WorldWideScience

Sample records for enhance global food

  1. Development of food safety capability in Ghana to enhance access to the Global Food Manufacturing Value Chain (GFMVC)

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, L. D.

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating compliance with food safety requirements of the global economy is a prerequisite for access. As tariff barriers diminish, developing countries are exposed to greater opportunities for repositioning their food manufacturing sectors in global value chains (GVCs). At the same time, the measures for the protection of public health and safety are becoming more stringent because of the series of food safety crises that characterised the global food value chain in the 19...

  2. Food, Globalization and Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Sonnenfeld, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Food is increasingly traded internationally, thereby transforming the organisation of food production and consumption globally and influencing most food-related practices. This transition is generating unfamiliar challenges related to sustainability of food provision, the social impacts of

  3. Global Food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation in food production and consumption is fundamentally transforming a wide variety of social practices at different levels in society. Simply adding another level of governance will therefore not solve the problems related to food production and consumption in global modernity. Different

  4. Food irradiation: global aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinning, G.

    1988-01-01

    As a commercial activity, food irradiation is twenty years old, but is backed by nearly eighty years of research on gamma irradiation and sixty years knowledge of application of the technology to food. An overview is given of the global boom and then the hiatus in its legislative and commercial applications. It is emphasised that in Australia, the overseas experience provides a number of models for proceeding further for food manufacturers, consumers and Government. 13 refs

  5. Enhancing food security through a multi-stakeholder process: the global agenda for sustainable livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, G.E.; Dijkman, J.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding the world is not only a complex technical matter, but also a demanding governance issue. As food security has all the characteristics of a wicked problem (variety of problem definitions, conflicting interests, interconnectedness across scales, inherent uncertainties), conventional governance

  6. Developments in Global Food Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Rayner; Emily Laing; Jamie Hall

    2011-01-01

    Global food prices have increased significantly since the early 2000s, reversing the long-run trend decline in relative food prices over previous decades. A range of supply disruptions in key food-producing countries have contributed to higher food prices, along with strong demand from developing countries as per capita incomes rise and consumption patterns change. Rising commodity prices are leading to higher headline consumer price inflation in many countries though, at this stage, core mea...

  7. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  8. Global Food Safety-International Consumers' Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-10-11

    Your submissions to this Special Issue "Food Microbiology and Safety" of Foods -a new open access journal-are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety. [...].

  9. Ethical food standard schemes and global trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity...... base of each institution while giving expression to both materialist and postmaterialist understandings of the nature of food....... to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even...

  10. Nutritionally Enhanced Food Crops; Progress and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. Hefferon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Great progress has been made over the past decade with respect to the application of biotechnology to generate nutritionally improved food crops. Biofortified staple crops such as rice, maize and wheat harboring essential micronutrients to benefit the world’s poor are under development as well as new varieties of crops which have the ability to combat chronic disease. This review discusses the improvement of the nutritional status of crops to make a positive impact on global human health. Several examples of nutritionally enhanced crops which have been developed using biotechnological approaches will be discussed. These range from biofortified crops to crops with novel abilities to fight disease. The review concludes with a discussion of hurdles faced with respect to public perception, as well as directions of future research and development for nutritionally enhanced food crops.

  11. Globalization and Food Prestige among Indian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxfield, Amanda; Patil, Shailaja; Cunningham, Solveig A

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a foundation for understanding how globalization and changing food environments are linked to cultural models of food prestige in adolescents. We used methods from cognitive anthropology, including free lists, pile sorts, and consensus modeling, to explore the meanings that Indian adolescents attribute to foods. Adolescents (n = 29) were asked to free list foods eaten outside and inside the home. Different adolescents (n = 65) were asked to pile sort and rank 30 foods identified during the free lists according to which foods are the most prestigious, traditional, routine, and advertised on television. We found that adolescents overwhelmingly believed nontraditional foods to be the most prestigious. Nonlocal foods, both from foreign countries and other regions of India, as well as foods eaten outside the home, were also considered prestigious.

  12. Fairtrade, Food Security and Globalization: Building Alternative Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Calisto Friant

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the politics and practices of Fairtrade certification in order to assess whether this alternative trading system could contribute to innovative solutions for global food security. The analysis begins by assessing the main challenges and problems characterizing the contemporary global food system. It then explores the history, vision and certification standards of the Fairtrade label. In the third section, the results of the impact studies of Fairtrade certification on producer livelihoods are discussed, analyzing the various strengths and weaknesses. Finally the article analyzes whether, and how, the Fairtrade system could positively contribute to improving global food security. To conclude this paper argues that the greatest strength of Fairtrate is not the certification mechanism itself but rather the social and environmental principles it represents. Fairtrade standards could serve to inform broader international policies, which could lead to a sustainable transformation of the global food system.

  13. Food irradiation: a global scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, T.; Ross, A.; Leveziel, H.

    1994-01-01

    Many of the foods that will be consumed in the 21st century have not yet been invented. New methods of production need new methods of conservation. Food irradiation by gamma radiation or electron beam is a new technology. The intensive production methods of today lead to several potential dangers. For example - if just one chicken is diseased this bird can contaminate all of one days' production at the slaughter house - on average 300,000 birds per day. One has to have conservation methods that can decontaminate the poultry meat. Irradiation is a method that achieves this. The consumer is becoming more and more sophisticated and demanding with regard to the quality of food products, rejecting chemical additives for example, irradiation is a physical method of conservation, this means that there is no residue left in the product, and that there are no changes in the physical characteristics of the food. This paper examines the use of irradiation technology as a food conservation method in today's industry. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Global Food Safety?International Consumers? Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-01-01

    Your submissions to this Special Issue “Food Microbiology and Safety” of Foods—a new open access journal—are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety.

  15. Climate change impacts on global food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim

    2013-08-02

    Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security.

  16. Globalization of water and food through international trade: impacts on food security, resilience and justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; Suweis, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of water resources in general depends on geographic conditions but can be (virtually) modified by humans through mechanisms of globalization, such as trade, that make food commodities available to populations living far from the production regions. While trade is expected to improve access to food and (virtual) water, its impact on the global food system and its vulnerability to shocks remains poorly understood. It is also unclear who benefits from trade and whether it contributes to inequality and justice in resource redistribution. We reconstruct the global patterns of food trade and show with a simple model how the ongoing intensification of imports and exports has eroded the resilience of the global food system. Drawing on human rights theory, we investigate the relationship between inequality and injustice in access to water and food. We assess the fulfillment of positive and negative water and food rights and evaluate the obligations arising from the need to ensure that these rights are met throughout the world. We find that trade enhances the vulnerability to shocks but overall increase the number of people whose water and food rights are met.

  17. Globalization vs. localization: global food challenges and local sollutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Jongerden, J.P.; Essegbey, G.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of global-local interactions on food production and consumption in Ghana, and identify possible local solutions. Primary data were collected using a combination of quantitative-qualitative methods, which included focus group discussions and

  18. Genetically modified foods as global public goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Herrero Olarte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available "Genetically modified (GM food has become very important in the field of research, as a result of its expansion in recent decades. As the right to food is a human right, it cannot be left in the hands of private sector developments exclusively, due to the capacity of the public sector to limit or drive it, and in any case, contributing to food safety. To achieve this, and for its cross-border development, GM needs to be treated as Global Public Goods (GPG, defined as pure or impure public goods that cannot be provided or regulated from a national or regional level, but from a global perspective. Its definition as GPG, and the fact of being public goods, assumes greater involvement by the public sector for its supply or regulation. It is therefore necessary to analyze the positive and negative externalities generated by transgenic foods becoming public goods, but from a global perspective. The difficulty is, that according to the author, GMs are positive or negative, so that there is no consensus to restrict and even prevent them or encourage them. But, there is a consensus on some key issues of GM food, such as improving productivity, contributing to the reduction of the species, the dependence of farmers, or monopoly companies with the patent. Identifying these issues can serve to initiate the appropriate regulation."

  19. Importing food damages domestic environment: Evidence from global soybean trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Mooney, Harold; Wu, Wenbin; Tang, Huajun; Tong, Yuxin; Xu, Zhenci; Huang, Baorong; Cheng, Yeqing; Yang, Xinjun; Wei, Dan; Zhang, Fusuo; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-05-22

    Protecting the environment and enhancing food security are among the world's Sustainable Development Goals and greatest challenges. International food trade is an important mechanism to enhance food security worldwide. Nonetheless, it is widely concluded that in international food trade importing countries gain environmental benefits, while exporting countries suffer environmental problems by using land and other resources to produce food for exports. Our study shows that international food trade can also lead to environmental pollution in importing countries. At the global level, our metaanalysis indicates that there was increased nitrogen (N) pollution after much farmland for domestically cultivated N-fixing soybeans in importing countries was converted to grow high N-demanding crops (wheat, corn, rice, and vegetables). The findings were further verified by an intensive study at the regional level in China, the largest soybean-importing country, where the conversion of soybean lands to corn fields and rice paddies has also led to N pollution. Our study provides a sharp contrast to the conventional wisdom that only exports contribute substantially to environmental woes. Our results suggest the need to evaluate environmental consequences of international trade of all other major goods and products in all importing countries, which have significant implications for fundamental rethinking in global policy-making and debates on environmental responsibilities among consumers, producers, and traders across the world.

  20. Climate resilient crops for improving global food security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankher, Om Parkash; Foyer, Christine H

    2018-05-01

    Food security and the protection of the environment are urgent issues for global society, particularly with the uncertainties of climate change. Changing climate is predicted to have a wide range of negative impacts on plant physiology metabolism, soil fertility and carbon sequestration, microbial activity and diversity that will limit plant growth and productivity, and ultimately food production. Ensuring global food security and food safety will require an intensive research effort across the food chain, starting with crop production and the nutritional quality of the food products. Much uncertainty remains concerning the resilience of plants, soils, and associated microbes to climate change. Intensive efforts are currently underway to improve crop yields with lower input requirements and enhance the sustainability of yield through improved biotic and abiotic stress tolerance traits. In addition, significant efforts are focused on gaining a better understanding of the root/soil interface and associated microbiomes, as well as enhancing soil properties. © 2018 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Contextualizing Embodied Resources in Global Food Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, G. K.; Brauman, K. A.; Sun, S.; West, P. C.; Carlson, K. M.; Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.

    2014-12-01

    Trade in agricultural commodities has created increasingly complex linkages between resource use and food supplies across national borders. Understanding the degree to which food production and consumption relies on trade is vital to understanding how to sustainably meet growing food demands across scales. We use detailed bilateral trade statistics and data on agricultural management to examine the land use and water consumption embodied in agricultural trade, which we relate to basic nutritional indicators to show how trade contributes to food availability worldwide. Agricultural trade carries enough calories to provide >1.7 billion people a basic diet each year. We identify key commodities and producer-consumer relationships that disproportionately contribute to embodied resource use and flows of food nutrition at the global scale. For example, just 15 disproportionately large soybean trades comprised ~10% the total harvested area embodied in export production. We conclude by framing these results in terms of the fraction of each country's food production and consumption that is linked to international trade. These findings help to characterize how countries allocate resources to domestic versus foreign food demand.

  2. Promoting Sustainable Food Provision; the Role of Networks in Global Food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Food provision in contemporary societies is transforming due to challenges of globalization, sustainability and equity. The interactions between civil society organizations, governments, the food industry, consumers and producers constitute dynamic fields of environmental change in global food

  3. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L.; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J.; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Gren, Åsa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A.; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H.; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture’s reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection. PMID:25136111

  4. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troell, Max; Naylor, Rosamond L; Metian, Marc; Beveridge, Malcolm; Tyedmers, Peter H; Folke, Carl; Arrow, Kenneth J; Barrett, Scott; Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Ehrlich, Paul R; Gren, Asa; Kautsky, Nils; Levin, Simon A; Nyborg, Karine; Österblom, Henrik; Polasky, Stephen; Scheffer, Marten; Walker, Brian H; Xepapadeas, Tasos; de Zeeuw, Aart

    2014-09-16

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.

  5. Arsenic contamination in food chain: Thread to global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.

  6. [Global trends in food consumption and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe-Ottesen, G

    2000-01-10

    Obesity and lifestyle diseases increase all over the world, especially in developing countries. One reason is the change in diet. This nutrition transition is characterised by improvement in dietary variation, but also by increase in the content of fat and sugar. The transition seems to start at a lower level of income, compared to what occurred in the Western countries after the Second World War. The reason is that many foods are relatively cheaper, especially fat and sugar. The world market is presently flooded with cheap vegetable fat. Urbanisation leads to over-consumption by increasing market access to fatty and sugary foods, including fast foods. Globalization increases the consumption of sweet soda pops, biscuits and snacks produced by multinational companies. Western supermarkets and fast food franchises also promote these dietary changes (McDonaldization). It has been proposed that the population in developing countries is more vulnerable towards these dietary changes in regard to obesity and chronic diseases, due to undernutrition in early life (the Barker hypothesis). We may therefore expect an unprecedented increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases, especially diabetes type 2 in the developing countries. One may question if this increase will be a transient phenomenon, or if we can expect the same pattern as we have seen in the West, namely that the poor become the fat-test segment of the population, with the highest prevalence of chronic diseases.

  7. Carbon plants nutrition and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Luigi

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of carbon nutrition on agricultural productivity, a physiological-process-based crop simulation model, driven by the 1961-1990 monthly climate data from global FAO dataset, was developed and applied to four crops (wheat, maize, rice and soybean -WMRS) which account for 64% of the global caloric consumption of humans. Five different temperatures and CO2 scenarios (current; glacial; pre-industrial; future_1 with 560 ppmv for CO2 and +2 °C for temperature; and future_2 with 800 ppmv for CO2 and +4 °C) were investigated. The relative values of WMRS global productions for past and future scenarios were, respectively, 49% of the present-day scenario for glacial, 82% for pre-industrial, 115% for future_1 and 124% for future_2. A sensitive growth of productivity of future scenarios (respectively to 117% and 134%) was observed if the northward shift of crops was allowed, and a strong increase was obtained without water limitation (from 151% to 157% for the five scenarios) and without biotic and abiotic stresses (from 30% to 40% for WMRS subject to the current scenario). Furthermore since the beginning of the Green Revolution (roughly happened between the '30s and the '50s of the twentieth century) production losses due to sub-optimal levels of CO2 and to biotic and abiotic stresses have been masked by the strong technological innovation trend still ongoing, which, in the last century, led to a strong increase in the global crop production (+400%-600%). These results show the crucial relevance of the future choices of research and development in agriculture (genetics, land reclamation, irrigation, plant protection, and so on) to ensure global food security.

  8. Book Review, Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Could curbing food waste significantly reduce world hunger and environmental pressures? Tristram Stuart argues cogently that it could in his book Waste, which details the global food-waste scandal and delves into questions such as how much food is available globally? How much is needed and used, a...

  9. Epilogue: global food security, rhetoric, and the sustainable intensification debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, T.W.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The need to feed nine billion people in 2050 has given rise to widespread debate in science and policy circles. The debate is largely framed in neo-Malthusian terms, and elements of global food security (resilience of the food system, food quantity and quality, right to and access to food) demand

  10. Globalization of food and agriculture and the poor:

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Joachim; Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio

    2008-01-01

    The economic impact of globalization, particularly on poverty, and the changes in agri-food markets have received much attention in recent years. However, the intersection of these two trends has been neglected. The present volume fills this gap by focusing on the way globalization of agri-food systems affects the world's poor and its impact on food and nutrition security in developing countries. Rather than offering a single policy prescription or simplistic messages about globalization bein...

  11. Is the enhancement of global warming important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, M.C.R.; Barrett, J.

    2001-01-01

    There is no doubt that global warming is important; without it the Earth's surface would have a mean temperature of 33 o C lower than it has currently. The IPCC maintains that human activities are to blame for the observed increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere since pre-industrial times. There are some doubts about whether global warming is being enhanced by the activities of the human race. This article reviews these doubts and the proposed remedies to the alleged enhancement. (author)

  12. Locating food sovereignty: geographical and sectoral distance in the global food system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Robbins (Martha Jane)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper seeks to problematize the role of local food systems within the food sovereignty movement and as a counter to the logic of the global industrial food system. It answers the question of how food sovereignty, via its tenet of local food systems, addresses the geographical and

  13. Convergence in Global Food Demand and Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Anita; Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Unnevehr, Laurian J.

    2008-01-01

    Using food expenditures and food sales data over 1990-2004, this report examines whether food consumption and delivery trends are converging across 47 high- and middle-income countries. Middle-income countries, such as China and Mexico, appear to be following trends in high-income countries, measured across several dimensions of food system growth and change. Convergence is apparent in most important food expenditure categories and in indicators of food system modernization such as supermarke...

  14. Global Changes in Food Supply and the Obesity Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobel, Emilie H; Hansen, Tine W; Rossing, Peter; von Scholten, Bernt Johan

    2016-12-01

    We explore how a global shift in the food system caused by global economic growth, increase in available food per capita and in food processing is a driver of the obesity epidemic. Economic development in most areas of the world has resulted in increased purchasing power and available per capita food. Supermarkets and a growing fast-food industry have transformed our dietary pattern. Ultra-processed food rich on sugars and saturated fat is now the major source of energy in most countries. The shift in food supply is considered a major driver of the obesity epidemic and the increasing prevalence of accompanying complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the global shift might also have direct effects on the increase in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, independently of overweight and obesity. The shift in the food supply is a major driver of the obesity epidemic.

  15. Benchmarking Global Food Safety Performances: The Era of Risk Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleé, Jean-Charles Le; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2015-10-01

    Food safety data segmentation and limitations hamper the world's ability to select, build up, monitor, and evaluate food safety performance. Currently, there is no metric that captures the entire food safety system, and performance data are not collected strategically on a global scale. Therefore, food safety benchmarking is essential not only to help monitor ongoing performance but also to inform continued food safety system design, adoption, and implementation toward more efficient and effective food safety preparedness, responsiveness, and accountability. This comparative study identifies and evaluates common elements among global food safety systems. It provides an overall world ranking of food safety performance for 17 Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) countries, illustrated by 10 indicators organized across three food safety risk governance domains: risk assessment (chemical risks, microbial risks, and national reporting on food consumption), risk management (national food safety capacities, food recalls, food traceability, and radionuclides standards), and risk communication (allergenic risks, labeling, and public trust). Results show all countries have very high food safety standards, but Canada and Ireland, followed by France, earned excellent grades relative to their peers. However, any subsequent global ranking study should consider the development of survey instruments to gather adequate and comparable national evidence on food safety.

  16. From food insufficiency towards trade dependency: a historical analysis of global food availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miina Porkka

    Full Text Available Achieving global food security is one of the major challenges of the coming decades. In order to tackle future food security challenges we must understand the past. This study presents a historical analysis of global food availability, one of the key elements of food security. By calculating national level dietary energy supply and production for nine time steps during 1965-2005 we classify countries based on their food availability, food self-sufficiency and food trade. We also look at how diets have changed during this period with regard to supply of animal based calories. Our results show that food availability has increased substantially both in absolute and relative terms. The percentage of population living in countries with sufficient food supply (>2500 kcal/cap/d has almost doubled from 33% in 1965 to 61% in 2005. The population living with critically low food supply (15% of dietary energy supply increased from 33% to over 50%. While food supply has increased globally, food self-sufficiency (domestic production>2500 kcal/cap/d has not changed remarkably. In the beginning of the study period insufficient domestic production meant insufficient food supply, but in recent years the deficit has been increasingly compensated by rising food imports. This highlights the growing importance of food trade, either for food supply in importing countries or as a source of income for exporters. Our results provide a basis for understanding past global food system dynamics which, in turn, can benefit research on future food security.

  17. Global food chains and environment: agro-food production and processing in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriwichailamphan, T.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this study on the global food chain and the environment, the objective is to understand the dynamics of food safety and environmental improvements among the large and medium-sized agro-food processing industries and farmers in Thailand that operate in the global market. This study assesses

  18. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South. Page couverture du livre: Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South. Directeur(s):. Jemimah Njuki, John R. Parkins et Amy Kaler. Maison(s) d'édition: Routledge, CRDI. 29 septembre 2016. ISBN : 9781138680418. 312 pages. e-ISBN :.

  19. Governance of global organic agro-food networks from Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glin, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing global concerns with regard to agro-food risks and the subsequent consumerist turn in the global food economy challenges the conventional chemical-intensive agricultural production. In fact, the post-war dominant agro-industrial development fostered the intensive use of chemical

  20. Tracing the Slow Food Movement: local foodscapes and global networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikx, B.; Dormans, S.E.M.; Lagendijk, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades alternative food practices have mushroomed across the globe. This proliferation has changed local food scapes, infusing localities with new ideas and ways of food production, circulation and consumption. It has also created global networks of innovation and

  1. Global Changes in Food Supply and the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobel, Emilie H.; Hansen, Tine W; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    power and available per capita food. Supermarkets and a growing fast-food industry have transformed our dietary pattern. Ultra-processed food rich on sugars and saturated fat is now the major source of energy in most countries. The shift in food supply is considered a major driver of the obesity......Purpose of Review We explore how a global shift in the food system caused by global economic growth, increase in available food per capita and in food processing is a driver of the obesity epidemic. Recent Findings Economic development in most areas of the world has resulted in increased purchasing...... epidemic and the increasing prevalence of accompanying complications, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the global shift might also have direct effects on the increase in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, independently of overweight and obesity. Summary...

  2. Assessing the evolving fragility of the global food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael J.; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-02-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18 year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85% of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90%, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9% (3.8%) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11% (5.7%) for 2005-2009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2% (2.2%) to 14% (5.2%). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.

  3. Assessing the evolving fragility of the global food system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puma, Michael J; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I

    2015-01-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992–2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18 year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85% of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90%, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9% (3.8%) for 1992–1996, increasing to 11% (5.7%) for 2005–2009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2% (2.2%) to 14% (5.2%). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity. (letter)

  4. Assessing the Evolving Fragility of the Global Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael Joseph; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18-year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85 of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9 (3.8) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11 (5.7) for 20052009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2 (2.2) to 14 (5.2). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.

  5. Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Mask 2010 Global 1 km V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Mask Global 1 kilometer...

  6. The Changing Face of Global Food Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.; Eckholm, Erik P.

    1974-01-01

    The causes of the world's food shortage are enumerated and explained. Possible solutions to the shortage are described with emphasis placed upon the moral decision of the affluent countries to take more responsibility in decreasing their consumption of food and energy. (DE)

  7. Food irradiation; Global aspects and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Akira (Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture (Japan). Nodai Research Institute)

    1990-07-01

    This paper reviews researches, commentaries, and conference and public records of food irradiation, published mainly during the period 1987-1989, focusing on the current conditions of food irradiation that may pose not only scientific or technologic problems but also political issues or consumerism. Approximately 50 kinds of food, although not enough to fill economic benefit, are now permitted for food irradiation in the world. Consumerism is pointed out as the major factor that precludes the feasibility of food irradiation in the world. In the United States, irradiation is feasible only for spices. Food irradiation has already been feasible in France, Hollands, Belgium, and the Soviet Union; has under consideration in the Great Britain, and has been rejected in the West Germany. Although the feasibility of food irradiation is projected to increase gradually in the future, commercial success or failure depends on the final selection of consumers. In this respect, the role of education and public information are stressed. Meat radicidation and recent progress in the method for detecting irradiated food are referred to. (N.K.) 128 refs.

  8. Atoms for food - A global partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, L.

    2008-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have been partners for nearly half a century, contributing to efforts toward shared goals of food security. Their mission - through a Joint Division headquartered at the IAEA in Austria - is to help countries effectively use nuclear science and related technologies for food and agricultural development. Millions of people today look to a better future because of the foresight and longstanding investment of FAO and IAEA Member States in the 'Atoms for Food' partnership. Worldwide, more than 100 countries are working together through the Joint Division to increase their harvests, combat animal and plant diseases and pests, and protect the lands, water resources, and environments on which food and agricultural production depend. This century's stark realities of hunger, poverty, climate change, and environmental degradation bring an unprecedented scale of challenges to the fields of food and agriculture. Action requires the research, expertise, and experience of the FAO/IAEA partnership and other effective alliances worldwide to help countries achieve and sustain higher levels of food security for their people. The two organizations are well matched. FAO brings to the table its comprehensive knowledge and networks on food and agriculture. The IAEA, in turn, contributes technical know-how, specifically in agricultural and related applications of nuclear science and technology. The partnership's potential builds on decades of experience

  9. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1. Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safety. Many cases of food borne diseases either acute poisoning or chronic exposure are largely under reported. In this globalized world, though the food chain extends over thousands of miles from different continents, an error or contamination in one country can affect the health of consumers on the other part of the world. To ensure full impact, these actions must build on principles of government stewardship, engagement of civil society, (2.According to UN, access to a safe and secure food supply is a basic human right. Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts which have an impact on the health outcomes and quality of human lives. As per Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, (3. Based on the definition of Food security, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Apart from that food security is also affected by Poverty and Climate change.Food safety is an umbrella term that encompasses many aspects like food items handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent illness and injury. The other important issues are chemical, microphysical and microbiological aspects of food safety, (4. Control of

  10. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-01-01

    The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1). Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safet...

  11. Global Food Security Governance: Civil Society Engagement in the Reformed Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007/8 world food prices spiked and global economic crisis set in, leaving hundreds of millions of people unable to access adequate food. The international reaction was swift. In a bid for leadership, the 123 member countries of the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security (CFS) adopted a

  12. Global Food Crisis and the Millennium Development Goals in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hunger/poverty, food security in the world has been deteriorating, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Amidst the slow pace of meeting the millennium goal of reducing poverty/hunger arises a serious challenging threat - the food crisis in the midst of the MDGs' efforts. It is on this premise that this paper examines the global ...

  13. Food, Populations and Health — global Patterns and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present volume is based on presentations at a symposium at the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters in September 2014 with the title Food, Population and Health – global Patterns and Challenges. Food has played a fundamental role in the history of all societies over the World. Availab...

  14. Climate Change, Global Food Markets, and Urban Unrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Francis Gavin 512-471-6267 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Climate Change, Global Food...Russia led then-President Dmitry Medvedev to impose export restrictions on wheat, barley, and rye . Food security is fundamental to human security. Prior...how much food is grown and where it is grown. Second, climate change will increase the frequency of localized crop failures due to more frequent

  15. Food Security: Selected Global and U.S. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Food security is researched and dealt with on local, regional, national, and global levels with solutions ranging from local farmers' market initiatives to increasing crop yields through genetically modified plants to streamlining global supply chains. Because of its broad, interdisciplinary nature, it is necessary to narrow the focus of this…

  16. Enhancing saltiness in emulsion based foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lad Mita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of enhancing saltiness perception in emulsions and a liquid food formulated with the emulsions (ambient vegetable soup through increasing salt concentration in the continuous phase while retaining the fat content of the (aqueous continuous product was evaluated. This was accomplished by increasing the droplet phase volume using duplex emulsion technology. Viscosity and droplet size distribution was measured. Saltiness evaluation was based on simple paired comparison testing (2-Alternate Forced Choice tests, BS ISO 5495:2007. Results Single and duplex emulsions and emulsion-based products had comparable mean oil droplet diameters (25 to 30 μm; however, viscosity of the duplex emulsion systems was considerably higher. Sensory assessment of saltiness of emulsion pairs (2AFC indicated duplex technology enhanced saltiness perception compared to a single emulsion product at the same salt content (6.3 g/100 g in both simple emulsions and the formulated food product (P = 0.0596 and 0.0004 respectively although assessors noted the increased viscosity of the duplex systems. The formulated food product also contained pea starch particles which may have aided product mixing with saliva and thus accelerated tastant transport to the taste buds. Lowering salt content in the duplex systems (to levels of aqueous phase salt concentration similar to the level in the single systems resulted in duplex systems being perceived as less salty than the single system. It appears that the higher viscosity of the duplex systems could not be “overruled” by enhanced mixing through increased droplet phase volume at lowered salt content. Conclusions The results showed that salt reduction may be possible despite the added technology of duplex systems increasing the overall measured viscosity of the product. The changes in viscosity behavior impact mouthfeel, which may be exploitable in addition to the contribution towards salt

  17. Global Food Security in a Changing Climate: Considerations and Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M. K.; Brown, M. E.; Backlund, P. W.; Antle, J. M.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Funk, C. C.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Barrett, C. B.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Dancheck, V.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.; Mata, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Grace, K.; Jiang, H.; Bellemare, M.; Attavanich, W.; Ammann, C. M.; Maletta, H.

    2015-12-01

    Global food security is an elusive challenge and important policy focus from the community to the globe. Food is provisioned through food systems that may be simple or labyrinthine, yet each has vulnerabilities to climate change through its effects on food production, transportation, storage, and other integral food system activities. At the same time, the future of food systems is sensitive to socioeconomic trajectories determined by choices made outside of the food system, itself. Constrictions for any reason can lead to decreased food availability, access, utilization, or stability - that is, to diminished food security. Possible changes in trade and other U.S. relationships to the rest of the world under changing conditions to the end of the century are considered through integrated assessment modelling under a range of emissions scenarios. Climate change is likely to diminish continued progress on global food security through production disruptions leading to local availability limitations and price increases, interrupted transport conduits, and diminished food safety, among other causes. In the near term, some high-latitude production export regions may benefit from changes in climate. The types and price of food imports is likely to change, as are export demands, affecting U.S. consumers and producers. Demands placed on foreign assistance programs may increase, as may demand for advanced technologies. Adaptation across the food system has great potential to manage climate change effects on food security, and the complexity of the food system offers multiple potential points of intervention for decision makers at every level. However, effective adaptation is subject to highly localized conditions and socioeconomic factors, and the technical feasibility of an adaptive intervention is not necessarily a guarantee of its application if it is unaffordable or does not provide benefits within a relatively short time frame.

  18. Public-private interactions in global food safety governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In response to an apparent decline in global food safety, numerous public and private regulatory initiatives have emerged to restore public confidence. This trend has been particularly marked by the growing influence of private regulators such as multinational food companies, supermarket chains and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), who employ private standards, certification protocols, third-party auditing, and transnational contracting practices. This paper explores how the structure and processes of private food safety governance interact with traditional public governance regimes, focusing on Global Good Agricultural Practices (GlobalGAP) as a primary example of the former. Due to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of public regulation in the face of global problems, private governance in food safety has gradually replaced states' command-and-control regulation with more flexible, market-oriented mechanisms. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of constructive regime interaction instead of institutional boundary building to global food safety governance. Public and private ordering must each play a role as integral parts of a larger, dynamic and evolving governance complex.

  19. Global challenges and perspectives of marketing of healthy food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with global trends of healthy food market growth, Serbian export potential as well as with the importance and role of positioning and other marketing strategies in this field. Secondary data will be used for identifying characteristics and range of healthy food market on a global level and key segments. In that context, the economic importance and export potential of this sector in Serbia will be discussed. Food sector accounts for high percentage of total Serbian export. Yet, those products are of low added value, neither branded nor packed. In order to position producers of healthy food on an international market successfully, strength and weaknesses of domestic production and export will be identified as well as measures for its promotion. In this paper, literature review in field of food positioning and marketing will be presented. Various positioning strategies of healthy food will be discussed from the aspect of branding, country of origin image, marketing mix instruments, with special emphasis on promotion and product labelling. Special part of paper will be dedicated to specific aspects of buying and food consumption behaviour. This behaviour is under the influence of numerous factors, both personal and sociodemographic, which will be analyzed in order to identify adequate positioning strategies. At the end, recommendations for successfully healthy food positioning on an international market will be given. We will present ways of improving marketing strategies regarding exploiting identified chances on an international market.

  20. The global food crisis : supply and demand revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sammut, Vince

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to show that the volatility in food prices between 2008 and 2011 cannot be explained merely by the market fundamentals of demand and supply. While global changes in demand and supply are bringing about radical changes to the food equation, evidence shows that market failure in the world grain market aggravated the problem. Excess liquidity, brought about by monetary growth policies after the subprime crises and financial meltdown in 2008, has stimulated speculation and hoar...

  1. Global change in the trophic functioning of marine food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Maureaud

    Full Text Available The development of fisheries in the oceans, and other human drivers such as climate warming, have led to changes in species abundance, assemblages, trophic interactions, and ultimately in the functioning of marine food webs. Here, using a trophodynamic approach and global databases of catches and life history traits of marine species, we tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic ecological impacts may have led to changes in the global parameters defining the transfers of biomass within the food web. First, we developed two indicators to assess such changes: the Time Cumulated Indicator (TCI measuring the residence time of biomass within the food web, and the Efficiency Cumulated Indicator (ECI quantifying the fraction of secondary production reaching the top of the trophic chain. Then, we assessed, at the large marine ecosystem scale, the worldwide change of these two indicators over the 1950-2010 time-periods. Global trends were identified and cluster analyses were used to characterize the variability of trends between ecosystems. Results showed that the most common pattern over the study period is a global decrease in TCI, while the ECI indicator tends to increase. Thus, changes in species assemblages would induce faster and apparently more efficient biomass transfers in marine food webs. Results also suggested that the main driver of change over that period had been the large increase in fishing pressure. The largest changes occurred in ecosystems where 'fishing down the marine food web' are most intensive.

  2. Increasing homogeneity in global food supplies and the implications for food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Guarino, L.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop

  3. Can our global food system meet food demand within planetary boundaries?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.G.; Bindraban, P.S.; Schröder, J.J.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.

    2018-01-01

    Global food demand is expected to increase, affecting required land, nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs along with unintended emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHG) and losses of N and P. To quantify these input requirements and associated emissions/losses as a function of food demand, we built a

  4. Flavor enhancement of food as a stimulant for food intake in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.

    2009-01-01

    It is often speculated that the age related decline in taste and smell performance can add to the decreased food intake among elderly by causing a change in liking of food. Flavor enhancement (by adding a taste and/or an odor to enhance or intensify the flavor of the food) has been suggested to

  5. Food security for Africa: an urgent global challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasson Albert

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2012, food insecurity is still a major global concern as 1 billion people are suffering from starvation, under-, and malnutrition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has concluded that we are still far from reaching millennium development goal (MDG number 1: to halve extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of people suffering from hunger is estimated at 239 million, and this figure could increase in the near future. There are many examples of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa, some of them having reached catastrophic dimensions, for example, in the Horn of Africa or southern Madagascar. Food insecurity is not just about insufficient food production, availability, and intake, it is also about the poor quality or nutritional value of the food. The detrimental situation of women and children is particularly serious, as well as the situation among female teenagers, who receive less food than their male counterparts in the same households. Soaring food prices and food riots are among the many symptoms of the prevailing food crisis and insecurity. Climate change and weather vagaries, present and forecast, are generally compounding food insecurity and drastically changing farming activities, as diagnosed by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR in June 2011. The key cause of food insecurity is inadequate food production. Since the global food crisis of 2007–2008, there has been an increasing awareness throughout the world that we must produce more and better food; and we should not be derailed from this goal, despite some relief brought by the good cereal harvests in 2011–2012. This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, which needs and wants to make its own green revolution. The African challenge indeed is key to mitigating food insecurity in the world. Commitments were made by the heads of states and governments of the African Union

  6. Global trends of acceptance and trade in irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matin, M A [Food and Environmental Protection Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2001-05-01

    Issues as relevant to wide scale application of food irradiation are presented in this paper to provide current status of the technology. Global development on key issues such as public acceptance, public health improvement, safety and wholesomeness, regulatory aspects, potential application of the technology to ease quarantine problems in the trade of food and agricultural commodities as a viable alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide have been presented. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. Many international organizations and respected regional/national bodies agree on the merits of the technique and valuable contribution that the process can offer to safeguard the food supply worldwide. Codex General Standard for irradiated food and the associated Code of Practice for operation of the irradiation facilities used for the treatment of foods adopted in 1983 forms the regulatory basis for commercial utilization of the processing technology. More than 40 countries of the world have Standards/Regulations to process one or more food products by the irradiation process. Efforts are underway to harmonise national regulations on food irradiation to remove obstacles for international trade of irradiated products. There is a rapid development on commercial application of food irradiation in the USA and elsewhere in the past few months. There are already several existing commercial irradiators available for treating food in the USA and many more are planned to be built. Such commercial food irradiation facilities are also in different stage of development in Brazil, India, Mexico, Thailand, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea. Roles of irradiation ensuring food safety, contributing food security and facilitating trade are more and more recognized in developed and developing countries alike. (author)

  7. Global trends of acceptance and trade in irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matin, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Issues as relevant to wide scale application of food irradiation are presented in this paper to provide current status of the technology. Global development on key issues such as public acceptance, public health improvement, safety and wholesomeness, regulatory aspects, potential application of the technology to ease quarantine problems in the trade of food and agricultural commodities as a viable alternative to fumigation with methyl bromide have been presented. Irradiation ensures the hygienic quality of food and extends shelf-life. Many international organizations and respected regional/national bodies agree on the merits of the technique and valuable contribution that the process can offer to safeguard the food supply worldwide. Codex General Standard for irradiated food and the associated Code of Practice for operation of the irradiation facilities used for the treatment of foods adopted in 1983 forms the regulatory basis for commercial utilization of the processing technology. More than 40 countries of the world have Standards/Regulations to process one or more food products by the irradiation process. Efforts are underway to harmonise national regulations on food irradiation to remove obstacles for international trade of irradiated products. There is a rapid development on commercial application of food irradiation in the USA and elsewhere in the past few months. There are already several existing commercial irradiators available for treating food in the USA and many more are planned to be built. Such commercial food irradiation facilities are also in different stage of development in Brazil, India, Mexico, Thailand, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea. Roles of irradiation ensuring food safety, contributing food security and facilitating trade are more and more recognized in developed and developing countries alike. (author)

  8. Global hunger: a challenge to agricultural, food, and nutritional sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shiuan-Huei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Nah, Sui-Lin; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-01

    Hunger has been a concern for generations and has continued to plague hundreds of millions of people around the world. Although many efforts have been devoted to reduce hunger, challenges such as growing competitions for natural resources, emerging climate changes and natural disasters, poverty, illiteracy, and diseases are posing threats to food security and intensifying the hunger crisis. Concerted efforts of scientists to improve agricultural and food productivity, technology, nutrition, and education are imperative to facilitate appropriate strategies for defeating hunger and malnutrition. This paper provides some aspects of world hunger issues and summarizes the efforts and measures aimed to alleviate food problems from the food and nutritional sciences perspectives. The prospects and constraints of some implemented strategies for alleviating hunger and achieving sustainable food security are also discussed. This comprehensive information source could provide insights into the development of a complementary framework for dealing with the global hunger issue.

  9. Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T. R.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are likely to experience chronic food insecurity and those that are likely to experience transitory food insecurity, permitting for improved targeting of policy responses.

  10. Losses, inefficiencies and waste in the global food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter; Brown, Calum; Arneth, Almut; Finnigan, John; Moran, Dominic; Rounsevell, Mark D A

    2017-05-01

    Losses at every stage in the food system influence the extent to which nutritional requirements of a growing global population can be sustainably met. Inefficiencies and losses in agricultural production and consumer behaviour all play a role. This paper aims to understand better the magnitude of different losses and to provide insights into how these influence overall food system efficiency. We take a systems view from primary production of agricultural biomass through to human food requirements and consumption. Quantities and losses over ten stages are calculated and compared in terms of dry mass, wet mass, protein and energy. The comparison reveals significant differences between these measurements, and the potential for wet mass figures used in previous studies to be misleading. The results suggest that due to cumulative losses, the proportion of global agricultural dry biomass consumed as food is just 6% (9.0% for energy and 7.6% for protein), and 24.8% of harvest biomass (31.9% for energy and 27.8% for protein). The highest rates of loss are associated with livestock production, although the largest absolute losses of biomass occur prior to harvest. Losses of harvested crops were also found to be substantial, with 44.0% of crop dry matter (36.9% of energy and 50.1% of protein) lost prior to human consumption. If human over-consumption, defined as food consumption in excess of nutritional requirements, is included as an additional inefficiency, 48.4% of harvested crops were found to be lost (53.2% of energy and 42.3% of protein). Over-eating was found to be at least as large a contributor to food system losses as consumer food waste. The findings suggest that influencing consumer behaviour, e.g. to eat less animal products, or to reduce per capita consumption closer to nutrient requirements, offer substantial potential to improve food security for the rising global population in a sustainable manner.

  11. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  12. Global Water Availability and Requirements for Future Food Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Hoff, H.; Biemans, H.; Fader, M.; Waha, K.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares, spatially explicitly and at global scale, per capita water availability and water requirements for food production presently (1971-2000) and in the future given climate and population change (2070-99). A vegetation and hydrology model Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land (LPJmL) was

  13. Enhancing Food Security through Information and Communication ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... national food security, and prior approval of the government's National Food Security and Nutrition Policy 2006-2015. In alignment with these governmental commitments, this project will enable researchers to provide policymakers with practical and sustainable solutions that directly respond to national food security goals ...

  14. Global change in the trophic functioning of marine food webs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maureaud, Aurore; Gascuel, Didier; Colléter, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    and life history traits of marine species, we tested the hypothesis that anthropogenic ecological impacts may have led to changes in the global parameters defining the transfers of biomass within the food web. First, we developed two indicators to assess such changes: the Time Cumulated Indicator (TCI......The development of fisheries in the oceans, and other human drivers such as climate warming, have led to changes in species abundance, assemblages, trophic interactions, and ultimately in the functioning of marine food webs. Here, using a trophodynamic approach and global databases of catches......) measuring the residence time of biomass within the food web, and the Efficiency Cumulated Indicator (ECI) quantifying the fraction of secondary production reaching the top of the trophic chain. Then, we assessed, at the large marine ecosystem scale, the worldwide change of these two indicators over the 1950...

  15. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  16. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  17. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  18. The global potential of local peri-urban food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriewald, Steffen; Garcia Cantu Ros, Anselmo; Sterzel, Till; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    One big challenge for the rest of the 21st century will be the massive urbanisation. It is expected that more than 7 out of 10 persons will live in a city by the year 2050. Crucial developments towards a sustainable future will therefore take place in cities. One important approach for a sustainable city development is to re-localize food production and to close urban nutrient cycles through better waste management. The re-location of food production avoids CO2 emissions from transportation of food to cities and can also generate income for inhabitants. Cities are by definition locations where fertility accumulates. As cities are often built along rivers, their soils are often fertile. Furthermore, labour force and the possibility of producing fertilizer from human fecal matter within the city promises sustainable nutrients cycles. Although urban and peri-urban agriculture can be found in many cities worldwide and already have a substantial contribution to food supply, it has not jet been comprehensibly structured by research. We combine several worldwide data sets to determine the supply of cities with regional food production, where regional is defined as a production that occurs very close to the consumption within the peri-urban area. Therefore, urban areas are not defined by administrative boundaries but by connected built-up urban areas, and peri-urban area by the surrounding area with the same size multiplied with a scaling parameter. Both together accumulate to an urban-bio-region (UBR). With regard to national food consumption, a linear program achieves the best possible yield on agricultural areas and allows the computation of the fraction of population, which can be nourished. Additionally, several climate scenarios and different dietary patterns were considered. To close the gap between single case studies and to provide a quantitative overview of the global potential of peri-urban food production we used high resolution land-use data Global Land Cover

  19. Global Food Demand Scenarios for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewald, Anne; Weindl, Isabelle; Popp, Alexander; Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Long-term food demand scenarios are an important tool for studying global food security and for analysing the environmental impacts of agriculture. We provide a simple and transparent method to create scenarios for future plant-based and animal-based calorie demand, using time-dependent regression models between calorie demand and income. The scenarios can be customized to a specific storyline by using different input data for gross domestic product (GDP) and population projections and by assuming different functional forms of the regressions. Our results confirm that total calorie demand increases with income, but we also found a non-income related positive time-trend. The share of animal-based calories is estimated to rise strongly with income for low-income groups. For high income groups, two ambiguous relations between income and the share of animal-based products are consistent with historical data: First, a positive relation with a strong negative time-trend and second a negative relation with a slight negative time-trend. The fits of our regressions are highly significant and our results compare well to other food demand estimates. The method is exemplarily used to construct four food demand scenarios until the year 2100 based on the storylines of the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). We find in all scenarios a strong increase of global food demand until 2050 with an increasing share of animal-based products, especially in developing countries. PMID:26536124

  20. Enhancing Student Collaboration in Global Virtual Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Gary F.

    2012-01-01

    With the growth in the global economy and the rapid development of communication and information technologies, global virtual teams are quickly becoming the norm in the workplace. Research indicates, however, that many students have little or no experience working in such teams. Students who learn through these experiences benefit from higher task…

  1. NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENT OF GHANAIAN WEANING FOODS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CSTC

    chemical composition, sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability. ... to low input agriculture and satisfies more nutritional requirements. Ghanaian ... Ghana, and used as one of the major ingredients for all the weaning food.

  2. Impact of the Global Food Safety Initiative on Food Safety Worldwide: Statistical Analysis of a Survey of International Food Processors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Philip G; Mauromoustakos, Andy; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Thompson, Kevin C; Yiannas, Frank; Bridges, Kerry; Francois, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    In 2000, the Consumer Goods Forum established the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) to increase the safety of the world's food supply and to harmonize food safety regulations worldwide. In 2013, a university research team in conjunction with Diversey Consulting (Sealed Air), the Consumer Goods Forum, and officers of GFSI solicited input from more than 15,000 GFSI-certified food producers worldwide to determine whether GFSI certification had lived up to these expectations. A total of 828 usable questionnaires were analyzed, representing about 2,300 food manufacturing facilities and food suppliers in 21 countries, mainly across Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and North America. Nearly 90% of these certified suppliers perceived GFSI as being beneficial for addressing their food safety concerns, and respondents were eight times more likely to repeat the certification process knowing what it entailed. Nearly three-quarters (74%) of these food manufacturers would choose to go through the certification process again even if certification were not required by one of their current retail customers. Important drivers for becoming GFSI certified included continuing to do business with an existing customer, starting to do business with new customer, reducing the number of third-party food safety audits, and continuing improvement of their food safety program. Although 50% or fewer respondents stated that they saw actual increases in sales, customers, suppliers, or employees, significantly more companies agreed than disagreed that there was an increase in these key performance indicators in the year following GFSI certification. A majority of respondents (81%) agreed that there was a substantial investment in staff time since certification, and 50% agreed there was a significant capital investment. This survey is the largest and most representative of global food manufacturers conducted to date.

