tagged protein) and FITC-labeled hexa-histidine tagged thioredoxin-urodilatin (FITC-his-tagged protein) can be anchored after NTA was coordinated with Ni 2+. Furthermore, the NTA-terminated chip was acidified with 0.1 M HCl and subsequently esterified with NHS and then amidated with ANTA again to produce a second generation NTA. Thus the surface density of nitrilotriacetic acid anions was improved and resultantly that of anchored proteins was also enhanced through the iterative reactions. Both multiple transmission-reflection infrared spectroscopy (MTR-IR) and fluorescence scanning measurements demonstrated a proximate 1.63 times of anchored proteins on the second generation NTA/Ni 2+ as that on the first generation NTA/Ni 2+ monolayer.

  19. Multiscale mechanics of the lateral pressure effect on enhancing the load transfer between polymer coated CNTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdandoost, Fatemeh; Mirzaeifar, Reza; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2017-05-04

    While individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are known as one of the strongest fibers ever known, even the strongest fabricated macroscale CNT yarns and fibers are still significantly weaker than individual nanotubes. The loss in mechanical properties is mainly because the deformation mechanism of CNT fibers is highly governed by the weak shear strength corresponding to sliding of nanotubes on each other. Adding polymer coating to the bundles, and twisting the CNT yarns to enhance the intertube interactions are both efficient methods to improve the mechanical properties of macroscale yarns. Here, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to unravel the unknown deformation mechanism in the intertube polymer chains and also local deformations of the CNTs at the atomistic scale. Our results show that the lateral pressure can have both beneficial and adverse effects on shear strength of polymer coated CNTs, depending on the local deformations at the atomistic scale. In this paper we also introduce a bottom-up bridging strategy between a full atomistic model and a coarse-grained (CG) model. Our trained CG model is capable of incorporating the atomistic scale local deformations of each CNT to the larger scale collect behavior of bundles, which enables the model to accurately predict the effect of lateral pressure on larger CNT bundles and yarns. The developed multiscale CG model is implemented to study the effect of lateral pressure on the shear strength of straight polymer coated CNT yarns, and also the effect of twisting on the pull-out force of bundles in spun CNT yarns.

  20. Intake of tryptophan-enriched whey protein acutely enhances recall of positive loaded words in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieben, Cindy K; Blokland, Arjan; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Jansen, Willemijn; Han, Gang; Hupperts, Raymond M

    2018-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has physiological and/or immunological characteristics that diminish serotonin metabolism, a neurotransmitter associated with affective and cognitive functions. The aim was examine the acute and dose-dependent effects of a dietary tryptophan (TRP) enrichment on affective and cognitive functions in MS patients. We hypothesized that increased dietary availability of the amino acid TRP enhances serotonin concentrations and improves neuropsychological functions. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, MS patients with (n = 15) and without (n = 17) depressed mood ingested a whey protein mixture with 4 different amounts of TRP. Mood states, total plasma TRP and plasma TRP/ΣLNAA ratio were measured during each test session and cognitive tasks were conducted three hours after dietary intake. A fast, transient and dose-dependent increase of total plasma TRP and TRP/ΣLNAA ratio was found. Ratings of negative mood decreased over time, independent of the TRP dose. Relative to whey-only, immediate word recall and delayed recognition improved after ingestion of the lowest added TRP dose and was mainly due to better recollection for positive loaded words. Executive functions were not affected by a difference in TRP availability. A moderate addition of TRP to whey protein enhances memory processes without improving the mood state in MS. ccmo-registration number is NL32316.096.10. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Stannic Oxide-Titanium Dioxide Coupled Semiconductor Photocatalyst Loaded with Polyaniline for Enhanced Photocatalytic Oxidation of 1-Octene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Nur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Stannic oxide-titanium dioxide (SnO2–TiO2 coupled semiconductor photocatalyst loaded with polyaniline (PANI, a conducting polymer, possesses a high photocatalytic activity in oxidation of 1-octene to 1,2-epoxyoctane with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The photocatalyst was prepared by impregnation of SnO2 and followed by attachment of PANI onto a TiO2 powder to give sample PANI-SnO2–TiO2. The electrical conductivity of the system becomes high in the presence of PANI. Enhanced photocatalytic activity was observed in the case of PANI-SnO2–TiO2 compared to PANI-TiO2, SnO2–TiO2, and TiO2. A higher photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of 1-octene on PANI-SnO2–TiO2 than SnO2–TiO2, PANI-TiO2, and TiO2 can be considered as an evidence of enhanced charge separation of PANI-SnO2–TiO2 photocatalyst as confirmed by photoluminescence spectroscopy. It suggests that photoinjected electrons are tunneled from TiO2 to SnO2 and then to PANI in order to allow wider separation of excited carriers.

  2. Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2009-10-01

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation

  3. Targeted gadolinium-loaded dendrimer nanoparticles for tumor-specific magnetic resonance contrast enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Swanson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Scott D Swanson1, Jolanta F Kukowska-Latallo2, Anil K Patri5, Chunyan Chen6, Song Ge4, Zhengyi Cao3, Alina Kotlyar3, Andrea T East7, James R Baker31Department of Radiology, The University of Michigan Medical School, 2Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Michigan Medical School, 3Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences, The University of Michigan, 4Applied Physics, The University of Michigan, MD, USA; 5Present address: National Cancer Institute at Frederick (Contractor, MD, USA; 6Present address: Intel Corporation, Chandler, AZ, USA; 7Present address: Stritch School of Medicine, Chicago, ILL, USAAbstract: A target-specific MRI contrast agent for tumor cells expressing high affinity folate receptor was synthesized using generation five (G5 of polyamidoamine (PAMAM dendrimer. Surface modified dendrimer was functionalized for targeting with folic acid (FA and the remaining terminal primary amines of the dendrimer were conjugated with the bifunctional NCS-DOTA chelator that forms stable complexes with gadolinium (Gd III. Dendrimer-DOTA conjugates were then complexed with GdCl3, followed by ICP-OES as well as MRI measurement of their longitudinal relaxivity (T1 s−1 mM−1 of water. In xenograft tumors established in immunodeficient (SCID mice with KB human epithelial cancer cells expressing folate receptor (FAR, the 3D MRI results showed specific and statistically significant signal enhancement in tumors generated with targeted Gd(III-DOTA-G5-FA compared with signal generated by non-targeted Gd(III-DOTA-G5 contrast nanoparticle. The targeted dendrimer contrast nanoparticles infiltrated tumor and were retained in tumor cells up to 48 hours post-injection of targeted contrast nanoparticle. The presence of folic acid on the dendrimer resulted in specific delivery of the nanoparticle to tissues and xenograft tumor cells expressing folate receptor in vivo. We present the specificity of the dendrimer

  4. Retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles enhance vascular regulation of neural stem cell survival and differentiation after ischaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.; Fonseca, M. C.; Santos, T.; Sargento-Freitas, J.; Tjeng, R.; Paiva, F.; Castelo-Branco, M.; Ferreira, L. S.; Bernardino, L.

    2016-04-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. However, current therapies only reach a small percentage of patients and may cause serious side effects. We propose the therapeutic use of retinoic acid-loaded nanoparticles (RA-NP) to safely and efficiently repair the ischaemic brain by creating a favourable pro-angiogenic environment that enhances neurogenesis and neuronal restitution. Our data showed that RA-NP enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and tubule network formation and protected against ischaemia-induced death. To evaluate the effect of RA-NP on vascular regulation of neural stem cell (NSC) survival and differentiation, endothelial cell-conditioned media (EC-CM) were collected. EC-CM from healthy RA-NP-treated cells reduced NSC death and promoted proliferation while EC-CM from ischaemic RA-NP-treated cells decreased cell death, increased proliferation and neuronal differentiation. In parallel, human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC), which are part of the endogenous repair response to vascular injury, were collected from ischaemic stroke patients. hEPC treated with RA-NP had significantly higher proliferation, which further highlights the therapeutic potential of this formulation. To conclude, RA-NP protected endothelial cells from ischaemic death and stimulated the release of pro-survival, proliferation-stimulating factors and differentiation cues for NSC. RA-NP were shown to be up to 83-fold more efficient than free RA and to enhance hEPC proliferation. These data serve as a stepping stone to use RA-NP as vasculotrophic and neurogenic agents for vascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases with compromised vasculature.

  5. Remarkably enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution over MoS2 nanosheets loaded on uniform CdS nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Bo; Xu, Mengqiu; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Zhandong

    2018-02-01

    The MoS2/CdS composites with layered MoS2 loaded on uniform CdS nanospheres were synthesized by a two-step process combination hydrothermal and solvothermal treatments, and then applied in photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light irradiation. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectra, UV-vis diffuse reflectance absorption spectra (UV-DRS), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, photoluminescence spectra (PL) and photoelectrochemical tests. The effects of loading contents of MoS2 in the composites on the photocatalytic H2 evolution activity were comparatively investigated with 0.45 mol L-1 Na2S and 0.55 mol L-1 Na2SO3 as sacrificial agents. The results showed that the 5 wt% MoS2/CdS composite could achieve the highest photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of 372 μmol h-1 and apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) about 7.31% under 420 nm monochromatic light irradiation. The remarkably enhanced photocatalytic activity of MoS2/CdS composite could be attributed to the effective transfer and separation of photogenerated charge carriers, and MoS2 being as a cocatalyst to facilitating photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction. A tentative mechanism of MoS2/CdS composites as photocatalysts for H2 evolution was proposed.

  6. Lycopene loaded whey protein isolate nanoparticles: An innovative endeavor for enhanced bioavailability of lycopene and anti-cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashay; Sharma, Gajanand; Ghoshal, Gargi; Kesharwani, Prashant; Singh, Bhupinder; Shivhare, U S; Katare, O P

    2018-04-28

    The work entails a novel strategy of formulating the lycopene loaded whey protein isolate nanoparticles (LYC-WPI-NPs) solely using the rational blend of biomacromolecule without using equipment-intensive techniques. The LYC-WPI-NPs were fabricated as a substantial drug delivery platform, with maximum entrapment, spatial and controlled release manners, exceptional plasma concentration, and perspective for discrepancy delivery of therapeutics. Prepared nano-formulations were measured in ultra-fine size (100-350 nm) with sphere-shaped. The percent lycopene entrapment of prepared LYC-WPI-NPs was estimated in the range to 50 and 65%. In vitro percent cumulative release study demonstrated deaden and extended release i.e. approximately 75% following 16 th h. The in vitro percent cell survival (cytotoxicity study) of prepared nanoparticles was evaluated against MCF-7 breast cancer cells by MTT based colorimetric assay. Sub-cellular localization of lycopene when delivered by LYC-WPI-NPs was assessed by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). The WPI-NPs enhance the oral bioavailability of lycopene by controlling its release from nano-formulation and facilitating its absorption through lymphatic pathways. Prophylactic anticancer efficacy of LYC-WPI-NPs was evaluated thereafter on experimentally induced breast cancer animal model. Conclusively, it may quite reasonable that lycopene loaded protein nanoparticles are competent to improve the biopharmaceutical attributes of lycopene and demonstrated prophylactic anticancer activity, decrease tumor proliferation and increase the survival rate of treated animals, thus signifying their feasible usefulness in cancer therapeutic and intervention. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. daily nigerian nigerian nigerian peak load forec peak load forec

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    company. Basic operating functions such as u commitment, economic dispatch, fuel scheduli and unit ... analysis or contingency analysis [1]. 8035134769 ... A neural network of relatively smaller size than the main prediction relatively smaller ...

  8. Enhanced intracellular delivery and antibacterial efficacy of enrofloxacin-loaded docosanoic acid solid lipid nanoparticles against intracellular Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuyu; Yang, Fei; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Qu, Wei; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhenli; Pan, Yuanhu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-01-23

    Enrofloxacin-loaded docosanoic acid solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) with different physicochemical properties were developed to enhance activity against intracellular Salmonella. Their cellular uptake, intracellular elimination and antibacterial activity were studied in RAW 264.7 cells. During the experimental period, SLN-encapsulated enrofloxacin accumulated in the cells approximately 27.06-37.71 times more efficiently than free drugs at the same extracellular concentration. After incubation for 0.5 h, the intracellular enrofloxacin was enhanced from 0.336 to 1.147 μg/mg of protein as the sizes of nanoparticles were increased from 150 to 605 nm, and from 0.960 to 1.147 μg/mg of protein when the charge was improved from -8.1 to -24.9 mv. The cellular uptake was more significantly influenced by the size than it was by the charge, and was not affected by whether the charge was positive or negative. The elimination of optimal SLN-encapsulated enrofloxacin from the cells was significantly slower than that of free enrofloxacin after removing extracellular drug. The inhibition effect against intracellular Salmonella CVCC541 of 0.24 and 0.06 μg/mL encapsulated enrofloxacin was stronger than 0.6 μg/mL free drug after all of the incubation periods and at 48 h, respectively. Docosanoic acid SLNs are thus considered as a promising carrier for intracellular bacterial treatment.

  9. Lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells under LDL loading is independent of LDL receptor pathway and enhanced by hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Youichiro; Sugiyama, Akira; Yamamoto, Takashi; Naito, Makoto; Noguchi, Noriko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Tsujita, Maki; Kawabe, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Mika; Izumi, Akashi; Kohro, Takahide; Tanaka, Toshiya; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Koyama, Hidenori; Hirano, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Shizuya; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Niki, Etsuo; Hamakubo, Takao; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2002-10-01

    The effect of a variety of hypoxic conditions on lipid accumulation in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) was studied in an arterial wall coculture and monocultivation model. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was loaded under various levels of oxygen tension. Oil red O staining of rabbit and human SMCs revealed that lipid accumulation was greater under lower oxygen tension. Cholesterol esters were shown to accumulate in an oxygen tension-dependent manner by high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Autoradiograms using radiolabeled LDL indicated that LDL uptake was more pronounced under hypoxia. This result holds in the case of LDL receptor-deficient rabbit SMCs. However, cholesterol biosynthesis and cellular cholesterol release were unaffected by oxygen tension. Hypoxia significantly increases LDL uptake and enhances lipid accumulation in arterial SMCs, exclusive of LDL receptor activity. Although the molecular mechanism is not clear, the model is useful for studying lipid accumulation in arterial wall cells and the difficult-to-elucidate events in the initial stage of atherogenesis.

  10. Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxides loaded on granular activated carbon to enhance dye removal by catalytic ozonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Yameng; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Zhengquan; Huang, Haiming

    2016-09-01

    A Fe-Mn bi-metallic oxide supported on granular activated carbon (Fe-Mn GAC) has been fabricated by an impregnation-desiccation method and tested in the catalytic ozonation of methyl orange (MO) degradation and mineralization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterizations revealed that Fe-Mn oxides were successfully loaded and uniformly distributed on the GAC, and nitrogen adsorption isotherms showed that the supported GAC retained a large surface area and a high pore volume compared with the pristine GAC. The catalytic activity was systematically assessed by monitoring the MO removal efficiencies at different operational parameters, such as catalyst dosage, initial solution pH, and ozone flow rate. The Fe-Mn GAC exhibited better catalytic activity relative to ozone alone and GAC alone, improving the TOC removal by 24.5 and 11.5 % and COD removal by 13.6 and 7.3 %, respectively. The reusability of the hybrid was examined over five consecutive cyclic treatments. The Fe-Mn GAC catalytic activity was only a slight loss in the cycles, showing good stability. The addition of Na2CO3 as hydroxyl radicals (•OH) scavengers proved that the catalytic ozonation mechanism was the enhanced generation of •OH by the Fe-Mn GAC. The above results render the Fe-Mn GAC an industrially promising candidate for catalytic ozonation of dye contaminant removal.

  11. Catalase-loaded cisplatin-prodrug-constructed liposomes to overcome tumor hypoxia for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Song, Xuejiao; Liang, Chao; Yi, Xuan; Song, Guosheng; Chao, Yu; Yang, Yu; Yang, Kai; Feng, Liangzhu; Liu, Zhuang

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at improved therapeutic efficacies, the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (chemo-radiotherapy) has been widely studied and applied in clinic. However, the hostile characteristics of tumor microenvironment such as hypoxia often limit the efficacies in both types of cancer therapies. Herein, catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme, is encapsulated inside liposomes constituted by cisplatin (IV)-prodrug-conjugated phospholipid, forming CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome for enhanced chemo-radiotherapy of cancer. After being loaded inside liposomes, CAT within CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome shows retained and well-protected enzyme activity, and is able to trigger decomposition of H 2 O 2 produced by tumor cells, so as to produce additional oxygen for hypoxia relief. As the result, treatment of CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome induces the highest level of DNA damage in cancer cells after X-ray radiation compared to the control groups. In vivo tumor treatment further demonstrates a remarkably improved therapeutic outcome in chemo-radiotherapy with such CAT@Pt (IV)-liposome nanoparticles. Hence, an exquisite type of liposome-based nanoparticles is developed in this work by integrating cisplatin-based chemotherapy and catalase-induced tumor hypoxia relief together for combined chemo-radiotherapy with great synergistic efficacy, promising for clinical translation in cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Folate Receptor-targeted Bioflavonoid Genistein-loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for Enhanced Anticancer Effect in Cervical Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Limei; Yu, Rufen; Hao, Xi; Ding, Xiangcui

    2017-08-01

    In this study, novel folic acid-conjugated chitosan nanoparticle was formulated for specific delivery of bioflavonoid, Genistein (GEN), to the cervical cancer cells. The prepared GEN-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (GCN) and folic acid-conjugated GCN (FGCN) showed smaller size with a controlled drug release profile. FGCN exhibited enhanced internalization potential in HeLa cells than that of GCN. The specific internalization of FGCN was mainly due to the affinity of folic acid (FA) with FRs-α which is present in large numbers in HeLa cells. The results revealed that FGCN has a specific affinity towards HeLa cells that will contribute to the better treatment. Folic acid-tagged nanoformulations exhibited a superior cytotoxic effect compared to that of non-targeted formulations. Consistently, IC50 value of GEN decreased from 33.8 to 14.6 μg/ml when treated with FGCN after 24 h incubation. The apoptosis studies indicated that the FGCN nanoparticles were then either GCN or free GEN in terms of anticancer activity. Overall, results revealed that folate conjugation to the delivery system might have great effect on the survival of cervical cancers that will be beneficial for overall cancer treatment.

  13. Enhancing Bone Accretion Using Short Duration, Low-Level Mechanical Vibrations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Judex, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    .... In this second annual report, data are presented that indicate that the efficacy of extremely low-level whole-body mechanical vibrations can be enhanced by altering the number of daily loading...

  14. Silver-loaded nanotubular structures enhanced bactericidal efficiency of antibiotics with synergistic effect in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu N

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Xu,1,2,* Hao Cheng,3,4,* Jiangwen Xu,1 Feng Li,3 Biao Gao,1 Zi Li,3 Chenghao Gao,3 Kaifu Huo,5 Jijiang Fu,1,2 Wei Xiong3 1The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 2Institute of Biology and Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 3Orthopaedic Department, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 4Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a major issue due to the long-term use and abuse of antibiotics in treatments in clinics. The combination therapy of antibiotics and silver (Ag nanoparticles is an effective way of both enhancing the antibacterial effect and decreasing the usage of antibiotics. Although the method has been proved to be effective in vitro, no in vivo tests have been carried out at present. Herein, we described a combination therapy of local delivery of Ag and systemic antibiotics treatment in vitro in an infection model of rat. Ag nanoparticle-loaded TiO2 nanotube (NT arrays (Ag-NTs were fabricated on titanium implants for a customized release of Ag ion. The antibacterial properties of silver combined with antibiotics vancomycin, rifampin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin, respectively, were tested in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay, disk diffusion assay, and antibiofilm formation test. Enhanced antibacterial activity of combination therapy was observed for all the chosen bacterial strains, including gram-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, gram

  15. Increasing minimum daily temperatures are associated with enhanced pesticide use in cultivated soybean along a latitudinal gradient in the mid-western United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis H Ziska

    Full Text Available Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013 from -28.6°C (Minnesota to -5.1°C (Louisiana. Although soybean yields (per hectare did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013 indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023 showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising

  16. WWC Review of the Report "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Special Education Programming for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using a Daily Report Card"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study described in this report examined whether the use of "daily report cards" ("DRCs") in elementary school classrooms improved behavior and academic achievement among students diagnosed with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant…

  17. Enhanced oral bioavailability and anticancer activity of novel curcumin loaded mixed micelles in human lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharvil; Choudhary, Bhavana; Rathore, Atul; Roy, Krishtey; Mahadik, Kakasaheb

    2015-11-15

    Curcumin has a wide range of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antibacterial, wound healing, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective and anti-carcinogenic. However, its clinical applications are limited owing to its poor aqueous solubility, multidrug pump P-gp efflux, extensive in vivo metabolism and rapid elimination due to glucuronidation/sulfation. The objective of the current work was to prepare novel curcumin loaded mixed micelles (CUR-MM) of Pluronic F-127 (PF127) and Gelucire® 44/14 (GL44) in order to enhance its oral bioavailability and cytotoxicity in human lung cancer cell line A549. 3(2) Factorial design was used to assess the effect of formulation variables for optimization of mixed micelle batch. CUR-MM was prepared by a solvent evaporation method. The optimized CUR-MM was evaluated for size, entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro curcumin release, cytotoxicity and oral bioavailability in rats. The average size of CUR-MM was found to be around 188 ± 3 nm with an EE of about 76.45 ± 1.18% w/w. In vitro dissolution profile of CUR-MM revealed controlled release of curcumin. Additionally, CUR-MM showed significant improvement in cytotoxic activity (3-folds) and oral bioavailability (around 55-folds) of curcumin as compared to curcumin alone. Such significant improvement in cytotoxic activity and oral bioavailability of curcumin when formulated into mixed micelles could be attributed to solubilization of hydrophobic curcumin into micelle core along with P-gp inhibition effect of both, PF127 and GL44. Thus the present work propose the formulation of mixed micelles of PF127 and GL44 which can act as promising carrier systems for hydrophobic drugs such as curcumin with significant improvement in their oral bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Batch medication of intestinal infections in nursery pigs-A randomised clinical trial on the efficacy of treatment strategy, type of antibiotic and bacterial load on average daily weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nicolai Rosager; Pedersen, Ken Steen; Hansen, Christian Fink; Denwood, Matthew; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2017-02-01

    Previous research projects have demonstrated the need for better diagnostic tools to support decisions on medication strategies for infections caused by Escherichia coli F4 (F4) and F18 (F18), Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) and Brachyspira pilosicoli (PILO). This study was carried out as a randomised clinical trial in three Danish pig herds and included 1047 nursery pigs, distributed over 10 batches and 78 pens. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the effect of four 5-day treatment strategies (initiated at clinical outbreak of diarrhoea or at fixed time points 14, 21, or 28days after weaning) on average daily weight gain (ADG); (2) to compare the effect of treatment with doxycycline or tylosine on diarrhoea prevalence, pathogenic bacterial load, and ADG; (3) to evaluate PCR testing of faecal pen floor samples as a diagnostic tool for determining the optimal time of treatment. (1) The four treatment strategies had a significant overall effect on ADG (p=0.01). Pigs starting treatment 14days after weaning had a significantly higher ADG (42 g) compared to pigs treated on day 28 (p=0.01). (2) When measured 2days after treatment, doxycycline treatment resulted in fewer LI-positive pens (p=0.004), lower excretion levels of LI (p=0.013), and fewer pens with a high level of LI (p=0.031) compared to pens treated with tylosine. There was no significant difference in F4, F18 and PILO levels after treatment with the two antibiotic compounds. There was a significant difference (p=0.04) of mean diarrhoea prevalence on day 21 of the study between pens treated with tylosine (0.254, 95% CI: 0.184-0.324), and doxycycline (0.167, 95% CI: 0.124-0.210). The type of antibiotic compound was not found to have a significant effect on ADG (p=0.209). (3) Pigs starting treatment on day 14 in pens where F4, F18, LI or PILO were detected by qPCR on the pen floor had a statistically significant increase in ADG (66g) compared to pigs treated on day 14 in pens where no enteric pathogens

  19. Relationships Among Nightly Sleep Quality, Daily Stress, and Daily Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D

    2017-05-01

    We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Enhanced antidepressant-like effects of the macromolecule trefoil factor 3 by loading into negatively charged liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jing Qin,1 Xu Yang,1–3 Jia Mi,4 Jianxin Wang,1 Jia Hou,1,2 Teng Shen,1 Yongji Li,2 Bin Wang,4 Xuri Li,4 Weili Zhu5 1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, Shanghai, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, 4Binzhou Medical University, Yantai, 5National Institute on Drug Dependence, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Immunocytes, mainly neutrophils and monocytes, exhibit an intrinsic homing property, enabling them to migrate to sites of injury and inflammation. They can thus act as Trojan horses carrying concealed drug cargoes while migrating across impermeable barriers to sites of disease, especially the blood–brain barrier (BBB. In this study, to target circulating phagocytic cells, we formulated negatively charged nanosize liposomes and loaded trefoil factor 3 (TFF3 into liposomes by the pH-gradient method. According to the optimized formulation (5:1.5 of lipid to cholesterol, 10:1 of lipid to drug, 10 mg/mL of lipid concentration, and 10 mmol/L of phosphate-buffered saline, 44.47% entrapment efficiency was obtained for TFF3 liposomes with 129.6 nm particle size and –36.6 mV zeta potential. Compared with neutrally charged liposomes, the negatively charged liposomes showed a strong binding capacity with monocytes and were effectively carried by monocytes to cross the BBB in vitro. Furthermore, enhanced antidepressant-like effects were found in the tail-suspension and forced-swim tests in mice, as measured by decreased immobility time, as well as increased swimming time and reduced immobility in rats. These results suggested that negatively charged liposomes could improve the behavioral responses of TFF3, and our study opens up a new way for the development of

  1. A simple UV-ozone surface treatment to enhance photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 loaded polymer nanofiber membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Dilpazir, S.

    2016-01-29

    Homogeneously dispersed titanium dioxide loaded polyacrylonitrile nanofiber membranes with increased active mass loading, Ti3+ surface defects and hydrophilicity were fabricated by combining electrospinning and UV-ozone surface treatment. The photocatalytic activity improved by a factor of ∼2 and the kinetics of photodegradation switched from pseudo-first order to pseudo-second order with increasing TiO2 content with a maximum rate constant of 20.7 h-1. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  2. Exercise does not enhance aged bone's impaired response to artificial loading in C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, Lee B; Udeh, Chinedu; Galea, Gabriel L; Lanyon, Lance E; Price, Joanna S

    2015-12-01

    Bones adapt their structure to their loading environment and so ensure that they become, and are maintained, sufficiently strong to withstand the loads to which they are habituated. The effectiveness of this process declines with age and bones become fragile fracturing with less force. This effect in humans also occurs in mice which experience age-related bone loss and reduced adaptation to loading. Exercise engenders many systemic and local muscular physiological responses as well as engendering local bone strain. To investigate whether these physiological responses influence bones' adaptive responses to mechanical strain we examined whether a period of treadmill exercise influenced the adaptive response to an associated period of artificial loading in young adult (17-week) and old (19-month) mice. After treadmill acclimatization, mice were exercised for 30 min three times per week for two weeks. Three hours after each exercise period, right tibiae were subjected to 40 cycles of non-invasive axial loading engendering peak strain of 2250 με. In both young and aged mice exercise increased cross-sectional muscle area and serum sclerostin concentration. In young mice it also increased serum IGF1. Exercise did not affect bone's adaptation to loading in any measured parameter in young or aged bone. These data demonstrate that a level of exercise sufficient to cause systemic changes in serum, and adaptive changes in local musculature, has no effect on bone's response to loading 3h later. This study provides no support for the beneficial effects of exercise on bone in the elderly being mediated by systemic or local muscle-derived effects rather than local adaptation to altered mechanical strain. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced visible-light-response photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chala, Sinaporn [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Khatcharin [Program of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Ubon Ratchathani 34000 (Thailand); Phanichphant, Sukon [Materials Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Inceesungvorn, Burapat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wetchakun, Natda, E-mail: natda_we@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} particles were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Physicochemical properties played a significant role in photocatalytic process. • All Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} samples showed higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiVO{sub 4}. • The Fe{sup 3+} ions may improve the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. - Abstract: Pure BiVO{sub 4} and nominal 0.5–5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} samples were synthesized by hydrothermal method. All samples were characterized in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The structure of all samples was single-phase monoclinic scheelite. The absorption spectrum of 5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} shifted to the visible region, suggesting the potential application of this material as a superior visible-light driven photocatalyst in comparison with pure BiVO{sub 4}. Photocatalytic activities of all photocatalyst samples were examined by studying the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results clearly showed that Fe-loaded BiVO{sub 4} sample exhibited remarkably higher activity than pure BiVO{sub 4}.

  4. Enhanced visible-light-response photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on Fe-loaded BiVO4 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chala, Sinaporn; Wetchakun, Khatcharin; Phanichphant, Sukon; Inceesungvorn, Burapat; Wetchakun, Natda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe-loaded BiVO 4 particles were prepared by hydrothermal method. • Physicochemical properties played a significant role in photocatalytic process. • All Fe-loaded BiVO 4 samples showed higher photocatalytic activity than pure BiVO 4 . • The Fe 3+ ions may improve the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. - Abstract: Pure BiVO 4 and nominal 0.5–5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO 4 samples were synthesized by hydrothermal method. All samples were characterized in order to obtain the correlation between structure and photocatalytic properties by X-ray diffraction, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, photoluminescence spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. The structure of all samples was single-phase monoclinic scheelite. The absorption spectrum of 5.0 mol% Fe-loaded BiVO 4 shifted to the visible region, suggesting the potential application of this material as a superior visible-light driven photocatalyst in comparison with pure BiVO 4 . Photocatalytic activities of all photocatalyst samples were examined by studying the degradation of methylene blue under visible light irradiation. The results clearly showed that Fe-loaded BiVO 4 sample exhibited remarkably higher activity than pure BiVO 4

  5. Enhancing memory and activities of daily living in patients with early Alzheimer's disease using memory stimulation intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Bajpai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of memory stimulation intervention added to donepezil treatment as compared to donepezil alone in patients with early Alzheimer's disease (eAD. Materials and Methods: Patients in the combined treatment group (CTG = 21 received standard dosages of donepezil and weekly memory stimulation activities sessions for 2 months, whereas the treatment as usual group (TAU = 22 received only standard dosages of donepezil. Each session had extensive tasks on memory and its implied practice on instrumental activities of daily living. After 8 sessions, both groups were evaluated for changes in memory and functional outcomes by administering the mini-mental state examination (MMSE, memory (Postgraduate Institute of Memory Scale, and instrumental activities of daily living scale (IADLS. This trial was registered on the Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI/2014/04/004550. Results: Statistical analysis was done using independent t-test, which revealed a significant difference between the groups on MMSE, memory, and IADLS post intervention. The MMSE score in the TAU group, while it increased in the CTG group by 4 points. A similar trend was evident in the memory and IADLS scores as well. Effect size in the CTG group was relatively large as compared to the TAU group where the effects were small and negative on some outcomes. Conclusion: The CTG group showed positive treatment effect on cognitive tests suggesting that combined memory stimulation and donepezil treatment has potential to improve the cognitive and functional performance of patients with eAD.

