Sample records for engineering planetary lasers

  1. Engineering planetary lasers for interstellar communication. M.S. Thesis (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent


    Transmitting large amounts of data efficiently among neighboring stars will vitally support any eventual contact with extrasolar intelligence, whether alien or human. Laser carriers are particularly suitable for high-quality, targeted links. Space laser transmitter systems designed by this work, based on both demonstrated and imminent advanced space technology, could achieve reliable data transfer rates as high as 1 kb/s to matched receivers as far away as 25 pc, a distance including over 700 approximately solar-type stars. The centerpiece of this demonstration study is a fleet of automated spacecraft incorporating adaptive neural-net optical processing active structures, nuclear electric power plants, annular momentum control devices, and ion propulsion. Together the craft sustain, condition, modulate, and direct to stellar targets an infrared laser beam extracted from the natural mesospheric, solar-pumped, stimulated CO2 emission recently discovered at Venus. For a culture already supported by mature interplanetary industry, the cost of building planetary or high-power space laser systems for interstellar communication would be marginal, making such projects relevant for the next human century. Links using high-power lasers might support data transfer rates as high as optical frequencies could ever allow. A nanotechnological society such as we might become would inevitably use 10 to the 20th power b/yr transmission to promote its own evolutionary expansion out of the galaxy.

  2. Planetary engineering (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  3. Planetary science and engineering (United States)

    Lust, R.; Reinhard, R.


    The engineering aspects of space probe development are examined. The study of the formation and evolution of the solar system is reviewed, focusing on additional information which could be gained from space probes. Consideration is given to the engineering requirements of space probe power supply, telemetry, tracking, command, attitude and orbit control, data-handling, and temperature control subsystems. An overview is given of the major space probe missions to Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and comets.

  4. An ecological compass for planetary engineering. (United States)

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob


    Proposals to address present-day global warming through the large-scale application of technology to the climate system, known as geoengineering, raise questions of environmental ethics relevant to the broader issue of planetary engineering. These questions have also arisen in the scientific literature as discussions of how to terraform a planet such as Mars or Venus in order to make it more Earth-like and habitable. Here we draw on insights from terraforming and environmental ethics to develop a two-axis comparative tool for ethical frameworks that considers the intrinsic or instrumental value placed upon organisms, environments, planetary systems, or space. We apply this analysis to the realm of planetary engineering, such as terraforming on Mars or geoengineering on present-day Earth, as well as to questions of planetary protection and space exploration.

  5. Lasers and optical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Das, P


    A textbook on lasers and optical engineering should include all aspects of lasers and optics; however, this is a large undertaking. The objective of this book is to give an introduction to the subject on a level such that under­ graduate students (mostly juniors/seniors), from disciplines like electrical engineering, physics, and optical engineering, can use the book. To achieve this goal, a lot of basic background material, central to the subject, has been covered in optics and laser physics. Students with an elementary knowledge of freshman physics and with no formal courses in electromagnetic theory should be able to follow the book, although for some sections, knowledge of electromagnetic theory, the Fourier transform, and linear systems would be highly beneficial. There are excellent books on optics, laser physics, and optical engineering. Actually, most of my knowledge was acquired through these. However, when I started teaching an undergraduate course in 1974, under the same heading as the title of th...

  6. Comparative analysis of planetary laser ranging concepts (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Bauer, S.; Noomen, R.; Vermeersen, B. L. A.; Visser, P. N.


    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering improved range accuracy and precision (mm-cm), compared to existing DSN tracking. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment is modified with an active system. In a one-way system, such as that currently being used on the LRO spacecraft (Zuber et al., 2010), only an active detector is required on the spacecraft. For a two-way system, such as that tested by using the laser altimeter system on the MESSENGER spacecraft en route to Mercury (Smith et al., 2006), a laser transmitter system is additionally placed on the space segment, which will asynchronously fire laser pulses towards the ground stations. Although the one-way system requires less hardware, clock errors on both the space and ground segments will accumulate over time, polluting the range measurements. For a two-way system, the range measurements are only sensitive to clock errors integrated over the the two-way light time.We investigate the performance of both one- and two-way laser range systems by simulating their operation. We generate realizations of clock error time histories from Allan variance profiles, and use them to create range measurement error profiles. We subsequently perform the orbit determination process from this data to quanitfy the system's performance. For our simulations, we use two test cases: a lunar orbiter similar to LRO and a Phobos lander similar to the Phobos Laser Ranging concept (Turyshev et al., 2010). For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical model for unmodelled non-gravitational accelerations in our truth model to include errors ihe dynamics. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a number of arc lengths for our simulations of the one-way range system and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations.We perform Monte Carlo simulations and generate true error distributions for both

  7. Visualizing planetary data by using 3D engines (United States)

    Elgner, S.; Adeli, S.; Gwinner, K.; Preusker, F.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K.-D.; Roatsch, T.; Jaumann, R.; Oberst, J.


    We examined 3D gaming engines for their usefulness in visualizing large planetary image data sets. These tools allow us to include recent developments in the field of computer graphics in our scientific visualization systems and present data products interactively and in higher quality than before. We started to set up the first applications which will take use of virtual reality (VR) equipment.

  8. Laser engineering of spine discs (United States)

    Sobol, E.; Zakharkina, O.; Baskov, A.; Shekhter, A.; Borschenko, I.; Guller, A.; Baskov, V.; Omelchenko, A.; Sviridov, A.


    The laser engineering of intervertebral discs is one of the branch of medical physics aimed at the development of minimally invasive laser medical techniques based on the effect of the controlled (time- and space-modulated) laser radiation on the structure and the field of mechanical stress of biological tissues. A new method for the laser engineering of the intervertebral discs and the differences of this approach from the existing physical methods of medical treatment are considered. The newly formed tissues of animals and humans are hystologically studied. Possible regeneration processes are discussed. A control system that provides for the treatment efficiency and safety is developed. The new laser medical equipment that is designed for the laser engineering of intervertebral discs is described, and the corresponding results of the clinical application are presented.

  9. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials, and nonlinear crystals. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  10. Solid-State Laser Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Written from an industrial perspective, Solid-State Laser Engineering discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. Since its first edition almost 30 years ago this book has become the standard in the field of solid-state lasers for scientists,engineers and graduate students. This new edition has been extensively revised and updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials and nonlinear crystals. Completely new sections have been added dealing with frequency control, the theory of mode-locking, femto second lasers, high efficiency harmonic generation, passive and acousto-optic Q-switching, semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM) and peridically poled nonlinear crystals.

  11. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  12. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    Solid-State Laser Engineering is written from an industrial perspective and discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction and practical problems of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations, with a phenomenological treatment using modelsbeing preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has been updated and revised to include important developments, concepts and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first edition.

  13. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter


    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  14. Atmospheric Circulations of Hot Jupiters as Planetary Heat Engines (United States)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Komacek, Thaddeus D.


    Because of their intense incident stellar irradiation and likely tidally locked spin states, hot Jupiters are expected to have wind speeds that approach or exceed the speed of sound. In this work, we develop a theory to explain the magnitude of these winds. We model hot Jupiters as planetary heat engines and show that hot Jupiters are always less efficient than an ideal Carnot engine. Next, we demonstrate that our predicted wind speeds match those from three-dimensional numerical simulations over a broad range of parameters. Finally, we use our theory to evaluate how well different drag mechanisms can match the wind speeds observed with Doppler spectroscopy for HD 189733b and HD 209458b. We find that magnetic drag is potentially too weak to match the observations for HD 189733b, but is compatible with the observations for HD 209458b. In contrast, shear instabilities and/or shocks are compatible with both observations. Furthermore, the two mechanisms predict different wind speed trends for hotter and colder planets than currently observed. As a result, we propose that a wider range of Doppler observations could reveal multiple drag mechanisms at play across different hot Jupiters.

  15. Highly Efficient Compact Laser for Planetary Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the solicitation for advances in critical components of instruments for enhanced scientific investigations on future planetary mission, Q-Peak...

  16. Laser-based mass spectrometry for in situ chemical composition analysis of planetary surfaces (United States)

    Frey, Samira; Neuland, Maike B.; Grimaudo, Valentine; Moreno-García, Pavel; Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Broekmann, Peter; Wurz, Peter


    Mass spectrometry is an important analytical technique in space research. The chemical composition of planetary surface material is a key scientific question on every space mission to a planet, moon or asteroid. Chemical composition measurements of rocky material on the surface are of great importance to understand the origin and evolution of the planetary body.[1] A miniature laser ablation/ionisation reflectron- type time-of-flight mass spectrometer (instrument name LMS) was designed and built at the University of Bern for planetary research.[2] Despite its small size and light weight, the LMS instrument still maintains the same capabilities as large laboratory systems, which makes it suitable for its application on planetary space missions.[3-5] The high dynamic range of about eight orders of magnitude, high lateral (μm-level) and vertical (sub-nm level) resolution and high detection sensitivity for almost all elements (10 ppb, atomic fraction) make LMS a versatile instrument for various applications. LMS is a suitable instrument for in situ measurements of elemental and isotope composition with high precision and accuracy. Measurements of Pb- isotope abundances can be used for dating of planetary material. Measurements of bio-relevant elements allow searching for past or present life on a planetary surface. The high spatial resolution, both in lateral and vertical direction, is of considerable interest, e.g. for analysis of inhomogeneous, extraterrestrial samples as well as weathering processes of planetary material. References [1] P. Wurz, D. Abplanalp, M. Tulej, M. Iakovleva, V.A. Fernandes, A. Chumikov, and G. Managadze, "Mass Spectrometric Analysis in Planetary Science: Investigation of the Surface and the Atmosphere", Sol. Sys. Res., 2012, 46, 408. [2] U. Rohner, J.A. Whitby, P. Wurz, "A miniature laser ablation time of flight mass spectrometer for in situ planetary exploration" Meas. Sci. Tch., 2003, 14, 2159. [3] M. Tulej, A. Riedo, M.B. Neuland, S

  17. Interplanetary laser ranging : Analysis for implementation in planetary science missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, D.


    Measurements of the motion of natural (and artificial) bodies in the solar system provide key input on their interior structre and properties. Currently, the most accurate measurements of solar system dynamics are performed using radiometric tracking systems on planetary missions, providing range

  18. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette


    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  19. Co-registration of Laser Altimeter Tracks with Digital Terrain Models and Applications in Planetary Science (United States)

    Glaeser, P.; Haase, I.; Oberst, J.; Neumann, G. A.


    We have derived algorithms and techniques to precisely co-register laser altimeter profiles with gridded Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), typically derived from stereo images. The algorithm consists of an initial grid search followed by a least-squares matching and yields the translation parameters at sub-pixel level needed to align the DTM and the laser profiles in 3D space. This software tool was primarily developed and tested for co-registration of laser profiles from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) with DTMs derived from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) stereo images. Data sets can be co-registered with positional accuracy between 0.13 m and several meters depending on the pixel resolution and amount of laser shots, where rough surfaces typically result in more accurate co-registrations. Residual heights of the data sets are as small as 0.18 m. The software can be used to identify instrument misalignment, orbit errors, pointing jitter, or problems associated with reference frames being used. Also, assessments of DTM effective resolutions can be obtained. From the correct position between the two data sets, comparisons of surface morphology and roughness can be made at laser footprint- or DTM pixel-level. The precise co-registration allows us to carry out joint analysis of the data sets and ultimately to derive merged high-quality data products. Examples of matching other planetary data sets, like LOLA with LRO Wide Angle Camera (WAC) DTMs or Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) with stereo models from the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) as well as Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) with Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) are shown to demonstrate the broad science applications of the software tool.

  20. Highly Sensitive Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometers for In Situ Planetary Exploration (United States)

    Vasudev, Ram; Mansour, Kamjou; Webster, Christopher R.


    This paper describes highly sensitive tunable diode laser spectrometers suitable for in situ planetary exploration. The technology developed at JPL is based on wavelength modulated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. It is capable of sensitively detecting chemical signatures of life through the abundance of biogenic molecules and their isotopic composition, and chemicals such as water necessary for habitats of life. The technology would be suitable for searching for biomarkers, extinct life, potential habitats of extant life, and signatures of ancient climates on Mars; and for detecting biomarkers, prebiotic chemicals and habitats of life in the outer Solar System. It would be useful for prospecting for water on the Moon and asteroids, and characterizing its isotopic composition. Deployment on the Moon could provide ground truth to the recent remote measurements and help to uncover precious records of the early bombardment history of the inner Solar System buried at the shadowed poles, and elucidate the mechanism for the generation of near-surface water in the illuminated regions. The technology would also be useful for detecting other volatile molecules in planetary atmospheres and subsurface reservoirs, isotopic characterization of planetary materials, and searching for signatures of extinct life preserved in solid matrices.

  1. Insulator to semiconductor transformation of planetary ice mixtures compressed by laser-driven shock wave and its implication for interior properties of icy giant planets (United States)

    Okuchi, T.; Ozaki, N.; Sano, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kodama, R.


    Molecular ices in the universe are consisting of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. Such ices containing these elements coalesced to develop into icy giant planets such as Uranus, Neptune, as well as those in some extrasolar planetary systems. Properties of such planetary ices at elevated pressures and temperatures are essential clues for understanding the layering structures and material circulations inside these icy giant planets. In particular, strong magnetic fields are generated in the deep interiors of these planets by thermal convection, so that the planetary ices are expected to be electrically conductive at the relevant pressure and temperature conditions.Here by using high-power nanosecond laser pulses from GEKKO-XII neodymium-doped glass laser system installed at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, four distinct chemical types of planetary ices are shock-compressed, and initial appearance and subsequent increase of free electron careers within each chemical type are experimentally observed. The chemical types include (i) H2O, (ii) H2O + carbon, (iii) H2O + nitrogen, and (iv) H2O + carbon + nitrogen. Their hydrogen/oxygen to carbon and hydrogen/oxygen to nitrogen molar ratios reflect that of the cosmic ice, so that our type (iv) corresponds to "synthetic Uranus" used by Nellis and coworkers. The measured conditions include pressures between 50 GPa to 190 GPa and temperatures between 3000 K and 14000 K, which were simultaneously determined with density and optical reflectivity at 532 nm of the solutions using picosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics for shock-compressed state of the materials. A common occurrence of insulator to electronic semiconductor transition was observed for all the chemical types, while the transition pressure conditions are substantially different among these types. Carbon-bearing ices consistently show lower transition pressure and temperature, indicating that electronically semiconducting states inside

  2. Planetary Surface Analysis Using Fast Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Combined Microscopic Raman, LIBS, and Fluorescence Spectroscopy (United States)

    Blacksberg, J.; Rossman, G. R.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.


    In situ exploration of planetary surfaces has to date required multiple techniques that, when used together, yield important information about their formation histories and evolution. We present a time-resolved laser spectroscopic technique that could potentially collect complementary sets of data providing information on mineral structure, composition, and hydration state. Using a picosecond-scale pulsed laser and a fast time-resolved detector we can simultaneously collect spectra from Raman, Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and fluorescence emissions that are separated in time due to the unique decay times of each process. The use of a laser with high rep rate (40 KHz) and low pulse energy (1 μJ/pulse) allows us to rapidly collect high signal to noise Raman spectra while minimizing sample damage. Increasing the pulse energy by about an order of magnitude creates a microscopic plasma near the surface and enables the collection of LIBS spectra at an unusually high rep rate and low pulse energy. Simultaneously, broader fluorescence peaks can be detected with lifetimes varying from nanosecond to microsecond. We will present Raman, LIBS, and fluorescence spectra obtained on natural mineral samples such as sulfates, clays, pyroxenes and carbonates that are of interest for Mars mineralogy. We demonstrate this technique using a photocathode-based streak camera detector as well as a newly-developed solid state Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) sensor array based on Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. We will discuss the impact of system design and detector choice on science return of a potential planetary surface mission, with a specific focus on size, weight, power, and complexity. The research described here was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  3. NASA's Planetary Science Summer School: Training Future Mission Leaders in a Concurrent Engineering Environment (United States)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Lowes, L. L.; Budney, C. J.; Sohus, A.