  3. Supply Chain Connectivity: Enhancing Participation in the Global Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Patalinghug, Epictetus E.

    2015-01-01

    Supply chain connectivity is vital for the efficient flow of trade among APEC economies. This paper reviews the literature and supply chain management, describes the barriers to enhancing participation in global supply chain, analyzes the various measures of supply chain performance, and suggests steps for the Philippines to fully reap the benefits of the global value chain.

  4. Lost food, wasted resources: global food supply chain losses and their impacts on freshwater, cropland, and fertiliser use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; de Moel, H; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Varis, O; Ward, P J

    2012-11-01

    Reducing food losses and waste is considered to be one of the most promising measures to improve food security in the coming decades. Food losses also affect our use of resources, such as freshwater, cropland, and fertilisers. In this paper we estimate the global food supply losses due to lost and wasted food crops, and the resources used to produce them. We also quantify the potential food supply and resource savings that could be made by reducing food losses and waste. We used publically available global databases to conduct the study at the country level. We found that around one quarter of the produced food supply (614 kcal/cap/day) is lost within the food supply chain (FSC). The production of these lost and wasted food crops accounts for 24% of total freshwater resources used in food crop production (27 m(3)/cap/yr), 23% of total global cropland area (31 × 10(-3)ha/cap/yr), and 23% of total global fertiliser use (4.3 kg/cap/yr). The per capita use of resources for food losses is largest in North Africa & West-Central Asia (freshwater and cropland) and North America & Oceania (fertilisers). The smallest per capita use of resources for food losses is found in Sub-Saharan Africa (freshwater and fertilisers) and in Industrialised Asia (cropland). Relative to total food production, the smallest food supply and resource losses occur in South & Southeast Asia. If the lowest loss and waste percentages achieved in any region in each step of the FSC could be reached globally, food supply losses could be halved. By doing this, there would be enough food for approximately one billion extra people. Reducing the food losses and waste would thus be an important step towards increased food security, and would also increase the efficiency of resource use in food production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Irradiated foodstuff: atom, junk-food and globalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, Genevieve; Berlan, Jean-Pierre; Desbordes, Roland; Dufour, Francois; Fievet, Yann; Folliard, Thierry; Gallais, Veronique; Hauter, Wenonah; Jacquiau, Christian; Kastler, Guy; Lannoye, Paul; Le Goff, Lylian; Le Rohellec, Catherine; Louchard, Olivier; Marechal, Gilles; Nicolas, Yveline; Remesy, Christian; Trouve, Aurelie; Veillerette, Francois

    2008-01-01

    Food irradiation is officially presented as an ideal technology at the service of worldwide health safety and as an alternative to chemical processing of foodstuff. It is first of all a multi-usage technology for the preservation, disinfestation, ripening slowing down, and germination inhibition of products which serves the interests of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. According to the authors, it is also an instrument for the globalization of foodstuff trade encouraged by the international institutions and by some governments. The book stresses on the health, socio-economic and environmental risks of this technology: vitamins loss, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impact on local employment and economy, risks linked with the use of irradiation devices etc

  6. PERSPECTIVE: Climate change, biofuels, and global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2007-03-01

    There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops. Soon the price of these commodities will be determined by their value as feedstock for biofuel rather than their importance as human food or livestock feed [1]. The expectation that petroleum prices will remain high and supportive government policies in several major crop producing countries are providing strong momentum for continued expansion of biofuel production capacity and the associated pressures on global food supply. Farmers in countries that account for a majority of the world's biofuel crop production will enjoy the promise of markedly higher commodity prices and incomesNote1. In contrast, urban and rural poor in food-importing countries will pay much higher prices for basic food staples and there will be less grain available for humanitarian aid. For example, the developing countries of Africa import about 10 MMt of maize each year; another 3 5 MMt of cereal grains are provided as humanitarian aid (figure 1). In a world where more than 800 million are already undernourished and the demand for crop commodities may soon exceed supply, alleviating hunger will no longer be solely a matter of poverty alleviation and more equitable food distribution, which has been the situation for the past thirty years. Instead, food security will also depend on accelerating the rate of gain in crop yields and food production capacity at both local and global scales. Maize imports and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa Figure 1. Maize imports (yellow bar) and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa, 2001 2003. MMT = million metric tons. Data

  7. Renewal through Participation in Global Food Security Governance: Implementing the International Food Security and Nutrition Civil Society Mechanism to the Committee on World Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.

    2012-01-01

    The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
    of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
    Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part

  8. Missing Food, Missing Data? A Critical Review of Global Food Losses and Food Waste Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Li; Liu, Gang; Parfitt, Julian

    2017-01-01

    and a narrow temporal, geographical, and food supply chain coverage. In this paper, we examined 202 publications which reported FLW data for 84 countries and 52 individual years from 1933 to 2014. We found that most existing publications are conducted for a few industrialized countries (e.g., the United...

  9. Global land and water grabbing for food and bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing demand for food, fibers and biofuels, the consequently escalating prices of agricultural products, and the uncertainty of international food markets have recently drawn the attention of governments and corporations toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in developing countries. Since 2000 more than 37 million hectares of arable land have been purchased or leased by foreign investors worldwide. The targeted regions are typically located in areas where crop yields are relatively low because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale investments in agriculture and the consequent development of commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crop yield gaps. Recently, a number of studies and reports have documented the process of foreign land acquisition, while the associated appropriation of land based resources (e.g., water and crops) has remained poorly investigated. The amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still needs to be quantified. It is also unclear to what extent the acquired land will be used to for biofuel production and the role played by U.S. and E.U. bioenergy policies as drivers of the ongoing land rush. The environmental impacts of these investments in agriculture require adequate investigation. Here we provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of water and crop appropriation potentially associated with large scale land acquisitions. We evaluate the associated impacts on the food and energy security of both target and investors' countries, and highlight the societal and environmental implications of the land rush phenomenon.

  10. Role of water management for global food production and poverty alleviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, E.; Tardieu, H.; Vidal, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the coming 25-30 years global food production will have to be doubled in order to maintain food security at the global level. With respect to this to a certain extent the advantage is that food prices have increased over the past seven to eight years, and especially during the past two years.

  11. Global trends in antimicrobial use in food animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Brower, Charles; Gilbert, Marius; Grenfell, Bryan T.; Levin, Simon A.; Robinson, Timothy P.; Teillant, Aude; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    Demand for animal protein for human consumption is rising globally at an unprecedented rate. Modern animal production practices are associated with regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Despite the significant potential consequences for antimicrobial resistance, there has been no quantitative measurement of global antimicrobial consumption by livestock. We address this gap by using Bayesian statistical models combining maps of livestock densities, economic projections of demand for meat products, and current estimates of antimicrobial consumption in high-income countries to map antimicrobial use in food animals for 2010 and 2030. We estimate that the global average annual consumption of antimicrobials per kilogram of animal produced was 45 mg⋅kg−1, 148 mg⋅kg−1, and 172 mg⋅kg−1 for cattle, chicken, and pigs, respectively. Starting from this baseline, we estimate that between 2010 and 2030, the global consumption of antimicrobials will increase by 67%, from 63,151 ± 1,560 tons to 105,596 ± 3,605 tons. Up to a third of the increase in consumption in livestock between 2010 and 2030 is imputable to shifting production practices in middle-income countries where extensive farming systems will be replaced by large-scale intensive farming operations that routinely use antimicrobials in subtherapeutic doses. For Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, the increase in antimicrobial consumption will be 99%, up to seven times the projected population growth in this group of countries. Better understanding of the consequences of the uninhibited growth in veterinary antimicrobial consumption is needed to assess its potential effects on animal and human health. PMID:25792457

  12. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flôres, Danilo E F L; Bettilyon, Crystal N; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity, which is also rewarding to rodents, modulated the robustness of FAA. We found that access to a freely rotating wheel enhanced the robustness of FAA. This enhancement was lost when the wheel was removed. In addition, while prior exposure to a running wheel alone did not enhance FAA, the presence of a locked wheel did enhance FAA as long as mice had previously run in the wheel. Together, these data suggest that FAA, like wheel-running activity, is influenced by reward signaling.

  13. The Globalization of Innovation in the Danish Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haakonsson, Stine Jessen

    2012-01-01

    The internationalization of innovation in the food industry is becoming increasingly oriented towards emerging markets. Innovative lead firms express a need for ‘tapping into knowledge’ by collaborating with research facilities, customers and suppliers in these new locations. European firms...... experience a push towards market expansion and knowledge generation directed at emerging markets. This results in new network constructs: global innovation networks. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it identifies and outlines the determining factors behind the internationalization of innovation due...... to the need to access new markets and knowledge. This unfolds through strategies of exploitation and exploration. Second, it investigates the extent to which these strategies connect to position in the value chain and factors in the host economy. In this, the potential impact at the receiving end...

  14. Global Food Security Index Studies and Satellite Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, T. A.; Ganti-Agrawal, S.; Joshi, D.; Lakhankar, T.

    2017-12-01

    Food yield is equal to the total crop harvest per unit cultivated area. During the elapsed time of germination and frequent harvesting, both human and climate related effects determine a country's' contribution towards global food security. Each country across the globe's annual income per capita was collected to then determine nine countries for further studies. For a location to be chosen, its income per capita needed to be considered poor, uprising or wealthy. Both physical land cover and regional climate helped categorize potential parameters thought to be studied. Once selected, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data was collected for Ethiopia, Liberia, Indonesia, United States, Norway, Russia, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia over the recent 16 years for approximately every 16 days starting from early in the year 2000. Software languages such as Geographic Information System (GIS), MatLab and Excel were used to determine how population size, income and deforestation directly determines agricultural yields. Because of high maintenance requirements for large harvests when forest areas are cleared, they often have a reduction in soil quality, requiring fertilizer use to produce sufficient crop yields. Total area and vegetation index of each country is to be studied, to determine crop and deforestation percentages. To determine how deforestation impacts future income and crop yield predictions of each country studied. By using NDVI results a parameter is to be potentially found that will help define an index, to create an equation that will determine a country's annual income and ability to provide for their families and themselves.

  15. 75 FR 15439 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA...

  16. 78 FR 15957 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA...

  17. 77 FR 10537 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Medical Device Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public conference. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA...

  18. Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Rifka C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2018-03-16

    Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS). Further, to determine the degree to which effects of "junk-food" were selective to Pavlovian motivational processes, we varied the predictive validity of the CS by including training groups conditioned with unique CS-US contingencies ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. "Junk-food" did not enhance cue potentiated feeding in any group, but expression of this potentiation effect varied with the CS-US contingency independent of diet. In contrast, "junk-food" consistently enhanced conditioned approach to the food cup; this effect was dependent on the previously established CS-US contingency. That is, consumption of "junk-food" following training enhanced approach to the food cup only in response to CSs with previously positive CS-US contingencies. This was accompanied by reduced motivation for the US itself. Together these data show that "junk-food" consumption selectively enhances incentive motivational responses to previously established food CSs, without altering cue potentiated feeding induced by these same CSs, and in the absence of enhanced motivation for food itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Building a Rice Decision Support System to Support Global Food Security and Commodity Markets, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rice is an important crop globally that influences food security and the Earth system. Rice is the predominant food staple in many regions with approximately 700...

  20. The Canadian launch of the 2018 Global Food Policy Report | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... Delta Hotels Marriott Ottawa City Centre ... specialists will explore some of the pressing issues and potential impacts on global food systems — including the role ... Senior Program Officer, Agriculture and Food Security, IDRC.

  1. Exploring the Potential Impacts of Historic Volcanic Eruptions on the Contemporary Global Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael J.; Chon, S.; Wada, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of volcanic impacts on crops is urgently needed, as volcanic eruptions and the associated climate anomalies can cause unanticipated shocks to food production. Such shocks are a major concern given the fragility of the global food system.

  2. Role Of Indigenous Knowledge In Enhancing Household Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires, personal interviews and group discussions. The finding showed that many people depend on the use of indigenous knowledge practices in sustaining subsistence farming and enhancing household food security. Majority of farmers mulch their crops using local ...

  3. The Globalization of Food Systems: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Senauer, Benjamin; Venturini, Luciano

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of stylized facts and empirical patterns regarding agri-food trade flows as well as foreign direct investments in food processing and retailing. This evidence supports the hypothesis of an increasingly global food system. We identify the main factors at work such as push/supply side, pull/demand-side, and enabling/external factors. We show how the shift from national to global retailing is a recent phenomenon whose relevance for the globalization of upstream sect...

  4. Food sovereignty as multiple resistances: the Honduran movement in global context

    OpenAIRE

    Gies, Heather Marie

    2014-01-01

    Food sovereignty reconciles the local and global in its creative political imaginary of the meaning of sovereignty that justifies “multiple resistances.” This research explores this reconciliation of local and global through the case study of the food sovereignty project being advanced by campesino organizations in the Aguán Valley, Honduras, as situated within the dynamic nexus of local and global discourses, movements, and material realities. I argue that food sovereignty reconceives sovere...

  5. Companies' opinions and acceptance of global food safety initiative benchmarks after implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Phil; Van Loo, Ellen J; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Mauromoustakos, Andy; Yiannas, Frank; Dyenson, Natalie; Berdnik, Irina

    2012-09-01

    International attention has been focused on minimizing costs that may unnecessarily raise food prices. One important aspect to consider is the redundant and overlapping costs of food safety audits. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) has devised benchmarked schemes based on existing international food safety standards for use as a unifying standard accepted by many retailers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the decision made by Walmart Stores (Bentonville, AR) to require their suppliers to become GFSI compliant. An online survey of 174 retail suppliers was conducted to assess food suppliers' opinions of this requirement and the benefits suppliers realized when they transitioned from their previous food safety systems. The most common reason for becoming GFSI compliant was to meet customers' requirements; thus, supplier implementation of the GFSI standards was not entirely voluntary. Other reasons given for compliance were enhancing food safety and remaining competitive. About 54 % of food processing plants using GFSI benchmarked schemes followed the guidelines of Safe Quality Food 2000 and 37 % followed those of the British Retail Consortium. At the supplier level, 58 % followed Safe Quality Food 2000 and 31 % followed the British Retail Consortium. Respondents reported that the certification process took about 10 months. The most common reason for selecting a certain GFSI benchmarked scheme was because it was widely accepted by customers (retailers). Four other common reasons were (i) the standard has a good reputation in the industry, (ii) the standard was recommended by others, (iii) the standard is most often used in the industry, and (iv) the standard was required by one of their customers. Most suppliers agreed that increased safety of their products was required to comply with GFSI benchmarked schemes. They also agreed that the GFSI required a more carefully documented food safety management system, which often required

  6. Global Food Security Problems in the Modern World Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkadyrova, Madina A.; Dikinov, Andzor H.; Tajmashanov, Hassan È.; Shidaev, Lomali A.; Shidaeva, Eliza A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Food problem at the present stage of development of mankind is that due to improper and overly intensive use of natural resources, increasing demand for livestock products, increasing per capita food consumption and other factors, there has been a steady rise in food prices, represents a threat to food security in the countries with…

  7. Are Local Food Chains More Sustainable than Global Food Chains? Considerations for Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main findings of the GLAMUR project which starts with an apparently simple question: is “local” more sustainable than “global”? Sustainability assessment is framed within a post-normal science perspective, advocating the integration of public deliberation and scientific research. The assessment spans 39 local, intermediate and global supply chain case studies across different commodities and countries. Assessment criteria cover environmental, economic, social, health and ethical sustainability dimensions. A closer view of the food system demonstrates a highly dynamic local–global continuum where actors, while adapting to a changing environment, establish multiple relations and animate several chain configurations. The evidence suggests caution when comparing “local” and “global” chains, especially when using the outcomes of the comparison in decision-making. Supply chains are analytical constructs that necessarily—and arbitrarily—are confined by system boundaries, isolating a set of elements from an interconnected whole. Even consolidated approaches, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, assess only a part of sustainability attributes, and the interpretation may be controversial. Many sustainability attributes are not yet measurable and “hard” methodologies need to be complemented by “soft” methodologies which are at least able to identify critical issues and trade-offs. Aware of these limitations, our research shows that comparing local and global chains, with the necessary caution, can help overcome a priori positions that so far have characterized the debate between “localists” and “globalists”. At firm level, comparison between “local” and “global” chains could be useful to identify best practices, benchmarks, critical points, and errors to avoid. As sustainability is not a status to achieve, but a never-ending process, comparison and deliberation can be the basis of a

  8. Rewiring food systems to enhance human health and biosphere stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Line J.; Bignet, Victoria; Crona, Beatrice; Henriksson, Patrik J. G.; Van Holt, Tracy; Jonell, Malin; Lindahl, Therese; Troell, Max; Barthel, Stephan; Deutsch, Lisa; Folke, Carl; Jamila Haider, L.; Rockström, Johan; Queiroz, Cibele

    2017-10-01

    Food lies at the heart of both health and sustainability challenges. We use a social-ecological framework to illustrate how major changes to the volume, nutrition and safety of food systems between 1961 and today impact health and sustainability. These changes have almost halved undernutrition while doubling the proportion who are overweight. They have also resulted in reduced resilience of the biosphere, pushing four out of six analysed planetary boundaries across the safe operating space of the biosphere. Our analysis further illustrates that consumers and producers have become more distant from one another, with substantial power consolidated within a small group of key actors. Solutions include a shift from a volume-focused production system to focus on quality, nutrition, resource use efficiency, and reduced antimicrobial use. To achieve this, we need to rewire food systems in ways that enhance transparency between producers and consumers, mobilize key actors to become biosphere stewards, and re-connect people to the biosphere.

  9. Satellite Imagery Analysis for Automated Global Food Security Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D.; Brumby, S. P.; Chartrand, R.; Keisler, R.; Mathis, M.; Beneke, C. M.; Nicholaeff, D.; Skillman, S.; Warren, M. S.; Poehnelt, J.

    2017-12-01

    The recent computing performance revolution has driven improvements in sensor, communication, and storage technology. Multi-decadal remote sensing datasets at the petabyte scale are now available in commercial clouds, with new satellite constellations generating petabytes/year of daily high-resolution global coverage imagery. Cloud computing and storage, combined with recent advances in machine learning, are enabling understanding of the world at a scale and at a level of detail never before feasible. We present results from an ongoing effort to develop satellite imagery analysis tools that aggregate temporal, spatial, and spectral information and that can scale with the high-rate and dimensionality of imagery being collected. We focus on the problem of monitoring food crop productivity across the Middle East and North Africa, and show how an analysis-ready, multi-sensor data platform enables quick prototyping of satellite imagery analysis algorithms, from land use/land cover classification and natural resource mapping, to yearly and monthly vegetative health change trends at the structural field level.

  10. The First International Conference on Global Food Security – A Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van M.K.; Giller, K.E.

    2014-01-01

    Improving food security is difficult. There are many reasons why hunger and malnutrition persist, not least because deep social inequities and conflicts often dominate. Equally many approaches are needed to deal with this global problem. In the case of global food security, improvements can depend

  11. Water resources conservation and nitrogen pollution reduction under global food trade and agricultural intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Yang, Hong; Liu, Yu; Kummu, Matti; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Liu, Junguo; Schulin, Rainer

    2018-01-01

    Global food trade entails virtual flows of agricultural resources and pollution across countries. Here we performed a global-scale assessment of impacts of international food trade on blue water use, total water use, and nitrogen (N) inputs and on N losses in maize, rice, and wheat production. We

  12. Global food supply and the impacts of increased use of biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine

    In recent years prices on global food markets showed large fluctuations. The use of biomass as energy source (biofuel) in the developed world is frequently mentioned as one of the reasons for this instability. This paper compares the need for biofuel and needs for food and feed on global scale. A

  13. Exploring the impact of the 2008 global food crisis on food security among vulnerable households in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Robson, Kristin; Gutilla, Margaret J; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne; Norlund, Petra

    2014-04-01

    Recurring food crises endanger the livelihoods of millions of households in developing countries around the globe. Owing to the importance of this issue, we explore recent changes in food security between the years 2004 and 2010 in a rural district in Northeastern South Africa. Our study window spans the time of the 2008 global food crises and allows the investigation of its impacts on rural South African populations. Grounded in the sustainable livelihood framework, we examine differences in food security trajectories among vulnerable sub populations. A unique panel data set of 8,147 households, provided by the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS), allows us to employ a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach to estimate adjusted growth curves for the differential change in food security across time. We observe an overall improvement in food security that leveled off after 2008, most likely resulting from the global food crisis. In addition, we discover significant differences in food security trajectories for various sub populations. For example, female-headed households and those living in areas with better access to natural resources differentially improved their food security situation, compared to male-headed households and those households with lower levels of natural resource access. However, former Mozambican refugees witnessed a decline in food security. Therefore, poverty alleviation programs for the Agincourt region should work to improve the food security of vulnerable households, such as former Mozambican refugees.

  14. Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) revisited: Suggestions for the development of an enhanced general food motivation typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Recognising the need for a more statistically robust instrument to investigate general food selection determinants, the research validates and confirms Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ's) factorial design, develops ad hoc a more robust FCQ version and tests its ability to discriminate between...... at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development...... consumer segments in terms of the importance they assign to the FCQ motivational factors. The original FCQ appears to represent a comprehensive and reliable research instrument. However, the empirical data do not support the robustness of its 9-factorial design. On the other hand, segmentation results...

  15. The role of GLOBAL G.A.P.: In improving competitiveness of agro-food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešić Cariša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of food safety, standards and food quality represent a challenge for every food company which has to cope with in order to survive. The change in consumers attitudes has considerably been influenced by certain incidents related to food safety which clearly showed that more attention should be paid to food safety. Different actors should work together on this issue, from food producers (primary and final, consumer associations, international organizations, big retailers to the state. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the current situation in implementation of certification schemes for agro-food industry in which GLOBAL G.A.P. has been recognized as a perspective one. A special attention is paid to two directions: (1 Comparison of implementing GLOBAL G.A.P. standard and other Certification schemes and (2 Overview and opportunities for Serbia and neighboring countries, in relation to its EU food law and food safety certification schemes harmonization efforts.

  16. Exploring global consumer attitudes toward nutrition information on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Josephine M; Schmidt, David B; Pillo-Blocka, Francy; Cairns, Georgina

    2009-05-01

    In many parts of the world, food companies, consumers, and governments are re-examining the provision of nutrition information on food labels. It is important that the nutrition information provided be appropriate and understandable to the consumer and that it impact food-choice behaviors. Potentially, food labeling represents a valuable tool to help consumers make informed decisions about their diet and lifestyle. Food information organizations worldwide have been following consumer trends in the use of this information as well as consumer attitudes about food, nutrition, and health. This paper summarizes a workshop that examined consumer attitudes gathered regionally with the aim of establishing commonalities and differences.

  17. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, Sonia S.; Hawkes, Corinna; Souza, De Russell J.; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J.A.; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and

  18. Food processing strategies to enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability in plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Agustí, Albert; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Elez-Martínez, Pedro

    2017-06-13

    Phenolic compounds are important constituents of plant-based foods, as their presence is related to protective effects on health. To exert their biological activity, phenolic compounds must be released from the matrix during digestion in an absorbable form (bioaccessible) and finally absorbed and transferred to the bloodstream (bioavailable). Chemical structure and matrix interactions are some food-related factors that hamper phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and that can be counteracted by food processing. It has been shown that food processing can induce chemical or physical modifications in food that enhance phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and bioavailability. These changes include: (i) chemical modifications into more bioaccessible and bioavailable forms; (ii) cleavage of covalent or hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic forces that attach phenolic compounds to matrix macromolecules; (iii) damaging microstructural barriers such as cell walls that impede the release from the matrix; and (iv) create microstructures that protect phenolic compounds until they are absorbed. Indeed, food processing can produce degradation of phenolic compounds, however, it is possible to counteract it by modulating the operating conditions in favor of increased bioaccessibility and bioavailability. This review compiles the current knowledge on the effects of processing on phenolic compounds bioaccessibility or bioavailability, while suggesting new guidelines in the search of optimal processing conditions as a step forward towards the design of healthier foods.

  19. Serotonin enhances the impact of health information on food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo; Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Müller, Ulrich; Robbins, Trevor W

    2017-06-01

    Serotonin has been implicated in promoting self-control, regulation of hunger and physiological homeostasis, and regulation of caloric intake. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of serotonin on caloric intake reflect purely homeostatic mechanisms, or whether serotonin also modulates cognitive processes involved in dietary decision making. We investigated the effects of an acute dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on choices between food items that differed along taste and health attributes, compared with placebo and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Twenty-seven participants attended three sessions and received single doses of atomoxetine, citalopram, and placebo in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Relative to placebo, citalopram increased choices of more healthy foods over less healthy foods. Citalopram also increased the emphasis on health considerations in decisions. Atomoxetine did not affect decision making relative to placebo. The results support the hypothesis that serotonin may influence food choice by enhancing a focus on long-term goals. The findings are relevant for understanding decisions about food consumption and also for treating health conditions such as eating disorders and obesity.

  20. The challenges for global harmonisation of food safety norms and regulations: issues for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-08-01

    Safe and adequate food is a human right, safety being a prime quality attribute without which food is unfit for consumption. Food safety regulations are framed to exercise control over all types of food produced, processed and sold so that the customer is assured that the food consumed will not cause any harm. From the Indian perspective, global harmonisation of food regulations is needed to improve food and nutrition security, the food trade and delivery of safe ready-to-eat (RTE) foods at all places and at all times. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) put forward to transform developing societies incorporate many food safety issues. The success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of food-borne diseases, particularly among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food- and water-borne illnesses can be a serious health hazard, being responsible for high incidences of morbidity and mortality across all age groups of people. Global harmonisation of food regulations would assist in facilitating food trade within and outside India through better compliance, ensuring the safety of RTE catered foods, as well as addressing issues related to the environment. At the same time, regulations need to be optimum, as overregulation may have undue negative effects on the food trade. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. 75 FR 22412 - Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Outsourcing Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Selection Process--the criteria a contract organization should use to consider saying no to a contract... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Food and Drug Administration/Xavier University Global Outsourcing Conference AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  2. Food irradiation: Applications, public acceptance and global trade

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Nuclear Science and Technology ... “the irradiation of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 KGy presents no ... years in the wake of food-borne disease caused by pathogenic organisms. In fact ... quality of food consumed within the region (Ahari and.

  3. Food irradiation: Applications, public acceptance and global trade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process involves exposing the packed or bulked food to the rays of the sun. Food irradiation processing that entails combating post-harvest losses, curtailing food-borne disease and overcoming quarantine barriers has been pursued since the mid-50s. The scientific basis and technological adaptation of the process ...

  4. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramírez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-12-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources: population growth reduces the land and water per person; and adoption of affluent diets increases the demand for land and water per person. This study shows potentials of global food supply by linking food demand drivers with national land and water availability. Whether the available land and water is enough to meet national food demand was calculated for 187 countries. The calculations were performed for the past situation (1960 and 2010) and to assess four future scenarios (2050) to discuss different paths of diets, population numbers and agricultural expansion. Inclusion of the demand perspective in the analysis has shown stronger challenges for future global food supply than have other studies. The results show that with the "business as usual" scenario, 40% of the global population in 2050 will live in countries with not enough land nor water to meet the demands of their population. Restriction to basic diets will be the most effective in lowering both land and water constraints. Our results identify both food production and food demand factors, and the regions that may experience the strongest challenges in 2050.

  5. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2007-05-22

    This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control), but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health). The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  6. Non-communicable diseases and global health governance: enhancing global processes to improve health development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Roger S

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper assesses progress in the development of a global framework for responding to non-communicable diseases, as reflected in the policies and initiatives of the World Health Organization (WHO, World Bank and the UN: the institutions most capable of shaping a coherent global policy. Responding to the global burden of chronic disease requires a strategic assessment of the global processes that are likely to be most effective in generating commitment to policy change at country level, and in influencing industry behaviour. WHO has adopted a legal process with tobacco (the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but a non-legal, advocacy-based approach with diet and physical activity (the Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. The paper assesses the merits of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs and the FCTC as distinct global processes for advancing health development, before considering what lessons might be learned for enhancing the implementation of the Global Strategy on Diet. While global partnerships, economic incentives, and international legal instruments could each contribute to a more effective global response to chronic diseases, the paper makes a special case for the development of international legal standards in select areas of diet and nutrition, as a strategy for ensuring that the health of future generations does not become dependent on corporate charity and voluntary commitments. A broader frame of reference for lifestyle-related chronic diseases is needed: one that draws together WHO's work in tobacco, nutrition and physical activity, and that envisages selective use of international legal obligations, non-binding recommendations, advocacy and policy advice as tools of choice for promoting different elements of the strategy.

  7. Global Hotspots of Conflict Risk between Food Security and Biodiversity Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Molotoks, Amy; Dawson, Terence Peter

    2017-01-01

    The global challenges of food security and biodiversity are rarely addressed together, though recently there has been an increasing awareness that the two issues are closely related. The majority of land available for agriculture is already used for food production, but despite the productivity gains, one in nine people worldwide are classified as food insecure. There is an increasing risk that addressing food insecurity through methods such as agricultural expansion orintensification could l...

  8. Television food advertising to children: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2010-09-01

    We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times.

  9. Television Food Advertising to Children: A Global Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C.G.; Boyland, Emma J.; Chapman, Kathy; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Berg, Christina; Caroli, Margherita; Cook, Brian; Coutinho, Janine G.; Effertz, Tobias; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Keller, Kathleen; Leung, Raymond; Manios, Yannis; Monteiro, Renata; Pedley, Claire; Prell, Hillevi; Raine, Kim; Recine, Elisabetta; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Singh, Sonia; Summerbell, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We compared television food advertising to children in several countries. Methods. We undertook a collaboration among 13 research groups in Australia, Asia, Western Europe, and North and South America. Each group recorded programming for 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days between 6:00 and 22:00, for the 3 channels most watched by children, between October 2007 and March 2008. We classified food advertisements as core (nutrient dense, low in energy), noncore (high in undesirable nutrients or energy, as defined by dietary standards), or miscellaneous. We also categorized thematic content (promotional characters and premiums). Results. Food advertisements composed 11% to 29% of advertisements. Noncore foods were featured in 53% to 87% of food advertisements, and the rate of noncore food advertising was higher during children's peak viewing times. Most food advertisements containing persuasive marketing were for noncore products. Conclusions. Across all sampled countries, children were exposed to high volumes of television advertising for unhealthy foods, featuring child-oriented persuasive techniques. Because of the proven connections between food advertising, preferences, and consumption, our findings lend support to calls for regulation of food advertising during children's peak viewing times. PMID:20634464

  10. Perspectives : How global food traders manage our water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.; Keulertz, M.; Sojamo, S.

    2015-01-01

    To many analysts, global water governance is about getting the institutions right: more accountable water users and more public participation in decisions. But are we barking up the right tree? In this analysis, we argue that when analysing global water governance, one needs to look at the global

  11. Sustainability of Global and Local Food Value Chains: An Empirical Comparison of Peruvian and Belgian Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Schwarz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of food value chains is an increasing concern for consumers, food companies and policy-makers. Global food chains are often perceived to be less sustainable than local food chains. Yet, thorough food chain analyses and comparisons of different food chains across sustainability dimensions are rare. In this article we analyze the local Belgian and global Peruvian asparagus value chains and explore their sustainability performance. A range of indicators linked to environmental, economic and social impacts is calculated to analyze the contribution of the supply chains to economic development, resource use, labor relations, distribution of added value and governance issues. Our findings suggest that none of the two supply chains performs invariably better and that there are trade-offs among and between sustainability dimensions. Whereas the global chain uses water and other inputs more intensively and generates more employment per unit of land and higher yields, the local chain generates more revenue per unit of land.

  12. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microsporidia – Emergent Pathogens in the Global Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensi'cation of food production has the potential to drive increased disease prevalence in food plants and animals. Microsporidia are diversely distributed, opportunistic, and density-dependent parasites infecting hosts from almost all known animal taxa. They are frequent in highly managed aqua...

  14. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Microphysical particles such as glass and metal can be hazardous and cause serious injury to consumers. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food and impact food safety. Like food security, food safety is also effected by poverty and climate change. Hence Foo

  15. Cavity-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Food Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenz Sandfort

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive food chain management requires the monitoring of many parameters including temperature, humidity, and multiple gases. The latter is highly challenging because no low-cost technology for the simultaneous chemical analysis of multiple gaseous components currently exists. This contribution proposes the use of cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy to enable online monitoring of all relevant components using a single laser source. A laboratory scale setup is presented and characterized in detail. Power enhancement of the pump light is achieved in an optical resonator with a Finesse exceeding 2500. A simulation for the light scattering behavior shows the influence of polarization on the spatial distribution of the Raman scattered light. The setup is also used to measure three relevant showcase gases to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, including carbon dioxide, oxygen and ethene.

  16. Food supply and bioenergy production within the global cropland planetary boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R C; Engström, K; Olin, S; Alexander, P; Arneth, A; Rounsevell, M D A

    2018-01-01

    Supplying food for the anticipated global population of over 9 billion in 2050 under changing climate conditions is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Agricultural expansion and intensification contributes to global environmental change and risks the long-term sustainability of the planet. It has been proposed that no more than 15% of the global ice-free land surface should be converted to cropland. Bioenergy production for land-based climate mitigation places additional pressure on limited land resources. Here we test normative targets of food supply and bioenergy production within the cropland planetary boundary using a global land-use model. The results suggest supplying the global population with adequate food is possible without cropland expansion exceeding the planetary boundary. Yet this requires an increase in food production, especially in developing countries, as well as a decrease in global crop yield gaps. However, under current assumptions of future food requirements, it was not possible to also produce significant amounts of first generation bioenergy without cropland expansion. These results suggest that meeting food and bioenergy demands within the planetary boundaries would need a shift away from current trends, for example, requiring major change in the demand-side of the food system or advancing biotechnologies.

  17. The potential of genetically enhanced plants to address food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Paul; Twyman, Richard M

    2004-06-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important social issues faced today, with 840 million individuals enduring chronic hunger and three billion individuals suffering from nutrient deficiencies. Most of these individuals are poverty stricken and live in developing countries. Strategies to address food insecurity must aim to increase agricultural productivity in the developing world in order to tackle poverty, and must provide long-term improvements in crop yields to keep up with demand as the world's population grows. Genetically enhanced plants provide one route to sustainable higher yields, either by increasing the intrinsic yield capability of crop plants or by protecting them from biotic and abiotic constraints. The present paper discusses a range of transgenic approaches that could increase agricultural productivity if applied on a large scale, including the introduction of genes that confer resistance to pests and diseases, or tolerance of harsh environments, and genes that help to lift the intrinsic yield capacity by increasing metabolic flux towards storage carbohydrates, proteins and oils. The paper also explores how the nutritional value of plants can be improved by genetic engineering. Transgenic plants, as a component of integrated strategies to relieve poverty and deliver sustainable agriculture to subsistence farmers in developing countries, could have a significant impact on food security now and in the future.

  18. Effects of Climate Change on Global Food Production from SRES Emissions and Socioeconomic Scenarios

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effects of Climate Change on Global Food Production from SRES Emissions and Socioeconomic Scenarios is an update to a major crop modeling study by the NASA Goddard...

  19. Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity,

  20. Review: Lorenzo Cotula, The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Nolte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Lorenzo Cotula, The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System, London, New York: Zed Books, 2013, ISBN 9781780324203, 248 pages

  1. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-29

    Sep 29, 2016 ... It investigates how food security and gender inequity are conceptualized within ... underlying social, cultural, and economic causes of gender inequality. Taken together, these combined approaches enable women and men to ...

  2. Experiments in globalization, food security and land use decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, C.; Murray-Rust, D.; van Vliet, J.; Alam, S. J.; Verburg, P.H.; Rounsevell, M.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often

  3. Global Climate Change, Food Security and the U.S. Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Walsh, Margaret; Hauser, Rachel; Murray, Anthony; Jadin, Jenna; Baklund, Peter; Robinson, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Climate change influences on the major pillars of food security. Each of the four elements of food security (availability,access,utilization,andstability) is vulnerable to changes in climate. For example,reductions in production related to regional drought influence food availability at multiple scales. Changes in price influences the ability of certain populations to purchase food (access). Utilization maybe affected when production zones shift, reducing the availability of preferred or culturally appropriate types of food within a region. Stability of the food supply may be highly uncertain given an increased incidence of extreme climatic events and their influence on production patterns.

  4. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-21

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  5. Genetic engineering of crops: a ray of hope for enhanced food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Sarvajeet Singh; Gill, Ritu; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2014-01-01

    Crop improvement has been a basic and essential chase since organized cultivation of crops began thousands of years ago. Abiotic stresses as a whole are regarded as the crucial factors restricting the plant species to reach their full genetic potential to deliver desired productivity. The changing global climatic conditions are making them worse and pointing toward food insecurity. Agriculture biotechnology or genetic engineering has allowed us to look into and understand the complex nature of abiotic stresses and measures to improve the crop productivity under adverse conditions. Various candidate genes have been identified and transformed in model plants as well as agriculturally important crop plants to develop abiotic stress-tolerant plants for crop improvement. The views presented here are an attempt toward realizing the potential of genetic engineering for improving crops to better tolerate abiotic stresses in the era of climate change, which is now essential for global food security. There is great urgency in speeding up crop improvement programs that can use modern biotechnological tools in addition to current breeding practices for providing enhanced food security.

  6. Role of Global Food Security in the Common Agrarian Policy of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor N. Shcherbak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author devoted his research to the role of the global food security in the priorities of the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (CAP. The research sheds light on the parameters of the Common Agricultural Policy and the basic steps on the path of its reform. The research demonstrates that the priorities of the EC are mainly concentrated on achieving food security for the member-states of the EC, its population and the interests of the agricultural sector. The modern challenges to the Global Food Security (global food crises of 2007-2009, acute food shortages and hunger in crises regions of Africa and chronic malnutrition are placed high on the agenda of the CAP. In this situation, the EU is trying in the interests of stabilization of the world agricultural market to solve simultaneously the tasks of providing assistance for development and mitigation of the threats to the Global Food security. The deepening rift between the strategy of the CAP oriented towards promotion of agricultural export and real contribution of the EC to the Global Food Security and assistance for development is becoming more and more the most «vulnerable» place of the CAP.

  7. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  8. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A; Law, S Edward

    2011-01-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  9. Enhanced deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation with global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelicher, T. L.; Jaccard, S.; Dunne, J. P.; Paynter, D.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-first century coupled climate model simulations, observations from the recent past, and theoretical arguments suggest a consistent trend towards warmer ocean temperatures and fresher polar surface oceans in response to increased radiative forcing resulting in increased upper ocean stratification and reduced ventilation and oxygenation of the deep ocean. Paleo-proxy records of the warming at the end of the last ice age, however, suggests a different outcome, namely a better ventilated and oxygenated deep ocean with global warming. Here we use a four thousand year global warming simulation from a comprehensive Earth System Model (GFDL ESM2M) to show that this conundrum is a consequence of different rates of warming and that the deep ocean is actually better ventilated and oxygenated in a future warmer equilibrated climate consistent with paleo-proxy records. The enhanced deep ocean ventilation in the Southern Ocean occurs in spite of increased positive surface buoyancy fluxes and a constancy of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds - circumstances that would otherwise be expected to lead to a reduction in deep ocean ventilation. This ventilation recovery occurs through a global scale interaction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation undergoing a multi-centennial recovery after an initial century of transient decrease and transports salinity-rich waters inform the subtropical surface ocean to the Southern Ocean interior on multi-century timescales. The subsequent upwelling of salinity-rich waters in the Southern Ocean strips away the freshwater cap that maintains vertical stability and increases open ocean convection and the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters. As a result, the global ocean oxygen content and the nutrient supply from the deep ocean to the surface are higher in a warmer ocean. The implications for past and future changes in ocean heat and carbon storage will be discussed.

  10. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yach Derek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium

  11. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and

  12. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Eleanore; Yach, Derek; Mensah, George A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the

  13. The Global Arena of Food Law: Emerging Contours of a Meta-Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Meulen (Bernd)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFood is one of the most regulated social and economic sectors. At the global level several organisations such as the UN, FAO, WHO, the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the WTO play a role in food governance through formulating and enforcing rules regarding production, manufacturing,

  14. Managing Food Quality Risk in Global Supply Chain: A Risk Management Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Arevalo Chavez, Pablo Jose; Seow, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Today, the food sector is one of the sectors most vulnerable to intentional contamination by debilitating agents [1]. Some cases of contaminated food have indicated that product quality risk is one of the vulnerabilities in the global supply chain. A series of company scandals, affecting reputation and causing the recall of products and increasing costs have hit the food industry. The obvious problem is that even a minor incident in one part of the chain can have disastrous effects on other p...

  15. Cooperation and competence in global food chains : perspectives on food quality and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.; Boselie, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    Supermarket chains, retailers and wholesalers have made food safety and food quality an integral element of their business strategies. What does this mean for producers in the South, who have to comply with international standards for good agricultural practices as well as with strict food safety

  16. Defining the `negative emission' capacity of global agriculture deployed for enhanced rock weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerling, D. J.; Taylor, L.; Banwart, S. A.; Kantzas, E. P.; Lomas, M.; Mueller, C.; Ridgwell, A.; Quegan, S.

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced rock weathering involves application of crushed silicates (e.g. basalt) to the landscape to accelerate their chemical breakdown to release base cations and form bicarbonate that ultimate sequester CO2 in the oceans. Global croplands cover an area of 12 million km2 and might be deployed for long-term removal of anthropogenic CO2 through enhanced rock weathering with a number of co-benefits for food security. This presentation assesses the potential of this strategy to contribute to `negative emissions' as defined by a suite of simulations coupling a detailed model of rock grain weathering by crop root-microbial processes with a managed land dynamic global vegetation model driven by the `business as usual' future climate change scenarios. We calculate potential atmospheric CO2 drawdown over the next century by introducing a strengthened C-sink term into the global carbon cycle model within an intermediate complexity Earth system model. Our simulations indicate agricultural lands deployed in this way constitute a `low tech' biological negative emissions strategy. As part of a wider portfolio of options, this strategy might contribute to limiting future warming to 2oC, subject to economic costs and energy requirements.

  17. Alternative Food in the Global South: Reflections on a Direct Marketing Initiative in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidberg, Susanne; Goldstein, Lissa

    2011-01-01

    Amidst booming scholarship on alternative food networks (AFNs) in the global North, research on AFN in the global South remains scarce. Partly this is because explicitly alternative initiatives are themselves scarce, except for those focused on export markets. Yet in countries such as Kenya, urban consumers and rural smallholders have good reason…

  18. Susceptibility of South Korea to Extremes Affecting the Global Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, So Young; Puma, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Food security in South Korea is tightly linked to the global food system. The country's production of major grains declined from 5.8 million metric tons (mmt) in 1998 to 4.8 mmt in 2014, which caused the country's grain self suciency to decline from 31.4% to 24%. This decline is a consequence of several factors including reductions in domestic agricultural land, governmental policies supporting industry over agriculture, and a push towards trade liberalization. South Korea's self suciency is now one of the lowest among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, leaving it vulnerable to disruptions in the global food system.

  19. Global change, urban livelihoods and food security; presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Food security research and policy have focused more on the rural poor where the incidence and depth of poverty is more pronounced. Urban livelihoods are based on cash income and many people in urban areas are employed in the informal sector which...

  20. Insects in the human food chain: global status and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Muenke, Christopher; Vantomme, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Insects are part of the traditional diets of approximately 2 billion people worldwide. Insects can contribute to food security and be a part of the solution to protein shortages, given their high nutritional value, low emissions of greenhouse gases, low requirements for land and water, and the hi...

  1. Does aquaculture add resilience to the global food system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troell, M.; Naylor, R.L.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Tyedmers, P.H.; Folke, C.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Crepin, A.S.; Ehrlich, P.; Gren, R.; Kautsky, N.; Levin, S.A.; Nyborg, K.; Osterblom, H.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.H.; Xepapadeas, T.; Zeeuw, de A.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment

  2. Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 sept. 2016 ... Jemimah Njuki is a senior program officer in the Agriculture and Food Security program at the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), based in Nairobi, Kenya. John R. Parkins is a professor in the Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology, University of Alberta, Canada ...

  3. Enhancement of Global Communication Skill at the School of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Kumiko

    Globalization is one of the most important challenges for universities. Especially for the School of Engineering, it is crucial to foster researchers or engineers with broader perspective. International communication competency is essential for them in order to deal with other professionals from overseas. Center for Innovation in Engineering Education established in the School of Engineering at the University of Tokyo in 2005 started two programs for graduate and undergraduate students to enhance their international communication competency and to increase international competitiveness. ‘English for Scientists and Engineers A, B’ are for the graduate students to learn how to write papers in English and how to make good presentations. Special English Lessons are for the undergraduate students to have a chance to practice English conversation or prepare for TOEFL test. In this paper, the authors discuss the details of the programs, their purpose and the future tasks.

  4. Network analytical tool for monitoring global food safety highlights China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Nepusz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Beijing Declaration on food safety and security was signed by over fifty countries with the aim of developing comprehensive programs for monitoring food safety and security on behalf of their citizens. Currently, comprehensive systems for food safety and security are absent in many countries, and the systems that are in place have been developed on different principles allowing poor opportunities for integration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed a user-friendly analytical tool based on network approaches for instant customized analysis of food alert patterns in the European dataset from the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed. Data taken from alert logs between January 2003-August 2008 were processed using network analysis to i capture complexity, ii analyze trends, and iii predict possible effects of interventions by identifying patterns of reporting activities between countries. The detector and transgressor relationships are readily identifiable between countries which are ranked using i Google's PageRank algorithm and ii the HITS algorithm of Kleinberg. The program identifies Iran, China and Turkey as the transgressors with the largest number of alerts. However, when characterized by impact, counting the transgressor index and the number of countries involved, China predominates as a transgressor country. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study reports the first development of a network analysis approach to inform countries on their transgressor and detector profiles as a user-friendly aid for the adoption of the Beijing Declaration. The ability to instantly access the country-specific components of the several thousand annual reports will enable each country to identify the major transgressors and detectors within its trading network. Moreover, the tool can be used to monitor trading countries for improved detector/transgressor ratios.