  6. Synthesis and their enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion heterostructures under solar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guanying; Du, Bin; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Liang, Yujie; Shi, Honglong; Wang, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzhwangmuc@163.com

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • ZnO/CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures were fabricated for the first time. • ZnO/CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures show enhanced PEC activity. • ZnO nanoparticle loading contents have significant effect on PEC water splitting. • Interaction, charge transfer and enhanced mechanism of photocatalyst were proposed. • p-n junction drives the photoexcited charges efficient separation. - Abstract: Here we report an easy and large-scale synthesis of three-dimensional (3D) ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion (denoted as n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion) heterostructures and their photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under simulated solar light illumination. CuO dandelions were fabricated by a facile and cost-effective chemical strategy, in which the ribbon-like CuO nanoplates were first formed and then assembled into dandelion-like architectures. ZnO nanoparticle-loaded CuO dandelion heterostructures were fabricated by calcining Zn(Ac){sub 2}-loaded CuO dandelions. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) studies demonstrate that intimate p-n junction is built between p-CuO and n-ZnO interface. The n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion photoelectrodes exhibit significant improvement in PEC water splitting to CuO dandelion photoelectrodes. The correlation between photocurrents and different loading contents of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) is studied in which the n-ZnO/p-CuO nanoparticle/dandelion heterostructures with loading 4.6 wt% ZnO NPs show higher photocathodic current. The efficient separation of the photogenerated electrons and holes driven by the intimate p-n junction between p-type CuO and n-type ZnO interface is mainly contributed to the enhanced photoanode current. The achieved results in the present study offer a very useful strategy for designing p-n junction photoelectrodes for efficiency and low-cost PEC cells for clean solar hydrogen production.

  7. Synthesis of Ag-loaded SrTiO_3/TiO_2 heterostructure nanotube arrays for enhanced photocatalytic performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zijun; Chen, Da; Zhan, Xiaqiang; Wang, Fang; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the effect of loading Ag nanoparticles on the photocatalytic activity of SrTiO_3/TiO_2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) was investigated. TNTAs were partially transformed to SrTiO_3 through a hydrothermal treatment, which could preserve the tubular structure of TNTAs, and then, Ag nanoparticles were well deposited on the surface of SrTiO_3/TNTAs heterostructure by a chemical reduction process. Compared to the TNTAs sample, the Ag-loaded SrTiO_3/TNTAs sample showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activities for photodegradation of rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag-loaded SrTiO_3/TNTAs could be attributed to the increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer and separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs induced by the SrTiO_3/TNTAs heterojunction and the Schottky barrier between metallic Ag and SrTiO_3/TNTAs. On the basis of the trapping experiments, the possible photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. (orig.)

  8. Synthesis of Ag-loaded SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} heterostructure nanotube arrays for enhanced photocatalytic performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zijun; Chen, Da; Zhan, Xiaqiang; Wang, Fang; Qin, Laishun; Huang, Yuexiang [China Jiliang University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this work, the effect of loading Ag nanoparticles on the photocatalytic activity of SrTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNTAs) was investigated. TNTAs were partially transformed to SrTiO{sub 3} through a hydrothermal treatment, which could preserve the tubular structure of TNTAs, and then, Ag nanoparticles were well deposited on the surface of SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs heterostructure by a chemical reduction process. Compared to the TNTAs sample, the Ag-loaded SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs sample showed significantly enhanced photocatalytic activities for photodegradation of rhodamine B. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of Ag-loaded SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs could be attributed to the increased optical absorption as well as the efficient charge transfer and separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs induced by the SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs heterojunction and the Schottky barrier between metallic Ag and SrTiO{sub 3}/TNTAs. On the basis of the trapping experiments, the possible photocatalytic mechanism was also discussed. (orig.)

  9. Dietary supplementation with essence of chicken enhances daily oscillations in plasma glucocorticoid levels and behavioral adaptation to the phase-shifted environmental light–dark cycle in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adila Dilixiati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of circadian rhythms is essential to many aspects of human health, including metabolism and neurological and psychiatric well-being. Chronic disruption of circadian clock function is implicated in increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events and development of cancers. However, there are little approaches to reinforce the function of circadian clock for prevention of these diseases. Essence of Chicken (EC is a nutritional supplement that is traditionally made by extracting water soluble substances derived from cooking the whole chicken. In this study, we found that dietary supplementation with EC enhanced circadian oscillation of glucocorticoid secretion in mice, and this was accompanied by enhancement of circadian oscillation in the adrenal expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein that mediates the rate-limiting step of glucocorticoid synthesis. Furthermore, EC facilitated re-entrainment of behavioral rhythm in mice when phase of the light–dark cycle was suddenly advanced. These results suggest that intake of EC has enhancement effect on circadian clock function in mice, which may contribute to sustain health and also offer new preventive strategies against circadian-related diseases.

  10. anisotropic crack modelling of reinforced concrete structures with an enhanced kinematics: application to bidimensional elements under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishta, Ejona

    2016-01-01

    Civil engineering buildings, massive and unique, are mostly made of reinforced or prestressed concrete. Sustainability, tightness and safety are the major pillars of a building's performance. Cracking is a major phenomenon which impacts the buildings' behaviour under different loadings in terms of sustainability and structural capacity. Development of numerical models which describe accurately the response of quasi-brittle materials under complex loading remains an important research topic for the scientific community. The objective of this work is the development of a numerical model which represents explicitly cracking of reinforced concrete structures. Concrete and reinforced concrete degradation process, characterised by the appearance of several anisotropic crack families, is described by means of an anisotropic damage model accounting for oriented crack families. The kinematics of this model is enriched with a displacement jump in order to reproduce the development of cracks in the material during loading. This displacement jump is identified as the crack opening. The developed model is validated on simulations of plain concrete structures exhibiting model as well as mixed-mode failure. The performances of the enriched model are shown by the simulation of reinforced concrete structures such as a shear wall submitted to cyclic loading. (author) [fr

  11. Minocycline enhances the mesenchymal stromal/stem cell pro-healing phenotype in triple antimicrobial-loaded hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Alberto Daniel; Rose, Warren E; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, W John

    2017-03-15

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated pro-healing properties including an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile and the promotion of angiogenesis via expression of growth factors in pre-clinical models. MSCs encapsulated in poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGdA) and thiolated gelatin poly(ethylene glycol) (Gel-PEG-Cys) crosslinked hydrogels have led to controlled cellular presentation at wound sites with favorable wound healing outcomes. However, the therapeutic potential of MSC-loaded hydrogels may be limited by non-specific protein adsorption on the delivery matrix that could facilitate the initial adhesion of microorganisms and subsequent virulent biofilm formation. Antimicrobials loaded concurrently in the hydrogels with MSCs could reduce microbial bioburden and promote healing, but the antimicrobial effect on the MSC wound healing capacity and the antibacterial efficacy of the hydrogels is unknown. We demonstrate that minocycline specifically induces a favorable change in MSC migration capacity, proliferation, gene expression, extracellular matrix (ECM) attachment, and adhesion molecule and growth factor release with subsequent increased angiogenesis. We then demonstrate that hydrogels loaded with MSCs, minocycline, vancomycin, and linezolid can significantly decrease bacterial bioburden. Our study suggests that minocycline can serve as a dual mechanism for the regenerative capacity of MSCs and the reduction of bioburden in triple antimicrobial-loaded hydrogels. Wound healing is a complex biological process that can be hindered by bacterial infection, excessive inflammation, and inadequate microvasculature. In this study, we develop a new formulation of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and thiolated gelatin poly(ethylene glycol) crosslinked hydrogels loaded with minocycline, vancomycin, linezolid, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells that induces a favorable wound healing phenotype in mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and prevents bacterial

  12. Clarithromycin highly-loaded gastro-floating fine granules prepared by high-shear melt granulation can enhance the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hajime; Iwao, Yasunori; Mizoguchi, Midori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-05-01

    In an effort to develop a new gastro-retentive drug delivery system (GRDDS) without a large amount of additives, 75% clarithromycin (CAM) loaded fine granules were prepared with three different hydrophobic binders by high-shear melt granulation and their properties were evaluated. Granules containing the higher hydrophobic binder showed sustained drug release and were able to float over 24h. The synchrotron X-ray CT measurement indicated that both the high hydrophobicity of the binder and the void space inside the granules might be involved in their buoyancy. In an in vivo experiment, the floating granules more effectively eradicated Helicobacter pylori than a CAM suspension by remaining in the stomach for a longer period. In short, CAM highly-loaded gastro-floating fine granules can enhance the eradication efficiency of H. pylori compared with CAM alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of polymer composites with thermoplastic UHMWPE and PEEK matrices by loading carbon nanofibers/nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Anh, Nguyen Duc; Alexenko, V. O.; Ivanova, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    For comparative evaluation of the influence of carbon nanofiber/nanotube loading in two different thermoplastic matrices (UHMWPE and PEEK), some mechanical and tribotechnical properties of the nanocomposites have been studied. It is shown that mechanical properties of nanocomposites change in various manners with increasing loading of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes. Herewith, the wear resistance of the "UHMWPE+1 wt% CNF and PEEK + 1 wt% CNF" composites under dry sliding friction is doubled. It is shown that, regardless of various effects on permolecular structure formation, the studied nanofillers enhance the wear resistance of the composites in a similar manner. A comparative analysis of the influence of nanofillers on the modification of mechanical and tribotechnical properties of UHMWPE- and PEEK-based matrices is made.

  14. Silk coating on a bioactive ceramic scaffold for bone regeneration: effective enhancement of mechanical and in vitro osteogenic properties towards load-bearing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiao Jiao; Roohani-Esfahani, Seyed-Iman; Kim, Kyungsook; Kaplan, David L; Zreiqat, Hala

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive ceramic scaffolds represent competitive choices for clinical bone reconstruction, but their widespread use is restricted by inherent brittleness and weak mechanical performance under load. This study reports the development of strong and tough bioactive scaffolds suitable for use in load-bearing bone reconstruction. A strong and bioactive ceramic scaffold (strontium-hardystonite-gahnite) is combined with single and multiple coating layers of silk fibroin to enhance its toughness, producing composite scaffolds which match the mechanical properties of cancellous bone and show enhanced capacity to promote in vitro osteogenesis. Also reported for the first time is a comparison of the coating effects obtained when a polymeric material is coated on ceramic scaffolds with differing microstructures, namely the strontium-hardystonite-gahnite scaffold with high-density struts as opposed to a conventional ceramic scaffold, such as biphasic calcium phosphate, with low-density struts. The results show that silk coating on a unique ceramic scaffold can lead to simple and effective enhancement of its mechanical and biological properties to suit a wider range of applications in clinical bone reconstruction, and also establish the influence of ceramic microstructure on the effectiveness of silk coating as a method of reinforcement when applied to different types of ceramic bone graft substitutes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Physical activity monitors to enhance the daily amount of physical activity in elderly—a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus Tolstrup; Christensen, Jan; Juhl, Carsten B

    2018-01-01

    Background: To investigate the use of physical activity monitors (PAMs) for the elderly, the scientific literature should be systematically reviewed and the effect quantified, as the evidence seems inconclusive. Methods and design: Randomized controlled trials and randomized crossover trials...... table. Discussion: This paper will explore and analyze the heterogeneity of the results and try to identify variables that will enhance the effect of PAMs in elderly. The results will be useful to researchers working with elderly and/or PAMs, health care professionals working with elderly, and relatives...... together with the elderly themselves. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42018083648....

  16. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  17. Polyelectrolyte-based electrochemiluminescence enhancement for Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} loaded by SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle carrier and its high sensitive immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Zhi-Li; Song, Tian-Mei; Chen, Zhe [College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Guo, Wu-Run [College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong 637002 (China); Xie, Hong-Ping, E-mail: hpxie@suda.edu.cn [College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xie, Lian, E-mail: xielian@suda.edu.cn [College of Pharmaceutical Science, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-03-03

    Highlights: • Preparation of strong ECL nanoparticles PAA–Ru@SiO{sub 2}/[PAA⋯Ru&Nafion⋯Ru]. • Ion-pair macromolecule PAA–Ru formed to greatly increase the doping amount. • PAA&Nafion membrane increased the amount of ion-exchanged Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. • PAA&Nafion membrane enhanced the ability of electron transfer. • Realized antibody labeling and established a high-sensitive immunoassay. - Abstract: In this paper the strong electrochemiluminescence (ECL) nanoparticles have been prepared based on the anionic polyelectrolyte sodium polyacrylate (PAA)-ECL enhancement for Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, which were loaded by the carrier of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticle. There were two kinds of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} for the as-prepared nanoparticles, the doped one and the exchanged one. The former was loaded inside the ECL nanoparticles by doping, in a form of ion-pair macromolecules PAA–Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. The corresponding ECL was enhanced about 2 times owing to the doping increase of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. The latter was loaded on the PAA-doped Nafion membrane by ion exchange. The corresponding ECL was enhanced about 3 times owing to the ion-exchanging increase of Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+}. At the same time, ECL intensity of the doped-inside Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} was further enhanced 13 times because polyelectrolyte PAA in the doped membrane could obviously enhance electron transfer between the doped Ru(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+} and the working electrode. Furthermore, based on hydrophobic regions of the doped membrane antibody labeling could be easily realized by the as-prepared nanoparticles and then a high sensitive ECL immunoassay for HBsAg was developed. The linear range was between 1.0 and 100 pg mL{sup −1} (R{sup 2} = 0.9912). The detection limit could be as low as 0.11 pg mL{sup −1} (signal-to-noise ratio = 3)

  18. Fabrication of uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles loaded TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays for enhancing photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Junhui; Zhang, Shengsen; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Peng, Feng, E-mail: cefpeng@scut.edu.cn

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully loaded on both the outer and inner surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs) through a simple polyol method, which exhibited the enhanced photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances under visible-light irradiation due to the more effective separation of photo-generated electron–hole pairs and faster interfacial charge transfer. - Highlights: • Highly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are successfully prepared by polyol method. • Ag NPs are uniformly loaded on the surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs). • Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs exhibit the enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light. • The enhanced photocurrent is explained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. - Abstract: Uniformly dispersed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully loaded on both the outer and inner surface of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (NTs) through a simple polyol method. The as-prepared Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV–vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy. Photoelectrochemical behaviors were investigated via photocurrent response and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs was evaluated by degradation of acid orange II under visible light irradiation. The results showed that photocatalytic efficiency of Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs is more than 5 times higher than that of pure TiO{sub 2} NTs. Comparing with the electrochemical deposition method, the photocatalytic activity of Ag/TiO{sub 2}-NTs prepared by polyol method has been obviously increased.

  19. Effect of Enhanced Air Temperature (extreme heat, and Load of Non-Linear Against the Use of Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage Electric power is very easy to do, because the infrastructure for connecting  already available and widely sold. Consumption electric power is not accompanied by the ability to recognize electric power. The average increase of electricity power in Bali in extreme weather reaches 10% in years 2014, so that Bali suffered power shortages and PLN as the manager of electric power to perform scheduling on of electric power usage. Scheduling is done because many people use electric power as the load  of fan and Air Conditioner exceeding the previous time. Load of fan, air conditioning, and computers including non-linear loads which can add heat on the conductor of electricity. Non-linear load and hot weather can lead to heat on conductor so  insulation damaged  and cause electrical short circuit. Data of electric power obtained through questionnaires, surveys, measurement and retrieve data from various parties. Fires that occurred in 2014, namely 109 events, 44 is  event caused by an electric short circuit (approximately 40%. Decrease power factors can cause losses of electricity and hot. Heat can cause and adds heat on the  conductor electric. The analysis showed  understanding electric power of the average  is 27,700 with value between 20 to 40. So an understanding of the electrical power away from the understand so that many errors because of the act own. Installation tool ELCB very necessary but very necessary provide counseling   of electricity to the community.

  20. Examining the effects of enhanced provider-patient communication on postoperative tonsillectomy pain: protocol of a randomised controlled trial performed by nurses in daily clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Liesbeth M; van Dulmen, Sandra; Thiel, Bram; van Deelen, Gerard W; Immerzeel, Stephanie; Godfried, Marc B; Bensing, Jozien M

    2017-11-03

    Placebo effects (true biopsychological effects not attributable to the active ingredients of medical technical interventions) can be attributed to several mechanisms, such as expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation elicited by a provider's communication. So far, effects have primarily been shown in laboratory settings. The aim of this study is to determine the separate and combined effects of expectancy manipulation and empathy manipulation during preoperative and postoperative tonsillectomy analgesia care on clinical adult patients' outcomes. Using a two-by-two randomised controlled trial, 128 adult tonsillectomy patients will be randomly assigned to one out of four conditions differing in the level of expectancy manipulation (standard vs enhanced) and empathy manipulation (standard vs enhanced). Day care ward nurses are trained to deliver the intervention, while patients are treated via the standard analgesia protocol and hospital routines. The primary outcome, perceived pain, is measured via hospital routine by a Numeric Rating Scale, and additional prehospitalisation, perihospitalisation and posthospitalisation questionnaires are completed (until day 3, ie, 2 days after the operation). The manipulation is checked using audio recordings of nurse-patient interactions. Although communication is manipulated, the manipulations do not cross norms or values of acceptable behaviour. Standard medical care is provided. The ethical committee of the UMC Utrecht and the local OLVG hospital committee approved the study. Results will be published via (inter)national peer-reviewed journals and a lay publication. NTR5994; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  2. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  3. Coordination of different ligands to copper(II) and cobalt(III) metal centers enhances Zika virus and dengue virus loads in both arthropod cells and human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Shovan; Celestine, Michael J; Khanal, Supreet; Huddleston, Alexis; Simms, Colin; Arca, Jessa Faye; Mitra, Amlan; Heller, Loree; Kraj, Piotr J; Ledizet, Michel; Anderson, John F; Neelakanta, Girish; Holder, Alvin A; Sultana, Hameeda

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz., (E)-N-ethyl-2-[1-(thiazol-2-yl)ethylidene]hydrazinecarbothioamide (acetylethTSC) (compound 1), a copper(II) complex with acetylethTSC as a ligand (compound 2), a thiosemicarbazone ligand-derived from citral (compound 3) and a cobalt(III) complex with a citral-thiosemicarbazone ligand (compound 4) increased DENV2 and ZIKV replication in both mosquito C6/36 cells and human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). Treatment of both cell lines with compounds 2 or 4 showed increased dengue viral titers at all three tested doses. Enhanced dengue viral plaque formation was also noted at the tested dose of 100μM, suggesting higher production of infectious viral particles. Treatment with the compounds 2 or 4 enhanced ZIKV and DENV2 RNA levels in HeLa cell line and primary cultures of mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells. Also, pre- or post treatments with conjugated compounds 2 or 4 showed higher loads of ZIKV or DENV2 envelope (E) protein in HaCaT cells. No changes in loads of E-protein were found in ZIKV-infected C6/36 cells, when compounds were treated after infection. In addition, we tested bis(1,10-phenanthroline)copper(II) chloride ([Cu(phen) 2 ]Cl 2 , (compound 5) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III) chloride ([Co(phen) 3 ]Cl 3 , (compound 6) that also showed enhanced DENV2 loads. Also, we found that copper(II) chloride dehydrate (CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O) or cobalt(II) chloride hexahydrate (CoCl 2 ·6H 2 O) alone had no effects as "free" cations

  4. Fc receptor-targeting of immunogen as a strategy for enhanced antigen loading, vaccination, and protection using intranasally administered antigen-pulsed dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H; Iglesias, Bibiana V; Gosselin, Edmund J

    2014-09-08

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using a Francisella tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR-targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fc Receptor-Targeting of Immunogen as a Strategy for Enhanced Antigen Loading, Vaccination, and Protection Using Intranasally-Administered Antigen-Pulsed Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Giang H.; Iglesias, Bibiana V.; Gosselin, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the generation of adaptive immunity via the efficient capture, processing, and presentation of antigen (Ag) to naïve T cells. Administration of Ag-pulsed DCs is also an effective strategy for enhancing immunity to tumors and infectious disease organisms. Studies have also demonstrated that targeting Ags to Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on Ag presenting cells can enhance humoral and cellular immunity in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, our studies using an F. tularensis (Ft) infectious disease vaccine model have demonstrated that targeting immunogens to FcγR via intranasal (i.n.) administration of monoclonal antibody (mAb)-inactivated Ft (iFt) immune complexes (ICs) enhances protection against Ft challenge. Ft is the causative agent of tularemia, a debilitating disease of humans and other mammals and a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine. Therefore, using iFt Ag as a model immunogen, we sought to determine if ex vivo targeting of iFt to FcγR on DCs would enhance the potency of i.n. administered iFt-pulsed DCs. In this study, bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) were pulsed ex vivo with iFt or mAb-iFt ICs. Intranasal administration of mAb-iFt-pulsed BMDCs enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses, as well as protection against Ft live vaccine strain (LVS) challenge. Increased protection correlated with increased iFt loading on the BMDC surface as a consequence of FcγR targeting. However, the inhibitory FcγRIIB had no impact on this enhancement. In conclusion, targeting Ag ex vivo to FcγR on DCs provides a method for enhanced Ag loading of DCs ex vivo, thereby reducing the amount of Ag required, while also avoiding the inhibitory impact of FcγRIIB. Thus, this represents a simple and less invasive strategy for increasing the potency of ex vivo-pulsed DC vaccines against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:25068496

  6. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8....... No changes in blood pressure or urinary albumin excretion rates took place in either group. The reduction in plasma protein and in plasma growth hormone concentration were similar in the two groups. No change was seen in plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. There was no difference in the qualitative...

  7. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipson, A.G.; Miley, G.H. [University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign, lL (United States); Lipson, A.G.; Lyakhov, B.F. [lnstitute of Physical Chemistry, The Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Roussetski, A.S. [P. N. Lebedev Physics Institute, The Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate reproducible emissions of energetic alphas and protons appearing in an energy range where both cosmic ray interference and possible alpha emissions from contamination (e.g., radon) is assumed to be negligible. We also show that, {sup 4}He doping of Pd and Ti cathodes leads to a significant enhancement of the energetic charged particles emission (ECPE). This measurement of the emissions of energetic (MeV) particles, in a region of low background interference plus their enhancement by {sup 4}He doping provides very strong support for the existence of LENR processes in the crystalline lattice of deuterated metals. (authors)

  8. Energetic Charged Particle Emission from Hydrogen-Loaded pd and ti Cathodes and its Enhancement by He-4 Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, A. G.; Miley, G. H.; Lipson, A. G.; Lyakhov, B. F.; Roussetski, A. S.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate reproducible emissions of energetic alphas and protons appearing in an energy range where both cosmic ray interference and possible alpha emissions from contamination (e.g., radon) is assumed to be negligible. We also show that He4 doping of Pd and Ti cathodes leads to a significant enhancement of the energetic charged particles emission (ECPE). This measurement of the emissions of energetic (MeV) particles, in a region of low background interference plus their enhancement by He4 doping provides very strong support for the existence of LENR processes in the crystalline lattice of deuterated metals.

  9. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipson, A.G.; Miley, G.H.; Lipson, A.G.; Lyakhov, B.F.; Roussetski, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate reproducible emissions of energetic alphas and protons appearing in an energy range where both cosmic ray interference and possible alpha emissions from contamination (e.g., radon) is assumed to be negligible. We also show that, 4 He doping of Pd and Ti cathodes leads to a significant enhancement of the energetic charged particles emission (ECPE). This measurement of the emissions of energetic (MeV) particles, in a region of low background interference plus their enhancement by 4 He doping provides very strong support for the existence of LENR processes in the crystalline lattice of deuterated metals. (authors)

  10. An Enhanced Drought-Tolerant Method Using SA-Loaded PAMPS Polymer Materials Applied on Tobacco Pelleted Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important stress factors limiting the seed industry and crop production. Present study was undertaken to create novel drought-resistant pelleted seeds using the combined materials with superabsorbent polymer, poly(2-acrylamide-2-methyl propane sulfonic acid (PAMPS hydrogel, and drought resistance agent, salicylic acid (SA. The optimized PAMPS hydrogel was obtained as the molar ratio of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS to potassium peroxydisulfate (KPS and N, N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA was 1 : 0.00046 : 0.00134. The hydrogel weight after swelling in deionized water for 24 h reached 4306 times its own dry weight. The water retention ratio (RR of PAMPS was significantly higher as compared with the control. It could keep as high as 85.3% of original weight after 30 min at 110°C; even at 25°C for 40 d, the PAMPS still kept RR at 33.67%. PAMPS disintegration ratio increased gradually and reached around 30% after embedding in soil or activated sludge for 60 d. In addition, there were better seed germination performance and seedling growth in the pelleted treatments with SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel under drought stress than control. It suggested that SA-loaded PAMPS hydrogel, a nontoxic superabsorbent polymer, could be used as an effective drought resistance material applied to tobacco pelleted seeds.

  11. Enhancing load-following and/or spectral shift capability in single-sparger natural circulation boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterkamp, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for obtaining load-following capability in a coiling water reactor (BWR) wherein housed within a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is a nuclear core disposed within a shroud having a shroud head and which with the RPV defines an annulus region disposed beneath the nuclear core, an upper steam dome connected to a steam outlet in the RPV, a core upper plenum formed within the shroud head and disposed atop the nuclear core, a chimney mounted atop the shroud head and in fluid communication with the core upper plenum and with a steam separator having a skirt which is in fluid communication with the steam dome, the region outside of the chimney defining a downcomer region, there being a water level established therein under normal operation of the BWR, and the RPV containing a feedwater inlet. It comprises: disposing a single sparger connected to the feedwater inlet above the steam separator skirt bottom about the interior circumference of the RPV at an elevation at approximately the water level established during normal operation of the BWR; and adjusting the feedwater flow through the inlet and into the sparger to vary the water level to be above, at or below the elevational location of the sparger in response to load-following need

  12. Folate decorated dual drug loaded nanoparticle: role of curcumin in enhancing therapeutic potential of nutlin-3a by reversing multidrug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi Das

    Full Text Available Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular tumor in children. Malfunctioning of many signaling pathways regulating cell survival or apoptosis, make the disease more vulnerable. Notably, resistance to chemotherapy mediated by MRP-1, lung-resistance protein (LRP is the most challenging aspect to treat this disease. Presently, much attention has been given to the recently developed anticancer drug nutlin-3a because of its non-genotoxic nature and potency to activate tumor suppressor protein p53. However, being a substrate of multidrug resistance protein MRP1 and Pgp its application has become limited. Currently, research has step towards reversing Multi drug resistance (MDR by using curcumin, however its clinical relevance is restricted by plasma instability and poor bioavailability. In the present investigation we tried to encapsulate nutlin-3a and curcumin in PLGA nanoparticle (NPs surface functionalized with folate to enhance therapeutic potential of nutlin-3a by modulating MDR. We document that curcumin can inhibit the expression of MRP-1 and LRP gene/protein in a concentration dependent manner in Y79 cells. In vitro cellular cytotoxicity, cell cycle analysis and apoptosis studies were done to compare the effectiveness of native drugs (single or combined and single or dual drug loaded nanoparticles (unconjugated/folate conjugated. The result demonstrated an augmented therapeutic efficacy of targeted dual drug loaded NPs (Fol-Nut-Cur-NPs over other formulation. Enhanced expression or down regulation of proapoptotic/antiapoptotic proteins respectively and down-regulation of bcl2 and NFκB gene/protein by Fol-Nut-Cur-NPs substantiate the above findings. This is the first investigation exploring the role of curcumin as MDR modulator to enhance the therapeutic potentiality of nutlin-3a, which may opens new direction for targeting cancer with multidrug resistance phenotype.

  13. Addendum to the Principles And Practices Manual. Loading Rates and Impacts of Substrate Delivery for Enhanced Anaerobic Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    attenuation MSDS material safety data sheet NAVFAC ESC Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Engineering Services Center NDMA N-nitrosodimethylamine...compounds (ER-1607, ER-200425, and ER- 201028). N-nitrosodimethylamine ( NDMA ) is used with propellants and is a carcinogen and emerging groundwater...contaminant at a number of DoD and DOE facilities. NDMA may be amendable to enhanced in situ bioremediation (Szecsody et al., 2009; Hatzinger et al., 2008

  14. 2'-OMe-phosphorodithioate-modified siRNAs show increased loading into the RISC complex and enhanced anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherry Y; Yang, Xianbin; Gharpure, Kshipra M; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Egli, Martin; McGuire, Michael H; Nagaraja, Archana S; Miyake, Takahito M; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pecot, Chad V; Taylor, Morgan; Pradeep, Sunila; Sierant, Malgorzata; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Choi, Hyun J; Previs, Rebecca A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Huang, Li; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Ivan, Cristina; Sehgal, Vasudha; Singhania, Richa; Han, Hee-Dong; Su, Chang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Dalton, Heather J; Kovvali, Chandra; Keyomarsi, Khandan; McMillan, Nigel A J; Overwijk, Willem W; Liu, Jinsong; Lee, Ju-Seog; Baggerly, Keith A; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ram, Prahlad T; Nawrot, Barbara; Sood, Anil K

    2014-03-12

    Improving small interfering RNA (siRNA) efficacy in target cell populations remains a challenge to its clinical implementation. Here, we report a chemical modification, consisting of phosphorodithioate (PS2) and 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe) MePS2 on one nucleotide that significantly enhances potency and resistance to degradation for various siRNAs. We find enhanced potency stems from an unforeseen increase in siRNA loading to the RNA-induced silencing complex, likely due to the unique interaction mediated by 2'-OMe and PS2. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of MePS2 siRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer mouse models via targeting GRAM domain containing 1B (GRAMD1B), a protein involved in chemoresistance. GRAMD1B silencing is achieved in tumours following MePS2-modified siRNA treatment, leading to a synergistic anti-tumour effect in combination with paclitaxel. Given the previously limited success in enhancing siRNA potency with chemically modified siRNAs, our findings represent an important advance in siRNA design with the potential for application in numerous cancer types.