    NASA's Planetary Science Summer School (PSSS) is an intensive program for postdocs and advanced graduate students in science and engineering fields with a keen interest in planetary exploration. The goal is to train the next generation of planetary science mission leaders in a hands-on environment involving a wide range of engineers and scientists. It was established in 1989, and has undergone several incarnations. Initially a series of seminars, it became a more formal mission design experience in 1999. Admission is competitive, with participants given financial support. The competitively selected trainees develop an early mission concept study in teams of 15-17, responsive to a typical NASA Science Mission Directorate Announcement of Opportunity. They select the mission concept from options presented by the course sponsors, based on high-priority missions as defined by the Decadal Survey, prepare a presentation for a proposal authorization review, present it to a senior review board and receive critical feedback. Each participant assumes multiple roles, on science, instrument and project teams. They develop an understanding of top-level science requirements and instrument priorities in advance through a series of reading assignments and webinars help trainees. Then, during the five day session at Jet Propulsion Laboratory, they work closely with concurrent engineers including JPL's Advanced Projects Design Team ("Team X"), a cross-functional multidisciplinary team of engineers that utilizes concurrent engineering methodologies to complete rapid design, analysis and evaluation of mission concept designs. All are mentored and assisted directly by Team X members and course tutors in their assigned project roles. There is a strong emphasis on making difficult trades, simulating a real mission design process as accurately as possible. The process is intense and at times dramatic, with fast-paced design sessions and late evening study sessions. A survey of PSSS alumni

  4. Comparative analysis of one- and two-way planetary laser ranging concepts (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Noomen, R.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Bauer, S.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.


    Laser ranging is an emerging technology for tracking interplanetary missions, offering both range accuracy and precision at the level of several millimeters. The ground segment uses existing Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology, whereas the space segment requires an active system for either one- or two-way ranging. We numerically investigate the performance of one- and two-way active planetary laser ranging systems to quantify the difference in science return from missions employing this technology. In doing so, we assess the added value of the more complicated two-way system compared to its one-way counterpart. We simulate range measurement errors for both types of systems, using clock error time histories generated from Allan variance profiles. We use two test cases: a lunar polar orbiter and a Phobos lander. In the Phobos lander simulations, we include the estimation of Phobos librations and C bar 2 , 2 gravity field coefficient. For the lunar orbiter, we include an empirical force-error model in our truth model. We include the estimation of clock parameters over a variety of arc lengths for one-way range data analysis and use a variety of state arc durations for the lunar orbiter simulations. For the lunar orbiter, performance of the one- and two-way system is similar for sufficiently short clock arcs. This indicates that dynamical-model error, not clock noise, is the dominant source of estimation uncertainty. However, correlations between the clock and state parameters cause an exchange between clock and state signal for the one-way system, making these results less robust. The results for the Phobos lander show superior estimation accuracy of the two-way system. However, knowledge of Phobos' interior mass distribution from both the one- or two-way system would currently be limited to the same level by inaccuracies in our knowledge of Phobos' volume. Both the lunar orbiter and Phobos lander simulations show that the use of two-way planetary laser ranging

  5. Selective laser sintering in biomedical engineering. (United States)

    Mazzoli, Alida


    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a solid freeform fabrication technique, developed by Carl Deckard for his master's thesis at the University of Texas, patented in 1989. SLS manufacturing is a technique that produces physical models through a selective solidification of a variety of fine powders. SLS technology is getting a great amount of attention in the clinical field. In this paper the characteristics features of SLS and the materials that have been developed for are reviewed together with a discussion on the principles of the above-mentioned manufacturing technique. The applications of SLS in tissue engineering, and at-large in the biomedical field, are reviewed and discussed.

  6. Experimental Study on Thrust Characteristics of Airspace Laser Propulsion Engine (United States)

    Ageichik, A. A.; Egorov, M. S.; Rezunkov, Y. A.; Safronov, A. L.; Stepanov, V. V.


    In the paper a specially designed airspace laser propulsion engine is examined at the non-conventional laser beam input into the engine nozzle. The experiments are carried out by using of the laboratory stand and pulsed CO2 laser. In the experiments, geometrical parameters of the engine and laser pulse characteristics are varied. The technique of the experiments allowed measuring of momentum coupling coefficient Cm with accuracy of +/-10%. The coupling coefficient Cm was experimentally measured and compared with Cm determined theoretically. The dependences of the coupling coefficient on the laser pulse characteristics and geometrical parameters of the engine are also obtained. In the paper the analysis of the flight model of the airspace laser propulsion engine is considered too.

  7. Planetary Dynamics From Laser Altimetry: Spin and Tidal Deformation of the Moon and Mercury (United States)

    Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.


    Studying the dynamics of planetary bodies can shed light on their interior structure and evolution. For example, the temperature variation with depth affects how a planet's surface deforms under the influence of gravitational tidal forcing. Also, the pole orientation, libration, and spin rate of a planet depend on its interior mass distribution and thermal evolution. Altimetric crossovers measured by orbiting spacecraft are ideal for observing these subtle dynamical effects because they have little sensitivity to local and regional relief, which can mask the signals of interest. On the Moon, the tidal surface deformation has an amplitude of only 10 cm, but Mazarico et al. (2014) were able to measure the radial Love number h2 using the highest quality crossovers from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). Building upon that work, we are incorporating more crossovers to improve the spatial and temporal sampling of the tidal signal. On Mercury, tidal torques from the Sun cause longitudinal librations about its 3:2 spin-orbit resonance with an amplitude of 450 m at the equator. This amplitude is significantly larger than the geolocation uncertainty of MESSENGER's Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) data ( 10/100 m in radial/horizontal), and could, thus, be detectable from MLA crossovers. Here we describe recent work using MLA crossovers to measure deviations of Mercury's rotation from the canonical IAU model. Careful accounting of the spacecraft orbital errors and MLA pointing biases will allow an estimation of libration amplitude, pole position, and mean spin rate.

  8. MITEE: A Compact Ultralight Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Engine for Planetary Science Missions (United States)

    Powell, J.; Maise, G.; Paniagua, J.


    A new approach for a near-term compact, ultralight nuclear thermal propulsion engine, termed MITEE (Miniature Reactor Engine) is described. MITEE enables a wide range of new and unique planetary science missions that are not possible with chemical rockets. With U-235 nuclear fuel and hydrogen propellant the baseline MITEE engine achieves a specific impulse of approximately 1000 seconds, a thrust of 28,000 newtons, and a total mass of only 140 kilograms, including reactor, controls, and turbo-pump. Using higher performance nuclear fuels like U-233, engine mass can be reduced to as little as 80 kg. Using MITEE, V additions of 20 km/s for missions to outer planets are possible compared to only 10 km/s for H2/O2 engines. The much greater V with MITEE enables much faster trips to the outer planets, e.g., two years to Jupiter, three years to Saturn, and five years to Pluto, without needing multiple planetary gravity assists. Moreover, MITEE can utilize in-situ resources to further extend mission V. One example of a very attractive, unique mission enabled by MITEE is the exploration of a possible subsurface ocean on Europa and the return of samples to Earth. Using MITEE, a spacecraft would land on Europa after a two-year trip from Earth orbit and deploy a small nuclear heated probe that would melt down through its ice sheet. The probe would then convert to a submersible and travel through the ocean collecting samples. After a few months, the probe would melt its way back up to the MITEE lander, which would have replenished its hydrogen propellant by melting and electrolyzing Europa surface ice. The spacecraft would then return to Earth. Total mission time is only five years, starting from departure from Earth orbit. Other unique missions include Neptune and Pluto orbiter, and even a Pluto sample return. MITEE uses the cermet Tungsten-UO2 fuel developed in the 1960's for the 710 reactor program. The W-UO2 fuel has demonstrated capability to operate in 3000 K hydrogen for

  9. Orthogonal polarization in lasers physical phenomena and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shulian


    This practical book summarizes the latest research results of orthogonally polarized lasers, birefringence laser cavities, and their applications. Coverage ranges from basic principles and technologies to the characteristics of different cavities and lasers to various measurement techniques. A number of figures, experimental designs, and measurement curves are included, helping readers gain a thorough understanding of the many applications in modern engineering and start their own projects. Many types of relevant lasers (Helium/Neon lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, laser diodes, etc.) are also discussed

  10. ENVI Services Engine: Earth and Planetary Image Processing for the Cloud (United States)

    O'Connor, A. S.; Lausten, K.; Heightley, K.; Harris, T.


    The geospatial imagery analysis and exploitation community has a growing need for online analytic capabilities. Work previously done on desktop workstations must migrate to a web-accessible environment to mitigate growing data volumetrics, bandwidth usage, and end user requirements. Web based applications (or 'apps') are intended to apply analytic methods, procedures, and routines to image datasets stored within centralized server repositories. Exelis Visual information Solutions (VIS) developed an enterprise-enabled processing engine that provides remote users access to the power of ENVI image analysis and IDL applications from a web or mobile client interface. The working name for this capability is the ENVI and IDL Services Engine (ESE). This engine now enables the remote user to gain access to the same compiled ENVI and IDL functions and procedures that remote sensing scientists have utilized for decades at the desktop level. ESE operates in a RESTful state, listening for http calls to arrive that initiate a data processing operation once those messages are registered. ESE is middleware agnostic, meaning users can implement this capability using their current enterprise architecture such as ArcGIS Server or GeoServer. Flexibility and openness in middleware components is achieved through the use of OGC standards for message and data transfer. ESE represents bringing long term earth science monitoring analysis capabilities to the cloud, harnessing existing ENVI and IDL tools and deploying them to the enterprise, and improving access to earth and planetary science data.

  11. Study, optimization, and design of a laser heat engine (United States)


    Laser heat engine concepts, proposed for satellite applications, were analyzed to determine which engine concepts best meet the requirements of high efficiency (50 percent or better) continuous operation in space. The best laser heat engine for a near-term experimental demonstration, selected on the basis of high overall operating efficiency, high power-to-weight characteristics, and availability of the required technology, is an Otto/Diesel cycle piston engine using a diamond window to admit CO2 laser radiation. The technology with the greatest promise of scaling to megawatt power levels in the long term is the energy exchanger/gas turbine combination.

  12. Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry to Elucidate Organic Diversity in Planetary Surface Materials. (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Cornish, Timothy; Li, Xiang; Floyd, Melissa; Arevalo, Ricardo Jr.; Cook, Jamie Elsila; Callahan, Michael P.


    Laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LD-TOF-MS) holds promise to be a low-mass, compact in situ analytical capability for future landed missions to planetary surfaces. The ability to analyze a solid sample for both mineralogical and preserved organic content with laser ionization could be compelling as part of a scientific mission pay-load that must be prepared for unanticipated discoveries. Targeted missions for this instrument capability include Mars, Europa, Enceladus, and small icy bodies, such as asteroids and comets.

  13. CO2 laser-driven Stirling engine. [space power applications (United States)

    Lee, G.; Perry, R. L.; Carney, B.


    A 100-W Beale free-piston Stirling engine was powered remotely by a CO2 laser for long periods of time. The engine ran on both continuous-wave and pulse laser input. The working fluid was helium doped with small quantities of sulfur hexafluoride, SF6. The CO2 radiation was absorbed by the vibrational modes of the sulfur hexafluoride, which in turn transferred the energy to the helium to drive the engine. Electrical energy was obtained from a linear alternator attached to the piston of the engine. Engine pressures, volumes, and temperatures were measured to determine engine performance. It was found that the pulse radiation mode was more efficient than the continuous-wave mode. An analysis of the engine heat consumption indicated that heat losses around the cylinder and the window used to transmit the beam into the engine accounted for nearly half the energy input. The overall efficiency, that is, electrical output to laser input, was approximately 0.75%. However, this experiment was not designed for high efficiency but only to demonstrate the concept of a laser-driven engine. Based on this experiment, the engine could be modified to achieve efficiencies of perhaps 25-30%.

  14. Effects of rocket engines on laser during lunar landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Space Active Opto-Electronics Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nondestructive Test (Ministry of Education), Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Shu, Rong; Huang, Genghua [Key Laboratory of Space Active Opto-Electronics Technology, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200083 (China)


    In the Chinese moon exploration project “ChangE-3”, the laser telemeter and lidar are important equipments on the lunar landing vehicle. A low-thrust vernier rocket engine works during the soft landing, whose plume may influence on the laser equipments. An experiment has first been accomplished to evaluate the influence of the plume on the propagation characteristics of infrared laser under the vacuum condition. Combination with our theoretical analysis has given an appropriate assessment of the plume's effects on the infrared laser hence providing a valuable basis for the design of lunar landing systems.

  15. Basics of laser physics for students of science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Karl F


    This textbook provides an introductory presentation of all types of lasers. It contains a general description of the laser, a theoretical treatment and a characterization of its operation as it deals with gas, solid state, free-electron and semiconductor lasers. This expanded and updated second edition of the book presents a description of the dynamics of free-electron laser oscillation using a model introduced in the first edition that allows a reader to understand basic properties of a free-electron laser and makes the difference to “conventional” lasers. The discussions and the treatment of equations are presented in a way that a reader can immediately follow. The book addresses graduate and undergraduate students in science and engineering, featuring problems with solutions and over 400 illustrations.

  16. Ultra-short pulsed laser engineered metal-glass nanocomposites

    CERN Document Server

    Stalmashonak, Andrei; Abdolvand, Amin


    Glasses containing metallic nanoparticles exhibit very promising linear and nonlinear optical properties, mainly due to the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) of the nanoparticles. The spectral position in the visible and near-infrared range and polarization dependence of the SPR are characteristically determined by the nanoparticles’ shapes. The focus of Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Engineered Metal-Glass Nanocomposites is the interaction of intense ultra-short laser pulses with glass containing silver nanoparticles embedded in soda-lime glass, and nanostructural modifications in metal-glass nanocomposites induced by such laser pulses. In order to provide a comprehensive physical picture of the processes leading to laser-induced persistent shape transformation of the nanoparticles, series of experimental results investigating the dependences of laser assisted shape modifications of nanoparticles with laser pulse intensity, excitation wavelength, temperature are considered. In addition, the resulting local opti...

  17. Miniaturized laser-induced plasma spectrometry for planetary in situ analysis - The case for Jupiter's moon Europa (United States)

    Pavlov, S. G.; Jessberger, E. K.; Hübers, H.-W.; Schröder, S.; Rauschenbach, I.; Florek, S.; Neumann, J.; Henkel, H.; Klinkner, S.


    Jupiter's icy moon Europa is one of most promising places in our Solar System where possible extraterrestrial life forms could exist either in the past or even presently. The Europa Lander mission, an exciting part of the international Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM/Laplace), considers in situ planetary exploration of the moon. The distance of Europa from the Earth and the Sun asks for autonomous analytical tools that maximize the scientific return at minimal resources, demanding new experimental concepts. We propose a novel instrument, based on the atomic spectroscopy of laser generated plasmas for the elemental analysis of Europa's surface materials as far as it is in reach of the lander for example by a robotic arm or a mole, or just onboard the lander. The technique of laser-induced plasma spectrometry provides quantitative elemental analysis of all major and many trace elements. It is a fast technique, i.e. an analysis can be performed in a few seconds, which can be applied to many different types of material such as ice, dust or rocks and it does not require any sample preparation. The sensitivity is in the range of tens of ppm and high lateral resolution, down to 50 μm, is feasible. In addition, it provides the potential of depth profiling, up to 2 mm in rock material and up to a few cm in more transparent icy matrices. Key components of the instrument are presently developed in Germany for planetary in situ missions. This development program is accompanied by an in-depth methodical investigation of this technique under planetary environmental conditions.