  5. Enhancing food engineering education with interactive web-based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Koulouris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional deductive approach in teaching any engineering topic, teachers would first expose students to the derivation of the equations that govern the behavior of a physical system and then demonstrate the use of equations through a limited number of textbook examples. This methodology, however, is rarely adequate to unmask the cause-effect and quantitative relationships between the system variables that the equations embody. Web-based simulation, which is the integration of simulation and internet technologies, has the potential to enhance the learning experience by offering an interactive and easily accessible platform for quick and effortless experimentation with physical phenomena.This paper presents the design and development of a web-based platform for teaching basic food engineering phenomena to food technology students. The platform contains a variety of modules (“virtual experiments” covering the topics of mass and energy balances, fluid mechanics and heat transfer. In this paper, the design and development of three modules for mass balances and heat transfer is presented. Each webpage representing an educational module has the following features: visualization of the studied phenomenon through graphs, charts or videos, computation through a mathematical model and experimentation.  The student is allowed to edit key parameters of the phenomenon and observe the effect of these changes on the outputs. Experimentation can be done in a free or guided fashion with a set of prefabricated examples that students can run and self-test their knowledge by answering multiple-choice questions.

  6. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, E; Van Trijp, J C M; Van Den Borne, J J G C; Zondervan, C

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined.

  7. Successful Development of Satiety Enhancing Food Products: Towards a Multidisciplinary Agenda of Research Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleef, E.; Van Trijp, J.C.M.; Van Den Borne, J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food-related disciplines. By structuring this approach around the new product development process, this paper aims to present the contours of such an integrative approach by going through the current state of the art around satiety enhancing foods. It portrays actual food choice as the end result of a complex interaction between internal satiety signals, other food benefits, and environmental cues. Three interrelated routes to satiating enhancement are to change the food composition to develop stronger physiological satiation and satiety signals, anticipate and build on smart external stimuli at the moment of purchase and consumption, and improve palatability and acceptance of satiety enhanced foods. Key research challenges in achieving these routes in the field of nutrition, food technology, consumer, marketing, and communication are outlined. PMID:22530713

  8. Global sustainable food governance and hunger: traps and tragedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the global problem of hunger. It submits that many developing countries are caught in a hunger, poverty and population trap and with the increasing divergence in income between rich and poor countries, the chances that these countries will be able to come out of these

  9. What Happens to Patterns of Food Consumption when Food Prices Change? Evidence from A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Food Price Elasticities Globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; Green, Rosemary; Turner, Rachel; Dangour, Alan D; Shankar, Bhavani; Mazzocchi, Mario; Smith, Richard D

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen considerable interest in examining the impact of food prices on food consumption and subsequent health consequences. Fiscal policies targeting the relative price of unhealthy foods are frequently put forward as ways to address the obesity epidemic. Conversely, various food subsidy interventions are used in attempts to reduce levels of under-nutrition. Information on price elasticities is essential for understanding how such changes in food prices affect food consumption. It is crucial to know not only own-price elasticities but also cross-price elasticities, as food substitution patterns may have significant implications for policy recommendations. While own-price elasticities are common in analyses of the impact of food price changes on health, cross-price effects, even though generally acknowledged, are much less frequently included in analyses, especially in the public health literature. This article systematically reviews the global evidence on cross-price elasticities and provides combined estimates for seven food groups in low-income, middle-income and high-income countries alongside previously estimated own-price elasticities. Changes in food prices had the largest own-price effects in low-income countries. Cross-price effects were more varied and depending on country income level were found to be reinforcing, undermining or alleviating own-price effects. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Food Consumption and its impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions focused on the globalized food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S.; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J.; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A.; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M.; Krauss, Ronald; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J.A.; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Mozafarrian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C.; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-01-01

    Major scholars in the field, based on a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in CVD, the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries, age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggest the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps are highlighted. There are large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. Based on the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods/emphasizing plant protein sources, provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD. PMID:26429085

  11. ENHANCING FOOD SAFETY AND STABILITY THROUGH IRRADIATION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad Shah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Food irradiation is one of the non thermal food processing methods. It is the process of exposing food materials to the controlled amounts of ionizing radiations such as gamma rays, X-rays and accelerated electrons, to improve microbiological safety and stability. Irradiation disrupts the biological processes that lead to decay of food quality. It is an effective tool to reduce food-borne pathogens, spoilage microorganisms and parasites; to extend shelf-life and for insect disinfection. The safety and consumption of irradiated foods have been extensively studied at national levels and in international cooperations and have concluded that foods irradiated under appropriate technologies are both safe and nutritionally adequate. Specific applications of food irradiation have been approved by national legislations of more than 55 countries worldwide. This review aims to discuss the applications of irradiation in food processing with the emphasis on food safety and stability.

  12. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D; Neil, D M; Peeler, E J; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Flegel, T W; Vlak, J M; Jones, B; Morado, F; Moss, S; Lotz, J; Bartholomay, L; Behringer, D C; Hauton, C; Lightner, D V

    2012-06-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquaculture industry. It is significant in supporting rural livelihoods and alleviating poverty in producing nations within Asia and Latin America while forming an increasing contribution to aquatic food supply in more developed countries. Nations with marine borders often also support important marine fisheries for crustaceans that are regionally traded as live animals and commodity products. A general separation of net producing and net consuming nations for crustacean seafood has created a truly globalised food industry. Projections for increasing global demand for seafood in the face of level or declining fisheries requires continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture while ensuring best utilisation of captured stocks. Furthermore, continued pressure from consuming nations to ensure safe products for human consumption are being augmented by additional legislative requirements for animals (and their products) to be of low disease status. As a consequence, increasing emphasis is being placed on enforcement of regulations and better governance of the sector; currently this is a challenge in light of a fragmented industry and less stringent regulations associated with animal disease within producer nations. Current estimates predict that up to 40% of tropical shrimp production (>$3bn) is lost annually, mainly due to viral pathogens for which standard preventative measures (e.g. such as vaccination) are not feasible. In light of this problem, new approaches are urgently required to enhance yield by improving broodstock and larval sourcing, promoting best management practices by farmer outreach and supporting cutting-edge research that aims to harness the natural

  13. Global effects of local food-production crises: a virtual water perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-01-25

    By importing food and agricultural goods, countries cope with the heterogeneous global water distribution and often rely on water resources available abroad. The virtual displacement of the water used to produce such goods (known as virtual water) connects together, in a global water system, all countries participating to the international trade network. Local food-production crises, having social, economic or environmental origin, propagate in this network, modifying the virtual water trade and perturbing local and global food availability, quantified in terms of virtual water. We analyze here the possible effects of local crises by developing a new propagation model, parsimonious but grounded on data-based and statistically-verified assumptions, whose effectiveness is proved on the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09. The model serves as the basis to propose indicators of crisis impact and country vulnerability to external food-production crises, which highlight that countries with largest water resources have the highest impact on the international trade, and that not only water-scarce but also wealthy and globalized countries are among the most vulnerable to external crises. The temporal analysis reveals that global average vulnerability has increased over time and that stronger effects of crises are now found in countries with low food (and water) availability.

  14. Declining global per capita agricultural production and warming oceans threaten food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that is grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be determined by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices and policies. This paper discusses several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14% between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21st century food availability in some countries by disrupting moisture transports and bringing down dry air over crop growing areas. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced rainfall during the main growing season along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, this study presents an analysis of emerging

  15. Declining Global Per Capita Agricultural Production and Warming Oceans Threaten Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris C.; Brown, Molly E.

    2009-01-01

    Despite accelerating globalization, most people still eat food that was grown locally. Developing countries with weak purchasing power tend to import as little food as possible from global markets, suffering consumption deficits during times of high prices or production declines. Local agricultural production, therefore, is critical to both food security and economic development among the rural poor. The level of local agricultural production, in turn, will be controlled by the amount and quality of arable land, the amount and quality of agricultural inputs (fertilizer, seeds, pesticides, etc.), as well as farm-related technology, practices, and policies. In this paper we discuss several emerging threats to global and regional food security, including declining yield gains that are failing to keep up with population increases, and warming in the tropical Indian Ocean and its impact on rainfall. If yields continue to grow more slowly than per capita harvested area, parts of Africa, Asia, and Central and Southern America will experience substantial declines in per capita cereal production. Global per capita cereal production will potentially decline by 14 percent between 2008 and 2030. Climate change is likely to further affect food production, particularly in regions that have very low yields due to lack of technology. Drought, caused by anthropogenic warming in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, may also reduce 21 st century food availability by disrupting Indian Ocean moisture transports and tilting the 21 st century climate toward a more El Nino-like state. The impacts of these circulation changes over Asia remain uncertain. For Africa, however, Indian Ocean warming appears to have already reduced main growing season rainfall along the eastern edge of tropical Africa, from southern Somalia to northern parts of the Republic of South Africa. Through a combination of quantitative modeling of food balances and an examination of climate change, we present an analysis of

  16. Enhancing Global Competitiveness through Experiential Learning: Insights into Successful Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Nabarun

    2010-01-01

    International exposure of students is very essential in today's globalized world. Experiential learning, such as study abroad, plays a major role in developing global competencies in students, making them more marketable globally. This paper highlights one experiential activity that injects global competencies in students, thereby making them more…

  17. A Data Analysis Toolbox for Modeling the Global Food-Energy-Water Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    AghaKouchak, A.; Sadegh, M.; Mallakpour, I.

    2017-12-01

    Water, Food and energy systems are highly interconnected. More than seventy percent of global water resource is used for food production. Water withdrawal, purification, and transfer systems are energy intensive. Furthermore, energy generation strongly depends on water availability. Therefore, considering the interactions in the nexus of water, food and energy is crucial for sustainable management of available resources. In this presentation, we introduce a user-friendly data analysis toolbox that mines the available global data on food, energy and water, and analyzes their interactions. This toolbox provides estimates of water footprint for a wide range of food types in different countries and also approximates the required energy and water resources. The toolbox also provides estimates of the corresponding emissions and biofuel production of different crops. In summary, this toolbox allows evaluating dependencies of the food, energy, and water systems at the country scale. We present global analysis of the interactions between water, food and energy from different perspectives including efficiency and diversity of resources use.

  18. Challenges in Food Scientist Training in a global setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Höhl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Education and training were an integral part of the MoniQA Network of Excellence. Embedded in the "Spreading of excellence programme", Work Package 9 (Joint education programmes and training tools was responsible for establishing a joint training programme for food safety and quality within and beyond the network. So-called `MoniQA Food Scientist Training' (MoniQA FST was offered to provide technical knowledge on different levels and research management skills as well. Training needs for different regions as well as for different target groups (scientists, industry personnel, authorities had to be considered as well as developing strong collaboration links between network partners and related projects. Beside face-to-face workshops e-learning modules have been developed and web seminars were organized. In order to achieve high quality training, a quality assurance concept has been implemented. It turned out that these types of training are of high value in terms of bringing together scientists from different regions and cultures of the globe, involving highly qualified trainers as basis for a sustainable network in the future.

  19. Redesigning photosynthesis to sustainably meet global food and bioenergy demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Donald R.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Alric, Jean; Barkan, Alice; Blankenship, Robert E.; Bock, Ralph; Croce, Roberta; Hanson, Maureen R.; Hibberd, Julian M.; Long, Stephen P.; Moore, Thomas A.; Moroney, James; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela P.; Prince, Roger C.; Redding, Kevin E.; Spalding, Martin H.; van Wijk, Klaas J.; Vermaas, Wim F. J.; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Weber, Andreas P. M.; Yeates, Todd O.; Yuan, Joshua S.; Zhu, Xin Guang

    2015-01-01

    The world’s crop productivity is stagnating whereas population growth, rising affluence, and mandates for biofuels put increasing demands on agriculture. Meanwhile, demand for increasing cropland competes with equally crucial global sustainability and environmental protection needs. Addressing this looming agricultural crisis will be one of our greatest scientific challenges in the coming decades, and success will require substantial improvements at many levels. We assert that increasing the efficiency and productivity of photosynthesis in crop plants will be essential if this grand challenge is to be met. Here, we explore an array of prospective redesigns of plant systems at various scales, all aimed at increasing crop yields through improved photosynthetic efficiency and performance. Prospects range from straightforward alterations, already supported by preliminary evidence of feasibility, to substantial redesigns that are currently only conceptual, but that may be enabled by new developments in synthetic biology. Although some proposed redesigns are certain to face obstacles that will require alternate routes, the efforts should lead to new discoveries and technical advances with important impacts on the global problem of crop productivity and bioenergy production. PMID:26124102

  20. The Global Food System as a Transport Pathway for Hazardous Chemicals: The Missing Link between Emissions and Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Carla A.; von Goetz, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food is a major pathway for human exposure to hazardous chemicals. The modern food system is becoming increasingly complex and globalized, but models for food-borne exposure typically assume locally derived diets or use concentrations directly measured in foods without accounting for food origin. Such approaches may not reflect actual chemical intakes because concentrations depend on food origin, and representative analysis is seldom available. Processing, packaging, storage, and ...

  1. Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin

    2015-01-01

    combined these data with food balance sheets available in all nations and years. A hierarchical Bayesian model estimated mean food intake and associated uncertainty for each age-sex-country-year stratum, accounting for differences in intakes versus availability, survey methods and representativeness......OBJECTIVE: To quantify global intakes of key foods related to non-communicable diseases in adults by region (n=21), country (n=187), age and sex, in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: We searched and obtained individual-level intake data in 16 age/sex groups worldwide from 266 surveys across 113 countries. We......, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING/POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global fruit intake was 81.3 g/day (95% uncertainty interval 78.9-83.7), with country-specific intakes ranging from 19.2-325.1 g/day; in only 2 countries (representing 0...

  2. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Daryanto

    Full Text Available Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris, groundnut (Arachis hypogaea, and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and green gram (Vigna radiate. Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  3. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  4. Ultra-processed products are becoming dominant in the global food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, C A; Moubarac, J-C; Cannon, G; Ng, S W; Popkin, B

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between the global food system and the worldwide rapid increase of obesity and related diseases is not yet well understood. A reason is that the full impact of industrialized food processing on dietary patterns, including the environments of eating and drinking, remains overlooked and underestimated. Many forms of food processing are beneficial. But what is identified and defined here as ultra-processing, a type of process that has become increasingly dominant, at first in high-income countries, and now in middle-income countries, creates attractive, hyper-palatable, cheap, ready-to-consume food products that are characteristically energy-dense, fatty, sugary or salty and generally obesogenic. In this study, the scale of change in purchase and sales of ultra-processed products is examined and the context and implications are discussed. Data come from 79 high- and middle-income countries, with special attention to Canada and Brazil. Results show that ultra-processed products dominate the food supplies of high-income countries, and that their consumption is now rapidly increasing in middle-income countries. It is proposed here that the main driving force now shaping the global food system is transnational food manufacturing, retailing and fast food service corporations whose businesses are based on very profitable, heavily promoted ultra-processed products, many in snack form. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  5. Food safety security: a new concept for enhancing food safety measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Venkatesh; Elmadfa, Ibrahim

    2012-06-01

    The food safety security (FSS) concept is perceived as an early warning system for minimizing food safety (FS) breaches, and it functions in conjunction with existing FS measures. Essentially, the function of FS and FSS measures can be visualized in two parts: (i) the FS preventive measures as actions taken at the stem level, and (ii) the FSS interventions as actions taken at the root level, to enhance the impact of the implemented safety steps. In practice, along with FS, FSS also draws its support from (i) legislative directives and regulatory measures for enforcing verifiable, timely, and effective compliance; (ii) measurement systems in place for sustained quality assurance; and (iii) shared responsibility to ensure cohesion among all the stakeholders namely, policy makers, regulators, food producers, processors and distributors, and consumers. However, the functional framework of FSS differs from that of FS by way of: (i) retooling the vulnerable segments of the preventive features of existing FS measures; (ii) fine-tuning response systems to efficiently preempt the FS breaches; (iii) building a long-term nutrient and toxicant surveillance network based on validated measurement systems functioning in real time; (iv) focusing on crisp, clear, and correct communication that resonates among all the stakeholders; and (v) developing inter-disciplinary human resources to meet ever-increasing FS challenges. Important determinants of FSS include: (i) strengthening international dialogue for refining regulatory reforms and addressing emerging risks; (ii) developing innovative and strategic action points for intervention {in addition to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) procedures]; and (iii) introducing additional science-based tools such as metrology-based measurement systems.

  6. Impacts of ozone-vegetation coupling and feedbacks on global air quality, ecosystems and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, A. P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Surface ozone is an air pollutant of significant concerns due to its harmful effects on human health, vegetation and crop productivity. Chronic ozone exposure is shown to reduce photosynthesis and interfere with gas exchange in plants, thereby influencing surface energy balance and biogeochemical fluxes with important ramifications for climate and atmospheric composition, including possible feedbacks onto ozone itself that are not well understood. Ozone damage on crops has been well documented, but a mechanistic understanding is not well established. Here we present several results pertaining to the effects of ozone-vegetation coupling on air quality, ecosystems and agriculture. Using the Community Earth System Model (CESM), we find that inclusion of ozone damage on plants reduces the global land carbon sink by up to 5%, while simulated ozone is enhanced by up to 6 ppbv North America, Europe and East Asia. This strong positive feedback on ozone air quality via ozone-vegetation coupling arises mainly from reduced stomatal conductance, which induces two feedback pathways: 1) reduced dry deposition and ozone uptake; and 2) reduced evapotranspiration that enhances vegetation temperature and thus isoprene emission. Using the same ozone-vegetation scheme in a crop model within CESM, we further examine the impacts of historical ozone exposure on global crop production. We contrast our model results with a separate statistical analysis designed to characterize the spatial variability of crop-ozone-temperature relationships and account for the confounding effect of ozone-temperature covariation, using multidecadal global datasets of crop yields, agroclimatic variables and ozone exposures. We find that several crops (especially C4 crops such as maize) exhibit stronger sensitivities to ozone than found by field studies or in CESM simulations. We also find a strong anticorrelation between crop sensitivities and average ozone levels, reflecting biological adaptive ozone

  7. Fashioning a New Regime for Agricultural Trade: New Issues and the Global Food Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas J. Schoenbaum

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of issues such as the global food crisis, export controls on agricultural products, and food security on the agricultural trade negotiations currently underway in connection with the Doha Development Agenda convened by the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. These important issues, which were not foreseen when the negotiations began, must now be squarely faced. Many international organizations, such as the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, t...

  8. Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.

  9. China's food economy in the early 21st Century; Development of China's food economy and its impact on global trade and on the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, van F.W.; Huang, J.

    2004-01-01

    Development of Chinese food economy and Chinese agricultural policies. Simulations of future developments in China and in global trade with a model for the Chinese food economy and a model for global trade analysis. Simulation of developments in a 'business as usual' scenario. Assesment of impacts

  10. High food prices and the global financial crisis have reduced access to nutritious food and worsened nutritional status and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Henk-Jan; de Pee, Saskia; Sanogo, Issa; Subran, Ludovic; Bloem, Martin W

    2010-01-01

    A global economic and financial crisis is engulfing the developing world, coming on top of high food and fuel prices. This paper assesses the impact of the crises on food consumption, nutrition, and health. Several methods were applied, including risk analysis using the cost of the food basket, assessment surveys, simulations, regression analysis using a food consumption score (FCS), reflecting diet frequency and diversity, and a review of the impact of such dietary changes on nutritional status and health. The cost of the food basket increased in several countries, forcing households to reduce quality and quantity of food consumed. The FCS, which is a measure of diet diversity, is negatively correlated with food prices. Simulations show that energy consumption declined during 2006-2010 in nearly all developing regions, resulting potentially in an additional 457 million people (of 4.5 billion) at risk of being hungry and many more unable to afford the dietary quality required to perform, develop, and grow well. As a result of the crises, large numbers of vulnerable households have reduced the quality and quantity of foods they consume and are at risk of increased malnutrition. Population groups most affected are those with the highest requirements, including young children, pregnant and lactating women, and the chronically ill (particularly people with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis). Because undernutrition during the first 2 y of life has life-long consequences, even short-term price rises will have long-term effects. Thus, measures to mitigate the impact of the crises are urgently required.

  11. Exploring Possibilities to Enhance Food Sovereignty within the Cowpea Production-Consumption Network in Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last years an important focus in the combat of hunger and malnutrition,particularly in Africa has been food security. This article explores possibilities for enhancing food sovereignty, as an alternative concept to food security and an alternative strategy for reversing hunger and

  12. The Role of Multicultural Marketing on Malay Consumers Perceptions towards Global vs. Local Ethnic Food Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Umair, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation combines two different elements of interest in International Marketing Research. The objective of this research is the comparison of global versus local brand within the context of ethnic marketing in the multicultural society of Malaysia. The product instant noodle in the category of ethnic food was chosen in the variant of Asam Laksa as the target sample focused specifically on Malay consumers. Comparison was done between Maggi (global) and Mamee (local). The sample compri...

  13. It is desirable allocative function of the food market in a global economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Rodriguez, Nohra

    2008-01-01

    This article brings forth the free market influence on product patterns, agricultural output quantities and prices in the global economy? casting doubt over the allocative efficiency of markets and intending to outline some risks brought on by excessive reliance on free markets regarding consumer welfare, food security and negative impact on the environment and sustainable economic growth. As the main analytic element it is presented the preeminence of agricultural food multinational producers, as well as the scale of their influence in terms of product supply and commercialization, responding exclusively to profit maximization incentives without taking into account their role in terms of food nutrition patterns and production

  14. Launch vehicle tracking enhancement through Global Positioning System Metric Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. C.; Li, Hanchu; Gray, T.; Doran, A.

    United Launch Alliance (ULA) initiated operational flights of both the Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicle families in 2002. The Atlas V and Delta IV launch vehicles were developed jointly with the US Air Force (USAF) as part of the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) program. Both Launch Vehicle (LV) families have provided 100% mission success since their respective inaugural launches and demonstrated launch capability from both Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) on the Western Test Range and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on the Eastern Test Range. However, the current EELV fleet communications, tracking, & control architecture & technology, which date back to the origins of the space launch business, require support by a large and high cost ground footprint. The USAF has embarked on an initiative known as Future Flight Safety System (FFSS) that will significantly reduce Test Range Operations and Maintenance (O& M) cost by closing facilities and decommissioning ground assets. In support of the FFSS, a Global Positioning System Metric Tracking (GPS MT) System based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite constellation has been developed for EELV which will allow both Ranges to divest some of their radar assets. The Air Force, ULA and Space Vector have flown the first 2 Atlas Certification vehicles demonstrating the successful operation of the GPS MT System. The first Atlas V certification flight was completed in February 2012 from CCAFS, the second Atlas V certification flight from VAFB was completed in September 2012 and the third certification flight on a Delta IV was completed October 2012 from CCAFS. The GPS MT System will provide precise LV position, velocity and timing information that can replace ground radar tracking resource functionality. The GPS MT system will provide an independent position/velocity S-Band telemetry downlink to support the current man-in-the-loop ground-based commanded destruct of an anomalous flight- The system

  15. Governing a Global Food Supply: How the 2010 FDA Food Safety Modernization Act Promises to Strengthen Import Safety in the US

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Fagotto (Elena)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFood systems worldwide have experienced a significant level of integration in recent decades, creating a global and dynamic food supply. In the US, imports amount to 15% of the American diet and nearly doubled in value during the last decade, reaching $90 billion in 2008. If food imports

  16. Environmental degradation, global food production, and risk for large-scale migrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeoes, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate to what extent global food production is affected by the ongoing environmental degradation through processes, such as soil erosion, salinization, chemical contamination, ultraviolet radiation, and biotic stress. Estimates have also been made of available opportunities to improve food production efficiency by, e.g., increased use of fertilizers, irrigation, and biotechnology, as well as improved management. Expected losses and gains of agricultural land in competition with urbanization, industrial development, and forests have been taken into account. Although estimated gains in food production deliberately have been overestimated and losses underestimated, calculations indicate that during the next 30-35 years the annual net gain in food production will be significantly lower than the rate of world population growth. An attempt has also been made to identify possible scenarios for large-scale migrations, caused mainly by rapid population growth in combination with insufficient local food production and poverty. 18 refs, 7 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Future technology needs for enhancing food availability and nutrition in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahloowalia, B.S.

    2002-01-01

    The increased food production during the past 50 years in Asia has not solved the problem of food availability and its access to large sections of the population. In addition, the nutritional level of the consumed food is highly inadequate to meet the daily requirements of minerals and vitamins. No doubt, the national policies on price support and subsidies for increasing food production and procurement have had a motor influence on access to food. However, the infrastructures for increasing storage capacity, prevent food wastage, and enhance food quality have not kept with the increased food production and its equitable access to the low income groups. The malnutrition of the poor, especially among children and women, remains a challenge to the policy makers and scientists alike. The building of food storage capacity at the village level and adoption of nuclear techniques to store grains under minimal insect and fungal infestation would cut down losses and enhance grain quality. Breeding new varieties of staple food grains (rice, wheat, maize and mallets), vegetables and fruits with enhanced minerals, vitamins and their bio-availability is seen as a complementary approach to food diversification to reduce malnutrition. Conventional breeding assisted by induced mutations, tissue culture, gene insertion and molecular gene modification holds promise to enhance food nutrition. However, the adoption of the appropriate combination of technologies is essential to enhance food availability and nutrition in Asia. Unfortunately, transgenic approach is seen by many as the only option or many times the major solution to enhance food access and its quality. It is often forgotten that a yardstick has many markings, each of which is important to reach the goal. (Author)

  18. Global Changes and Drivers of the Water Footprint of Food Consumption: A Historical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most important limiting resources for food production. How much water is needed for food depends on the size of the population, average food consumption patterns and food production per unit of water. These factors show large differences around the world. This paper analyzes sub-continental dynamics of the water footprint of consumption (WFcons for the prevailing diets from 1961 to 2009 using data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The findings show that, in most regions, the water needed to feed one person decreased even if diets became richer, because of the increase in water use efficiency in food production during the past half-century. The logarithmic mean Divisia index (LMDI decomposition approach is used to analyze the contributions of the major drivers of WFcons for food: population, diet and agricultural practices (output per unit of water. We compare the contributions of these drivers through different subcontinents, and find that population growth still was the major driver behind increasing WFcons for food until now and that potential water savings through agricultural practice improvements were offset by population growth and diet change. The changes of the factors mentioned above were the largest in most developing areas with rapid economic development. With the development of globalization, the international food trade has brought more and more water savings in global water use over time. The results indicate that, in the near future and in many regions, diet change is likely to override population growth as the major driver behind WFcons for food.

  19. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  20. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabian, Frank Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  1. Urban food security at the crossroads between metropolitan food planning and global trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wascher, Dirk Michael; Jeurissen, Leonne

    2017-01-01

    Making use of Life Cycle Thinking, the Metropolitan Foodscape Planner (MFP) tool provides ecological footprint maps and supply/demand data showing a large potential for metropolitan food supplies. In the discussion, we examine these results in the light of recent research on the impacts of the

  2. Measuring success in global health diplomacy: lessons from marketing food to children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-06-16

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) focuses on international negotiation; principally between nation states, but increasingly non-state actors However, agreements made at the global level have to be enacted at the national, and in some cases the sub-national level. This presents two related problems: (1) how can success be measured in global health diplomacy and (2) at what point should success be evaluated? This commentary highlights these issues through examining the relationship between India and the WHO Set of Recommendations on the Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages to Children, endorsed by Resolution WHA63.14 at the 63rd World Health Assembly in 2010.

  3. Food and Population: A Global Concern [and] The Paradoxes of World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    1984-01-01

    Student and teacher materials are provided for a secondary unit on world hunger. The student materials are contained in a module entitled "Food and Population: A Global Concern," distributed with the newsletter "Interchange." The teacher materials are contained in the issue of the newsletter itself, subtitled "The Paradoxes of World Hunger." A…

  4. Food and pharmaceuticals. Lessons learned from global contaminations with melamine/cyanuric acid and diethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C A; Brown, S A

    2010-01-01

    Recently, contamination of pharmaceuticals with diethylene glycol (DEG) and food with melamine and cyanuric acid has demonstrated the impact of globalization on drug and food safety. By examining the details of these outbreaks, some important lessons can be learned. Toxicoses from contaminated food and drugs are often identified only when large numbers of people or animals are affected and numerous deaths result. Populations most at risk are those repeatedly exposed to a single product. Toxicoses may be complex, involving synergism among relatively nontoxic co-contaminants. Although some contamination may occur inadvertently, practices of deliberate contamination of food and drug ingredients may be widespread but escape detection in poorly regulated markets. If this deliberate contamination is motivated by personal financial gain, it is likely to recur and be concealed. The contaminated raw material produced in a poorly regulated market may cross national boundaries and be used in manufacturing processes for numerous products, sometimes in more well-regulated markets. Once in the production chain, contaminated raw materials may be widely disseminated. It is not clear that regulatory organizations have the capacity to identify significant contaminations despite their best efforts. The veterinary and medical communities, in cooperation with regulatory agencies, should develop cooperative programs designed to detect and limit these global outbreaks. Although addressing regional or national outbreaks remains an important role for regulatory agencies, the veterinary and medical communities must develop proactive global approaches to this global problem.

  5. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stentiford, G.D.; Neil, D.M.; Peeler, E.J.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Flegel, T.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Jones, B.; Morado, F.; Moss, S.; Lotz, J.; Bartholomay, L.; Behringer, D.C.; Hauton, C.; Lightner, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global

  6. Global health issues of aflatoxins in food and agriculture: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special research topic eBOOK contains six review articles, three mini reviews and four original research articles. It opens up exciting perspectives on global health issues related to aflatoxins in the food chain and on the development of suitable strategies for preventing toxigenic fungal grow...

  7. Comparing supply-side specifications in models of global agriculture and the food system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robinson, S.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Willenbockel, D.; Valin, H.; Fujimori, S.; Masui, T.; Sands, R.; Wise, M.; Calvin, K.V.; Mason d'Croz, D.; Tabeau, A.A.; Kavallari, A.; Schmitz, C.; Dietrich, J.P.; Lampe, von M.

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the theoretical and functional specification of production in partial equilibrium (PE) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models of the global agricultural and food system included in the AgMIP model comparison study. The two model families differ in their scope—partial

  8. PROCESS OF GLOBAL SHOCKS TRANSMISSION TO DOMESTIC FOOD PRICE LEVEL: CASE OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakir Azmal Huda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The world experienced in dramatic price surge of food commodities since mid of 2007 to 2008. It was claimed that the crisis were being mainly for backdrop of global shocks in food and energy price. But how the shocks come to domestic market from external sources is a researchable phenomenon. Surprisingly few attempts have been made to systematically analysis of shock transmission from international to domestic market. The study analyzed the effect of global commodity market factors and domestic exchange rate development on domestic food price in Bangladesh. A bi-variants co-integration approach was applied for the analysis of shock transmission. Finally an error correction model was developed. The overall magnitudes of the pass through suggest that only 46 per cent of the total world shock pass-through in domestic economy.

  9. The new rules for global trade: certification of origin and quality for safety food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni Satiko Sato

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article was to describe and to analyze the new context of the global markets for foods, with focus in the certifications of origin and quality, used mechanisms to guarantee the safe, differentiated, traceable food and without frauds. The methodology is characterized as exploratory and descriptive and searched to deepen some excellent concepts on the economy of the quality to agriculture. The complexity of global market and the technology innovations in agriculture and food processing, make the consumer and origin of production so far. The asymmetries of information on the product had grown and increased the transaction costs and, a form to manage the chain productive was to create mechanisms of identification and reputation of the product.

  10. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  11. Trends in Global Agricultural Land Use: Implications for Environmental Health and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramankutty, Navin; Mehrabi, Zia; Waha, Katharina; Jarvis, Larissa; Kremen, Claire; Herrero, Mario; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2018-04-29

    The eighteenth-century Malthusian prediction of population growth outstripping food production has not yet come to bear. Unprecedented agricultural land expansions since 1700, and technological innovations that began in the 1930s, have enabled more calorie production per capita than was ever available before in history. This remarkable success, however, has come at a great cost. Agriculture is a major cause of global environmental degradation. Malnutrition persists among large sections of the population, and a new epidemic of obesity is on the rise. We review both the successes and failures of the global food system, addressing ongoing debates on pathways to environmental health and food security. To deal with these challenges, a new coordinated research program blending modern breeding with agro-ecological methods is needed. We call on plant biologists to lead this effort and help steer humanity toward a safe operating space for agriculture.

  12. Prediction of seasonal climate-induced variations in global food production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Luo, Jing-Jia; Challinor, Andrew J.; Brown, Molly E.; Sakurai, Gen; Yamagata, Toshio

    2013-10-01

    Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports and are thus exposed to variations in yields, production and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are therefore paying increased attention to the cropping forecasts of important food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years. Here we present a global assessment of the reliability of crop failure hindcasts for major crops at two lead times derived by linking ensemble seasonal climatic forecasts with statistical crop models. We found that moderate-to-marked yield loss over a substantial percentage (26-33%) of the harvested area of these crops is reliably predictable if climatic forecasts are near perfect. However, only rice and wheat production are reliably predictable at three months before the harvest using within-season hindcasts. The reliabilities of estimates varied substantially by crop--rice and wheat yields were the most predictable, followed by soybean and maize. The reasons for variation in the reliability of the estimates included the differences in crop sensitivity to the climate and the technology used by the crop-producing regions. Our findings reveal that the use of seasonal climatic forecasts to predict crop failures will be useful for monitoring global food production and will encourage the adaptation of food systems toclimatic extremes.

  13. How Could Agricultural Land Systems Contribute to Raise Food Production Under Global Change?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-bin; YU Qiang-yi; Verburg H Peter; YOU Liang-zhi; YANG Peng; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    To feed the increasing world population, more food needs to be produced from agricultural land systems. Solutions to produce more food with fewer resources while minimizing adverse environmental and ecological consequences require sustainable agricultural land use practices as supplementary to advanced biotechnology and agronomy. This review paper, from a land system perspective, systematically proposed and analyzed three interactive strategies that could possibly raise future food production under global change. By reviewing the current literatures, we suggest that cropland expansion is less possible amid iferce land competition, and it is likely to do less in increasing food production. Moreover, properly allocating crops in space and time is a practical way to ensure food production. Climate change, dietary shifts, and other socio-economic drivers, which would shape the demand and supply side of food systems, should be taken into consideration during the decision-making on rational land management in respect of sustainable crop choice and allocation. And ifnally, crop-speciifc agricultural intensiifcation would play a bigger role in raising future food production either by increasing the yield per unit area of individual crops or by increasing the number of crops sown on a particular area of land. Yet, only when it is done sustainably is this a much more effective strategy to maximize food production by closing yield and harvest gaps.

  14. From famine to food crisis: what history can teach us about local and global subsistence crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhaute, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The number of famine prone regions in the world has been shrinking for centuries. It is currently mainly limited to sub-Saharan Africa. Yet the impact of endemic hunger has not declined and the early twenty-first century seems to be faced with a new threat: global subsistence crises. In this essay I question the concepts of famine and food crisis from different analytical angles: historical and contemporary famine research, food regime theory, and peasant studies. I will argue that only a more integrated historical framework of analysis can surpass dualistic interpretations grounded in Eurocentric modernization paradigms. This article successively debates historical and contemporary famine research, the contemporary food regime and the new global food crisis, the lessons from Europe's 'grand escape' from hunger, and the peasantry and 'depeasantization' as central analytical concepts. Dualistic histories of food and famine have been dominating developmentalist stories for too long. This essay shows how a blending of historical and contemporary famine research, food regime theory and new peasant studies can foster a more integrated perspective.

  15. Mitigation potential and global health impacts from emissions pricing of food commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Wiebe, Keith; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Rayner, Mike; Scarborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The projected rise in food-related greenhouse gas emissions could seriously impede efforts to limit global warming to acceptable levels. Despite that, food production and consumption have long been excluded from climate policies, in part due to concerns about the potential impact on food security. Using a coupled agriculture and health modelling framework, we show that the global climate change mitigation potential of emissions pricing of food commodities could be substantial, and that levying greenhouse gas taxes on food commodities could, if appropriately designed, be a health-promoting climate policy in high-income countries, as well as in most low- and middle-income countries. Sparing food groups known to be beneficial for health from taxation, selectively compensating for income losses associated with tax-related price increases, and using a portion of tax revenues for health promotion are potential policy options that could help avert most of the negative health impacts experienced by vulnerable groups, whilst still promoting changes towards diets which are more environmentally sustainable.

  16. Global product development interaction between local networks: A study of the Danish food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander

    A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...... their development of end-user pr through global interaction. It is precisely by not interacting with home market end-user demand, but rather by deriving an industrial home market demand from changing end-user markets that the complex has avoided being insulated....

  17. Enhancing food safety: the role of the Food and Drug Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallace, Robert B; Oria, Maria

    2010-01-01

    .... Food and Drug Administration's abilities to discover potential threats to food safety and prevent outbreaks of foodborne illness are hampered by impediments to efficient use of its limited resources...

  18. Employing ionizing radiation to enhance food safety. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolichova, M.; Dvorak, P.; Musilova, H.

    2004-01-01

    Food irradiation is employed to ensure food safety or food sterility, extend its shelf-life and reduce the losses due to sprouting, ripening or pests. In the Czech Republic mainly spices, mixed spices and dried vegetables are exposed to ionizing radiation. The leading suppliers of irradiated foodstuffs in Europe are Belgium, France and the Netherlands. In the USA, food irradiation is more common and there are also attempts to enforce irradiation not only for food safety, but also for technological purposes. Even though irradiation is a prospective technology, its application causes physico-chemical changes that may affect nutritional adequacy and sensory characteristics of irradiated food. In this paper, the chemical changes of basic food components (proteins, saccharides, fats) are reviewed. Some chemical changes lead to the formation of radiolytic products whose risks are still subject of scientific research. It is expected that the main use of gamma irradiation will be the treatment of diets for patients suffering from different disorders of the immune system, allergic patients or for the army and space flights. Irradiation may be a critical control point in the production of some types of foodstuffs

  19. Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food.

  20. Global Mechanisms for Sustaining and Enhancing PES Schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Farley, Josh; Aquino, Andre; Daniels, Amy; Moulaert, Azur; Lee, Dan; Krause, Abby

    2010-01-01

    An international payment for ecosystem service (IPES) schemes may be one of the only mechanisms available to stimulate the provision of vital non-marketed ecosystem services at the global level, as those nations that benefit from global ecosystem services (GES) cannot readily force other sovereign nations to provide them. Currently, international trade offers trillions of dollars in incentives for countries to convert natural capital into marketable goods and services, and few payments to ent...

  1. The Running Wheel Enhances Food Anticipatory Activity: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Flôres, Danilo E. F. L.; Bettilyon, Crystal N.; Jia, Lori; Yamazaki, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Rodents anticipate rewarding stimuli such as daily meals, mates, and stimulant drugs. When a single meal is provided daily at a fixed time of day, an increase in activity, known as food anticipatory activity (FAA), occurs several hours before feeding time. The factors affecting the expression of FAA have not been well-studied. Understanding these factors may provide clues to the undiscovered anatomical substrates of food entrainment. In this study we determined whether wheel-running activity,...

  2. Responding to global challenges in food, energy, environment and water: Risks and options assessment for decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grafton, Quentin; Ansink, Erik

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the threats of global environmental change, as they relate to food security. First, we review three discourses: (i) ‘sustainable intensification’, or the increase of food supplies without compromising food producing inputs, such as soils and water; (ii) the ‘nexus’ that seeks to

  3. Improvements in crop water productivity increase water sustainability and food security—a global analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauman, Kate A; Foley, Jonathan A; Siebert, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation consumes more water than any other human activity, and thus the challenges of water sustainability and food security are closely linked. To evaluate how water resources are used for food production, we examined global patterns of water productivity—food produced (kcal) per unit of water (l) consumed. We document considerable variability in crop water productivity globally, not only across different climatic zones but also within climatic zones. The least water productive systems are disproportionate freshwater consumers. On precipitation-limited croplands, we found that ∼40% of water consumption goes to production of just 20% of food calories. Because in many cases crop water productivity is well below optimal levels, in many cases farmers have substantial opportunities to improve water productivity. To demonstrate the potential impact of management interventions, we calculated that raising crop water productivity in precipitation-limited regions to the 20th percentile of productivity would increase annual production on rainfed cropland by enough to provide food for an estimated 110 million people, and water consumption on irrigated cropland would be reduced enough to meet the annual domestic water demands of nearly 1.4 billion people. (letter)

  4. Managing Food Quality Risk in Global Supply Chain: A Risk Management Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Jose Arevalo Chavez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, the food sector is one of the sectors most vulnerable to intentional contamination by debilitating agents [1]. Some cases of contaminated food have indicated that product quality risk is one of the vulnerabilities in the global supply chain. A series of company scandals, affecting reputation and causing the recall of products and increasing costs have hit the food industry. The obvious problem is that even a minor incident in one part of the chain can have disastrous effects on other parts of the supply chain. Thus, risks are transmitted through the chain. Even though the dangers from members in the supply chain are small, the cumulative effect becomes significant. The aim of this study is to propose an integrated supply chain risk management framework for practitioners that can provide directions for how to evaluate food quality risk in the global supply chain. For validating the proposed model in‐depth, a case study is conducted on a food SME distributor in Central America. The case study investigates how product quality risks are handled according to the proposed framework.

  5. Facing global environmental change. Environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); AFES-Press, Mosbach (Germany); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca, MOR (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidiscipinarias (CRIM); United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Amsterdam School for Social Science Research; Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). School of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Behera, Navnita Chadha [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Tunis-Carthage Univ., Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Krummenacher, Heinz (eds.) [swisspeace, Bern (Switzerland). FAST International

    2009-07-01

    This policy-focused, global and multidisciplinary security handbook on Facing Global Environmental Change addresses new security threats of the 21st century posed by climate change, desertification, water stress, population growth and urbanization. These security dangers and concerns lead to migration, crises and conflicts. They are on the agenda of the UN, OECD, OSCE, NATO and EU. In 100 chapters, 132 authors from 49 countries analyze the global debate on environmental, human and gender, energy, food, livelihood, health and water security concepts and policy problems. In 10 parts they discuss the context and the securitization of global environmental change and of extreme natural and societal outcomes. They suggest a new research programme to move from knowledge to action, from reactive to proactive policies and to explore the opportunities of environ-mental cooperation for a new peace policy. (orig.)

  6. Impact of global changes and biotic interactions on food webs in lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Nicolas

    for irrigation leads to enhanced salinisation in many aquatic systems. A consequent disappearance of higher trophic positions (mostly fish) resulted in reduced food web complexity (paper 2). Human direct and indirect modifications, in addition to climate change, may alter the current biogeographic distribution...... and the functioning of shallow lakes, with particular emphasis on enhanced air temperatures (objective 1), salinisation (objective 2) and species invasions (objective 3). A stable isotope approach and stomach content analyses of fish were used in order to characterise the food web structure, combined with structure......, accordingly, stronger cascading effects on the lower trophic levels could be traced in the Azorean lakes. However, in contrast to expectations, no effect on the trophic position of fish was found, but the shape of the food web structure was more triangular in the (cold) Faroese lakes that were also...

  7. Quantifying the impact of weather extremes on global food security: A spatial bio-economic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sika Gbegbelegbe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a spatial bio-economic modelling framework to estimate the impact of the 2012 weather extreme in the USA on food security in the developing world. The study also quantifies the potential effects of a similar weather extreme occurring in 2050 under climate change. The study results indicate that weather extremes that affect maize productivity in key grain baskets can negatively affect food security in vulnerable countries. The 2012 weather extreme which occurred in the USA reduced US and global maize production by 29% compared to trend; maize consumption in the country decreased by 5% only and this resulted in less surplus maize for exports from the largest maize exporter in the world. Global maize production decreased by 6% compared to trend. The decrease in global maize production coupled with a reduction in the volume of global maize exports worsened food insecurity in eastern Africa, the Caribbean and Central America and India. The effects of the weather extreme on global food security would be worse, if the latter were to occur under climate change in 2050, assuming no climate change adaptation worldwide over the years. In addition, the hardest-hit regions would remain the same, whether the weather extreme occurs in 2012 instead of 2050: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, South Asia and the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC region. However, sustained growth in per capita income across world economies between 2000 and 2050 would allow few countries in SSA and the LAC region to virtually eliminate hunger within their borders. In these countries, per capita income would be high enough by 2050 to completely offset the negative effect of the weather extreme. The study results are also consistent with USDA׳s estimates on US and global maize production and consumption in 2012 after the weather extreme. Some discrepancy is found on the volume of global maize trade; this implies that the bio-economic model likely overestimates the effect of the

  8. Food Footprints: Global diet preferences and the land required to sustain them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, E. S.; Gerber, J. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural land occupies approximately 4.9 billion hectares of the earth's surface. The amount of land that is required to feed a person differs globally, however, dependent mainly on diet. Diets dense in grain-fed animal protein require more land than plant-based diets in order to supply the same quantity of calories and protein. As the world's population becomes more affluent, more animal products will be demanded of the food system. In this presentation, I will discuss how diet preferences differ globally and how these preferences translate to the amount of cropland needed to sustain them.