  15. 2’f-OMe-phosphorodithioate modified siRNAs show increased loading into the RISC complex and enhanced anti-tumour activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherry Y.; Yang, Xianbin; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Egli, Martin; McGuire, Michael H.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Miyake, Takahito M.; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pecot, Chad V.; Taylor, Morgan; Pradeep, Sunila; Sierant, Malgorzata; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Choi, Hyun J.; Previs, Rebecca A.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Huang, Li; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Ivan, Cristina; Sehgal, Vasudha; Singhania, Richa; Han, Hee-Dong; Su, Chang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Dalton, Heather J.; Kowali, Chandra; Keyomarsi, Khandan; McMillan, Nigel A.J.; Overwijk, Willem W.; Liu, Jinsong; Lee, Ju-Seog; Baggerly, Keith A.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ram, Prahlad T.; Nawrot, Barbara; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Improving small interfering RNA (siRNA) efficacy in target cell populations remains a challenge to its clinical implementation. Here, we report a chemical modification, consisting of phosphorodithioate (PS2) and 2’-O-Methyl (2’-OMe) MePS2 on one nucleotide that significantly enhances potency and resistance to degradation for various siRNAs. We find enhanced potency stems from an unforeseen increase in siRNA loading to the RNA-induced silencing complex, likely due to the unique interaction mediated by 2’-OMe and PS2. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of MePS2 siRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer mouse models via targeting GRAM Domain Containing 1B (GRAMD1B), a protein involved in chemoresistance. GRAMD1B silencing is achieved in tumors following MePS2-modified siRNA treatment, leading to a synergistic anti-tumor effect in combination with paclitaxel. Given the previously limited success in enhancing siRNA potency with chemically modified siRNAs, our findings represent an important advance in siRNA design with the potential for application in numerous cancer types. PMID:24619206

  16. Enhancing tablet disintegration characteristics of a highly water-soluble high-drug-loading formulation by granulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preetanshu; Levins, Christopher; Pafiakis, Steve; Zacour, Brian; Bindra, Dilbir S; Trinh, Jade; Buckley, David; Gour, Shruti; Sharif, Shasad; Stamato, Howard

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of a highly water-soluble tablet matrix by altering the manufacturing process. A high disintegration time along with high dependence of the disintegration time on tablet hardness was observed for a high drug loading (70% w/w) API when formulated using a high-shear wet granulation (HSWG) process. Keeping the formulation composition mostly constant, a fluid-bed granulation (FBG) process was explored as an alternate granulation method using a 2 (4-1) fractional factorial design with two center points. FBG batches (10 batches) were manufactured using varying disingtegrant amount, spray rate, inlet temperature (T) and atomization air pressure. The resultant final blend particle size was affected significantly by spray rate (p = .0009), inlet T (p = .0062), atomization air pressure (p = .0134) and the interaction effect between inlet T*spray rate (p = .0241). The compactibility of the final blend was affected significantly by disintegrant amount (p disintegration times than the HSWG batches, and mercury intrusion porosimetry data revealed that this was caused by the higher internal pore structure of tablets manufactured using the FBG batches.

  17. Enhancement of the energy storage properties of supercapacitors using graphene nanosheets dispersed with metal oxide-loaded carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhi, R. B.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2011-10-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) dispersed with SnO2 nanoparticles loaded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO2-MWCNTs) were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. SnO2-MWCNTs were obtained by a chemical method followed by calcination. GNs/SnO2-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared by ultrasonication of the GNs and SnO2-MWCNTs. Electrochemical double layer capacitors were fabricated using the composite as the electrode material and aqueous KOH as the electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes were compared to that of pure GNs electrodes and the results are discussed. Electrochemical measurements show that the maximum specific capacitance, power density and energy density obtained for supercapacitor using GNs/SnO2-MWCNTs nanocomposite electrodes were respectively 224 F g-1, 17.6 kW kg-1 and 31 Wh kg-1. The fabricated supercapacitor device exhibited excellent cycle life with ∼81% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 6000 cycles. The results suggest that the hybrid composite is a promising supercapacitor electrode material.

  18. Enhancement of the energy storage properties of supercapacitors using graphene nanosheets dispersed with metal oxide-loaded carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-10-01

    Graphene nanosheets (GNs) dispersed with SnO2 nanoparticles loaded multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO2-MWCNTs) were investigated as electrode materials for supercapacitors. SnO2-MWCNTs were obtained by a chemical method followed by calcination. GNs/SnO2-MWCNTs nanocomposites were prepared by ultrasonication of the GNs and SnO 2-MWCNTs. Electrochemical double layer capacitors were fabricated using the composite as the electrode material and aqueous KOH as the electrolyte. Electrochemical performance of the composite electrodes were compared to that of pure GNs electrodes and the results are discussed. Electrochemical measurements show that the maximum specific capacitance, power density and energy density obtained for supercapacitor using GNs/SnO 2-MWCNTs nanocomposite electrodes were respectively 224 F g -1, 17.6 kW kg-1 and 31 Wh kg-1. The fabricated supercapacitor device exhibited excellent cycle life with ∼81% of the initial specific capacitance retained after 6000 cycles. The results suggest that the hybrid composite is a promising supercapacitor electrode material. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Novel Absorbent of Nano-Fe Loaded Biomass Char and Its Enhanced Adsorption Capacity for Phosphate in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel composite adsorbent of Fe loaded biomass char (Fe-BC was fabricated to treat phosphorus in water. Fe-BC was prepared by a procedure including metal complex anion incorporation and precipitation with the pyrolysis char of corn straw as supporting material. The abundant porous structures of the as-prepared sample can be easily observed from its scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. Observations by X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses show that inorganic nanoiron oxides deposited in the composite could be amorphous hydrous iron oxide α-FeOOH. Adsorption of phosphate onto the Fe-BC composite and its precursor (BC from aqueous solutions were investigated and discussed. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate was described by Langmuir and Freundlich models, and Langmuir isotherm was found to be better fitted than Freundlich isotherm. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity for phosphate of Fe-BC was as high as 35.43 mg/g, approximately 2.3 times of BC at 25°C. The adsorption kinetics data were better fitted by pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model, indicating that the adsorption process was complex. The Fe-BC composite has been proved as an effective adsorbent of phosphate from aqueous solutions owing to its unique porous structures and the greater Lewis basicity of the α-FeOOH.

  20. Development and characterisation of electrospun timolol maleate-loaded polymeric contact lens coatings containing various permeation enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prina; Al-Kinani, Ali A; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Chang, Ming-Wei; Alany, Raid G; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2017-10-30

    Despite exponential growth in research relating to sustained and controlled ocular drug delivery, anatomical and chemical barriers of the eye still pose formulation challenges. Nanotechnology integration into the pharmaceutical industry has aided efforts in potential ocular drug device development. Here, the integration and in vitro effect of four different permeation enhancers (PEs) on the release of anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) from polymeric nanofiber formulations is explored. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering, more specifically electrospinning, was used to engineer nanofibers (NFs) which coated the exterior of contact lenses. Parameters used for engineering included flow rates ranging from 8 to 15μL/min and a novel EHD deposition system was used; capable of hosting four lenses, masked template and a ground electrode to direct charged atomised structures. SEM analysis of the electrospun structures confirmed the presence of smooth nano-fibers; whilst thermal analysis confirmed the stability of all formulations. In vitro release studies demonstrated a triphasic release; initial burst release with two subsequent sustained release phases with most of the drug being released after 24h (86.7%) Biological evaluation studies confirmed the tolerability of all formulations tested with release kinetics modelling results showing drug release was via quasi-Fickian or Fickian diffusion. There were evident differences (p<0.05) in TM release dependant on permeation enhancer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Poly(γ-glutamic acid)-coated lipoplexes loaded with Doxorubicin for enhancing the antitumor activity against liver tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Na; Tang, Bo; Liu, Guang; Liang, Xingsi

    2017-05-01

    The study was to develop poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA)-coated Doxorubicin (Dox) lipoplexes that enhance the antitumor activity against liver tumors. γ-PGA-coated lipoplexes were performed by electrostatistically attracting to the surface of cationic charge liposomes with anionic γ-PGA. With the increasing of γ-PGA concentration, the particle size of γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes slightly increased, the zeta potential from positive shifted to negative, and the entrapment efficiency (EE) were no significant change. The release rate of γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes slightly increased at acidic pH, the accelerated Dox release might be attributed to greater drug delivery to tumor cells, resulting in a higher antitumor activity. Especially, γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes exhibited higher cellular uptake, significant in vitro cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, and improved in vivo antitumor efficacy toward HepG2 hepatoma-xenografted nude models in comparison with Dox liposomes and free Dox solution. In addition, the analysis results via flow cytometry showed that γ-PGA-coated Dox lipoplexes induce S phase cell cycle arrest and significantly increased apoptosis rate of HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the presence of γ-PGA on the surface of Dox lipoplexes enhanced antitumor effects of liver tumors.

  2. Cystic echinococcosis therapy: Albendazole-loaded lipid nanocapsules enhance the oral bioavailability and efficacy in experimentally infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensel, Patricia E; Ullio Gamboa, Gabriela; Fabbri, Julia; Ceballos, Laura; Sanchez Bruni, Sergio; Alvarez, Luis I; Allemandi, Daniel; Benoit, Jean Pierre; Palma, Santiago D; Elissondo, María C

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic failures attributed to medical management of cystic echinococcosis (CE) with albendazole (ABZ) have been primarily linked to the poor drug absorption rate resulting in low drug level in plasma and hydatid cysts. Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) represent nanocarriers designed to encapsulate lipophilic drugs, such as ABZ. The goals of the current work were: (i) to characterize the plasma and cyst drug exposure after the administration of ABZ as ABZ-LNCs or ABZ suspension (ABZ-SUSP) in mice infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and ii) to compare the clinical efficacies of both ABZ formulations. Enhanced ABZ sulphoxide (ABZ-SO) concentration profiles were obtained in plasma and cysts from ABZ-LNC treated animals. ABZSO exposure (AUC0-LOQ) was significantly higher in plasma and cyst after the ABZ-LNC treatments, both orally and subcutaneously, compared to that observed after oral administration of ABZ-SUSP. Additionally, ABZSO concentrations measured in cysts from ABZ-LNC treated mice were 1.7-fold higher than those detected in plasma. This enhanced drug availability correlated with an increased efficacy against secondary CE in mice observed for the ABZ-LNCs, while ABZ-SUSP did not reach differences with the untreated control group. This new pharmacotechnically-based strategy could be a potential alternative to improve the treatment of human CE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced sediment loading facilitates point bar growth and accelerates bank erosion along a modelled meander bend on the Sacramento River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J.; Constantine, J. A.; Hales, T. C.

    2017-12-01

    Meandering channels provide a conduit through which sediment and water is routed from the uplands to the sea. Alluvial material is periodically stored and transported through the channel network as permitted by the prevailing hydrologic conditions. The lowlands are typically characterised by accumulations of sediment attached to the inner banks of meander bends (point bars). These bedforms have been identified as important for facilitating a link between in-stream sediment supplies and channel dynamism. A 2D curvilinear hydrodynamic model (MIKE 21C) was used to perform a number of experiments in which the sediment load was adjusted to investigate how changes in alluvial material fluxes affect the development of point bars and the resultant patterns of bank erosion. A doubling of the sediment load caused a longitudinal increase in the bar in the upstream direction and caused a coeval doubling of the transverse channel slope at the meander apex. The upstream growth of the point bar was accompanied by an increase in length over which lateral migration took place at the outer bank. The magnitude of outer bank erosion was 9-times greater for the high-sediment simulation. These results suggest that enhanced sediment loads (potentially the result of changes in land use or climate) can trigger greater rates of bank erosion and channel change through the sequestration of alluvial material on point bars, which encourage high-velocity fluid deflection towards the outer bank of the meander. This controls riparian habitat development and exchanges of sediment and nutrients across the channel-floodplain interface.

  4. Synergistically enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance of ZnCdS by co-loading graphene quantum dots and PdS dual cocatalysts under visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Su, Yanhong; Min, Shixiong; Li, Yanan; Lei, Yonggang; Hou, Jianhua

    2018-04-01

    Here, we report that the co-loading of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) and PdS dual cocatalysts on ZnCdS surface achieves a high efficiency photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light (≥420 nm). The GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS photocatalyst was prepared by a facile two steps: hydrothermal coupling of GQDs on ZnCdS surface followed by an in-situ chemical deposition of PdS. The resulted GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS exhibits a H2 evolution rate of 517 μmol h-1, which is 15, 7, and 1.7 times higher than that of pure ZnCdS, GQDs/ZnCdS, and ZnCdS/PdS, respectively, demonstrating the synergistic effects of GQDs and PdS dual cocatalysts. A high apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) up to 22.4% can be achieved over GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS at 420 nm. GQDs/ZnCdS/PdS also has a relatively good stability. Such a considerable enhancement of photocatalytic activity was attributable to the co-loading of the GQDs and PdS as respective reduction and oxidation cocatalysts, leading to an efficient charge separation and surface reactions.

  5. Enhancement of load frequency stabilization effect of superconducting magnetic energy storage by static synchronous series compensator based on H ∞ control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngamroo, Issarachai; Taeratanachai, Chanin; Dechanupaprittha, Sanchai; Mitani, Yasunori

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the load frequency stabilization effect of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in an interconnected power system is restricted to its located area. The SMES almost has no frequency stabilization effect in another interconnected area. To enhance the frequency stabilization effect of SMES, the static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) can be applied as an auxiliary device. The SSSC can be used as an energy transfer device of the SMES to stabilize the frequency in another interconnected area. The proposed technique not only introduces a sophisticated frequency stabilization in deregulated power systems but also offers a smart energy management control of SMES. In addition, to take the robust stability of the controlled power system against system uncertainties into account, the H ∞ control is used to design robust frequency stabilizers of the SMES and SSSC. Simulation results in a two area interconnected power system confirm the high robustness of the frequency stabilizers SMES and SSSC against load disturbances and system uncertainties

  6. Triterpene-loaded microemulsion using Coix lacryma-jobi seed extract as oil phase for enhanced antitumor efficacy: preparation and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu D

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ding Qu, Junjie He, Congyan Liu, Jing Zhou, Yan ChenKey Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Ganoderma lucidum triterpene-loaded microemulsions (TMEs using Coix lacryma-jobi (adlay seed oil as oil phase were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for enhanced antitumor activity. Ternary phase diagrams for the TMEs were constructed and the optimal preparation was developed. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that this formulation had a well defined spherical shape, a homogeneous distribution, a small size, and a narrow polydispersity index. The drug-loading rate was determined to be 9.87% by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and acceptable stability under various stimulations in vitro was confirmed. Importantly, the TME formulation showed a significantly greater antiproliferative effect towards human lung carcinoma (A549 cells and murine lung tumor (Lewis cells in comparison with suspension formulations containing triterpene and adlay seed oil as a positive control. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the TMEs was about 0.62 mg crude drug per mL, being 2.5-fold improved relative to that of the corresponding suspension formulation, but no significant cytotoxicity was observed for the bare microemulsion in A549 cells and Lewis cells. In vivo, the TME formulation showed markedly enhanced antitumor efficacy in a xenograft model of Lewis lung cancer after intragastric administration. Compared with cyclophosphamide, the TME formulation showed similar antitumor activity but less general toxicity. These results indicate the feasibility of using a microemulsion to increase the solubility of triterpene and adlay. TMEs hold promise as an efficient drug delivery system for the treatment of lung cancer.Keywords: microemulsion, Ganoderma lucidum, triterpene, adlay seed oil, lung cancer

  7. Systemic administration of IGF-I enhances healing in collagenous extracellular matrices: evaluation of loaded and unloaded ligaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P; Alejandro-Osorio, Adriana L; Grorud, Kelley W; Martinez, Daniel A; Vailas, Arthur C; Grindeland, Richard E; Vanderby, Ray

    2007-01-01

    support two of our hypotheses that systemic administration of IGF-I or GH+IGF-I improve healing in collagenous tissue. Systemic administration of IGF-I improves healing in collagenous extracellular matrices from loaded and unloaded tissues. Growth hormone alone did not result in any significant improvement contrary to our hypothesis, while GH + IGF-I produced remarkable improvement in hindlimb unloaded animals. PMID:17386107

  8. Systemic administration of IGF-I enhances healing in collagenous extracellular matrices: evaluation of loaded and unloaded ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez Daniel A

    2007-03-01

    -I. Conclusion These results support two of our hypotheses that systemic administration of IGF-I or GH+IGF-I improve healing in collagenous tissue. Systemic administration of IGF-I improves healing in collagenous extracellular matrices from loaded and unloaded tissues. Growth hormone alone did not result in any significant improvement contrary to our hypothesis, while GH + IGF-I produced remarkable improvement in hindlimb unloaded animals.

  9. Convection enhanced delivery of panobinostat (LBH589-loaded pluronic nano-micelles prolongs survival in the F98 rat glioma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singleton WG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available WG Singleton,1,2 AM Collins,3 AS Bienemann,1 CL Killick-Cole,1 HR Haynes,4 DJ Asby,1 CP Butts,5 MJ Wyatt,1 NU Barua,1,2 SS Gill1,2 1Functional Neurosurgery Research Group, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, 2Department of Neurosurgery, North Bristol NHS Trust, 3Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Physics, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, 4Brain Tumour Research Group, School of Clinical Sciences, 5School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UKBackground: The pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat is a potential therapy for malignant glioma, but it is water insoluble and does not cross the blood–brain barrier when administered systemically. In this article, we describe the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of a novel water-soluble nano-micellar formulation of panobinostat designed for administration by convection enhanced delivery (CED.Materials and methods: The in vitro efficacy of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles against rat F98, human U87-MG and M059K glioma cells and against patient-derived glioma stem cells was measured using a cell viability assay. Nano-micelle distribution in rat brain was analyzed following acute CED using rhodamine-labeled nano-micelles, and toxicity was assayed using immunofluorescent microscopy and synaptophysin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We compared the survival of the bioluminescent syngenic F98/Fischer344 rat glioblastoma model treated by acute CED of panobinostat-loaded nano-micelles with that of untreated and vehicle-only-treated controls.Results: Nano-micellar panobinostat is cytotoxic to rat and human glioma cells in vitro in a dose-dependent manner following short-time exposure to drug. Fluorescent rhodamine-labelled nano-micelles distribute with a volume of infusion/volume of distribution (Vi/Vd ratio of four and five respectively after administration by CED. Administration was not associated with any toxicity when compared to controls. CED of

  10. Heparin-Poloxamer Thermosensitive Hydrogel Loaded with bFGF and NGF Enhances Peripheral Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, Yiyang; Wu, Yanqing; Zhao, Yingzheng; Chen, Huanwen; Yuan, Yuan; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Hongyu; Lu, Yingfeng; Wang, Jian; Li, Xiaokun; Jia, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a major burden to society with limited therapeutic options, and novel biomaterials have great potential for shifting the current paradigm of treatment. With a rising prevalence of chronic illnesses such as diabetes mellitus (DM), treatment of PNI is further complicated, and only few studies have proposed therapies suitable for peripheral nerve regeneration in DM. To provide a supportive environment to restore structure and/or function of nerves in DM, we developed a novel thermo-sensitive heparin-poloxamer (HP) hydrogel co-delivered with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic rats with sciatic nerve crush injury. The delivery vehicle not only had a good affinity for large amounts of growth factors (GFs), but also controlled their release in a steady fashion, preventing degradation in vitro. In vivo, compared with HP hydrogel alone or direct GFs administration, GFs-HP hydrogel treatment is more effective at facilitating Schwann cell (SC) proliferation, leading to an increased expression of nerve associated structural proteins, enhanced axonal regeneration and remyelination, and improved recovery of motor function (all p nerve regeneration in patients with DM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancement of the thermal and mechanical properties of polyurethane/polyvinyl chloride blend by loading single walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Hezma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural, thermal, and mechanical properties of pure blend and nanocomposites based on polyurethane (PU and polyvinyl chloride (PVC doped with low different content of single walled-carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs were studied. The nanocomposites at different concentration were prepared via casting technique. The interaction between PU/PVC and CNTs were examined via FT-IR studies. The changes in the structures of the nanocomposites were examined using X- Ray Diffraction (XRD, and the results indicated that the amorphous domains of nanocomposites increased with increasing SWCNTs content. Transmission electron microscope (TEM observation indicated that SWCNTs surface was wrapped with the polymer with the thermal properties of nanocomposites improved. The mechanical behavior of the nanocomposites was evaluated as a function of SWCNTs content. The main enhancement in tensile properties was observed, e.g., the tensile strength and elastic modulus increased compared with the pure blend, which may be attributed to the interaction and adhesion between CNTs and the polymer matrices due to the hydrogen bonding between carbonyl groups (C=O of polymer blend chains and carboxylic acid (COOH groups of CNTs.

  12. Preventative vaccine-loaded mannosylated chitosan nanoparticles intended for nasal mucosal delivery enhance immune responses and potent tumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenjun; Peng, Yixing; Du, Mingzhu; Luo, Juan; Zong, Li

    2013-08-05

    Chitosan (CS) has been extensively used as a protein drug and gene delivery carrier, but its delivery efficiency is unsatisfactory. In this study, a mannose ligand was used to modify CS, which could enhance the delivery efficiency of CS via mannose receptor-mediated endocytosis. A preventative anti-GRP DNA vaccine (pCR3.1-VS-HSP65-TP-GRP6-M2, pGRP) was condensed with mannosylated chitosan (MCS) to form MCS/pGRP nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were intranasally administered in a subcutaneous mice prostate carcinoma model to evaluate the efficacy on inhibition of the growth of tumor cells. The titers of anti-GRP IgG that lasted for 11 weeks were significantly higher than that for administration of CS/pGRP nanoparticles (p intramuscular administration of a pGRP solution (p nanoparticles could suppress the growth of tumor cells. The average tumor weight (0.79 ± 0.30 g) was significantly lower than that in the CS/pGRP nanoparticle group (1.69 ± 0.15 g) (p nanoparticles bound with C-type lectin receptors on macrophages. MCS was an efficient targeting gene delivery carrier and could be used in antitumor immunotherapy.

  13. Largely enhanced dielectric properties of carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride binary nanocomposites by loading a few boron nitride nanosheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Minhao; Zhao, Hang; He, Delong; Bai, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    The ternary nanocomposites of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are fabricated via a combination of solution casting and extrusion-injection processes. The effects of BNNSs on the electrical conductivity, dielectric behavior, and microstructure changes of CNTs/PVDF binary nanocomposites are systematically investigated. A low percolation value (f_c) for the CNTs/PVDF binary system is obtained due to the integration of solution and melting blending procedures. Two kinds of CNTs/PVDF binary systems with various CNTs contents (f_C_N_T_s) as the matrix are discussed. The results reveal that compared with CNTs/PVDF binary systems at the same f_C_N_T_s, the ternary BNNSs/CNTs/PVDF nanocomposites exhibit largely enhanced dielectric properties due to the improvement of the CNTs dispersion state and the conductive network. The dielectric constant of CNTs/PVDF binary nanocomposite with 6 vol. % CNTs (f_C_N_T_s   f_c), it displays a 43.32% improvement from 1325 to 1899 after the addition of 3 vol. % BNNSs. The presence of BNNSs facilitates the formation of the denser conductive network. Meanwhile, the ternary BNNSs/CNTs/PVDF systems exhibit a low dielectric loss. The adjustable dielectric properties could be obtained by employing the ternary systems due to the microstructure changes of nanocomposites.

  14. A facile precursor route to highly loaded metal/ceramic nanofibers as a robust surface-enhanced Raman template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jay Hoon; Joo, Yong Lak

    2017-09-01

    We report silver (Ag)/ceramic nanofibers with highly robust and sensitive optical sensory capabilities that can withstand harsh conditions. These nanofibers are fabricated by first electrospinning solutions of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and metal precursor polymers, followed by subsequent series of heat treatment. The reported fabrication method demonstrate the effects of (i) the location of Ag crystals, (ii) crystal size and shape, and (iii) constituents of the ceramic matrix as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) templates with 10-6 M 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA). Notably, these silver/ceramic nanofibers preserved most of their highly sensitive localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) even under high temperature of 400 °C, in contrast to preformed Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in PVA nanofibers which lost most of its optical property presumably due to (i) Ag oxidation and (ii) loss of the matrix material. Among the ceramic substrates of ZrO2, Al2O3, and ZnO with silver crystals, we discovered that the ZnO substrate showed the most consistent and the strongest signal strength owing to the synergistic chemical and optical properties of the ZnO substrate. Moreover, the pure Ag nanofiber proved to be the best heat-resistant SERS template, owing to its (i) anisotropic morphology and (ii) thicker diameter when compared with other conventional Ag nanomaterials. These results demonstrated simple yet highly controllable fabrication of robust SERS templates, with potential applications in a catalytic sensory which is often exposed to harsh conditions.

  15. Carnosine-graphene oxide conjugates decorated with hydroxyapatite as promising nanocarrier for ICG loading with enhanced antibacterial effects in photodynamic therapy against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibegloo, Elham; Karbasi, Ashkan; Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Chiniforush, Nasim; Ramazani, Ali; Akbari, Tayebeh; Bahador, Abbas; Khoobi, Mehdi

    2018-04-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been emerged as a noninvasive strategy to remove bacterial contaminants such as S. mutans from the tooth surface. Photosensitizer (PS), like indocyanine green (ICG), plays a key role in this technique which mainly suffers from the poor stability and concentration-dependent aggregation. An appropriate nanocarrier (NC) with enhanced antibacterial effects could overcome these limitations and improve the efficiency of ICG as a PS. In this study, various ICG-loaded NCs including graphene oxide (GO), GO-carnosine (Car) and GO-Car/Hydroxyapatite (HAp) were synthesized and characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Filed Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), Zeta Potential and Ultraviolet-Visible spectrometry (UV-Vis). The colony forming unit and crystal violet assays were performed to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of PSs against S. mutans. The quantitative real-time PCR approach was also applied to determine the expression ratio of the gtfB gene in S. mutans. The zeta potential analysis and UV-Vis spectrometry indicated successful loading of ICG onto/into NCs. GO-Car/HAp showed highest amount of ICG loading (57.52%) and also highest aqueous stability after one week (94%). UV-Vis spectrometry analyses disclosed a red shift from 780 to 800 nm for the characteristic peak of ICG-loaded NCs. In the lack of aPDT, GO-Car@ICG showed the highest decrease in bacterial survival (86.4%) which indicated that Car could significantly promote the antibacterial effect of GO. GO@ICG, GO-Car@ICG and GO-Car/HAp@ICG mediated aPDT, dramatically declined the count of S. mutans strains to 91.2%, 95.5% and 93.2%, respectively (P < 0.05). The GO@ICG, GO-Car@ICG, GO-Car/HAp@ICG significantly suppressed the S. mutans biofilm formation by 51.4%, 63.8%, and 56.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). The expression of gtfB gene was

  16. Suppression of Remodeling Behaviors with Arachidonic Acid Modification for Enhanced in vivo Antiatherogenic Efficacies of Lovastatin-loaded Discoidal Recombinant High Density Lipoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Zhang, Mengyuan; Liu, Lisha; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenli

    2015-10-01

    A series of in vitro evaluation in our previous studies had proved that arachidonic acid (AA) modification could suppress the remodeling behaviors of lovastatin-loaded discoidal reconstituted high density lipoprotein (LT-d-rHDL) by restraining the reactivity with lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) for reducing undesired drug leakage. This study focuses on the investigation of AA-modified LT-d-rHDL (AA-LT-d-rHDL) in atherosclerotic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit models to explore whether AA modification could enhance drug targeting delivery and improve antiatherogenic efficacies in vivo. After pharmacokinetics of AA-LT-d-rHDL modified with different AA amount were investigated in atherosclerotic NZW rabbits, atherosclerotic lesions targeting property was assessed by ex vivo imaging of aortic tree and drug distribution. Furthermore, their antiatherogenic efficacies were elaborately evaluated and compared by typical biochemical indices. With AA modification amount augmenting, circulation time of AA-LT-d-rHDL was prolonged, and drug accumulation in the target locus was increased, eventually the significant appreciation in antiatherogenic efficacies were further supported by lower level of bad cholesterol, decreased atherosclerotic lesions areas and mean intima-media thickness (MIT), markedly attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression and macrophage infiltration. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that AA-LT-d-rHDL could enhance drug accumulation in atherosclerotic lesion and impede atherosclerosis progression more effectively.

  17. Enhanced oral bioavailability of a sterol-loaded microemulsion formulation of Flammulina velutipes, a potential antitumor drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chengxue; Zhong, Hui; Tong, Shanshan; Cao, Xia; Firempong, Caleb K; Liu, Hongfei; Fu, Min; Yang, Yan; Feng, Yingshu; Zhang, Huiyun; Xu, Ximing; Yu, Jiangnan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the growth inhibition activity of Flammulina velutipes sterol (FVS) against certain human cancer cell lines (gastric SGC and colon LoVo) and to evaluate the optimum microemulsion prescription, as well as the pharmacokinetics of encapsulated FVS. Methods Molecules present in the FVS isolate were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The cell viability of FVS was assessed with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) bioassay. Based on the solubility study, phase diagram and stability tests, the optimum prescription of F. velutipes sterol microemulsions (FVSMs) were determined, followed by FVSMs characterization, and its in vivo pharmacokinetic study in rats. Results The chemical composition of FVS was mainly ergosterol (54.8%) and 22,23-dihydroergosterol (27.9%). After 72 hours of treatment, both the FVS (half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 11.99 μg · mL−1) and the standard anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 0.88 μg · mL−1) exhibited strong in vitro antiproliferative activity against SGC cells, with IC50 > 30.0 μg · mL−1; but the FVS performed poorly against LoVo cells (IC50 > 40.0 μg · mL−1). The optimal FVSMs prescription consisted of 3.0% medium chain triglycerides, 5.0% ethanol, 21.0% Cremophor EL and 71.0% water (w/w) with associated solubility of FVS being 0.680 mg · mL−1 as compared to free FVS (0.67 μg · mL−1). The relative oral bioavailability (area-under-the-curve values of ergosterol and 22,23-dihydroergosterol showed a 2.56-fold and 4.50-fold increase, respectively) of FVSMs (mean diameter ~ 22.9 nm) as against free FVS were greatly enhanced. Conclusion These results indicate that the FVS could be a potential candidate for the development of an anticancer drug and it is readily bioavailable via microemulsion formulations. PMID:23049254

  18. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhamad Nurhadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified coal char from low-rank coal by sulfonation, titanium impregnation and followed by alkyl silylation possesses high catalytic activity in styrene oxidation. The surface of coal char was undergone several steps as such: modification using concentrated sulfuric acid in the sulfonation process, impregnation of 500 mmol titanium(IV isopropoxide and followed by alkyl silylation of n-octadecyltriclorosilane (OTS. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, IR spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and hydrophobicity. The catalytic activity of the catalysts has been examined in the liquid phase styrene oxidation by using aqueous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The catalytic study showed the alkyl silylation could enhance the catalytic activity of Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0. High catalytic activity and reusability of the o-Ti-SO3H/CC-600(2.0 were related to the modification of local environment of titanium active sites and the enhancement the hydrophobicity of catalyst particle by alkyl silylation. Copyright © 2017 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 24th May 2016; Revised: 11st October 2016; Accepted: 18th October 2016 How to Cite: Nurhadi, M. (2017. Modification of Coal Char-loaded TiO2 by Sulfonation and Alkylsilylation to Enhance Catalytic Activity in Styrene Oxidation with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (1: 55-61 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.1.501.55-61

  19. Lightship Daily Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  20. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  1. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  2. Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles delivering enhanced dye-loading and charge transport for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photoelectrodes of DSSCs consisted of mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles. The interconnected nanoparticles enhance dye-loading capacity and charge transport. - Highlights: • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were synthesized by a template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles have the advantages of large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanostructures meet both large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer as ideal nano/micromaterials for application in solar cells, energy storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing. In this work, mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres consisting of interconnected nanoparticles were synthesized by template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process, where urea was used as capping agent to control phase and promote oriented growth. The morphology was assembled by nucleation-growth-assembly-mechanism. The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were beneficial to capacity of dye loading and charge transfer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the optimized thickness of TiO_2 photoelectrodes was up to 7.13% under standard AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW/cm"2).