  18. Laser engine simulation using pressure based Navier-Stokes solver (United States)

    Youssef, Hazim Saad


    Analysis of the flow field in a laser engine represents a difficult computational problem involving combinations of complex physical and gas-dynamical processes. Following a brief discussion of these processes a calculation procedure using primitive variables formulation on a nonstaggered grid system is introduced. Based on this procedure, a pressure based Navier-Stokes solver (PBNS) is developed using a generalized curvilinear coordinate system. The solver is first tested in application to a subsonic compressible flow over an insulated flat plate and to a flow in an axisymmetric converging-diverging nozzle. Next, the PBNS code is used to analyze the flowfield and performance of a laser thruster. The physical/numerical model includes the geometric ray tracing for the laser beam, beam power absorption, plasma radiation losses, and plasma thermophysical and optical properties. Equilibrium hydrogen is used as a flowing gas and its properties are calculated using the Hydrogen Properties Calculation (HPC) based on the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Two thrustor configurations, two laser types (CO2 and iodide), various laser power levels, and various injection conditions are tested. The results of these tests include the temperature, pressure, velocity, and Mach number contours, as well as tables of the laser beam power absorbed, radiation losses to the thrustor walls, thrust level, and specific impulse. The maximum specific impulse obtained in these tests is 1537 sec for a CO2 laser thruster and 827 sec for an iodide laser thruster. Up to 100% power absorption can be achieved; however, radiation losses from the hot plasma are quite high disallowing a full conversion of the absorbed power into the thermal energy of the propellant. The PBNS code can be used to study the effects of various design parameters on the performance of a laser thruster and provide guidelines for the preliminary design of a laser engine.

  19. Quantum state engineering with single atom laser (United States)

    Stefanov, V. P.


    On the basis of quantum stochastic trajectories approach it is shown that a single atom laser with coherent pumping can generate not only coherent states, but squeezed and Fock states, when different schemes of detection are followed by coherent feedback pulses or feedforward actions.

  20. Strain engineering in graphene by laser irradiation (United States)

    Papasimakis, N.; Mailis, S.; Huang, C. C.; Al-Saab, F.; Hewak, D. W.; Luo, Z.; Shen, Z. X.


    We demonstrate that the Raman spectrum of graphene on lithium niobate can be controlled locally by continuous exposure to laser irradiation. We interpret our results in terms of changes to doping and mechanical strain and show that our observations are consistent with light-induced gradual strain relaxation in the graphene layer.

  1. Basics of Laser Physics For Students of Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Renk, Karl F


    Basics of Laser Physics provides an introductory presentation of the field of all types of lasers. It contains a general description of the laser, a theoretical treatment and a characterization of its operation as it deals with gas, solid state, free-electron and semiconductor lasers and, furthermore, with a few laser related topics. The different subjects are connected to each other by the central principle of the laser, namely, that it is a self-oscillating system. Special emphasis is put on a uniform treatment of gas and solid-state lasers, on the one hand, and semiconductor lasers, on the other hand. The discussions and the treatment of equations are presented in a way that a reader can immediately follow. The book addresses undergraduate and graduate students of science and engineering. Not only should it enable instructors to prepare their lectures, but it can be helpful to students for preparing for an examination.

  2. Laser pointing in the vicinity of jet engine plumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    Target tracking and laser-based pointing from airborne platforms can be degraded significantly by the propagation environment around an airborne platform including zones of severe turbulence generated by rotor downwash and engine exhausts. This is the topic of the EDA study group ERG 108.019 on

  3. Laser pointing in the vicinity of jet engine plumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.


    Target tracking and laser-based pointing from airborne platforms can be degraded significantly by the propagation environment around an airborne platform including zones of severe turbulence generated by rotor downwash and engine exhausts. This is the topic of the EDA study group ERG 108.019 on

  4. MITEE-B: A Compact Ultra Lightweight Bi-Modal Nuclear Propulsion Engine for Robotic Planetary Science Missions (United States)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John; Borowski, Stanley


    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) enables unique new robotic planetary science missions that are impossible with chemical or nuclear electric propulsion systems. A compact and ultra lightweight bi-modal nuclear engine, termed MITEE-B (MInature ReacTor EnginE - Bi-Modal) can deliver 1000's of kilograms of propulsive thrust when it operates in the NTP mode, and many kilowatts of continuous electric power when it operates in the electric generation mode. The high propulsive thrust NTP mode enables spacecraft to land and takeoff from the surface of a planet or moon, to hop to multiple widely separated sites on the surface, and virtually unlimited flight in planetary atmospheres. The continuous electric generation mode enables a spacecraft to replenish its propellant by processing in-situ resources, provide power for controls, instruments, and communications while in space and on the surface, and operate electric propulsion units. Six examples of unique and important missions enabled by the MITEE-B engine are described, including: (1) Pluto lander and sample return; (2) Europa lander and ocean explorer; (3) Mars Hopper; (4) Jupiter atmospheric flyer; (5) SunBurn hypervelocity spacecraft; and (6) He3 mining from Uranus. Many additional important missions are enabled by MITEE-B. A strong technology base for MITEE-B already exists. With a vigorous development program, it could be ready for initial robotic science and exploration missions by 2010 AD. Potential mission benefits include much shorter in-space times, reduced IMLEO requirements, and replenishment of supplies from in-situ resources.

  5. Study, optimization, and design of a laser heat engine. [for satellite applications (United States)

    Taussig, R. T.; Cassady, P. E.; Zumdieck, J. F.


    Laser heat engine concepts, proposed for satellite applications, are analyzed to determine which engine concept best meets the requirements of high efficiency (50 percent or better), continuous operation in space using near-term technology. The analysis of laser heat engines includes the thermodynamic cycles, engine design, laser power sources, collector/concentrator optics, receiving windows, absorbers, working fluids, electricity generation, and heat rejection. Specific engine concepts, optimized according to thermal efficiency, are rated by their technological availability and scaling to higher powers. A near-term experimental demonstration of the laser heat engine concept appears feasible utilizing an Otto cycle powered by CO2 laser radiation coupled into the engine through a diamond window. Higher cycle temperatures, higher efficiencies, and scalability to larger sizes appear to be achievable from a laser heat engine design based on the Brayton cycle and powered by a CO laser.

  6. Quantitative Potassium Measurements with Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy Using Low-Energy Lasers: Application to In Situ K-Ar Geochronology for Planetary Exploration. (United States)

    Cho, Yuichiro; Horiuchi, Misa; Shibasaki, Kazuo; Kameda, Shingo; Sugita, Seiji


    In situ radiogenic isotope measurements to obtain the absolute age of geologic events on planets are of great scientific value. In particular, K-Ar isochrons are useful because of their relatively high technical readiness and high accuracy. Because this isochron method involves spot-by-spot K measurements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and simultaneous Ar measurements with mass spectrometry, LIBS measurements are conducted under a high vacuum condition in which emission intensity decreases significantly. Furthermore, using a laser power used in previous planetary missions is preferable to examine the technical feasibility of this approach. However, there have been few LIBS measurements for K under such conditions. In this study, we measured K contents in rock samples using 30 mJ and 15 mJ energy lasers under a vacuum condition (10-3 Pa) to assess the feasibility of in situ K-Ar dating with lasers comparable to those used in NASA's Curiosity and Mars 2020 missions. We obtained various calibration curves for K using internal normalization with the oxygen line at 777 nm and continuum emission from the laser-induced plasma. Experimental results indicate that when K2O K emission line at 769 nm normalized with that of the oxygen line yields the best results for the 30 mJ laser energy, with a detection limit of 88 ppm and 20% of error at 2400 ppm of K2O. Futhermore, the calibration curve based on the K 769 nm line intensity normalized with continuum emission yielded the best result for the 15 mJ laser, giving a detection limit of 140 ppm and 20% error at 3400 ppm K2O. Error assessments using obtained calibration models indicate that a 4 Ga rock with 3000 ppm K2O would be measured with 8% (30 mJ) and 10% (15 mJ) of precision in age when combined with mass spectrometry of 40Ar with 10% of uncertainty. These results strongly suggest that high precision in situ isochron K-Ar dating is feasible with a laser used in previous

  7. Laser Infrared Desorption Spectroscopy to Detect Complex Organic Molecules on Icy Planetary Surfaces (United States)

    Sollit, Luke S.; Beegle, Luther W.


    Laser Desorption-Infrared Spectroscopy (LD-IR) uses an IR laser pulse to desorb surface materials while a spectrometer measures the emission spectrum of the desorbed materials (Figure 1). In this example, laser desorption operates by having the incident laser energy absorbed by near surface material (10 microns in depth). This desorption produces a plume that exists in an excited state at elevated temperatures. A natural analog for this phenomenon can be observed when comets approach the sun and become active and individual molecular emission spectra can be observed in the IR [1,2,3,4,5]. When this occurs in comets, the same species that initially emit radiation down to the ground state are free to absorb it, reducing the amount of detectable emission features. The nature of our technique results in absorption not occurring, because the laser pulse could easily be moved away form the initial desorption plume, and still have better spatial resolution then reflectance spectroscopy. In reflectance spectroscopy, trace components have a relatively weak signal when compared to the entire active nature of the surface. With LDIR, the emission spectrum is used to identify and analyze surface materials.

  8. Fourier optics for wavefront engineering and wavelength control of lasers


    Blanchard, Romain


    Since their initial demonstration in 1994, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have become prominent sources of mid-infrared radiation. Over the years, a large scientific and engineering effort has led to a dramatic improvement in their efficiency and power output, with continuous wave operation at room temperature and Watt-level output power now standard. However, beyond this progress, new functionalities and capabilities need to be added to this compact source to enable its integration into consu...

  9. Vascular tissue engineering by computer-aided laser micromachining. (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Anand; Narayan, Roger J


    Many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds are not suitable for fabricating scaffolds with patient-specific attributes. For example, many conventional technologies for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds do not provide control over overall scaffold geometry or over cell position within the scaffold. In this study, the use of computer-aided laser micromachining to create scaffolds for vascular tissue networks was investigated. Computer-aided laser micromachining was used to construct patterned surfaces in agarose or in silicon, which were used for differential adherence and growth of cells into vascular tissue networks. Concentric three-ring structures were fabricated on agarose hydrogel substrates, in which the inner ring contained human aortic endothelial cells, the middle ring contained HA587 human elastin and the outer ring contained human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Basement membrane matrix containing vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin was to promote proliferation of human aortic endothelial cells within the vascular tissue networks. Computer-aided laser micromachining provides a unique approach to fabricate small-diameter blood vessels for bypass surgery as well as other artificial tissues with complex geometries.

  10. Material Engineering for Monolithic Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina

    This thesis is devoted to the materials engineering for semiconductor monolithic passively mode-locked lasers (MLLs) as a compact energy-efficient source of ultrashort optical pulses. Up to the present day, the achievement of low-noise sub-picosecond pulse generation has remained a challenge....... This work has considered the role of the combined ultrafast gain and absorption dynamics in MLLs as a main factor limiting laser performance. An independent optimization of MLL amplifier and saturable absorber active materials was performed. Two promising approaches were considered: quantum dot (QD...... quality and low internal reflection compatible with the severe requirements of monolithic MLLs. Experimental characterization of static material parameters of the fabricated devices revealed QW-like gain behavior of a self-assembled InAs/InP QD material and low internal efficiency which limited its...

  11. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S


    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  12. Planetary materials and resource utilization: An interdisciplinary engineering design course at Michigan Technological University (United States)

    Rose, W. I.; Paces, J. B.; Chesner, C. A.; Pletka, B. J.; Hellawell, A.; Kawatra, S. K.; Pilling, J. E.


    A new course was developed and instituted in the spring quarter of 1989 dealing with topics related to space resource utilization and related engineering. The course development required a concerted, coordinated effort, because a similar course which might be used as a guide could not be identified anywhere and the interdisciplinary perspective that was required was not identified anywhere on the university campus. Students in the class worked on interdisciplinary design projects which culminated in papers and oral presentations. Each of the six design groups consisted of several engineers with different disciplinary roots. The entire course lecture sequence, about 50 hours in all, was videotaped. Discussed here are the authors' experiences in developing the course, including the course syllabus and speaker list.

  13. Modeling and laser-based sensing of pulsed detonation engines (United States)

    Barbour, Ethan A.

    This work is concerned with two major aspects of pulse detonation engines (PDE) research: modeling and laser-based sensing. The modeling addresses both ideal and real considerations relevant to PDE design. First, an ideal nozzle model is developed which provides a tool for choosing area ratios for fixed-geometry converging, diverging, or converging-diverging nozzles. Next, losses associated with finite-rate chemistry are investigated. It was found that PDEs can experience up to 10% reduction in specific impulse from this effect if 02 is used as the oxidizer, whereas the losses are negligible for air-breathing applications. Next, heat transfer and friction losses were investigated and found to be greater than the losses from simple straight-tube PDEs. These losses are most pronounced (˜15%) when converging nozzles are used. The second portion of this work focuses on laser-based absorption sensing for PDEs. The mid-infrared was chosen as the best way to address the challenges of signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity, robustness, and sensor bandwidth. A water vapor sensor was developed and applied to the PDE at the Naval Postgraduate School. This sensor provided improvements in temperature accuracy, and it revealed that water (generated by the vitiator) inhibited performance of the engine. Next, a JP-10 absorption sensor was developed and applied to the same engine. This sensor provided thermometry data at a higher temporal resolution than the water sensor. The sensor also provided crucial information on equivalence ratio and fuel arrival time which enabled the engine to be successfully operated on JP-10 and air for the first time.

  14. Semiconductor laser engineering, reliability and diagnostics a practical approach to high power and single mode devices

    CERN Document Server

    Epperlein, Peter W


    This reference book provides a fully integrated novel approach to the development of high-power, single-transverse mode, edge-emitting diode lasers by addressing the complementary topics of device engineering, reliability engineering and device diagnostics in the same book, and thus closes the gap in the current book literature. Diode laser fundamentals are discussed, followed by an elaborate discussion of problem-oriented design guidelines and techniques, and by a systematic treatment of the origins of laser degradation and a thorough exploration of the engineering means to enhance the optical strength of the laser. Stability criteria of critical laser characteristics and key laser robustness factors are discussed along with clear design considerations in the context of reliability engineering approaches and models, and typical programs for reliability tests and laser product qualifications. Novel, advanced diagnostic methods are reviewed to discuss, for the first time in detail in book literature, performa...

  15. High-Fidelity Aerothermal Engineering Analysis for Planetary Probes Using DOTNET Framework and OLAP Cubes Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Subrahmanyam


    Full Text Available This publication presents the architecture integration and implementation of various modules in Sparta framework. Sparta is a trajectory engine that is hooked to an Online Analytical Processing (OLAP database for Multi-dimensional analysis capability. OLAP is an Online Analytical Processing database that has a comprehensive list of atmospheric entry probes and their vehicle dimensions, trajectory data, aero-thermal data and material properties like Carbon, Silicon and Carbon-Phenolic based Ablators. An approach is presented for dynamic TPS design. OLAP has the capability to run in one simulation several different trajectory conditions and the output is stored back into the database and can be queried for appropriate trajectory type. An OLAP simulation can be setup by spawning individual threads to run for three types of trajectory: Nominal, Undershoot and Overshoot trajectory. Sparta graphical user interface provides capabilities to choose from a list of flight vehicles or enter trajectory and geometry information of a vehicle in design. DOTNET framework acts as a middleware layer between the trajectory engine and the user interface and also between the web user interface and the OLAP database. Trajectory output can be obtained in TecPlot format, Excel output or in a KML (Keyhole Markup Language format. Framework employs an API (application programming interface to convert trajectory data into a formatted KML file that is used by Google Earth for simulating Earth-entry fly-by visualizations.