  9. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Zondervan, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in societies worldwide, enhancing the satiating capacity of foods may help people control their energy intake and weight. This requires an integrated approach between various food related disciplines. By structuring this approach

  10. Enhanced evaluation data initiates a collaborative out-of-school time food sponsors work group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Robin; Williams, Lauren A; Grode, Gabrielle M; Roberts-Johnson, Wendy-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Philadelphia's Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities Out-of-School Time (OST) Initiative led by the Health Promotion Council developed 10 Healthy Living Guidelines for Out-of-School Time Programs to support a healthy environment for Philadelphia youth in 200 OST programs. Health Promotion Council participated in an enhanced cross-site evaluation with the national Robert Wood Johnson Foundation evaluator during the final year of funding to learn more about food and nutrition in the OST setting, and to share data and engage the OST food providers. A plate waste study measured the quantity and nutrition composition of meals served to youth compared to food not eaten. Staff interviews measured program adherence to the Healthy Living Guidelines, along with other facets of the food environment in 7 Philadelphia OST programs. Online surveys were sent to OST programs. Food providers (sponsors) were interviewed using Appreciative Inquiry methodology to gain insight into systems, goals, and common interests. Aggregated plate waste data from 7 observations showed an average of 42% of the food uneaten after meal/snack consumption, and high sodium content of the meals. Twenty-nine staff at OST programs completed the online survey, and 3 food sponsors were interviewed. Recommendations to improve the food included increasing variety, offering more salads, fruits and vegetables, and culturally appropriate foods. Food sponsor interviews showed a variety of meal production, distribution, service and training systems, and an interest in working together. The food sponsors met to review the data and prioritized common goals. They continue to work together to improve systems and meals for food service. A food sponsors work group formed and continues as a result of sharing enhanced cross-site data about food in OST settings. Food sponsors continue to work together to improve systems and nutritional offerings for Philadelphia OST programs.

  11. Implications of food insecurity on global health policy and nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kregg-Byers, Claudia M; Schlenk, Elizabeth A

    2010-09-01

    The purpose is to discuss the concept of food insecurity (FI) and its impact on current global health policy and nursing practice. Food insecurity. Literature review. FI means a nonsustainable food system that interferes with optimal self-reliance and social justice. Individuals experiencing FI lack nutritionally adequate and safe foods in their diet. Resources play a significant role in FI by affecting whether or not people obtain culturally, socially acceptable food through regular marketplace sources as opposed to severe coping strategies, such as emergency food sources, scavenging, and stealing. Persons who are living in poverty, female heads of household, single parents, people living with many siblings, landless people, migrants, immigrants, and those living in certain geographical regions constitute populations at risk and most vulnerable to FI. FI influences economics through annual losses of gross domestic product due to reduced human productivity. FI affects individuals and households and is largely an unobservable condition, making data collection and analysis challenging. Policy and research have focused on macronutrient sufficiency and deprivation, making it difficult to draw attention and research dollars to FI. Persons experiencing FI exhibit clinical signs such as less healthy diets, poor health status, poor diabetes and chronic disease management, and impaired cognitive function. Nurses can recognize the physical, psychosocial, and personal consequences that those with FI face and manage daily.

  12. Enhancing and Transforming Global Learning Communities with Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenberg, Mark; Andone, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Augmented and virtual reality applications bring new insights to real world objects and scenarios. This paper shares research results of the TalkTech project, an ongoing study investigating the impact of learning about new technologies as members of global communities. This study shares results of a collaborative learning project about augmented…

  13. Global performance enhancements via pedestal optimisation on ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunne, M.G.; Frassinetti, L.; Beurkens, M.N.A.; Cavedon, M.; Fietz, S.; Fischer, R.; Giannone, L.; Huijsmans, G.T.A.; Kurzan, B.; Laggner, F.; McCarhty, P.J.; McDermott, R.M.; Tardini, G.; Viezzer, E.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.

    2017-01-01

    Results of experimental scans of heating power, plasma shape, and nitrogen content are presented, with a focus on global performance and pedestal alteration. In detailed scans at low triangularity, it is shown that the increase in stored energy due to nitrogen seeding stems from the pedestal. It is

  14. Climate change and hunger as the challenges in the global food system

    OpenAIRE

    Stoddart, Ana Florencia

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, there has been a growing tendency towards international trade and globalisation, particularly leading to a significant increase in flows of agricultural commodities worldwide. From a macroeconomic perspective, the commodity projections are more optimistic than the previous years and the long run tendency shows an increasing demand for feedstock. However, the strong shifts of shocks and fluctuations (in terms of prices and volumes) are a concern to global food security, wi...

  15. Feeding proteins to livestock: Global land use and food vs. feed competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manceron Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition between direct consumption of plant production and the feeding of livestock is key to global food availability. This is because livestock consume edible commodities that could be available for (food insecure populations but also because it diverts arable land from food production. The share of total plant production redirected towards feeding livestock is (roughly known but estimations of land surfaces virtually occupied by livestock production are scarce. In this study, following up on the Agrimonde Terra** project, we estimate areas devoted to the feeding livestock. First, we estimate the protein composition of an averaged feed basket at the global scale in 2005 and detail the evolution of the protein-source feed component during the period 1961–2009. We focus on protein-rich crops such as oil crops and show its proportion in the global livestock diets has tripled since 1960, though only accounting for about one fourth of total proteins. Then, we estimate land virtually occupied by crop feed at the global scale using a set of straightforward hypotheses. Our estimates suggest that, although livestock and feed production has continuously increased and despite uncertainties in available data, competition for land between feed and food uses has decreased over the last two decades. The share of areas cultivated for feed requirements decreased from about 50% in the 1970s to 37% nowadays. This trend is attributable to the increase of crop yields and to a decrease of the share of cereals in livestock diets to the benefit of oilseeds by-products. However, estimating the share of total areas used for feed is complicated by the significant role played by by-products.

  16. COMPETITION AMONG FOREIGN AND CHINESE AGRO-FOOD ENTERPRISES IN THE PROCESS OF GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Anning; Cacho, Joyce A.

    1999-01-01

    Based on various case studies, this article examines the interaction of foreign investors and local operators in globalization in the agro-food market in China. The study found that to break the limitation of the high-end market and to position mainly in the middle market were critical for international brands to succeed. Asian companies approached the China market as an insider because of cultural proximity. The latter, plus focused management and effective technology, made their operations ...

  17. Contribution of microfinance in enhancing food access and coping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 17, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Managing climatic risks for enhanced food security: Key information capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaghi, R.; Badjeck, M.C.; Bakari, D.; Pauw, de E.D.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Defourny, P.; Donato, S.; Gommes, R.; Jlibene, M.; Ravelo, A.C.; Sivakumar, M.V.K.; Telahigue, N.; Tychon, B.

    2010-01-01

    Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational

  19. Achieving sustainable irrigation water withdrawals: global impacts on food security and land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Hertel, Thomas W.; Lammers, Richard B.; Prusevich, Alexander; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Frolking, Steve

    2017-10-01

    Unsustainable water use challenges the capacity of water resources to ensure food security and continued growth of the economy. Adaptation policies targeting future water security can easily overlook its interaction with other sustainability metrics and unanticipated local responses to the larger-scale policy interventions. Using a global partial equilibrium grid-resolving model SIMPLE-G, and coupling it with the global Water Balance Model, we simulate the consequences of reducing unsustainable irrigation for food security, land use change, and terrestrial carbon. A variety of future (2050) scenarios are considered that interact irrigation productivity with two policy interventions— inter-basin water transfers and international commodity market integration. We find that pursuing sustainable irrigation may erode other development and environmental goals due to higher food prices and cropland expansion. This results in over 800 000 more undernourished people and 0.87 GtC additional emissions. Faster total factor productivity growth in irrigated sectors will encourage more aggressive irrigation water use in the basins where irrigation vulnerability is expected to be reduced by inter-basin water transfer. By allowing for a systematic comparison of these alternative adaptations to future irrigation vulnerability, the global gridded modeling approach offers unique insights into the multiscale nature of the water scarcity challenge.

  20. Strategies of EU agro-food cooperatives to confront globalization: The case of wine cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Castillo Valero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to globalization and market integration, the agro-food cooperative sector needs to be more competitive. This generates new challenges for cooperative enterprises in the agro-food sector. In this article the analysis of the wine producing sector is undertaken in the area of greatest world-wide wine production and commercialization, Castilla-La Mancha. EU wineries and cooperatives should propose strategic lines within an economy marked by a globalization process in world markets. The paradigmatic case is analyzed in this paper of the comparison of strategies followed by cooperatives confronting capitalist winery enterprises. Therefore, the degree of suitability is aimed to be elucidated and the success of the foundations of international commercial strategies that cooperative enterprises of the sector have followed, depending on their characteristics. Moreover, an exhaustive diagnosis is offered of the current strategic situation of cooperatives and their probability of gaining access to and/or growing in the international market. The parameters that have resulted significant are used as conclusions and recommendations so that cooperatives will reformulate their strategies and the organizations linked to the agro-food sector will know what factors to foment and support in their internationalization and global competitive positioning.

  1. Global dynamics in a stoichiometric food chain model with two limiting nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Fan, Meng; Kuang, Yang

    2017-07-01

    Ecological stoichiometry studies the balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in ecological interactions to establish how the nutrient content affect food-web dynamics and nutrient cycling in ecosystems. In this study, we formulate a food chain with two limiting nutrients in the form of a stoichiometric population model. A comprehensive global analysis of the rich dynamics of the targeted model is explored both analytically and numerically. Chaotic dynamic is observed in this simple stoichiometric food chain model and is compared with traditional model without stoichiometry. The detailed comparison reveals that stoichiometry can reduce the parameter space for chaotic dynamics. Our findings also show that decreasing producer production efficiency may have only a small effect on the consumer growth but a more profound impact on the top predator growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  3. Global Biodiversity Loss by Freshwater Consumption and Eutrophication from Swiss Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-07-05

    We investigated water-related resource use, emissions and ecosystem impacts of food consumed in Switzerland. To do so, we coupled LCA methodologies on freshwater consumption, freshwater eutrophication and the consequent local and global biodiversity impacts with Swiss customs data and multiregional input-output analysis. Most of the resource use, emissions and impacts occur outside the national boundaries which illustrates the extent of environmental outsourcing facilitated by international trade. Countries that are severely affected by Swiss food consumption include Spain, the United States and Ecuador. Cocoa, coffee, and almonds stood out as products with high impacts. By identifying spatial hotspots and impactful products, awareness of policy-makers as well as individual consumers can be raised and efforts of detailed assessments can be streamlined. However, political and economic constraints and the resistance by individual consumers limit the high potential of changes in diets and trade relations to decrease the environmental impacts of food.

  4. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community. PMID:27829008

  5. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R McFadden

    Full Text Available There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM foods and human involvement in global warming (GW. Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  6. Will Transition of Staple Food Strategy in China Really Mitigate Global Climate Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Zhao, D.

    2017-12-01

    meet the demand for food in China, but it increases risk of global climate change.

  7. Differential returns from globalization to women smallholder coffee and food producers in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyamurwa, J M; Wamala, S; Baryamutuma, R; Kabwama, E; Loewenson, R

    2013-09-01

    Globalization-related measures to liberalize trade and stimulate export production were applied in Uganda in the late 1980s, including in the coffee production sector, to revitalize agricultural production, increase incomes to farmers and improve rural food security. To explore the different effects of such measures on the health and dietary outcomes of female coffee and food small holder farmers in Uganda. We gathered evidence through a cross-sectional comparative interview survey of 190 female coffee producers and 191 female food producers in Ntungamo district. The study mostly employed quantitative methods of data collection, targeting the sampled households. We also utilized qualitative data; collected three months after the household survey data had been collected and their analysis had been accomplished. Using qualitative interviews based on an unstructured interview guide, extra qualitative information was collected from key informants at national, district and community levels. This was among other underlying principles to avoid relying on snapshot information earlier collected at household level in order to draw valid and compelling conclusions from the study. We used indicators of production, income, access to food and dietary patterns, women's health and health care. Of the two groups selected from the same area, female coffee producers represented a higher level of integration into liberalised export markets. Document review suggests that, although Uganda's economy grew in the period, the household economic and social gains after the liberalization measures may have been less than expected. In the survey carried out, both food and coffee producers were similarly poor, involved in small-scale production, and of a similar age and education level. Coffee producers had greater land and livestock ownership, greater access to inputs and higher levels of income and used a wider variety of markets than food producers, but they had to work longer hours to obtain

  8. Analysing the Outbound logistics process enhancements in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center

    OpenAIRE

    Marjeta, Katri

    2011-01-01

    Marjeta, Katri. 2011. Analysing the outbound logistics process enhancements in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center. Master´s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 57. Due to confidentiality issues, this work has been modified from its original form. The aim of this Master Thesis work is to describe and analyze the outbound logistics process enhancement projects executed in Nokia-Siemens Networks Global Distribution Center after the N...

  9. The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of economic activities on natural resources through global supply chains is increasingly demanded in the context of the growing globalization of economies and product fragmentation. Taking Spain as a case study and a sector with significant economic and environmental impacts, the agri-food industry, the objective of this work is two-fold. First, we estimate the associated water impact, both from the production and consumption perspectives, paying special attention to the water embodied in production exchanges among countries and sectors. To that aim, we use an environmentally-extended multiregional input-output model (MRIO. Second, we assess the main driving factors behind changes in direct and embodied water consumption between the years 1995 and 2009 by means of a structural decomposition analysis. The MRIO model provides a comprehensive estimate of the economic linkages among regions and economic sectors and, therefore, allows calculating the environmental impacts over international value chains. The results indicate that the food industry exerts large impacts on global water resources, particularly given the remarkable interactions with the domestic and foreign agricultural sectors, These growing linkages show how consumption patterns, and, therefore, lifestyles, involve large environmental impacts through the whole and global supply chains.

  10. Hierarchical Satellite-based Approach to Global Monitoring of Crop Condition and Food Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Wu, B.; Gommes, R.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, N.; Zeng, H.; Zou, W.; Yan, N.

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of global food security goes beyond the mere estimate of crop production: It needs to take into account the spatial and temporal patterns of food availability, as well as physical and economic access. Accurate and timely information is essential to both food producers and consumers. Taking advantage of multiple new remote sensing data sources, especially from Chinese satellites, such as FY-2/3A, HJ-1 CCD, CropWatch has expanded the scope of its international analyses through the development of new indicators and an upgraded operational methodology. The new monitoring approach adopts a hierarchical system covering four spatial levels of detail: global (sixty-five Monitoring and Reporting Units, MRU), seven major production zones (MPZ), thirty-one key countries (including China) and "sub- countries." The thirty-one countries encompass more that 80% of both global exports and production of four major crops (maize, rice, soybean and wheat). The methodology resorts to climatic and remote sensing indicators at different scales, using the integrated information to assess global, regional, and national (as well as sub-national) crop environmental condition, crop condition, drought, production, and agricultural trends. The climatic indicators for rainfall, temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as well as potential biomass are first analysed at global scale to describe overall crop growing conditions. At MPZ scale, the key indicators pay more attention to crops and include Vegetation health index (VHI), Vegetation condition index (VCI), Cropped arable land fraction (CALF) as well as Cropping intensity (CI). Together, they characterise agricultural patterns, farming intensity and stress. CropWatch carries out detailed crop condition analyses for thirty one individual countries at the national scale with a comprehensive array of variables and indicators. The Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), cropped areas and crop condition are

  11. Global Food Security-support data at 30 m (GFSAD30)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring global croplands (GCs) is imperative for ensuring sustainable water and food security to the people of the world in the Twenty-first Century. However, the currently available cropland products suffer from major limitations such as: (1) Absence of precise spatial location of the cropped areas; (b) Coarse resolution nature of the map products with significant uncertainties in areas, locations, and detail; (b) Uncertainties in differentiating irrigated areas from rainfed areas; (c) Absence of crop types and cropping intensities; and (e) Absence of a dedicated webdata portal for the dissemination of cropland products. Therefore, our project aims to close these gaps through a Global Food Security-support data at 30 m (GFSAD30) with 4 distinct products: 1. Cropland extentarea, 2. Crop types with focus on 8 crops that occupy 70% of the global cropland areas, 3. Irrigated versus rainfed, and 4. Cropping intensities: single, double, triple, and continuous cropping. The above 4 products will be generated for GFSAD for nominal year 2010 (GFSAD2010) based on Landsat 30m Global Land Survey 2010 (GLS2010) fused with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250m NDVI monthly maximum value composites (MVC) of 2009-2011 data, and suite of secondary data (e.g., long-term precipitation, temperature, GDEM elevation). GFSAD30 will be produced using three mature cropland mapping algorithms (CMAs): 1. Spectral matching techniques; 2. A cropland classification algorithm (ACCA) that is rule-based; and 3. Hierarchical segmentation (HSeg) algorithm. Funded by NASA MEaSUREs, GFSAD30 will make significant contributions to Earth System Data Records (ESDRs), Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Agriculture and Water Societal Beneficial Areas (GEO Ag. SBAs), GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative (GEO GLAM), and the recent 'Big Data' initiative by the White House. The project has the support of USGS Working Group on Global Croplands (https://powellcenter.usgs.gov/globalcroplandwater/).

  12. African perspectives on the need for global harmonisation of food safety regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anelich, Lucia E C M

    2014-08-01

    Africa is a large continent consisting of 54 countries at different levels of development and reflecting numerous diverse cultures. Africa's agricultural potential is largely untapped, with approximately 60% of the world's non-cultivated arable land found in sub-Saharan Africa. Excluding South Africa, which is the largest economy in Africa and which has a well-established food sector with a substantial export market, economies in sub-Saharan Africa have been steadily growing at over 5% per annum. Whilst most African countries face many challenges, including weak infrastructure as well as political and economic instability, many changes are occurring, one of these being identifying specific commodities in a particular country which warrant substantial investment for growth into export opportunities. These opportunities create an immediate need for development of food standards, including food safety standards, based on scientific principles to enable regional and international trade in food, thereby assisting in ensuring Africa's role in the global food economy. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Precautionary labelling of foods for allergen content: are we ready for a global framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy appears to be on the rise with the current mainstay of treatment centred on allergen avoidance. Mandatory allergen labelling has improved the safety of food for allergic consumers. However an additional form of voluntary labelling (termed precautionary allergen labelling) has evolved on a wide range of packaged goods, in a bid by manufacturers to minimise risk to customers, and the negative impact on business that might result from exposure to trace amounts of food allergen present during cross-contamination during production. This has resulted in near ubiquitous utilisation of a multitude of different precautionary allergen labels with subsequent confusion amongst many consumers as to their significance. The global nature of food production and manufacturing makes harmonisation of allergen labelling regulations across the world a matter of increasing importance. Addressing inconsistencies across countries with regards to labelling legislation, as well as improvement or even banning of precautionary allergy labelling are both likely to be significant steps forward in improved food safety for allergic families. This article outlines the current status of allergen labelling legislation around the world and reviews the value of current existing precautionary allergen labelling for the allergic consumer. We strongly urge for an international framework to be considered to help roadmap a solution to the weaknesses of the current systems, and discuss the role of legislation in facilitating this. PMID:24791183

  14. Global maize trade and food security: implications from a social network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we developed a social network model of the global trade of maize: one of the most important food, feed, and industrial crops worldwide, and critical to food security. We used this model to analyze patterns of maize trade among nations, and to determine where vulnerabilities in food security might arise if maize availability was decreased due to factors such as diversion to nonfood uses, climatic factors, or plant diseases. Using data on imports and exports from the U.N. Commodity Trade Statistics Database for each year from 2000 to 2009 inclusive, we summarized statistics on volumes of maize trade between pairs of nations for 217 nations. There is evidence of market segregation among clusters of nations; with three prominent clusters representing Europe, Brazil and Argentina, and the United States. The United States is by far the largest exporter of maize worldwide, whereas Japan and the Republic of Korea are the largest maize importers. In particular, the star-shaped cluster of the network that represents U.S. maize trade to other nations indicates the potential for food security risks because of the lack of trade these other nations conduct with other maize exporters. If a scenario arose in which U.S. maize could not be exported in as large quantities, maize supplies in many nations could be jeopardized. We discuss this in the context of recent maize ethanol production and its attendant impacts on food prices elsewhere worldwide. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Speculation on commodities futures markets and destabilization of global food prices: exploring the connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayati; Heintz, James; Pollin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In December 2010, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's Food Price Index surpassed its previous peak of June 2008, and prices remained at this level through September 2011. This pattern is creating justified fears of a renewal or intensification of the global food crisis. This paper reviews arguments and evidence to inform debates on how to regulate commodity futures markets in the face of such price volatility and sustained high prices. We focus on the relationship between market liquidity and price patterns in asset markets in general and in commodities futures markets in particular, as well as the relationship between spot and futures market prices for food. We find strong evidence supporting the need to limit huge increases in trading volume on futures markets through regulations. We find that arguments opposing regulation are not supported. We find no support for the claim that liquidity in futures markets stabilizes prices at "fundamental" values or that spot market prices are free of any significant influence from futures markets. Given these results, the most appropriate position for regulators is precautionary: they should enact and enforce policies capable of effectively dampening excessive speculative trading on the commodities markets for food.

  16. Precautionary labelling of foods for allergen content: are we ready for a global framework?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Katrina J; Turner, Paul J; Pawankar, Ruby; Taylor, Stephen; Sicherer, Scott; Lack, Gideon; Rosario, Nelson; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Wong, Gary; Mills, E N Clare; Beyer, Kirsten; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Sampson, Hugh A

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy appears to be on the rise with the current mainstay of treatment centred on allergen avoidance. Mandatory allergen labelling has improved the safety of food for allergic consumers. However an additional form of voluntary labelling (termed precautionary allergen labelling) has evolved on a wide range of packaged goods, in a bid by manufacturers to minimise risk to customers, and the negative impact on business that might result from exposure to trace amounts of food allergen present during cross-contamination during production. This has resulted in near ubiquitous utilisation of a multitude of different precautionary allergen labels with subsequent confusion amongst many consumers as to their significance. The global nature of food production and manufacturing makes harmonisation of allergen labelling regulations across the world a matter of increasing importance. Addressing inconsistencies across countries with regards to labelling legislation, as well as improvement or even banning of precautionary allergy labelling are both likely to be significant steps forward in improved food safety for allergic families. This article outlines the current status of allergen labelling legislation around the world and reviews the value of current existing precautionary allergen labelling for the allergic consumer. We strongly urge for an international framework to be considered to help roadmap a solution to the weaknesses of the current systems, and discuss the role of legislation in facilitating this.

  17. Enhanced solar global irradiance during cloudy sky conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, N.H.; Sandmann, H.; Stick, C. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Klimatologie; Macke, A. [Kiel Univ. (DE). Leibniz Inst. fuer Meereswissenschaften (IFM-GEOMAR)

    2007-06-15

    The impact of cloudiness on the shortwave downwelling radiation (SDR) at the surface is investigated by means of collocated pyranometer radiation measurements and all-sky imager observations. The measurements have been performed in Westerland, a seaside resort on the North Sea island of Sylt, Germany, during summer 2004 and 2005. A main improvement to previous studies on this subject resulted from the very high temporal resolution of cloud images and radiation measurements and, therefore, a more robust statistical analysis of the occurrence of this effect. It was possible to observe an excess of solar irradiation compared to clear sky irradiation by more than 500 W/m{sup 2}, the largest observed excess irradiation to our knowledge so far. Camera images reveal that largest excess radiation is reached close to overcast situations with altocumulus clouds partly obscuring the solar disk, and preferably with cumulus clouds in lower levels. The maximum duration of the enhancements depends on its strength and ranges from 20 seconds (enhancements > 400 W/m{sup 2}) up to 140 seconds (enhancements > 200 W/m{sup 2}). (orig.)

  18. Global mechanisms for sustaining and enhancing PES schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, Josh; Moulaert, Azur; Lee, Dan; Krause, Abby; Aquino, Andre; Daniels, Amy

    2010-01-01

    An international payment for ecosystem service (IPES) schemes may be one of the only mechanisms available to stimulate the provision of vital non-marketed ecosystem services at the global level, as those nations that benefit from global ecosystem services (GES) cannot readily force other sovereign nations to provide them. Currently, international trade offers trillions of dollars in incentives for countries to convert natural capital into marketable goods and services, and few payments to entice countries to conserve natural capital in order to sustain critical non-marketed ecosystem services. We examine the biophysical characteristics of climate change and biodiversity to understand the obstacles to developing effective IPES schemes. We find that none of the existing schemes for providing GES are adequate, given the scale of the problem. A cap and auction scheme for CO 2 emissions among wealthy nations could fund IPES and simultaneously deter carbon emissions. To disburse funds, we should adapt Brazil's ICMS ecologico, and apportion available funds to targeted countries in proportion to how well they meet specific criteria designed to measure the provision of GES. Individual countries can then develop their own policies for increasing provision of these services, ensured of compensation if they do so. Indirect IPES should include funding for freely available technologies that protect or provide GES, such as the low carbon energy alternatives that will be essential for curbing climate change. Markets rely on the price mechanism to generate profits, which rations technology to those who can afford it, reducing adoption rates, innovation and total value. (author)

  19. Enhancing Sustainable Food Cultures by Experience Based Learning in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper

    The paper describes the results and niche forming methodology used in the commercial and in the R&D parts along the product-service chain of regional tourism. Obstacles and window of opportunities for further sustaining the tourism trade by enhancing the experience part of the business....

  20. Global assessment of ocean carbon export by combining satellite observations and food-web models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. A.; Buesseler, K. O.; Doney, S. C.; Sailley, S. F.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Boyd, P. W.

    2014-03-01

    The export of organic carbon from the surface ocean by sinking particles is an important, yet highly uncertain, component of the global carbon cycle. Here we introduce a mechanistic assessment of the global ocean carbon export using satellite observations, including determinations of net primary production and the slope of the particle size spectrum, to drive a food-web model that estimates the production of sinking zooplankton feces and algal aggregates comprising the sinking particle flux at the base of the euphotic zone. The synthesis of observations and models reveals fundamentally different and ecologically consistent regional-scale patterns in export and export efficiency not found in previous global carbon export assessments. The model reproduces regional-scale particle export field observations and predicts a climatological mean global carbon export from the euphotic zone of 6 Pg C yr-1. Global export estimates show small variation (typically model parameter values. The model is also robust to the choices of the satellite data products used and enables interannual changes to be quantified. The present synthesis of observations and models provides a path for quantifying the ocean's biological pump.

  1. Enhanced marine sulphur emissions offset global warming and impact rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandey, B S; Wang, C

    2015-08-21

    Artificial fertilisation of the ocean has been proposed as a possible geoengineering method for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The associated increase in marine primary productivity may lead to an increase in emissions of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), the primary source of sulphate aerosol over remote ocean regions, potentially causing direct and cloud-related indirect aerosol effects on climate. This pathway from ocean fertilisation to aerosol induced cooling of the climate may provide a basis for solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering. In this study, we investigate the transient climate impacts of two emissions scenarios: an RCP4.5 (Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5) control; and an idealised scenario, based on RCP4.5, in which DMS emissions are substantially enhanced over ocean areas. We use mini-ensembles of a coupled atmosphere-ocean configuration of CESM1(CAM5) (Community Earth System Model version 1, with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5). We find that the cooling effect associated with enhanced DMS emissions beneficially offsets greenhouse gas induced warming across most of the world. However, the rainfall response may adversely affect water resources, potentially impacting human livelihoods. These results demonstrate that changes in marine phytoplankton activity may lead to a mixture of positive and negative impacts on the climate.

  2. Soil erosion, climate change and global food security: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    An overview is presented of the determined degree of global land degradation (principally occurring through soil erosion), with some consideration of its possible impact on global food security. Most determinations of the extent of land degradation (e.g. GLASOD) have been made on the basis of "expert judgement" and perceptions, as opposed to direct measurements of this multifactorial phenomenon. More recently, remote sensing measurements have been made which indicate that while some regions of the Earth are "browning" others are "greening". The latter effect is thought to be due to fertilisation of the growth of biomass by increasing levels of atmospheric CO2, and indeed the total amount of global biomass was observed to increase by 3.8% during the years 1981-2003. Nonetheless, 24% of the Earth's surface had occasioned some degree of degradation in the same time period. It appears that while long-term trends in NDVI (normalised difference vegetation index) derivatives are only broad indicators of land degradation, taken as a proxy, the NDVI/NPP (net primary productivity) trend is able to yield a benchmark that is globally consistent and to illuminate regions in which biologically significant changes are occurring. Thus, attention may be directed to where investigation and action at the ground level is required, i.e. to potential "hot spots" of land degradation and/or erosion. The severity of land degradation through soil erosion, and an according catastrophic threat to the survival of humanity may in part have been overstated, although the rising human population will impose inexorable demands for what the soil can provide. However the present system of industrialised agriculture would not be possible without plentiful provisions of cheap crude oil and natural gas to supply fuels, pesticides, herbicides and fertilisers. It is only on the basis of these inputs that it has been possible for the human population to rise above 7 billion. Hence, if the cheap oil and gas

  3. Examining the value of global seasonal reference evapotranspiration forecasts tosupport FEWS NET's food insecurity outlooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; McEvoy, D.; Hobbins, M.; Husak, G. J.; Huntington, J. L.; Funk, C.; Verdin, J.; Macharia, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) team provides food insecurity outlooks for several developing countries in Africa, Central Asia, and Central America. Thus far in terms of agroclimatic conditions that influence food insecurity, FEWS NET's primary focus has been on the seasonal precipitation forecasts while not adequately accounting for the atmospheric evaporative demand, which is also directly related to agricultural production and hence food insecurity, and is most often estimated by reference evapotranspiration (ETo). This presentation reports on the development of a new global ETo seasonal reforecast and skill evaluation with a particular emphasis on the potential use of this dataset by the FEWS NET to support food insecurity early warning. The ETo reforecasts span the 1982-2009 period and are calculated following ASCE's formulation of Penman-Monteith method driven by seasonal climate forecasts of monthly mean temperature, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation from NCEP's CFSv2 and NASA's GEOS-5 models. The skill evaluation using deterministic and probabilistic scores focuses on the December-February (DJF), March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA) and September-November (SON) seasons. The results indicate that ETo forecasts are a promising tool for early warning of drought and food insecurity. The FEWS NET regions with promising level of skill (correlation >0.35 at lead times of 3 months) include Northern Sub-Saharan Africa (DJF, dry season), Central America (DJF, dry season), parts of East Africa (JJA, wet Season), Southern Africa (JJA, dry season), and Central Asia (MAM, wet season). A case study over parts of East Africa for the JJA season shows that, in combination with the precipitation forecasts, ETo forecasts could have provided early warning of recent severe drought events (e.g., 2002, 2004, 2009) that contributed to substantial food insecurity in the region.

  4. GEOGLAM Crop Assessment Tool: Adapting from global agricultural monitoring to food security monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, M. L.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Nordling, J.; Barker, B.; McGaughey, K.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's Crop Assessment Tool was released in August 2013 in support of the GEOGLAM Crop Monitor's objective to develop transparent, timely crop condition assessments in primary agricultural production areas, highlighting potential hotspots of stress/bumper crops. The Crop Assessment Tool allows users to view satellite derived products, best available crop masks, and crop calendars (created in collaboration with GEOGLAM Crop Monitor partners), then in turn submit crop assessment entries detailing the crop's condition, drivers, impacts, trends, and other information. Although the Crop Assessment Tool was originally intended to collect data on major crop production at the global scale, the types of data collected are also relevant to the food security and rangelands monitoring communities. In line with the GEOGLAM Countries at Risk philosophy of "foster[ing] the coordination of product delivery and capacity building efforts for national and regional organizations, and the development of harmonized methods and tools", a modified version of the Crop Assessment Tool is being developed for the USAID Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET). As a member of the Countries at Risk component of GEOGLAM, FEWS NET provides agricultural monitoring, timely food security assessments, and early warnings of potential significant food shortages focusing specifically on countries at risk of food security emergencies. While the FEWS NET adaptation of the Crop Assessment Tool focuses on crop production in the context of food security rather than large scale production, the data collected is nearly identical to the data collected by the Crop Monitor. If combined, the countries monitored by FEWS NET and GEOGLAM Crop Monitor would encompass over 90 countries representing the most important regions for crop production and food security.

  5. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of Latin America's land and water resources for global food security: environmental trade-offs of future food production pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity's major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC's agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)-a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector-to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths.

  7. The Role of Latin America’s Land and Water Resources for Global Food Security: Environmental Trade-Offs of Future Food Production Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachsbarth, Insa; Willaarts, Bárbara; Xie, Hua; Pitois, Gauthier; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Ringler, Claudia; Garrido, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of humanity’s major challenges of the 21st century will be meeting future food demands on an increasingly resource constrained-planet. Global food production will have to rise by 70 percent between 2000 and 2050 to meet effective demand which poses major challenges to food production systems. Doing so without compromising environmental integrity is an even greater challenge. This study looks at the interdependencies between land and water resources, agricultural production and environmental outcomes in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), an area of growing importance in international agricultural markets. Special emphasis is given to the role of LAC’s agriculture for (a) global food security and (b) environmental sustainability. We use the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT)—a global dynamic partial equilibrium model of the agricultural sector—to run different future production scenarios, and agricultural trade regimes out to 2050, and assess changes in related environmental indicators. Results indicate that further trade liberalization is crucial for improving food security globally, but that it would also lead to more environmental pressures in some regions across Latin America. Contrasting land expansion versus more intensified agriculture shows that productivity improvements are generally superior to agricultural land expansion, from an economic and environmental point of view. Finally, our analysis shows that there are trade-offs between environmental and food security goals for all agricultural development paths. PMID:25617621

  8. Certification of Markets, Markets of Certificates: Tracing Sustainability in Global Agro-Food Value Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur P. J. Mol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability systems for sustainability in agro-food supply chains. Hence, the purpose of this article is to analyze the prevalence of four different traceability systems to guarantee sustainability; to identify the factors that determine the kind of traceability systems applied in particular supply chains; and to assess what the emergence of economic and market logics in traceability mean for sustainability. Two conclusions are drawn. Globalizing markets for sustainable agro-food products induces the emergence of book-and-claim traceability systems, but the other three systems (identity preservation, segregation and mass balance will continue to exist as different factors drive traceability requirements in different supply chains. Secondly, traceability itself is becoming a market driven by economic and market logics, and this may have consequences for sustainability in agro-food supply chains in the future.

  9. Irradiated foodstuff: atom, junk-food and globalization; Aliments irradies: Atome, malbouffe et mondialisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Genevieve; Berlan, Jean-Pierre; Desbordes, Roland; Dufour, Francois; Fievet, Yann; Folliard, Thierry; Gallais, Veronique; Hauter, Wenonah; Jacquiau, Christian; Kastler, Guy; Lannoye, Paul; Le Goff, Lylian; Le Rohellec, Catherine; Louchard, Olivier; Marechal, Gilles; Nicolas, Yveline; Remesy, Christian; Trouve, Aurelie; Veillerette, Francois

    2008-07-01

    Food irradiation is officially presented as an ideal technology at the service of worldwide health safety and as an alternative to chemical processing of foodstuff. It is first of all a multi-usage technology for the preservation, disinfestation, ripening slowing down, and germination inhibition of products which serves the interests of multinational companies of the agriculture and food industry. According to the authors, it is also an instrument for the globalization of foodstuff trade encouraged by the international institutions and by some governments. The book stresses on the health, socio-economic and environmental risks of this technology: vitamins loss, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impact on local employment and economy, risks linked with the use of irradiation devices etc

  10. Distributional impacts of the 2008 global food price spike in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Andy; Tarp, Finn

    macro-data, this paper investigates how global price changes appear to have impacted on rural welfare in Vietnam during 2006-12. In this paper we study the case of rice in Vietnam, in the context of the 2008 food price spike. We analyse the responses of domestic producer and consumer prices, and discuss......Agriculture and food cultivation production remains a key sector in the Vietnamese economy in terms of productive activities, income generation, and national export earnings. Higher world market prices should therefore in principle have a beneficial impact on rural farmers. This is based however...... the policy actions taken by the government to help reduce the impact on consumers, as well as to continue to encourage production. We also look at the distributional impact of the resulting domestic price changes, using data from a specialist rural household survey to look at production response. Vietnam...

  11. Combined effects of global climate change and regional ecosystem drivers on an exploited marine food web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niiranen, S.; Yletyinen, J.; Tomczak, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    approach to project how the interaction of climate, nutrient loads, and cod fishing may affect the future of the open Central Baltic Sea food web. Regionally downscaled global climate scenarios were, in combination with three nutrient load scenarios, used to drive an ensemble of three regional...... biogeochemical models (BGMs). An Ecopath with Ecosim food web model was then forced with the BGM results from different nutrient-climate scenarios in combination with two different cod fishing scenarios. The results showed that regional management is likely to play a major role in determining the future......Changes in climate, in combination with intensive exploitation of marine resources, have caused large-scale reorganizations in many of the world's marine ecosystems during the past decades. The Baltic Sea in Northern Europe is one of the systems most affected. In addition to being exposed...

  12. Future Warming Increases Global Maize Yield Variability with Implications for Food Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigchelaar, M.; Battisti, D. S.; Naylor, R. L.; Ray, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    If current trends in population growth and dietary shifts continue, the world will need to produce about 70% more food by 2050, while earth's climate is rapidly changing. Rising temperatures in particular are projected to negatively impact agricultural production, as the world's staple crops perform poorly in extreme heat. Theoretical models suggest that as temperatures rise above plants' optimal temperature for performance, not only will mean yields decline rapidly, but the variability of yields will increase, even as interannual variations in climate remain unchanged. Here we use global datasets of maize production and climate variability combined with CMIP5 temperature projections to quantify how yield variability will change in major maize producing countries under 2°C and 4°C of global warming. Maize is the world's most produced crop, and is linked to other staple crops through substitution in consumption and production. We find that in warmer climates - absent any breeding gains in heat tolerance - the Coefficient of Variation (CV) of maize yields increases almost everywhere, to values much larger than present-day. This increase in CV is due both to an increase in the standard deviation of yields, and a decrease in mean yields. In locations where crop failures become the norm under high (4°C) warming (mostly in tropical, low-yield environments), the standard deviation of yields ultimately decreases. The probability that in any given year the most productive areas in the top three maize producing countries (United States, China, Brazil) have simultaneous production losses greater than 10% is virtually zero under present-day climate conditions, but increases to 12% under 2°C warming, and 89% under 4°C warming. This has major implications for global food markets and staple crop prices, affecting especially the 2.5 billion people that comprise the world's poor, who already spend the majority of their disposable income on food and are particularly vulnerable

  13. Beneficial impacts of an international grain reserve on global food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Puma, M. J.; Frieler, K.

    2017-12-01

    Highly volatile food prices on global markets challenge food security. Only in the last decade, two pronounced food price spikes severely affected vulnerable populations worldwide by increasing malnutrition and hunger. This has stirred up the debate upon the usefulness of an international grain reserve. Whereas advocates argue that it could damp damaging price extremes, opponents question its effectiveness and are concerned about associated market distortions and costs. However, to our knowledge, a comprehensive quantitative assessment is still missing. For this purpose, we introduce an agent-based dynamic multi-regional model that consistently accounts for intra-annual strategic as well as commercial storage holding. For the case of wheat, we first show that the model is able to reproduce historical world market prices (see Fig. 1(a)) and regional ending stocks (stocks see Fig.1(b) for global ending stocks) from 1980 to the present. Having a bi-annual timestep, the model enables us to single out the main drivers of past short-term price volatility: regional, mainly weather induced, production variations followed by trade policies as the second most important driver. The latter include, both, long-term stockholding management decisions as well as short-term regional political responses to scarcity situations such as export restrictions and restocking attempts. We then quantitatively model a strategic wheat reserve managed by an international body such as the UN. We discuss a management scheme for the reserve that aims at stabilizing prices within a price band by buying at low and selling at high prices (cf. Fig. 1). Importantly, in order to minimize market distortions, this scheme is not designed to damp out price volatility completely, but to merely avoid damaging price extremes. Thus, it preserves the incentive for producers to invest in agricultural development and it can only complement and not replace local efforts to increase the food system's resilience

  14. Introducing Urban Food Forestry: A Multifunctional Strategy for Enhancing Urban Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Clark, K.

    2012-12-01

    We propose combining elements of urban agriculture and urban forestry into what we call "urban food forestry" (UFF), the practice of growing perennial woody food-producing species ("food trees") in cities. We used four approaches at different scales to gauge the potential of UFF to enhance urban sustainability, in the context of trends including increasing urbanization, resource demands, and climate change. First, we analyzed 37 current international initiatives based around urban food trees, finding that core activities included planting, mapping, and harvesting food trees, but that only about a quarter of initiatives engaged in more than one of these activities necessary to fully utilize the food potential of urban trees. Second, we analyzed 30 urban forestry master plans, finding that only 13% included human food security among their objectives. Third, we used Burlington, Vermont as a case study to quantify the potential caloric output of publicly accessible open space if planted with Malus domestica (the common apple) under 9 different scenarios. We found that the entire caloric deficit of the very low food security population could be met on as few as 29 hectares (representing 16% of total open space), and that 98% of the daily recommended minimum intake of fruit for the entire city's population could be met under the most ambitious planting scenario. Finally, we developed a decision-making tool for selecting potential food trees appropriate for temperate urban environments, the Climate-Food-Species Matrix. We identified a total of 70 species, 30 of which we deemed "highly suitable" for urban food forestry based on their cold hardiness, drought tolerance, and edibility. We conclude that urban food forestry provides multiple pathways for building urban sustainability through local food production, and that our framework can be used to increase the coordination between and effectiveness of a growing number of related initiatives.

  15. New literacies, Japanese youth, and global fast food culture: Exploring youth critical agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Iwase, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the critical agencies expressed by a group of Japanese youth asked to reflect on their understanding of fast food cultures in the context of a global consumer-media environment. New literacies and the concepts of the young cyberflâneur and the phoneur are used to define and map the youths’ agentic practices, while various qualitative research methods are employed to investigate how eight Japanese high school students understand the meaning and impact of McDonald’s in thei...

  16. An obsolete dichotomy? Rethinking the rural–urban interface in terms of food security and production in the global south.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amy M; Eakin, Hallie

    2011-01-01

    The global food system is coming under increasing strain in the face of urban population growth. The recent spike in global food prices (2007–08) provoked consumer protests, and raised questions about food sovereignty and how and where food will be produced. Concurrently, for the first time in history the majority of the global population is urban, with the bulk of urban growth occurring in smaller-tiered cities and urban peripheries, or ‘peri-urban’ areas of the developing world. This paper discusses the new emerging spaces that incorporate a mosaic of urban and rural worlds, and reviews the implications of these spaces for livelihoods and food security. We propose a modified livelihoods framework to evaluate the contexts in which food production persists within broader processes of landscape and livelihood transformation in peri-urban locations. Where and how food production persists are central questions for the future of food security in an urbanising world. Our proposed framework provides directions for future research and highlights the role of policy and planning in reconciling food production with urban growth.

  17. Food Insecurity and Mental Health Status: A Global Analysis of 149 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D

    2017-08-01

    This study sought to determine the association of individual-level food insecurity (FI) with mental health status across all global regions. Cross-sectional data were analyzed in 2016 from the 2014 Gallup World Poll, a series of globally implemented, nationally representative surveys. FI was assessed using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale Survey Module for Individuals, an eight-question psychometric scale reporting individuals' experiences of FI. Individual-level composite indices of mental health, the Negative Experience Index and Positive Experience Index (0-100 scale), were calculated based on responses to five questions of respondents' recent negative and positive experiences, respectively, associated with depression and mental distress. The prevalence of any FI ranged from 18.3% in East Asia to 76.1% in Sub-Saharan Africa. In global analyses (149 countries) using adjusted multiple regression analyses, FI was associated in a dose-response fashion with poorer scores on the mental health indices (coefficient [95% CI]: Negative Experience Index: mild FI, 10.4 [9.5, 11.2]; moderate FI, 17.7 [16.4, 19.0]; severe FI, 24.5 [22.7, 26.3]; Positive Experience Index: mild FI, -8.3 [-9.3, -7.4]; moderate FI, -12.6 [-13.8, -11.3]; severe FI, -16.2 [-17.9, -14.5]). Within-region analyses (11 regions) consistently demonstrated the same trends. FI is associated with poorer mental health and specific psychosocial stressors across global regions independent of SES. The numerous pathways via which FI may contribute to common mental disorders, and the broad social implications of FI linked to cultural norms and self-efficacy, may contribute to the cross-cultural consistency of the findings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancing Global Health Security: US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton Hamer, Melinda J; Reed, Paul L; Greulich, Jane D; Beadling, Charles W

    2018-03-07

    US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements. DPP partners collected data for each PN to further capacity building efforts. Thus far, 9 countries have completed military pandemic plans, 10 have developed national pandemic influenza plans, 9 have developed military support to civil authorities plans, and 11 have developed disaster management strategic work plans. There have been 20 national exercises conducted since 2009. DPP was cited as key in implementation of Ebola response plans in PNs, facilitated development of disaster management agencies in DPP PNs, and trained nearly 800 individuals. DPP enhanced PNs' ability to prepare and respond to crises, fostering relationships between international agencies, and improving civil-military coordination through both national and regional capacity building. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 11).

  19. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen–consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power. PMID:26052427

  20. Sustainable fuel, food, fertilizer and ecosystems through a global artificial photosynthetic system: overcoming anticompetitive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alex; Faunce, Thomas

    2015-06-06

    This article discusses challenges that artificial photosynthetic (AP) systems will face when entering and competing in a global market characterized by established fossil fuel technology. It provides a perspective on the neoliberal principles underpinning much policy entrenching such environmentally destructive technology and outlines how competition law could aid overcoming these hurdles for AP development. In particular, it critiques the potential for competition law to promote a global AP initiative with greater emphasis on atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen fixation (as well as solar-driven water splitting) to produce an equitable, globally distributed source of human food, fertilizer and biosphere sustainability, as well as hydrogen-based fuel. Some relevant strategies of competition law evaluated in this context include greater citizen-consumer involvement in shaping market values, legal requirements to factor services from the natural environment (i.e. provision of clean air, water, soil pollution degradation) into corporate costs, reform of corporate taxation and requirements to balance maximization of shareholder profit with contribution to a nominated public good, a global financial transactions tax, as well as prohibiting horizontal cartels, vertical agreements and unilateral misuse of market power.