  3. Enhanced anti-proliferative efficacy of epothilone B loaded with Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 bacterial ghosts on the HeLa cells by mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenxing; Hao, Lujiang; Liu, Xinli; Orlando, Borrás-Hidalgo; Zhang, Yuyu

    2018-03-20

    Epothilones constitute a new class of microtubule-stabilizing anti-cancer agents with promising preclinical and clinical activity. However, its systemic application still causes some toxic side effects. To reduce these undesired effects, advanced drug delivery systems based on cell targeting carriers are needed currently. In this study, the high quality bacterial ghosts of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) were prepared in a large scale and retained fully intact surface structures for specific attachment to mammalian cells. The EcN ghosts could be efficiently loaded with the low hydrophilic drug Epothilone B (Epo B) and the maximal load efficiency was approximately 2.5% (w/w). Cytotoxicity assays revealed that Epo B-ghosts exhibited enhanced anti-proliferative properties on the HeLa cells. The Epo B associated with EcN ghosts was more cytotoxic at least 10 times than the free Epo B at the same concentrations. Apoptosis assays showed that both Epo B-ghosts and free Epo B induced time course-dependent apoptosis and necrosis in HeLa cells, respectively. While the former induced more apoptosis and necrosis than the latter. Furthermore, the cytochrome C release and the activation of caspase-3 were more remarkable after treatment with the Epo B-ghosts compared to the free Epo B, which implied that Epo B-ghosts might more effectively induce the apoptosis mediated by mitochondrial pathway in HeLa cells. Therefore, the higher anti-proliferative effects of the Epo B-ghosts on the HeLa cells were mediated by mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. The EcN ghosts may provide a useful drug delivery carrier for drug candidates in cancer therapy.

  4. Quantification of Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load in a rural West African population: no enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 pathogenesis, but HTLV-I provirus load relates to mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariyoshi, Koya; Berry, Neil; Cham, Fatim; Jaffar, Shabbar; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Jobe, Ousman; N'Gom, Pa Tamba; Larsen, Olav; Andersson, Sören; Aaby, Peter; Whittle, Hilton

    2003-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load was examined in a cohort of a population in Guinea-Bissau among whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 is endemic. Geometric mean of HIV-2 RNA load among HTLV-I-coinfected subjects was significantly lower than that in subjects infected

  5. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  6. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  7. Synthesis of Spongy-Like Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite from Raw Waste Eggshells for Enhanced Dissolution of Ibuprofen Loaded via Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rauf Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cheaper and recyclable biomaterials (like eggshells to synthesize high purity hydroxyapatite (HAp with better properties (small particle size, large surface area and pore volume for applications (in environmental remediation, bone augmentation and replacement, and drug delivery systems is vital since high-purity synthetic calcium sources are expensive. In this work, pure and mesoporous HAp nanopowder with large pore volume (1.4 cm3/g and surface area (284.1 m2/g was produced from raw eggshells at room temperature using a simple two-step procedure. The control of precursor droplets could stabilize the pH value of the reaction solution, because of the size of the needle (of the syringe pump used for precursor additions leading to production of HAp with high surface area and pore size. The as-produced HAp revealed high ibuprofen (as a model drug loading (1.38 g/g HAp, enhanced dissolution and controllable release of the drug via solute-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide.

  8. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

    2014-10-17

    A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H(+)-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts.

  9. A Simple Power Management Scheme with Enhanced Stability for a Solar PV/Wind/Fuel Cell/Grid Fed Hybrid Power Supply Designed for Industrial Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new power conditioner topology with an intelligent power management controller that integrates multiple renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and fuel cell energy with battery and AC grid supply as backup to make the best use of their operating characteristics with better reliability than that could be obtained by single renewable energy source based power supply. The proposed embedded controller is programmed to perform MPPT for solar PV panel and WTG, SOC estimation and battery, maintaining a constant voltage at PCC and power flow control by regulating the reference currents of the controller in an instantaneous basis. The instantaneous variation in reference currents of the controller enhances the controller response as it accommodates the effect of continuously varying solar insolation and wind speed in the power management. It also prioritizes the sources for consumption to achieve maximum usage of green energy than grid energy. The simulation results of the proposed power management system with real-time solar radiation and wind velocity data collected from solar centre, KEC, and experimental results for a sporadically varying load demand are presented in this paper and the results are encouraging from reliability and stability perspectives.

  10. Increased Loading, Efficacy and Sustained Release of Silibinin, a Poorly Soluble Drug Using Hydrophobically-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles for Enhanced Delivery of Anticancer Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Yee Kuen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional delivery of anticancer drugs is less effective due to pharmacological drawbacks such as lack of aqueous solubility and poor cellular accumulation. This study reports the increased drug loading, therapeutic delivery, and cellular accumulation of silibinin (SLB, a poorly water-soluble phenolic compound using a hydrophobically-modified chitosan nanoparticle (pCNP system. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were hydrophobically-modified to confer a palmitoyl group as confirmed by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS assay. Physicochemical features of the nanoparticles were studied using the TNBS assay, and Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR analyses. The FTIR profile and electron microscopy correlated the successful formation of pCNP and pCNP-SLB as nano-sized particles, while Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS and Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM results exhibited an expansion in size between pCNP and pCNP-SLB to accommodate the drug within its particle core. To evaluate the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles, a Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT cytotoxicity assay was subsequently performed using the A549 lung cancer cell line. Cytotoxicity assays exhibited an enhanced efficacy of SLB when delivered by CNP and pCNP. Interestingly, controlled release delivery of SLB was achieved using the pCNP-SLB system, conferring higher cytotoxic effects and lower IC50 values in 72-h treatments compared to CNP-SLB, which was attributed to the hydrophobic modification of the CNP system.

  11. Synthesis of Spongy-Like Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite from Raw Waste Eggshells for Enhanced Dissolution of Ibuprofen Loaded via Supercritical CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Abdul-Rauf; Li, Xiangyun; Zhou, Yulan; Huang, Yan; Chen, Wenwen; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The use of cheaper and recyclable biomaterials (like eggshells) to synthesize high purity hydroxyapatite (HAp) with better properties (small particle size, large surface area and pore volume) for applications (in environmental remediation, bone augmentation and replacement, and drug delivery systems) is vital since high-purity synthetic calcium sources are expensive. In this work, pure and mesoporous HAp nanopowder with large pore volume (1.4 cm3/g) and surface area (284.1 m2/g) was produced from raw eggshells at room temperature using a simple two-step procedure. The control of precursor droplets could stabilize the pH value of the reaction solution, because of the size of the needle (of the syringe pump used for precursor additions) leading to production of HAp with high surface area and pore size. The as-produced HAp revealed high ibuprofen (as a model drug) loading (1.38 g/g HAp), enhanced dissolution and controllable release of the drug via solute-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. PMID:25860950

  12. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  13. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially. PMID:26082709

  14. Loads and loads and loads: the influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load (OTL) can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load (PL) and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load (RL). In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of PL on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2), but not for specific targets (Experiment 1). RL and OTL both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that PL can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. RL and OTL seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  15. Aplicação do método da carga máxima total diária (CMTD para a amônia no Rio Atibaia, região de Campinas/Paulínia - SP Application of ammonia total maximum daily load (TMDL to Atibaia River, Campinas/Paulínia region - São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Silvério da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliadas a capacidade de suporte e o estado de degradação do Rio Atibaia, considerando a ameaça para a vida aquática pela presença da Amônia, a qual representa um dos principais riscos às comunidades aquáticas no Rio Atibaia. Com este objetivo foi aplicado o método da Carga Máxima Total Diária (CMTD, da Agência de Proteção Ambiental dos Estados Unidos (EPA. Os resultados revelaram que as cargas de Amônia aumentavam progressivamente ao longo do Rio Atibaia, principalmente devido às fontes pontuais. As cargas de Amônia diárias assumiram valores de 30 a 5000 kg NH3. A capacidade de suporte das águas Rio Atibaia, para proteger a vida aquática contra os efeitos tóxicos da Amônia, tem sido violadas em trechos próximos à sua foz. A degradação dessas águas foi mais intensa na estação seca. Este trabalho mostrou que o esgoto doméstico não-tratado de uma população aproximada de 250 mil habitantes da cidade de Campinas, via Ribeirão Anhumas, é a principal fonte de Amônia na bacia do Rio Atibaia, apesar do grande número de indústrias ali presentes.This study evaluated the tolerance capacity and the impairment state of the Atibaia River, considering the threat to aquatic life by the presence of Ammonia, which represents one of the main risks to the aquatic communities in the Atibaia River. With this aim, the method Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL, from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, was applied. The results revealed that the Ammonia loads increased progressively through the Atibaia River, especially due to the point sources. The daily Ammonia loads assumed values that ranged from 30 to 5000 kg NH3. The tolerance capacity of the waters of the Atibaia River, to protect aquatic life against the toxic effects of the Ammonia, has been violated in reaches near its mouth. The impairment of these waters was more intense during the dry season. This study showed that the domestic sewer

  16. Impact of sampling resolution on estimation of community-wide daily illicit drug use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Pedram; Baz Lomba, J. A.; Reid, M.

    It is a common approach to report daily community-wide drug consumption, based on single daily measurements of the influent from a treatment plant. This article suggests that neglecting diurnal variations of loads and flow can result in misestimating daily drug consumption.......It is a common approach to report daily community-wide drug consumption, based on single daily measurements of the influent from a treatment plant. This article suggests that neglecting diurnal variations of loads and flow can result in misestimating daily drug consumption....

  17. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawsari, Hibah M; Badr-Eldin, Shaimaa M; Labib, Gihan S; El-Kamel, Amal H

    2015-01-01

    Lemongrass oil (LGO) is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 μL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%). Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate have significant effects on particle size and percentage released after 6 hours; however, the effect of the stirring rate was more prominent on both responses. The selected hydrogel formulation, F9, was subjected to surface morphological investigations, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, where results showed that the nanosponges possess a spherical uniform shape with a spongy structure, the integrity

  18. Ag-loaded MgSrFe-layered double hydroxide/chitosan composite scaffold with enhanced osteogenic and antibacterial property for bone engineering tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dandan; Xu, Zhengliang; Chen, Yixuan; Ke, Qinfei; Zhang, Changqing; Guo, Yaping

    2018-02-01

    Bone tissue engineering scaffolds for the reconstruction of large bone defects should simultaneously promote osteogenic differentiation and avoid postoperative infection. Herein, we develop, for the first time, Ag-loaded MgSrFe-layered double hydroxide/chitosan (Ag-MgSrFe/CS) composite scaffold. This scaffold exhibits three-dimensional interconnected macroporous structure with a pore size of 100-300 μm. The layered double hydroxide nanoplates in the Ag-MgSrFe/CS show lateral sizes of 200-400 nm and thicknesses of ∼50 nm, and the Ag nanoparticles with particle sizes of ∼20 nm are uniformly dispersed on the scaffold surfaces. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) present good adhesion, spreading, and proliferation on the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold, suggesting that the Ag and Sr elements in the composite scaffold have no toxicity to hBMSCs. When compared with MgFe/CS composite scaffold, the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold has better osteogenic property. The released Sr 2+ ions from the composite scaffold enhance the alkaline phosphatase activity of hBMSCs, promote the extracellular matrix mineralization, and increase the expression levels of osteogenic-related RUNX2 and BMP-2. Moreover, the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold possesses good antibacterial property because the Ag nanoparticles in the composite scaffold effectively prevent biofilm formation against S. aureus. Hence, the Ag-MgSrFe/CS composite scaffold with excellent osteoinductivity and antibacterial property has a great potential for bone tissue engineering. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 863-873, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The benefit of daily photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, Sophie; Fourtanier, Anny M A

    2008-05-01

    It is now recognized that both ultraviolet (UV)-A and UVB wavelengths participate in the generation of photodamaged human skin during sun exposure. During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular, and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. This study was designed to evaluate in human beings the protection afforded by a day cream containing a photostable combination of UVB and UVA filters and thus protect against the UV-induced skin alterations. In solar-simulated radiation exposed and unprotected skin sites we observed melanization. The epidermis revealed a significant increase in stratum corneum and stratum granulosum thickness. In the dermis, an enhanced expression of tenascin and a reduced expression of type I procollagen were evidenced just below the dermoepidermal junction. Although no change in elastic fibers in exposed buttock skin was seen, a slightly increased deposit of lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin on elastin fibers was observed using immunofluorescence techniques. A day cream with photoprotection properties was shown to prevent all of the above-described alterations. This study was performed on a limited number of patients (n = 12) with specific characteristics (20-35 years old and skin type II and III). Two dermal alterations were evaluated by visual assessment and not by computer-assisted image analysis quantification. Our in vivo results demonstrate the benefits of daily photoprotection using a day cream containing appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreens, which prevent solar UV-induced skin damages.

  20. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  1. Task 0715: Army Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    NDCEE/CTC The NDCEE is operated by: Office of the Assistant Sec etary of the Army for Installations, E ergy and Enviro ment Technology Transition...stockpiles of soils and sands; – Air emissions with deposition potential; – Construction projects; – Existence of septic systems/sewage holding tanks

  2. Clean Water Act Approved Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Information from Approved and Established TMDL Documents as well as TMDLs that have been Withdrawn. This includes the pollutants identified in the TMDL Document, the...

  3. The Daily Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes....... As such, the parts, when taken as a whole, represent an evolving process through which my overall research questions are being filtered and reflected. My scholarly approach builds on the fusing of fashion and dress research and design research, in this way closing a gap between dress practice as...

  4. Radiation in daily life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, P.

    1999-01-01

    The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es

  5. In situ loading of Ag_2WO_4 on ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Renxi; Fang, Xu; Yang, Yang; Yang, Man; Liu, Xianchun; Xing, Yan; Song, Shuyan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Ultrathin g-C_3N_4 nanosheets (g-C_3N_4−NS) with improved electron transport ability and large number of active sites are employed instead of bulk g-C_3N_4 to prepare the Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4−NS heterostructured photocatalysts, which exhibit remarkable photocatalytic activity for wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS photocatalysts were obtained by a deposition-precipitation method. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS possess large surface areas and increased lifetime of charges. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS exhibit enhanced activity on degradation of RhB and MO. • The photocatalytic mechanism of the Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS system were investigated. - Abstract: The g-C_3N_4 nanosheets (g-C_3N_4−NS) exhibit more excellent property than common bulk g-C_3N_4 (g-C_3N_4-B) due to their large surface areas, improved electron transport ability and well dispersion in water. In this work, ultrathin g-C_3N_4−NS with a thickness of about 2.7 nm have been synthesized by a simple thermal exfoliation of bulk g-C_3N_4, and then Ag_2WO_4 nanoparticles are in situ loaded on their surface to construct the Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4−NS heterostructured photocatalysts. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, the as-prepared heterostructures possess a fast interfacial charge transfer and increased lifetime of photo-excited charge carriers, and exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum photocatalytic activity of Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4−NS composites is almost 53.6 and 26.5 times higher than that of pure g-C_3N_4-B and Ag_2WO_4/g-C_3N_4-B heterostructures towards the degradation of rhodamine B, respectively, and is almost 30.6 and 9.8 times higher towards the degradation of methyl orange, respectively. In addition, the natural sunlight photocatalytic activities of the as-prepared samples are also investigated.

  6. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Narendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1 gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other

  7. Design and formulation of a topical hydrogel integrating lemongrass-loaded nanosponges with an enhanced antifungal effect: in vitro/in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldawsari HM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibah M Aldawsari,1 Shaimaa M Badr-Eldin,1,2 Gihan S Labib,1,3 Amal H El-Kamel3 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Lemongrass oil (LGO is a volatile oil extracted from the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus that has become one of the most important natural oils in the pharmaceutical industry because of its diverse pharmacologic and clinical effects. However, LGO suffers from low aqueous solubility, which could lead to a reduced effect. Moreover, the instability of its major active constituent, citral, could lead to volatilization, reaction with other formulation ingredients, and consequently, skin irritation. To surmount these problems, this research aims to formulate lemongrass-loaded ethyl cellulose nanosponges with a topical hydrogel with an enhanced antifungal effect and decreased irritation. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration of LGO against Candida albicans strain ATC 100231, determined using the broth macrodilution method, were found to be 2 and 8 µL/mL, respectively. The emulsion solvent evaporation technique was used for the preparation of the nanosponges. The nanosponge dispersions were then integrated into carbopol hydrogels (0.4%. Nine formulations were prepared based on a 32 full factorial design employing the ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and stirring rate as independent variables. The prepared formulations were evaluated for particle size, citral content, and in vitro release. Results revealed that all the nanosponge dispersions were nanosized, with satisfactory citral content and sustained release profiles. Statistical analysis revealed that both ethyl cellulose:polyvinyl alcohol ratio and

  8. Enhancement of the efficiency of the automatic control system to control the thermal load of steam boilers fired with fuels of several types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismatkhodzhaev, S. K.; Kuzishchin, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    An automatic control system to control the thermal load (ACS) in a drum-type boiler under random fluctuations in the blast-furnace and coke-oven gas consumption rates and to control action on the natural gas consumption is considered. The system provides for use of a compensator by the basic disturbance, the blast-furnace gas consumption rate. To enhance the performance of the system, it is proposed to use more accurate mathematical second-order delay models of the channels of the object under control in combination with calculation by frequency methods of the controller parameters as well as determination of the structure and parameters of the compensator considering the statistical characteristics of the disturbances and using simulation. The statistical characteristics of the random blast-furnace gas consumption signal based on experimental data are provided. The random signal is presented in the form of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components. The models of the correlation functions and spectral densities are developed. The article presents the results of calculating the optimal settings of the control loop with the controlled variable in the form of the "heat" signal with the restricted frequency variation index using three variants of the control performance criteria, viz., the linear and quadratic integral indices under step disturbance and the control error variance under random disturbance by the blastfurnace gas consumption rate. It is recommended to select a compensator designed in the form of series connection of two parts, one of which corresponds to the operator inverse to the transfer function of the PI controller, i.e., in the form of a really differentiating element. This facilitates the realization of the second part of the compensator by the invariance condition similar to transmitting the compensating signal to the object input. The results of simulation under random disturbance by the blast-furnace gas consumption are reported

  9. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na(+) loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narendra Singh; Shukla, Pushp Sheel; Jha, Anupama; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-10-11

    Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na(+) content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na(+) content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na(+) loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K(+) and Ca(2+) content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na(+) efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na(+) content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly. These

  10. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly

  11. Enhancement of uranium loading on ion exchange resin from carbonate leachate by lowering pH from 8 to 6.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses a laboratory study that shows the saturation ion-exchange loading of uranium from carbonate leachate can be doubled by lowering the pH of the leachate from 8 to 6.5. Small column and batch resin loading tests using Dowex 21K ion-exchange resin are described. The leachate contained 3,300 ppm chloride, 2,400 ppm carbonate, and 220 ppm U 3 O 8 , and had a pH of 8. Even at this rather mild salinity the saturation ion-exchange loading was found to be only about 3 to 4 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (48 to 64 g/dm 3 ) because of competition with the chloride ion for exchange sites on the anionic resin. Lowering the pH of the leachate to 6.5 by CO 2 gas addition, however, increased loading to about 8 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (128 g/dm 3 ). The pH-lowering effect worked especially well at relatively high salt concentration. The same leachate, with its chloride content increased to 12,000 ppm, loaded only 0.5 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (8 g/dm 3 ) at pH 8 but loaded 5.5 lbm U 3 O 8 /cu ft resin (88 g/dm 3 ) at pH 6.5

  12. New daily persistent headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Tyagi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.

  13. Making Daily Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon

    elucidate aspects of urban everyday mobility that can be utilized in policy and planning perspectives. This knowledge can aid construction of generalized qualitative scenarios that together with quantitative transport models can serve as wider knowledge foundation in decision making process.......In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...

  14. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  15. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  16. Edificio Daily Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Owen

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.

  17. An Improved Flexible Solar Thermal Energy Integration Process for Enhancing the Coal-Based Energy Efficiency and NOx Removal Effectiveness in Coal-Fired Power Plants under Different Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An improved flexible solar-aided power generation system (SAPG for enhancing both selective catalytic reduction (SCR de-NOx efficiency and coal-based energy efficiency of coal-fired power plants is proposed. In the proposed concept, the solar energy injection point is changed for different power plant loads, bringing about different benefits for coal-fired power generation. For partial/low load, solar energy is beneficially used to increase the flue gas temperature to guarantee the SCR de-NOx effectiveness as well as increase the boiler energy input by reheating the combustion air. For high power load, solar energy is used for saving steam bleeds from turbines by heating the feed water. A case study for a typical 1000 MW coal-fired power plant using the proposed concept has been performed and the results showed that, the SCR de-NOx efficiency of proposed SAPG could increase by 3.1% and 7.9% under medium load and low load conditions, respectively, as compared with the reference plant. The standard coal consumption rate of the proposed SAPG could decrease by 2.68 g/kWh, 4.05 g/kWh and 6.31 g/kWh for high, medium and low loads, respectively, with 0.040 USD/kWh of solar generated electricity cost. The proposed concept opens up a novel solar energy integration pattern in coal-fired power plants to improve the pollutant removal effectiveness and decrease the coal consumption of the power plant.

  18. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method, a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous-reference-frame-based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2.5 k...

  19. Remote Loading of 64Cu2+ into Liposomes without the Use of Ion Transport Enhancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Petersen, Anncatrine Luisa; Hansen, Anders Elias

    2015-01-01

    Due to low ion permeability of lipid bilayers, it has been and still is common practice to use transporter molecules such as ionophores or lipophilic chelators to increase transmembrane diffusion rates and loading efficiencies of radionuclides into liposomes. Here, we report a novel and very simple...

  20. Enhancement of ethanol production from green liquor-ethanol-pretreated sugarcane bagasse by glucose-xylose cofermentation at high solid loadings with mixed Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yanzhi; Li, Pengfei; Lei, Fuhou; Xing, Yang; Jiang, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Efficient cofermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Here, we demonstrate pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) with green liquor (GL) combined with ethanol (GL-Ethanol) by adding different GL amounts. The common Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CSC) and thermophilic S. cerevisiae (TSC) strains were used and different yeast cell mass ratios (CSC to TSC) were compared. The simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSF/SSCF) process was performed by 5-20% (w/v) dry substrate (DS) solid loadings to determine optimal conditions for the co-consumption of glucose and xylose. Compared to previous studies that tested fermentation of glucose using only the CSC, we obtained higher ethanol yield and concentration (92.80% and 23.22 g/L) with 1.5 mL GL/g-DS GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB at 5% (w/v) solid loading and a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:2 (w/w). Using 10% (w/v) solid loading under the same conditions, the ethanol concentration increased to 42.53 g/L but the ethanol yield decreased to 84.99%. In addition, an increase in the solid loading up to a certain point led to an increase in the ethanol concentration from 1.5 mL GL/g-DS-pretreated SCB. The highest ethanol concentration (68.24 g/L) was obtained with 15% (w/v) solid loading, using a CSC-to-TSC yeast cell mass ratio of 1:3 (w/w). GL-Ethanol pretreatment is a promising pretreatment method for improving both glucan and xylan conversion efficiencies of SCB. There was a competitive relationship between the two yeast strains, and the glucose and xylose utilization ability of the TSC was better than that of the CSC. Ethanol concentration was obviously increased at high solid loading, but the yield decreased as a result of an increase in the viscosity and inhibitor levels in the fermentation system. Finally, the SSCF of GL-Ethanol-pretreated SCB with mixed S. cerevisiae strains increased ethanol concentration and was an

  1. Estradiol-loaded PLGA nanoparticles for improving low bone mineral density of cancellous bone caused by osteoporosis: Application of enhanced charged nanoparticles with iontophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Issei; Kobayashi, Shiori; Hida, Yukari; Makino, Kimiko

    2017-07-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis among older women, which occurs by an ovarian hormone deficiency, is one of the major public health problems. 17 β-estradiol (E2) is used to prevent and treat this disease as a drug of hormone replacement therapy. In oral administration, E2 is significantly affected by first-pass hepatic metabolism, and high dose administration must be needed to obtain drug efficacy. Therefore, alternative administration route is needed, and we have focused on the transdermal drug delivery system. In this study, we have prepared E2-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles for osteoporosis by using a combination of an antisolvent diffusion method with preferential solvation. The average particle diameter of the nanoparticles was 110.0±41.0nm and the surface charge number density was 82 times higher than that of conventional E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles. Therapeutic evaluation of E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was carried out using ovariectomized female rats. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated to measure bone mineral density of cancellous bone using an X-ray CT system. When the E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were administrated once a week, bone mineral density was significantly higher than that of the non-treated group at 60days after the start of treatment. Also, in the group administered this nanoparticle twice a week, the bone mineral density increased significantly at 45days after the start of treatment. From these results, it was revealed that E2-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with iontophoresis were useful to recover bone mineral density of cancellous bone, and it was also suggested that they extend the dosing interval of E2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bulk simulation for establishing the potential within the planning of load distribution and load shifting of an enhanced number of electrical consumers; Massensimulation zur Potenzialermittlung bei der Lastverlaufsplanung und -verlagerung einer hohen Anzahl elektrischer Verbraucher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunagel, Johannes; Schaefers, Hans; Renz, Wolfgang [Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaften Hamburg (Germany). Center for Demand Side Integration (C4DSI); Wiechmann, Holger [EnBW Vertrieb GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The shift to a renewable electricity production requires a reconstruction of the current electricity supply system. In a system with a big share of fluctuating electricity producers using renewable resources the production as well as the consumption has to be able to react flexibly to the current supply situation. This applies for the grid as a whole and in particular for parts of the distribution grid. In this context there is a demand for a robust, cheap and flexible control system which enables a utility to activate large numbers of consumers in the low power range. In this context the Center for Demand Side Integration at the University of Applied Sciences (HAW) Hamburg has been contracted by Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg (EnBW) (Germany's 3{sup rd} largest utility) to conduct a study on the development of control algorithms to control a large number (several tens of thousands) of decentralized applications. These algorithms were tested in an extensive modeling and simulation approach in which the behavior of the system was analyzed. The focus was on electric heating systems like domestic heat pumps and night storage heating. Thermal models of the applications and of domestic buildings were developed using Matlab/Simulink. Compiled as dynamic-link libraries these models were transferred to the multi-agent framework Jadex. This way it was possible to test the developed control algorithms on a network of up to 100,000 consumers. The mass simulation model was analyzed in terms of potentials, scale effects and reliability of load schedules and load shifting potentials. (orig.)

  3. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  4. Pulse mitigation and heat transfer enhancement techniques. Volume 3: Liquid sodium heat transfer facility and transient response of sodium heat pipe to pulse forward and reverse heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, L. C.; Hahn, O. J.; Nguyen, H. X.

    1992-08-01

    This report presents the description of a liquid sodium heat transfer facility (sodium loop) constructed to support the study of transient response of heat pipes. The facility, consisting of the loop itself, a safety system, and a data acquisition system, can be safely operated over a wide range of temperature and sodium flow rate. The transient response of a heat pipe to pulse heat load at the condenser section was experimentally investigated. A 0.457 m screen wick, sodium heat pipe with an outer diameter of 0.127 m was tested under different heat loading conditions. A major finding was that the heat pipe reversed under a pulse heat load applied at the condenser. The time of reversal was approximately 15 to 25 seconds. The startup of the heat pipe from frozen state was also studied. It was found that during the startup process, at least part of the heat pipe was active. The active region extended gradually down to the end of the condenser until all of the working fluid in the heat pipe was molten.

  5. Daily transactional and transformational leadership and daily employee engament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Hetland, Jorn; Demerouti, E.; Olsen, O.K.; Espevik, R.

    2014-01-01

    This diary study adds to the leadership literature by examining the daily influence of transformational leadership, contingent reward, and active management-by-exception (MBE active) on followers' daily work engagement. We compare the unique contribution of these leadership behaviours and focus on

  6. Gender, Emotion Work, and Relationship Quality: A Daily Diary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Melissa A.; McDaniel, Brandon T.; Pollitt, Amanda M.; Totenhagen, Casey J.

    2015-01-01

    We use the gender relations perspective from feminist theorizing to investigate how gender and daily emotion work predict daily relationship quality in 74 couples (148 individuals in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships) primarily from the southwest U.S. Emotion work is characterized by activities that enhance others’ emotional well-being. We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals’ average levels) and state (individuals’ daily fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of daily relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, daily fluctuations, and volatility (overall daily variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of couples. Second, gender differences were minimal for fixed effects: Trait and state emotion work predicted higher average scores on, and positive daily increases in, individuals’ own positive relationship quality and lower average ambivalence. Third, gender differences were more robust for volatility: For partner effects, having a partner who reported higher average emotion work predicted lower volatility in love, satisfaction, and closeness for women versus greater volatility in love and commitment for men. Neither gender nor emotion work predicted average levels, daily fluctuations, or volatility in conflict. We discuss implications and future directions pertaining to the unique role of gender in understanding the associations between daily emotion work and volatility in daily relationship quality for relational partners. PMID:26508808

  7. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  8. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Surfactant: Low Temperature Magic Angle Spinning 13C and 29Si NMR Enhanced by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafon, Olivier [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Thankamony, Aany S. Lilly [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Kokayashi, Takeshi [Ames Laboratory; Carnevale, Diego [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Vitzthum, Veronika [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Slowing, Igor I. [Ames Laboratory; Kandel, Kapil [Ames Laboratory; Vezin, Herve [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Amoureux, Jean-Paul [Universite de Lille Nord de France; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Pruski, Marek [Ames Laboratory

    2012-12-21

    We show that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) can be used to enhance NMR signals of 13C and 29Si nuclei located in mesoporous organic/inorganic hybrid materials, at several hundreds of nanometers from stable radicals (TOTAPOL) trapped in the surrounding frozen disordered water. The approach is demonstrated using mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), functionalized with 3-(N-phenylureido)propyl (PUP) groups, filled with the surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The DNP-enhanced proton magnetization is transported into the mesopores via 1H–1H spin diffusion and transferred to rare spins by cross-polarization, yielding signal enhancements εon/off of around 8. When the CTAB molecules are extracted, so that the radicals can enter the mesopores, the enhancements increase to εon/off ≈ 30 for both nuclei. A quantitative analysis of the signal enhancements in MSN with and without surfactant is based on a one-dimensional proton spin diffusion model. The effect of solvent deuteration is also investigated.