  16. Compact Two-step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for in Situ Analyses of Aromatic Organics on Planetary Missions (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie; Brickerhoff, William; Cornish, Timothy; Ecelberger, Scott; Floyd, Melissa


    RATIONALE A miniature time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been adapted to demonstrate two-step laser desorption-ionization (LOI) in a compact instrument package for enhanced organics detection. Two-step LDI decouples the desorption and ionization processes, relative to traditional laser ionization-desorption, in order to produce low-fragmentation conditions for complex organic analytes. Tuning UV ionization laser energy allowed control ofthe degree of fragmentation, which may enable better identification of constituent species. METHODS A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer prototype measuring 20 cm in length was adapted to a two-laser configuration, with IR (1064 nm) desorption followed by UV (266 nm) postionization. A relatively low ion extraction voltage of 5 kV was applied at the sample inlet. Instrument capabilities and performance were demonstrated with analysis of a model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, representing a class of compounds important to the fields of Earth and planetary science. RESULTS L2MS analysis of a model PAH standard, pyrene, has been demonstrated, including parent mass identification and the onset o(tunable fragmentation as a function of ionizing laser energy. Mass resolution m/llm = 380 at full width at half-maximum was achieved which is notable for gas-phase ionization of desorbed neutrals in a highly-compact mass analyzer. CONCLUSIONS Achieving two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) in a highly-miniature instrument enables a powerful approach to the detection and characterization of aromatic organics in remote terrestrial and planetary applications. Tunable detection of parent and fragment ions with high mass resolution, diagnostic of molecular structure, is possible on such a compact L2MS instrument. Selectivity of L2MS against low-mass inorganic salt interferences is a key advantage when working with unprocessed, natural samples, and a mechanism for the observed selectivity is presented.

  17. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan


    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  18. The chemical composition and mineralogy of meteorites measured with very high spatial resolution by a laser mass spectrometer for in situ planetary research (United States)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Mezger, Klaus; Tulej, Marek; Frey, Samira; Riedo, Andreas; Wurz, Peter; Wiesendanger, Reto


    The knowledge of the chemical composition of moons, comets, asteroids or other planetary bodies is of particular importance for the investigation of the origin and evolution of the Solar System. High resolution in situ studies on planetary surfaces can yield important information on surface heterogeneity, basic grain mineralogy and chemical composition of surface and subsurface. In turn, these data are the basis for our understanding of the physical and chemical processes which led to the formation and alteration of planetary material [1]. We investigated samples of Allende and Sayh al Uhaymir with a highly miniaturised laser mass spectrometer (LMS), which has been designed and built for in situ space research [2,3]. Both meteorite samples were investigated with a spatial resolution of about 10μm in lateral direction. The high sensitivity and high dynamic range of the LMS allow for quantitative measurements of the abundances of the rock-forming and minor and trace elements with high accuracy [4]. From the data, the modal mineralogy of micrometre-sized chondrules can be inferred [5], conclusions about the condensation sequence of the material are possible and the sensitivity for radiogenic elements allows for dating analyses of the investigated material. We measured the composition of various chondrules in Allende, offering valuable clues about the condensation sequence of the different components of the meteorite. We explicitly investigated the chemical composition and heterogeneity of the Allende matrix with an accuracy that cannot be reached by the mechanical analysis methods that were and are widely used in meteoritic research. We demonstrate the capabilities for dating analyses with the LMS. By applying the U-Th-dating method, the age of the SaU169 sample could be determined. Our analyses show that the LMS would be a suitable instrument for high-quality quantitative chemical composition measurements on the surface of a celestial body like a planet, moon or

  19. Project LASER: Learning about science, engineering, and research (United States)


    The number of American students entering science and engineering careers and their ranking in comparison with other countries is on the decline. This decline has alarmed Congress which, in 1987, established a Task Force on Women, Minorities, and the Handicapped in Science and Technology to define the problem and find solutions. If left unchanged, the task force has warned that the prospects for maintaining an advanced industrial society will diminish. NASA is supportive of the six goals outlined by the task force, which are paraphrase herein, and is carefully assessing its education programs to identify those offering the greatest potential for achieving the task force objectives with a reasonable range of resources. A major initiative is under way on behalf of NASA at its Marshall Space Flight Center, where highly effective features of several NASA education programs along with innovations are being integrated into a comprehensive pilot program. This program, dubbed Project LASER, is discussed.

  20. Enhancing undergraduate education in aerospace engineering and planetary sciences at MIT through the development of a CubeSat mission (United States)

    Smith, Matthew W.; Miller, David W.; Seager, Sara


    CubeSats are a class of nanosatellites that conform to a standardized 10 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm, 1 kg form factor. This miniaturization, along with a standardized deployment device for launch vehicles, allows CubeSats to be launched at low cost by sharing the trip to orbit with other spacecraft. Part of the original motivation for the CubeSat platform was also to allow university students to participate more easily in space technology development and to gain hands-on experience with flight hardware. The Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics along with the Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Studies (EAPS) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) recently completed a three semester-long course that uses the development of a CubeSat-based science mission as its core teaching method. Serving as the capstone academic experience for undergraduates, the goal of this class is to design and build a CubeSat spacecraft that serves a relevant science function, such as the detection of exoplanets transiting nearby stars. This project-based approach gives students essential first hand insights into the challenges of balancing science requirements and engineering design. Students are organized into subsystem-specific teams that refine and negotiate requirements, explore the design trade space, perform modeling and simulation, manage interfaces, test subsystems, and finally integrate prototypes and flight hardware. In this work we outline the heritage of capstone design/build classes at MIT, describe the class format in greater detail, and give results on the ability to meet learning objectives using this pedagogical approach.

  1. Laser beam propagation through a jet aircraft engine's exhaust (United States)

    Sirazetdinov, Vladmir S.; Starikov, Anatoly D.; Titterton, David H.


    One-, half- and ten-micron wavelength radiation was used to study laser beam propagation through turbojet aircraft engine exhaust. A feature of the methods was that instantaneous distributions of the beam intensity were recorded during the experiment. Analysis of experimental data has shown that turbulent stream has a dramatic impact on spatial characteristics of a laser beam. For example, the averaged angle divergence for 30-mm one-micron beam becomes about ten times higher than its diffraction divergence. Results of different experiments showed that the average angle divergence of the narrow one-micron beam disturbed by the jet plume is several times less than that of the ten-micron beam which is characterized by a large diffraction divergence, and that of the half-micron beam stronger subjected to disturbances. Experiments in which the beam crossed the plume close to a nozzle at (phi) = 90 degree(s), 45 degree(s) and 10 degree(s) have shown that angular divergence increases with decreasing cross-angle, practically doubling the value when coming from the maximal angle of (phi) = 90 degree(s) to the minimal (phi) = 10 degree(s). Mathematical models have been derived, based on the experimental studies. The value of the structural characteristic in a turbulent stream is in the range of Cn2~10-9m-2/3.

  2. Improvements to the PDS Planetary Image Locator Tool (PILOT) (United States)

    Bailen, M. S.; Akins, S. W.; Sucharski, B.; Gaddis, L.; Hare, T. M.; Raub, R.


    The Planetary Image Locator Tool (PILOT) is a web-based portal and map interface that provides a robust search engine for several Planetary Data System (PDS) image catalogs available from the Unified Planetary Coordinates (UPC) database.

  3. Fourier optics for wavefront engineering and wavelength control of lasers (United States)

    Blanchard, Romain

    Since their initial demonstration in 1994, quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) have become prominent sources of mid-infrared radiation. Over the years, a large scientific and engineering effort has led to a dramatic improvement in their efficiency and power output, with continuous wave operation at room temperature and Watt-level output power now standard. However, beyond this progress, new functionalities and capabilities need to be added to this compact source to enable its integration into consumer-ready systems. Two main areas of development are particularly relevant from an application standpoint and were pursued during the course of this thesis: wavelength control and wavefront engineering of QCLs. The first research direction, wavelength control, is mainly driven by spectroscopic applications of QCLs, such as trace gas sensing, process monitoring or explosive detection. We demonstrated three different capabilities, corresponding to different potential spectroscopic measurement techniques: widely tunable single longitudinal mode lasing, simultaneous lasing on multiple well-defined longitudinal modes, and simultaneous lasing over a broad and continuous range of the spectrum. The second research direction, wavefront engineering of QCLs, i.e. the improvement of their beam quality, is relevant for applications necessitating transmission of the QCL output over a large distance, for example for remote sensing or military countermeasures. To address this issue, we developed plasmonic lenses directly integrated on the facets of QCLs. The plasmonic structures designed are analogous to antenna arrays imparting directionality to the QCLs, as well as providing means for polarization control. Finally, a research interest in plasmonics led us to design passive flat optical elements using plasmonic antennas. All these projects are tied together by the involvement of Fourier analysis as an essential design tool to predict the interaction of light with various gratings and periodic

  4. Pulsed Laser Propulsion Performance of 11-cm Parabolic `Bell' Engines: CO2 TEA vs. EDL (United States)

    Mori, Koichi; Sasoh, Akihiro; Myrabo, Leik N.


    Single pulse laboratory experiments were carried out with a high-power CO2 Transversely-Excited Atmospheric (TEA) laser using three laser pulsejet engines, shaped as parabolic bells, measuring 11-cm in diameter. Assuming the vertex is set at the parabola's focus, the "calibration bell" engines had three different total divergence angles of 60, 87.2, and 120 degrees (i.e., viewing outward towards the 11-cm nozzle exit plane). The objective was to quantify and calibrate the effects of laser pulse duration upon the momentum coupling coefficient (Cm) performance from the two CO2 lasers, using laser pulse energy as the parametric variable. Bell engine performance data from the TEA laser are contrasted with former results from the PLVTS CO2 electron discharge laser (EDL). The single-pulse PLVTS tests were conducted in Sept. 2000 and Sept. 2001, revealing that the impulse and Cm performance of the 60° bell generally exceeded the 87.2° engine, which in turn outperformed the 120° bell. With PLVTS, the maximum single-pulse Cm varied from 275 to 375 N-sec/MJ. In contrast, the 2 microsecond TEA laser tests generated results that were distinctively different from that of the EDL. Both tests used a standard ballistic pendulum to measure airbreathing engine performance at a pressure of one atmosphere.

  5. Laser beam propagation experiments along and across a jet engine plume (United States)

    Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars; Seiffer, Dirk; Wendelstein, Norbert; Sucher, Erik


    Airplane based laser systems for DIRCM, active imaging and communication are important applications attracting considerable interest. The performance of these systems in directions where the laser beam points close to or through the exhaust plume from the jet engines may be severely reduced. A trial to study these phenomena using a downscaled jet-engine test rig was carried out. The results on propagation of laser beams along and across the plume from these trials are presented. For laser beams propagation along the engine axis an OPO based source producing co-propagating laser beams at 1.52 and 3.56 μm was used. The beams were projected on a screen and imaged with separate IR cameras to study beam wander and spot degradation. Propagation across the plume was studied with a 532 nm laser projected on a screen and imaged by a high speed camera. The engine thrust and the distance between the engine nozzle and the laser beams were varied to study the effects of changing conditions. Scaling to full size engines and performance implications for DIRCM is discussed.

  6. Performance evaluation of a miniature laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer designed for in situ investigations in planetary space research. (United States)

    Riedo, A; Bieler, A; Neuland, M; Tulej, M; Wurz, P


    Key performance features of a miniature laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer designed for in situ investigations of the chemical composition of planetary surfaces are presented. This mass spectrometer is well suited for elemental and isotopic analysis of raw solid materials with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. In this study, ultraviolet laser radiation with irradiances suitable for ablation (laser ablation studies at infrared wavelengths, several improvements to the experimental setup have been made, which allow accurate control over the experimental conditions and good reproducibility of measurements. Current performance evaluations indicate significant improvements to several instrumental figures of merit. Calibration of the mass scale is performed within a mass accuracy (Δm/m) in the range of 100 ppm, and a typical mass resolution (m/Δm) ~600 is achieved at the lead mass peaks. At lower laser irradiances, the mass resolution is better, about (m/Δm) ~900 for lead, and limited by the laser pulse duration of 3 ns. The effective dynamic range of the instrument was enhanced from about 6 decades determined in previous study up to more than 8 decades at present. Current studies show high sensitivity in detection of both metallic and non-metallic elements. Their abundance down to tens of ppb can be measured together with their isotopic patterns. Due to strict control of the experimental parameters, e.g. laser characteristics, ion-optical parameters and sample position, by computer control, measurements can be performed with high reproducibility. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Fundamentals of Laser-Based Hydrogel Degradation and Applications in Cell and Tissue Engineering. (United States)

    Pradhan, Shantanu; Keller, Keely A; Sperduto, John L; Slater, John H


    The cell and tissue engineering fields have profited immensely through the implementation of highly structured biomaterials. The development and implementation of advanced biofabrication techniques have established new avenues for generating biomimetic scaffolds for a multitude of cell and tissue engineering applications. Among these, laser-based degradation of biomaterials is implemented to achieve user-directed features and functionalities within biomimetic scaffolds. This review offers an overview of the physical mechanisms that govern laser-material interactions and specifically, laser-hydrogel interactions. The influences of both laser and material properties on efficient, high-resolution hydrogel degradation are discussed and the current application space in cell and tissue engineering is reviewed. This review aims to acquaint readers with the capability and uses of laser-based degradation of biomaterials, so that it may be easily and widely adopted. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Laser processing of ormosils for tissue engineering applications (United States)

    Matei, A.; Zamfirescu, M.; Radu, C.; Dinescu, M.; Buruiana, E. C.; Buruiana, T.; Sima, L. E.; Petrescu, S. M.


    Hybrid methacrylates based on silane derivates (ormosils) have been considered for applications in electronics, microtechnology, corrosion resistant coatings, dentistry, and biomedical implants. The presence of both inorganic chains, responsible for chemical and thermal stability, hardness, and transparency, and organic groups, which bring new advantages such as the possibility of functionalization and easy, low temperature processing, can result in the appearance of unique properties. 2D structures of hybrid polymers were produced by Two Photon Polymerization (2PP). A Ti: Sapphire laser having 200 fs pulse duration and 2 kHz repetition rate, working at a wavelength of 775 nm, was used for the 2PP experiments. The biocompatibility of the obtained structures (scaffolds) was tested in different cell cultures, which is a first step toward exploring their potential for applications in tissue engineering. Cells morphology, adhesion, and alignment were studied on polymeric structures with different shapes, obtained in various experimental conditions. Their interaction with normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) and dysplastic oral keratinocytes (DOK) was investigated, with the aim of obtaining an epidermal graft.

  9. Planetary Radar (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.


    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  10. Physics and engineering of compact quantum dot-based lasers for biophotonics

    CERN Document Server

    Rafailov, Edik U


    Written by a team of European experts in the field, this book addresses the physics, the principles, the engineering methods, and the latest developments of efficient and compact ultrafast lasers based on novel quantum-dot structures and devices, as well as their applications in biophotonics. Recommended reading for physicists, engineers, students and lecturers in the fields of photonics, optics, laser physics, optoelectronics, and biophotonics.

  11. Functionalized ormosil scaffolds processed by direct laser polymerization for application in tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matei, A.; Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela


    Synthesized N,N′-(methacryloyloxyethyl triehtoxy silyl propyl carbamoyl-oxyhexyl)-urea hybrid methacrylate was polymerized by direct laser polymerization using femtosecond laser pulses with the aim of using it for subsequent applications in tissue engineering. The as-obtained scaffolds were...... modified either by low pressure argon plasma treatment or by covering the structures with two different proteins (lysozyme, fibrinogen). For improved adhesion, the proteins were deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation technique. The functionalized structures were tested in mouse fibroblasts...

  12. Quantitative laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; van Viet, A. P.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.