  1. Enhanced Early Neuronal Processing of Food Pictures in Anorexia Nervosa: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren R. Godier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies in Anorexia Nervosa (AN have shown increased activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to food, and a behavioral attentional bias (AB towards food stimuli is reported. This study aimed to further investigate the neural processing of food using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Participants were 13 females with restricting-type AN, 14 females recovered from restricting-type AN, and 15 female healthy controls. MEG data was acquired whilst participants viewed high- and low-calorie food pictures. Attention was assessed with a reaction time task and eye tracking. Time-series analysis suggested increased neural activity in response to both calorie conditions in the AN groups, consistent with an early AB. Increased activity was observed at 150 ms in the current AN group. Neuronal activity at this latency was at normal level in the recovered group; however, this group exhibited enhanced activity at 320 ms after stimulus. Consistent with previous studies, analysis in source space and behavioral data suggested enhanced attention and cognitive control processes in response to food stimuli in AN. This may enable avoidance of salient food stimuli and maintenance of dietary restraint in AN. A later latency of increased activity in the recovered group may reflect a reversal of this avoidance, with source space and behavioral data indicating increased visual and cognitive processing of food stimuli.

  2. Enhancing Food Processing by Pulsed and High Voltage Electric Fields: Principles and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qijun; Li, Yifei; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2018-02-02

    Improvements in living standards result in a growing demand for food with high quality attributes including freshness, nutrition and safety. However, current industrial processing methods rely on traditional thermal and chemical methods, such as sterilization and solvent extraction, which could induce negative effects on food quality and safety. The electric fields (EFs) involving pulsed electric fields (PEFs) and high voltage electric fields (HVEFs) have been studied and developed for assisting and enhancing various food processes. In this review, the principles and applications of pulsed and high voltage electric fields are described in details for a range of food processes, including microbial inactivation, component extraction, and winemaking, thawing and drying, freezing and enzymatic inactivation. Moreover, the advantages and limitations of electric field related technologies are discussed to foresee future developments in the food industry. This review demonstrates that electric field technology has a great potential to enhance food processing by supplementing or replacing the conventional methods employed in different food manufacturing processes. Successful industrial applications of electric field treatments have been achieved in some areas such as microbial inactivation and extraction. However, investigations of HVEFs are still in an early stage and translating the technology into industrial applications need further research efforts.

  3. Enhanced Global Signal of Neutral Hydrogen Due to Excess Radiation at Cosmic Dawn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chang; Holder, Gilbert

    2018-05-01

    We revisit the global 21 cm signal calculation incorporating a possible radio background at early times, and find that the global 21 cm signal shows a much stronger absorption feature, which could enhance detection prospects for future 21 cm experiments. In light of recent reports of a possible low-frequency excess radio background, we propose that detailed 21 cm calculations should include a possible early radio background.

  4. Sustainability of Local and Global Food Chains: Introduction to the Special Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Brunori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment is one of the keys to competition by food supply chains over sustainability. The way it is conceived and embodied into decision-makers’ choices affects the competitiveness of local and global chains. Science-based assessment methodologies have made substantial progress, but uncertainties—as well as interests at stake—are high. There are no science-based methods that are able to give an unchallenged verdict over the sustainability performance of a firm, let alone a supply chain. Assessment methods are more suited for medium-large firm dimensions, as planning, monitoring, and reporting are costly. Moreover, the availability of data affects the choice of parameters to be measured, and many claims of local food are not easily measurable. To give local chains a chance to operate on a level playing field, there is the need to re-think sustainability assessment processes and tailor them to the characteristics of the analysed supply chains. We indicate seven key points on which we think scholars should focus their attention when dealing with food supply chain sustainability assessment.

  5. The Future of Food Demand: Understanding Differences in Global Economic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valin, Hugo; Sands, Ronald; van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique; Nelson, Gerald; Ahammad, Helal; Blanc, Elodie; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Havlik, Petr; Heyhoe, Edwina; Kyle, G. Page; Mason d' Croz, Daniel; Paltsev, S.; Rolinski, Susanne; Tabeau, Andrzej; van Meijl, Hans; von Lampe, Martin; Willenbockel, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the capacity of agricultural systems to feed the world population under climate change requires a good prospective vision on the future development of food demand. This paper reviews modeling approaches from ten global economic models participating to the AgMIP project, in particular the demand function chosen and the set of parameters used. We compare food demand projections at the horizon 2050 for various regions and agricultural products under harmonized scenarios. Depending on models, we find for a business as usual scenario (SSP2) an increase in food demand of 59-98% by 2050, slightly higher than FAO projection (54%). The prospective for animal calories is particularly uncertain with a range of 61-144%, whereas FAO anticipates an increase by 76%. The projections reveal more sensitive to socio-economic assumptions than to climate change conditions or bioenergy development. When considering a higher population lower economic growth world (SSP3), consumption per capita drops by 9% for crops and 18% for livestock. Various assumptions on climate change in this exercise do not lead to world calorie losses greater than 6%. Divergences across models are however notable, due to differences in demand system, income elasticities specification, and response to price change in the baseline.

  6. Successfully Changing the Landscape of Information Distribution: Extension Food Website Reaches People Locally and Globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Henneman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the Food website was to develop Internet-based content that was relevant and reached the general public and multiplier groups, such as educators, health professionals, and media outlets. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a multi-modal approach to information delivery through increases in and changes to content, electronic mailing list creation, and social media posting impacted user access, traffic channels, and referrals from 2010 to 2014. When comparing 2010-2011 versus 2013-2014, there was a 150% increase in total pageviews, 197% increase in unique pageviews, and a 39% increase in average time spent on a page. Since 2010, the website had over 5.2 million total pageviews, 3.1 million sessions, and 2.6 million users. In 2014, top social media referrals included Pinterest, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter. Age of visitors ranged from 18 to 65+, with 45% being 18-34 years old. Approximately 70% were female. Visitors came from 229 countries/territories and 18,237 different cities. The website connects Nebraska and the world to the exciting food research and information generated at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and is playing an increasingly important role in shaping the future of food in the local and global community.

  7. The water-energy-food nexus of biofuels in a globalized world

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Rulli, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    New renewable energy policies, investment opportunities, and energy security needs, have recently led to an escalation in the reliance on first generation biofuels. This phenomenon is contributing to changes in land use, market dynamics, property rights, and systems of agricultural production, with important impacts on rural livelihoods. Despite these effects of biofuels on food security, their nexus with land and water use remains poorly understood. We investigate recent production trends of bioenergy crops, their patterns of trade, and evaluate the associated displacement of water and land use. We find that bioethanol is produced with domestic crops while biodiesel production relies also on international trade and large scale land acquisitions in the developing world, particularly in Southeast Asia. Altogether, biofuels account for about 2-3% of the global water and land use in agriculture, and 30% of the food required to eradicate malnourishment worldwide. We evaluate the food-energy tradeoffs of biofuels and their impact of the number of people the plant can feed.

  8. Monitoring Global Food Security with New Remote Sensing Products and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M. E.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Husak, G. J.; Magadzire, T.; Verdin, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    Global agriculture monitoring is a crucial aspect of monitoring food security in the developing world. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) has a long history of using remote sensing and crop modeling to address food security threats in the form of drought, floods, pests, and climate change. In recent years, it has become apparent that FEWS NET requires the ability to apply monitoring and modeling frameworks at a global scale to assess potential impacts of foreign production and markets on food security at regional, national, and local levels. Scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) Climate Hazards Group have provided new and improved data products as well as visualization and analysis tools in support of the increased mandate for remote monitoring. We present our monitoring products for measuring actual evapotranspiration (ETa), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a near-real-time mode, and satellite-based rainfall estimates and derivatives. USGS FEWS NET has implemented a Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) model to produce operational ETa anomalies for Africa and Central Asia. During the growing season, ETa anomalies express surplus or deficit crop water use, which is directly related to crop condition and biomass. We present current operational products and provide supporting validation of the SSEB model. The expedited Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (eMODIS) production system provides FEWS NET with an improved NDVI dataset for crop and rangeland monitoring. eMODIS NDVI provides a reliable data stream with a relatively high spatial resolution (250-m) and short latency period (less than 12 hours) which allows for better operational vegetation monitoring. We provide an overview of these data and cite specific applications for crop monitoring. FEWS NET uses satellite rainfall estimates as inputs for

  9. Analyzing the greenhouse gas impact potential of smallholder development actions across a global food security program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewer, Uwe; Nash, Julie; Gurwick, Noel; Bockel, Louis; Galford, Gillian; Richards, Meryl; Costa Junior, Ciniro; White, Julianna; Pirolli, Gillian; Wollenberg, Eva

    2018-04-01

    This article analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) impact potential of improved management practices and technologies for smallholder agriculture promoted under a global food security development program. Under ‘business-as-usual’ development, global studies on the future of agriculture to 2050 project considerable increases in total food production and cultivated area. Conventional cropland intensification and conversion of natural vegetation typically result in increased GHG emissions and loss of carbon stocks. There is a strong need to understand the potential greenhouse gas impacts of agricultural development programs intended to achieve large-scale change, and to identify pathways of smallholder agricultural development that can achieve food security and agricultural production growth without drastic increases in GHG emissions. In an analysis of 134 crop and livestock production systems in 15 countries with reported impacts on 4.8 million ha, improved management practices and technologies by smallholder farmers significantly reduce GHG emission intensity of agricultural production, increase yields and reduce post-harvest losses, while either decreasing or only moderately increasing net GHG emissions per area. Investments in both production and post-harvest stages meaningfully reduced GHG emission intensity, contributing to low emission development. We present average impacts on net GHG emissions per hectare and GHG emission intensity, while not providing detailed statistics of GHG impacts at scale that are associated to additional uncertainties. While reported improvements in smallholder systems effectively reduce future GHG emissions compared to business-as-usual development, these contributions are insufficient to significantly reduce net GHG emission in agriculture beyond current levels, particularly if future agricultural production grows at projected rates.

  10. Ghrelin enhances cue-induced bar pressing for high fat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Veronique; Watts, Alexander; Abizaid, Alfonso

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach that acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs) both peripherally and centrally. The presence of GHSRs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) suggests that ghrelin signaling at this level may increase the incentive value of palatable foods as well as other natural and artificial rewards. The present investigation sought to determine if ghrelin plays a role in relapse to such foods following a period of abstinence. To achieve this, thirty-six male Long Evans rats were trained to press a lever to obtain a high fat chocolate food reward on a fixed ratio schedule of 1. Following an extinction period during which lever presses were not reinforced, rats were implanted with a cannula connected to a minipump that continuously delivered ghrelin, a GHSR antagonist ([d-Lys-3]-GHRP-6), or saline in the VTA for 14days. One week later, food reward-associated cues, food reward priming, and an overnight fast were used to induce reinstatement of the lever pressing response. Our results indicate that intra-VTA ghrelin enhances cue-induced reinstatement of responses for palatable food pellets. To the extent that the reinstatement paradigm is considered a valid model of relapse in humans, this suggests that ghrelin signaling facilitates relapse to preferred foods in response to food cues through GHSR signaling in the VTA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Focusing on food during lunch enhances lunch memory and decreases later snack intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Donohoe, Jessica E

    2011-08-01

    We investigated whether eating lunch mindfully, in contrast to eating with distractions or no particular focus, reduces later snack intake and if this is related to a measure of meal memory. The design was between-subjects with three conditions. Twenty-nine female undergraduate students either ate a fixed lunch while (1) focusing on the sensory characteristics of the food as they ate (food focus group), (2) reading a newspaper article about food (food thoughts control group) or (3) in the absence of any secondary task (neutral control group). Cookie intake later that afternoon was measured as well as rated vividness of memory of the lunch. Participants ate significantly fewer cookies in the food focus group than in both the food thoughts control group or the neutral control group. Rated appetite before the snack session was lower in the food focus group than in the other two groups and rated vividness of lunch memory was higher. Rated vividness of lunch memory was negatively correlated with snack intake. These results suggest that enhancing meal memory by paying attention to food while eating can reduce later intake and are consistent with the suggestion that memory plays an important role in appetite control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhancement of mass transfer by ultrasound: Application to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    The physical mechanisms of heat and mass transfer enhancement by ultrasound have been identified by people. Basically, the effect of 'cavitation' induced by ultrasound is the main reason for the enhancement of heat and mass transfer in a liquid environment, and the acoustic streaming and vibration are the main reasons for that in a gaseous environment. The adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration are typical heat and mass transfer process, and the intensification of the two processes by ultrasound is of complete feasibility. This paper makes an overview on recent studies regarding applications of power ultrasound to adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. The concerned adsorbents include desiccant materials (typically like silica gel) for air dehumidification and other ones (typically active carbon and polymeric resin) for water treatment. The applications of ultrasound in the regeneration of these adsorbents have been proved to be energy saving. The concerned foods are mostly fruits and vegetables. Although the ultrasonic treatment may cause food degradation or nutrient loss, it can greatly reduce the food processing time and decrease drying temperature. From the literature, it can be seen that the ultrasonic conditions (i.e., acoustic frequency and power levels) are always focused on during the study of ultrasonic applications. The increasing number of relevant studies argues that ultrasound is a very promising technology applied to the adsorbent regeneration and food drying/dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  14. Texture-taste interactions: Enhancement of taste intensity by structural modifications of the food matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stieger, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The reduction of salt and sugar in food products remains a challenge due to the importance of those ingredients in providing a highly desired taste quality, enhancing flavor, determining the behavior of structuring ingredients, and ensuring microbiological safety. Several technologies have been used

  15. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2013-10-04

    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancing collaborative rule-making on global sustainability concerns through Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new...... with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule......-making. It does so by drawing on the process that led to the 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. This process exemplifies challenges in collaborative and inclusive global rule-making that that may be assisted by increased and informed deployment of IT in order to enhance broad...

  17. Phenolic-enriched foods: sources and processing for enhanced health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J

    2017-05-01

    Polyphenols are ubiquitous secondary products present in many plant foods. Their intake has been associated with health benefits ranging from reduced incidence of CVD, diabetes and cancers to improved neurodegenerative outcomes. Major dietary sources include beverages such as coffee, teas and foods such as chocolate. Fruits are also major sources and berries in particular are a palatable source of a diverse range of polyphenol components. There are a number of ways that polyphenol uptake could be increased and healthier polyphenol-rich foods could be produced with specific compositions to target-specific health effects. Firstly, we could exploit the genetic diversity of plants (with a focus on berries) to select varieties that have enhanced levels of specific polyphenols implicated in disease mitigation (e.g. anthocyanins, tannins or flavonols). Working with variation induced by environmental and agronomic factors, modern molecular breeding techniques could exploit natural variation and beneficially alter polyphenol content and composition, although this could be relatively long term. Alternatively, we could employ a synthetic biology approach and design new plants that overexpress certain genes or re-deploy more metabolic effort into specific polyphenols. However, such 'polyphenol-plus' fruit could prove unpalatable as polyphenols contribute to sensorial properties (e.g. astringency of tannins). However, if the aim was to produce a polyphenol as a pharmaceutical then 'lifting' biosynthetic pathways from plants and expressing them in microbial vectors may be a feasible option. Secondly, we could design processing methods to enhance the polyphenolic composition or content of foods. Fermentation of teas, cocoa beans and grapes, or roasting of cocoa and coffee beans has long been used and can massively influence polyphenol composition and potential bioactivity. Simple methods such as milling, heat treatment, pasteurisation or juicing (v. pureeing) can have notable

  18. From smallpox eradication to contemporary global health initiatives: enhancing human capacity towards a global public health goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel; Foster, Stanley O

    2011-12-30

    The eradication of smallpox owes its success first and foremost to the thousands of lay health workers and community members who, throughout the campaign and across continents, took on the roles of advocates, educators, vaccinators, care providers and contributors to epidemic surveillance and containment. Bangladesh provides a good example where smallpox eradication and the capacity enhancement needed to achieve this goal resulted in a two-way mutually beneficial process. Smallpox-dedicated staff provided community members with information guidance, support and tools. In turn, communities not only created the enabling environment for smallpox program staff to perform their work but acquired the capacity to perform essential eradication tasks. Contemporary global health programmes can learn much from these core lessons including: the pivotal importance of supporting community aspirations, capacity and resilience; the critical need to enhance commitment, capacity and accountability across the workforce; and the high value of attentive human resources management and support. We owe to subsequent global disease control, elimination and eradication ventures recognition of the need for social and behavioural science to inform public health strategies; the essential roles that civil society organizations and public-private partnerships can play in public health discourse and action; the overall necessity of investing in broad-based health system strengthening; and the utility of applying human rights principles, norms and standards to public health policy and practice. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A half-century of production-phase greenhouse gas emissions from food loss & waste in the global food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D; Reay, David S; Higgins, Peter; Bomberg, Elizabeth

    2016-11-15

    Research on loss & waste of food meant for human consumption (FLW) and its environmental impact typically focuses on a single or small number of commodities in a specific location and point in time. However, it is unclear how trends in global FLW and potential for climate impact have evolved. Here, by utilising the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheet data, we expand upon existing literature. Firstly, we provide a differentiated (by commodity, country and supply chain stage) bottom-up approach; secondly, we conduct a 50-year longitudinal analysis of global FLW and its production-phase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and thirdly, we trace food wastage and its associated emissions through the entire food supply chain. Between 1961 and 2011 the annual amount of FLW by mass grew a factor of three - from 540Mt to 1.6Gt; associated production-phase (GHG) emissions more than tripled (from 680Mt to 2.2Gt CO2e). A 44% increase in global average per capita FLW emissions was also identified - from 225kg CO2e in 1961 to 323kg CO2e in 2011. The regional weighting within this global average changing markedly over time; in 1961 developed countries accounted for 48% of FLW and less than a quarter (24%) in 2011. The largest increases in FLW-associated GHG emissions were from developing economies, specifically China and Latin America - primarily from increasing losses in fruit and vegetables. Over the period examined, cumulatively such emissions added almost 68Gt CO2e to the atmospheric GHG stock; an amount the rough equivalent of two years of emissions from all anthropogenic sources at present rates. Building up from the most granular data available, this study highlights the growth in the climate burden of FLW emissions, and thus the need to improve efficiency in food supply chains to mitigate future emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecosystem Management: Tomorrow’s Approach to Enhancing Food Security under a Changing Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rivington

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that a sustainable ecosystem management approach is vital to ensure the delivery of essential ‘life support’ ecosystem services and must be mainstreamed into societal conscience, political thinking and economic processes. Feeding the world at a time of climate change, environmental degradation, increasing human population and demand for finite resources requires sustainable ecosystem management and equitable governance. Ecosystem degradation undermines food production and the availability of clean water, hence threatening human health, livelihoods and ultimately societal stability. Degradation also increases the vulnerability of populations to the consequences of natural disasters and climate change impacts. With 10 million people dying from hunger each year, the linkages between ecosystems and food security are important to recognize. Though we all depend on ecosystems for our food and water, about seventy per cent of the estimated 1.1 billion people in poverty around the world live in rural areas and depend directly on the productivity of ecosystems for their livelihoods. Healthy ecosystems provide a diverse range of food sources and support entire agricultural systems, but their value to food security and sustainable livelihoods are often undervalued or ignored. There is an urgent need for increased financial investment for integrating ecosystem management with food security and poverty alleviation priorities. As the world’s leaders worked towards a new international climate change agenda in Cancun, Mexico, 29 November–10 December 2010 (UNFCCC COP16, it was clear that without a deep and decisive post-2012 agreement and major concerted effort to reduce the food crisis, the Millennium Development Goals will not be attained. Political commitment at the highest level will be needed to raise the profile of ecosystems on the global food agenda. It is recommended that full recognition and promotion be given of the linkages

  1. An open ecosystem engagement strategy through the lens of global food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Paul; Fons, Garin; Bernardo, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    The Global Food Safety Partnership (GFSP) is a public/private partnership established through the World Bank to improve food safety systems through a globally coordinated and locally-driven approach. This concept paper aims to establish a framework to help GFSP fully leverage the potential of open models. In preparing this paper the authors spoke to many different GFSP stakeholders who asked questions about open models such as: what is it?what’s in it for me?why use an open rather than a proprietary model?how will open models generate equivalent or greater sustainable revenue streams compared to the current “traditional” approaches?  This last question came up many times with assertions that traditional service providers need to see opportunity for equivalent or greater revenue dollars before they will buy-in. This paper identifies open value propositions for GFSP stakeholders and proposes a framework for creating and structuring that value. Open Educational Resources (OER) were the primary open practice GFSP partners spoke to us about, as they provide a logical entry point for collaboration. Going forward, funders should consider requiring that educational resources and concomitant data resulting from their sponsorship should be open, as a public good. There are, however, many other forms of open practice that bring value to the GFSP. Nine different open strategies and tactics (Appendix A) are described, including: open content (including OER and open courseware), open data, open access (research), open government, open source software, open standards, open policy, open licensing and open hardware. It is recommended that all stakeholders proactively pursue "openness" as an operating principle. This paper presents an overall GFSP Open Ecosystem Engagement Strategy within which specific local case examples can be situated. Two different case examples, China and Colombia, are presented to show both project-based and crowd-sourced, direct-to-public paths

  2. Food Prices and Climate Extremes: A Model of Global Grain Price Variability with Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Frieler, K.

    2015-12-01

    Extreme climate events such as droughts, floods, or heat waves affect agricultural production in major cropping regions and therefore impact the world market prices of staple crops. In the last decade, crop prices exhibited two very prominent price peaks in 2007-2008 and 2010-2011, threatening food security especially for poorer countries that are net importers of grain. There is evidence that these spikes in grain prices were at least partly triggered by actual supply shortages and the expectation of bad harvests. However, the response of the market to supply shocks is nonlinear and depends on complex and interlinked processes such as warehousing, speculation, and trade policies. Quantifying the contributions of such different factors to short-term price variability remains difficult, not least because many existing models ignore the role of storage which becomes important on short timescales. This in turn impedes the assessment of future climate change impacts on food prices. Here, we present a simple model of annual world grain prices that integrates grain stocks into the supply and demand functions. This firstly allows us to model explicitly the effect of storage strategies on world market price, and thus, for the first time, to quantify the potential contribution of trade policies to price variability in a simple global framework. Driven only by reported production and by long--term demand trends of the past ca. 40 years, the model reproduces observed variations in both the global storage volume and price of wheat. We demonstrate how recent price peaks can be reproduced by accounting for documented changes in storage strategies and trade policies, contrasting and complementing previous explanations based on different mechanisms such as speculation. Secondly, we show how the integration of storage allows long-term projections of grain price variability under climate change, based on existing crop yield scenarios.

  3. Food deprivation enhances both autoshaping and autoshaping impairment by a latent inhibition procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparber, S B; Bollweg, G L; Messing, R B

    1991-02-01

    The influence of food deprivation on acquisition of autoshaped operant behavior was measured. In one study separate groups of young, male rats that were deprived to 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95% of ad lib weight were subjected to an autoshaping procedure in which a 6 s delay was interposed between lever retraction (which occurred when rats made a lever touch, or automatically after 15 s) and food pellet delivery. In a second study, groups of rats were deprived to 80% or 90% of ad lib weight prior to testing in a latent inhibition variation of the same autoshaping procedure. This was done to determine if greater food deprivation would enhance learning which, because of the latent inhibition manipulation, is manifest as less lever-directed behavior. Greater food deprivation was associated both with fast acquisition of autoshaped lever responding and with more reliable failure to increase lever responding in the latent inhibition paradigm. Thus, increasing food deprivation was associated with enhanced acquisition regardless of whether the required performance was an increase or a failure to increase the same behavior, indicating a specific effect on learning. Copyright © 1991. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Food-Grade Synthesis of Maillard-Type Taste Enhancers Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Maximilian; Hofmann, Thomas

    2018-01-28

    The increasing demand for healthier food products, with reduced levels of table salt, sugar, and mono sodium glutamate, reinforce the need for novel taste enhancers prepared by means of food-grade kitchen-type chemistry. Although several taste modulating compounds have been discovered in processed foods, their Maillard-type ex food production is usually not exploited by industrial process reactions as the yields of target compounds typically do not exceed 1-2%. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) are reported for the first time to significantly increase the yields of the taste enhancers 1-deoxy-ᴅ-fructosyl-N-β-alanyl-ʟ-histidine (49% yield), N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene) aminopropionic acid (54% yield) and N²-(1-carboxyethyl) guanosine 5'-monophosphate (22% yield) at low temperature (80-100 °C) within a maximum reaction time of 2 h. Therefore, NADES open new avenues to a "next-generation culinary chemistry" overcoming the yield limitations of traditional Maillard chemistry approaches and enable a food-grade Maillard-type generation of flavor modulators.

  5. Energy and water tradeoffs in enhancing food security: A selective international assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Maraseni, Tek Narayan; Maroulis, Jerry; Hafeez, Mohsin

    2009-01-01

    Rice is the major staple food in most Asian countries. However, with rapidly growing populations, sustained high productivity and yields through improving water productivity is critically important. Increasingly complex energy-agriculture relationships require an in-depth understanding of water and energy tradeoffs. This study contributes to energy and food policies by analysing the complex energy, water and economics dynamics across a selection of major rice growing countries. The results show that tradeoffs exist between yield and energy inputs with high yield attributed to higher levels of energy input. The selected developed countries show higher energy productivity, relative to all other energy inputs, compared to the selected developing counties, owing to enhanced mechanisation, on-farm technology and improved farm management. Among all countries, China has the highest water productivity due to water-saving irrigation practices. These practices offer opportunities for developed and developing countries to increase water productivity at the same time taking advantage of economic and energy benefits of reduced pumping. Sustained production from agriculture is vital to food security. Improved irrigation practices can offset environmental footprints in the short run but their large-scale implementation remains an issue. In the long run, investments are needed to buffer the negative impacts of food production on the environment. Investments to boost water productivity and improved energy use efficiency in crop production are two pathways to reduce energy dependency, enhanced natural resource sustainability and ensuring future food security.

  6. Food-Grade Synthesis of Maillard-Type Taste Enhancers Using Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents (NADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Kranz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for healthier food products, with reduced levels of table salt, sugar, and mono sodium glutamate, reinforce the need for novel taste enhancers prepared by means of food-grade kitchen-type chemistry. Although several taste modulating compounds have been discovered in processed foods, their Maillard-type ex food production is usually not exploited by industrial process reactions as the yields of target compounds typically do not exceed 1–2%. Natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES are reported for the first time to significantly increase the yields of the taste enhancers 1-deoxy-ᴅ-fructosyl-N-β-alanyl-ʟ-histidine (49% yield, N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene aminopropionic acid (54% yield and N2-(1-carboxyethyl guanosine 5′-monophosphate (22% yield at low temperature (80–100 °C within a maximum reaction time of 2 h. Therefore, NADES open new avenues to a “next-generation culinary chemistry” overcoming the yield limitations of traditional Maillard chemistry approaches and enable a food-grade Maillard-type generation of flavor modulators.

  7. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. - Highlights: ► Global energy crop potentials in 2050 are calculated with a biophysical biomass-balance model. ► The study is focused on dedicated energy crops, forestry and residues are excluded. ► Depending on food-system change, global energy crop potentials range from 26–141 EJ/yr. ► Exclusion of protected areas and failed states may reduce the potential up to 45%. ► The bioenergy potential may be 26% lower or 45% higher, depending on energy crop yields.

  8. Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity, life cycle stages and population structures. The majority of current fungal species descriptions lack even the most basic genetic data that could address at least some of these issues. Such information is essential for accurate fungal identifications, to link critical metadata and to understand the real and potential impact of fungal pathogens on production and natural ecosystems. Because international trade in plant products and introduction of pathogens to new areas is likely to continue, the manner in which fungal pathogens are identified should urgently be reconsidered. The technologies that would provide appropriate information for biosecurity and quarantine already exist, yet the scientific community and the regulatory authorities are slow to embrace them. International agreements are urgently needed to enforce new guidelines for describing plant pathogenic fungi (including key DNA information), to ensure availability of relevant data and to modernize the phytosanitary systems that must deal with the risks relating to trade-associated plant pathogens. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience’. PMID:28080994

  9. Thermophilic Fungi to Dominate Aflatoxigenic/Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Food under Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Robert Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2017-02-17

    Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxin contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperature although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint. The present paper discusses what will succeed these fungi and represents the first such consideration. Aflatoxins are the most important mycotoxins and are common in tropical produce, much of which is exported to temperate regions. Hot countries may produce safer food under climate change because aflatoxigenic fungi will be inhibited. The same situation will occur in previously temperate regions where these fungi have recently appeared, although decades later. Existing thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi (TTF) will dominate, in contrast to the conventional mycotoxigenic fungi adapting or mutating, as it will be quicker. TTF produce a range of secondary metabolites, or potential mycotoxins and patulin which may become a new threat. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus will appear more frequently, a serious human pathogen, because it is (a) thermotolerant and (b) present on crops: hence this is an even greater problem. An incubation temperature of 41 °C needs employing forthwith to detect TTF. Finally, TTF in crops requires study because of the potential for diseases in humans and animals under climate change.

  10. Global Climate Change, Food Security, and Local Sustainability: Increasing Climate Literacy in Urban Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boger, R. A.; Low, R.; Gorokhovich, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Three higher education institutions, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), Brooklyn College, and Lehman College, are working together to share expertise and resources to expand climate change topics offered to undergraduate and graduate students in New York City (NYC). This collaboration combines existing UNL educational learning resources and infrastructure in virtual coursework. It will supply global climate change education and locally-based research experiences to the highly diverse undergraduate students of Brooklyn and Lehman Colleges and to middle and high school teachers in NYC. Through the university partnership, UNL materials are being adapted and augmented to include authentic research experiences for undergraduates and teachers using NASA satellite data, geographic information system (GIS) tools, and/or locally collected microclimate data from urban gardens. Learners download NASA data, apply an Earth system approach, and employ GIS in the analysis of food production landscapes in a dynamically changing climate system. The resulting course will be offered via Blackboard courseware, supported by Web 2.0 technologies designed specifically to support dialogue, data, and web publication sharing between partners, teachers and middle school, high school and undergraduate student researchers. NYC is in the center of the urban farming movement. By exploring water and food topics of direct relevance to students' lives and community, we anticipate that students will be motivated and more empowered to make connections between climate change and potential impacts on the health and happiness of people in their community, in the United States and around the world. Final course will be piloted in 2012.

  11. Thermophilic Fungi to Dominate Aflatoxigenic/Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Food under Global Warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Russell M. Paterson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxin contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperature although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint. The present paper discusses what will succeed these fungi and represents the first such consideration. Aflatoxins are the most important mycotoxins and are common in tropical produce, much of which is exported to temperate regions. Hot countries may produce safer food under climate change because aflatoxigenic fungi will be inhibited. The same situation will occur in previously temperate regions where these fungi have recently appeared, although decades later. Existing thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi (TTF will dominate, in contrast to the conventional mycotoxigenic fungi adapting or mutating, as it will be quicker. TTF produce a range of secondary metabolites, or potential mycotoxins and patulin which may become a new threat. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus will appear more frequently, a serious human pathogen, because it is (a thermotolerant and (b present on crops: hence this is an even greater problem. An incubation temperature of 41 °C needs employing forthwith to detect TTF. Finally, TTF in crops requires study because of the potential for diseases in humans and animals under climate change.

  12. Family and Consumer Sciences Teacher Needs Assessment of a STEM-Enhanced Food and Nutrition Sciences Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Cathy A.

    2016-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education concepts are naturally contextualized in the study of food and nutrition. In 2014 a pilot group of Utah high school Career and Technical Education Family and Consumer Sciences teachers rewrote the Food and Nutrition Sciences curriculum to add and enhance the STEM-related content. This study is an online needs assessment by Utah Food and Nutrition 1 teachers on the implementation of the STEM-enhanced curriculum after its first y...

  13. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    OpenAIRE

    Yach Derek; Alexander Eleanore; Mensah George A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely...

  14. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  15. Enhancing Adaptive Capacity in Food Systems: Learning at Farmers' Markets in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecka Milestad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how local food systems in the form of farmers' markets can enhance adaptive capacity and build social-ecological resilience. It does this by exploring the learning potential among farmers and customers. Learning can enable actors to adapt successfully and thus build adaptive capacity. Three forms of learning are investigated: instrumental, communicative, and emancipatory. These forms of learning constitute the foundation for lasting changes of behaviors. Local food systems are characterized by close links and opportunities for face-to-face interactions between consumers and producers of food, and are also institutions where farmers and customers can express and act upon their ethical values concerning food. However, local food systems are still a marginal phenomenon and cannot be accessed by all consumers. Interviews were held with customers and farmers, and the interactions between farmers and customers were observed at two farmers' markets in Sweden. Customers and farmers were found to learn and adapt to each other due to the opportunities offered by the farmers' markets. We found that farmers and customers learned in the instrumental and communicative domains, but could not confirm emancipatory learning. We concluded that the feedback between customers and farmers offers the potential for learning, which in turn contributes to adaptive capacity. This can be a driving force for building resilience in the food system.

  16. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy

    2017-01-01

    as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. Methods and findings We used Cooke’s Classical Model...... was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food...

  17. Comparing the Sustainability of Local and Global Food Chains: A Case Study of Cheese Products in Switzerland and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Schmitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Local food has recently gained popularity under the assumption that it is more sustainable than food from distant locations. However, evidence is still lacking to fully support this assumption. The goal of this study is to compare local and global food chains in five dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, social, ethical and health, covering all stages of the chain. In particular, four cheese supply chains are compared in detail: a local (L’Etivaz and global (Le Gruyère case in Switzerland and a local (Single Gloucester and global (Cheddar case in the UK. A multi-dimensional perspective is adopted to compare their sustainability performance. Eight attributes of performance (affordability, creation and distribution of added value, information and communication, consumer behaviour, resource use, biodiversity, nutrition and animal welfare are used to frame the comparative analysis. The results suggest that local cheese performs better in the field of added value creation and distribution, animal welfare and biodiversity. Global chains, by contrast, perform better in terms of affordability and efficiency and some environmental indicators. This analysis needed to be expressed in qualitative terms rather than quantified indicators and it has been especially useful to identify the critical issues and trade-offs that hinder sustainability at different scales. Cheese supply chains in Switzerland and the UK also often present hybrid arrangements in term of local and global scales. Comparison is therefore most meaningful when presented on a local (farmhouse/global (creamery continuum.

  18. Is the available cropland and water enough for food demand? A global perspective of the Land-Water-Food nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola-Rivas, M. J.; Granados-Ramirez, R.; Nonhebel, S.

    2017-01-01

    Land and water are essential local resources for food production but are limited. The main drivers of increasing food demand are population growth and dietary changes, which depend on the socioeconomic situation of the population. These two factors affect the availability of local resources:

  19. Food Consumption and its Impact on Cardiovascular Disease: Importance of Solutions Focused on the Globalized Food System: A Report From the Workshop Convened by the World Heart Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sonia S; Hawkes, Corinna; de Souza, Russell J; Mente, Andrew; Dehghan, Mahshid; Nugent, Rachel; Zulyniak, Michael A; Weis, Tony; Bernstein, Adam M; Krauss, Ronald M; Kromhout, Daan; Jenkins, David J A; Malik, Vasanti; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Yusuf, Salim; Willett, Walter C; Popkin, Barry M

    2015-10-06

    Major scholars in the field, on the basis of a 3-day consensus, created an in-depth review of current knowledge on the role of diet in cardiovascular disease (CVD), the changing global food system and global dietary patterns, and potential policy solutions. Evidence from different countries and age/race/ethnicity/socioeconomic groups suggesting the health effects studies of foods, macronutrients, and dietary patterns on CVD appear to be far more consistent though regional knowledge gaps is highlighted. Large gaps in knowledge about the association of macronutrients to CVD in low- and middle-income countries particularly linked with dietary patterns are reviewed. Our understanding of foods and macronutrients in relationship to CVD is broadly clear; however, major gaps exist both in dietary pattern research and ways to change diets and food systems. On the basis of the current evidence, the traditional Mediterranean-type diet, including plant foods and emphasis on plant protein sources provides a well-tested healthy dietary pattern to reduce CVD. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Status and determinants of small farming households' food security and role of market access in enhancing food security in rural Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Ijaz Ahmed

    Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a household survey of 576 households conducted through face-to-face interviews using structured interviews in Punjab, Pakistan. Food security status is calculated using dietary intake method. The study findings show that one-fourth of the households are food insecure. The study findings reveal that farm households perceive increase in food prices, crop diseases, lack of irrigation water and increase in health expenses as major livelihood risks. Further, the results of logistic regression show that family size, monthly income, food prices, health expenses and debt are main factors influencing the food security status of rural households. Furthermore, the market accessibility factors (road distance and transportation cost do significantly affect the small farming household food security. The results suggest that local food security can be enhanced by creating off-farm employment opportunities, improved transportation facilities and road infrastructure.

  1. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  2. Global IP6K1 deletion enhances temperature modulated energy expenditure which reduces carbohydrate and fat induced weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhang Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: IP6 kinases (IP6Ks regulate cell metabolism and survival. Mice with global (IP6K1-KO or adipocyte-specific (AdKO deletion of IP6K1 are protected from diet induced obesity (DIO at ambient (23 °C temperature. AdKO mice are lean primarily due to increased AMPK mediated thermogenic energy expenditure (EE. Thus, at thermoneutral (30 °C temperature, high fat diet (HFD-fed AdKO mice expend energy and gain body weight, similar to control mice. IP6K1 is ubiquitously expressed; thus, it is critical to determine to what extent the lean phenotype of global IP6K1-KO mice depends on environmental temperature. Furthermore, it is not known whether IP6K1 regulates AMPK mediated EE in cells, which do not express UCP1. Methods: Q-NMR, GTT, food intake, EE, QRT-PCR, histology, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR, fatty acid metabolism assays, and immunoblot studies were conducted in IP6K1-KO and WT mice or cells. Results: Global IP6K1 deletion mediated enhancement in EE is impaired albeit not abolished at 30 °C. As a result, IP6K1-KO mice are protected from DIO, insulin resistance, and fatty liver even at 30 °C. Like AdKO, IP6K1-KO mice display enhanced adipose tissue browning. However, unlike AdKO mice, thermoneutrality only partly abolishes browning in IP6K1-KO mice. Cold (5 °C exposure enhances carbohydrate expenditure, whereas 23 °C and 30 °C promote fat oxidation in HFD-KO mice. Furthermore, IP6K1 deletion diminishes cellular fat accumulation via activation of the AMPK signaling pathway. Conclusions: Global deletion of IP6K1 ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance irrespective of the environmental temperature conditions, which strengthens its validity as an anti-obesity target. Keywords: IP6K, Obesity, Diabetes, Energy expenditure, β-oxidation

  3. The US Food and Drug Administration's tentative approval process and the global fight against HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; Murray, Jeffrey S; Shimer, Martin; Capella, Peter; Presto, Ryan; Valdez, Mary Lou; Lurie, Peter G

    2017-12-01

    In 2004, the US government began to utilize the Food and Drug Administration's (USFDA) tentative approval process (tFDA) as a basis to determine which HIV drugs are appropriate to be purchased and used in resource-constrained settings. This process permits products that are not approved for marketing in the US, including medicines with active patents or marketing restrictions in the US, to be purchased and distributed in resource-constrained settings. Although the tFDA was originally intended to support the United States' President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the USFDA list has become a cornerstone of international HIV programmes that support procurement of ARVs, such as the World Health Organization and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. Our objective in this article is to help the global HIV policy makers and implementers of HIV programmes better understand the benefits and limitations of the tFDA by providing an in-depth review of the relevant legal and regulatory processes. USFDA's dedicated tFDA process for ARVs used by the PEPFAR programme has a wide impact globally; however, the implementation and the regulatory processes governing the programme have not been thoroughly described in the medical literature. This paper seeks to help stakeholders better understand the legal and regulatory aspects associated with review of ARVs under the tFDA by describing the following: (1) the tFDA and its importance to global ARV procurement; (2) the regulatory pathways for applications under tFDA for the PEPFAR programme, including modifications to applications, review timelines and costs; (3) the role of US patents, US marketing exclusivity rights, and the Medicines Patents Pool in tFDA; and (4) an overview of how applications for PEPFAR programme are processed through the USFDA. We also provide a case study of a new ARV, tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), not yet reviewed by USFDA for PEPFAR use. In this paper, we describe the

  4. Training enhancement of Japanese nuclear international talented staffs hurried by rushing in global age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; Saito, Masaki; Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power has attracted international attention with its beneficial roles in realizing a low-carbon society and serving as an energy source. Many countries would expect cooperation with Japanese nuclear industry continuing construction of nuclear power plants. Such global requests would inevitably require training enhancement of Japanese international talented staffs and establishment of human networks in younger generation. This feature article collected related activities of academia and electric utilities, status of Asian trainee acceptance and proposals from persons with experience of studying abroad and staying overseas organization. Issues related with training enhancement and their countermeasures were broadly discussed. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  6. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B; Poinern, Gerrard Eddy Jai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices.

  7. Progress towards Sustainable Utilisation and Management of Food Wastes in the Global Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Purabi R.; Fawcett, Derek; Sharma, Shashi B.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of food waste has attracted considerable interest from food producers, processors, retailers, and consumers alike. Food waste is considered not only a sustainability problem related to food security, but also an economic problem since it directly impacts the profitability of the whole food supply chain. In developed countries, consumers are one of the main contributors to food waste and ultimately pay for all wastes produced throughout the food supply chain. To secure food and reduce food waste, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the various sources of food wastes throughout the food supply chain. The present review examines various reports currently in the literature and quantifies waste levels and examines the trends in wastage for various food sectors such as fruit and vegetable, fisheries, meat and poultry, grain, milk, and dairy. Factors contributing to food waste, effective cost/benefit food waste utilisation methods, sustainability and environment considerations, and public acceptance are identified as hurdles in preventing large-scale food waste processing. Thus, we highlight the need for further research to identify and report food waste so that government regulators and food supply chain stakeholders can actively develop effective waste utilisation practices. PMID:27847805

  8. Lagged life cycle structures for food products: Their role in global marketing, their determinants and some problems in their estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baadsgaard, Allan; Gede, Mads Peter; Grunert, Klaus G.

    cycles for different product categories may be lagged (type II lag) because changes in economic and other factors will result in demands for different products. Identifying lagged life cycle structures major importance in global marketing of food products. The problems in arriving at such estimates...

  9. PulseNet International: Vision for the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for global food-borne disease surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadon, Celine; Van Walle, Ivo; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Campos, Josefina; Chinen, Isabel; Concepcion-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Gilpin, Brent; Smith, Anthony M; Man Kam, Kai; Perez, Enrique; Trees, Eija; Kubota, Kristy; Takkinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Carleton, Heather

    2017-01-01

    PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The

  10. Enhanced or Weakened Western North Pacific Subtropical High under Global Warming?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Chao; Zhou, Tianjun; Lin, Ailan; Wu, Bo; Gu, Dejun; Li, Chunhui; Zheng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The Western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) regulates East Asian climate in summer. Anomalous WNPSH causes floods, droughts and heat waves in China, Japan and Korea. The potential change of the WNPSH under global warming is concerned by Asian people, but whether the WNPSH would be enhanced or weakened remains inconclusive. Based on the multi-model climate change projection from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), we show evidences that the WNPSH tends to wea...

  11. Emerging Global Initiatives in Neurogenetics: The Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Carrie E; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-04-19

    The Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a global team science effort, now including over 800 scientists spread across 340 institutions in 35 countries, with the shared goal of understanding disease and genetic influences on the brain. This "crowdsourcing" approach to team neuroscience has unprecedented power for advancing our understanding of both typical and atypical human brain development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Global Monsoon in Present Warm Period Due to Natural and Anthropogenic Forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate global monsoon precipitation (GMP changes between the Present Warm Period (PWP, 1900–2000 and the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1250–1850 by performing millennium sensitivity simulations using the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 (CESM1. Three millennium simulations are carried out under time-varying solar, volcanic and greenhouse gas (GHG forcing, respectively, from 501 to 2000 AD. Compared to the global-mean surface temperature of the cold LIA, the global warming in the PWP caused by high GHG concentration is about 0.42 °C, by strong solar radiation is 0.14 °C, and by decreased volcanic activity is 0.07 °C. The GMP increases in these three types of global warming are comparable, being 0.12, 0.058, and 0.055 mm day−1, respectively. For one degree of global warming, the GMP increase induced by strong GHG forcing is 2.2% °C−1, by strong solar radiation is 2.8% °C−1, and by decreased volcanic forcing is 5.5% °C−1, which means that volcanic forcing is most effective in terms of changing the GMP among these three external forcing factors. Under volcanic inactivity-related global warming, both monsoon moisture and circulation are enhanced, and the enhanced circulation mainly occurs in the Northern Hemisphere (NH. The circulation, however, is weakened in the other two cases, and the GMP intensification is mainly caused by increased moisture. Due to large NH volcanic aerosol concentration in the LIA, the inter-hemispheric thermal contrast of PWP global warming tends to enhance NH monsoon circulation. Compared to the GHG forcing, solar radiation tends to warm low-latitude regions and cause a greater monsoon moisture increase, resulting in a stronger GMP increase. The finding in this study is important for predicting the GMP in future anthropogenic global warming when a change in natural solar or volcanic activity occurs.

  13. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  15. Prediction of seasonal climate-induced variations in global food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizumi, Toshichika; Sakuma, Hirofumi; Yokozawa, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    attention to the cropping forecasts of important food-exporting countries as well as to their own domestic food production. Given the increased volatility of food markets and the rising incidence of climatic extremes affecting food production, food price spikes may increase in prevalence in future years(2......Consumers, including the poor in many countries, are increasingly dependent on food imports(1) and are thus exposed to variations in yields, production and export prices in the major food-producing regions of the world. National governments and commercial entities are therefore paying increased...

  16. Activation of pyramidal neurons in mouse medial prefrontal cortex enhances food seeking behavior while reducing impulsivity in the absence of an effect on food intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel McAllister Warthen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons, which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting pyramidal neurons in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADD enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects in affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC pyramidal neurons enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC pyramidal neurons had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control.

  17. Eating 'Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-12-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after 'junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by 'junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general 'read out' of mesolimbic function after 'junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a 'junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating 'junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after 'junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction.