  9. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  10. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  11. A core-shell albumin copolymer nanotransporter for high capacity loading and two-step release of doxorubicin with enhanced anti-leukemia activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuzhou; Ihme, Susann; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Kuan, Seah Ling; Eisele, Klaus; Lamla, Markus; Wang, Yanran; Buske, Christian; Weil, Tanja

    2013-06-01

    The native transportation protein serum albumin represents an attractive nano-sized transporter for drug delivery applications due to its beneficial safety profile. Existing albumin-based drug delivery systems are often limited by their low drug loading capacity as well as noticeable drug leakage into the blood circulation. Therefore, a unique albumin-derived core-shell doxorubicin (DOX) delivery system based on the protein denaturing-backfolding strategy was developed. 28 DOX molecules were covalently conjugated to the albumin polypeptide backbone via an acid sensitive hydrazone linker. Polycationic and pegylated human serum albumin formed two non-toxic and enzymatically degradable protection shells around the encapsulated DOX molecules. This core-shell delivery system possesses notable advantages, including a high drug loading capacity critical for low administration doses, a two-step drug release mechanism based on pH and the presence of proteases, an attractive biocompatibility and narrow size distribution inherited from the albumin backbone, as well as fast cellular uptake and masking of epitopes due to a high degree of pegylation. The IC50 of these nanoscopic onion-type micelles was found in the low nanomolar range for Hela cells as well as leukemia cell lines. In vivo data indicate its attractive potential as anti-leukemia treatment suggesting its promising profile as nanomedicine drug delivery system. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Efficient one-pot synthesis of Ag nanoparticles loaded on N-doped multiphase TiO2 hollow nanorod arrays with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Min; Yang Beifang; Lv Yan; Fu Zhengping; Xu Jiao; Guo Ting; Zhao Yongxun

    2010-01-01

    The simultaneous Ag loaded and N-doped TiO 2 hollow nanorod arrays with various contents of silver (Ag/N-THNAs) were successfully synthesized on glass substrates by one-pot liquid phase deposition (LPD) method using ZnO nanorod arrays as template. The catalysts were characterized by Raman spectrum, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), ultraviolet-vis (UV-vis) absorption spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggest that AgNO 3 additive in the precursor solutions not only can promote the anatase-to-rutile phase transition, but also influence the amount of N doping in the samples. The photocatalytic activity of all the samples was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity under UV light illumination when the AgNO 3 concentration in the precursor solution was 0.03 M, due to Ag nanoparticles acting as electron sinks; When the AgNO 3 concentration was 0.07 M, the sample performed best under visible light illumination, attributed to the synergetic effects of Ag loading, N doping, and the multiphase structure (anatase/rutile).

  13. Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution by Loading Cd0.5Zn0.5S QDs onto Ni2P Porous Nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingfeng; Su, Tong; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Xiaoniu; Han, Yibo; Li, Quan; Wang, Xina

    2018-02-01

    Ni2P has been decorated on CdS nanowires or nanorods for efficient photocatalytic H2 production, whereas the specific surface area remains limited because of the large size. Here, the composites of Cd0.5Zn0.5S quantum dots (QDs) on thin Ni2P porous nanosheets with high specific surface area were constructed for noble metal-free photocatalytic H2 generation. The porous Ni2P nanosheets, which were formed by the interconnection of 15-30 nm-sized Ni2P nanoparticles, allowed the uniform loading of 7 nm-sized Cd0.5Zn0.5S QDs and the loading density being controllable. By tuning the content of Ni2P, H2 generation rates of 43.3 μM h- 1 (1 mg photocatalyst) and 700 μM h- 1 (100 mg photocatalyst) and a solar to hydrogen efficiency of 1.5% were achieved for the Ni2P-Cd0.5Zn0.5S composites. The effect of Ni2P content on the light absorption, photoluminescence, and electrochemical property of the composite was systematically studied. Together with the band structure calculation based on density functional theory, the promotion of Ni2P in charge transfer and HER activity together with the shading effect on light absorption were revealed. Such a strategy can be applied to other photocatalysts toward efficient solar hydrogen generation.

  14. Never, non-daily, and daily smoking status and progression to daily cigarette smoking as correlates of major depressive episode in a national sample of youth: Results from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health 2013 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M

    2018-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with depression, and new initiates who progress more quickly to daily smoking may be at enhanced risk. In a nationally representative sample of youth, this study examined the association between daily, non-daily, and never smoking with past-year and lifetime major depressive episode (MDE) and, among daily smokers, whether faster progression to daily smoking was associated with increased MDE risk. Data were from n = 44,921 youth aged 12-17 in the 2013-2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Weighted adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of smoking status (daily, non-daily, never) with lifetime and past-year MDE, and the association between progression from cigarette trial to daily smoking with MDE outcomes among daily smokers. Daily and non-daily smokers had similar rates of lifetime and past-year MDE; rates of MDE were approximately 50% lower among never smokers. Compared to never smokers, adjusted models showed that non-daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year and lifetime MDE, while daily smokers had a higher risk of past-year but not lifetime MDE. Daily smoking youth who progressed more quickly from cigarette trial to daily use had an increased risk of both lifetime and past-year MDE. Prevention programs should target factors associated with the shift from cigarette experimentation to regular use to curb deleterious consequences of use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Outgoing Longwave Radiation Daily Climate Data Record (OLR Daily CDR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product contains the 1-degree by 1-degree daily mean outgoing longwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from HIRS radiance observations...

  16. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  17. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  18. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  19. Enhanced antitumor efficacy of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide-based methotrexate-loaded implants on sarcoma 180 tumor-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Li Gao,1,2 Lunyang Xia,3 Ruhui Zhang,1 Dandan Duan,3 Xiuxiu Liu,2 Jianjian Xu,2 Lan Luo1 1State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2School of Biological and Medical Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Research, Anhui Zhongren Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Hefei, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Methotrexate is widely used in chemotherapy for a variety of malignancies. However, severe toxicity, poor pharmacokinetics, and narrow safety margin of methotrexate limit its clinical application. The aim of this study was to develop sustained-release methotrexate-loaded implants and evaluate antitumor activity of the implants after intratumoral implantation. Materials and methods: We prepared the implants containing methotrexate, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide, and polyethylene glycol 4000 with the melt-molding technique. The implants were characterized with regards to drug content, morphology, in vitro, and in vivo release profiles. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties of the implants. Furthermore, the antitumor activity of the implants was tested in a sarcoma 180 mouse model. Results: The implants were prepared as solid rods. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a smooth surface of the implant, suggesting that methotrexate was homogeneously dispersed in the polymeric matrix. The results of DSC and FTIR indicated that no significant interaction between methotrexate and the polymer was observed in the implants. Both in vitro and in vivo release profiles of the implants were characterized by burst release followed by sustained release of methotrexate. Intratumoral implantation of methotrexate-loaded implants could efficiently delay tumor growth. Moreover, an increase in the dose of implants led to a higher tumor

  20. Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution by Loading Cd0.5Zn0.5S QDs onto Ni2P Porous Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lingfeng; Su, Tong; Wang, Zhuo; Zhang, Kun; Peng, Xiaoniu; Han, Yibo; Li, Quan; Wang, Xina

    2018-02-02

    Ni 2 P has been decorated on CdS nanowires or nanorods for efficient photocatalytic H 2 production, whereas the specific surface area remains limited because of the large size. Here, the composites of Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S quantum dots (QDs) on thin Ni 2 P porous nanosheets with high specific surface area were constructed for noble metal-free photocatalytic H 2 generation. The porous Ni 2 P nanosheets, which were formed by the interconnection of 15-30 nm-sized Ni 2 P nanoparticles, allowed the uniform loading of 7 nm-sized Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S QDs and the loading density being controllable. By tuning the content of Ni 2 P, H 2 generation rates of 43.3 μM h - 1 (1 mg photocatalyst) and 700 μM h - 1 (100 mg photocatalyst) and a solar to hydrogen efficiency of 1.5% were achieved for the Ni 2 P-Cd 0.5 Zn 0.5 S composites. The effect of Ni 2 P content on the light absorption, photoluminescence, and electrochemical property of the composite was systematically studied. Together with the band structure calculation based on density functional theory, the promotion of Ni 2 P in charge transfer and HER activity together with the shading effect on light absorption were revealed. Such a strategy can be applied to other photocatalysts toward efficient solar hydrogen generation.

  1. High sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative analysis of drugs in biological samples using 4-column multidimensional micro-UHPLC-MS enabling enhanced sample loading capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald; Vereyken, Liesbeth; François, Isabelle; Dillen, Lieve; Vreeken, Rob J; Cuyckens, Filip

    2017-10-09

    Sensitivity is often a critical parameter in quantitative bioanalyses in drug development. For liquid-chromatography-based methods, sensitivity can be improved by reducing the column diameter, but practical sensitivity gains are limited by the reduced sample loading capacity on small internal diameter (I.D.) columns. We developed a set-up that has overcome these limitations in sample loading capacity. The set-up uses 4 columns with gradually decreasing column diameters along the flow-path (2.1 → 1 → 0.5 → 0.15 mm). Samples are pre-concentrated on-line on a 2.1 mm I.D. trapping column and back flushed to a 1 mm I.D. UHPLC analytical column and separated. The peak(s) of interest are transferred using heartcutting to a second trapping column (0.5 mm I.D.), which is back-flushed to a 0.15 mm I.D. micro-UHPLC analytical column for orthogonal separation. The proof of concept of the set-up was demonstrated by the simultaneous analysis of midazolam and 1'-hydroxy midazolam in plasma by injection of 80 μL of protein precipitated plasma. The 4-column funnel set-up proved to be robust and resulted in a 10-50 times better sensitivity compared to a trap-elute approach and 250-500 fold better compared to direct micro-UHPLC analysis. A lower limit of quantification of 100 fg/mL in plasma was obtained for both probe compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lightship Daily Observations - NARA Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1893 - 1943. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...

  3. Allegheny County Jail Daily Census

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...

  4. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  5. Ultrasonic enhancement of the simultaneous removal of quaternary toxic organic dyes by CuO nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon: Central composite design, kinetic and isotherm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashamiri, Somayeh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar; Rahimi, Mahmood Reza; Goudarzi, Alireza; Jannesar, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (CuO-NPs-AC) were prepared and fully analyzed and characterized with FE-SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Subsequently, this novel material was used for simultaneous ultrasound-assisted adsorption of brilliant green (BG), auramine O (AO), methylene blue (MB) and eosin yellow (EY) dyes. Problems regard to dyes spectra overlap in quaternary solution of this dyes were omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method. The best pH in quaternary system was studied by using one at a time method to achieved maximum dyes removal percentage. Subsequently, sonication time, adsorbent dosage and initial dyes concentrations influence on dyes removal was optimized by central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function approach (DFA). Desirability score of 0.978 show optimum conditions set at sonication time (4.2 min), adsorbent mass (0.029 g), initial dyes concentration (4.5 mg L(-1)). Under this optimum condition the removal percentage for MB, AO, EY and BG dyes 97.58, 94.66, 96.22 and 94.93, respectively. The adsorption rate well fitted by pseudo second-order while adsorption capacity according to the Langmuir model as best equilibrium isotherm model for BG, MB, AO and EY was 20.48, 21.26, 22.34 and 21.29 mg g(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptation of a load-inject valve for a flow injection chemiluminescence system enabling dual-reagent injection enhances understanding of environmental Fenton chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Matthew R.; Nightingale, Philp D.; Turner, Suzanne M.; Liss, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Measurement of multiple components of Fenton chemistry; Fe(II) and H 2 O 2 . •Rapid, quasi-simultaneous analysis enables calculation of environmental kinetics. •Low, nano to pico-molar detection limits with dual analyte analysis. •Able to measure complex matrix samples – organically enriched seawater. •Low cost system with appreciable sensitivity compared to single analyte analysis. -- Abstract: Environmental Fenton chemistry has been poorly constrained within the marine environment at a multi-component level. A simple, unique, reconfiguration of a flow-injection analytical system combined with luminol chemiluminescence allows quasi-simultaneously the measurement, using a single load-inject valve and a single photon multiplier tube, of reduced iron, Fe(II), and hydrogen peroxide. The system enables rapid, every 22 s, measurements with good accuracy at environmentally relevant concentrations, less than 5% relative standard deviations on both a 5 nM Fe(II) standard and a 60 nM hydrogen peroxide standard. Limits of detection were as low as 40 pM Fe(II) and 100 pM hydrogen peroxide. The system showed excellent capability by measuring from within an organic rich seawater the photochemically induced production of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide and their subsequent cycling and Fenton like interactions

  7. Dynamic tensile loading improves the functional properties of mesenchymal stem cell-laden nanofiber-based fibrocartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brendon M; Shah, Roshan P; Huang, Alice H; Mauck, Robert L

    2011-05-01

    Fibrocartilaginous tissues such as the meniscus serve critical load-bearing roles, relying on arrays of collagen fibers to resist tensile loads experienced with normal activity. As these structures are frequently injured and possess limited healing capacity, there exists great demand for tissue-engineered replacements. Toward recreating the structural features of these anisotropic tissues in vitro, we employ scaffolds composed of co-aligned nanofibers that direct mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) orientation and the formation of organized extracellular matrix (ECM). Concomitant with ECM synthesis, the mechanical properties of constructs increase with free-swelling culture, but ultimately failed to achieve equivalence with meniscal fibrocartilage. As mechanical forces are essential to the development and maintenance of musculoskeletal tissues, this work examined the effect of cyclic tensile loading on MSC-laden nanofibrous constructs. We hypothesized that loading would modulate the transcriptional behavior of MSCs, spur the deposition of ECM, and lead to enhancements in construct mechanical properties compared to free-swelling controls. Fiber-aligned scaffolds were seeded with MSCs and dynamically loaded daily in tension or maintained as nonloaded controls for 4 weeks. With mechanical stimulation, fibrous gene expression increased, collagen deposition increased, and the tensile modulus increased by 16% relative to controls. These results show that dynamic tensile loading enhances the maturation of MSC-laden aligned nanofibrous constructs, suggesting that recapitulation of the structural and mechanical environment of load-bearing tissues results in increases in functional properties that can be exploited for tissue engineering applications.

  8. Economic impact analysis of load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, D.K.; Karady, G.G.; Farmer, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Short term load forecasting is an essential function in electric power system operations and planning. Forecasts are needed for a variety of utility activities such as generation scheduling, scheduling of fuel purchases, maintenance scheduling and security analysis. Depending on power system characteristics, significant forecasting errors can lead to either excessively conservative scheduling or very marginal scheduling. Either can induce heavy economic penalties. This paper examines the economic impact of inaccurate load forecasts. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the effect of different load forecasting accuracy. Investigations into the effect of improving the daily peak load forecasts, effect of different seasons of the year and effect of utilization factors are presented

  9. Low elastic modulus Ti-Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteven, Jazmin; Kannan, M Bobby; Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis; Choe, Han-Choel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium-tantalum (Ti-Ta) alloys (10-30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium-aluminium-vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti-Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3×10(-4) mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2×10(-3) mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4×10(-3) mm/y). All the Ti-Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8×10(-3) mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1×10(-4) mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ~22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ~48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8×10(-3) mm/y) showed ~53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vincristine sulfate loaded dextran microspheres amalgamated with thermosensitive gel offered sustained release and enhanced cytotoxicity in THP-1, human leukemia cells: In vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vivek; Kush, Preeti; Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Chandra, Ramesh; Madan, Jitender

    2016-04-01

    Vincristine sulfate (VCS) is a drug of choice for the treatment of childhood and adult acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as well as solid tumors including sarcomas. However, poor biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic traits of VCS like short serum half-life (12 min), high dosing frequency (1.4 mg/m(2) per week for 4 weeks) and extensive protein binding (75%) limit the clinical potential of VCS in cancer therapy. In present investigation, injectable vincristine sulfate loaded dextran microspheres (VCS-Dextran-MSs) were prepared and amalgamated with chitosan-β-glycerophosphate gel (VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel) to surmount the biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic limitations of VCS that consequently induced synergistic sustained release pattern of the drug. Particle size and zeta-potential of VCS-Dextran-MSs were measured to be 6.8 ± 2.4 μm and -18.3 ± 0.11 mV along with the encapsulation efficiency of about 60.4 ± 4.5%. Furthermore, VCS-Dextran-MSs and VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel exhibited slow release pattern and 94.7% and 95.8% of the drug was released in 72 h and 720 h, respectively. Results from cell viability assay and pharmacokinetic as well as histopathological analysis in mice indicated that VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel offers superior therapeutic potential and higher AUClast than VCS-Dextran-MSs and drug solution. In conclusion, VCS-Dextran-MSs-Gel warrants further preclinical tumor growth study to scale up the technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable curcumin-loaded polymeric micellar formulation for enhancing cellular uptake and cytotoxicity to FLT3 overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tima, Singkome; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Berkland, Cory; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to develop a stable polymeric micellar formulation of curcumin (CM) with improved solubility and stability, and that is suitable for clinical applications in leukemia patients. CM-loaded polymeric micelles (CM-micelles) were prepared using poloxamers. The chemical structure of the polymers influenced micellar properties. The best formulation of CM-micelles, namely CM-P407, was obtained from poloxamer 407 at drug to polymer ratio of 1:30 and rehydrated with phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4. CM-P407 exhibited the smallest size of 30.3±1.3nm and highest entrapment efficiency of 88.4±4.1%. When stored at -80°C for 60days, CM-P407 retained high protection of CM and had no significant size change. In comparison with CM solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (CM-DMSO), CM kinetic degradation in both formulations followed a pseudo-first-order reaction, but the half-life of CM in CM-P407 was approx. 200 times longer than in CM-DMSO. Regarding the activity against FLT3 overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cells, CM-P407 showed higher cytotoxicity than CM-DMSO. Moreover, intracellular uptake to leukemic cells of CM-P407 was 2-3 times greater than that of CM-DMSO. These promising results for CM-P407 will be further investigated in rodents and in clinical studies for leukemia treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of tendon–bone healing via the combination of biodegradable collagen-loaded nanofibrous membranes and a three-dimensional printed bone-anchoring bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chou YC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Chao Chou,1,2 Wen-Lin Yeh,2 Chien-Lin Chao,1 Yung-Heng Hsu,1,2 Yi-Hsun Yu,1,2 Jan-Kan Chen,3 Shih-Jung Liu1,2 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Abstract: A composite biodegradable polymeric model was developed to enhance tendon graft healing. This model included a biodegradable polylactide (PLA bolt as the bone anchor and a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanofibrous membrane embedded with collagen as a biomimic patch to promote tendon–bone interface integration. Degradation rate and compressive strength of the PLA bolt were measured after immersion in a buffer solution for 3 months. In vitro biochemical characteristics and the nanofibrous matrix were assessed using a water contact angle analyzer, pH meter, and tetrazolium reduction assay. In vivo efficacies of PLGA/collagen nanofibers and PLA bolts for tendon–bone healing were investigated on a rabbit bone tunnel model with histological and tendon pullout tests. The PLGA/collagen-blended nanofibrous membrane was a hydrophilic, stable, and biocompatible scaffold. The PLA bolt was durable for tendon–bone anchoring. Histology showed adequate biocompatibility of the PLA bolt on a medial cortex with progressive bone ingrowth and without tissue overreaction. PLGA nanofibers within the bone tunnel also decreased the tunnel enlargement phenomenon and enhanced tendon–bone integration. Composite polymers of the PLA bolt and PLGA/collagen nanofibrous membrane can effectively promote outcomes of tendon reconstruction in a rabbit model. The composite biodegradable polymeric system may be useful in humans for tendon reconstruction. Keywords: polylactide–polyglycolide nanofibers, PLGA, collagen, 3D printing, polylactide, PLA, bone-anchoring bolts, tendon healing

  13. Enhanced catalytic activity over MIL-100(Fe) loaded ceria catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with NH{sub 3} at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Dalian 116024 (China); Sun, Hong [School of Environmental & Chemical Engineering, Dalian Jiaotong University, Dalian 116028 (China); Quan, Xie, E-mail: quanxie@dlut.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Dalian 116024 (China); Chen, Shuo [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (Ministry of Education, China), Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Nano-ceria was successfully encapsulated into MIL-100(Fe) for the SCR of NO{sub x}. • The incorporated ceria in MIL-100(Fe) showed high content of chemisorbed oxygen. • The added ceria into MIL-100(Fe) improved the formation of adsorbed NO{sub 2} species. • The addition of ceria into MIL-100(Fe) enhanced SCR activity at low temperature. - Abstract: The development of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactions that are highly active at low temperatures and show good resistance to SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O is still a challenge. In this study, we have designed and developed a high-performance SCR catalyst based on nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside the pores of MIL-100(Fe) that combines excellent catalytic power with a metal organic framework architecture synthesized by the impregnation method (IM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the encapsulation of ceria in the cavities of MIL-100(Fe). The prepared IM-CeO{sub 2}/MIL-100(Fe) catalyst shows improved catalytic activity both at low temperatures and throughout a wide temperature window. The temperature window for 90% NO{sub x} conversion ranges from 196 to 300 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis indicated that the nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside MIL-100(Fe) promotes the production of chemisorbed oxygen on the catalyst surface, which greatly enhances the formation of the NO{sub 2} species responsible for fast SCR reactions.

  14. Horseradish peroxidase-loaded nanospheres attached to hollow gold nanoparticles as signal enhancers in an ultrasensitive immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ya; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Zhuo, Ying; Su, Huilan; Zhang, Yuxia

    2014-01-01

    We report on a novel electrochemical signal amplification strategy for use in immunoassays. The highly responsive immunoelectrode was constructed in the following way: (1) The surface of a gold electrode was covered with a layer single-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in chitosane functionalized with L-cysteine; (2) Gold nanoparticles containing protein A and anti-alpha-fetoprotein (anti-AFP) were then covalently attached to the surface via the thiol groups of the chitosane. The electrode is then exposed to the analyte (AFP) which then is bound by the antibody. In the next step, a gold-conjugated secondary antibody is added that was prepared in the following way: (1) Horseradish peroxidase was crosslinked and the resulting spheres were coated with hollow gold nanoparticles (hollow Au-NPs) to give nanospheres of ∼100 nm in diameter. (2) These were the coated with thionine and, in a last step, with secondary antibody. The use of these materials has several attractive features: The HRP-NPs functionalized with hollow Au-NPs possess a large surface area that can load the large amount of secondary antibody. Thionine (Thi) is highly redox active and improves the intensity of the signal. Carbon nanotubes were used because they possess an excellent electron transfer rate and large surface area. Following incubation of the modified electrode (a) with a sample containing AFP, (b) then with the secondary antibody, and (c) with washing buffer, the electrode is placed in a solution containing H 2 O 2 . The HRP in the smart secondary antibody causes the catalytic decomposition of H 2 O 2 and the results in an electrical current that is linearly related to the concentration of AFP in the 0.025 to 5.0 ng mL −1 concentration range. The detection limit for AFP is as low as 8.3 pg mL −1 . We believe that this novel kind of immunoassay represents a promising tool for use in sensitive clinical assays. (author)

  15. Low elastic modulus Ti–Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: Enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteven, Jazmin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Choe, Han-Choel [Department of Dental Materials, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys (10–30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium–aluminium–vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti–Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3 × 10{sup −4} mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4 × 10{sup −3} mm/y). All the Ti–Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1 × 10{sup −4} mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ∼ 22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ∼ 48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) showed ∼ 53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. - Highlights: • In vitro degradation of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys was studied. • Ta addition to Ti is beneficial for better degradation resistance. • Ti–Ta alloys perform better than commercially pure Ti. • Calcium phosphate coated Ti–Ta alloy is superior to Ti6Al4V alloy.

  16. Haptic-Based Perception-Empathy Biofeedback Enhances Postural Motor Learning During High-Cognitive Load Task in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Saichi, Kenta; Iwata, Hiroyasu

    2018-01-01

    Falls and fall-induced injuries are major global public health problems, and sensory input impairment in older adults results in significant limitations in feedback-type postural control. A haptic-based biofeedback (BF) system can be used for augmenting somatosensory input in older adults, and the application of this BF system can increase the objectivity of the feedback and encourage comparison with that provided by a trainer. Nevertheless, an optimal BF system that focuses on interpersonal feedback for balance training in older adults has not been proposed. Thus, we proposed a haptic-based perception-empathy BF system that provides information regarding the older adult's center-of-foot pressure pattern to the trainee and trainer for refining the motor learning effect. The first objective of this study was to examine the effect of this balance training regimen in healthy older adults performing a postural learning task. Second, this study aimed to determine whether BF training required high cognitive load to clarify its practicability in real-life settings. Twenty older adults were assigned to two groups: BF and control groups. Participants in both groups tried balance training in the single-leg stance while performing a cognitive task (i.e., serial subtraction task). Retention was tested 24 h later. Testing comprised balance performance measures (i.e., 95% confidence ellipse area and mean velocity of sway) and dual-task performance (number of responses and correct answers). Measurements of postural control using a force plate revealed that the stability of the single-leg stance was significantly lower in the BF group than in the control group during the balance task. The BF group retained the improvement in the 95% confidence ellipse area 24 h after the retention test. Results of dual-task performance during the balance task were not different between the two groups. These results confirmed the potential benefit of the proposed balance training regimen in

  17. Haptic-Based Perception-Empathy Biofeedback Enhances Postural Motor Learning During High-Cognitive Load Task in Healthy Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Yasuda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Falls and fall-induced injuries are major global public health problems, and sensory input impairment in older adults results in significant limitations in feedback-type postural control. A haptic-based biofeedback (BF system can be used for augmenting somatosensory input in older adults, and the application of this BF system can increase the objectivity of the feedback and encourage comparison with that provided by a trainer. Nevertheless, an optimal BF system that focuses on interpersonal feedback for balance training in older adults has not been proposed. Thus, we proposed a haptic-based perception-empathy BF system that provides information regarding the older adult's center-of-foot pressure pattern to the trainee and trainer for refining the motor learning effect. The first objective of this study was to examine the effect of this balance training regimen in healthy older adults performing a postural learning task. Second, this study aimed to determine whether BF training required high cognitive load to clarify its practicability in real-life settings. Twenty older adults were assigned to two groups: BF and control groups. Participants in both groups tried balance training in the single-leg stance while performing a cognitive task (i.e., serial subtraction task. Retention was tested 24 h later. Testing comprised balance performance measures (i.e., 95% confidence ellipse area and mean velocity of sway and dual-task performance (number of responses and correct answers. Measurements of postural control using a force plate revealed that the stability of the single-leg stance was significantly lower in the BF group than in the control group during the balance task. The BF group retained the improvement in the 95% confidence ellipse area 24 h after the retention test. Results of dual-task performance during the balance task were not different between the two groups. These results confirmed the potential benefit of the proposed balance training

  18. iRGD-modified lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles loaded with isoliquiritigenin to enhance anti-breast cancer effect and tumor-targeting ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fei Gao,1–3 Jinming Zhang,3 Chaomei Fu,3 Xiaoming Xie,4 Fu Peng,1–3 Jieshu You,1,2 Hailin Tang,1,2,4 Zhiyu Wang,5 Peng Li,6 Jianping Chen1–3 1School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, 3College of Pharmacy, Chengdu University of Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 4Department of Breast Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 5Department of Mammary Disease, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 6State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL, a natural anti-breast cancer dietary compound, has poor delivery characteristics and low bioavailability. In order to promote the therapeutic outcome of ISL, a tumor-targeting lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticle (NP system modified by tumor-homing iRGD peptides has been developed. The hybrid NPs were prepared by a modified single-step nanoprecipitation method to encapsulate ISL. iRGD peptides were anchored on the surface by a postinsertion method (ISL-iRGD NPs. The stable lipid–polymer structure of ISL-iRGD NPs, with high encapsulation and loading efficiency, was confirmed. Compared to free ISL and non-iRGD-modified counterparts, ISL-iRGD NPs showed higher cytotoxicity and cell apoptosis against the different type of breast cancer cells. This was attributable to higher cellular accumulation mediated by the iRGD-integrin recognition and the nanoscale effect. More importantly, based on the active tumor-tissue accumulation by iRGD peptides and the prolonged in vivo circulation by the stealth nanostructure, ISL-iRGD NPs displayed higher tumor-growth inhibition efficiency in 4T1-bearing breast-tumor mouse

  19. A comparison of GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements in ambient air under conditions of enhanced monoterpene loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ambrose

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Toluene was measured using both a gas chromatographic system (GC, with a flame ionization detector (FID, and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm (THF in rural Durham, NH during the summer of 2004. Simultaneous measurements of monoterpenes, including α- and β-pinene, camphene, Δ 3-carene, and d-limonene, by GC-FID demonstrated large enhancements in monoterpene mixing ratios relative to toluene, with median and maximum enhancement ratios of ~2 and ~30, respectively. A detailed comparison between the GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements was conducted to test the specificity of PTR-MS for atmospheric toluene measurements under conditions often dominated by biogenic emissions. We derived quantitative estimates of potential interferences in the PTR-MS toluene measurements related to sampling and analysis of monoterpenes, including fragmentation of the monoterpenes and some of their primary carbonyl oxidation products via reactions with H3O+, O2+ and NO+ in the PTR-MS drift tube. The PTR-MS and GC-FID toluene measurements were in good quantitative agreement and the two systems tracked one another well from the instrumental limits of detection to maximum mixing ratios of ~0.5 ppbv. A correlation plot of the PTR-MS versus GC-FID toluene measurements was described by the least squares regression equation y=(1.13± 0.02x−(0.008±0.003 ppbv, suggesting a small ~13% positive bias in the PTR-MS measurements. The bias corresponded with a ~0.055 ppbv difference at the highest measured toluene level. The two systems agreed quantitatively within the combined 1σ measurement precisions for 60% of the measurements. Discrepancies in the measured mixing ratios were not well correlated with enhancements in the monoterpenes. Better quantitative agreement between the two systems was obtained by

  20. Cellulose Derivatives Enhanced Stability of Alginate-Based Beads Loaded with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 against Low pH, High Temperature and Prolonged Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareez, Ismail M; Lim, Siong Meng; Zulkefli, Nurul Aida Ashyqin; Mishra, Rakesh K; Ramasamy, Kalavathy

    2017-05-10

    The susceptibility of probiotics to low pH and high temperature has limited their use as nutraceuticals. In this study, enhanced protection of probiotics via microencapsulation was achieved. Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 were immobilised within polymeric matrix comprised of alginate (Alg) with supplementation of cellulose derivatives (methylcellulose (MC), sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)). L. plantarum LAB12 encapsulated in Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) elicited improved survivability (91%) in simulated gastric conditions and facilitated maximal release (∼100%) in simulated intestinal condition. Alg-HPMC(1.0) and Alg-MC(1.0) significantly reduced (P 7 log CFU g -1 . Alg-MC and Alg-HPMC improved the survival of LAB12 against simulated gastric condition (9.24 and 9.55 log CFU g -1 , respectively), temperature up to 90 °C (9.54 and 9.86 log CFU g -1 , respectively) and 4-week of storage at 4 °C (8.61 and 9.23 log CFU g -1 , respectively) with sustained release of probiotic in intestinal condition (>9 log CFU g -1 ). These findings strongly suggest the potential of cellulose derivatives supplemented Alg bead as protective micro-transport for probiotic strains. They can be safely incorporated into new functional food or nutraceutical products.