    We present quantitative, in-cylinder, UV-laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine. Processing of the raw fluorescence signals includes a detailed correction, based on additional measurements, for the effect of laser beam and fluorescence attenuation, and

  13. Functionalized Ormosil Scaffolds Processed by Direct Laser Polymerization for Application in Tissue Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matei, A.; Schou, Jørgen; Canulescu, Stela

    in tissue engineering. The as-obtained scaffolds were modified either by low pressure argon plasma treatment or by using two different proteins (lysozyme, fibrinogen). For improved adhesion, the proteins were deposited by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation. The functionalized structures were tested......The N,N’-(methacryloyloxyethyl triehtoxy silyl propyl carbamoyl-oxyhexyl)-urea hybrid methacrylate for applications in tissue engineering was synthesized and afterwards polymerized by direct laser polymerization using femtosecond laser pulses with the aim of using it for further applications...

  14. Interface and material engineering for zigzag slab lasers. (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Dong, Siyu; Zhang, Jinlong; Jiao, Hongfei; Ma, Bin; Wang, Zhanshan; Cheng, Xinbin


    Laser damage of zigzag slab lasers occurs at interface between laser crystal and SiO 2 film. Although an additional HfO 2 layer could be used to manipulate electric-field on the crystal-film interface, their high absorption and polycrystalline structure were unacceptable. SiO 2 was then doped in HfO 2 to suppress its crystallization and to achieve low absorption by annealing. Hf x Si 1-x O 2 nanocomposite layers were then inserted between laser crystal and SiO 2 film to minimize electric-field at crystal-film interface. Laser damage resistance of this new architecture is two times higher than that of traditional zigzag slab lasers.

  15. Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust (United States)

    Henriksson, Markus; Gustafsson, Ove; Sjöqvist, Lars; Seiffer, Dirk; Wendelstein, Norbert


    The exhaust from engines introduces zones of extreme turbulence levels in local environments around aircraft. This may disturb the performance of aircraft mounted optical and laser systems. The turbulence distortion will be especially devastating for optical missile warning and laser based DIRCM systems used to protect manoeuvring aircraft against missile attacks, situations where the optical propagation path may come close to the engine exhaust. To study the extent of the turbulence zones caused by the engine exhaust and the strength of the effects on optical propagation through these zones a joint trial between Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom was performed using a medium sized military turboprop transport aircraft tethered to the ground at an airfield. This follows on earlier trials performed on a down-scaled jet-engine test rig. Laser beams were propagated along the axis of the aircraft at different distances relative to the engine exhaust and the spatial beam profiles and intensity scintillations were recorded with cameras and photodiodes. A second laser beam path was directed from underneath the loading ramp diagonally past one of the engines. The laser wavelengths used were 1.5 and 3.6 μm. In addition to spatial beam profile distortions temporal effects were investigated. Measurements were performed at different propeller speeds and at different distances from exhaust nozzle to the laser path. Significant increases in laser beam wander and long term beam radius were observed with the engine running. Corresponding increases were also registered in the scintillation index and the temporal fluctuations of the instantaneous power collected by the detector.

  16. Surface engineering with lasers of Co-base materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hosson, J.T.M.; de Mol van Otterloo, J.L.; Aliabadi, MH; Brebbia, CA


    This paper deals with the wear properties of five different laser cladded Cobalt-base Stellite alloys. It is shown that fusing hardfacing powders onto a stainless steel substrate by means of a high power laser beam results in novel microstructures. As such, wear testing of these coatings becomes

  17. Hydrocarbon Rocket Engine Plume Imaging with Laser Induced Incandescence Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) needs sensors that can be operated on rocket engine plume environments to improve NASA/SSC rocket engine performance. In...

  18. Planetary Magnetism (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.


    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  19. In-Space Propulsion Engine Architecture Based on Sublimation of Planetary Resources: From Exploration Robots to NED Mitigation (United States)

    Sibille, Laurent; Mantovani, James; Dominquez, Jesus


    The purpose of this NIAC study is to identify those volatile and mineral resources that are available on asteroids, comets, moons and planets in the solar system, and investigate methods to transform these resources into forms of power that will expand the capabilities of future robotic and human exploration missions to explore planetary bodies beyond the Moon and will mitigate hazards from NEOs. The sources of power used for deep space probe missions are usually derived from either solar panels for electrical energy, radioisotope thermal generators for thermal energy, or fuel cells and chemical reactions for chemical energy and propulsion.

  20. Testing relativity again, laser, laser, laser, laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einstein, A.


    laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser,

  1. Planetary Defense (United States)


    extraterrestrial objects. Such an organization might be an efficient way to pool capital from the many governments of the world and perhaps even from the...4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world. Millions of asteroids and...private sector. A second path would be the development of technology required for planetary defense for other objectives such as asteroid mining

  2. Airborne Laser Remote Sensor for Oil Detection and Classification : Engineering Requirements and Technical Considerations Relevant to a Performance Specification (United States)


    This report outlines the engineering requirements for an Airborne Laser Remote Sensor for Oil Detection and Classification System. Detailed engineering requirements are given for the major units of the system. Technical considerations pertinent to a ...

  3. A Laser Spark Plug Ignition System for a Stationary Lean-Burn Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, D. L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)


    To meet the ignition system needs of large bore, high pressure, lean burn, natural gas engines a side pumped, passively Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser was developed and tested. The laser was designed to produce the optical intensities needed to initiate ignition in a lean burn, high compression engine. The laser and associated optics were designed with a passive Q-switch to eliminate the need for high voltage signaling and associated equipment. The laser was diode pumped to eliminate the need for high voltage flash lamps which have poor pumping efficiency. The independent and dependent parameters of the laser were identified and explored in specific combinations that produced consistent robust sparks in laboratory air. Prior research has shown that increasing gas pressure lowers the breakdown threshold for laser initiated ignition. The laser has an overall geometry of 57x57x152 mm with an output beam diameter of approximately 3 mm. The experimentation used a wide range of optical and electrical input parameters that when combined produced ignition in laboratory air. The results show a strong dependence of the output parameters on the output coupler reflectivity, Q-switch initial transmission, and gain media dopant concentration. As these three parameters were lowered the output performance of the laser increased leading to larger more brilliant sparks. The results show peak power levels of up to 3MW and peak focal intensities of up to 560 GW/cm2. Engine testing was performed on a Ricardo Proteus single cylinder research engine. The goal of the engine testing was to show that the test laser performs identically to the commercially available flashlamp pumped actively Q-switched laser used in previous laser ignition testing. The engine testing consisted of a comparison of the in-cylinder, and emissions behavior of the engine using each of the lasers as an ignition system. All engine parameters were kept as constant as possilbe while the equivalence ratio (fueling

  4. Fluorescence imaging inside an internal combustion engine using tunable excimer lasers. (United States)

    Andresen, P; Meijer, G; Schlüter, H; Voges, H; Koch, A; Hentschel, W; Oppermann, W; Rothe, E


    Tunable excimer lasers are used to obtain 2-D images of molecular (and some state-specific) density distributions inside a cylinder of a modified four-cylinder in-line engine that has optical access. Natural fluorescence (i.e., without a laser) is used for some OH pictures, normal laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for those of NO and of the isooctane fuel, and laser-induced predissociative fluorescence (LIPF) for other OH pictures and for those of O(2). Relevant spectroscopy is done to find the laser and fluorescence frequencies needed to measure isolated species. LIPF works well at high pressures, is state specific, and is ideally suited to follow turbulent processes. No similar measurements in engines have been previously reported. Pictures are taken in succeeding engine cycles. Their sequence is either at a particular point of the engine's cycle to show cyclic fluctuations, or at succeeding portions of the cycle to illustrate the progress of the gasdynamics or of the combustion.

  5. Reduction of secondary electron yield for E-cloud mitigation by laser ablation surface engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valizadeh, R., E-mail: [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Malyshev, O.B. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wang, S. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Sian, T. [ASTeC, STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); The Photon Science Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cropper, M.D. [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Sykes, N. [Micronanics Ltd., Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • SEY below 1 can be achieved with Laser ablation surface engineering. • SEY <1 surface can be produced with different types of nanosecond lasers. • Both microstructure (groves) and nano-structures are playing a role in reducing SEY. - Abstract: Developing a surface with low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) is one of the main ways of mitigating electron cloud and beam-induced electron multipacting in high-energy charged particle accelerators. In our previous publications, a low SEY < 0.9 for as-received metal surfaces modified by a nanosecond pulsed laser was reported. In this paper, the SEY of laser-treated blackened copper has been investigated as a function of different laser irradiation parameters. We explore and study the influence of micro- and nano-structures induced by laser surface treatment in air of copper samples as a function of various laser irradiation parameters such as peak power, laser wavelength (λ = 355 nm and 1064 nm), number of pulses per point (scan speed and repetition rate) and fluence, on the SEY. The surface chemical composition was determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) which revealed that heating resulted in diffusion of oxygen into the bulk and induced the transformation of CuO to sub-stoichiometric oxide. The surface topography was examined with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) which showed that the laser-treated surfaces are dominated by microstructure grooves and nanostructure features.

  6. Laser-based diagnostics on NO in a diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, Theodorus Maria


    Of all internal combustion engines diesel engines tend to be the most efficient. However, this high efficiency is coupled with specific emissions of nitric oxides (NOx = NO and NO2) and soot. Such emissions are best fought against at their very source: the diesel combustion process itself. The

  7. Laser High-Cycle Thermal Fatigue of Pulse Detonation Engine Combustor Materials Tested (United States)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.


    Pulse detonation engines (PDE's) have received increasing attention for future aerospace propulsion applications. Because the PDE is designed for a high-frequency, intermittent detonation combustion process, extremely high gas temperatures and pressures can be realized under the nearly constant-volume combustion environment. The PDE's can potentially achieve higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency and thrust density in comparison to traditional constant-pressure combustion gas turbine engines (ref. 1). However, the development of these engines requires robust design of the engine components that must endure harsh detonation environments. In particular, the detonation combustor chamber, which is designed to sustain and confine the detonation combustion process, will experience high pressure and temperature pulses with very short durations (refs. 2 and 3). Therefore, it is of great importance to evaluate PDE combustor materials and components under simulated engine temperatures and stress conditions in the laboratory. In this study, a high-cycle thermal fatigue test rig was established at the NASA Glenn Research Center using a 1.5-kW CO2 laser. The high-power laser, operating in the pulsed mode, can be controlled at various pulse energy levels and waveform distributions. The enhanced laser pulses can be used to mimic the time-dependent temperature and pressure waves encountered in a pulsed detonation engine. Under the enhanced laser pulse condition, a maximum 7.5-kW peak power with a duration of approximately 0.1 to 0.2 msec (a spike) can be achieved, followed by a plateau region that has about one-fifth of the maximum power level with several milliseconds duration. The laser thermal fatigue rig has also been developed to adopt flat and rotating tubular specimen configurations for the simulated engine tests. More sophisticated laser optic systems can be used to simulate the spatial distributions of the temperature and shock waves in the engine. Pulse laser high

  8. Temperature-dependent 780-nm laser absorption by engineering grade aluminum, titanium, and steel alloy surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, Alexander M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wu, Sheldon S. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kanz, V. Keith [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); LeBlanc, Mary M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lowdermilk, W. Howard [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rotter, Mark D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stanley, Joel R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    When modeling laser interaction with metals for various applications it requires a knowledge of absorption coefficients for real, commercially available materials with engineering grade (unpolished, oxidized) surfaces. But, most currently available absorptivity data pertain to pure metals with polished surfaces or vacuum-deposited thin films in controlled atmospheres. A simple laboratory setup is developed for the direct calorimetric absorptivity measurements using a diode-array laser emitting at 780 nm. A scheme eliminating the effect of convective and radiative losses is implemented. Futhermore, the obtained absorptivity results differ considerably from existing data for polished pure metals and are essential for the development of predictive laser-material interaction models.

  9. Non-Hermitian engineering of single mode two dimensional laser arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Teimourpour, Mohammad H; Christodoulides, Demetrios N; El-Ganainy, Ramy


    A new scheme for building two dimensional laser arrays that operate in the single supermode regime is proposed. This is done by introducing an optical coupling between the laser array and a lossy pseudo-isospectral chain of photonic resonators. The spectrum of this discrete reservoir is tailored to suppress all the supermodes of the main array except the fundamental one. This spectral engineering is facilitated by employing the Householder transformation in conjunction with discrete supersymmetry. The proposed scheme is general and can in principle be used in different platforms such as VCSEL arrays and photonic crystal laser arrays.

  10. Quantitative monitoring of laser-treated engineered skin using optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Ahn, Yujin; Lee, Chan-Young; Baek, Songyee; Kim, Taeho; Kim, Pilun; Lee, Sunghoon; Min, Daejin; Lee, Haekwang; Kim, Jeehyun; Jung, Woonggyu


    Nowadays, laser therapy is a common method for treating various dermatological troubles such as acne and wrinkles because of its efficient and immediate skin enhancement. Although laser treatment has become a routine procedure in medical and cosmetic fields, the prevention of side-effects, such as hyperpigmentation, redness and burning, still remains a critical issue that needs to be addressed. In order to reduce the side-effects while attaining efficient therapeutic outcomes, it is essential to understand the light-skin interaction through evaluation of physiological changes before and after laser therapy. In this study, we introduce a quantitative tissue monitoring method based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the evaluation of tissue regeneration after laser irradiation. To create a skin injury model, we applied a fractional CO2 laser on a customized engineered skin model, which is analogous to human skin in terms of its basic biological function and morphology. The irradiated region in the skin was then imaged by a high-speed OCT system, and its morphologic changes were analyzed by automatic segmentation software. Volumetric OCT images in the laser treated area clearly visualized the wound healing progress at different time points and provided comprehensive information which cannot be acquired through conventional monitoring methods. The results showed that the laser wound in engineered skins was mostly recovered from within 1~2 days with a fast recovery time in the vertical direction. However, the entire recovery period varied widely depending on laser doses and skin type. Our results also indicated that OCT-guided laser therapy would be a very promising protocol for optimizing laser treatment for skin therapy.

  11. Advanced Laser-Based Techniques for Gas-Phase Diagnostics in Combustion and Aerospace Engineering. (United States)

    Ehn, Andreas; Zhu, Jiajian; Li, Xuesong; Kiefer, Johannes


    Gaining information of species, temperature, and velocity distributions in turbulent combustion and high-speed reactive flows is challenging, particularly for conducting measurements without influencing the experimental object itself. The use of optical and spectroscopic techniques, and in particular laser-based diagnostics, has shown outstanding abilities for performing non-intrusive in situ diagnostics. The development of instrumentation, such as robust lasers with high pulse energy, ultra-short pulse duration, and high repetition rate along with digitized cameras exhibiting high sensitivity, large dynamic range, and frame rates on the order of MHz, has opened up for temporally and spatially resolved volumetric measurements of extreme dynamics and complexities. The aim of this article is to present selected important laser-based techniques for gas-phase diagnostics focusing on their applications in combustion and aerospace engineering. Applicable laser-based techniques for investigations of turbulent flows and combustion such as planar laser-induced fluorescence, Raman and Rayleigh scattering, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, laser-induced grating scattering, particle image velocimetry, laser Doppler anemometry, and tomographic imaging are reviewed and described with some background physics. In addition, demands on instrumentation are further discussed to give insight in the possibilities that are offered by laser flow diagnostics.

  12. Planetary Geomorphology. (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.


    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  13. Laser-assisted cell printing: principle, physical parameters versus cell fate and perspectives in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Guillemot, Fabien; Souquet, Agnès; Catros, Sylvain; Guillotin, Bertrand


    We describe the physical parameters involved in laser-assisted cell printing and present evidence that this technology is coming of age. Finally we discuss how this high-throughput, high-resolution technique may help in reproducing local cell microenvironments, and thereby create functional tissue-engineered 3D constructs.

  14. Engineering design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial-confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, W W; Godwin, R O; Hurley, C A; Wallerstein, E. P.; Whitham, K.; Murray, J. E.; Bliss, E. S.; Ozarski, R. G.; Summers, M. A.; Rienecker, F.; Gritton, D. G.; Holloway, F. W.; Suski, G. J.; Severyn, J. R.