  18. Eating ‘Junk-Food' Produces Rapid and Long-Lasting Increases in NAc CP-AMPA Receptors: Implications for Enhanced Cue-Induced Motivation and Food Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginsky, Max F; Goforth, Paulette B; Nobile, Cameron W; Lopez-Santiago, Luis F; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2016-01-01

    Urges to eat are influenced by stimuli in the environment that are associated with food (food cues). Obese people are more sensitive to food cues, reporting stronger craving and consuming larger portions after food cue exposure. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) mediates cue-triggered motivational responses, and activations in the NAc triggered by food cues are stronger in people who are susceptible to obesity. This has led to the idea that alterations in NAc function similar to those underlying drug addiction may contribute to obesity, particularly in obesity-susceptible individuals. Motivational responses are mediated in part by NAc AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission, and recent work shows that cue-triggered motivation is enhanced in obesity-susceptible rats after ‘junk-food' diet consumption. Therefore, here we determined whether NAc AMPAR expression and function is increased by ‘junk-food' diet consumption in obesity-susceptible vs -resistant populations using both outbred and selectively bred models of susceptibility. In addition, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was used as a general ‘read out' of mesolimbic function after ‘junk-food' consumption. We found a sensitized locomotor response to cocaine in rats that gained weight on a ‘junk-food' diet, consistent with greater responsivity of mesolimbic circuits in obesity-susceptible groups. In addition, eating ‘junk-food' increased NAc calcium-permeable-AMPAR (CP-AMPAR) function only in obesity-susceptible rats. This increase occurred rapidly, persisted for weeks after ‘junk-food' consumption ceased, and preceded the development of obesity. These data are considered in light of enhanced cue-triggered motivation and striatal function in obesity-susceptible rats and the role of NAc CP-AMPARs in enhanced motivation and addiction. PMID:27383008

  19. Impact of swine reproductive technologies on pig and global food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Robert V

    2014-01-01

    Reproductive technologies have dramatically changed the way pigs are raised for pork production in developed and developing countries. This has involved such areas as pigs produced/sow, more consistent pig flow to market, pig growth rate and feed efficiency, carcass yield and quality, labor efficiency, and pig health. Some reproductive technologies are in widespread use for commercial pork operations [Riesenbeck, Reprod Domest Anim 46:1-3, 2011] while others are in limited use in specific segments of the industry [Knox, Reprod Domest Anim 46:4-6, 2011]. Significant changes in the efficiency of pork production have occurred as a direct result of the use of reproductive technologies that were intended to improve the transfer of genes important for food production [Gerrits et al., Theriogenology 63:283-299, 2005]. While some technologies focused on the efficiency of gene transfer, others addressed fertility and labor issues. Among livestock species, pig reproductive efficiency appears to have achieved exceptionally high rates of performance (PigCHAMP 2011) [Benchmark 2011, Ames, IA, 12-16]. From the maternal side, this includes pigs born per litter, farrowing rate, as well as litters per sow per year. On the male side, boar fertility, sperm production, and sows served per sire have improved as well [Knox et al., Theriogenology, 70:1202-1208, 2008]. These shifts in the efficiency of swine fertility have resulted in the modern pig as one of the most efficient livestock species for global food production. These reproductive changes have predominantly occurred in developed countries, but data suggests transfer and adoption of these in developing countries as well (FAO STAT 2009; FAS 2006) [World pig meat production: food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, 2009; FAS, 2006) Worldwide Pork Production, 2006]. Technological advancements in swine reproduction have had profound effects on industry structure, production, efficiency, quality, and profitability. In

  20. Global and regional health effects of future food production under climate change: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springmann, Marco; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman; Garnett, Tara; Godfray, H Charles J; Gollin, Douglas; Rayner, Mike; Ballon, Paola; Scarborough, Peter

    2016-05-07

    One of the most important consequences of climate change could be its effects on agriculture. Although much research has focused on questions of food security, less has been devoted to assessing the wider health impacts of future changes in agricultural production. In this modelling study, we estimate excess mortality attributable to agriculturally mediated changes in dietary and weight-related risk factors by cause of death for 155 world regions in the year 2050. For this modelling study, we linked a detailed agricultural modelling framework, the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT), to a comparative risk assessment of changes in fruit and vegetable consumption, red meat consumption, and bodyweight for deaths from coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, and an aggregate of other causes. We calculated the change in the number of deaths attributable to climate-related changes in weight and diets for the combination of four emissions pathways (a high emissions pathway, two medium emissions pathways, and a low emissions pathway) and three socioeconomic pathways (sustainable development, middle of the road, and more fragmented development), which each included six scenarios with variable climatic inputs. The model projects that by 2050, climate change will lead to per-person reductions of 3·2% (SD 0·4%) in global food availability, 4·0% (0·7%) in fruit and vegetable consumption, and 0·7% (0·1%) in red meat consumption. These changes will be associated with 529,000 climate-related deaths worldwide (95% CI 314,000-736,000), representing a 28% (95% CI 26-33) reduction in the number of deaths that would be avoided because of changes in dietary and weight-related risk factors between 2010 and 2050. Twice as many climate-related deaths were associated with reductions in fruit and vegetable consumption than with climate-related increases in the prevalence of underweight, and most climate-related deaths were projected to

  1. Albedo enhancement over land to counteract global warming: impacts on hydrological cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, Govindasamy; Nag, Bappaditya [Indian Institute of Science, Divecha Center for Climate Change and Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2012-09-15

    A recent modelling study has shown that precipitation and runoff over land would increase when the reflectivity of marine clouds is increased to counter global warming. This implies that large scale albedo enhancement over land could lead to a decrease in runoff over land. In this study, we perform simulations using NCAR CAM3.1 that have implications for Solar Radiation Management geoengineering schemes that increase the albedo over land. We find that an increase in reflectivity over land that mitigates the global mean warming from a doubling of CO{sub 2} leads to a large residual warming in the southern hemisphere and cooling in the northern hemisphere since most of the land is located in northern hemisphere. Precipitation and runoff over land decrease by 13.4 and 22.3%, respectively, because of a large residual sinking motion over land triggered by albedo enhancement over land. Soil water content also declines when albedo over land is enhanced. The simulated magnitude of hydrological changes over land are much larger when compared to changes over oceans in the recent marine cloud albedo enhancement study since the radiative forcing over land needed (-8.2 W m{sup -2}) to counter global mean radiative forcing from a doubling of CO{sub 2} (3.3 W m{sup -2}) is approximately twice the forcing needed over the oceans (-4.2 W m{sup -2}). Our results imply that albedo enhancement over oceans produce climates closer to the unperturbed climate state than do albedo changes on land when the consequences on land hydrology are considered. Our study also has important implications for any intentional or unintentional large scale changes in land surface albedo such as deforestation/afforestation/reforestation, air pollution, and desert and urban albedo modification. (orig.)

  2. Geotraceability: an innovative concept to enhance conventional traceability in the agri-food chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oger, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization of trade, people have become enlightened and demanding consumers as regards the origin of their food and the environment in which it is produced. The concept of geotraceability described in this article responds to that requirement by combining geographical information with conventional traceability data. The inclusion of geographical information relating to the environment of the production plots is based not only on exploiting some functionalities of spatial analysis tools that exist in geographical information systems (GIS but also on developing specific tools such as a geoidentifier and geoindicators. This article also describes the characteristics and methods of implementing a geographical information management system linked with traceability information. Lastly, the potential for using geotraceability systems in supply chains is analyzed, in particular for consumer warnings in cases of food crisis and assistance for certification of differentiated quality agricultural products.

  3. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P.; Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F.; Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R.; Aiking, H.; Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K.; Lysen, E.

    2008-01-01

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics

  4. Unraveling the nexus between water and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean: regional and global implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willaarts, Barbara; Garrido, Alberto; Soriano, Barbara; De Stefano, Lucia; López Gunn, Elena; Aldaya, Maite; Martínez-Santos, Pedro; Llamas, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) is a water and land abundant region, and plays a key role in meeting global food and water security. During the last decade, LAC has experience a rapid socio-economic growth, largely sustained by its competitive advantage in the production and exports of agricultural and mining products and by the high commodity prices in the global market. This study seeks to quantify the contribution of LAC's agriculture to global food and water security, i.e. virtual water trade, and evaluate the environmental and societal implications for regional development. Results show that between 2000 and 2011, LAC has increase its agricultural production 27%, and it now accounts for nearly 18% of the global agricultural market. As a result, the agricultural water footprint (WF) of LAC was augmented 65%; and yet, nearly 19% to 44% of the actual agricultural WF - depending on the countries - is virtual water exported to third countries. In fact, almost 50% of the increase in global virtual water trade during the last decade, corresponds to LAC. Such global contribution has significant implications for regional water and food security. From an environmental perspective, crop expansion (mostly rain-fed) resulted in the deforestation of nearly 1 million km2, turning this region into the second most important deforestation hotspots worldwide. This land clearing is having large impacts of ecosystem services, e.g. carbon sequestration, water quality or biodiversity conservation. From a socio-economic perspective, increasing agricultural production has improved regional food security indicators, although one every seven children is still stunted in LAC and nearly 10% of the population remains undernourished. Dietary shifts and socio-cultural factors also lag behind the growing problem of malnutrition in the region, i.e. overweight and obesity. Improvements of water access and sanitation, have had a positive impact on food security indicators, especially

  5. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L.; Scheben, Armin; Edwards, David; Spillane, Charles; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-01-01

    overall genetic gain of multigenic traits. An integrated approach involving multiple stakeholders specializing in management and utilization of genetic resources, crop breeding, molecular biology and genomics, agronomy, stress tolerance, and reproductive/seed biology will help to address the global challenge of ensuring food security in the face of growing resource demands and climate change induced stresses. PMID:28900432

  6. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam L. Dwivedi

    2017-08-01

    efficiency and overall genetic gain of multigenic traits. An integrated approach involving multiple stakeholders specializing in management and utilization of genetic resources, crop breeding, molecular biology and genomics, agronomy, stress tolerance, and reproductive/seed biology will help to address the global challenge of ensuring food security in the face of growing resource demands and climate change induced stresses.

  7. Tim Lang and Michael Heasman, Food Wars. The Global Battle for Mouths, Minds and Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Amilien

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Food wars can be understood as a war declaration against nowadays food-world. This book is full of images for a sustainable world which is opposition with the social and economic unfair society we live in. The authors propose quite concrete solution for a new food policy and draw a new frame for food policy and public health.Core arguments are simple: “Food policy is in crisis, in particular over health.” The unique model of food supply we have followed the last 50 years cannot continue that ...

  8. Silica in situ enhanced PVA/chitosan biodegradable films for food packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhen; Li, Baoqiang; Chu, Jiayu; Zhang, Peifeng

    2018-03-15

    Non-degradable plastic food packages threaten the security of environment. The cost-effective and biodegradable polymer films with good mechanical properties and low permeability are very important for food packages. Among of biodegradable polymers, PVA/chitosan (CS) biodegradable films have attracted considerable attention because of feasible film forming ability. However, PVA/CS biodegradable films suffered from poor mechanical properties. To improve mechanical properties of PVA/CS biodegradable films, we developed SiO 2 in situ to enhance PVA/CS biodegradable films via hydrolysis of sodium metasilicate in presence of PVA and chitosan solution. The tensile strength of PVA/CS biodegradable films was improved 45% when 0.6 wt.% SiO 2 was incorporated into the films. Weight loss of PVA/CS biodegradable films was 60% after 30 days in the soil. The permeability of oxygen and moisture of PVA/CS biodegradable films was reduced by 25.6% and 10.2%, respectively. SiO 2 in situ enhanced PVA/CS biodegradable films possessed not only excellent mechanical properties, but also barrier of oxygen and water for food packages to extend the perseveration time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing anaerobic digestion performance of crude lipid in food waste by enzymatic pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ying; Luan, Fubo; Yuan, Hairong; Chen, Xue; Li, Xiujin

    2017-01-01

    Three lipases were applied to hydrolyze the floatable grease (FG) in the food waste for eliminating FG inhibition and enhancing digestion performance in anaerobic process. Lipase-I, Lipase-II, and Lipase-III obtained from different sources were used. Animal fat (AF) and vegetable oil (VO) are major crude lipids in Chinese food waste, therefore, applied as substrates for anaerobic digestion tests. The results showed that Lipase-I and Lipase-II were capable of obviously releasing long chain fatty acid in AF, VO, and FG when hydrolyzed in the conditions of 24h, 1000-1500μL and 40-50°C. Compared to the untreated controls, the biomethane production rate were increased by 80.8-157.7%, 26.9-53.8%, and 37.0-40.7% for AF, VO, and FG, respectively, and the digestion time was shortened by 10-40d. The finding suggests that pretreating lipids with appropriate lipase could be one of effective methods for enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste rich in crude lipid. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.; Kane, Karisa D.

    1998-01-01

    Enhancing competitiveness in the global airline industry is at the forefront of attention with airlines, government, and the flying public. The seemingly unchecked growth of major airline alliances is heralded as an enhancement to global competition. However, like many mega-conglomerates, mega-airlines will face complications driven by size regardless of the many recitations of enhanced efficiency. Outlined herein is a conceptual model to serve as a decision tool for policy-makers, managers, and consumers of airline services. This model is developed using public data for the United States (U.S.) major airline industry available from the U/S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Transportation Safety Board, and other public and private sector sources. Data points include number of accidents, pilot deviations, operational performance indicators, flight problems, and other factors. Data from these sources provide opportunity to develop a model based on a complex dot product equation of two vectors. A row vector is weighted for importance by a key informant panel of government, industry, and consumer experts, while a column vector is established with the factor value. The resulting equation, known as the national Airline Quality Rating (AQR), where Q is quality, C is weight, and V is the value of the variables, is stated Q=C[i1-19] x V[i1-19]. Looking at historical patterns of AQR results provides the basis for establishment of an industry benchmark for the purpose of enhancing airline operational performance. A 7 year average of overall operational performance provides the resulting benchmark indicator. Applications from this example can be applied to the many competitive environments of the global industry and assist policy-makers faced with rapidly changing regulatory challenges.

  11. Global Analysis of Food and Nutrition: What the Human Body Wants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Foo, Mathias; Sung, Jaeyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2014-03-01

    There is currently an abundance of quantitative information regarding foods we consume, such as their total nutrient composition and daily nutritional requirements. In this study, we systematically analyzed such large-scale data of foods to better understand how the composition of foods affects their overall nutritional value. Herein, we constructed two types of networks that reflect nutritional data from about 700 food products: 1) The Food-food Network, in which each edge connects a pair of foods having similar nutritional contents; and 2) the Nutrient-nutrient Network, which is based on co-occurrence patterns of different nutrients across foods. By adopting the insight we obtained from the topological properties of these networks, we present a novel measure to quantify the overall nutritional value of a food, which we call the Nutritional Fitness (NF). Some nutrients can hinder foods from having high NF, acting as ``nutritional bottlenecks.'' Interestingly, a food's NF is not only affected by individual nutrients, but also pairs of nutrients. To this effect, foods with very high NFs tend to have unique nutrient pairs not observed from the majority of foods. To summarize, our study provides insight into how NF and nutrients are intricately related.

  12. Food macromolecule based nanodelivery systems for enhancing the bioavailability of polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet polyphenols—primarily categorized into flavonoids (e.g., flavonols, flavones, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and isoflavones and nonflavonoids (with major subclasses of stilbenes and phenolic acids—are reported to have health-promoting effects, such as antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticarcinoma, antimicrobial, antiviral, and cardioprotective properties. However, their applications in functional foods or medicine are limited because of their inefficient systemic delivery and poor oral bioavailability. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, curcumin, and resveratrol are the well-known representatives of the bioactive diet polyphenols but with poor bioavailability. Food macromolecule based nanoparticles have been fabricated using reassembled proteins, crosslinked polysaccharides, protein–polysaccharide conjugates (complexes, as well as emulsified lipid via safe procedures that could be applied in food. The human gastrointestinal digestion tract is the first place where the food grade macromolecule nanoparticles exert their effects on improving the bioavailability of diet polyphenols, via enhancing their solubility, preventing their degradation in the intestinal environment, elevating the permeation in small intestine, and even increasing their contents in the bloodstream. We contend that the stability and structure behaviors of nanocarriers in the gastrointestinal tract environment and the effects of nanoencapsulation on the metabolism of polyphenols warrant more focused attention in further studies.

  13. Global change-driven effects on dissolved organic matter composition: Implications for food webs of northern lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Irena F; Bergström, Ann-Kristin; Trick, Charles G; Grimm, Nancy B; Hessen, Dag O; Karlsson, Jan; Kidd, Karen A; Kritzberg, Emma; McKnight, Diane M; Freeman, Erika C; Senar, Oscar E; Andersson, Agneta; Ask, Jenny; Berggren, Martin; Cherif, Mehdi; Giesler, Reiner; Hotchkiss, Erin R; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Palta, Monica M; Vrede, Tobias; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A

    2018-03-15

    Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems-with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes. Northern terrestrial ecosystems contain substantial stores of organic matter and filter or funnel DOM, affecting the timing and magnitude of DOM delivery to surface waters. This terrestrial DOM is processed in streams, rivers, and lakes, ultimately shifting its composition, stoichiometry, and bioavailability. Here, we explore the potential consequences of these global change-driven effects for lake food webs at northern latitudes. Notably, we provide evidence that increased allochthonous DOM supply to lakes is overwhelming increased autochthonous DOM supply that potentially results from earlier ice-out and a longer growing season. Furthermore, we assess the potential implications of this shift for the nutritional quality of autotrophs in terms of their stoichiometry, fatty acid composition, toxin production, and methylmercury concentration, and therefore, contaminant transfer through the food web. We conclude that global change in northern regions leads not only to reduced primary productivity but also to nutritionally poorer lake food webs, with discernible consequences for the trophic web to fish and humans. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Body and Mind: Mindfulness Helps Consumers to Compensate for Prior Food Intake by Enhancing the Responsiveness to Physiological Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van de E.; Herpen, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    External cues regularly override physiological cues in food consumption resulting in mindless eating. In a series of experiments, this study shows that mindfulness, an enhanced attention state, improves consumers’ reliance on physiological cues across consumption episodes. Consumers who are

  15. Major threats of pollution and climate change to global coastal ecosystems and enhanced management for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonglong; Yuan, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaotian; Su, Chao; Zhang, Yueqing; Wang, Chenchen; Cao, Xianghui; Li, Qifeng; Su, Jilan; Ittekkot, Venugopalan; Garbutt, Richard Angus; Bush, Simon; Fletcher, Stephen; Wagey, Tonny; Kachur, Anatolii; Sweijd, Neville

    2018-08-01

    Coastal zone is of great importance in the provision of various valuable ecosystem services. However, it is also sensitive and vulnerable to environmental changes due to high human populations and interactions between the land and ocean. Major threats of pollution from over enrichment of nutrients, increasing metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and climate change have led to severe ecological degradation in the coastal zone, while few studies have focused on the combined impacts of pollution and climate change on the coastal ecosystems at the global level. A global overview of nutrients, metals, POPs, and major environmental changes due to climate change and their impacts on coastal ecosystems was carried out in this study. Coasts of the Eastern Atlantic and Western Pacific were hotspots of concentrations of several pollutants, and mostly affected by warming climate. These hotspots shared the same features of large populations, heavy industry and (semi-) closed sea. Estimation of coastal ocean capital, integrated management of land-ocean interaction in the coastal zone, enhancement of integrated global observation system, and coastal ecosystem-based management can play effective roles in promoting sustainable management of coastal marine ecosystems. Enhanced management from the perspective of mitigating pollution and climate change was proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimating the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake from national food balance sheets: effects of methodological assumptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate zinc intake in a population can be estimated by comparing the zinc content of the food supply with the population's theoretical requirement for zinc. However, assumptions regarding the nutrient composition of foods, zinc requirements, and zinc absorption may affect prevalence estimates. These analyses were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effect of varying methodological assumptions on country-specific estimates of the prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and (2 generate a model considered to provide the best estimates.National food balance data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Zinc and phytate contents of these foods were estimated from three nutrient composition databases. Zinc absorption was predicted using a mathematical model (Miller equation. Theoretical mean daily per capita physiological and dietary requirements for zinc were calculated using recommendations from the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group. The estimated global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake varied between 12-66%, depending on which methodological assumptions were applied. However, country-specific rank order of the estimated prevalence of inadequate intake was conserved across all models (r = 0.57-0.99, P<0.01. A "best-estimate" model, comprised of zinc and phytate data from a composite nutrient database and IZiNCG physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, estimated the global prevalence of inadequate zinc intake to be 17.3%.Given the multiple sources of uncertainty in this method, caution must be taken in the interpretation of the estimated prevalence figures. However, the results of all models indicate that inadequate zinc intake may be fairly common globally. Inferences regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem in different countries can be drawn based on the country

  17. South Korea's entry to the global food economy: shifts in consumption of food between 1998 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Duffey, Kiyah J; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-01-01

    Korea has undergone a major opening of its food markets and economy in the past decade. Little is understood about the impact of these shifts on the diet of Koreans. This analysis studies the shifts in consumption of foods between 1998 and 2009 to provide a thorough understanding of the transition and insights into directions in the next decades in Korea. Data are from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The sample used was a nationally representative sample of individuals age ≥2 in 1998 and 2009 (n=10,267 and 9,264, respectively). The data was corrected for seasonality, and the original raw food data was regrouped into 53 food groups. SAS was used to adjust for design effects and weight. Despite a decade of efforts to increase whole grains intake, and fruit and vegetable intake, the mean intake of whole grains increased only a small amount (16 kcal/person/day); however, the proportion consuming any whole grains doubled from 24% to 46.3%. Rice declined significantly, and several important less healthful food trends emerged: total alcohol intake increased from 39 kcal/person/day to 82 kcal/person/day. Also, energy from sugar-sweetened beverages increased among teens and energy from tea and coffee increased among adults. Remarkably, compared to other Asian countries and a general worldwide trend, vegetable intake remained relative high in South Korea during this last decade while fat energy increased modestly from relative low levels. Dynamic causes of these trends and the government's response are discussed.

  18. South Korea’s entry to the global food economy: Shifts in consumption of food between 1998 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeng-Shin; Duffey, Kiyah J.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Korea has undergone a major opening of its food markets and economy in the past decade. Little is understood about the impact of these shifts on the diet of Koreans. This analysis studies the shifts in consumption of foods between 1998 and 2009 to provide a thorough understanding of the transition and insights into directions in the next decades in Korea. Data are from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a nationally representative sample of individuals age ≥2 in 1998 and 2009 (n=10,267 and 9,264, respectively). The data are corrected for seasonality, and the original raw food data are regrouped into 53 food groups. SAS is used to adjust for design effects and weight the results. Despite a decade of efforts to increase whole grains intake and fruit and vegetable intake, the mean intake of whole grains increased only a small amount (+16 kcal/person/d); however, the proportion consuming any whole grains doubled from 24% to 46.3%. Rice declined significantly, and several important less healthful food trends emerged: total Alcohol intake increased from 39 kcal/person/d to 82 kcal/person/d. Also, energy from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages increased among teens and energy from Tea & Coffee increased among adults. Remarkably, compared to other Asian countries and a general worldwide trend, vegetable intake remained very high in South Korea during this last decade while fat energy increased modestly from very low levels. Dynamic causes of these trends and the government’s response are discussed. PMID:23017321

  19. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions.We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates.We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world

  1. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie; Angulo, Frederick; Gibb, Herman; Kirk, Martyn; Lake, Robin; Speybroeck, Niko; Torgerson, Paul; Hald, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates. We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world, providing guidance

  2. Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  3. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Tulio Rosembuj

    2006-01-01

    There is no singular globalization, nor is the result of an individual agent. We could start by saying that global action has different angles and subjects who perform it are different, as well as its objectives. The global is an invisible invasion of materials and immediate effects.

  4. Exploring the biogeophysical limits of global food production under different climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vrese, Philipp; Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    An adapted Earth system model is used to investigate the limitations that future climate and water availability impose on the potential expansion and productivity of croplands. The model maximizes the cropland area under prevailing climate conditions and accounts for an optimized, sustainable irrigation practice, thus allowing us to consider the two-way feedback between climate and agriculture. For three greenhouse gas concentration scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP8.5), we show that the total cropland area could be extended substantially throughout the 21st century, especially in South America and sub-Saharan Africa, where the rising water demand resulting from increasing temperatures can largely be met by increasing precipitation and irrigation rates. When accounting for the CO2 fertilization effect, only a few agricultural areas have to be abandoned owing to declines in productivity, while increasing temperatures allow for the expansion of croplands even into high northern latitudes. Without the CO2 fertilization effect there is no increase in the overall cropland fraction during the second half of the century but areal losses in increasingly water-stressed regions can be compensated for by an expansion in regions that were previously too cold. However, global yields are more sensitive and, without the benefits of CO2 fertilization, they may decrease when greenhouse gas concentrations exceed the RCP4.5 scenario. For certain regions the situation is even more concerning and guaranteeing food security in dry areas in Northern Africa, the Middle East and South Asia will become increasingly difficult, even for the idealized scenarios investigated in this study.

  5. Nitration of β-Lactoglobulin but Not of Ovomucoid Enhances Anaphylactic Responses in Food Allergic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne C Diesner

    Full Text Available We revealed in previous studies that nitration of food proteins reduces the risk of de novo sensitization in a murine food allergy model. In contrast, in situations with preformed specific IgE antibodies, in vitro experiments suggested an increased capacity of effector cell activation by nitrated food proteins.The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of protein nitration on the effector phase of food allergy.BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally (i.p. with the milk allergen β-lactoglobulin (BLG or the egg allergen ovomucoid (OVM, followed by intragastric (i.g. gavages to induce a strong local inflammatory response and allergen-specific antibodies. Subsequently, naïve and allergic mice were intravenously (i.v. challenged with untreated, sham-nitrated or nitrated BLG or OVM. Anaphylaxis was monitored by measuring core body temperature and determination of mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1 levels in blood.A significant drop of body temperature accompanied with significantly elevated concentrations of the anaphylaxis marker mMCP-1 were only observed in BLG allergic animals challenged with nitrated BLG and not in OVM allergic mice challenged with nitrated OVM. SDS-PAGE and circular dichroism analysis of the differentially modified allergens revealed an effect of nitration on the secondary protein structure exclusively for BLG together with enhanced protein aggregation.Our data suggest that nitration affects differently the food allergens BLG and OVM. In the case of BLG, structural changes favored dimerization possibly explaining the increased anaphylactic reactivity in BLG allergic animals.

  6. Hole mobility enhancement of p-MOSFETs using global and local Ge-channel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Shinichi; Tezuka, T.; Irisawa, T.; Nakaharai, S.; Maeda, T.; Numata, T.; Ikeda, K.; Sugiyama, N.

    2006-01-01

    Mobility enhancement technologies have currently been recognized as mandatory for future scaled MOSFETs. In this paper, we review our recent results on high hole mobility p-MOSFETs using global/local SiGe or Ge channels. There are two directions for introducing SiGe or Ge channels into Si CMOS platform. One is to use SiGe or Ge global substrates and the other is to form SiGe or Ge-channel regions locally on Si wafers. In both cases, the Ge condensation technique, where Ge-channel layers are formed by oxidizing SiGe films on SOI substrates, are effectively utilized. As for the global technologies, ultrathin GOI substrates are prepared and used to fabricate high mobility GOI p-MOSFETs. As for the local technologies, SGOI or GOI channels are formed locally in the active area of p-MOSFETs on SOI wafers. It is shown that the hole mobility enhancement factor of as high as 10 is obtained in locally fabricated p-MOSFETs through the effects of high-Ge content and the compressive strain. Furthermore, the local Ge-channel technologies are combined with global SiGe or Ge substrates for pursuing the optimal and individual design of n-MOSFETs and p-MOSFETs on a single Si wafer. The CMOS device composed of strained-Si n-MOSFETs and SGOI p-MOSFETs is successfully integrated on a same wafer, which is a promising CMOS structure under deep sub 100 nm technology nodes

  7. International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts. Summary of an International Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts was organized by the IAEA and held in Vienna on 1-5 July 2013. The conference was organized in cooperation with the following organizations and initiatives: the European Union; the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT); the International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL); the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management (INMM); the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI); the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE); the Partnership for Global Security; the Police Community of the Americas (AMERIPOL); the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI); the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC); the World Institute for Nuclear Security (WINS); the World Nuclear Association (WNA); and the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI). A total of 34 ministers participated in the ministerial session of the conference. Altogether, the conference attracted more than 1300 registered participants from 125 IAEA Member States and 21 organizations. The aim of the conference was to review the international community's experience and achievements to date in strengthening nuclear security, to enhance the understanding of current approaches to nuclear security worldwide and identify trends, and to provide a global forum for ministers, policymakers and senior officials to formulate views on future directions and priorities for nuclear security. This book contains the President's Summary of the conference and a summary of the ministerial session, the full text of the ministerial declaration adopted by the conference and summaries of the main conference sessions. The attached CD-ROM contains the full conference programme, the list of conference participants, the national statements from the ministerial session and a selection of papers

  8. Trading carbon for food: global comparison of carbon stocks vs. crop yields on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul C; Gibbs, Holly K; Monfreda, Chad; Wagner, John; Barford, Carol C; Carpenter, Stephen R; Foley, Jonathan A

    2010-11-16

    Expanding croplands to meet the needs of a growing population, changing diets, and biofuel production comes at the cost of reduced carbon stocks in natural vegetation and soils. Here, we present a spatially explicit global analysis of tradeoffs between carbon stocks and current crop yields. The difference among regions is striking. For example, for each unit of land cleared, the tropics lose nearly two times as much carbon (∼120 tons·ha(-1) vs. ∼63 tons·ha(-1)) and produce less than one-half the annual crop yield compared with temperate regions (1.71 tons·ha(-1)·y(-1) vs. 3.84 tons·ha(-1)·y(-1)). Therefore, newly cleared land in the tropics releases nearly 3 tons of carbon for every 1 ton of annual crop yield compared with a similar area cleared in the temperate zone. By factoring crop yield into the analysis, we specify the tradeoff between carbon stocks and crops for all areas where crops are currently grown and thereby, substantially enhance the spatial resolution relative to previous regional estimates. Particularly in the tropics, emphasis should be placed on increasing yields on existing croplands rather than clearing new lands. Our high-resolution approach can be used to determine the net effect of local land use decisions.

  9. Public private partnerships in global food governance: business engagement and legitimacy in the global fight against hunger and malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaan , Christopher; Liese , Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This article compares two transnational public?private partnerships against hunger and malnutrition, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition and the International Alliance Against Hunger with regard to their degree of business involvement and their input and output legimacy. We examine the participation of stakeholders, the accountability and transparency of the decision-making process, and the perceived provision of a public good. We identify a link between business in...

  10. Optimal cooling for the globalization of food and ornamental cultivation chains; Mondialisering van voedsel en sierteeltketens vereist optimale koeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerrigter, H.A.M. [Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    Over the last years, the design of fresh food supply chains has been changing, with improved logistics and globalization of the trade as the major driving forces. In this article the consequences of these developments for the utilization of cooling will be addressed. [Dutch] Het inrichten van distributieketens is de laatste jaren sterk veranderd door verbeterde Iogistiek en door verdere mondialisering van bederfelijke goederenstromen. De consequenties hiervan voor bet gebruik van koeling worden in dit artikel behandeld.

  11. Linking regional stakeholder scenarios and shared socioeconomic pathways: Quantified West African food and climate futures in a global context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, Amanda; Vervoort, Joost M; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Rutting, Lucas; Havlík, Petr; Islam, Shahnila; Bayala, Jules; Valin, Hugo; Kadi Kadi, Hamé Abdou; Thornton, Philip; Zougmore, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The climate change research community's shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are a set of alternative global development scenarios focused on mitigation of and adaptation to climate change. To use these scenarios as a global context that is relevant for policy guidance at regional and national levels, they have to be connected to an exploration of drivers and challenges informed by regional expertise. In this paper, we present scenarios for West Africa developed by regional stakeholders and quantified using two global economic models, GLOBIOM and IMPACT, in interaction with stakeholder-generated narratives and scenario trends and SSP assumptions. We present this process as an example of linking comparable scenarios across levels to increase coherence with global contexts, while presenting insights about the future of agriculture and food security under a range of future drivers including climate change. In these scenarios, strong economic development increases food security and agricultural development. The latter increases crop and livestock productivity leading to an expansion of agricultural area within the region while reducing the land expansion burden elsewhere. In the context of a global economy, West Africa remains a large consumer and producer of a selection of commodities. However, the growth in population coupled with rising incomes leads to increases in the region's imports. For West Africa, climate change is projected to have negative effects on both crop yields and grassland productivity, and a lack of investment may exacerbate these effects. Linking multi-stakeholder regional scenarios to the global SSPs ensures scenarios that are regionally appropriate and useful for policy development as evidenced in the case study, while allowing for a critical link to global contexts.

  12. Investigating Food and Agribusiness Corporations as Global Water Security, Management and Governance Agents: The case of Nestlé, Bunge and Cargill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Sojamo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the agency of the world’s largest food and agribusiness corporations in global water security via case studies of Nestlé, Bunge and Cargill by analysing their position in the political economy of the world agro-food system and the ways they intentionally and non-intentionally manage and govern water in their value chains and wider networks of influence. The concentrated power of a few corporations in global agro-food value chains and their ability to influence the agro-food market dynamics and networks throughout the world pose asymmetric conditions for reaching not only global food security but also water security. The article will analyse the different forms of power exercised by the corporations in focus in relation to global water security and the emerging transnational water governance regime, and the extent to which their value chain position and stakeholder interaction reflect or drive their actions. Due to their vast infrastructural and technological capacity and major role in the global agro-food political economy, food and agribusiness corporations cannot avoid increasingly engaging, for endogenous and exogenous reasons, in multi-stakeholder initiatives and partnerships to devise methods of managing the agro-food value chains and markets to promote global water security. However, their asymmetric position in relation to their stakeholders demands continuous scrutiny.

  13. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Alex; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Elliott, Joshua; Antle, John

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIPs community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPsSSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate changes impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIPs 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  14. The AgMIP Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Antle, J. M.; Elliott, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) has been working since 2010 to construct a protocol-based framework enabling regional assessments (led by regional experts and modelers) that can provide consistent inputs to global economic and integrated assessment models. These global models can then relay important global-level information that drive regional decision-making and outcomes throughout an interconnected agricultural system. AgMIP's community of nearly 800 climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts has improved the state-of-the-art through model intercomparisons, validation exercises, regional integrated assessments, and the launch of AgMIP programs on all six arable continents. AgMIP is now launching Coordinated Global and Regional Assessments (CGRA) of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security to link global and regional crop and economic models using a protocol-based framework. The CGRA protocols are being developed to utilize historical observations, climate projections, and RCPs/SSPs from CMIP5 (and potentially CMIP6), and will examine stakeholder-driven agricultural development and adaptation scenarios to provide cutting-edge assessments of climate change's impact on agriculture and food security. These protocols will build on the foundation of established protocols from AgMIP's 30+ activities, and will emphasize the use of multiple models, scenarios, and scales to enable an accurate assessment of related uncertainties. The CGRA is also designed to provide the outputs necessary to feed into integrated assessment models (IAMs), nutrition and food security assessments, nitrogen and carbon cycle models, and additional impact-sector assessments (e.g., water resources, land-use, biomes, urban areas). This presentation will describe the current status of CGRA planning and initial prototype experiments to demonstrate key aspects of the protocols before wider implementation ahead of the IPCC Sixth Assessment

  15. Evaluation of food waste disposal options by LCC analysis from the perspective of global warming: Jungnang case, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Hyung; Song, Yul-Eum; Song, Han-Byul; Kim, Jung-Wk; Hwang, Sun-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Various food waste disposal options were evaluated from the perspective of global warming. → Costs of the options were compared by the methodology of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost analysis. → Carbon price and valuable by-products were used for analyzing environmental credits. → The benefit-cost ratio of wet feeding scenario was the highest. - Abstract: The costs associated with eight food waste disposal options, dry feeding, wet feeding, composting, anaerobic digestion, co-digestion with sewage sludge, food waste disposer, incineration, and landfilling, were evaluated in the perspective of global warming and energy and/or resource recovery. An expanded system boundary was employed to compare by-products. Life cycle cost was analyzed through the entire disposal process, which included discharge, separate collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal stages, all of which were included in the system boundary. Costs and benefits were estimated by an avoided impact. Environmental benefits of each system per 1 tonne of food waste management were estimated using carbon prices resulting from CO 2 reduction by avoided impact, as well as the prices of by-products such as animal feed, compost, and electricity. We found that the cost of landfilling was the lowest, followed by co-digestion. The benefits of wet feeding systems were the highest and landfilling the lowest.

  16. Globalization, localization and food culture: perceived roles of social and cultural capitals in healthy child feeding practices in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Keiko; Ominami, Chihiro; Song, Chunyan; Murayama, Nobuko; Wolff, Cindy

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined parental perceptions of sociocultural factors associated with healthy child feeding practices among parents of preschool-age children in rural Japan. Fifteen Japanese mothers of preschool-age children participated in this qualitative study. These participants were aged 22-39 years and resided in a rural town in western Japan. We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews to assess parental perceptions of healthy child feeding practices and their relationships with globalization and localization. These interviews were transcribed, translated into English and coded, based on the principles of grounded theory. A codebook was developed and pre-identified, and the newly-identified themes from this codebook were examined and compared. Overall, local and seasonal foods, along with traditional Japanese foods and simple foods (soshoku), were considered to be beneficial for children. Participants also noted that children were expected to be mindful and exhibit good table manners that reflect cultural values related to meal-time socializing or family bonding, and food appreciation. On the other hand, the majority of the participants stated that foods containing food additives and imported foods were unsuitable for children. Participants noted that strong social capital, especially social support from their mothers or mothers-in-law, as well as social networks for obtaining fresh local foods, contributed to healthy child feeding practices. Cultural capital (including the preservation of traditional Japanese dietary habits, eating rules and inter-generational commensality), was also identified as being key to healthy feeding practices. Identifying and promoting the social and cultural capital that positively support healthy child feeding practices may be an important component of nutrition education programs.

  17. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  18. Genetic opportunities to enhance sustainability of pork production in developing countries: A model for food animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Golovan, S.P.; Ajakaiye, A.; Fan, M.Z.; Hacker, R.R.; Phillips, J.P.; Meidinger, R.G.; Kelly, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Currently there is a shortage of food and potable water in many developing countries. Superimposed upon this critical situation, because of the increasing urban wealth in these countries, there is a strong trend of increased consumption of meat, and pork in particular. The consequence of this trend will be increased agricultural pollution, resulting not only from greater use of chemical fertilizer, but also from manure spread on land as fertilizer that may enter freshwater and marine ecosystems causing extensive eutrophication and decreased water quality. The application of transgenic technologies to improve the digestive efficiency and survival of food animals, and simultaneously decreasing their environmental impact is seen as an opportunity to enhance sustainability of animal agriculture without continued capital inputs. Transgenes expressed in pigs that have potential include, for example, genes coding for phytase, lactalbumin and lactoferrin. At the University of Guelph, Escherichia coli phytase has been expressed in the salivary glands of the pig. Selected lines of these pigs utilize plant phytate phosphorus efficiently as a source of phosphorus and excrete faecal material with more than a 60 percent reduction in phosphorus content. Because of their capacity to utilize plant phytate phosphorus and to produce less polluting manure they have a valuable trait that will contribute to enhanced sustainability of pork production in developing countries, where there is less access to either high quality phosphate supplement or phytase enzyme to include in the diet. Issues that require continued consideration as a prelude to the introduction of transgenic animals into developing countries include food and environmental safety, and consumer acceptance of meat products from genetically modified animals. (author)

  19. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andru?cã Maria Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The field of globalization has highlighted an interdependence implied by a more harmonious understanding determined by the daily interaction between nations through the inducement of peace and the management of streamlining and the effectiveness of the global economy. For the functioning of the globalization, the developing countries that can be helped by the developed ones must be involved. The international community can contribute to the institution of the development environment of the gl...

  20. THE GLOBAL FOOD CRISES OF 2008 AND 2010: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Smirnova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the sharp increase in food prices means a large number of factors, which include including the development of the biofuels market, the deterioration of soil quality and crop failures, devaluation of the U.S. dollar, increased energy prices, as well as restrictions on exports and imports in several countries. Therefore, the results of the projections show that the trend of volatility of food prices will only increase. Important factor of speculation in the food market, which are considered the reason for the increase in food prices of 2007–2008 when in the opinion of some researchers, there were no major changes in demand and supply, however, the change in food prices has occurred. Thus, the economic behavior of the largest players in the food market became the reason of sudden increase of hungry people in 33 countries around the world, «food riots» and was the cause of the change of political system in some less developed countries. Volatility in food prices as 2008 and 2010 showed that simultaneous sharp increase in prices of basic food is the cause of the political instability in the countries with different type of Federal system. The key factor in the preservation of the existing regime of governance was the presence of food independence, a developed agrarian sector of the economy even in the conditions of insufficient economic development. Thus, history shows that maintaining stable prices in the domestic market for energy and food is a key task of the state.

  1. Investing in soils as an infrastructure to maintain and enhance food water and carbon services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Soils are a life support system for global society and our planet. In addition to providing the vast majority of our food; soils regulate water quality and quantity reducing the risk of floods, droughts and pollution; and as the largest store of carbon in the earth system they are critical to climate change. By providing these multiple essential services, soils act a natural form of infrastructure that is critical to supporting both rural and urban communities and economies. Can natural infrastructure and natural capital concepts be used to motivate and enable investment and regulation of soils for purposes such as soil carbon sequestration? What scientific knowledge and tools would we need to support soil infrastructure decision making - in policy arenas and elsewhere? This poster will present progress from a new research project supported by the UK research council (EP/N030532/1) that addresses these questions.

  2. DTU International Energy Report 2016: The Energy-Water-Food Nexus - from local to global aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil or...

  3. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Kampman, E.

    2007-01-01

    This Report has a number of inter-related general purposes. One is to explore the extent to which food, nutrition, physical activity, and body composition modify the risk of cancer, and to specify which factors are most important. To the extent that environmental factors such as food, nutrition, and

  4. Mergers and acquisitions in the global food processing industry in 1986–2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlfeld, K.; Weitzel, G.U.; Witteloostuijn, A. van

    2011-01-01

    Food systems around the world experienced increased merger and acquisition (M&A) activity over the past decades. Based on a sample of 13,911M&A attempts worldwide during 1986–2006, this study provides an analysis of major determinants of M&A completion in the food processing industry. Friendly

  5. Strengthening Local Safety Nets as a Key to Enhancing the Food Security of Pastoralists in East Africa: A Case Study of the Rendille of Northern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    The increase in climate-change-related natural disasters presents a major threat to the food security of pastoralists in East Africa. This paper explores ways of reducing the dependence on food aid and enhancing the food security of pastoralists through a case study of the Rendille in Northern Kenya. Current Rendille food systems have resulted from adapted livestock herding strategies and loss of nomadic lifestyles, as well as dependence on food aid. Although food aid is included in the livel...

  6. Canadian International Food Security Research Fund - Phase II ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The fund was designed to finance initiatives to solve global food and ... food security and enhance nutrition in developing countries; -increase food ... In a context of rising food prices, millions of Africans in marginal areas rely on a range of ...

  7. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... of food origin products in Tanzania that have potential for GI certification. The hypothesis was that there are origin products in Tanzania whose unique characteristics are linked to the area of production. Geographical indications can be useful policy instruments contributing to food security...... the diversity of supply of natural and unique quality products and so contribute to enhanced food security....