  1. Enhanced electroactive and mechanical properties of poly(vinylidene fluoride) by controlling crystallization and interfacial interactions with low loading polydopamine coated BaTiO₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Xing, Qian; Liu, Xu; Sun, Jing; Xia, Guangmei; Huang, Wei; Song, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is a semi-crystalline polymer and the polar β-phase of PVDF shows superb electroactive properties. In order to enhance the β-phase of PVDF, extreme low content of BaTiO3 nanoparticles (BT-NPs) coated with polydopamine (Pdop) were incorporated into PVDF matrix by solution casting. The β-phase of the resulting PVDF nanocomposites film was dramatically increased and the d33 value reached 34.3±0.4 pCN(-1). It is found that the Pdop layer could improve the dispersibility and stability of the BT NPs in solution and endow the BT NPs good dispersity in the PVDF matrix. Moreover, the interfacial interaction between PVDF chains and the surface of BT-Pdop nanoparticles (BT-Pdop NPs) were revealed, in which the CF2 groups on PVDF could interact with the electron-rich plane of aromatic ring of Pdop moiety. This interaction, led to the increase of the crystallization activation energy as derived from the DSC nonisothermal crystallization measurement. The α-β crystal transformation, organization of interfacial interactions as well as the prevention of agglomeration of BT-NPs confer the improvement of mechanical and thermal properties of PVDF, such as toughness, tensile strength, elongation at break, and thermal conductivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fast preparation of Bi2GeO5 nanoflakes via a microwave-hydrothermal process and enhanced photocatalytic activity after loading with Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhao-Qian; Lin, Xin-Shan; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xue-Tai; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes were successfully synthesized via a microwave-assisted solution-phase approach. ► Ag nanoparticles were deposited on the Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. ► Catalytic activity of the Ag/Bi 2 GeO 5 nanocomposite in the photo-degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) was much higher than that of pure Bi 2 GeO 5 . -- Abstract: In this work, a facile and rapid microwave-assisted hydrothermal route has been developed to prepare Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes. Ag nanoparticles were subsequently deposited on the Bi 2 GeO 5 nanoflakes by a photoreduction procedure. The phases and morphologies of the products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Photocatalytic experiments indicate that such Ag/Bi 2 GeO 5 nanocomposite possesses higher photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation under UV light irradiation in comparison to pure Bi 2 GeO 5 . The amount of Ag in the nanocomposite affects the catalytic activity, and 3 wt% Ag showed the highest photodegradation efficiency. Moreover, the catalyst remains active after four consecutive tests. The present study provides a new strategy to design composite materials with enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ZnS nanoparticles loaded with MoS{sub 2} nanoflakes by self-assembly approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vattikuti, S.V. Prabhakar, E-mail: vsvprabu@gmail.com; Byon, Chan, E-mail: cbyon@ynu.ac.kr; Jeon, Sora

    2016-12-01

    A hybrid consisting of ZnS nanoparticles supported on layered MoS{sub 2}−ZnS was synthesized by a hydrothermal method based on self-assembly technique without using a template. XRD, SEM-EDX, TEM, HR-TEM, TG-DTA, XPS, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, and UV–Vis spectroscopies were used to characterize the structural features, morphology, and composition of the MoS{sub 2}–ZnS hybrid. The results show that the MoS{sub 2}–ZnS hybrid is mainly ZnS nanoparticles on layered MoS{sub 2} with a thickness of ca. 5–20 nm. The combination of the MoS{sub 2} and ZnS hybrid structure is beneficial for enhancing the photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation. A possible photoreaction mechanism of the MoS{sub 2}–ZnS hybrid in the degradation is proposed. The photoexcited electrons from the ZnS could easily transfer to the conduction band of MoS{sub 2}, thus decreasing the recombination of photoinduced carriers and enabling the degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation.

  4. Enhancing Macrophage Drug Delivery Efficiency via Co-Localization of Cells and Drug-Loaded Microcarriers in 3D Resonant Ultrasound Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel synthetic 3D molecular transfer system which involved the use of model drug calcein-AM-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (CAPMs) and resonant ultrasound field (RUF) with frequency of 1 MHz and output intensity of 0.5 W/cm2 for macrophage drug delivery was explored. We hypothesized that the efficiency of CAPMs-mediated drug delivery aided by RUF can be promoted by increasing the contact opportunities between cells and the micrometer-sized drug carriers due to effects of acoustic radiation forces generated by RUF. Through the fluoromicroscopic and flow cytometric analyses, our results showed that both DH82 macrophages and CAPMs can be quickly brought to acoustic pressure nodes within 20 sec under RUF exposure, and were consequently aggregated throughout the time course. The efficacy of cellular uptake of CAPMs was enhanced with increased RUF exposure time where a 3-fold augmentation (P CAPM delivery efficiency was mainly contributed by the co-localization of cells and CAPMs resulting from the application of the RUF, rather than from sonoporation. In summary, the developed molecular delivery approach provides a feasible means for macrophage drug delivery.

  5. Sodium Mercaptoethane Sulfonate Reduces Collagenolytic Degradation and Synergistically Enhances Antimicrobial Durability in an Antibiotic-Loaded Biopolymer Film for Prevention of Surgical-Site Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Rosenblatt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-associated surgical-site infections can have significant clinical consequences. Previously we reported a method for prophylactically disinfecting implant surfaces in surgical pockets, where an antibiotic solution containing minocycline (M and rifampin (R was applied as a solid film in a crosslinked biopolymer matrix that partially liquefied in situ to provide extended prophylaxis. Here we studied the effect of adding sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MeSNA on durability of prophylaxis in an in vitro model of implant-associated surgical-site infection. Adding MeSNA to the M/R biopolymer, antimicrobial film extended the duration for which biofilm formation by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA was prevented on silicone surfaces in the model. M/R films with and without MeSNA were effective in preventing colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Independent experiments revealed that MeSNA directly inhibited proteolytic digestion of the biopolymer film and synergistically enhanced antimicrobial potency of M/R against MDR-PA. Incubation of the MeSNA containing films with L929 fibroblasts revealed no impairment of cellular metabolic activity or viability.

  6. In situ loading of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles on nanocrystalline magnesium oxide for real-time monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaige; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yuling

    2015-10-28

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique is of great importance for insight into the transient reaction intermediates and mechanistic pathways involved in heterogeneously catalyzed chemical reactions under actual reaction conditions, especially in water. Herein, we demonstrate a facile method for in situ synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide-Ag(0) (nano MgO-Ag(0)) hybrid nanomaterials with dispersed Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the surface of nanocrystalline magnesium oxide (nano MgO) via Sn(2+) linkage and reduction. As a benefit from the synergy effect of nano MgO and Ag NPs, the nano MgO-Ag(0) exhibited both excellent SERS and catalytic activities for the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol in the presence of NaBH4. The nano MgO-Ag(0) was used for real-time monitoring of the catalytic reaction process of 4-nitrothiophenol to 4-aminothiophenol in an aqueous medium by observing the SERS signals of the reactant, intermediate and final products. The intrinsic reaction kinetics and reaction mechanism of this reaction were also investigated. This SERS-based synergy technique provides a novel approach for quantitative in situ monitoring of catalytic chemical reaction processes.

  7. Enhanced catalytic activity over MIL-100(Fe) loaded ceria catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH₃ at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Sun, Hong; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2016-01-15

    The development of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactions that are highly active at low temperatures and show good resistance to SO2 and H2O is still a challenge. In this study, we have designed and developed a high-performance SCR catalyst based on nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside the pores of MIL-100(Fe) that combines excellent catalytic power with a metal organic framework architecture synthesized by the impregnation method (IM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the encapsulation of ceria in the cavities of MIL-100(Fe). The prepared IM-CeO2/MIL-100(Fe) catalyst shows improved catalytic activity both at low temperatures and throughout a wide temperature window. The temperature window for 90% NOx conversion ranges from 196 to 300°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and in situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) analysis indicated that the nano-sized ceria encapsulated inside MIL-100(Fe) promotes the production of chemisorbed oxygen on the catalyst surface, which greatly enhances the formation of the NO2 species responsible for fast SCR reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  9. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  10. Enhancement of radiotherapy efficacy by miR-200c-loaded gelatinase-stimuli PEG-Pep-PCL nanoparticles in gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui FB

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fang-bo Cui,1,* Qin Liu,1,* Ru-Tian Li,1 Jie Shen,1 Pu-yuan Wu,1 Li-Xia Yu,1 Wen-jing Hu,1 Feng-lei Wu,2 Chun-Ping Jiang,1 Guo-feng Yue,2 Xiao-Ping Qian,1 Xi-Qun Jiang,3 Bao-Rui Liu11The Comprehensive Cancer Center of Drum-Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University and Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2Nanjing Medical University, 3Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry and Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Radiotherapy is the main locoregional control modality for many types of unresectable tumors, including gastric cancer. However, many patients fail radiotherapy due to intrinsic radioresistance of cancer cells, which has been found to be strongly associated with cancer stem cell (CSC-like properties. In this study, we developed a nanoparticle formulation to deliver miR-200c, which is reported to inhibit CSC-like properties, and then evaluated its potential activity as a radiosensitizer. miR-200c nanoparticles significantly augmented radiosensitivity in three gastric cancer cell lines (sensitization enhancement ratio 1.13–1.25, but only slightly in GES-1 cells (1.06. In addition to radioenhancement, miR-200c nanoparticles reduced the expression of CD44, a putative CSC marker, and the percentage of CD44+ BGC823 cells. Meanwhile, other CSC-like properties, including invasiveness and resistance to apoptosis, could be suppressed by miR-200c nanoparticles. CSC-associated radioresistance mechanisms, involving reactive oxygen species levels and DNA repair capacity, were also attenuated. We have demonstrated that miR-200c nanoparticles are an effective radiosensitizer in gastric cancer cells and induce little radiosensitization in normal cells, which suggests that they are as a promising candidate for further preclinical and clinical evaluation

  11. Daily Physical Activity and Cognitive Function Variability in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christine B; Edwards, Jerri D; Andel, Ross; Kilpatrick, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants' daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0-24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults' ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.

  12. Daily Living Functioning, Social Engagement and Wellness of Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Zainab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe present study aim to investigate the contributing role of daily living functioning and social engagement in enhancing wellness and various dimensions of wellness in older adults.MethodA correlational research was designed. Socio-demographic data was collected. Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Lubben Social Network Scale, and Perceived Wellness Survey were administered on a sample of 112 participants, including 56 men and 56 women.ResultsA correlation analysis found positive correlations between daily living functioning, social engagement and wellness of older adults. The results of regression analysis concluded that both the daily living functioning and social engagement predicted wellness and domains of wellness as well.ConclusionThe obtained results indicate that older adults who are self-reliant lead a more satisfied life in old age and demonstrate to be more adjusted to the effects of aging.

  13. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  14. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  15. Synthesis of TiO2-loaded Co0.85Se thin films with heterostructure and their enhanced catalytic activity for p-nitrophenol reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Yong; Song, Ji-Ming; Niu, He-Lin; Mao, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Sheng-Yi; Shen, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    P-nitrophenol (4-NP) and hydrazine hydrate are considered to be highly toxic pollutants in wastewater, and it is of great importance to remove them. Herein, TiO 2 -loaded Co 0.85 Se thin films with heterostructure were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal route. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and selective-area electron diffraction. The results demonstrate that TiO 2 nanoparticles with a size of about 10 nm are easily loaded on the surface of graphene-like Co 0.85 Se nanofilms, and the NH 3  · H 2 O plays an important role in the generation and crystallization of TiO 2 nanoparticles. Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurement shows that the obtained nanocomposites have a larger specific surface area (199.3 m 2 g −1 ) than that of Co 0.85 Se nanofilms (55.17 m 2 g −1 ) and TiO 2 nanoparticles (19.49 m 2 g −1 ). The catalytic tests indicate Co 0.85 Se–TiO 2 nanofilms have the highest activity for 4-NP reduction and hydrazine hydrate decomposition within 10 min and 8 min, respectively, compared with the corresponding precursor Co 0.85 Se nanofilms and TiO 2 nanoparticles. The enhanced catalytic performance can be attributed to the larger specific surface area and higher rate of interfacial charge transfer in the heterojunction than that of the single components. In addition, recycling tests show that the as-synthesized sample presents stable conversion efficiency for 4-NP reduction. (paper)

  16. Low cognitive load strengthens distractor interference while high load attenuates when cognitive load and distractor possess similar visual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Shipstead, Zach; Osaka, Naoyuki; Engle, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distractors have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load. Some studies have shown that the cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the amount of cognitive load that a person is required to maintain. Lower amounts of cognitive load increase distractor interference by orienting attention toward visually similar distractors. Higher amounts of cognitive load attenuate distractor interference by depleting attentional resources needed to process distractors. In the present study, cognitive load consisted of faces (Experiments 1-3) or scenes (Experiment 2). Participants performed a selective attention task in which they ignored face distractors while judging a color of a target dot presented nearby, under differing amounts of load. Across these experiments distractor interference was greater in the low-load condition and smaller in the high-load condition when the content of the cognitive load had similar visual characteristic to the distractors. We also found that when a series of judgments needed to be made, the effect was apparent for the first trial but not for the second. We further tested an involvement of working memory capacity (WMC) in the load effect (Experiment 3). Interestingly, both high and low WMC groups received an equivalent effect of the cognitive load in the first distractor, suggesting these effects are fairly automatic.

  17. Dayak and Their Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Darmadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans [1]. Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.

  18. Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Folic Acid-Targeted Liposomes Co-Loaded with C6 Ceramide and Doxorubicin: In Vitro Evaluation on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Pan, Jiayi; Sarisozen, Can; Luther, Ed; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Current research in cancer therapy is beginning to shift toward the use of combinational drug treatment regimens. However, the efficient delivery of drug combinations is governed by a number of complex factors in the clinical setting. Therefore, the ability to synchronize the pharmacokinetics of the individual therapeutic agents present in combination not only to allow for simultaneous tumor accumulation but also to allow for a synergistic relationship at the intracellular level could prove to be advantageous. In this work, we report the development of a novel folic acid-targeted liposomal formulation simultaneously co-loaded with C6 ceramide and doxorubicin [FA-(C6+Dox)-LP]. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP was able to significantly reduce the IC50 of Dox when compared to that after the treatment with the doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Dox-LP) as well as the untargeted drug co-loaded (C6+Dox)-LP on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR cells. The analysis of the cell cycle distribution showed that while the C6 liposomes (C6-LP) did not cause cell cycle arrest, all the Dox-containing liposomes mediated cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells in the G2 phase at Dox concentrations of 0.3 and 1 μM and in the S phase at the higher concentrations. It was also found that this arrest in the S phase precedes the progression of the cells to apoptosis. The targeted FA-(C6+Dox)-LP were able to significantly enhance the induction of apoptotic events in HeLa cell monolayers as compared to the other treatment groups. Next, using time-lapse phase holographic imaging microscopy, it was found that upon treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP, the HeLa cells underwent rapid progression to apoptosis after 21 h as evidenced by a drastic drop in the average area of the cells after loss of cell membrane integrity. Finally, upon evaluation in a HeLa spheroid cell model, treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP showed significantly higher levels of cell death compared to those with C6-LP and

  19. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-12-01

    At the Kennedy Centre for Phenylketonuria, Denmark, large neutral amino acids (LNAAs) are being used to treat adult and adolescent patients who are nonadherent to dietary treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). At the start of treatment, a patient must undergo dietary analysis and regular blood sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties in maintaining this level of protein intake). Patients are therefore able to follow a more "normal" diet than those adhering to a PKU diet with AA supplementation (in which only 20% of the daily protein requirement is provided from the diet and 80% from AA supplementation). LNAAs have also been used to treat older patients with untreated/late-diagnosed PKU who show profound intellectual, psychological, and behavioral impairments. Treatment with LNAAs has been shown to improve measures of concentration and awareness of external stimuli in some of these patients and thus enhance their socialization, emotionality, frustration tolerance, and mood.

  20. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell–core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou

    2015-01-01

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL −1 with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. - Highlights: • A versatile ELISA-based immunoassay for PCV2 antibody was developed. • Enzyme and CdSe QDs modified SiO 2 particles were used to improve sensitivity. • The simultaneous three ELISA-based techniques enhanced the detection reliability. • The biosensors strategy could provide a new avenue to ELISA-based sensors

  1. Enhanced immunoassay for porcine circovirus type 2 antibody using enzyme-loaded and quantum dots-embedded shell–core silica nanospheres based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Long; Li, Xuepu; Shao, Kang; Ye, Shiyi; Liu, Chen; Zhang, Chenjun; Han, Heyou, E-mail: hyhan@mail.hzau.edu.cn

    2015-08-05

    Boosting the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is significant to the early clinical diagnosis of various diseases. Here, we developed a versatile immunosensor using silica nanospheres as carriers for sensitive detection of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) antibody. With HRP enzyme covalently immobilized on the silica nanospheres and CdSe nanocrystals embedded inside, these signal probes were successfully utilized in the sensitive detection of PCV2 antibody by ELISA, fluorometry and square-wave voltammetry (SWV). To further demonstrate the performance of the immunosensor, Human IgG (HIgG) was used as a model analyte. Since more HRP and CdSe QDs were loaded, 5-, 200- and 400-fold enhancements in amplified ELISA, fluorometry and voltammetry responses for HIgG could be achieved compared to conventional ELISA. The respective detection limits of theses methods for HIgG were 3.9, 0.1 and 0.05 ng mL{sup −1} with a RSD below 5% for amplified ELISA, fluorescence and SWV measurements. Additionally, a 100-fold improvement was obtained in the detection sensitivity for PCV2 antibody immunoassay. The versatile immunosensor exhibits good sensitivity, stability and reproducibility, suggesting its potential applications in clinical diagnostics. - Highlights: • A versatile ELISA-based immunoassay for PCV2 antibody was developed. • Enzyme and CdSe QDs modified SiO{sub 2} particles were used to improve sensitivity. • The simultaneous three ELISA-based techniques enhanced the detection reliability. • The biosensors strategy could provide a new avenue to ELISA-based sensors.

  2. Short-term load forecasting of power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaobin

    2017-05-01

    In order to ensure the scientific nature of optimization about power system, it is necessary to improve the load forecasting accuracy. Power system load forecasting is based on accurate statistical data and survey data, starting from the history and current situation of electricity consumption, with a scientific method to predict the future development trend of power load and change the law of science. Short-term load forecasting is the basis of power system operation and analysis, which is of great significance to unit combination, economic dispatch and safety check. Therefore, the load forecasting of the power system is explained in detail in this paper. First, we use the data from 2012 to 2014 to establish the partial least squares model to regression analysis the relationship between daily maximum load, daily minimum load, daily average load and each meteorological factor, and select the highest peak by observing the regression coefficient histogram Day maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature and daily average temperature as the meteorological factors to improve the accuracy of load forecasting indicators. Secondly, in the case of uncertain climate impact, we use the time series model to predict the load data for 2015, respectively, the 2009-2014 load data were sorted out, through the previous six years of the data to forecast the data for this time in 2015. The criterion for the accuracy of the prediction is the average of the standard deviations for the prediction results and average load for the previous six years. Finally, considering the climate effect, we use the BP neural network model to predict the data in 2015, and optimize the forecast results on the basis of the time series model.

  3. Chronic and Daily Stressors Along With Negative Affect Interact to Predict Daily Tiredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsell, Elizabeth N; Neupert, Shevaun D

    2017-11-01

    The present study examines the within-person relationship of daily stressors and tiredness and whether this depends on daily negative affect and individual differences in chronic stress. One hundred sixteen older adult participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk for a 9-day daily diary study. Daily tiredness, daily stressors, and negative affect were measured each day, and chronic stress was measured at baseline. Daily stressors, daily negative affect, and chronic stress interacted to predict daily tiredness. People with high chronic stress who experienced an increase in daily negative affect were the most reactive to daily stressors in terms of experiencing an increase in daily tiredness. We also found that people with low levels of chronic stress were the most reactive to daily stressors when they experienced low levels of daily negative affect. Our results highlight the need for individualized and contextualized approaches to combating daily tiredness in older adults.

  4. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  5. Enhancing learners’ problem solving performance in mathematics: A cognitive load perspective - See more at: http://www.lectitopublishing.nl/Article/List/88/11/15#sthash.gmkglGIQ.dpuf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Dhlamini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a pilot study that investigated the effect of implementing a context-based problem solving instruction (CBPSI to enhance the problem solving performance of high school mathematics learners. Primarily, the pilot study aimed: (1 to evaluate the efficiency of data collection instruments; and, (2 to test the efficacy of CBPSI in relation to learners’ problem solving performance. In this paper CBPSI refers to a teaching approach in which everyday problem solving knowledge and practices are uncovered when learners are exposed to tasks that give meaning to their everyday experiences. Given that the design of a pilot study lacked the inclusion of a control group, it is reasonable to conclude that the current design embraced elements of a pre-experimental research approach in which a one-group pre-test post-test design was followed. Participants consisted of a convenient sample of 57 Grade 10 learners who performed poorly in mathematics problem solving. The results of the study informed various conceptual and methodological revisions to strengthen the design of the main study, however, this paper reports only the effect of CBPSI on participants’ problem solving performance. The post-intervention achievement test suggested that CBPSI was effective in substantially accelerating learners’ problem solving performance (p<0.05. Using a cognitive load theory, it is possible to explain aspects of growth in learners’ problem solving performance in relation to the conceptual notion of human cognitive architecture.

  6. Design and optimization of topical methotrexate loaded niosomes for enhanced management of psoriasis: application of Box-Behnken design, in-vitro evaluation and in-vivo skin deposition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Aly A; AbouGhaly, Mohamed H H

    2015-05-15

    Psoriasis, a skin disorder characterized by impaired epidermal differentiation, is regularly treated by systemic methotrexate (MTX), an effective cytotoxic drug but with numerous side effects. The aim of this work was to design topical MTX loaded niosomes for management of psoriasis to avoid systemic toxicity. To achieve this goal, MTX niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique. A Box-Behnken (BB) design, using Design-Expert(®) software, was employed to statistically optimize formulation variables. Three independent variables were evaluated: MTX concentration in hydration medium (X1), total weight of niosomal components (X2) and surfactant: cholesterol ratio (X3). The encapsulation efficiency percent (Y1: EE%) and particle size (Y2: PS) were selected as dependent variables. The optimal formulation (F12) displayed spherical morphology under transmission electron microscopy (TEM), optimum particle size of 1375.00 nm and high EE% of 78.66%. In-vivo skin deposition study showed that the highest value of percentage drug deposited (22.45%) and AUC0-10 (1.15 mg.h/cm(2)) of MTX from niosomes were significantly greater than that of drug solution (13.87% and 0.49 mg.h/cm(2), respectively). Moreover, in-vivo histopathological studies confirmed safety of topically applied niosomes. Concisely, the results showed that targeted MTX delivery might be achieved using topically applied niosomes for enhanced treatment of psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transmission Lines Loading Enhancement Using ADPSO Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mahdavi; H. Monsef; A. Bagheri

    2010-01-01

    Discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) is a powerful stochastic evolutionary algorithm that is used to solve the large-scale, discrete and nonlinear optimization problems. However, it has been observed that standard DPSO algorithm has premature convergence when solving a complex optimization problem like transmission expansion planning (TEP). To resolve this problem an advanced discrete particle swarm optimization (ADPSO) is proposed in this paper. The simulation res...

  8. A methodology for Electric Power Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Almeshaiei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand forecasting is a central and integral process for planning periodical operations and facility expansion in the electricity sector. Demand pattern is almost very complex due to the deregulation of energy markets. Therefore, finding an appropriate forecasting model for a specific electricity network is not an easy task. Although many forecasting methods were developed, none can be generalized for all demand patterns. Therefore, this paper presents a pragmatic methodology that can be used as a guide to construct Electric Power Load Forecasting models. This methodology is mainly based on decomposition and segmentation of the load time series. Several statistical analyses are involved to study the load features and forecasting precision such as moving average and probability plots of load noise. Real daily load data from Kuwaiti electric network are used as a case study. Some results are reported to guide forecasting future needs of this network.

  9. Hybridizing DEMD and Quantum PSO with SVR in Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents an SVR model hybridized with the differential empirical mode decomposition (DEMD method and quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm (QPSO for electric load forecasting. The DEMD method is employed to decompose the electric load to several detail parts associated with high frequencies (intrinsic mode function—IMF and an approximate part associated with low frequencies. Hybridized with quantum theory to enhance particle searching performance, the so-called QPSO is used to optimize the parameters of SVR. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Sydney, Australia market and the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO, New York, USA are used for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results illustrate the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.

  10. Towards smart energy systems: application of kernel machine regression for medium term electricity load forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Bargiotas, Dimitrios; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2016-01-01

    Integration of energy systems with information technologies has facilitated the realization of smart energy systems that utilize information to optimize system operation. To that end, crucial in optimizing energy system operation is the accurate, ahead-of-time forecasting of load demand. In particular, load forecasting allows planning of system expansion, and decision making for enhancing system safety and reliability. In this paper, the application of two types of kernel machines for medium term load forecasting (MTLF) is presented and their performance is recorded based on a set of historical electricity load demand data. The two kernel machine models and more specifically Gaussian process regression (GPR) and relevance vector regression (RVR) are utilized for making predictions over future load demand. Both models, i.e., GPR and RVR, are equipped with a Gaussian kernel and are tested on daily predictions for a 30-day-ahead horizon taken from the New England Area. Furthermore, their performance is compared to the ARMA(2,2) model with respect to mean average percentage error and squared correlation coefficient. Results demonstrate the superiority of RVR over the other forecasting models in performing MTLF.

  11. Bone healing response in cyclically loaded implants: Comparing zero, one, and two loading sessions per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros E Lima Bueno, Renan; Dias, Ana Paula; Ponce, Katia J; Wazen, Rima; Brunski, John B; Nanci, Antonio

    2018-05-31

    When bone implants are loaded, they are inevitably subjected to displacement relative to bone. Such micromotion generates stress/strain states at the interface that can cause beneficial or detrimental sequels. The objective of this study is to better understand the mechanobiology of bone healing at the tissue-implant interface during repeated loading. Machined screw shaped Ti implants were placed in rat tibiae in a hole slightly bigger than the implant diameter. Implants were held stable by a specially-designed bone plate that permits controlled loading. Three loading regimens were applied, (a) zero loading, (b) one daily loading session of 60 cycles with an axial force of 1.5 N/cycle for 7 days, and (c) two such daily sessions with the same axial force also for 7 days. Finite element analysis was used to characterize the mechanobiological conditions produced by the loading sessions. After 7 days, the implants with surrounding interfacial tissue were harvested and processed for histological, histomorphometric and DNA microarray analyses. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that the group subjected to repeated loading sessions exhibited a significant decrease in bone-implant contact and increase in bone-implant distance, as compared to unloaded implants and those subjected to only one loading session. Gene expression profiles differed during osseointegration between all groups mainly with respect to inflammatory and unidentified gene categories. The results indicate that increasing the daily cyclic loading of implants induces deleterious changes in the bone healing response, most likely due to the accumulation of tissue damage and associated inflammatory reaction at the bone-implant interface. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  13. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  14. Recreating Daily life in Pompeii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an integrated Mixed Reality methodology for recreating ancient daily life that features realistic simulations of animated virtual human actors (clothes, body, skin, face who augment real environments and re-enact staged storytelling dramas. We aim to go further from traditional concepts of static cultural artifacts or rigid geometrical and 2D textual augmentations and allow for 3D, interactive, augmented historical character-based event representations in a mobile and wearable setup. This is the main contribution of the described work as well as the proposed extensions to AR Enabling technologies: a VR/AR character simulation kernel framework with real-time, clothed virtual humans that are dynamically superimposed on live camera input, animated and acting based on a predefined, historically correct scenario. We demonstrate such a real-time case study on the actual site of ancient Pompeii.

  15. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  16. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  17. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  18. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  19. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  20. Lightening the load: perceptual load impairs visual detection in typical adults but not in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Anna M; Swettenham, John G; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity.

  1. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  2. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  3. Environmental Effects on Long Term Displacement Data of Woven Fabric Webbings Under Constant Load for Inflatable Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, WInfred S.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Duncan, Quinton; Plant, James

    2015-01-01

    An experimental study of the effects of environmental temperature and humidity conditions on long-term creep displacement data of high strength Kevlar and VectranTM woven fabric webbings under constant load for inflatable structures is presented. The restraint layer of an inflatable structure for long-duration space exploration missions is designed to bear load and consists of an assembly of high strength webbings. Long-term creep displacement data of webbings can be utilized by designers to validate service life parameters of restraint layers of inflatable structures. Five groups of high-strength webbings were researched over a two year period. Each group had a unique webbing length, load rating, applied load, and test period. The five groups consisted of 1.) 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 49% ultimate tensile strength (UTS), 2.) 6K Vectran webbings loaded to 55% UTS, 3.) 12.5K Vectran webbings loaded to 22% UTS, 4.) 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 40% and 43% UTS, and 5.) 6K Kevlar webbings loaded to 48% UTS. Results show that all webbing groups exhibit the initial two stages of three of a typical creep curve of an elastic material. Results also show that webbings exhibit unique local wave patterns over the duration of the test period. Data indicate that the local pattern is primarily generated by daily variations in relative humidity values within the test facility. Data indicate that after a three to six month period, where webbings reach a steady-state creep condition, an annual sinusoidal displacement pattern is exhibited, primarily due to variations in annual mean temperature values. Data indicates that variations in daily temperature values and annual mean humidity values have limited secondary effects on creep displacement behavior. Results show that webbings in groups 2 and 5 do not exhibit well defined annual displacement patterns because the magnitude of the applied loads cause large deformations, and data indicate that material yielding within a webbing

  4. Cluster analysis of residential heat load profiles and the role of technical and household characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    2016-01-01

    of the temporality of the energy demand is needed. This paper contributes to this by focusing on the daily load profiles of energy demand for heating of Danish dwellings with heat pumps. Based on hourly recordings from 139 dwellings and employing cluster and regression analysis, the paper explores patterns...... (typologies) in daily heating load profiles and how these relate to socio-economic and technical characteristics of the included households. The study shows that the load profiles vary according to the external load conditions. Two main clusters were identified for both weekdays and weekends and across load...