    The design of the Nova Laser Facility for inertial confinement fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is presented from an engineering perspective. Emphasis is placed upon design-to-performance requirements as they impact the various subsystems that comprise this complex experimental facility.

  15. Frictional properties of gel engineering materials with laser surface texturing (United States)

    Yamada, Naoya; Gong, Jin; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Makino, Masato; Maekawa, Keisuke; Wada, Masato; Furukawa, Hidemitsu


    Several synthesis methods have been devised to improve the mechanical strength of gels extraordinarily after 2001. It was a trigger to use gels as a new industrial materials, since gels had been considered difficult for industrial materials because of their weakness. In a recent study, we had designed transparency shape memory gels for the first time. Shape memory gels are one of the gels with characteristic networks, and have a shape memory function by copolymerizing an acrylic monomer with a hydrophobic long alkyl side group. It is well known that the mechanical properties such as Young's modulus and friction coefficient of shape memory gels depend on temperature. In this study, we tried to change the frictional properties of shape memory gels by laser surface texturing. Two types of processed surface were prepared. The hexagonal close packed pattern and the square close packed pattern of dimples were formed on the surface of gel sheets with CO2 laser. The intensity of laser was optimized to avoid cutting gels. The friction coefficients of unprocessed gels and two types of processed gels were measured by ball-on-disk method. Measurement partner material was sodalime glass ball. The measurement results of processed gels showed clear differences from unprocessed gels. The friction coefficients of processed gels were larger than unprocessed gels. However, these results specifically showed the velocity dependence. It indicates that surface texturing enable to control the friction coefficient of polymer gels by surface pattern and velocity.

  16. Practical Method for engineering Erbium-doped fiber lasers from step-like pulse excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causado-Buelvas, J D; Gomez-Cardona, N D; Torres, P, E-mail: [Escuela de fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-sede Medellin A.A.3840, Medellin (Colombia)


    A simple method, known as 'easy points', has been applied to the characterization of Erbium-doped fibers, aiming for the engineering of fiber lasers. Using low- optical-power flattop pulse excitations it has been possible to determine both the attenuation coefficients and the intrinsic saturation powers of doped single-mode fibers at 980 and 1550 nm. Laser systems have been projected for which the optimal fiber length and output power have been determined as a function of the input power. Ring and linear laser cavities have been set up, and the characteristics of the output laser have been obtained and compared with the theoretical predictions based on the 'easy points' parameters.

  17. Use Of Lasers In Seam Welding Of Engine Parts For Cars (United States)

    Luttke, A.


    The decision in favour of active research into laser technology was taken in our company in 1978. In the following years we started with the setting-up of a laser laboratory charged with the task of performing basic manufacturing technology experiments in order to examine the ap-plications of laser technology for cutting, welding, hardening, remelting and secondary alloys. The first laboratory-laser - a 2,5 kW fast axial flow CO2 laser - is connected with a CNC-controlled workpiece manipulation unit, which is designed in such a way that workpieces from the smallest component of a car gearbox up to crankcases for commercial vehicles can be manipulated at speeds considered theoretically feasible for laser machining. The use of the laser beam for cutting, hardening and welding tasks has been under investigation in our company, in this laboratory for some 6 years. Laser cutting is now no longer a question of development, but is instead standard practice and is already used in various sec-tions of our production division for pilot-series manufacturing and for small batches. Laser hardening has, in our opinion, great possibilities for tasks which, for distortion and accessibility reasons, cannot be satisfactorily performed using present-day processes, for instance induction hardening. However, a great deal of development work is still necessary before economically reasonable and quality-assured production installation can be undertaken. Laser-welding is now used in series-production in our company for two engine components. More details are given below.

  18. Engineering plasmonic nanostructured surfaces by pulsed laser deposition (United States)

    Ghidelli, Matteo; Mascaretti, Luca; Bricchi, Beatrice Roberta; Zapelli, Andrea; Russo, Valeria; Casari, Carlo Spartaco; Li Bassi, Andrea


    The synthesis and the optical response of gold nanoparticles (NPs) and thin nanostructured films grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are here studied. Different PLD process parameters - including background gas pressure and the number of laser shots as well as post-deposition annealing treatments - have been varied to control the growth of Au NPs and films, thus tuning the surface plasmon characteristics. The mechanisms of NPs and film growth have been explored performing a morphological characterization by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and the correlation with the optical behavior is investigated. We show that the size distribution and the morphology of the as deposited Au NPs depend on growth mechanisms which are controlled by tuning the deposition process, while the optical behavior is strongly affected by the average size and surface density of NPs or by the length of percolated Au domains. Furthermore, nucleation in gas phase has been reported at high (1000 Pa Ar) background pressures, enabling independent control of NP size and coverage, contrary to surface driven NP growth by diffusion and aggregation on substrate.

  19. Optical engineering of an excimer laser ophthalmic surgery system (United States)

    Yoder, Paul R., Jr.


    We outline the interrelationships between the various major subsystems of an apparatus being developed in the USA for in vivo surgical recontouring of the human cornea to correct refractive errors and/or to remove damaged tissue. We then discuss five significant optical engineering problems that had to be solved during the design of this apparatus in order for the overall system to function properly.

  20. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne IL 60439 USA; International Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter, University of California Davis, Davis CA 95616 USA; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Lucas Heights, New South Wales 2234 Australia; McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue Cambridge CB3 0HE UK


    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue A (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.

  1. New approaches in teaching laser engineering classes: modeling and building up a laser (United States)

    Alexeev, Ilya; Pflaum, Christoph; Schmidt, Michael


    We present a simulation tool to model performance of a bulk solid state laser and propose several ways how this tool can be used to enhance educational experience of the student studying laser technology. In one of the possible approaches, the ASLD software can complement available educational laser kits to provide the students with more universal practical training. In the second approach, which is the primary focus of this contribution, the ASLD software can be used as a development tool that allows students to verify their understanding of the subject as well as to propose and verify their own design ideas. The software can be extremely helpful if an experimantal setup has to be built from already present optical components in order to reduce the cost of training or if specific design objectives have to be attained.

  2. Expanding the Planetary Analog Test Sites in Hawaii - Planetary Basalt Manipulation (United States)

    Kelso, R.


    The Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) is one of the very few planetary surface research test sites in the country that is totally funded by the state legislature. In recent expansions, PISCES is broadening its work in planetary test sites to include much more R&D work in the planetary surface systems, and the manipulation of basalt materials. This is to include laser 3D printing of basalt, 'lunar-concrete' construction in state projects for Hawaii, renewable energy, and adding lava tubes/skylights to their mix of high-quality planetary analog test sites. PISCES Executive Director, Rob Kelso, will be providing program updates on the interest of the Hawaii State Legislature in planetary surface systems, new applied research initiatives in planetary basalts and interests in planetary construction.

  3. Engineering analysis and test results of the pre-stage planetary gear trains for wrist rotation and pitch assembly and azimuth and elevation assembly of the extendable stiff arm manipulator kit assembly (United States)

    Morris, R. N.


    In order to improve the performance capability of the Extendable Stiff Arm Manipulator (ESAM) it was necessary to increase the overall gear ratio by a factor of approximately four. This is accomplished with minimum effect to existing hardware by the interposition of a planetary gear transmission between the respective drive motors and the harmonic drive transmissions. The engineering analysis in support of this design approach and the subsequent no-load test results are reported.

  4. Engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Includes papers in the following fields: Aerospace Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Industrial Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mechanical...

  5. Development and application of laser techniques for studying fuel dynamics and NO formation in engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Oeivind


    In this work a number of laser techniques have been applied in new ways for combustion diagnostics in engines. The applications cover small two-stroke engines, ordinary spark ignition (SI) engines, direct-injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, and heavy-duty diesel truck engines. In an investigation of unmodified two-stroke engines running at high engine speed, it has been shown that cycle-resolved laser diagnostics are applicable to real-world engines. The emission of unburned fuel was detected at the exhaust port with successful discrimination against other unburned hydrocarbons. Although a few problems remain to be solved in order to get quantitative concentration data, valuable information can nonetheless be attained using this technique. The technique would benefit from the use of a non-fluorescing lubricant, as that would decrease the background fluorescence. Laser-based techniques also provide a useful tool for studying the fuel dynamics inside the cylinder. In the development of DISI engines it is of particular importance to acquire knowledge about the distribution of fuel around the spark plug. Numerical computer codes are often used as design tools in these applications. Laser techniques are capable of yielding instantaneous multi-point concentration information with high spatial and temporal resolution, making them ideal both for validation of CFD simulations and for testing designs. The feasibility of using laser diagnostics in the development of DISI engines has been shown. Future research should be aimed at simplifying the procedure for quantifying the data, since a fairly simple and reliable technique would be an important asset for the industry. In a more fundamental study, it has been shown that it is possible to simultaneously detect a substance in both liquid and vapour phase. Water was used in the study since it is easily produced in both phases. Liquid drops were detected using spontaneous Raman scattering, whereas the vapour surrounding them

  6. The application of a 3D laser scanner in contemporary education of civil engineering students (United States)

    Szafranko, E.; Pawłowicz, J. A.


    The programs of study in field of civil engineering include a number of objects, which concern with details of the planning, design and realization of buildings. These are buildings and structures such as, roads, bridges, tunnels, viaducts. Most of these objects are located far from university and it was difficult to show them on the lessons. Discussing the structure based on the description of the object, photographs or drawings do not always allow to imagine the actual shapes and sizes of buildings, roads, bridges and viaducts. In such a situation, terrestrial photogrammetric technology could be helpful. One of them is 3D laser scanning technology Measurements performed with a laser scanner allows to introduce selected objects in the form of spatial models. They give you the ability to rotate and zoom them in order to know the details of construction of the object. The article presents the possibility of using a 3D laser scanner in teaching.

  7. Laser-assisted welding of transparent polymers for microchemical engineering and life science (United States)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm; Baldus, Oliver; Bruns, M.; Baldini, Alessandro; Bemporad, Edoardo


    In this contribution experimental studies on the laser-assisted welding of transparent polymers with diode laser (wavelength 940 nm) are presented to discuss their potential for the fabrication of micro-devices for micro-chemical engineering and life science. Micro-channel devices such as capillary electrophoresis chips, heat exchangers or static mixers for liquids and gases consist of different micro-patterned sheets with structural details in the range of a few μm. In micro-chemical engineering, in general the sheets of micro-devices are made of metals. In our approaches the use of transparent and micro-patterned polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is investigated. For the development of micro-devices in life science the use of sheets made of transparent polymers such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is presented, e.g., in capillary electrophoresis chips. Devices are built up by stacks of micro-patterned sheets which have to be joined. These sheets are patterned by micro-milling, CO2-laser cutting or hot embossing. Laser-assisted polymer welding of transparent and opaque materials is well established. But the welding of only transparent components is still a challenge in micro-system technology, especially if micro-structures are included. For this purpose very thin absorbing layers with a thickness of about 5nm to 20nm are used in order to establish a welding process between transparent and micro-patterned polymers. The strength of the bonding is characterized by tensile tests as function of absorbing layer thickness, temperature, laser scan velocity and laser scan overlap. The topography is investigated with atomic force microscopy and low voltage scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Multispecies in situ monitoring of a static internal combustion engine by near-infrared diode laser sensors. (United States)

    Gérard, Yvan; Holdsworth, Robert J; Martin, Philip A


    A multispecies near-infrared diode laser spectrometer has been constructed for measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane directly in the exhaust of a static internal combustion engine. A wavelength modulation-division multiplexing scheme was implemented for the two distributed feedback diode lasers. Gas concentration variations were observed for changes in operating conditions such as increasing and decreasing the throttle, adjusting the air-fuel ratio, and engine start-up.

  9. Fabrication of porous polyvinyl alcohol scaffold for bone tissue engineering via selective laser sintering. (United States)

    Shuai, Cijun; Mao, Zhongzheng; Lu, Haibo; Nie, Yi; Hu, Huanlong; Peng, Shuping


    A tetragonal polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffold with 3D orthogonal periodic porous architecture was fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS) technology. The scaffold was fabricated under the laser power of 8 W, scan speed of 600 mm min(-1), laser spot diameter of 0.8 mm and layer thickness of 0.15 mm. The microstructure analysis showed that the degree of crystallization decreased while the PVA powder melts gradually and fuses together completely with laser power increasing. Thermal decomposition would occur if the laser power was further higher (16 W or higher in the case). The porous architecture was controllable and totally interconnected. The porosity of the fabricated scaffolds was measured to be 67.9 ± 2.7% which satisfies the requirement of micro-pores of the bone scaffolds. Its bioactivity and biocompatibility were also evaluated in vitro as tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. In vitro adhesion assay showed that the amount of pores increased while the scaffold remains stable and intact after immersion in simulated body fluid for seven days. Moreover, the number of MG-63 cells and the bridge between cells increased with increasing time in cell culture. The present work demonstrates that PVA scaffolds with well-defined porous architectures via SLS technology were designed and fabricated for bone TE.

  10. Controlling magnetism by ultrashort laser pulses: from fundamentals to nanoscale engineering (United States)

    Bossini, D.; Rasing, Th.


    From the discovery of sub-picosecond demagnetization over a decade ago [1] to the recent demonstration of magnetization reversal by a single 40 femtosecond laser pulse [2], the manipulation of spins by ultra-short laser pulses has become a fundamentally challenging topic with a potentially high impact for future spintronics, data storage and manipulation and quantum computation [3]. It was realized that the femtosecond laser induced all-optical switching (AOS) as observed in ferrimagnets exploits the laser induced strongly non-equilibrium dynamics and the antiferromagnetic exchange interaction between their sublattices [4-6]. This opens the way to engineer new magnetic materials for AOS [7,8], though for real applications nanoscale control of inhomogeneities appears to be relevant [9]. Besides the intruiging technological implications of these observations, they broadened remarkably the frontiers of our fundamental knowledge of magnetic phenomena. The laser driven out-of-equilibrium states cannot be described in term of the well-established thermodynamical approach, which is based on the concepts of equilibrium and adiabatic transformations. Theoretical efforts, although in their infancy, have already demonstrated [5,6] that light-induced spin dynamics on the (sub)-picosecond time scale results in phenomena utterly forbidden in a thermodynamical framework. Another challenge is how to bring the optical manipulation of magnetic media to the required nanoscale. This is clearly a key element for the perspectives in terms of magnetic recording. In addition, it would allow to explore a novel regime of spin dynamics, since the investigation of magnets on the femtosecond time-scale and the nanometer length-scale simultaneously is unexplored. One experimental approach which may be successful makes use of wave-shaping techniques [10]. Recent results with engineered hybrid magnetic materials and nanofocusing via a plasmonic antenna showed the practical potential of AOS: the

  11. Surface modification of polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for cartilage tissue engineering. (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Lee, Ming-Yih; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Tzung; Chen, Jyh-Ping


    Surface modified porous polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via rapid prototyping techniques were evaluated for cartilage tissue engineering purposes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were surface modified through immersion coating with either gelatin or collagen. Three groups of scaffolds were created and compared for both mechanical and biological properties. Surface modification with collagen or gelatin improved the hydrophilicity, water uptake and mechanical strength of the pristine scaffold. From microscopic observations and biochemical analysis, collagen-modified scaffold was the best for cartilage tissue engineering in terms of cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Chondrocytes/collagen-modified scaffold constructs were implanted subdermally in the dorsal spaces of female nude mice. Histological and immunohistochemical staining of the retrieved implants after 8 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue formation. We conclude that collagen surface modification through immersion coating on SLS-manufactured scaffolds is a feasible scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering in craniofacial reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Multi-location laser ignition using a spatial light modulator towards improving automotive gasoline engine performance (United States)

    Kuang, Zheng; Lyon, Elliott; Cheng, Hua; Page, Vincent; Shenton, Tom; Dearden, Geoff


    We report on a study into multi-location laser ignition (LI) with a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), to improve the performance of a single cylinder automotive gasoline engine. Three questions are addressed: i/ How to deliver a multi-beam diffracted pattern into an engine cylinder, through a small opening, while avoiding clipping? ii/ How much incident energy can a SLM handle (optical damage threshold) and how many simultaneous beam foci could thus be created? ; iii/ Would the multi-location sparks created be sufficiently intense and stable to ignite an engine and, if so, what would be their effect on engine performance compared to single-location LI? Answers to these questions were determined as follows. Multi-beam diffracted patterns were created by applying computer generated holograms (CGHs) to the SLM. An optical system for the SLM was developed via modelling in ZEMAX, to cleanly deliver the multi-beam patterns into the combustion chamber without clipping. Optical damage experiments were carried out on Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) samples provided by the SLM manufacturer and the maximum safe pulse energy to avoid SLM damage found to be 60 mJ. Working within this limit, analysis of the multi-location laser induced sparks showed that diffracting into three identical beams gave slightly insufficient energy to guarantee 100% sparking, so subsequent engine experiments used 2 equal energy beams laterally spaced by 4 mm. The results showed that dual-location LI gave more stable combustion and higher engine power output than single-location LI, for increasingly lean air-fuel mixtures. The paper concludes by a discussion of how these results may be exploited.