  8. A fuzzy-based model to implement the global safety buildings index assessment for agri-food buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Barreca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest EU policies focus on the issue of food safety with a view to ensuring adequate and standard quality levels for the food produced and/or consumed within the EC. To that purpose, the environment where agricultural products are manufactured and processed plays a crucial role in achieving food hygiene. As a consequence, it is of the outmost importance to adopt proper building solutions which meet health and hygiene requirements as well as to use suitable tools to measure the levels achieved. Similarly, it is necessary to verify and evaluate the level of workers’ safety and welfare in their working environment. Workers’ safety has not only an ethical and social value but also an economic implication, since possible accidents or environmental stressors are the major causes of the lower efficiency and productivity of workers. Therefore, it is fundamental to design suitable models of analysis that allow assessing buildings as a whole, taking into account both health and hygiene safety as well as workers’ safety and welfare. Hence, this paper proposes an assessment model that, based on an established study protocol and on the application of a fuzzy logic procedure, allows assessing the global safety level of an agri-food building by means of a global safety buildings index. The model here presented is original since it uses fuzzy logic to evaluate the performances of both the technical and environmental systems of an agri-food building in terms of health and hygiene safety of the manufacturing process as well as of workers’ health and safety. The result of the assessment is expressed through a triangular fuzzy membership function which allows carrying out comparative analyses of different buildings. A specific procedure was developed to apply the model to a case study which tested its operational simplicity and the validity of its results. The proposed model allows obtaining a synthetic and global value of the building performance of

  9. Certification of Markets, Markets of Certificates: Tracing Sustainability in Global Agro-Food Value Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a blossoming of voluntary certification initiatives for sustainable agro-food products and production processes. With these certification initiatives come traceability in supply chains, to guarantee the sustainability of the products consumed. No systematic analysis exists of traceability

  10. Measuring household food security: the global experience A medida da segurança alimentar: a experiência mundial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Melgar-Quinonez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring household food insecurity represents a challenge due to the complexity and wide array of factors associated with this phenomenon. For over one decade, researchers and agencies throughout the world have been using and assessing the validity of variations of the United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Supplemental Module. Thanks to numerous studies of diverse design, size, and purpose, the Household Food Security Supplemental Module has shown its suitability to directly evaluate the perceptions of individuals on their food security status. In addition, challenges and limitations are becoming clearer and new research questions are emerging as the process advances. The purpose of this article is to describe the development, validation procedures, and use of the Household Food Security Supplemental Module in very diverse settings. The most common Household Food Security Supplemental Module related studies have been conducted using criterion validity, Rasch modeling and Cronbach-Alpha Coefficient. It is critical that researchers, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental agencies intensify their efforts to further develop tools that provide valid and reliable measures of food security in diverse population groups. Additional work is needed to synthesize a universally applicable tool able to capture the global human phenomenon of food insecurity.Medir a insegurança alimentar domiciliar representa um desafio devido à complexidade e ao vasto número de fatores associados a este fenômeno. Por mais de uma década, pesquisadores e agências em todo o mundo têm usado o Módulo Suplementar da Segurança Alimentar Domiciliar , do Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos (Household Food Security Supplemental Module, e avaliado suas variações. Graças a numerosos estudos com diversos formatos, extensões e propósitos, a adequação do Household Food Security Supplemental Module para avaliar diretamente a

  11. Enhanced ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of food ingestion in women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Serritella, Cristina; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Maj, Mario

    2010-02-01

    In humans, the cephalic phase response to food ingestion consists mostly of vagal efferent activation, which promotes the secretion of entero-pancreatic hormones, including ghrelin. Since symptomatic patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) are characterized by increased vagal tone, we hypothesized an enhanced ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of vagal stimulation. Therefore, we investigated ghrelin response to modified sham feeding (MSF) in both BN and healthy women. Six drug-free BN women and 7 age-matched healthy females underwent MSF with initially seeing and smelling a meal, and then chewing the food without swallowing it. Blood samples were drawn immediately before and after MSF for hormone assay. Circulating ghrelin increased after MSF in both groups with BN individuals exhibiting a greater ghrelin increase, which positively correlated with the patients' weekly frequency of binge-purging. These results show for the first time an increased ghrelin secretion in the cephalic phase of vagal stimulation in symptomatic BN patients, likely resulting in a potentiation of the peripheral hunger signal, which might contribute to their aberrant binge-purging behavior. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid detection of acetamiprid in foods using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, Wisiani; Pang, Shintaro; Labuza, Theodore P; He, Lili

    2014-04-01

    Acetamiprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is commonly used in modern farming. Acetamiprid residue in food commodities can be a potential harm to human and has been implicated in the honey bee hive die off crisis. In this study, we developed rapid, simple, and sensitive methods to detect acetamiprid in apple juice and on apple surfaces using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). No pretreatment of apple juice sample was performed. A simple surface swab method was used to recover acetamiprid from the apple surface. Samples were incubated with silver dendrites for several minutes and SERS spectra were taken directly from the silver surface. Detection of a set of 5 apple juice samples can be done within 10 min. The swab-SERS method took 15 min for a set of 5 samples. Resulting spectral data were analyzed using principal component analysis. The highest acetamiprid peak at 634 cm(-1) was used to detect and quantify the amount of acetamiprid spiked in 1:1 water-methanol solvent, apple juice, and on apple surface. The SERS method was able to successfully detect acetamiprid at 0.5 μg/mL (0.5 ppm) in solvent, 3 μg/mL (3 ppm) in apple juice, and 0.125 μg/cm(2) on apple surfaces. The SERS methods provide simple, rapid, and sensitive ways to detect acetamiprid in beverages and on the surfaces of thick skinned fruits and vegetables. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Barley β-Glucans-Containing Food Enhances Probiotic Performances of Beneficial Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia P. Arena

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the majority of prebiotics in the market are derived from non-digestible oligosaccharides. Very few studies have focused on non-digestible long chain complex polysaccharides in relation to their potential as novel prebiotics. Cereals β-glucans have been investigated for immune-modulating properties and beneficial effects on obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cholesterol levels. Moreover, β-glucans have been reported to be highly fermentable by the intestinal microbiota in the caecum and colon, and can enhance both growth rate and lactic acid production of microbes isolated from the human intestine. In this work, we report the effects of food matrices containing barley β-glucans on growth and probiotic features of four Lactobacillus strains. Such matrices were able to improve the growth rate of the tested bacteria both in unstressed conditions and, importantly, after exposure to in vitro simulation of the digestive tract. Moreover, the effect of β-glucans-containing food on bacterial adhesion to enterocyte-like cells was analyzed and a positive influence on probiotic-enterocyte interaction was observed.

  14. Bioactive Encapsulation for Military Food Applications: Request for Enhanced Nano and Micro Particle Fabrication and Characterization Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-25

    light exposure, while also enhancing the bioaccessibility of the microen- capsulated nutraceutical after they are dispersed in foods and beverages ...2013 21-Jul-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Bioactive Encapsulation for Military Food Applications: Request for...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Massachusetts

  15. Dietary Fiber and Bacterial SCFA Enhance Oral Tolerance and Protect against Food Allergy through Diverse Cellular Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; McKenzie, Craig; Vuillermin, Peter J; Goverse, Gera; Vinuesa, Carola G; Mebius, Reina E; Macia, Laurence; Mackay, Charles R

    2016-06-21

    The incidence of food allergies in western countries has increased dramatically in recent decades. Tolerance to food antigens relies on mucosal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs), which promote differentiation of regulatory T (Treg) cells. We show that high-fiber feeding in mice improved oral tolerance and protected from food allergy. High-fiber feeding reshaped gut microbial ecology and increased the release of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate and butyrate. High-fiber feeding enhanced oral tolerance and protected against food allergy by enhancing retinal dehydrogenase activity in CD103(+) DC. This protection depended on vitamin A in the diet. This feeding regimen also boosted IgA production and enhanced T follicular helper and mucosal germinal center responses. Mice lacking GPR43 or GPR109A, receptors for SCFAs, showed exacerbated food allergy and fewer CD103(+) DCs. Dietary elements, including fiber and vitamin A, therefore regulate numerous protective pathways in the gastrointestinal tract, necessary for immune non-responsiveness to food antigens. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary Fiber and Bacterial SCFA Enhance Oral Tolerance and Protect against Food Allergy through Diverse Cellular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of food allergies in western countries has increased dramatically in recent decades. Tolerance to food antigens relies on mucosal CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs, which promote differentiation of regulatory T (Treg cells. We show that high-fiber feeding in mice improved oral tolerance and protected from food allergy. High-fiber feeding reshaped gut microbial ecology and increased the release of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, particularly acetate and butyrate. High-fiber feeding enhanced oral tolerance and protected against food allergy by enhancing retinal dehydrogenase activity in CD103+ DC. This protection depended on vitamin A in the diet. This feeding regimen also boosted IgA production and enhanced T follicular helper and mucosal germinal center responses. Mice lacking GPR43 or GPR109A, receptors for SCFAs, showed exacerbated food allergy and fewer CD103+ DCs. Dietary elements, including fiber and vitamin A, therefore regulate numerous protective pathways in the gastrointestinal tract, necessary for immune non-responsiveness to food antigens.

  17. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Sullivan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company’s commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012 and 70 (2013 of the world’s largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. However, only 34% (2012 and 44% (2013 of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  18. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies' Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A

    2017-03-06

    The views that food companies hold about their responsibilities for animal welfare can strongly influence the lives and welfare of farm animals. If a company's commitment is translated into action, it can be a major driver of animal welfare. The Business Benchmark on Farm Animal Welfare (BBFAW) is an annual evaluation of farm animal welfare-related practices, reporting and performance of food companies. The framework evaluates how close, based on their disclosures, companies are to best practice in three areas: Management Commitment, Governance & Performance and Leadership & Innovation. The BBFAW analysed information published by 68 (2012) and 70 (2013) of the world's largest food companies. Around 70% of companies acknowledged animal welfare as a business issue. Between 2012 and 2013, the mean BBFAW score increased significantly by 5% ( p < 0.001, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test). However, only 34% (2012) and 44% (2013) of companies published comprehensive animal welfare policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society.

  19. Variational contrast enhancement guided by global and local contrast measurements for single-image defogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Bi, Du-Yan; He, Lin-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The visibility of images captured in foggy conditions is impaired severely by a decrease in the contrasts of objects and veiling with a characteristic gray hue, which may limit the performance of visual applications out of doors. Contrast enhancement together with color restoration is a challenging mission for conventional fog-removal methods, as the degrading effect of fog is largely dependent on scene depth information. Nowadays, people change their minds by establishing a variational framework for contrast enhancement based on a physically based analytical model, unexpectedly resulting in color distortion, dark-patch distortion, or fuzzy features of local regions. Unlike previous work, our method treats an atmospheric veil as a scattering disturbance and formulates a foggy image as an energy functional minimization to estimate direct attenuation, originating from the work of image denoising. In addition to a global contrast measurement based on a total variation norm, an additional local measurement is designed in that optimal problem for the purpose of digging out more local details as well as suppressing dark-patch distortion. Moreover, we estimate the airlight precisely by maximization with a geometric constraint and a natural image prior in order to protect the faithfulness of the scene color. With the estimated direct attenuation and airlight, the fog-free image can be restored. Finally, our method is tested on several benchmark and realistic images evaluated by two assessment approaches. The experimental results imply that our proposed method works well compared with the state-of-the-art defogging methods.

  20. A global food demand model for the assessment of complex human-earth systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDMONDS, JAMES A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s, Joint Global Change Research Institute, 5825 University Research Court, Suite 3500, College Park, MD 20740, USA; LINK, ROBERT [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s, Joint Global Change Research Institute, 5825 University Research Court, Suite 3500, College Park, MD 20740, USA; WALDHOFF, STEPHANIE T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s, Joint Global Change Research Institute, 5825 University Research Court, Suite 3500, College Park, MD 20740, USA; CUI, RYNA [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s, Joint Global Change Research Institute, 5825 University Research Court, Suite 3500, College Park, MD 20740, USA

    2017-11-01

    Demand for agricultural products is an important problem in climate change economics. Food consumption will shape and shaped by climate change and emissions mitigation policies through interactions with bioenergy and afforestation, two critical issues in meeting international climate goals such as two-degrees. We develop a model of food demand for staple and nonstaple commodities that evolves with changing incomes and prices. The model addresses a long-standing issue in estimating food demands, the evolution of demand relationships across large changes in income and prices. We discuss the model, some of its properties and limitations. We estimate parameter values using pooled cross-sectional-time-series observations and the Metropolis Monte Carlo method and cross-validate the model by estimating parameters using a subset of the observations and test its ability to project into the unused observations. Finally, we apply bias correction techniques borrowed from the climate-modeling community and report results.

  1. Hidden and Neglected: Food Poverty in the Global North - The Case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Sabine; Oestreicher, Elke; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Although still a powerful economy, Germany faces rising income inequality and food insecurity. Quantitative data show that nutritional poverty in Germany has become a fact, especially for social welfare recipients. This contribution gives an overview and discusses the limits of results from different data sources, such as German food surveys, and addresses how affected population groups are systematically underrepresented. To give a more thorough impression of food insecurity in Germany, the article compares nutritional consumption data from the Statistics on Income and Living Conditions/Eurostat survey for Germany, the members of the European Union 27 (EU27), and Greece. The figures for Germans with incomes below 60% of the median equivalised income who cannot afford one proper meal every second day are worse than those in the remaining EU27 member nations, and the figures for their children are not so far from the figures for crisis-stricken Greece. As eating is not only about nutrition but also a means of social activity, we consider the ability to eat and drink with friends an issue of alimentary participation. The percentages of Germans who cannot afford a drink or meal with others at least once a month is very high compared to the rates of the remaining EU27 member nations and Greece. The provided quantitative figures prove that we see serious signs of food poverty in portions of Germany, despite its comparatively strong economy. Data from hundreds of qualitative interviews describing how people stricken by food insecurity try to cope with the situation complement these results. Such data are very important, as governments widely underestimate the problem and leave it to be dealt with by food banks as the only institutional solution. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Nitrogen use in the global food system: past trends and future trajectories of agronomic performance, pollution, trade, and dietary demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassaletta, Luis; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Bouwman, Lex; Velazquez, Eduardo; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Gerber, James S.

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) limits crop and grass production, and it is an essential component of dietary proteins. However, N is mobile in the soil-plant system and can be lost to the environment. Estimates of N flows provide a critical tool for understanding and improving the sustainability and equity of the global food system. This letter describes an integrated analysis of changes in N in human diets, N use efficiency (NUE) of cropping and livestock systems, N pollution and N in traded food and feed products for 12 world regions for the period 1960-2050. The largest absolute change in consumption of animal proteins during the period 1960-2009 is seen in China, while the largest share of animal protein per capita is currently observed in North America, Europe and Oceania. Due to the substantial growth of the livestock sector, about three quarters of contemporary global crop production (expressed in protein and including fodder crops and bioenergy byproducts) is allocated to livestock. Trends and levels of NUE and N surpluses in crop production are also diverse, as some regions show soil N depletion (developing regions, e.g. Africa), improving efficiency (industrialized regions, e.g. USA and Europe) and excessive N use (e.g. China, India). Global trade between the 12 regions has increased by a factor of 7.5 for vegetable proteins and by a factor of 10 for animal proteins. The scenarios for 2050 demonstrate that it would be possible to feed the global population in 2050 with moderate animal protein consumption but with much less N pollution, and less international trade than today. In such a scenario, optimal allocation of N inputs among regions to maximize NUE would further decrease pollution, but would require increased levels of N trade comparable to those in a BAU scenario.

  3. Association between salt substitutes/enhancers and changes in sodium levels in fast-food restaurants: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Murphy, Sarah A; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2018-03-07

    Restaurant foods have high sodium levels, and efforts have been made to promote reductions. The objective of this study was to understand if salt substitutes and enhancers are associated with changes in sodium levels in fast-food restaurants. A longitudinal database (MENU-FLIP) containing nutrition information for Canadian chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationally was created in 2010 and updated in 2013 and 2016. In 2016, when available, ingredient lists were collected from restaurant websites and searched for the presence of salt substitutes/enhancers. Changes in sodium levels (per serving) and the prevalence of salt substitutes/enhancers in 222 foods from 12 of the leading fast-food restaurant chains were compared across 3 time points. Sixty-nine percent of foods contained a salt substitute/enhancer. Substitutes/enhancers were found in every restaurant chain ( n = 12) for which ingredient data were available. The most common substitutes/enhancers were yeast extracts (in 30% of foods), calcium chloride (28%), monosodium glutamate (14%) and potassium chloride (12%). Sodium levels in foods that contained substitutes/enhancers decreased significantly more (190 ± 42 mg/serving) over the study period than those in foods that did not contain a substitute/enhancer (40 ± 17 mg/serving, p restaurant foods and are one means by which restaurants may be lowering sodium levels in their foods. At this time, the potential consequences of these findings, if any, are uncertain. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  4. Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Globalization is often referred to as external to education - a state of affair facing the modern curriculum with numerous challenges. In this paper it is examined as internal to curriculum; analysed as a problematization in a Foucaultian sense. That is, as a complex of attentions, worries, ways...... of reasoning, producing curricular variables. The analysis is made through an example of early childhood curriculum in Danish Pre-school, and the way the curricular variable of the pre-school child comes into being through globalization as a problematization, carried forth by the comparative practices of PISA...

  5. Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gerard Adams

    2008-01-01

    The rapid globalization of the world economy is causing fundamental changes in patterns of trade and finance. Some economists have argued that globalization has arrived and that the world is “flat†. While the geographic scope of markets has increased, the author argues that new patterns of trade and finance are a result of the discrepancies between “old†countries and “new†. As the differences are gradually wiped out, particularly if knowledge and technology spread worldwide, the t...

  6. Food Safety Management in a Global Environment: The Role of Risk Assessment Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes-Pila, Joaquin; Jimeno, Vicente; Manzano, Amparo; Rodriguez Monroy, Carlos; Mar Fernandez, Maria Del

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative risk assessment models are playing a minor role in the development of the new EU legal framework for food safety. There is a tendency of the EU institutions to apply the precautionary principle versus the predisposition of the USA institutions to rely on risk analysis. This paper provides a comparison of the role played by quantitative risk assessment models in the development of new policies on food safety in the EU and in the USA, focusing on a study case: the supply chain of s...

  7. From Global Sustainability to Inclusive Education: Understanding urban children's ideas about the food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese Barton, Angela; Koch, Pamela D.; Contento, Isobel R.; Hagiwara, Sumi

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report our findings from a qualitative study intended to develop our understandings of: what high-poverty urban children understand and believe about food and food systems; and how such children transform and use that knowledge in their everyday lives (i.e. how do they express their scientific literacies including content understandings, process understandings, habits of mind in these content areas). This qualitative study is part of a larger study focused on understanding and developing science and nutritional literacies among high-poverty urban fourth-grade through sixth-grade students and their teachers and caregivers.

  8. Precautionary labelling of foods for allergen content: are we ready for a global framework?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Katrina J; Turner, Paul J; Pawankar, Ruby; Taylor, Stephen; Sicherer, Scott; Lack, Gideon; Rosario, Nelson; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Wong, Gary; Mills, E N Clare; Beyer, Kirsten; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Sampson, Hugh A

    2014-01-01

    16/02/15 meb. OA paper Ok to add. DOI and copyright added. ? 2014 Allen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Food allergy appears to be on the rise with the current mainstay of treatment centred on allergen avoidance. Mandatory allergen labelling has improved the safety of food for allergic consumers. However an additional form of voluntary labelling (termed precautionary allergen labelling) has evolved on a wide range of packaged goods, in a bid by manufacturers to minimise risk to custome...

  9. Enhancement of a visual reinforcer by D-amphetamine and nicotine in adult rats: relation to habituation and food restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer M; Ren, Suelynn; Constantin, Annie; Clarke, Paul B S

    2018-03-01

    Nicotine and D-amphetamine can strengthen reinforcing effects of unconditioned visual stimuli. We investigated whether these reinforcement-enhancing effects reflect a slowing of stimulus habituation and depend on food restriction. Adult male rats pressed an active lever to illuminate a cue light during daily 60-min sessions. Depending on the experiment, rats were challenged with fixed or varying doses of D-amphetamine (0.25-2 mg/kg IP) and nicotine (0.025-0.2 mg/kg SC) or with the tobacco constituent norharman (0.03-10 μg/kg IV). Experiment 1 tested for possible reinforcement-enhancing effects of D-amphetamine and norharman. Experiment 2 investigated whether nicotine and amphetamine inhibited the spontaneous within-session decline in lever pressing. Experiment 3 assessed the effects of food restriction. Amphetamine (0.25-1 mg/kg) and nicotine (0.1 mg/kg) increased active lever pressing specifically (two- to threefold increase). The highest doses of nicotine and amphetamine also affected inactive lever responding (increase and decrease, respectively). With the visual reinforcer omitted, responding was largely extinguished. Neither drug appeared to slow habituation, as assessed by the within-session decline in lever pressing, and reinforcement-enhancing effects still occurred if the drugs were given after this decline had occurred. Food restriction enhanced the reinforcement-enhancing effect of amphetamine but not that of nicotine. Responding remained goal-directed after several weeks of testing. Low doses of D-amphetamine and nicotine produced reinforcement enhancement even in free-feeding subjects, independent of the spontaneous within-session decline in responding. Reinforcement enhancement by amphetamine, but not nicotine, was enhanced by concurrent subchronic food restriction.

  10. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P. [All-Russia Research Institute of Preservation Technology (Russian Federation); Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V. [Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation (Russian Federation); Pavlov, Yu. S., E-mail: rad05@bk.ru [Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, A. V., E-mail: pav14@mail.ru [National Research Nuclear University (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Strokova, N. E. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Artem’ev, S. A. [Russian Research Institute of Baking Industry (Russian Federation); Polyakova, S. P. [Russian Research Institute of Confectionery Industry (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  11. Enhancement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracheva, A. Yu.; Zav’yalov, M. A.; Ilyukhina, N. V.; Kukhto, V. A.; Tarasyuk, V. T.; Filippovich, V. P.; Egorkin, A. V.; Chasovskikh, A. V.; Pavlov, Yu. S.; Prokopenko, A. V.; Strokova, N. E.; Artem’ev, S. A.; Polyakova, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    The work is dedicated to improvement of efficiency of storage and processing of food raw materials using radiation technologies. International practice of radiation processing of food raw materials is presented and an increase in the consumption of irradiated food products is shown. The prospects of using radiation technologies for the processing of food products in Russia are discussed. The results of studies of radiation effects on various food products and packaging film by γ radiation and accelerated electrons are presented.

  12. Brand leadership and product innovation as firm strategies in global food markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlhar, M.; Regmi, A.; Stefanou, S.E.; Zoumas, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to understand the motivations for product innovation and brand leadership using a series of case studies focusing on firms with leading market positions of different types. Design/methodology/approach - A qualitative study is presented of three leading food sector firms of different

  13. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  14. Sorghum production and anthracnose disease management in future global energy and food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is the fifth most important cereal crop in world commerce with uses ranging from animal feed, food, in brewery, and recently as a potential source of biofuel. With the expected increase in the world's population, crop production outputs must be increased. Annual cereal production, including...

  15. The role of research in global food and nutrition security - Discussion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischler, F.; Wilkinson, D.; Benton, T.; Daniel, H.; Darcy-Vrillon, B.; Hedlund, K.; Heffernan, P.; Kok, E.J.; Saarela, M.; Jakubczyk, E.; Sorlini, C.; Swinnen, J.; Braun, von J.; Ash, K.; Rojas Briales, E.; Buckwell, A.; Frewen, M.; Karlsson, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present discussion document gives an overview of where European research can add the most value in relation to tackling food and nutrition security challenges and points to areas where we can expand our research potential. Moreover, it highlights the need to develop a governance structure that

  16. Comparison through a LCA evaluation analysis of food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Hyung; Kim, Jung-Wk

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated feed manufacturing including dry feeding and wet feeding, composting, and landfilling for food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery. The method of the expanded system boundaries was employed in order to compare different by-products. The whole stages of disposal involved in the systems such as separate discharge, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal, were included in the system boundary and evaluated. The Global Warming Potential generated from 1 tonne of food wastes for each disposal system was analyzed by the life cycle assessment method. The results showed that 200 kg of CO 2 -eq could be produced from dry feeding process, 61 kg of CO 2 -eq from wet feeding process, 123 kg of CO 2 -eq from composting process, and 1010 kg of CO 2 -eq from landfilling. Feed manufacturing and composting, the common treatment methods currently employed, have been known to be environment friendlier than other methods. However, this study shows that they can negatively affect the environment if their by-products are not appropriately utilized as intended.

  17. Comparison through a LCA evaluation analysis of food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi-Hyung, E-mail: mhkim9@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Wk, E-mail: kimjw@snu.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Planning, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Sillim-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated feed manufacturing including dry feeding and wet feeding, composting, and landfilling for food waste disposal options from the perspective of global warming and resource recovery. The method of the expanded system boundaries was employed in order to compare different by-products. The whole stages of disposal involved in the systems such as separate discharge, collection, transportation, treatment, and final disposal, were included in the system boundary and evaluated. The Global Warming Potential generated from 1 tonne of food wastes for each disposal system was analyzed by the life cycle assessment method. The results showed that 200 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq could be produced from dry feeding process, 61 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq from wet feeding process, 123 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq from composting process, and 1010 kg of CO{sub 2}-eq from landfilling. Feed manufacturing and composting, the common treatment methods currently employed, have been known to be environment friendlier than other methods. However, this study shows that they can negatively affect the environment if their by-products are not appropriately utilized as intended.

  18. Metropolitan food supply : case study Cairo : a quick scan study to enhance fresh food supply and minimize postharvest losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate options for “Metropolitan food production systems” in Egypt and specifically in the Cairo region, a ‘cold chain quick scan’ is conducted by Wageningen UR post-harvest specialists. The study comprehends a quick scan for market demand, market willingness and a search for trend

  19. Food, Paper, Wood, or Energy? Global Trends and Future Swedish Forest Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Westholm

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a futures study of international forest trends. The study, produced as part of the Swedish Future Forest program, focuses on global changes of importance for future Swedish forest use. It is based on previous international research, policy documents, and 24 interviews with selected key experts and/or actors related to the forest sector, and its findings will provide a basis for future research priorities. The forest sector, here defined as the economic, social, and cultural contributions to life and human welfare derived from forest and forest-based activities, faces major change. Four areas stand out as particularly important: changing energy systems, emerging international climate policies, changing governance systems, and shifting global land use systems. We argue that global developments are, and will be, important for future Swedish forest use. The forest sector is in transition and forest-, energy, climate- and global land use issues are likely to become increasingly intertwined. Therefore, the “forest sector” must be disembedded and approached as an open system in interplay with other systems.

  20. The Impact of Variable Phytoplankton Stoichiometry on Projections of Primary Production, Food Quality, and Carbon Uptake in the Global Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Aumont, Olivier; Bopp, Laurent; Ciais, Philippe

    2018-04-01

    Ocean biogeochemical models are integral components of Earth system models used to project the evolution of the ocean carbon sink, as well as potential changes in the physical and chemical environment of marine ecosystems. In such models the stoichiometry of phytoplankton C:N:P is typically fixed at the Redfield ratio. The observed stoichiometry of phytoplankton, however, has been shown to considerably vary from Redfield values due to plasticity in the expression of phytoplankton cell structures with different elemental compositions. The intrinsic structure of fixed C:N:P models therefore has the potential to bias projections of the marine response to climate change. We assess the importance of variable stoichiometry on 21st century projections of net primary production, food quality, and ocean carbon uptake using the recently developed Pelagic Interactions Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies Quota (PISCES-QUOTA) ocean biogeochemistry model. The model simulates variable phytoplankton C:N:P stoichiometry and was run under historical and business-as-usual scenario forcing from 1850 to 2100. PISCES-QUOTA projects similar 21st century global net primary production decline (7.7%) to current generation fixed stoichiometry models. Global phytoplankton N and P content or food quality is projected to decline by 1.2% and 6.4% over the 21st century, respectively. The largest reductions in food quality are in the oligotrophic subtropical gyres and Arctic Ocean where declines by the end of the century can exceed 20%. Using the change in the carbon export efficiency in PISCES-QUOTA, we estimate that fixed stoichiometry models may be underestimating 21st century cumulative ocean carbon uptake by 0.5-3.5% (2.0-15.1 PgC).

  1. Successfully Changing the Landscape of Information Distribution: Extension Food Website Reaches People Locally and Globally

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Henneman; Lisa Franzen-Castle; Kayla Colgrove; Vishal Singh

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Food website was to develop Internet-based content that was relevant and reached the general public and multiplier groups, such as educators, health professionals, and media outlets. The purpose of this paper was to examine whether a multi-modal approach to information delivery through increases in and changes to content, electronic mailing list creation, and social media posting impacted user access, traffic channels, and referrals from 2010 to 2014. When comparing 2010-2011 ...

  2. Salmonella contamination: a significant challenge to the global marketing of animal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Plym, Forshell; Wierup, M

    2006-08-01

    Salmonellosis is the most common food-borne bacterial disease in the world. Salmonella is a significant pathogen for food-producing animals and these animals are the primary source of salmonellosis. It is estimated that herd prevalence varies between 0% and 90%, depending on the animal species and region. The pathogen is spread by trade in animals and non-heated animal food products. The emergence of strains that are resistant to antimicrobials, often as a result of antimicrobial usage in animals, is a public health hazard of great concern. It is increasingly accepted that the prevalence of Salmonella in animal production must be decreased and, in the European Union, plans to achieve this are currently being implemented. In this paper, the authors propose various risk mitigation strategies. Successful control must focus on a range of preventive actions because there is no simple 'silver bullet' solution to reduce Salmonella contamination. The authors conclude that the key to controlling Salmonella is to follow the general rules that have been successfully applied to other infectious diseases.

  3. Not just a fallback food: global patterns of insect consumption related to geography, not agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, Julie J

    2017-07-08

    Insects as food are often viewed as fallback resources and associated with marginal environments. This study investigates the relationship between insect consumption and noncultivated landscapes as well as with other independent variables including latitude, area, population, and gross domestic product. Data were obtained from online databases including the World List of Edible Insects, the World Bank, and the World Factbook. A logistic regression model found that latitude could correctly predict the presence of edible insects 80% of the time and that arable land and gross domestic product showed no effect. Spearman rank-order correlation with number of insect species found significant relationships between area and population (but not density) and per capita gross domestic product as well as latitude. Further analysis of latitude using paired Mann-Whitney tests identified a general gradient pattern in reduction of edible insects with increased latitude. Results suggest that insect consumption represents a dynamic human-environment interaction, whereby insects are utilized in some of the world's lushest environments as well as areas where people have had great impact on the ecosystem. The concept that insects are a fallback food is an oversimplification that is likely rooted in Western bias against this food source. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Enhancing global health and education in Malawi, Zambia, and the United States through an interprofessional global health exchange program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynda Law; Somerall, D'Ann; Theus, Lisa; Rankin, Sally; Ngoma, Catherine; Chimwaza, Angela

    2014-05-01

    This article describes participant outcomes of an interprofessional collaboration between health professionals and faculty in Malawi, Zambia, and the United States (US). One strategy critical for improving global health and addressing Millennium Development goals is promotion of interprofessional education and collaboration. Program participants included 25 health professionals from Malawi and Zambia, and 19 faculty/health professionals from Alabama and California. African Fellows participated in a 2 week workshop on Interprofessional Education in Alabama followed by 2 weeks working on individual goals with faculty collaborators/mentors. The US Fellows also spent 2 weeks visiting their counterparts in Malawi and Zambia to develop plans for sustainable partnerships. Program evaluations demonstrated participants' satisfaction with the program and indicated that the program promoted interprofessional and cross-cultural understanding; fostered development of long-term sustainable partnerships between health professionals and educators in Zambia and the US; and created increased awareness and use of resources for global health education. © 2014.

  6. Electrophysiological evidence for enhanced representation of food stimuli in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, Femke; Kumar, Sanjay; Higgs, Suzanne; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-02-01

    Studies from our laboratory have shown that, relative to neutral objects, food-related objects kept in working memory (WM) are particularly effective in guiding attention to food stimuli (Higgs et al. in Appetite, 2012). Here, we used electrophysiological measurements to investigate the neural representation of food versus non-food items in WM. Subjects were presented with a cue (food or non-food item) to either attend to or hold in WM. Subsequently, they had to search for a target, while the target and distractor were each flanked by a picture of a food or non-food item. Behavioural data showed that a food cue held in WM modulated the deployment of visual attention to a search target more than a non-food cue, even though the cue was irrelevant for target selection. Electrophysiological measures of attention, memory and retention of memory (the P3, LPP and SPCN components) were larger when food was kept in WM, compared to non-food items. No such effect was observed in a priming task, when the initial cue was merely identified. Overall, our electrophysiological data are consistent with the suggestion that food stimuli are particularly strongly represented in the WM system.

  7. Food Safety and Sanitary Practices of Selected Hotels in Batangas Province, Philippines: Basis of Proposed Enhancement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April M. Perez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the extent of food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province as basis of proposed enhancement measures. The study utilized descriptive method to describe food safety and sanitary practices of selected hotels in Batangas province with a total of 8 hotels (256 respondents. Purposive sampling was used in the study. The questionnaires were designed using the provision of the Sanitation Code of the Philippines, validated and finalized to come up with legitimate results. The study showed that there were eight (8 hotel respondents classified as two, three, four star with considerable years of experience and adequate number of employees. The hotels demonstrated the food safety and sanitary practices always in the areas of restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service. The significant pair-wise comparison for restaurant, bar service, catering and banquet and room service shows that 2 star hotels greatly differs. The researcher recommends that the management should maintain high standard of food safety and sanitary practices among its staff, upgrade the food safety and sanitary practices for food safety accreditation, continuous training of the hotel managers/employees on food safety and sanitary practices.

  8. Enhanced water use efficiency in global terrestrial ecosystems under increasing aerosol loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Chen, Min; Liu, Yaling; Miralles, Diego G.; Wang, Faming

    2017-05-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in the climate system, affecting incoming radiation and cloud formation. Based on a modelling framework that couples ecosystem processes with the atmospheric transfer of radiation, we analyze the effect of aerosols on surface incoming radiation, gross primary productivity (GPP), water losses from ecosystems through evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE, defined as GPP/ET) for 2003–2010 and validate them at global FLUXNET sites. The total diffuse radiation increases under relatively low or intermediate aerosol loadings, but decreases under more polluted conditions. We find that aerosol-induced changes in GPP depend on leaf area index, aerosol loading and cloudiness. Specifically, low and moderate aerosol loadings cause increases in GPP for all plant types, while heavy aerosol loadings result in enhancement (decrease) in GPP for dense (sparse) vegetation. On the other hand, ET is mainly negatively affected by aerosol loadings due to the reduction in total incoming radiation. Finally, WUE shows a consistent rise in all plant types under increasing aerosol loadings. Overall, the simulated daily WUE compares well with observations at 43 eddy-covariance tower sites (R2=0.84 and RMSE=0.01gC (kg H2O)-1) with better performance at forest sites. In addition to the increasing portions of diffuse light, the rise in WUE is also favored by the reduction in radiation- and heat-stress caused by the aerosols, especially for wet and hot climates.

  9. Global cooperation and conceptual design toward GNEP. Enhanced TRU burning fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Maddox, James W.; Nakazato, Wataru; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    In support of the GNEP (Global Nuclear Energy Partnership) program, AREVA and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) seek to develop an ARR (Advanced Recycling Reactor) in concern with a CFTC (Consolidated Fuel Treatment Facility). This report presents the examination of more effective transuranics (TRU) burning core. Therefore some innovative technologies have been examined under the safety requirements; MA bearing fuel with 50% TRU fraction, moderator pin, fuel of high Am fraction, and Am blanket. The function of moderator is to enhance TRU burning capability, while increasing the Doppler effect and reducing the positive sodium void effect. The aim of 50% TRU fraction is to increase TRU burning capability by curbing plutonium production. Both high Am fraction of fuel and Am blanket can promote Am transmutation. According to the detailed calculation of high TRU (MA 15%, Pu 35% average) contained oxide fueled core with moderator pins of 12% arranged driver fuel assemblies, TRU conversion ratio decreases down to 0.33 and TRU burning capability is improved to 67kg/TWeh. Deploying Am blanket which is oxide fuel with Am 50% and U 50%, the total of Am transmutation capability becomes 69 kg/TWeh. (author)

  10. Agriculture in Bangladesh : A Note on Food Security by Enhancing Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Awami League's Election Manifesto 2008 appropriately recognizes the importance of ensuring food security for all in Bangladesh. Food Security requires increasing agricultural growth which in turn is a key factor in reducing poverty in the country. Food security also requires increasing agricultural production and protecting consumers. Sustained production increases, in turn, require tec...

  11. Consumers Valuations and choice Processes of Food Safety Enhancement Attributes: An International Study of Beef Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. Here we examine consumer preferences for various beef food safety assurances. In particular, we evaluate the extent to which such preferences are heterogeneous within and across

  12. Consumer Valuations of Beef Steak Food Safety Enhancement in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. We examine consumer preferences for beef steak food safety assurances. We evaluate the extent to which preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residence defined groups and examine the

  13. 78 FR 52899 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food Store Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... food choices, access to food, and retailer operations. Listening session attendees will be provided... food, be eligible to participate in SNAP? 10. Restaurants are generally prohibited from being SNAP... in an area where no store meets basic eligibility criteria for SNAP authorization, how should FNS...

  14. Corporate Reporting on Farm Animal Welfare: An Evaluation of Global Food Companies’ Discourse and Disclosures on Farm Animal Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rory; Amos, Nicky; van de Weerd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    policies. This increase suggests that global food companies are increasingly aware that farm animal welfare is of interest to their stakeholders, but also that many companies have yet to acknowledge farm animal welfare as a business issue or to demonstrate their approach to farm animal welfare to stakeholders and society. PMID:28272316

  15. The Role of Transgenic Crops in the Future of Global Food and Feed

    OpenAIRE

    O. Škubna; H. Řezbová

    2012-01-01

    The paper is aimed on the problematic of biotech crops planting (GM, transgenic crops). The main aim of this paper is to analyze the trends in the main biotech crops planting groups in the sense of their use for food and feed in the future. The selected groups of biotech crops analyzed in this article are soybeans, maize (corn), cotton and rapeseed (canola). The used methods are chain and basic indexes and regression analysis of times series/ trend data - for predicting on next four years (20...

  16. Impact of lengthening open water season on food security in Alaska coastal communities: Global impacts may outweigh local "frontline" effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolph, R.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Using ice concentration data from the Alaska Sea Ice Atlas from 1953-2013 for selected communities in Alaska, we find a consistent trend toward later freeze up and earlier breakup, leading a lengthened open water period. Such changes are often considered to bring a variety of "frontline" local impacts to Arctic coastal communities such as increased rates of coastal erosion. However, direct consequences of these changes to local food security (e.g. through impacts on subsistence activities and marine transport of goods) may be outweighed at least in the short term by the effects of large scale Arctic sea ice change coupled with global oil markets. For example, a later freeze-up might delay local hunters' transition from boats to snow-machines, but whether this trend will affect hunting success, especially in the next few years, is uncertain. Likewise, the magnitude of change in open water season length is unlikely to be sufficient to increase the frequency with which communities are served by barges. However, an expanding open water season throughout the Arctic has implications for the global economy, which can have indirect effects on local communities. In the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, where rapid sea ice change has been accompanied by increased interest in oil and gas development, the U.S. Bureau of Ocean Energy Management currently requires drilling operations to cease 38 days prior to freeze up. Taking this into account, the lengthening open water season has effectively extended the drilling season for oil companies by 184% since the 1950s. If oil development goes ahead, local communities will likely experience a range of indirect impacts on food security due to increased vessel traffic and demand on infrastructure coupled with changes in local economies and employment opportunities. Increased likelihood of an oil spill in coastal waters also poses a significant threat to local food security. Thus, while Arctic coastal communities are already experiencing

  17. Inter-annual changes in detritus-based food chains can enhance plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jes; Eisenhauer, Nico; Drake, Bert G

    2015-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 generally enhances plant growth, but the magnitude of the effects depend, in part, on nutrient availability and plant photosynthetic pathway. Due to their pivotal role in nutrient cycling, changes in abundance of detritivores could influence the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on essential ecosystem processes, such as decomposition and primary production. We conducted a field survey and a microcosm experiment to test the influence of changes in detritus-based food chains on litter mass loss and plant growth response to elevated atmospheric CO2 using two wetland plants: a C3 sedge (Scirpus olneyi) and a C4 grass (Spartina patens). Our field study revealed that organism's sensitivity to climate increased with trophic level resulting in strong inter-annual variation in detritus-based food chain length. Our microcosm experiment demonstrated that increased detritivore abundance could not only enhance decomposition rates, but also enhance plant growth of S. olneyi in elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions. In contrast, we found no evidence that changes in the detritus-based food chains influenced the growth of S. patens. Considered together, these results emphasize the importance of approaches that unite traditionally subdivided food web compartments and plant physiological processes to understand inter-annual variation in plant production response to elevated atmospheric CO2. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Contribution of Golden Apple Snail Flour to Enhance Omega- 3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Contents in Weaning Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsyha, D. D.; Wijayanti, H. S.; Nuryanto; Anjani, G.

    2018-02-01

    The case of undernourished children in Grobogan District (15.3%) is caused by children nutrients intake less than the Recommendation Dietary Allowance (RDA). To enhance children nutrients intake, be required formulation of weaning food using high-nutrient local food such as golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata). Golden apple snail flour contains high contents of zinc, iron, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. This study aims to analyze the effect of golden apple snail flour substitution on nutrients content and organoleptic properties of weaning food (baby porridge). This is an experimental research by substitution of golden apple snail flour in the making of weaning food with four treatments of substitution (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%). Substitution of golden apple snails flour could affect the nutrient content levels of fat, zinc, iron (p=0.0001), carbohydrate (p=0.011), water (p=0.003), ash (p=0.001), omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Whereas, it could not affect the content of energy (p=0.678), protein (p=0.129) and fiber (p=0.482). Furthermore, the substitution could affect the organoleptic properties include color, texture and taste (p=0.0001) while not for the aroma (p=0.798). Based on nutrient content analysis, substitution of golden apple snail flour could enhance the zinc, iron, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids contents of weaning food.

  19. Global warming enhances sulphide stress in a key seagrass species (NW Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Rosa; Holmer, Marianne; Duarte, Carlos M; Marbà, Núria

    2013-12-01

    The build-up of sulphide concentrations in sediments, resulting from high inputs of organic matter and the mineralization through sulphate reduction, can be lethal to the benthos. Sulphate reduction is temperature dependent, thus global warming may contribute to even higher sulphide concentrations and benthos mortality. The seagrass Posidonia oceanica is very sensitive to sulphide stress. Hence, if concentrations build up with global warming, this key Mediterranean species could be seriously endangered. An 8-year monitoring of daily seawater temperature, the sulphur isotopic signatures of water (δ(34)S(water)), sediment (δ(34)SCRS ) and P. oceanica leaf tissue (δ(34)S(leaves)), along with total sulphur in leaves (TS(leaves)) and annual net population growth along the coast of the Balearic archipelago (Western Mediterranean) allowed us to determine if warming triggers P. oceanica sulphide stress and constrains seagrass survival. From the isotopic S signatures, we estimated sulphide intrusion into the leaves (F(sulphide)) and sulphur incorporation into the leaves from sedimentary sulphides (SS(leaves)). We observed lower δ(34)S(leaves), higher F(sulphide) and SS(leaves) coinciding with a 6-year period when two heat waves were recorded. Warming triggered sulphide stress as evidenced by the negative temperature dependence of δ(34)S(leaves) and the positive one of F(sulphide), TS(leaves) and SS(leaves). Lower P. oceanica net population growth rates were directly related to higher contents of TS(leaves). At equivalent annual maximum sea surface water temperature (SST(max)), deep meadows were less affected by sulphide intrusion than shallow ones. Thus, water depth acts as a protecting mechanism against sulphide intrusion. However, water depth would be insufficient to buffer seagrass sulphide stress triggered by Mediterranean seawater summer temperatures projected for the end of the 21st century even under scenarios of moderate greenhouse gas emissions, A1B

  20. Global Patterns in Ecological Indicators of Marine Food Webs: A Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymans, Johanna Jacomina; Coll, Marta; Libralato, Simone; Morissette, Lyne; Christensen, Villy

    2014-01-01

    Background Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. Methodology In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. Principal findings Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST); primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as seagrass and macroalgae

  1. Global patterns in ecological indicators of marine food webs: a modelling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Jacomina Heymans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ecological attributes estimated from food web models have the potential to be indicators of good environmental status given their capabilities to describe redundancy, food web changes, and sensitivity to fishing. They can be used as a baseline to show how they might be modified in the future with human impacts such as climate change, acidification, eutrophication, or overfishing. METHODOLOGY: In this study ecological network analysis indicators of 105 marine food web models were tested for variation with traits such as ecosystem type, latitude, ocean basin, depth, size, time period, and exploitation state, whilst also considering structural properties of the models such as number of linkages, number of living functional groups or total number of functional groups as covariate factors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight indicators were robust to model construction: relative ascendency; relative overhead; redundancy; total systems throughput (TST; primary production/TST; consumption/TST; export/TST; and total biomass of the community. Large-scale differences were seen in the ecosystems of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with the Western Atlantic being more complex with an increased ability to mitigate impacts, while the Eastern Atlantic showed lower internal complexity. In addition, the Eastern Pacific was less organised than the Eastern Atlantic although both of these systems had increased primary production as eastern boundary current systems. Differences by ecosystem type highlighted coral reefs as having the largest energy flow and total biomass per unit of surface, while lagoons, estuaries, and bays had lower transfer efficiencies and higher recycling. These differences prevailed over time, although some traits changed with fishing intensity. Keystone groups were mainly higher trophic level species with mostly top-down effects, while structural/dominant groups were mainly lower trophic level groups (benthic primary producers such as

  2. Meeting the global food demand of the future by engineering crop photosynthesis and yield potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Stephen P; Marshall-Colon, Amy; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2015-03-26

    Increase in demand for our primary foodstuffs is outstripping increase in yields, an expanding gap that indicates large potential food shortages by mid-century. This comes at a time when yield improvements are slowing or stagnating as the approaches of the Green Revolution reach their biological limits. Photosynthesis, which has been improved little in crops and falls far short of its biological limit, emerges as the key remaining route to increase the genetic yield potential of our major crops. Thus, there is a timely need to accelerate our understanding of the photosynthetic process in crops to allow informed and guided improvements via in-silico-assisted genetic engineering. Potential and emerging approaches to improving crop photosynthetic efficiency are discussed, and the new tools needed to realize these changes are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Global climate change increases risk of crop yield losses and food insecurity in the tropical Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, Richard; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2018-02-01

    One of the greatest current challenges to human society is ensuring adequate food production and security for a rapidly growing population under changing climatic conditions. Climate change, and specifically rising temperatures, will alter the suitability of areas for specific crops and cultivation systems. In order to maintain yields, farmers may be forced to change cultivation practices, the timing of cultivation, or even the type of crops grown. Alternatively, farmers can change the location where crops are cultivated (e.g., to higher elevations) to track suitable climates (in which case the plants will have to grow in different soils), as cultivated plants will otherwise have to tolerate warmer temperatures and possibly face novel enemies. We simulated these two last possible scenarios (for temperature increases of 1.3°C and 2.6°C) in the Peruvian Andes through a field experiment in which several traditionally grown varieties of potato and maize were planted at different elevations (and thus temperatures) using either the local soil or soil translocated from higher elevations. Maize production declined by 21%-29% in response to new soil conditions. The production of maize and potatoes declined by >87% when plants were grown under warmer temperatures, mainly as a result of the greater incidence of novel pests. Crop quality and value also declined under simulated migration and warming scenarios. We estimated that local farmers may experience severe economic losses of up to 2,300 US$ ha -1  yr -1 . These findings reveal that climate change is a real and imminent threat to agriculture and that there is a pressing need to develop effective management strategies to reduce yield losses and prevent food insecurity. Importantly, such strategies should take into account the influences of non-climatic and/or biotic factors (e.g., novel pests) on plant development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Strategies to enable the adoption of animal biotechnology to sustainably improve global food safety and security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizard, Mark; Hallerman, Eric; Fahrenkrug, Scott; Newell-McGloughlin, Martina; Gibson, John; de Loos, Frans; Wagner, Stefan; Laible, Götz; Han, Jae Yong; D'Occhio, Michael; Kelly, Lisa; Lowenthal, John; Gobius, Kari; Silva, Primal; Cooper, Caitlin; Doran, Tim

    2016-10-01

    The ability to generate transgenic animals has existed for over 30 years, and from those early days many predicted that the technology would have beneficial applications in agriculture. Numerous transgenic agricultural animals now exist, however to date only one product from a transgenic animal has been approved for the food chain, due in part to cumbersome regulations. Recently, new techniques such as precision breeding have emerged, which enables the introduction of desired traits without the use of transgenes. The rapidly growing human population, environmental degradation, and concerns related to zoonotic and pandemic diseases have increased pressure on the animal agriculture sector to provide a safe, secure and sustainable food supply. There is a clear need to adopt transgenic technologies as well as new methods such as gene editing and precision breeding to meet these challenges and the rising demand for animal products. To achieve this goal, cooperation, education, and communication between multiple stakeholders-including scientists, industry, farmers, governments, trade organizations, NGOs and the public-is necessary. This report is the culmination of concepts first discussed at an OECD sponsored conference and aims to identify the main barriers to the adoption of animal biotechnology, tactics for navigating those barriers, strategies to improve public perception and trust, as well as industry engagement, and actions for governments and trade organizations including the OECD to harmonize regulations and trade agreements. Specifically, the report focuses on animal biotechnologies that are intended to improve breeding and genetics and currently are not routinely used in commercial animal agriculture. We put forward recommendations on how scientists, regulators, and trade organizations can work together to ensure that the potential benefits of animal biotechnology can be realized to meet the future needs of agriculture to feed the world.