  5. The load structure of electro boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, N.; Livik, K.

    1995-01-01

    Load measurements have been performed on 24 electro boilers with a time resolution of one hour throughout a period of one year. The boilers are used for space heating and heating of tap water in office buildings, shopping centres and apartment buildings. All boilers have tariffs with disconnection agreements. This report presents load analyses of the measurements from each boiler, and typical load profiles are calculated and presented. It also analyses how boilers are used in relation to the outdoor temperature and the power price on the spot market. All the measurements are performed in Bergen, Norway, in the period August 1993 - August 1994. Typical load profiles are shown, both annual and daily, as well as specific load parameters in addition to key figures used in calculating the total power load on the distribution network. The climate impact on energy and power load is evaluated. The report also shows examples of how the results may be applied in various special fields. 8 figs., 9 tabs

  6. The analysis of loading losses from tank trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Ana P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of loading losses, which are the primary source of evaporative emissions from tank cars and trucks was analyzed in this paper. Loading losses occur as organic vapors in "empty" cargo tanks are displaced to the atmosphere by the liquid being loaded into the tanks. Emissions from loading petroleum liquid were estimated using three methods: the API (American Petroleum Institute method, the VDI (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure -Association of German Engineers method and the Yugoslav Standard JUS B.HO.531 method. The mass of evaporative losses from loading operations is a function of the following parameters: the method of loading the cargo, the physical and chemical characteristics of the cargo and the ambient temperature during loading. Evaporation losses from the loading of motor gasoline (MB-95, BMB-95, MB-98 and MB-86 and diesel fuels (D-2, Euro D-2 were calculated. Losses on a monthly and annual basis were presented for an assumed amount of loaded cargo. It was estimated that the highest loading losses occur in the summer period because of high ambient daily temperatures and in the period of higher transporting levels. It should be pointed out that the loading losses of diesel fuel calculated using an empirical coefficient according to JUS B.HO.531 are significantly higher in comparison with the loading losses calculated using emission factors from the EPA and the VDI method. The gasoline loading losses calculated using emission factors derived from the three methods are similar.

  7. Daily Water Requirements when Wearing Body Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montain, Scott

    2000-01-01

    .... This report presents the results of model simulations predicting the individual daily water requirements under a broad range of energy expenditures and weather conditions when wearing battle dress...

  8. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  9. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) Time Problem ...

  10. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  11. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  12. Autonomous Propellant Loading Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Autonomous Propellant Loading (APL) project consists of three activities. The first is to develop software that will automatically control loading of...

  13. Fuel pellet loading apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for loading a predetermined amount of nuclear fuel pellets into nuclear fuel elements and particularly for the automatic loading of fuel pellets from within a sealed compartment. (author)

  14. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  15. Multi-centre evaluation of two daily disposable contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jon; Young, Graeme; Hunt, Chris; Henderson, Terri

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of two daily disposable contact lenses: 1-DAY ACUVUE (1DA) (etafilcon A, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care) and FOCUS DAILIES with AquaComfort (FD) (nelfilcon A, CIBA Vision, Inc.), which contains a quickly released moisture enhancing agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This was a 1-week, daily wear, subject-masked, bilateral, parallel group study with subjects randomly assigned to one of two daily disposable soft contact lenses. Subjects were existing soft contact lens wearers in the age range 18-39 years with a spherical refraction between -0.50 and -6.00 D. Subjects were assessed at baseline and after 1 week. Assessments included both subjective (symptoms, wearing time, vision) and objective (lens fit and ocular health) outcomes. Twenty clinical sites enrolled 282 subjects (74% female) of whom 276 (98%) successfully completed the study. Significantly more 1DA wearers reported higher mean comfort scores than with FD (3.95 versus 3.41, respectively, Pdisposable lenses highlight that, although both lenses may be considered as clinically acceptable, these lenses should not be regarded as interchangeable.

  16. 1 CFR 5.6 - Daily publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day...

  17. Stochastic modelling of daily rainfall sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buishand, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:
    a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation

  18. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  19. Rating curve estimation of nutrient loads in Iowa rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenback, G.A.; Crumpton, W.G.; Schilling, K.E.; Helmers, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimation of nutrient loads in rivers and streams is critical for many applications including determination of sources of nutrient loads in watersheds, evaluating long-term trends in loads, and estimating loading to downstream waterbodies. Since in many cases nutrient concentrations are measured on a weekly or monthly frequency, there is a need to estimate concentration and loads during periods when no data is available. The objectives of this study were to: (i) document the performance of a multiple regression model to predict loads of nitrate and total phosphorus (TP) in Iowa rivers and streams; (ii) determine whether there is any systematic bias in the load prediction estimates for nitrate and TP; and (iii) evaluate streamflow and concentration factors that could affect the load prediction efficiency. A commonly cited rating curve regression is utilized to estimate riverine nitrate and TP loads for rivers in Iowa with watershed areas ranging from 17.4 to over 34,600km2. Forty-nine nitrate and 44 TP datasets each comprising 5-22years of approximately weekly to monthly concentrations were examined. Three nitrate data sets had sample collection frequencies averaging about three samples per week. The accuracy and precision of annual and long term riverine load prediction was assessed by direct comparison of rating curve load predictions with observed daily loads. Significant positive bias of annual and long term nitrate loads was detected. Long term rating curve nitrate load predictions exceeded observed loads by 25% or more at 33% of the 49 measurement sites. No bias was found for TP load prediction although 15% of the 44 cases either underestimated or overestimate observed long-term loads by more than 25%. The rating curve was found to poorly characterize nitrate and phosphorus variation in some rivers. ?? 2010 .

  20. Dealing with Daily Challenges in Dementia (Deal-id Study): An Experience Sampling Study to Assess Caregivers' Sense of Competence and Experienced Positive Affect in Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Rosalia J M; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Ponds, Rudolf W; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Verhey, Frans R J

    2017-08-01

    Positive emotions and feelings of competence seem to play an important role in the well-being of caregivers of people with dementia. Both are likely to fluctuate constantly throughout the caretaking process. Unlike standard retrospective methods, momentary assessments in daily life can provide insight into these moment-to-moment fluctuations. Therefore, in this study both retrospective and momentary assessments were used to examine the relationship between caregivers' sense of competence and their experienced positive affect (PA) in daily life. Thirty Dutch caregivers provided momentary data on PA and daily sense of competence ratings for 6 consecutive days using the experience sampling methodology. Additionally, they reported retrospectively on their sense of competence with a traditional questionnaire. A positive association was found between retrospective and daily measured sense of competence. Caregivers reported corresponding levels of sense of competence on both measures. Both daily and retrospective sense of competence were positively associated with the experienced levels of PA. However, daily sense of competence appeared to be the strongest predictor. Regarding the variability in PA, only daily sense of competence showed a significant association, with a higher daily sense of competence predicting a more stable PA pattern. This study provides support for redirecting caregiver support interventions toward enhancement of positive rather than negative experiences and focusing more on caregivers' momentary emotional experiences. Momentary assessments are a valuable addition to standard retrospective measures and provide a more comprehensive and dynamic view of caregiver functioning. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial electric load forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, H Lee

    2002-01-01

    Spatial Electric Load Forecasting Consumer Demand for Power and ReliabilityCoincidence and Load BehaviorLoad Curve and End-Use ModelingWeather and Electric LoadWeather Design Criteria and Forecast NormalizationSpatial Load Growth BehaviorSpatial Forecast Accuracy and Error MeasuresTrending MethodsSimulation Method: Basic ConceptsA Detailed Look at the Simulation MethodBasics of Computerized SimulationAnalytical Building Blocks for Spatial SimulationAdvanced Elements of Computerized SimulationHybrid Trending-Simulation MethodsAdvanced

  2. Cognitive Load and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Felix Sebastian; Piovesan, Marco; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2017-01-01

    We study the effect of intuitive and reflective processes on cooperation using cognitive load. Compared with time constraint, which has been used in the previous literature, cognitive load is a more direct way to block reflective processes, and thus a more suitable way to study the link between...... intuition and cooperation. Using a repeated public goods game, we study the effect of different levels of cognitive load on contributions. We show that a higher cognitive load increases the initial level of cooperation. In particular, subjects are significantly less likely to fully free ride under high...... cognitive load....

  3. In situ loading of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} on ultrathin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Renxi; Fang, Xu; Yang, Yang; Yang, Man; Liu, Xianchun [Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Xing, Yan, E-mail: xingy202@nenu.edu.cn [Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials, Department of Chemistry, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Song, Shuyan [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Graphical abstract: Ultrathin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS) with improved electron transport ability and large number of active sites are employed instead of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} to prepare the Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS heterostructured photocatalysts, which exhibit remarkable photocatalytic activity for wastewater treatment. - Highlights: • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS photocatalysts were obtained by a deposition-precipitation method. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS possess large surface areas and increased lifetime of charges. • Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS exhibit enhanced activity on degradation of RhB and MO. • The photocatalytic mechanism of the Ag2WO4/g-C3N4-NS system were investigated. - Abstract: The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS) exhibit more excellent property than common bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-B) due to their large surface areas, improved electron transport ability and well dispersion in water. In this work, ultrathin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS with a thickness of about 2.7 nm have been synthesized by a simple thermal exfoliation of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and then Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4} nanoparticles are in situ loaded on their surface to construct the Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS heterostructured photocatalysts. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, the as-prepared heterostructures possess a fast interfacial charge transfer and increased lifetime of photo-excited charge carriers, and exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity. Under visible light irradiation, the optimum photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}−NS composites is almost 53.6 and 26.5 times higher than that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-B and Ag{sub 2}WO{sub 4}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-B heterostructures towards the degradation of rhodamine B, respectively, and is almost 30.6 and 9.8 times higher towards the degradation of methyl orange, respectively. In addition, the natural sunlight

  4. Optimizing Preseason Training Loads in Australian Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Crow, Justin; Ong, Kok-Leong; Blanch, Peter; Morris, Meg E; Dascombe, Ben J; Crossley, Kay M

    2018-02-01

    To investigate whether preseason training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training-load guidelines to optimize injury-risk reduction and performance improvement. A constrained optimization problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the preseason schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximizing total training volume and maximizing Banister-model-projected performance were both considered optimization objectives. Cumulative workload and acute:chronic workload-ratio constraints were placed on training programs to reflect current guidelines on relative and absolute training loads for injury-risk reduction. Optimization software was then used to generate preseason training plans. The optimization framework was able to generate training plans that satisfied relative and absolute workload constraints. Increasing the off-season chronic training loads enabled the optimization algorithm to prescribe higher amounts of "safe" training and attain higher projected performance levels. Simulations showed that using a Banister-model objective led to plans that included a taper in training load prior to competition to minimize fatigue and maximize projected performance. In contrast, when the objective was to maximize total training volume, more frequent training was prescribed to accumulate as much load as possible. Feasible training plans that maximize projected performance and satisfy injury-risk constraints can be automatically generated by an optimization problem for Australian football. The optimization methods allow for individualized training-plan design and the ability to adapt to changing training objectives and different training-load metrics.

  5. Daily Aspirin Therapy: Understand the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily aspirin therapy: Understand the benefits and risks Daily aspirin therapy can be a lifesaving option, but it's not ... everyone. Get the facts before considering a daily aspirin. By Mayo Clinic Staff Daily aspirin therapy may ...

  6. The influence of daily stress and resilience on successful ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, J; Jung, D

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of daily stress and resilience on successful ageing among community-dwelling older adults. Ageing can be a positive experience if there is good adaptation to ageing processes. Positive ageing needs to be a basis of nursing care, health promotion and education within community settings. Data were collected in March and April of 2014 from 262 older adults living in Seoul and Jeju, South Korea. We used a four-part survey consisting of demographic data, daily stress, resilience and successful ageing scales, in total 91 items. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test, Pearson's correlation coefficient and hierarchical multiple regression analysis to identify the influence of variables on successful ageing. Successful ageing had a significant negative correlation with daily stress and a positive correlation with resilience. Daily stress had a negative correlation with resilience. Findings of hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that resilience and subjective economic status had an effect on successful ageing. Furthermore, these variables accounted for 41.6% of the variance in successful ageing. Data were collected in only two cities of Korea based on convenience sampling. The findings of the study suggest that daily stress and resilience have a statistically significant relationship with successful ageing. Furthermore, resilience is an important influential factor and a much-needed personal characteristic for one's successful ageing. Nurses can advocate joining with health and social policy makers to implement policies on healthy ageing, including evaluation of stress, education programmes and implementation of self-help groups to enhance resilience in older people. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  8. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  9. Intent to quit among daily and non-daily college student smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7%...

  10. Efficacy of the biomaterials 3 wt%-nanostrontium-hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (nanoSr-CPC) and nanoSr-CPC-incorporated simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) microspheres in osteogenesis improvement: An explorative multi-phase experimental in vitro/vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaeli, Reza; Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Rakhshan, Vahid; Shahoon, Hossein; Hooshmand, Behzad; Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh; Raz, Majid; Rajabnejad, Alireza; Eslami, Hossein; Khoshroo, Kimia

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this multi-phase explorative in vivo animal/surgical and in vitro multi-test experimental study was to (1) create a 3 wt%-nanostrontium hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (Sr-HA/CPC) for increasing bone formation and (2) creating a simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SIM-loaded PLGA) microspheres plus CPC composite (SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC). The third goal was the extensive assessment of multiple in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the above experimental explorative products in vitro and in vivo (animal and surgical studies). Methods and results pertaining to Sr-HA/CPC: Physical and chemical properties of the prepared Sr-HA/CPC were evaluated. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activities, and radiological and histological examinations of Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and negative control were compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystallinity of the prepared cement increased by increasing the powder-to-liquid ratio. Incorporation of Sr-HA into CPC increased MTT assay (biocompatibility) and ALP activity (P < 0.05). Histomorphometry showed greater bone formation after 4 weeks, after implantation of Sr-HA/CPC in 10 rats compared to implantations of CPC or empty defects in the same rats (n = 30, ANOVA P < 0.05). Methods and results pertaining to SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres + nanostrontium-CPC composite: After SEM assessment, the produced composite of microspheres and enhanced CPC were implanted for 8 weeks in 10 rabbits, along with positive and negative controls, enhanced CPC, and enhanced CPC plus SIM (n = 50). In the control group, only a small amount of bone had been regenerated (localized at the boundary of the defect); whereas, other groups showed new bone formation within and around the materials. A significant difference was found in the osteogenesis induced by the groups sham control (16.96 ± 1.01), bone materials (32.28 ± 4.03), nanostrontium-CPC (24.84 ± 2.6), nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin (40

  11. Efficacy of the biomaterials 3 wt%-nanostrontium-hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (nanoSr-CPC) and nanoSr-CPC-incorporated simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) microspheres in osteogenesis improvement: An explorative multi-phase experimental in vitro/vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaeli, Reza [Dental Biomaterials Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafarzadeh Kashi, Tahereh Sadat, E-mail: jafarzat@sina.tums.ac.ir [Dental Biomaterials Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iranian Tissue Bank and Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Rassoul [Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rakhshan, Vahid [Iranian Tissue Bank and Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahoon, Hossein [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shahed University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hooshmand, Behzad [Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mashhadi Abbas, Fatemeh [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti Medical Science University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raz, Majid; Rajabnejad, Alireza; Eslami, Hossein [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshroo, Kimia [Dental Biomaterials Department, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Sciences, School of Dentistry, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI (United States); and others

    2016-12-01

    Aims: The purpose of this multi-phase explorative in vivo animal/surgical and in vitro multi-test experimental study was to (1) create a 3 wt%-nanostrontium hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (Sr-HA/CPC) for increasing bone formation and (2) creating a simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SIM-loaded PLGA) microspheres plus CPC composite (SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC). The third goal was the extensive assessment of multiple in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the above experimental explorative products in vitro and in vivo (animal and surgical studies). Methods and results pertaining to Sr-HA/CPC: Physical and chemical properties of the prepared Sr-HA/CPC were evaluated. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activities, and radiological and histological examinations of Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and negative control were compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystallinity of the prepared cement increased by increasing the powder-to-liquid ratio. Incorporation of Sr-HA into CPC increased MTT assay (biocompatibility) and ALP activity (P < 0.05). Histomorphometry showed greater bone formation after 4 weeks, after implantation of Sr-HA/CPC in 10 rats compared to implantations of CPC or empty defects in the same rats (n = 30, ANOVA P < 0.05). Methods and results pertaining to SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres + nanostrontium-CPC composite: After SEM assessment, the produced composite of microspheres and enhanced CPC were implanted for 8 weeks in 10 rabbits, along with positive and negative controls, enhanced CPC, and enhanced CPC plus SIM (n = 50). In the control group, only a small amount of bone had been regenerated (localized at the boundary of the defect); whereas, other groups showed new bone formation within and around the materials. A significant difference was found in the osteogenesis induced by the groups sham control (16.96 ± 1.01), bone materials (32.28 ± 4.03), nanostrontium-CPC (24.84 ± 2.6), nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin (40

  12. Percent Daily Value: What Does It Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What do the Daily Value numbers mean on food labels? Answers from ... 15, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/food-and- ...

  13. Reporter Turnover on Texas Daily Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marquita

    1978-01-01

    A survey of Texas daily newspapers yielded a picture of newspaper reporters as relatively young men who do not stay in one place very long, suggesting that the stereotype of the itinerant reporter may have its basis in fact. (GW)

  14. Professional ideals and daily practice in journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal...

  15. Daily Tips for Good Oral Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this article Daily Tips for Good Oral Hygiene Bacteria can live in your mouth in the form of plaque, causing cavities and gingivitis, which can lead to periodontal (gum) disease. In order to keep your mouth ...

  16. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous...... to automation of revised speech behavior and that self-reports may be a reliable index of cognitive load....

  17. Impact of intestinal stoma of daily activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kougl, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    In the theoretical part I am devoted to the history, anatomy, types of stoma, concept of stoma, indications for an establishment of stoma, pre and postoperative care, treatment of stoma, instruments and the influence on daily activities of a client while having a stoma. In the practical part I am following my own research of the impact of stoma on daily life's activities of klients with a stoma.

  18. Concentrated loads on concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Karen Grøndahl; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas are devel......This report deals with concentrated loads on concrete.A new upper bound solution in the axisymmetrical case of a point load in the center of the end face of a cylinder is developed.Based on previous work dealing with failure mechanisms and upper bound solutions, new approximate formulas...

  19. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  20. Load regulating expansion fixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig

  1. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  2. Electrical load modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valgas, Helio Moreira; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Franca, Carlos [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lambert-Torres, Germano; Silva, Alexandre P. Alves da; Pires, Robson Celso; Costa, Junior, Roberto Affonso [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    Accurate dynamic load models allow more precise calculations of power system controls and stability limits, which are critical mainly in the operation planning of power systems. This paper describes the development of a computer program (software) for static and dynamic load model studies using the measurement approach for the CEMIG system. Two dynamic load model structures are developed and tested. A procedure for applying a set of measured data from an on-line transient recording system to develop load models is described. (author) 6 refs., 17 figs.

  3. Impact of sampling strategy on stream load estimates in till landscape of the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidon, P.; Hubbard, L.E.; Soyeux, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurately estimating various solute loads in streams during storms is critical to accurately determine maximum daily loads for regulatory purposes. This study investigates the impact of sampling strategy on solute load estimates in streams in the US Midwest. Three different solute types (nitrate, magnesium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and three sampling strategies are assessed. Regardless of the method, the average error on nitrate loads is higher than for magnesium or DOC loads, and all three methods generally underestimate DOC loads and overestimate magnesium loads. Increasing sampling frequency only slightly improves the accuracy of solute load estimates but generally improves the precision of load calculations. This type of investigation is critical for water management and environmental assessment so error on solute load calculations can be taken into account by landscape managers, and sampling strategies optimized as a function of monitoring objectives. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Cost effective shift schedules enhance utility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how new shift scheduling concepts can save utility operations millions of dollars every year and yet maintain safety and improve employee morale. The key to scheduling is to define and match the work load. This includes discretionary as well as daily, weekly, and yearly core work loads. In most power plants the overall work load (including maintenance, operations, materials handling, etc.) on day shift is greater than on other shifts, hence an unbalanced schedule would be appropriate

  5. Associations among daily stressors and salivary cortisol: findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S; Cichy, Kelly E; Piazza, Jennifer R; Almeida, David M

    2013-11-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1694 adults (age=57, range=33-84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Associations among Daily Stressors and Salivary Cortisol: Findings from the National Study of Daily Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186

  7. DAILY RUNNING PROMOTES SPATIAL LEARNING AND MEMORY IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HojjatAllah Alaei

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that physical activity improves learning and memory. Present study was performed to determine the effects of acute, chronic and continuous exercise with different periods on spatial learning and memory recorded as the latency and length of swim path in the Morris water maze testing in subsequent 8 days. Four rat groups were included as follows: 1- Group C (controls which did not exercise. 2- Group A (30 days treadmill running before and 8 days during the Morris water maze testing period. 3- Group B (30 days exercise before the Morris water maze testing period only and 4- Group D (8 days exercise only during the Morris water maze testing period. The results showed that chronic (30 days and continuous (during 8 days of Morris water maze testing days treadmill training produced a significant enhancement in spatial learning and memory which was indicated by decreases in path length and latency to reach the platform in the Morris water maze test (p < 0.05. The benefits in these tests were lost in three days, if the daily running session was abandoned. In group D with acute treadmill running (8 days exercise only the difference between the Group A disappeared in one week and benefit seemed to be obtained in comparison with the controls without running program. In conclusion the chronic and daily running exercises promoted learning and memory in Morris water maze, but the benefits were lost in few days without daily running sessions in adult rats

  8. Load Balancing in Hypergraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgosha, Payam; Anantharam, Venkat

    2018-03-01

    Consider a simple locally finite hypergraph on a countable vertex set, where each edge represents one unit of load which should be distributed among the vertices defining the edge. An allocation of load is called balanced if load cannot be moved from a vertex to another that is carrying less load. We analyze the properties of balanced allocations of load. We extend the concept of balancedness from finite hypergraphs to their local weak limits in the sense of Benjamini and Schramm (Electron J Probab 6(23):13, 2001) and Aldous and Steele (in: Probability on discrete structures. Springer, Berlin, pp 1-72, 2004). To do this, we define a notion of unimodularity for hypergraphs which could be considered an extension of unimodularity in graphs. We give a variational formula for the balanced load distribution and, in particular, we characterize it in the special case of unimodular hypergraph Galton-Watson processes. Moreover, we prove the convergence of the maximum load under some conditions. Our work is an extension to hypergraphs of Anantharam and Salez (Ann Appl Probab 26(1):305-327, 2016), which considered load balancing in graphs, and is aimed at more comprehensively resolving conjectures of Hajek (IEEE Trans Inf Theory 36(6):1398-1414, 1990).

  9. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs

  10. Load Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James S. P.; Lavie, Nilli

    2008-01-01

    Although the perceptual load theory of attention has stimulated a great deal of research, evidence for the role of perceptual load in determining perception has typically relied on indirect measures that infer perception from distractor effects on reaction times or neural activity (see N. Lavie, 2005, for a review). Here we varied the level of…

  11. Structural load combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane earthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10 -6 or 1.0 x 10 -5 during a lifetime of 40 years

  12. Load event: Aircraft crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, H.

    1985-01-01

    The bibliography includes 48 quotations, up to the year 1983, on the following issues: Experiments and computational methods. Design load for the dimensioning of reinforced concrete buildings and components with respect to the dynamic load in the event of an aircraft crash. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Willingness to Pay Survey for Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stated preference survey to collect data on households’ use of Chesapeake Bay and its watershed, and of their preferences for a variety of water quality improvements likely to follow from pollution reduction programs.

  14. ESTIMATING THE DAILY ELECTRIC SHOWER LOAD CURVE THROUGH MEASUREMENTS AND END USERS OWNERSHIP AND USAGE SURVEYS

    OpenAIRE

    SILVANA VIEIRA DAS CHAGAS

    2015-01-01

    O objetivo desta dissertação é desenvolver modelos matemáticos que permitam estimar o tempo médio dos banhos com a utilização de chuveiros elétricos e a curva de carga desses aparelhos, considerando as informações das Pesquisas de Posses e Hábitos de Consumo (PPH) e medições realizadas com o auxílio de medidores eletrônicos com memória de massa, em residências com chuveiros elétricos. A motivação do estudo advém de uma exigência da ANEEL que determina que as distribuidoras d...

  15. Evaluation of SMART load follow operation capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jae Seung; Zee, Sung Quun

    1998-07-01

    The daily load follow operation capability of SMART, which is 330 MWth integral reactor with boron free operation concept, was evaluated. In the boron free operation core the axial offset(AO) can not be limited or limited by wider range than the typical PWR that uses soluble boron. Current SMART conceptual core design does not have the limit for the axial offset and the operation is limited by three dimensional local power peak. In this report, the capability of load follow operation is evaluated for 14-2-6-2 daily load follow by 50% power reduction that is very typical in the large commercial power reactors. The cycle length of SMART is limited by three dimensional local power peak and the nominal axial power distribution is top skewed at the end of cycle. When the power returns to 100%, control rod should be withdrawn for the compensation of reactivity decrease due to the xenon buildup. The control rod withdrawal results in the increase of three dimensional local power peak. To solve this problem, an operation strategy for the control of local peak. To solve this problem, an operation strategy for the control of local peak was established and it was shown that the strategy is effective in controlling the local peak less than target value of the three dimensional local power peak. (author). 7 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs

  16. Load-following performance and assessment of CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, M.; Floyd, M.; Rattan, D.; Xu, Z.; Manzer, A.; Lau, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Power Generation, Fuel and Fuel Channel Analysis Dept., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Load following of nuclear reactors is now becoming an economic necessity in some countries. When nuclear power stations are operated in a load-following mode, the reactor and the fuel may be subjected to step changes in power on a weekly, daily, or even hourly basis, depending on the grid's needs. This paper updates the previous surveys of load-following capability of CANDU fuel, focusing mainly on the successful experience at the Bruce B station. As well, initial analytical assessments are provided that illustrate the capability of CANDU fuel to survive conditions other than those for which direct in-reactor evidence is available. (author)

  17. Crack closure and growth behavior of short fatigue cracks under random loading (part I : details of crack closure behavior)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin Young; Song, Ji Ho

    2000-01-01

    Crack closure and growth behavior of physically short fatigue cracks under random loading are investigated by performing narrow-and wide-band random loading tests for various stress ratios. Artificially prepared two-dimensional, short through-thickness cracks are used. The closure behavior of short cracks under random loading is discussed, comparing with that of short cracks under constant-amplitude loading and also that of long cracks under random loading. Irrespective of random loading spectrum or block length, the crack opening load of short cracks is much lower under random loading than under constant-amplitude loading corresponding to the largest load cycle in a random load history, contrary to the behavior of long cracks that the crack opening load under random loading is nearly the same as or slightly higher than constant-amplitude results. This result indicates that the largest load cycle in a random load history has an effect to enhance crack opening of short cracks

  18. Effects of daily food processing on allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Beatriz; Novak, Natalija

    2017-08-11

    Daily food processing has the potential to alter the allergenicity of foods due to modification of the physico-chemical properties of proteins. The degree of such modifications depends on factors such as processing conditions, type of food considered, allergenic content, etc. The impact of daily food processing like boiling, roasting, frying or baking on food allergenicity have been extensively studied. The influence of other thermal treatments such as microwave heating or pressure cooking on allergenicity has also been analyzed. Non-thermal treatment such as peeling impacts on the allergenic content of certain foods such as fruits. In this review, we give an updated overview of the effects of daily processing treatments on the allergenicity of a wide variety of foods. The different variables that contribute to the modification of food allergenicity due to processing are also reviewed and discussed.

  19. Cognitive Load in Voice Therapy Carry-Over Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwarsson, Jenny; Morris, David Jackson; Balling, Laura Winther

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The cognitive load generated by online speech production may vary with the nature of the speech task. This article examines 3 speech tasks used in voice therapy carry-over exercises, in which a patient is required to adopt and automatize new voice behaviors, ultimately in daily spontaneous communication. Method: Twelve subjects produced…

  20. Characterization of biological particulate loads in metropolitan air

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Snow; R. D. Schein; W. J. Moroz

    1977-01-01

    The atmospheric particulate load includes a wide range of naturally occurring particles of biological origin that serve as a reservoir of allergenic agents in respiratory disease. Improved knowledge of potential aeroallergens is needed by medical clinicians. Aims are to better characterize air spora, qualitatively and quantitatively, and determine daily (by hour)...

  1. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  2. Status of load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchymenko, A

    1983-08-01

    A summary is presented of the status of load management, defined as any activity by an electric utility to affect the size and characteristics of its load. Load management is currently viewed by electric utilities as an important tool for marketing electricity in a competitive fuel situation. A major aim of the National Energy Program is to reduce Canada's dependence on oil by 1990 to 10% of the energy used by all markets. As a result, electricity may play a greater role in the supply of primary energy. Research in load management has been directed mostly towards the residential market, especially direct control of domestic hot water heaters and air conditioners. Studies conducted in Canada and the U.S. to determine user's receptiveness to direct control of loads and thermal energy storage systems indicate that these load management techniques are in most cases not acceptable to customers, who prefer voluntary reduction in demand. The potential exists in the industrial market to use load management to assist in electrifying many of the fossil fuel-fired processes at competitive energy prices. Some of the more important applications include an industrial heat pump to heat liquids to 120{degree}C, induction heating for melting and heat treating of metals, and mechanical vapor recompression equipment to produce proces steam. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Management strategies for surplus electricity loads using electrolytic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez-Martin, F.; Garcia-De Maria, J.M.; Bairi, A.; Laraqi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Management of electricity-hydrogen binomials is greatly enhanced by the knowledge of power variations, together with an optimized performance of the electrolyzers. Strategies include the regulation of current densities to minimize hydrogen costs, which depend of the energy prices, the power of installations and utilization factors. The objective is to convert the energy in distinct periods of electricity demand, taking into account the size and efficiency of the equipments; this approach indicates the possibility to reduce costs below a reference price, either by using small facilities which consume high proportions of surplus energy or larger plants for shorter off-peak periods. Thus, we study the viability of large scale production of hydrogen via electrolysis, within the context of excess electricity loads in France (estimated at 22 TWh in 2007): that gives a daily hydrogen potential of 1314 ton, from a total installed power of 5800 MW and average utilization ratios of 42.8%; the production cost approaches 1$/kg H2 , and CO 2 reduction potential amounts 6720 kton/year (if all the produced hydrogen is used to feed 3 million of new fuel-cell vehicles). This analysis serves to demonstrate the great potentials for converting the surplus energy into hydrogen carriers and for managing the power subsystem in thoroughly electrified societies. (author)

  4. Designing an application for managing distribution transformer load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Liliana Sánchez

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a software application for distribution transformer load management and calculating the elec- tricity distribution network service quality index (i.e. EDS and EFS indexes. Transformer operation state, calculating core and coil losses and selecting distribution transformers based on technical-economic criteria using daily-load curves are the load management strategies presented here. The application consists of a programme allowing to data acquisition input, an Excel-based spread-sheet having the equations for calculating load management data and a user-interface presenting the load management application’s results. The application was validated by technical-economic evaluation of three distribution transformers when supplying demand.