  13. Engineering of refractive index in sulfide chalcogenide glass by direct laser writing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yaping


    Arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) glass is an interesting material for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) as infrared (IR) or nonlinear optical components. In this paper, direct laser writing was applied to engineer the refractive index of As2S3 thin film. Film samples were exposed to focused above bandgap light with wavelength at 405 nm using different fluence adjusted by laser power and exposure time. The index of refraction before and after laser irradiation was calculated by fitting the experimental data obtained from Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (SE) measurement to Tauc-Lorenz dispersion formula. A positive change in refractive index (Δn = 0.19 at 1.55 μm) as well as an enhancement in anisotropy was achieved in As2S3 film by using 10 mW, 0.3 μs laser irradiation. With further increasing the fluence, refractive index increased while anisotropic property weakened. Due to the rapid and large photo-induced modification of refractive index obtainable with high spatial resolution, this process is promising for integrated optic device fabrication.

  14. Engineered and Laser-Processed Chitosan Biopolymers for Sustainable and Biodegradable Triboelectric Power Generation. (United States)

    Wang, Ruoxing; Gao, Shengjie; Yang, Zhen; Li, Yule; Chen, Weinong; Wu, Benxin; Wu, Wenzhuo


    Recent advances achieved in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENG) focus on boosting power generation and conversion efficiency. Nevertheless, obstacles concerning economical and biocompatible utilization of TENGs continue to prevail. Being an abundant natural biopolymer from marine crustacean shells, chitosan enables exciting opportunities for low-cost, biodegradable TENG applications in related fields. Here, the development of biodegradable and flexible TENGs based on chitosan is presented for the first time. The physical and chemical properties of the chitosan nanocomposites are systematically studied and engineered for optimized triboelectric power generation, transforming the otherwise wasted natural materials into functional energy devices. The feasibility of laser processing of constituent materials is further explored for the first time for engineering the TENG performance. The laser treatment of biopolymer films offers a potentially promising scheme for surface engineering in polymer-based TENGs. The chitosan-based TENGs present efficient energy conversion performance and tunable biodegradation rate. Such a new class of TENGs derived from natural biomaterials may pave the way toward the economically viable and ecologically friendly production of flexible TENGs for self-powered nanosystems in biomedical and environmental applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Laser Scanning in Engineering Surveying: Methods of Measurement and Modeling of Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenda Grzegorz


    Full Text Available The study is devoted to the uses of laser scanning in the field of engineering surveying. It is currently one of the main trends of research which is developed at the Department of Engineering Surveying and Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. They mainly relate to the issues associated with tower and shell structures, infrastructure of rail routes, or development of digital elevation models for a wide range of applications. These issues often require the use of a variety of scanning techniques (stationary, mobile, but the differences also regard the planning of measurement stations and methods of merging point clouds. Significant differences appear during the analysis of point clouds, especially when modeling objects. Analysis of the selected parameters is already possible basing on ad hoc measurements carried out on a point cloud. However, only the construction of three-dimensional models provides complete information about the shape of structures, allows to perform the analysis in any place and reduces the amount of the stored data. Some structures can be modeled in the form of simple axes, sections, or solids, for others it becomes necessary to create sophisticated models of surfaces, depicting local deformations. The examples selected for the study allow to assess the scope of measurement and office work for a variety of uses related to the issue set forth in the title of this study. Additionally, the latest, forward-looking technology was presented - laser scanning performed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones. Currently, it is basically in the prototype phase, but it might be expected to make a significant progress in numerous applications in the field of engineering surveying.

  16. Laser Scanning in Engineering Surveying: Methods of Measurement and Modeling of Structures (United States)

    Lenda, Grzegorz; Uznański, Andrzej; Strach, Michał; Lewińska, Paulina


    The study is devoted to the uses of laser scanning in the field of engineering surveying. It is currently one of the main trends of research which is developed at the Department of Engineering Surveying and Civil Engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering of AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. They mainly relate to the issues associated with tower and shell structures, infrastructure of rail routes, or development of digital elevation models for a wide range of applications. These issues often require the use of a variety of scanning techniques (stationary, mobile), but the differences also regard the planning of measurement stations and methods of merging point clouds. Significant differences appear during the analysis of point clouds, especially when modeling objects. Analysis of the selected parameters is already possible basing on ad hoc measurements carried out on a point cloud. However, only the construction of three-dimensional models provides complete information about the shape of structures, allows to perform the analysis in any place and reduces the amount of the stored data. Some structures can be modeled in the form of simple axes, sections, or solids, for others it becomes necessary to create sophisticated models of surfaces, depicting local deformations. The examples selected for the study allow to assess the scope of measurement and office work for a variety of uses related to the issue set forth in the title of this study. Additionally, the latest, forward-looking technology was presented - laser scanning performed from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones). Currently, it is basically in the prototype phase, but it might be expected to make a significant progress in numerous applications in the field of engineering surveying.

  17. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich


    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed.

  18. A Comparative Study of Cycle Variability of Laser Plug Ignition vs Classical Spark Plug Ignition in Combustion Engines (United States)

    Done, Bogdan


    Over the past 30 years numerous studies and laboratory experiments have researched the use of laser energy to ignite gas and fuel-air mixtures. The actual implementation of this laser application has still to be fully achieved in a commercial automotive application. Laser Plug Ignition as a replacement for Spark Plug Ignition in the internal combustion engines of automotive vehicles, offers several potential benefits such as extending lean burn capability, reducing the cyclic variability between combustion cycles and decreasing the total amount of ignition costs, and implicitly weight and energy requirements. The paper presents preliminary results of cycle variability study carried on a SI Engine equipped with laser Plug Ignition system. Versus classic ignition system, the use of the laser Plug Ignition system assures the reduction of the combustion process variability, reflected in the lower values of the coefficient of variability evaluated for indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle and maximum pressure rise rate. The laser plug ignition system was mounted on an experimental spark ignition engine and tested at the regime of 90% load and 2800 rev/min, at dosage of λ=1.1. Compared to conventional spark plug, laser ignition assures the efficiency at lean dosage.

  19. What Do Informal Educators Need To Be Successful In Teaching Planetary Science And Engineering?: Results From The PLANETS Out-Of-School Time Educator Needs Assessment (NASA NNX16AC53A) (United States)

    Clark, J.; Bloom, N.


    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) is five-year interdisciplinary and cross-institutional partnership to develop and disseminate out-of-school time curricular and professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. The Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Museum of Science (MOS) Boston are partners in developing, piloting, and researching the impact of three out of school time planetary science and engineering curriculum and related professional development units over the life of the project. Critical to the success of out-of-school time curriculum implementation is to consider the needs of the informal education leaders. The CSTL at NAU is conducting a needs-assessment of OST educators nationwide to identify the gaps between current knowledge and abilities of OST educators and the knowledge and abilities necessary in order to facilitate effective STEM educational experiences for youth. The research questions are: a. What are current conditions of OST programs and professional development for OST educators? b. What do OST educators and program coordinators already know and think about facilitating meaningful and high quality STEM instruction? c. What are perceived needs of OST educators and program coordinators in order to implement meaningful and high quality STEM instruction? d. What design decisions will make professional development experiences more accessible, acceptable and useful to OST educators and program coordinators? In this presentation we will share the preliminary results of the national survey. The information about the needs of informal STEM educators can inform other NASA Science Mission Directorate educational partners in their program development in addition to AGU members designing informal education outreach.

  20. Energy Consumption and Saving Analysis for Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Liu


    Full Text Available With the increasing awareness of environmental protection and sustainable manufacturing, the environmental impact of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technology has been attracting more and more attention. Aiming to quantitatively analyze the energy consumption and extract possible ways to save energy during the LAM process, this investigation studies the effects of input variables including laser power, scanning speed, and powder feed rate on the overall energy consumption during the laser deposition processes. Considering microhardness as a standard quality, the energy consumption of unit deposition volume (ECUDV, in J/mm3 is proposed as a measure for the average applied energy of the fabricated metal part. The potential energy-saving benefits of the ultrasonic vibration–assisted laser engineering net shaping (LENS process are also examined in this paper. The experimental results suggest that the theoretical and actual values of the energy consumption present different trends along with the same input variables. It is possible to reduce the energy consumption and, at the same time, maintain a good part quality and the optimal combination of the parameters referring to Inconel 718 as a material is laser power of 300 W, scanning speed of 8.47 mm/s and powder feed rate of 4 rpm. When the geometry shaping and microhardness are selected as evaluating criterions, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI 4140 powder will cause the largest energy consumption per unit volume. The ultrasonic vibration–assisted LENS process cannot only improve the clad quality, but can also decrease the energy consumption to a considerable extent.

  1. Application of laser diode in airplane engine nozzle temperature measurement system (United States)

    Xia, Yuan-fei; Ren, Qiang; Li, Xue-yuan


    Thermoelectric couple was employed in traditional airplane engine nozzle temperature measurement system with the disadvantages of large size, heavy weight, big error and slow response. This paper presents a new kind of real—time temperature measurement system using laser diode InGaAs/I as light source, and using pyroelectric detector LiTa03 as optical receiving unit and using a microprocessor as signal processing center. This instrument consists of three parts: optical emitting and receiving system, signal amplifying and controlling system, and display system. The principle, structure, anti—interference measure of the system are introduced. Experimental results of airplane engine real—time temperature measurement show that temperature measurement accuracy and response time conform to our requirement in the range of 300°C一800°C and agree with prediction of theory. All these prove that the design is correct.

  2. Development of laser-induced fluorescence for precombustion diagnostics in spark-ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neij, H.


    Motivated by a desire to understand and optimize combustion in spark-ignition (SI) engines, laser techniques have been developed for measurement of fuel and residual gas, respectively, in the precombustion mixture of an operating SI engine. The primary objective was to obtain two-dimensional, quantitative data in the vicinity of the spark gap at the time of ignition. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique was developed for fuel visualization in engine environments. Since the fluorescence signal from any commercial gasoline fuel would be unknown to its origin, with an unpredictable dependence on collisional partners, pressure and temperature, a non-fluorescent base fuel - isooctane - was used. For LIF detection, a fluorescent species was added to the fuel. An additive not commonly used in this context - 3-pentanone - was chosen based on its suitable vaporization characteristics and fluorescent properties. The LIF technique was applied to an optically accessible research engine. By calibration, the fluorescence signal from the additive was converted to fuel-to-air equivalence ratio ({phi}). The accuracy and precision of the acquired data were assessed. A statistical evaluation revealed that the spatially averaged equivalence ratio around the spark plug had a significant impact on the combustion event. The strong correlation between these two quantities suggested that the early combustion was sensitive to large-scale inhomogeneities in the precombustion mixture. A similar LIF technique, using acetone as a fluorescent additive in methane, was applied to a combustion cell for ion current evaluation. The local equivalence ratio around the spark gap at the time of ignition was extracted from LIF data. Useful relations were identified between different ion current parameters and the local equivalence ratio, although the impact of the flow field, the fuel type, and the electrode geometry were identified as areas for future research. A novel fuel - dimethyl ether (DME

  3. Temperature field measurement research in high-speed diesel engine using laser induced fluorescence technology (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zhang, You-tong; Gou, Chenhua; Tian, Hongsen


    Temperature laser- induced- fluorescence (LIF) 2-D imaging measurements using a new multi-spectral detection strategy are reported for high pressure flames in high-speed diesel engine. Schematic of the experimental set-up is outlined and the experimental data on the diesel engine is summarized. Experiment injection system is a third generation Bosch high-pressure common rail featuring a maximum pressure of 160 MPa. The injector is equipped with a six-hole nozzle, where each hole has a diameter of 0.124 mm. and slightly offset (by 1.0 mm) to the center of the cylinder axis to allow a better cooling of the narrow bridge between the exhaust valves. The measurement system includes a blower, which supplied the intake flow rate, and a prototype single-valve direct injection diesel engine head modified to lay down the swirled-type injector. 14-bit digital CCD cameras are employed to achieve a greater level of accuracy in comparison to the results of previous measurements. The temperature field spatial distributions in the cylinder for different crank angle degrees are carried out in a single direct-injection diesel engine.

  4. Mechanical Behaviour of Inconel 718 Thin-Walled Laser Welded Components for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Lertora


    Full Text Available Nickel alloys are very important in many aerospace applications, especially to manufacture gas turbines and aero engine components, where high strength and temperature resistance are necessary. These kinds of alloys have to be welded with high energy density processes, in order to preserve their high mechanical properties. In this work, CO2 laser overlap joints between Inconel 718 sheets of limited thickness in the absence of postweld heat treatment were made. The main application of this kind of joint is the manufacturing of a helicopter engine component. In particular the aim was to obtain a specific cross section geometry, necessary to overcome the mechanical stresses found in these working conditions without failure. Static and dynamic tests were performed to assess the welds and the parent material fatigue life behaviour. Furthermore, the life trend was identified. This research pointed out that a full joint shape control is possible by choosing proper welding parameters and that the laser beam process allows the maintenance of high tensile strength and ductility of Inconel 718 but caused many liquation microcracks in the heat affected zone (HAZ. In spite of these microcracks, the fatigue behaviour of the overlap welds complies with the technical specifications required by the application.

  5. A Laser-Based Measuring System for Online Quality Control of Car Engine Block. (United States)

    Li, Xing-Qiang; Wang, Zhong; Fu, Lu-Hua


    For online quality control of car engine production, pneumatic measurement instrument plays an unshakeable role in measuring diameters inside engine block because of its portability and high-accuracy. To the limitation of its measuring principle, however, the working space between the pneumatic device and measured surface is too small to require manual operation. This lowers the measuring efficiency and becomes an obstacle to perform automatic measurement. In this article, a high-speed, automatic measuring system is proposed to take the place of pneumatic devices by using a laser-based measuring unit. The measuring unit is considered as a set of several measuring modules, where each of them acts like a single bore gauge and is made of four laser triangulation sensors (LTSs), which are installed on different positions and in opposite directions. The spatial relationship among these LTSs was calibrated before measurements. Sampling points from measured shaft holes can be collected by the measuring unit. A unified mathematical model was established for both calibration and measurement. Based on the established model, the relative pose between the measuring unit and measured workpiece does not impact the measuring accuracy. This frees the measuring unit from accurate positioning or adjustment, and makes it possible to realize fast and automatic measurement. The proposed system and method were finally validated by experiments.