  5. Enhancement of global flood damage assessments using building material based vulnerability curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englhardt, Johanna; de Ruiter, Marleen; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2017-04-01

    This study discusses the development of an enhanced approach for flood damage and risk assessments using vulnerability curves that are based on building material information. The approach draws upon common practices in earthquake vulnerability assessments, and is an alternative for land-use or building occupancy approach in flood risk assessment models. The approach is of particular importance for studies where there is a large variation in building material, such as large scale studies or studies in developing countries. A case study of Ethiopia is used to demonstrate the impact of the different methodological approaches on direct damage assessments due to flooding. Generally, flood damage assessments use damage curves for different land-use or occupancy types (i.e. urban or residential and commercial classes). However, these categories do not necessarily relate directly to vulnerability of damage by flood waters. For this, the construction type and building material may be more important, as is used in earthquake risk assessments. For this study, we use building material classification data of the PAGER1 project to define new building material based vulnerability classes for flood damage. This approach will be compared to the widely applied land-use based vulnerability curves such as used by De Moel et al. (2011). The case of Ethiopia demonstrates and compares the feasibility of this novel flood vulnerability method on a country level which holds the potential to be scaled up to a global level. The study shows that flood vulnerability based on building material also allows for better differentiation between flood damage in urban and rural settings, opening doors to better link to poverty studies when such exposure data is available. Furthermore, this new approach paves the road to the enhancement of multi-risk assessments as the method enables the comparison of vulnerability across different natural hazard types that also use material-based vulnerability curves

  6. Carbon footprint as an instrument for enhancing food quality: overview of the wine, olive oil and cereals sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattara, Claudio; Russo, Carlo; Antrodicchia, Vittoria; Cichelli, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    The quantification of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions represents a critical issue for the future development of agro-food produces. Consumers' behaviour could play an important role in requiring environmental performance as an essential element for food quality. Nowadays, the carbon footprint (CFP) is a tool used worldwide by agro-food industries to communicate environmental information. This paper aims to investigate the role that CFP could have in consumers' choices in three significant agro-food sectors in the Mediterranean area: wine, olive oil and cereals. A critical review about the use of CFP was carried out along the supply chain of these three sectors, in order to identify opportunities for enhancing food quality and environmental sustainability and highlighting how environmental information could influence consumers' preferences. The analysis of the state of the art shows a great variability of the results about GHG emissions referred to agricultural and industrial processes. In many cases, the main environmental criticisms are linked to the agricultural phase, but the other phases of the supply chain could also contribute to the increased CFP. However, despite the wide use of CFP by companies as a communication tool to help consumers' choices in agro-food products, some improvements are needed in order to provide clearer and more understandable information. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Enhancing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal with Flood Forecasting Using Local and Global Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Smith, Paul; Parajuli, Binod; Khanal, Sonu; Brown, Sarah; Gautam, Dilip; Bhandari, Dinanath; Gurung, Gehendra; Shakya, Puja; Kharbuja, RamGopal; Uprety, Madhab

    2017-04-01

    Operationalising effective Flood Early Warning Systems (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal poses numerous challenges, with complex topography and geology, sparse network of river and rainfall gauging stations and diverse socio-economic conditions. Despite these challenges, simple real-time monitoring based EWSs have been in place for the past decade. A key constraint of these simple systems is the very limited lead time for response - as little as 2-3 hours, especially for rivers originating from steep mountainous catchments. Efforts to increase lead time for early warning are focusing on imbedding forecasts into the existing early warning systems. In 2016, the Nepal Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) piloted an operational Probabilistic Flood Forecasting Model in major river basins across Nepal. This comprised a low data approach to forecast water levels, developed jointly through a research/practitioner partnership with Lancaster University and WaterNumbers (UK) and the International NGO Practical Action. Using Data-Based Mechanistic Modelling (DBM) techniques, the model assimilated rainfall and water levels to generate localised hourly flood predictions, which are presented as probabilistic forecasts, increasing lead times from 2-3 hours to 7-8 hours. The Nepal DHM has simultaneously started utilizing forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GLoFAS) that provides streamflow predictions at the global scale based upon distributed hydrological simulations using numerical ensemble weather forecasts from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The aforementioned global and local models have already affected the approach to early warning in Nepal, being operational during the 2016 monsoon in the West Rapti basin in Western Nepal. On 24 July 2016, GLoFAS hydrological forecasts for the West Rapti indicated a sharp rise in river discharge above 1500 m3/sec (equivalent to the river warning level at 5 meters) with 53

  8. Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

    2014-05-15

    Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, 'environmental equity' indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International 'best practice benchmarks' will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. This research is highly original due to the very 'upstream' approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative

  9. Social Protection for Enhanced Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Devereux

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies several positive synergies between social protection programmes and food security outcomes. One function of social protection is to manage and reduce vulnerability, and several instruments are reviewed – weather-indexed insurance, public works programmes, emergency food aid and buffer stock management – which all contribute to stabilising income and access to food across good and bad years, or between the harvest and the hungry season. Other social protection instruments...

  10. Recent developments in intelligent packaging for enhancing food quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Muhammad; Sun, Da-Wen; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2018-03-07

    The role of packaging cannot be denied in the life cycle of any food product. Intelligent packaging is an emerging technology in the food packaging sector. Although it still needs its full emergence in the market, its importance has been proved for the maintenance of food quality and safety. The present review describes several aspects of intelligent packaging. It first highlights different tools used in intelligent packaging and elucidates the role of these packaging devices for maintaining the quality of different food items in terms of controlling microbial growth and gas concentration, and for providing convenience and easiness to its users in the form of time temperature indication. This review also discusses other intelligent packaging solutions in supply chain management of food products to control theft and counterfeiting conducts and broaden the image of the food companies in terms of branding and marketing. Overall, intelligent packaging can ensure food quality and safety in the food industry, however there are still some concerns over this emerging technology including high cost and legal aspects, and thus future work should be performed to overcome these problems for further promoting its applications in the food industry. Moreover, work should also be carried out to combine several single intelligent packaging devices into a single one, so that most of the benefits from this emerging technology can be achieved.

  11. Enhanced auditory arousal increases intake of less palatable and healthier foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privitera, Gregory J; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C

    2014-01-23

    Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (carrot sticks and apple slices). Partial support for the arousal hypothesis in Experiment 1 showed that participants consumed more stale but not fresh popcorn in the loud (high arousal) versus soft (low arousal) volume group. These findings suggest that low but not high palatable foods are susceptible to manipulations of arousal. Consistent with this interpretation, Experiment 2 showed that high but not low environmental arousal increased intake of the fruits and vegetables, which are typically rated as lower in palatability compared to high fat foods. These results show that high arousal in an eating-typical environment increases intake of less palatable foods, and healthy foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). Increasing the availability of healthier foods in a loud food environment can have a positive impact on increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in that environment.

  12. Rapid emergence of pathogens in agro-ecosystems: global threats to agricultural sustainability and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Bruce A; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-12-05

    Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems. These studies document the speed with which pathogens evolve to overcome crop resistance genes and pesticides. They also show that crop pathogens can be disseminated very quickly across and among continents through human activities. In this review, we discuss how the peculiar architecture of agro-ecosystems facilitates pathogen emergence, evolution and dispersal. We present four example pathosystems that illustrate both pathogen specialization and pathogen speciation, including different time frames for emergence and different mechanisms underlying the emergence process. Lastly, we argue for a re-design of agro-ecosystems that embraces the concept of dynamic diversity to improve their resilience to pathogens. This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Diana M.; Kuhn, Peter; Poulev, Alexander; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamon has a long history of medicinal use and continues to be valued for its therapeutic potential for improving metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. In this study, a phytochemically-enhanced functional food ingredient that captures water soluble polyphenols from aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) onto a protein rich matrix was developed. CE and cinnamon polyphenol-enriched defatted soy flour (CDSF) were effective in acutely lowering fasting blood glucose levels in diet-induced obese hy...

  14. Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, C; Vandevijvere, S; Waterlander, W; Thornton, L E; Kelly, B; Cameron, A J; Snowdon, W; Swinburn, B

    2013-10-01

    Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  15. Enhancing Student Learning in Food Engineering Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shin Y.; Connelly, Robin K.; Hartel, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    The current generation of students coming into food science and engineering programs is very visually oriented from their early experiences. To increase their interest in learning, new and visually appealing teaching materials need to be developed. Two diverse groups of students may be identified based on their math skills. Food science students…

  16. 78 FR 51136 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... should prepared foods with multiple ingredients, such as chicken pot pie or other frozen dinners, or... nonprofit establishments (eating or otherwise) that feed such persons, private establishments that contract... example, foods such as cold pizza, macaroni and cheese, multi-ingredient soup, or frozen dinners, shall...

  17. 78 FR 64468 - Request for Information: Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enhancing Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... should prepared foods with multiple ingredients, such as chicken pot pie or other frozen dinners, or... nonprofit establishments (eating or otherwise) that feed such persons, private establishments that contract..., foods such as cold pizza, macaroni and cheese, multi- ingredient soup, or frozen dinners, shall only be...

  18. Electrophysiological evidence for enhanced representation of food stimuli in working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutters, F.; Kumar, S.; Higgs, S.; Humphreys, G.W.

    2015-01-01

    Studies from our laboratory have shown that, relative to neutral objects, food-related objects kept in working memory (WM) are particularly effective in guiding attention to food stimuli (Higgs et al. in Appetite, 2012). Here, we used electrophysiological measurements to investigate the neural

  19. Flavor enhancement of food improves dietary intake and nutritional status of elderly nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathey, M.F.A.M.; Siebelink, E.; Graaf, de C.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Taste and smell losses occur with aging. These changes may decrease the enjoyment of food and may subsequently reduce food consumption and negatively influence the nutritional status of elderly persons, especially those who are frail. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of

  20. Modeling the relationship between the oil price and global food prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Sheng-Tung; Kuo, Hsiao-I; Chen, Chi-Chung

    2010-01-01

    The growth of corn-based ethanol production and soybean-based bio-diesel production following the increase in the oil prices have significantly affect the world agricultural grain productions and its prices. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationships between the crude oil price and the global grain prices for corn, soybean, and wheat. The empirical results show that the change in each grain price is significantly influenced by the changes in the crude oil price and other grain prices during the period extending from the 3rd week in 2005 to the 20th week in 2008 which implies that grain commodities are competing with the derived demand for bio-fuels by using soybean or corn to produce ethanol or bio-diesel during the period of higher crude oil prices in these recent years. The subsidy policies in relation to the bio-fuel industries in some nations engaging in bio-fuel production should be considered to avoid the consequences resulting from high oil prices. (author)

  1. Enhancing the design and management of a local organic food supply chain with Soft Systems Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavella, Elena; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    2012-01-01

    not adequately consider major aspects of local organic food supply chains such as ethics, sustainability and human values. Supply chain design and management approaches suita-ble to small-scale, local organic food enterprises are lacking and need to be developed. The aim of this paper is to suggest Soft Systems......Supply chain partners for local organic food face uncertainties such as poor collaboration and communication that cannot be reduced through the application of traditional supply chain design and management techniques. Such techniques are known to improve supply chain coordination, but they do...... Methodology (SSM) as a new and suitable ap-proach to design and manage local organic food supply chains. We illustrate how SSM can be used to reduce uncertainties within local organic food supply chains based on a German case. This illustration serves to identify the benefits of using SSM, compared with ad...

  2. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels.

  3. Enhancing Cross-Cultural Competence in Multicultural Teacher Education: Transformation in Global Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Vilma; Minick, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    Teacher education needs to engage teacher candidates in developing cross-cultural competence so that they may be able to transmit global learning to their future students. This study theorizes cross-cultural competence (CCC) from the perspectives of multicultural and global education. During a four-year project at a mid-western US university,…

  4. The Role of Organizational Leadership to Enhance Top 10 CSR Issues and Trends in The Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Rachmayanti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on leadership and its relationship with organizational performance have been carried out and not considered Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR performance, especially in the field of community development (Comdev and even done partially. This study aims to investigate the role of organizational leadership to enhance Top 10 CSR issues and trends in the global economy which defines roles and leadership competencies. Thirteen experts were involved in the Forum of Multi Stakeholder Corporate Social Responsibility (MSHCSR through Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Data by cluster random sampling were statistically analyzed with Assumption Surfacing and Testing Strategy (SAST. The results showed from FGD experts stating if eight roles and eight competencies of the organization’s leadership is very important and influential to enhance Top 10 CSR issues and trends in the global economy.

  5. Feasibility of a novel participatory multi-sector continuous improvement approach to enhance food security in remote Indigenous Australian communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimblecombe, J; Bailie, R; van den Boogaard, C; Wood, B; Liberato, S C; Ferguson, M; Coveney, J; Jaenke, R; Ritchie, J

    2017-12-01

    Food insecurity underlies and compounds many of the development issues faced by remote Indigenous communities in Australia. Multi-sector approaches offer promise to improve food security. We assessed the feasibility of a novel multi-sector approach to enhance community food security in remote Indigenous Australia. A longitudinal comparative multi-site case study, the Good Food Systems Good Food for All Project, was conducted (2009-2013) with four Aboriginal communities. Continuous improvement meetings were held in each community. Data from project documents and store sales were used to assess feasibility according to engagement, uptake and sustainability of action, and impact on community diet, as well as identifying conditions facilitating or hindering these. Engagement was established where: the community perceived a need for the approach; where trust was developed between the community and facilitators; where there was community stability; and where flexibility was applied in the timing of meetings. The approach enabled stakeholders in each community to collectively appraise the community food system and plan action. Actions that could be directly implemented within available resources resulted from developing collaborative capacity. Actions requiring advocacy, multi-sectoral involvement, commitment or further resources were less frequently used. Positive shifts in community diet were associated with key areas where actions were implemented. A multi-sector participatory approach seeking continuous improvement engaged committed Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal stakeholders and was shown to have potential to shift community diet. Provision of clear mechanisms to link this approach with higher level policy and decision-making structures, clarity of roles and responsibilities, and processes to prioritise and communicate actions across sectors should further strengthen capacity for food security improvement. Integrating this approach enabling local decision-making into

  6. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, g.j.; Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-13

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [{sup 11}C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  7. Enhanced striatal dopamine release during food stimulation in binge eating disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.-J.; Geliebter, A.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.W.; Logan, J.; Jaynbe, M.C.; Galanti, K.; Selig, P.A.; Han, H.; Zhu, W.; Wong, C.T.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with binge eating disorder (BED) regularly consume large amounts of food in short time periods. The neurobiology of BED is poorly understood. Brain dopamine, which regulates motivation for food intake, is likely to be involved. We assessed the involvement of brain dopamine in the motivation for food consumption in binge eaters. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans with [ 11 C]raclopride were done in 10 obese BED and 8 obese subjects without BED. Changes in extracellular dopamine in the striatum in response to food stimulation in food-deprived subjects were evaluated after placebo and after oral methylphenidate (MPH), a drug that blocks the dopamine reuptake transporter and thus amplifies dopamine signals. Neither the neutral stimuli (with or without MPH) nor the food stimuli when given with placebo increased extracellular dopamine. The food stimuli when given with MPH significantly increased dopamine in the caudate and putamen in the binge eaters but not in the nonbinge eaters. Dopamine increases in the caudate were significantly correlated with the binge eating scores but not with BMI. These results identify dopamine neurotransmission in the caudate as being of relevance to the neurobiology of BED. The lack of correlation between BMI and dopamine changes suggests that dopamine release per se does not predict BMI within a group of obese individuals but that it predicts binge eating.

  8. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of food waste through biochemical methane potential assays at different substrate: inoculum ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Shakira R; Landis, Amy E; Rittmann, Bruce E; Young, Michelle N; Parameswaran, Prathap

    2018-01-01

    Food waste has a high energy potential that can be converted into useful energy in the form of methane via anaerobic digestion. Biochemical Methane Potential assays (BMPs) were conducted to quantify the impacts on methane production of different ratios of food waste. Anaerobic digester sludge (ADS) was used as the inoculum, and BMPs were performed at food waste:inoculum ratios of 0.42, 1.42, and 3.0g chemical oxygen demand/g volatile solids (VS). The 1.42 ratio had the highest CH 4 -COD recovery: 90% of the initial total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was from food waste, followed by ratios 0.42 and 3.0 at 69% and 57%, respectively. Addition of food waste above 0.42 caused a lag time for CH 4 production that increased with higher ratios, which highlighted the negative impacts of overloading with food waste. The Gompertz equation was able to represent the results well, and it gave lag times of 0, 3.6 and 30days and maximum methane productions of 370, 910, and 1950mL for ratios 0.42, 1.42 and 3.0, respectively. While ratio 3.0 endured a long lag phase and low VSS destruction, ratio 1.42 achieved satisfactory results for all performance criteria. These results provide practical guidance on food-waste-to-inoculum ratios that can lead to optimizing methanogenic yield. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Processed foods as an integral part of universal salt iodization programs: a review of global experience and analyses of Bangladesh and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohrer, Rebecca; Garrett, Greg S; Timmer, Arnold; Sankar, Rajan; Kar, Basanta; Rasool, Faiz; Locatelli-Rossi, Lorenzo

    2012-12-01

    Despite the reference to salt for food processing in the original definition of universal salt iodization (USI), national USI programs often do not explicitly address food industry salt. This may affect program impact and sustainability, given the increasing consumption of processed foods in developing countries. To review experience of the use of iodized salt in the food industry globally, and analyze the market context in Bangladesh and Pakistan to test whether this experience may be applicable to inform improved national USI programming in developing countries. A review of relevant international experience was undertaken. In Bangladesh and Pakistan, local rural market surveys were carried out. In Bangladesh, structured face-to-face interviews with bakers and indepth interviews with processed food wholesalers and retailers were conducted. In Pakistan, face-to-face structured interviews were conducted with food retailers and food labels were checked. Experience from industrialized countries reveals impact resulting from the use of iodized salt in the food industry. In Bangladesh and Pakistan, bread, biscuits, and snacks containing salt are increasingly available in rural areas. In Bangladesh, the majority of bakers surveyed claimed to use iodized salt. In Pakistan, 6 of 362 unique product labels listed iodized salt. Successful experience from developed countries needs to be adapted to the developing country context. The increasing availability of processed foods in rural Bangladesh and Pakistan provides an opportunity to increase iodine intake. However, the impact of this intervention remains to be quantified. To develop better national USI programs, further data are required on processed food consumption across population groups, iodine contents of food products, and the contribution of processed foods to iodine nutrition.

  10. From global economic modelling to household level analyses of food security and sustainability: how big is the gap and can we bridge it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Policy and decision makers have to make difficult choices to improve the food security of local people against the background of drastic global and local changes. Ex-ante impact assessment using integrated models can help them with these decisions. This review analyses the state of affairs of the

  11. The FRISBEE tool, a software for optimising the trade-off between food quality, energy use, and global warming impact of cold chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwanpua, S.G.; Verboven, P.; Leducq, D.; Brown, T.; Verlinden, B.E.; Bekele, E.; Aregawi, W. Evans, J.; Foster, A.; Duret, S.; Hoang, H.M.; Sluis, S. van der; Wissink, E.; Hendriksen, L.J.A.M.; Taoukis, P.; Gogou, E.; Stahl, V.; El Jabri, M.; Le Page, J.F.; Claussen, I.; Indergård, E.; Nicolai, B.M.; Alvarez, G.; Geeraerd, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Food quality (including safety) along the cold chain, energy use and global warming impact of refrigeration systems are three key aspects in assessing cold chain sustainability. In this paper, we present the framework of a dedicated software, the FRISBEE tool, for optimising quality of refrigerated

  12. Draft EEC method for the determination of the global migration of plastics constituents into fatty-food simulants: Applicability to lacquers, plastics and laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battum, D. van; Rijk, M.A.H.; Verspoor, R.; Rossi, L.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to establish whether the draft EEC method for the determination of the global migration of constituents from plastics packaging materials into fatty food stimulants could be applied to all plastics, including lacquers and laminates. Some difficulties were

  13. Towards a New Cosmopolitanism: Global Reflexive Interactive Democracy as a New Mechanism for Civil Society Participation in Agri-food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, J.A.B.; Bevilaqua, D.

    2010-01-01

    In an increasingly interconnected world, where the widespread travel of goods highlights our interconnectedness, who has the power to decide the global regulations that shape the production, processing and exchange of agri-food products? How are such decisions made and by whom? Who decides what is

  14. Camel milk protein hydrolysates with improved technofunctional properties and enhanced antioxidant potential in in vitro and in food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamsi, Kholoud Awad; Mudgil, Priti; Hassan, Hassan Mohamed; Maqsood, Sajid

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk protein hydrolysates (CMPH) were generated using proteolytic enzymes, such as alcalase, bromelain, and papain, to explore the effect on the technofunctional properties and antioxidant potential under in vitro and in real food model systems. Characterization of the CMPH via degree of hydrolysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, and HPLC revealed that different proteins in camel milk underwent degradation at different degrees after enzymatic hydrolysis using 3 different enzymes for 2, 4, and 6 h, with papain displaying the highest degradation. Technofunctional properties, such as emulsifying activity index, surface hydrophobicity, and protein solubility, were higher in CMPH than unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. However, the water and fat absorption capacity were lower in CMPH compared with unhydrolyzed camel milk proteins. Antioxidant properties as assessed by 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activities and metal-chelating activity were enhanced after hydrolysis, in contrast to ferric-reducing antioxidant power which showed a decrease after hydrolysis. The CMPH were also tested in real food model systems for their potential to inhibit lipid peroxidation in fish mince and grape seed oil-in-water emulsion, and we found that papain-produced hydrolysate displayed higher inhibition than alcalase- and bromelain-produced hydrolysates. Therefore, the CMPH demonstrated effective antioxidant potential in vitro as well as in real food systems and showed enhanced functional properties, which guarantees their potential applications in functional foods. The present study is one of few reports available on CMPH being explored in vitro as well as in real food model systems. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing food security in Northern Ghana through smallholder small ruminant production and marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amankwah, K.

    2013-01-01

    Key words

    Livestock markets, technical and institutional constraints, innovation systems, veterinary services; smallholder farmers; structural adjustment, scaling out, co-learning, supplementary feeding, herd growth, food security, positive deviants, commercialization,

  16. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu

    2015-06-01

    Overeating beyond individuals' homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor blockade by a CRF1-selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity.

  17. Opinions on Fresh Produce Food Safety and Quality Standards by Fresh Produce Supply Chain Experts from the Global South and North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Boxstael, Sigrid; Nanyunja, Jessica; Jordaan, Danie; Luning, Pieternel; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the results of an on-line survey of fresh produce supply chain experts who work with producers from the Global North (n = 41, 20 countries) and the Global South (n = 63, 29 countries). They expressed their opinion using 1 to 5 Likert scales on several items related to four types of food safety and quality standards and legislation: Codex Alimentarius standards, European Union legislation, national legislation, and private standards. The results reflect the different circumstances under which the Southern and Northern producers operate in relation to the local organization, regulation, and support of the sector; but they also indicate similar challenges, in particular, the challenge of private standards, which were perceived to demand a higher implementation effort than the other three types of standards. Private standards were also strongly perceived to exclude Southern and Northern small- and medium-scale producers from high-value markets, whereas European Union legislation was perceived to strongly exclude, in particular, small- and medium-scale Southern producers. The results further highlight concerns about costly control measures and third-party certification that are required by downstream buyers but that are mostly paid for by upstream suppliers. Food standards are seen in their dual role as a catalyst for implementation of structured food safety management systems on the one hand and as a nontariff barrier to trade on the other hand. The results of the survey also pointed up the advantages of enforcing food safety and food quality standards in terms of knowledge spillover to noncertified activities, increased revenues, and improved food safety of delivered produce. Survey results highlight the importance of technical assistance and support of producers by governments and producer cooperatives or trade associations in the implementation and certification of food standards, along with increased awareness of and training of individuals in

  18. ENHANCED ANAEROBIC DIGESTION OF FOOD WASTE BY SUPPLEMENTING TRACE ELEMENTS: ROLE OF SELENIUM (VI AND IRON (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javkhlan eAriunbaatar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential to enhance the anaerobic digestion of food waste FW by supplementing trace elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, Se, and Mo individually as well as in cocktails. A series of batch experiments on the biomethane potential of synthetic food waste were performed with low (FW-A and high (FW-B trace element background concentrations prepared in, respectively, Delft (The Netherlands and Tampa (Florida, USA. The most effective trace elements for FW-A were Fe with an increase of 39.2 (± 0.6 % of biomethane production, followed by Se (34.1 ± 5.6 % increase, Ni (26.4 ± 0.2 % increase and Co (23.8 ± 0.2 % increase. For FW-B supplementing these trace elements did not result in enhancement of the biomethane production, except for Se. FW-B had a Se concentration of 1.3 (± 0. 5 µg/gTS, while it was below the detection limit for FW-A. Regardless of the FW source, Se resulted in 30 – 35% increase of biomethane production at a concentration range of 25-50 µg/L (0.32 – 0.63 µM. Volatile fatty acids analysis revealed that TE supplementation enhances their consumption, thus yielding a higher biomethane production. Moreover, additional experiments on sulfide inhibition showed the enhancing effects of trace elements on the anaerobic digestion of food waste were not related with sulfide toxicity, but with the enzymatic reactions and/or microbial biomass aggregation.

  19. A global drought monitoring system: insights of an approach integrating remote sensing data and vulnerability to food insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeluccetti, Irene; Perez, Francesca; Cámaro, Walther; Demarchi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) for drought are currently underdeveloped compared to those related to other natural hazards. Both forecasting and monitoring of drought events are still posing challenges to the scientific community. In fact, the multifaceted nature of drought (i.e. hydrological, meteorological, and agricultural) is source of coexistence for different ways to measure this phenomenon and its effects. Similarly, drought impacts are various and complex thus difficult to be univocally measured. In the present study an approach for monitoring drought in near-real time and for estimating its impacts is presented. The EWS developed runs on a global extent and is mainly based on the early detection and monitoring of vegetation stress. On the one hand the monitoring of vegetation phenological parameters, whose extraction is based on the analysis of the MODIS-derived NDVI function, allows the fortnightly assessment of the vegetation productivity which could be expected at the end of the growing season. On the other hand, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), calculated adapting TRMM-derived precipitation data in a selected distribution is used, before the growing season start, in order to early detect meteorological conditions which could give rise to vegetation stress events. During the growing season the SPI is used as check information for vegetation conditions. The relationships between rainfall and vegetation dynamics have been statistically analyzed considering different types of vegetation, in order to identify the most suitable rainfall cumulating interval to be used for the proposed monitoring procedures in different areas. A simplified vulnerability model, coupled with the above-mentioned hazard data, returns food security conditions, i.e. the estimated impacts over an investigated area. The model includes a set of agricultural indicators that accounts for the diversity of cultivated crops, the percentage of irrigated area and the suitability of

  20. Carbon capture and biogas enhancement by carbon dioxide enrichment of anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge or food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajón Fernández, Y; Soares, A; Villa, R; Vale, P; Cartmell, E

    2014-05-01

    The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere and the stringent greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction targets, require the development of CO2 sequestration technologies applicable for the waste and wastewater sector. This study addressed the reduction of CO2 emissions and enhancement of biogas production associated with CO2 enrichment of anaerobic digesters (ADs). The benefits of CO2 enrichment were examined by injecting CO2 at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 M fractions into batch ADs treating food waste or sewage sludge. Daily specific methane (CH4) production increased 11-16% for food waste and 96-138% for sewage sludge over the first 24h. Potential CO2 reductions of 8-34% for sewage sludge and 3-11% for food waste were estimated. The capacity of ADs to utilise additional CO2 was demonstrated, which could provide a potential solution for onsite sequestration of CO2 streams while enhancing renewable energy production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced preference for high-fat foods following a simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Sean W; Filtness, Ashleigh J; Phillips, Craig L; Anderson, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Shift workers are prone to obesity and associated co-morbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Sleep restriction associated with shift work results in dramatic endocrine and metabolic effects that predispose shift workers to these adverse health consequences. While sleep restriction has been associated with increased caloric intake, food preference may also play a key role in weight gain associated with shift work. This study examined the impact of an overnight simulated night shift on food preference. Sixteen participants [mean 20.1, standard deviation (SD) 1.4 years; 8 women] underwent a simulated night shift and control condition in a counterbalanced order. On the following morning, participants were provided an opportunity for breakfast that included high- and low-fat food options (mean 64.8% and 6.4% fat, respectively). Participants ate significantly more high-fat breakfast items after the simulated night shift than after the control condition [167.3, standard error of the mean (SEM 28.7) g versus 211.4 (SEM 35.6) g; P=0.012]. The preference for high-fat food was apparent among the majority of individuals following the simulated night shift (81%), but not for the control condition (31%). Shift work and control conditions did not differ, however, in the total amount of food or calories consumed. A simulated night shift leads to preference for high-fat food during a subsequent breakfast opportunity. These results suggest that food choice may contribute to weight-related chronic health problems commonly seen among night shift workers.

  2. An HPLC tracing of the enhancer regulation in selected discrete brain areas of food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklya, I; Knoll, B; Knoll, J

    2003-05-09

    The recent discovery of the enhancer regulation in the mammalian brain brought a different perspective to the brain-organized realization of goal-oriented behavior, which is the quintessence of plastic behavioral descriptions such as drive or motivation. According to this new approach, 'drive' means that special endogenous enhancer substances enhance the impulse-propagation-mediated release of transmitters in a proper population of enhancer-sensitive neurons, and keep these neurons in the state of enhanced excitability until the goal is reached. However, to reach any goal needs the participation of the catecholaminergic machinery, the engine of the brain. We developed a method to detect the specific enhancer effect of synthetic enhancer substances [(-)-deprenyl, (-)-PPAP, (-)-BPAP] by measuring the release of transmitters from freshly isolated selected discrete brain areas (striatum, substantia nigra, tuberculum olfactorium, locus coeruleus, raphe) by the aid of HPLC with electrochemical detection. To test the validity of the working hypothesis that in any form of goal-seeking behavior the catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons work on a higher activity level, we compared the amount of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin released from selected discrete brain areas isolated from the brain of sated and food-deprived rats. Rats were deprived of food for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, and the state of excitability of their catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in comparison to that of sated rats was measured. We tested the orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats in a special open field, isolated thereafter selected discrete brain areas and measured the release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin from the proper tissue samples into the organ bath. The orienting-searching reflex activity of the rats increased proportionally to the time elapsed from the last feed and the amount of dopamine released from the striatum, substantia nigra and

  3. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  4. EP-DNN: A Deep Neural Network-Based Global Enhancer Prediction Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Gon; Harwani, Mrudul; Grama, Ananth; Chaterji, Somali

    2016-12-08

    We present EP-DNN, a protocol for predicting enhancers based on chromatin features, in different cell types. Specifically, we use a deep neural network (DNN)-based architecture to extract enhancer signatures in a representative human embryonic stem cell type (H1) and a differentiated lung cell type (IMR90). We train EP-DNN using p300 binding sites, as enhancers, and TSS and random non-DHS sites, as non-enhancers. We perform same-cell and cross-cell predictions to quantify the validation rate and compare against two state-of-the-art methods, DEEP-ENCODE and RFECS. We find that EP-DNN has superior accuracy with a validation rate of 91.6%, relative to 85.3% for DEEP-ENCODE and 85.5% for RFECS, for a given number of enhancer predictions and also scales better for a larger number of enhancer predictions. Moreover, our H1 → IMR90 predictions turn out to be more accurate than IMR90 → IMR90, potentially because H1 exhibits a richer signature set and our EP-DNN model is expressive enough to extract these subtleties. Our work shows how to leverage the full expressivity of deep learning models, using multiple hidden layers, while avoiding overfitting on the training data. We also lay the foundation for exploration of cross-cell enhancer predictions, potentially reducing the need for expensive experimentation.

  5. EP-DNN: A Deep Neural Network-Based Global Enhancer Prediction Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Gon; Harwani, Mrudul; Grama, Ananth; Chaterji, Somali

    2016-12-01

    We present EP-DNN, a protocol for predicting enhancers based on chromatin features, in different cell types. Specifically, we use a deep neural network (DNN)-based architecture to extract enhancer signatures in a representative human embryonic stem cell type (H1) and a differentiated lung cell type (IMR90). We train EP-DNN using p300 binding sites, as enhancers, and TSS and random non-DHS sites, as non-enhancers. We perform same-cell and cross-cell predictions to quantify the validation rate and compare against two state-of-the-art methods, DEEP-ENCODE and RFECS. We find that EP-DNN has superior accuracy with a validation rate of 91.6%, relative to 85.3% for DEEP-ENCODE and 85.5% for RFECS, for a given number of enhancer predictions and also scales better for a larger number of enhancer predictions. Moreover, our H1 → IMR90 predictions turn out to be more accurate than IMR90 → IMR90, potentially because H1 exhibits a richer signature set and our EP-DNN model is expressive enough to extract these subtleties. Our work shows how to leverage the full expressivity of deep learning models, using multiple hidden layers, while avoiding overfitting on the training data. We also lay the foundation for exploration of cross-cell enhancer predictions, potentially reducing the need for expensive experimentation.

  6. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  7. Bacillus licheniformis Isolated from Traditional Korean Food Resources Enhances the Longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans through Serotonin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Dong-June; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sae Hun; Jeong, Do-Youn; Oh, Nam Su; Lee, Youngbok; Song, Minho; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-12-02

    In this study, we investigated potentially probiotic Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from traditional Korean food sources for ability to enhance longevity using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a simple in vivo animal model. We first investigated whether B. licheniformis strains were capable of modulating the lifespan of C. elegans. Among the tested strains, preconditioning with four B. licheniformis strains significantly enhanced the longevity of C. elegans. Unexpectedly, plate counting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that B. licheniformis strains were not more highly attached to the C. elegans intestine compared with Escherichia coli OP50 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG controls. In addition, qRT-PCR and an aging assay with mutant worms showed that the conditioning of B. licheniformis strain 141 directly influenced genes associated with serotonin signaling in nematodes, including tph-1 (tryptophan hydroxylase), bas-1 (serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), mod-1 (serotonin-gated chloride channel), ser-1, and ser-7 (serotonin receptors) during C. elegans aging. Our findings suggest that B. licheniformis strain 141, which is isolated from traditional Korean foods, is a probiotic generally recognized as safe (GRAS) strain that enhances the lifespan of C. elegans via host serotonin signaling.

  8. Phenotypic and genetic characteristics associated with Listeria monocytogenes food chain isolates displaying enhanced and diminished cold tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hingston, P.; Chen, J.; Laing, C.

    between strains with varied cold tolerance. The objective of this study was to determine if Lm isolates with enhanced cold tolerance, exhibit other high risk characteristics that may add to their survival and/or pathogenicity. To accomplish this, 166 predominantly food/food plant Lm isolates were tested...... in brainheart infusion broth, for their ability to tolerate cold (4°C), salt (6% NaCl, 25°C), acid (pH 5, 25°C), and desiccation (33% RH, 20°C) stress. Isolates were considered tolerant or sensitive if they exhibited survival characteristics > or ... with a truncated version (n=47). Cold tolerant isolates were more likely to be tolerant to the other three stresses than intermediate and cold sensitive isolates. Similarly, cold sensitive isolates were more likely to be sensitive to the other stresses. Cold tolerant isolates had shorter (p=0.012) lag phases...

  9. Enhancement of brain serotonin by long term oral administration of tryptophan produces no effect on food intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, S.; Akhtar, N.; Kidwai, I.M.; Haleem, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    L-tryptophan (TRP) is widely used to enhance serotonin mediate brain functions. In the Present study effects of oral administration of TRP (100mg/kg) daily for 5 weeks, were investigated on the food intake, growth rate and brain indole amine metabolism in young rats. TRP ingestion significantly increased growth rate but did not alter food intake in rats. The levels of TRP and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were higher in the hypothalamus of TRP treated rats. Increases of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) were hot significant. TRP, 5-HT and 5-HIAA all increased in the rest of the brain of TRP treated rats. The present study shows that long term TRP administration thorough increases brain 5-ht metabolism and turnover but functional responses to 5-ht are not necessarily increases. (author)

  10. Albedo enhancement of marine clouds to counteract global warming: impacts on the hydrological cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bala, G. [Indian Institute of Science, Divecha Center for Climate Change, Bangalore (India); Indian Institute of Science, Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India); Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long; Ban-Weiss, George; Shin, Ho-Jeong [Carnegie Institution, Department of Global Ecology, Stanford, CA (United States); Nemani, Rama [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Recent studies have shown that changes in solar radiation affect the hydrological cycle more strongly than equivalent CO{sub 2} changes for the same change in global mean surface temperature. Thus, solar radiation management ''geoengineering'' proposals to completely offset global mean temperature increases by reducing the amount of absorbed sunlight might be expected to slow the global water cycle and reduce runoff over land. However, proposed countering of global warming by increasing the albedo of marine clouds would reduce surface solar radiation only over the oceans. Here, for an idealized scenario, we analyze the response of temperature and the hydrological cycle to increased reflection by clouds over the ocean using an atmospheric general circulation model coupled to a mixed layer ocean model. When cloud droplets are reduced in size over all oceans uniformly to offset the temperature increase from a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the global-mean precipitation and evaporation decreases by about 1.3% but runoff over land increases by 7.5% primarily due to increases over tropical land. In the model, more reflective marine clouds cool the atmospheric column over ocean. The result is a sinking motion over oceans and upward motion over land. We attribute the increased runoff over land to this increased upward motion over land when marine clouds are made more reflective. Our results suggest that, in contrast to other proposals to increase planetary albedo, offsetting mean global warming by reducing marine cloud droplet size does not necessarily lead to a drying, on average, of the continents. However, we note that the changes in precipitation, evaporation and P-E are dominated by small but significant areas, and given the highly idealized nature of this study, a more thorough and broader assessment would be required for proposals of altering marine cloud properties on a large scale. (orig.)

  11. Ghrelin mimics fasting to enhance human hedonic, orbitofrontal cortex, and hippocampal responses to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Anthony P; Prechtl, Christina G; Scholtz, Samantha; Miras, Alexander D; Chhina, Navpreet; Durighel, Giuliana; Deliran, Seyedeh S; Beckmann, Christian; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Ashby, Damien R; Waldman, Adam D; Gaylinn, Bruce D; Thorner, Michael O; Frost, Gary S; Bloom, Stephen R; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-06-01

    Ghrelin, which is a stomach-derived hormone, increases with fasting and energy restriction and may influence eating behaviors through brain hedonic reward-cognitive systems. Therefore, changes in plasma ghrelin might mediate counter-regulatory responses to a negative energy balance through changes in food hedonics. We investigated whether ghrelin administration (exogenous hyperghrelinemia) mimics effects of fasting (endogenous hyperghrelinemia) on the hedonic response and activation of brain-reward systems to food. In a crossover design, 22 healthy, nonobese adults (17 men) underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) food-picture evaluation task after a 16-h overnight fast (Fasted-Saline) or after eating breakfast 95 min before scanning (730 kcal, 14% protein, 31% fat, and 55% carbohydrate) and receiving a saline (Fed-Saline) or acyl ghrelin (Fed-Ghrelin) subcutaneous injection before scanning. One male subject was excluded from the fMRI analysis because of excess head motion, which left 21 subjects with brain-activation data. Compared with the Fed-Saline visit, both ghrelin administration to fed subjects (Fed-Ghrelin) and fasting (Fasted-Saline) significantly increased the appeal of high-energy foods and associated orbitofrontal cortex activation. Both fasting and ghrelin administration also increased hippocampus activation to high-energy- and low-energy-food pictures. These similar effects of endogenous and exogenous hyperghrelinemia were not explicable by consistent changes in glucose, insulin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1. Neither ghrelin administration nor fasting had any significant effect on nucleus accumbens, caudate, anterior insula, or amygdala activation during the food-evaluation task or on auditory, motor, or visual cortex activation during a control task. Ghrelin administration and fasting have similar acute stimulatory effects on hedonic responses and the activation of corticolimbic reward-cognitive systems during food

  12. Technology enhanced learning for occupational and environmental health nursing: a global imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D K; Cohn, S; Carlson, V

    2000-04-01

    One strategy for decreasing the barriers to higher education and for increasing the competency and performance of the occupational and environmental health nurse in the information age is technology enhanced learning. Technology enhanced learning encompasses a variety of technologies employed in teaching and learning activities of presentation, interaction, and transmission to on campus and distant students. Web based learning is growing faster than any other instructional technology, offering students convenience and a wealth of information.

  13. ENHANCING THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF THE GLOBAL INSURANCE MARKET: CHANGING DRIVERS OF MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rasshyvalov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One-third of worldwide mergers and acquisitions involving firms from different countries make M&A one of the key drivers of internationalization. Over the past five years insurance cross-border merger and acquisition activities have globally paralleled deep financial crisis.

  14. Enhancing Learning Performance through Classroom Response Systems: The Effect of Knowledge in a Global Economic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Louis T. W.; Wang, Jacqueline Wenjie

    2018-01-01

    The international business education literature suggests that a global mindset can be acquired and benefit students to embrace new ideas and improve their critical thinking. Using a sample of 1,448 undergraduate students in Corporate Finance, International Finance, and Business Law subjects during 2013-2015, our results indicate that students with…

  15. Enhancing Primary School Students' Knowledge about Global Warming and Environmental Attitude Using Climate Change Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Roth, Wolff-Michael; Bin Abdullah, Mohd Nor Syahrir

    2015-01-01

    Climate change generally and global warming specifically have become a common feature of the daily news. Due to widespread recognition of the adverse consequences of climate change on human lives, concerted societal effort has been taken to address it (e.g. by means of the science curriculum). This study was designed to test the effect that…

  16. How Academies use science to enhance global security and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boright, John

    2017-01-01

    Science academies were originally created to facilitate science communication and later to recognize excellence. But in the last 20 years some 150 academies of science, engineering,and medicine around the world have united to cooperate in contributing to human welfare, by: 1. Providing evidence-based inputs to national, regional, and global policies addressing human needs, and 2. Conducting cooperative programs to increase the capacity of academies to provide such advice, and to better connect academies to publics and to policy makers. Examples: At the global level, 112 academies of science produce brief common statements on major global issues. They have also created an organization to provide in-depth reports on major issues such as a transition to sustainable energy systems, boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, and a guide to responsible conduct in the global research enterprise. Regional networks of those academies, in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe conduct program on topics such as water, energy, engagement of women in science, and science education. They also help and mentor new academies.

  17. Using the Melamine Contamination of Foods to Enhance the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Doris Renate; Jensen, Anna Chick

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the chemistry of the triazine compound, melamine, is presented as well as a brief discussion of the health impacts on humans and pets when melamine contaminates milk products and pet food. Melamine has repeatedly been in the news, and its topical nature provides an excellent springboard for applications of a variety of chemical…

  18. Whole eggs enhance antioxidant activity when combined with energy dense, cooked breakfast foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute metabolic changes following the consumption of energy dense foods high in saturated fat (SFA) and glycemic load (GL) may contribute to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Eggs provide highly digestible protein, unsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, and other antioxidant compounds tha...

  19. Nicotine enhances modulation of food-cue reactivity by leptin and ghrelin in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Nils B; Wuttig, Franziska; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-07-01

    Endocrine signals such as ghrelin and leptin are known to modulate the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and, consequently, show associations with food and drug reward. In animal models, nicotine was demonstrated to reduce body weight by attenuating food intake and effects of leptin and ghrelin are partly modulated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which hint at potential interactions. However, the neuropharmacological modulation of endocrine signals by nicotine in healthy humans remains to be tested experimentally. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate food-cue reactivity after an overnight fast and following a caloric load (oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT) in 26 healthy normal-weight never-smokers. Moreover, we administered either nicotine (2 mg) or placebo gums using a randomized cross-over design and assessed blood plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin. During fasting, nicotine administration decreased correlations with ghrelin levels in the mesocorticolimbic system whereas correlations with leptin were increased. After the OGTT, nicotine increased the modulatory effects of ghrelin and leptin on food-cue reactivity, particularly in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala. Critically, this led to an indirect modulation of the behavioral 'appetizer effect' (i.e. cue-induced increases in subjective appetite) by homeostatic feedback signals via food-cue reactivity in vmPFC. We conclude that nicotine enhances the effect of ghrelin and leptin in the valuation and relevance network which might, in turn, reduce appetite. This highlights that amplifying the impact of homeostatic signals such as ghrelin and leptin in normal-weight individuals might hint at a mechanism contributing to nicotine's anorexic potential. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Effects of ionizing radiation on plastic food packaging materials: a review. 2. Global migration, sensory changes and the fate of additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalla, R.; Schuttler, C.; Bogl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Increased ''global'' migration into food simulants has been described as a consequence of irradiation, particularly with fatty media; development of off-odors and taint transfer into food simulants have been observed with various plastics. Additives, especially antioxidants, are destroyed during irradiation, and increased ''specific'' migration values have been observed under certain circumstances. Organotin stabilizers in PVC are ultimately degraded to SnCl4, and increased migration of tin compounds was observed after gamma irradiation. Degradation products of phenol antioxidants, that were also found as migrants, have only recently been identified; some of these structures seem to be radiation specific