  5. Short-term Power Load Forecasting Based on Balanced KNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianlong; Cheng, Xingong; YanShuang; Tang, Yan-mei

    2018-03-01

    To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, a short-term load forecasting model based on balanced KNN algorithm is proposed; According to the load characteristics, the historical data of massive power load are divided into scenes by the K-means algorithm; In view of unbalanced load scenes, the balanced KNN algorithm is proposed to classify the scene accurately; The local weighted linear regression algorithm is used to fitting and predict the load; Adopting the Apache Hadoop programming framework of cloud computing, the proposed algorithm model is parallelized and improved to enhance its ability of dealing with massive and high-dimension data. The analysis of the household electricity consumption data for a residential district is done by 23-nodes cloud computing cluster, and experimental results show that the load forecasting accuracy and execution time by the proposed model are the better than those of traditional forecasting algorithm.

  6. Using Daily Horoscopes To Demonstrate Expectancy Confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a classroom demonstration that uses daily horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)

  7. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the

  8. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  9. Daily precipitation statistics in regional climate models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Christoph; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Déqué, Michel

    2003-01-01

    An evaluation is undertaken of the statistics of daily precipitation as simulated by five regional climate models using comprehensive observations in the region of the European Alps. Four limited area models and one variable-resolution global model are considered, all with a grid spacing of 50 km...

  10. Global daily dynamics of the pineal transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J; Sugden, David

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance...

  11. Daily storage management of hydroelectric facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Ferrero, M.; Lazzeroni, P.; Lukszo, Z.; Olivero, M.; Repetto, M.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a management procedure for hydroelectric facilities with daily storage. The water storage gives an additional degree of freedom allowing to shift in time power production when it is more convenient and to work at the maximum efficiency of hydraulic turbine. The management is

  12. Daily self-management and work engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study adopts a bottom-up approach to work engagement by examining how self-management is related to employees' work engagement on a daily basis. Specifically, we hypothesized that on days that employees use more self-management strategies, they report higher resources at work and in

  13. The daily life of urban ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Het dagelijks leven van allochtone stedelingen. The integration of ethnic minorities in Dutch society is not an easy process. The present emphasis on the problems means there is little room for attention for the daily lives of people within the various ethnic groups. This

  14. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

  15. 27 CFR 19.829 - Daily records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily records. 19.829 Section 19.829 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process...

  16. Perceptual load-dependent neural correlates of distractor interference inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansong Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The load theory of selective attention hypothesizes that distractor interference is suppressed after perceptual processing (i.e., in the later stage of central processing at low perceptual load of the central task, but in the early stage of perceptual processing at high perceptual load. Consistently, studies on the neural correlates of attention have found a smaller distractor-related activation in the sensory cortex at high relative to low perceptual load. However, it is not clear whether the distractor-related activation in brain regions linked to later stages of central processing (e.g., in the frontostriatal circuits is also smaller at high rather than low perceptual load, as might be predicted based on the load theory.We studied 24 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a visual target identification task with two perceptual loads (low vs. high. Participants showed distractor-related increases in activation in the midbrain, striatum, occipital and medial and lateral prefrontal cortices at low load, but distractor-related decreases in activation in the midbrain ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (VTA/SN, striatum, thalamus, and extensive sensory cortices at high load.Multiple levels of central processing involving midbrain and frontostriatal circuits participate in suppressing distractor interference at either low or high perceptual load. For suppressing distractor interference, the processing of sensory inputs in both early and late stages of central processing are enhanced at low load but inhibited at high load.

  17. Perceptual load-dependent neural correlates of distractor interference inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiansong; Monterosso, John; Kober, Hedy; Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N

    2011-01-18

    The load theory of selective attention hypothesizes that distractor interference is suppressed after perceptual processing (i.e., in the later stage of central processing) at low perceptual load of the central task, but in the early stage of perceptual processing at high perceptual load. Consistently, studies on the neural correlates of attention have found a smaller distractor-related activation in the sensory cortex at high relative to low perceptual load. However, it is not clear whether the distractor-related activation in brain regions linked to later stages of central processing (e.g., in the frontostriatal circuits) is also smaller at high rather than low perceptual load, as might be predicted based on the load theory. We studied 24 healthy participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a visual target identification task with two perceptual loads (low vs. high). Participants showed distractor-related increases in activation in the midbrain, striatum, occipital and medial and lateral prefrontal cortices at low load, but distractor-related decreases in activation in the midbrain ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra (VTA/SN), striatum, thalamus, and extensive sensory cortices at high load. Multiple levels of central processing involving midbrain and frontostriatal circuits participate in suppressing distractor interference at either low or high perceptual load. For suppressing distractor interference, the processing of sensory inputs in both early and late stages of central processing are enhanced at low load but inhibited at high load.

  18. Lumbriculus variegatus loading study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Results from sediment bioaccumulation tests with Lumbriculus variegatus with evaluating the effects of organism loading density. This dataset is associated with the...

  19. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Science.gov (United States)

    LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for simulating hydrology, sediment, and general water quality

  20. LOADING SIMULATION PROGRAM C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — LSPC is the Loading Simulation Program in C++, a watershed modeling system that includes streamlined Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) algorithms for...

  1. Cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., Kirschner, F. C., & Paas, F. (2009). Cognitive load theory. In E. M. Anderman & L. H. Anderman (Eds.). Psychology of classroom learning: An encyclopedia, Volume 1, a-j (pp. 205-209). Detroit, MI: Macmillan Reference.

  2. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  3. Load proportional safety brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciola, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    This brake is a self-energizing mechanical friction brake and is intended for use in a rotary drive system. It incorporates a torque sensor which cuts power to the power unit on any overload condition. The brake is capable of driving against an opposing load or driving, paying-out, an aiding load in either direction of rotation. The brake also acts as a no-back device when torque is applied to the output shaft. The advantages of using this type of device are: (1) low frictional drag when driving; (2) smooth paying-out of an aiding load with no runaway danger; (3) energy absorption proportional to load; (4) no-back activates within a few degrees of output shaft rotation and resets automatically; and (5) built-in overload protection.

  4. Plug Load Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We provide MATLAB binary files (.mat) and comma separated values files of data collected from a pilot study of a plug load management system that allows for the...

  5. Heuristics for container loading of furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens; Garavelli, Claudio; Lisi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    . In the studied company, the problem arises hundreds of times daily during transport planning. Instances may contain more than one hundred different items with irregular shapes. To solve this complex problem we apply a set of heuristics successively that each solve one part of the problem. Large items...... are combined in specific structures to ensure proper protection of the items during transportation and to simplify the problem. The solutions generated by the heuristic has an average loading utilization of 91.3% for the most general instances with average running times around 100 seconds....

  6. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  7. Load power device, system and method of load control and management employing load identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Luebke, Charles John; Schoepf, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    A load power device includes a power input, at least one power output for at least one load, a plurality of sensors structured to sense voltage and current at the at least one power output, and a processor. The processor provides: (a) load identification based upon the sensed voltage and current, and (b) load control and management based upon the load identification.

  8. A Simplified Short Term Load Forecasting Method Based on Sequential Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2014-01-01

    Load forecasting is an essential part of a power system both for planning and daily operation purposes. As far as the latter is concerned, short term load forecasting has been broadly used at the transmission level. However, recent technological advancements and legislation have facilitated the i...... in comparison with an ARIMA model....

  9. Distraction and mind-wandering under load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features, and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task-load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals.

  10. Distraction and mind-wandering under load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eForster

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Attention research over the last several decades has provided rich insights into the determinants of distraction, including distractor characteristics, task features and individual differences. Load Theory represented a particularly important breakthrough, highlighting the critical role of the level and nature of task load in determining both the efficiency of distractor rejection and the stage of processing at which this occurs. However, until recently studies of distraction were restricted to those measuring rather specific forms of distraction by external stimuli which I argue that, although intended to be irrelevant, were in fact task-relevant. In daily life, attention may be distracted by a wide range of stimuli, which may often be entirely unrelated to any task being performed, and may include not only external stimuli but also internally generated stimuli such as task-unrelated thoughts. This review outlines recent research examining these more general, entirely task-irrelevant, forms of distraction within the framework of Load Theory. I discuss the relation between different forms of distraction, and the universality of load effects across different distractor types and individuals.

  11. Energy saving in WWTP: Daily benchmarking under uncertainty and data availability limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torregrossa, D; Schutz, G; Cornelissen, A; Hernández-Sancho, F; Hansen, J

    2016-07-01

    Efficient management of Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) can produce significant environmental and economic benefits. Energy benchmarking can be used to compare WWTPs, identify targets and use these to improve their performance. Different authors have performed benchmark analysis on monthly or yearly basis but their approaches suffer from a time lag between an event, its detection, interpretation and potential actions. The availability of on-line measurement data on many WWTPs should theoretically enable the decrease of the management response time by daily benchmarking. Unfortunately this approach is often impossible because of limited data availability. This paper proposes a methodology to perform a daily benchmark analysis under database limitations. The methodology has been applied to the Energy Online System (EOS) developed in the framework of the project "INNERS" (INNovative Energy Recovery Strategies in the urban water cycle). EOS calculates a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for the evaluation of energy and process performances. In EOS, the energy KPIs take in consideration the pollutant load in order to enable the comparison between different plants. For example, EOS does not analyse the energy consumption but the energy consumption on pollutant load. This approach enables the comparison of performances for plants with different loads or for a single plant under different load conditions. The energy consumption is measured by on-line sensors, while the pollutant load is measured in the laboratory approximately every 14 days. Consequently, the unavailability of the water quality parameters is the limiting factor in calculating energy KPIs. In this paper, in order to overcome this limitation, the authors have developed a methodology to estimate the required parameters and manage the uncertainty in the estimation. By coupling the parameter estimation with an interval based benchmark approach, the authors propose an effective, fast and reproducible

  12. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  13. Spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into nonwork: A daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Corts, Inés; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B; Boz, Marina

    2015-07-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 20(3) of Journal of Occupational Health Psychology (see record 2015-15847-001). There was a misspelling in the figures. The legends for Figure 1 and Figure 2 should read "High Daily Resilience".] This study among a heterogeneous sample of employees expands the Job-Demands (JD-R) theory by examining how interpersonal conflicts at work-task and relationship conflict-spillover into the nonwork domain on a daily basis. We hypothesized that daily personal resources can buffer the daily negative spillover of interpersonal conflicts from work into the nonwork domain. A total of 113 employees (n = 565 occasions) filled in a daily diary questionnaire in the evening before bedtime over 5 consecutive working days. Results of multilevel analysis showed that the presence of daily personal resources is essential to buffer the spillover of interpersonal conflict at work to the nonwork domain. Specifically, on days that employees were not very optimistic or resilient, interpersonal conflicts resulted in higher strain-based work-life conflict experiences. These findings contribute to the JD-R theory and show how the unfavorable effects of daily interpersonal conflicts in the work domain may be avoided in the nonwork domain through enhancing personal resources. We discuss the implications for theory and practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Random Modeling of Daily Rainfall and Runoff Using a Seasonal Model and Wavelet Denoising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-ming Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Instead of Fourier smoothing, this study applied wavelet denoising to acquire the smooth seasonal mean and corresponding perturbation term from daily rainfall and runoff data in traditional seasonal models, which use seasonal means for hydrological time series forecasting. The denoised rainfall and runoff time series data were regarded as the smooth seasonal mean. The probability distribution of the percentage coefficients can be obtained from calibrated daily rainfall and runoff data. For validated daily rainfall and runoff data, percentage coefficients were randomly generated according to the probability distribution and the law of linear proportion. Multiplying the generated percentage coefficient by the smooth seasonal mean resulted in the corresponding perturbation term. Random modeling of daily rainfall and runoff can be obtained by adding the perturbation term to the smooth seasonal mean. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, daily rainfall and runoff data for the Wu-Tu watershed were analyzed. The analytical results demonstrate that wavelet denoising enhances the precision of daily rainfall and runoff modeling of the seasonal model. In addition, the wavelet denoising technique proposed in this study can obtain the smooth seasonal mean of rainfall and runoff processes and is suitable for modeling actual daily rainfall and runoff processes.

  15. Load-following operation of PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Hwa; Oh, Soo Yul; Koo, Yang Hyun; Lee, Jae Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-01

    The load-following operation of nuclear power plants will become inevitable due to the increased nuclear share in the total electricity generation. As a groundwork for the load-following capability of the Korean next generation PWRs, the state-of-the-art has been reviewed. The core control principles and methods are the main subject in this review as well as the impact of load-following operations on the fuel performance and on the mechanical integrity of components. To begin with, it was described what the load-following operation is and in what view point the technology should be reviewed. Afterwards the load-following method, performance and problems in domestic 900 MWe class PWRs were discussed, and domestic R and D works were summarized. Foreign technologies were also reviewed. They include Mode G and Mode X of Foratom, D and L bank method of KWU, the method using PSCEA of ABB-CE, and MSHIM of Westinghouse. The load-following related special features of Foratom`s N4 plant, KWU`s plants, ABB-CE`s Systems 80+, and Westinghouse`s AP600 were described in each technology review. The review concluded that the capability of N4 plant with Mode X is the best and the methods in System, 80+ and AP600 would require verifications for the continued and usual load-following operation. It was recommended that the load-following operation experiences in domestic PWRs under operation be required to settle down the capability for the future. In addition, a more enhanced technology is required for the Korean next generation PWR regardless what the reference plant concept is. 30 figs., 19 tabs., 75 refs. (Author).

  16. A daily analysis of physical activity and satisfaction with life in emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Doerksen, Shawna E; Elavsky, Steriani; Hyde, Amanda L; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2013-06-01

    Subjective well-being has well-established positive health consequences. During emerging adulthood, from ages 18 to 25 years, people's global evaluations of their well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life [SWL]) appear to worsen more than any other time in the adult life span, indicating that this population would benefit from strategies to enhance SWL. In these studies, we investigated top-down (i.e., time-invariant, trait-like) and bottom-up (i.e., time-varying, state-like) influences of physical activity (PA) on daily SWL. Two daily diary studies lasting 8 days (N = 190) and 14 days (N = 63) were conducted with samples of emerging adults enrolled in college to evaluate relations between daily PA and SWL while controlling for established and plausible top-down and bottom-up influences on SWL. In both studies, multilevel models indicated that people reported greater SWL on days when they were more active (a within-person, bottom-up effect). Top-down effects of PA were not significant in either study. These findings were robust when we controlled for competing top-down influences (e.g., sex, personality traits, self-esteem, body mass index, mental health symptoms, fatigue) and bottom-up influences (e.g., daily self-esteem, daily mental health symptoms, daily fatigue). We concluded that SWL was impacted by people's daily PA rather than their trait level of PA over time. These findings extend evidence that PA is a health behavior with important consequences for daily well-being and should be considered when developing national policies to enhance SWL. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Associations between daily musicking and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Juel, Knud; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    musically, while this pattern was not found among men. CONCLUSIONS GENDER SEEMS TO PLAY AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MUSICKING AND HEALTH, BUT MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED TO UNDERSTAND THESE DIFFERENCES AND THE UNDERLYING MECHANISMS IN ADDITION, LONGITUDINAL STUDIES ARE WARRANTED TO EXAMINE......AIMS: To examine the associations between singing/playing musical instruments daily and various outcomes such as health-related quality of life and health behaviour. METHODS: Data originates from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013. The survey was based on a random sample of 25,000 adult...... Danes (response rate: 57%). Besides standard health-related questions the survey included eight specific music questions, based on a review of the sparse literature on music and health. On the same basis, 'daily musicking' was defined as normally singing/playing musical instruments at least 1 h...

  18. Interracial roommate relationships: negotiating daily interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Thomas E; Shelton, J Nicole; West, Tessa V

    2009-06-01

    Jobs, social group memberships, or living arrangements lead many people to interact every day with another person from a different racial background. Given that research has shown that interracial interactions are often stressful, it is important to know how these daily interactions unfold across time and what factors contribute to the success or failure of these interactions. Both members of same-race and mixed-race college roommate pairs completed daily questionnaires measuring their emotional experiences and their perceptions of their roommate. Results revealed that roommates in mixed-race dyads experienced less positive emotions and intimacy toward their roommates than did roommates in same-race dyads and that the experience of positive emotions declined over time for ethnic minority students with White roommates. Mediation analyses showed that the negative effects of roommate race were mediated by the level of intimacy-building behaviors performed by the roommate. Implications for future research and university policies are discussed.

  19. Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

  20. Development and characterization of morin hydrate loaded microemulsion for the management of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dheeraj; Singh, Manpreet; Kumar, Punnet; Vikram, Vir; Mishra, Neeraj

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize intranasal delivery of morin hydrate loaded microemulsion for the management of Alzheimer's diseases. After intranasal delivery, brain and blood drug concentrations were found to be higher for optimized morin hydrate loaded microemulsion as compared to plain morin hydrate. Significant (P microemulsion as compared to sham control group. Daily chronic treatment with morin loaded microemulsion till the 21st day significantly increased the memory in wistar rats with STZ-induced dementia.

  1. Strategic political communication in Serbian daily press

    OpenAIRE

    Jevtović, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    It was said for traditional journalism that it opened 'windows into the world' to the citizens. After introduction of the Internet and a vast number of convergent platforms one could argue that the gaze through these media windows is becoming more and more blurred, due to a continually increasing number and size of such windows, which gives raise to suspicion as to the depicted reality. Analyzing contents of the most investigated daily newspapers in Serbia, the author has investigated the rea...

  2. Assessment of parental discipline in daily life.

    OpenAIRE

    Passini Christina Moses; Pihet Sandrine; Favez Nicolas; Schoebi Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) for studying parenting has been rare. We examined the psychometric properties and structural validity of an EMA Parenting Scale based on 32 mothers' reports of their parenting over a period of 10 consecutive days and explored the acceptance of the scale and compliance with the procedure. The results suggested that the EMA Parenting Scale was well accepted for the assessment of daily parenting and that it consistently captured the overreactive a...

  3. Understanding metropolitan patterns of daily encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijun; Axhausen, Kay W; Lee, Der-Horng; Huang, Xianfeng

    2013-08-20

    Understanding of the mechanisms driving our daily face-to-face encounters is still limited; the field lacks large-scale datasets describing both individual behaviors and their collective interactions. However, here, with the help of travel smart card data, we uncover such encounter mechanisms and structures by constructing a time-resolved in-vehicle social encounter network on public buses in a city (about 5 million residents). Using a population scale dataset, we find physical encounters display reproducible temporal patterns, indicating that repeated encounters are regular and identical. On an individual scale, we find that collective regularities dominate distinct encounters' bounded nature. An individual's encounter capability is rooted in his/her daily behavioral regularity, explaining the emergence of "familiar strangers" in daily life. Strikingly, we find individuals with repeated encounters are not grouped into small communities, but become strongly connected over time, resulting in a large, but imperceptible, small-world contact network or "structure of co-presence" across the whole metropolitan area. Revealing the encounter pattern and identifying this large-scale contact network are crucial to understanding the dynamics in patterns of social acquaintances, collective human behaviors, and--particularly--disclosing the impact of human behavior on various diffusion/spreading processes.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of and short-term virologic response to low-dose 400-milligram once-daily raltegravir maintenance therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ananworanich, J.; Gorowara, M.; Avihingsanon, A.; Kerr, S.J.; Heesch, N. van; Khongpetch, C.; Uanithirat, A.; Hill, A.; Ruxrungtham, K.; Burger, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because studies showed similar viral suppression with lower raltegravir doses and because Asians usually have high antiretroviral concentrations, we explored low-dose raltegravir therapy in Thais. Nineteen adults on raltegravir at 400 mg twice daily (BID) with HIV RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were

  5. Assessment of daily-life dynamic interactions between human body and environment using movement and force sensing on the interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortier, H.G.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes a method to estimate load dynamics during the execution of daily life tasks. In many motor tasks, the central nervous system (CNS) applies feed-forward control, using learned patterns. The contribution of state feedback (visual/proprioceptive/reflexive) is significantly less

  6. U.S. Daily Surface Data (COOP Daily/Summary of Day)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — U.S. Daily Surface Data consists of several closely related data sets: DSI-3200, DSI-3202, DSI-3206, and DSI-3210. These are archived at the National Climatic Data...

  7. Prediction of Commuter’s Daily Time Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict the time allocation in commuters’ daily activity-travel pattern. The departure time and the arrival time are estimated with Ordered Probit model and Support Vector Regression is introduced for travel time and activity duration prediction. Applied in a real-world time allocation prediction experiment, the model system shows a satisfactory level of prediction accuracy. This study provides useful insights into commuters’ activity-travel time allocation decision by identifying the important influences, and the results are readily applied to a wide range of transportation practice, such as travel information system, by providing reliable forecast for variations in travel demand over time. By introducing the Support Vector Regression, it also makes a methodological contribution in enhancing prediction accuracy of travel time and activity duration prediction.

  8. Combining Radar and Daily Precipitation Data to Estimate Meaningful Sub-daily Precipitation Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegram, G. G. S.; Bardossy, A.

    2016-12-01

    Short duration extreme rainfalls are important for design. The purpose of this presentation is not to improve the day by day estimation of precipitation, but to obtain reasonable statistics for the subdaily extremes at gauge locations. We are interested specifically in daily and sub-daily extreme values of precipitation at gauge locations. We do not employ the common procedure of using time series of control station to determine the missing data values in a target. We are interested in individual rare events, not sequences. The idea is to use radar to disaggregate daily totals to sub-daily amounts. In South Arica, an S-band radar operated relatively continuously at Bethlehem from 1998 to 2003, whose scan at 1.5 km above ground [CAPPI] overlapped a dense (10 km spacing) set of 45 pluviometers recording in the same 6-year period. Using this valuable set of data, we are only interested in rare extremes, therefore small to medium values of rainfall depth were neglected, leaving 12 days of ranked daily maxima in each set per year, whose sum typically comprised about 50% of each annual rainfall total. The method presented here uses radar for disaggregating daily gauge totals in subdaily intervals down to 15 minutes in order to extract the maxima of sub-hourly through to daily rainfall at each of 37 selected radar pixels [1 km square in plan] which contained one of the 45 pluviometers not masked out by the radar foot-print. The pluviometer data were aggregated to daily totals, to act as if they were daily read gauges; their only other task was to help in the cross-validation exercise. The extrema were obtained as quantiles by ordering the 12 daily maxima of each interval per year. The unusual and novel goal was not to obtain the reproduction of the precipitation matching in space and time, but to obtain frequency distributions of the gauge and radar extremes, by matching their ranks, which we found to be stable and meaningful in cross-validation tests. We provide and

  9. Enhancing nitrogen removal in stormwater treatment facilities for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Stormwater from roadways is a point source of pollution. State DOTs must comply with Total Maximum : Daily Load (TMDL) regulations for nutrients such as nitrogen, which causes water quality impairment. Existing stormwater treatment technologies, such...

  10. Daily physical activity and life satisfaction across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Pincus, Aaron L; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult life span. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a life span sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18-89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e., a within-person association driven by differences between more and less active days). To resolve this inconsistency, a daily diary study was conducted with a lifespan sample of community-dwelling adults (age 18– 89 years; N = 150) over three 21-day measurement bursts. Usual physical activity was positively associated with life satisfaction in middle and older adulthood; however, this association was not present in young adulthood. When present, this between-person association was mediated by physical and mental health. A within-person association between physical activity and life satisfaction was also present (and did not differ across age). Generally, on days when people were more physically active then was typical for them, they experienced greater life satisfaction. Age differences in life satisfaction followed a cubic trajectory: lower during emerging adulthood, higher during midlife, and lower during older adulthood. This study adds to accumulating evidence that daily fluctuations in physical activity have important implications for well-being regardless of age, and clarifies developmental differences in life satisfaction dynamics that can inform strategies for enhancing life satisfaction. PMID:26280838

  12. Ocean Tide Loading Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    2005-01-01

    September 15,2003 through May 15,2005 This grant funds the maintenance, updating, and distribution of programs for computing ocean tide loading, to enable the corrections for such loading to be more widely applied in space- geodetic and gravity measurements. These programs, developed under funding from the CDP and DOSE programs, incorporate the most recent global tidal models developed from Topex/Poscidon data, and also local tide models for regions around North America; the design of the algorithm and software makes it straightforward to combine local and global models.

  13. DYNAMIC LOAD DAMPER MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Aleksey Alekseevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present their findings associated with their modeling of a dynamic load damper. According to the authors, the damper is to be installed onto a structure or its element that may be exposed to impact, vibration or any other dynamic loading. The damper is composed of paralleled or consecutively connected viscous and elastic elements. The authors study the influence of viscosity and elasticity parameters of the damper produced onto the regular displacement of points of the structure to be protected and onto the regular acceleration transmitted immediately from the damper to the elements positioned below it.

  14. Critical loads - assessment of uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkman, A.

    1998-10-01

    The effects of data uncertainty in applications of the critical loads concept were investigated on different spatial resolutions in Sweden and northern Czech Republic. Critical loads of acidity (CL) were calculated for Sweden using the biogeochemical model PROFILE. Three methods with different structural complexity were used to estimate the adverse effects of S0{sub 2} concentrations in northern Czech Republic. Data uncertainties in the calculated critical loads/levels and exceedances (EX) were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Uncertainties within cumulative distribution functions (CDF) were aggregated by accounting for the overlap between site specific confidence intervals. Aggregation of data uncertainties within CDFs resulted in lower CL and higher EX best estimates in comparison with percentiles represented by individual sites. Data uncertainties were consequently found to advocate larger deposition reductions to achieve non-exceedance based on low critical loads estimates on 150 x 150 km resolution. Input data were found to impair the level of differentiation between geographical units at all investigated resolutions. Aggregation of data uncertainty within CDFs involved more constrained confidence intervals for a given percentile. Differentiation as well as identification of grid cells on 150 x 150 km resolution subjected to EX was generally improved. Calculation of the probability of EX was shown to preserve the possibility to differentiate between geographical units. Re-aggregation of the 95%-ile EX on 50 x 50 km resolution generally increased the confidence interval for each percentile. Significant relationships were found between forest decline and the three methods addressing risks induced by S0{sub 2} concentrations. Modifying S0{sub 2} concentrations by accounting for the length of the vegetation period was found to constitute the most useful trade-off between structural complexity, data availability and effects of data uncertainty. Data

  15. Chronic job burnout and daily functioning: A theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold B. Bakker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the individual employee's role in the development of his/her job burnout. We review the antecedents and consequences of burnout, and propose a model with chronic burnout as a moderator of daily functioning in the workplace. Specifically, we argue that chronic burnout strengthens the loss cycle of daily job demands, daily exhaustion, and daily self-undermining. Additionally, we argue that chronic burnout weakens the gain cycle of daily job resources, daily work engagement, and daily job crafting. We conclude that employees with high levels of burnout need help in structurally changing their working conditions and health status.

  16. Capability of parasulfonato calix[6]arene, as an anion dopant, and organic solvents in enhancing the sensitivity and loading of glucose oxidase (GOx) on polypyrrole film in a biosensor: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnavadeh, Vahideh; Zare, Karim; Fakhari, Ali Reza

    2013-11-15

    In this study, the effects of two solvents (acetonitrile and water) and an anion dopant (para sulfonato calix[6]arene ((C[6]S)(-6))), on the manufacturing and properties of a polypyrrole (Ppy)-based, glucose oxidase amperometric biosensor were studied. Pyrrole was polymerized using galvanostatic mode in two different solvents, and the effect of (C[6]S)(-6) was studied in aqueous solution. The morphology of the obtained polypyrrole films was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Glucose oxidase (GOx) was adsorbed on the Ppy films via cross-linking method. Then the amperometric responses of the Pt/Ppy/GOx electrodes were measured using the amperometric method at the potential of 0.7 V in steps of adding a glucose solution to a potassium phosphate buffer. We found that acetonitrile and (C[6]S)(-6) increase the sensitivity of the enzyme electrode up to 79.30 µA M(-1)cm(-2) in comparison with 31.60 μA M(-1)cm(-2) for the electrode synthesized in calixarene free aqueous solvent. Also (C[6]S)(-6) has the main role in preventing leaching the enzyme from the electrode. This fact increases loading of the enzyme and stability of the biosensor. So that the steady state current density of the aforementioned electrode increases linearly with increasing glucose concentration up to 190 mM. Whereas the linearity was observed up to 61 mM and 80 mM for the electrodes made using calixarene free acetonitrile and aqueous solutions, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide microspheres enhance osteogenic potential of gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate cryogel composite for alveolar ridge augmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Chieh Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Sufficient bony support is essential to ensure the success of dental implant osseointegration. However, the reconstruction of vertical ridge deficiencies is still a major challenge for dental implants. This study introduced a novel treatment strategy by infusing poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA microspheres encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 within a gelatin/hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (gelatin/HA/β-TCP cryogel composite to facilitate supra-alveolar ridge augmentation. Methods: The gelatin scaffold was crosslinked using cryogel technique, and HA/β-TCP particles were mechanically entrapped to form the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite. Co-axial electrohydrodynamic atomization technology was used to fabricate PLGA microspheres encapsulating BMP-2. The composites of gelatin/HA/β-TCP alone, with infusion of BMP-2 solution (BMPi or microspheres (BMPm, were fixed on rat mandibles using a titanium mini-implant for 4 weeks, and the therapeutic efficiency was evaluated by micro-computed tomography, bone fluorochrome, and histology. Results: The gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite was homogenously porous, and BMP-2 was sustained release from the microspheres without initial burst release. Ridge augmentation was noted in all specimens treated with the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite, and greater bone deposition ratio were noted in Groups BMPi and BMPm. Compared with Group BMPi, specimens in Group BMPm showed significantly greater early osteogenesis and evident osseointegration in the supra-alveolar level. Conclusion: BMP-2 loaded PLGA microspheres effectively promoted osteogenic potential of the gelatin/HA/β-TCP composite and facilitated supra-alveolar ridge augmentation in vivo. Keywords: bone morphogenetic protein-2, bone regeneration, dental implant, tissue engineering, tissue scaffolds

  18. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  19. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  20. Fuel Load (FL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...