  6. Femtosecond laser structuring of silver-containing glass: Silver redistribution, selective etching, and surface topology engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desmoulin, Jean-Charles; Petit, Yannick; Cardinal, Thierry, E-mail: [CNRS, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac, France and Univ. Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Canioni, Lionel [Université Bordeaux, Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications–UMR 5107 CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Dussauze, Marc [Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, CNRS UMR 5255, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Lahaye, Michel [Université de Bordeaux, Placamat, avenue Docteur Albert Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac Cedex (France); Gonzalez, Hernando Magallanes; Brasselet, Etienne [Université Bordeaux, Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d' Aquitaine–UMR 5798, CNRS, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence Cedex (France)


    Femtosecond direct laser writing in silver-containing phosphate glasses allows for the three-dimensional (3D) implementation of complex photonic structures. Sample translation along or perpendicular to the direction of the beam propagation has been performed, which led to the permanent formation of fluorescent structures, either corresponding to a tubular shape or to two parallel planes at the vicinity of the interaction voxel, respectively. These optical features are related to significant modifications of the local material chemistry. Indeed, silver depletion areas with a diameter below 200 nm were evidenced at the center of the photo-produced structures while photo-produced luminescence properties are attributed to the formation of silver clusters around the multiphoton interaction voxel. The laser-triggered oxidation-reduction processes and the associated photo-induced silver redistribution are proposed to be at the origin of the observed original 3D luminescent structures. Thanks to such material structuring, surface engineering has been also demonstrated. Selective surface chemical etching of the glass has been obtained subsequently to laser writing at the location of the photo-produced structures, revealing features with nanometric depth profiles and radial dimensions strongly related to the spatial distributions of the silver clusters.

  7. Laser-induced ignition and combustion in a SI engine with direct injection; Laserzuendung und Verbrennung im Ottomotor mit Direkteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Volker; Kubach, Heiko; Spicher, Ulrich [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Kolbenmaschinen; Schiessl, Robert; Maas, Ulrich [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik


    Laser-induced ignition has shown huge advantages for the combustion of lean air- fuel mixtures in SI engines. A research project founded by the FVV under 'DI Laserzuendung' and No. 928 was set up at the Institute for Reciprocating Engines (IFKM) and the Institute for Technical Thermodynamics (ITT) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to investigate the potential of the laser-induced ignition. The emphasis was on improving combustion initiation and heat release during a direct injection with a spray-guided combustion. (orig.)

  8. Design and manufacture of customized dental implants by using reverse engineering and selective laser melting technology. (United States)

    Chen, Jianyu; Zhang, Zhiguang; Chen, Xianshuai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Gong; Xu, Zhewu


    Recently a new therapeutic concept of patient-specific implant dentistry has been advanced based on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology. However, a comprehensive study of the design and 3-dimensional (3D) printing of the customized implants, their mechanical properties, and their biomechanical behavior is lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical and biomechanical performance of a novel custom-made dental implant fabricated by the selective laser melting technique with simulation and in vitro experimental studies. Two types of customized implants were designed by using reverse engineering: a root-analog implant and a root-analog threaded implant. The titanium implants were printed layer by layer with the selective laser melting technique. The relative density, surface roughness, tensile properties, bend strength, and dimensional accuracy of the specimens were evaluated. Nonlinear and linear finite element analysis and experimental studies were used to investigate the stress distribution, micromotion, and primary stability of the implants. Selective laser melting 3D printing technology was able to reproduce the customized implant designs and produce high density and strength and adequate dimensional accuracy. Better stress distribution and lower maximum micromotions were observed for the root-analog threaded implant model than for the root-analog implant model. In the experimental tests, the implant stability quotient and pull-out strength of the 2 types of implants indicated that better primary stability can be obtained with a root-analog threaded implant design. Selective laser melting proved to be an efficient means of printing fully dense customized implants with high strength and sufficient dimensional accuracy. Adding the threaded characteristic to the customized root-analog threaded implant design maintained the approximate geometry of the natural root and exhibited better stress distribution and

  9. Laser-induced ferroelectric domain engineering in LiNbO3 crystals using an amorphous silicon overlayer (United States)

    Zisis, G.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Franz, Y.; Healy, N.; Masaud, T. M.; Chong, H. M. H.; Soergel, E.; Peacock, A. C.; Mailis, S.


    We report laser-induced poling inhibition and direct poling in lithium niobate crystals (LiNbO3), covered with an amorphous silicon (a-Si) light-absorbing layer, using a visible (488 nm) continuous wave laser source. Our results show that the use of the a-Si overlayer produces deeper poling inhibited domains with minimum surface damage, as compared to previously reported UV laser writing experiments on uncoated crystals, thus increasing the applicability of this method in the production of ferroelectric domain engineered structures for nonlinear optical applications. The characteristics of the poling inhibited domains were investigated using differential etching and piezoresponse force microscopy.

  10. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos


    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  11. Planetary Data System (PDS) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an archive of data products from NASA planetary missions, which is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We actively...

  12. Selective laser sintering of biocompatible polymers for applications in tissue engineering. (United States)

    Tan, K H; Chua, C K; Leong, K F; Cheah, C M; Gui, W S; Tan, W S; Wiria, F E


    The ability to use biological substitutes to repair or replace damaged tissues lead to the development of Tissue Engineering (TE), a field that is growing in scope and importance within biomedical engineering. Anchorage dependent cell types often rely on the use of temporary three-dimensional scaffolds to guide cell proliferation. Computer-controlled fabrication techniques such as Rapid Prototyping (RP) processes have been recognised to have an edge over conventional manual-based scaffold fabrication techniques due to their ability to create structures with complex macro- and micro-architectures. Despite the immense capabilities of RP fabrication for scaffold production, commercial available RP modelling materials are not biocompatible and are not suitable for direct use in the fabrication of scaffolds. Work is carried out with several biocompatible polymers such as Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and a bioceramic namely, Hydroxyapatite (HA). The parameters of the selective laser sintering (SLS) process are optimised to cater to the processing of these materials. SLS-fabricated scaffold specimens are examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Results observed from the micrographs indicate the viability of them being used for building TE scaffolds and ascertain the capabilities of the SLS process for creating highly porous scaffolds for Tissue Engineering applications.

  13. Flame front imaging in an internal-combustion engine simulator by laser-induced fluorescence of acetaldehyde. (United States)

    Arnold, A; Becker, H; Suntz, R; Monkhouse, P; Wolfrum, J; Maly, R; Pfister, W


    Acetaldehyde has been used as a fluorescent dopant for two-dimensional imaging of the flame front in an internalcombustion-engine simulator. The molecule was excited with a XeCl-laser-light sheet at 308 nm, and broadband fluorescence centered at 400 nm was detected. In this way, the flame front could be marked by mapping regions of unburned gas. Also, the intake process into the engine could be followed.

  14. Process Optimization for Suppressing Cracks in Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Al2O3 Ceramics (United States)

    Niu, F. Y.; Wu, D. J.; Yan, S.; Ma, G. Y.; Zhang, B.


    Direct additive manufacturing of ceramics (DAMC) without binders is a promising technique for rapidly fabricating high-purity components with good performance. Nevertheless, cracks are easily generated during fabrication as a result of the high intrinsic brittleness of ceramics and the great temperature gradients. Therefore, optimizing the DAMC process is a challenge. In this study, direct fabrication of Al2O3 single-bead wall structures are conducted with a laser engineered net shaping (LENS) system. A new process optimization method for suppressing cracks is proposed based on analytical models, and then the influence of process parameters on crack number is discussed experimentally. The results indicate that the crack number decreases obviously with the increase of scanning speed. Single-bead wall specimens without cracks are successfully fabricated by the optimized process.

  15. First accelerator test of vacuum components with laser-engineered surfaces for electron-cloud mitigation (United States)

    Calatroni, Sergio; Garcia-Tabares Valdivieso, Elisa; Neupert, Holger; Nistor, Valentin; Perez Fontenla, Ana Teresa; Taborelli, Mauro; Chiggiato, Paolo; Malyshev, Oleg; Valizadeh, Reza; Wackerow, Stefan; Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A.; Gillespie, W. Allan; Abdolvand, Amin


    Electron cloud mitigation is an essential requirement for high-intensity proton circular accelerators. Among other solutions, laser engineered surface structures (LESS) present the advantages of having potentially a very low secondary electron yield (SEY) and allowing simple scalability for mass production. Two copper liners with LESS have been manufactured and successfully tested by monitoring the electron cloud current in a dipole magnet in the SPS accelerator at CERN during the 2016 run. In this paper we report on these results as well as the detailed experiments carried out on samples—such as the SEY and topography studies—which led to an optimized treatment in view of the SPS test and future possible use in the HL-LHC.

  16. A Compact Tandem Two-Step Laser Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer for In Situ Analysis of Non-Volatile Organics on Planetary Surfaces (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Li, Xiang; Elsila, Jamie; Cornish, Timothy; Ecelberger, Scott; Wu, Qinghao; Zare, Richard


    Two-step laser desorption mass spectrometry is a well suited technique to the analysis of high priority classes of organics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, present in complex samples. The use of decoupled desorption and ionization laser pulses allows for sensitive and selective detection of structurally intact organic species. We have recently demonstrated the implementation of this advancement in laser mass spectrometry in a compact, flight-compatible instrument that could feasibly be the centerpiece of an analytical science payload as part of a future spaceflight mission to a small body or icy moon.

  17. Porous polycaprolactone scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering fabricated by selective laser sintering. (United States)

    Yeong, W Y; Sudarmadji, N; Yu, H Y; Chua, C K; Leong, K F; Venkatraman, S S; Boey, Y C F; Tan, L P


    An advanced manufacturing technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), was utilized to fabricate a porous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold designed with an automated algorithm in a parametric library system named the "computer-aided system for tissue scaffolds" (CASTS). Tensile stiffness of the sintered PCL strut was in the range of 0.43+/-0.15MPa when a laser power of 3W and scanning speed of 150 in s(-1) was used. A series of compressive mechanical characterizations was performed on the parametric scaffold design and an empirical formula was presented to predict the compressive stiffness of the scaffold as a function of total porosity. In this work, the porosity of the scaffold was selected to be 85%, with micropores (40-100mum) throughout the scaffold. The compressive stiffness of the scaffold was 345kPa. The feasibility of using the scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering was investigated by culturing C2C12 myoblast cells in vitro for 21days. Fluorescence images showed cells were located throughout the scaffold. High density of cells at 1.2x10(6)cellsml(-1) was recorded after 4days of culture. Fusion and differentiation of C2C12 were observed as early as 6days in vitro and was confirmed with myosin heavy chain immunostaining after 11days of cell culture. A steady population of cells was then maintained throughout 21days of culturing. This work demonstrated the feasibility of tailoring the mechanical property of the scaffold for soft tissue engineering using CASTS and SLS. The macroarchitecture of the scaffold can be modified efficiently to fabricate scaffolds with different macropore sizes or changing the elemental cell design in CASTS. Further process and design optimization could be carried out in the future to fabricate scaffolds that match the tensile strength of native myocardium, which is of the order of tens of kPa. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of functional fibronectin patterns by nanosecond excimer laser direct write for tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Grigorescu, S; Hindié, M; Axente, E; Carreiras, F; Anselme, K; Werckmann, J; Mihailescu, I N; Gallet, O


    Laser direct write techniques represent a prospective alternative for engineering a new generation of hybrid biomaterials via the creation of patterns consisting of biological proteins onto practically any type of substrate. In this paper we report on the characterization of fibronectin features obtained onto titanium substrates by UV nanosecond laser transfer. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements evidenced no modification in the secondary structure of the post-transferred protein. The molecular weight of the transferred protein was identical to the initial fibronectin, no fragment bands being found in the transferred protein's Western blot migration profile. The presence of the cell-binding domain sequence and the mannose groups within the transferred molecules was revealed by anti-fibronectin monoclonal antibody immunolabelling and FITC-Concanavalin-A staining, respectively. The in vitro tests performed with MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells and Swiss-3T3 fibroblasts showed that the cells' morphology and spreading were strongly influenced by the presence of the fibronectin spots.

  19. Large 3D direct laser written scaffolds for tissue engineering applications (United States)

    Trautmann, Anika; Rüth, Marieke; Lemke, Horst-Dieter; Walther, Thomas; Hellmann, Ralf


    We report on the fabrication of three-dimensional direct laser written scaffolds for tissue engineering and the seeding of primary fibroblasts on these structures. Scaffolds are realized by two-photon absorption induced polymerization in the inorganic-organic hybrid polymer OrmoComp using a 515 nm femtosecond laser. A nonstop single-line single-pass writing process is implemented in order to produce periodic reproducible large scaled structures with a dimension in the range of several millimeters and reduce process time to less than one hour. This method allows us to determine optimized process parameters for writing stable structures while achieving pore sizes ranging from 5 μm to 90 μm and a scanning speed of up to 5 mm/s. After a multi-stage post-treatment, normal human dermal fibroblasts are applied to the scaffolds to test if these macroscopic structures with large surface and numerous small gaps between the pores provide nontoxic conditions. Furthermore, we study the cell behavior in this environment and observe both cell growth on as well as ingrowth on the three-dimensional structures. In particular, fibroblasts adhere and grow also on the vertical walls of the scaffolds.

  20. Poly-epsilon-caprolactone/hydroxyapatite for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication via selective laser sintering. (United States)

    Wiria, F E; Leong, K F; Chua, C K; Liu, Y


    Rapid prototyping (RP) techniques are becoming more popular for fabricating tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds owing to their advantages over conventional methods, such as the ability to fabricate scaffolds with predetermined interconnected networks without the use of organic solvents. A versatile RP technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), offers good user control of scaffold microstructure by adjusting the process parameters. This research focuses on a the use of biocomposite material, consisting of poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA), to fabricate TE scaffolds using SLS. Biocomposite blends with different percentage weights of HA were physically blended and sintered to assess their suitability for fabrication via SLS. Optimal sintering conditions for the powders were achieved by varying parameters such as laser power and scan speed. Studies of the sintered specimen morphology were performed by scanning electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the homogeneity of the biocomposite blend. Simulated body fluid (SBF) samples show the formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite, as a result of soaking HA in a SBF environment. Cell culture experiment showed that Saos-2 cells were able to live and replicate on the fabricated scaffolds. The results show the favorable potential of PCL/HA biocomposite as TE scaffolds that are fabricated via SLS.

  1. Noninvasive evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage with time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. (United States)

    Kutsuna, Toshiharu; Sato, Masato; Ishihara, Miya; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Nagai, Toshihiro; Kikuchi, Makoto; Ushida, Takashi; Mochida, Joji


    Regenerative medicine requires noninvasive evaluation. Our objective is to investigate the application of time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TR-LIFS) using a nano-second-pulsed laser for evaluation of tissue-engineered cartilage (TEC). To prepare scaffold-free TEC, articular chondrocytes from 4-week-old Japanese white rabbits were harvested, and were inoculated at a high density in a mold. Cells were cultured for 5 weeks by rotating culture (RC) or static culture (SC). The RC group and SC group at each week (n = 5), as well as normal articular cartilage and purified collagen type II (as controls), were analyzed by TR-LIFS. The peak wavelength was compared with those of type II collagen immunostaining and type II collagen quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tensile testing. The fluorescence peak wavelength of the TEC analyzed by this method shifted significantly in the RC group at 3 weeks, and in the SC group at 5 weeks (p TEC.

  2. Planetary rovers robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ellery, Alex


    The increasing adoption of terrain mobility – planetary rovers – for the investigation of planetary surfaces emphasises their central importance in space exploration. This imposes a completely new set of technologies and methodologies to the design of such spacecraft – and planetary rovers are indeed, first and foremost, spacecraft. This introduces vehicle engineering, mechatronics, robotics, artificial intelligence and associated technologies to the spacecraft engineer’s repertoire of skills. Planetary Rovers is the only book that comprehensively covers these aspects of planetary rover engineering and more. The book: • discusses relevant planetary environments to rover missions, stressing the Moon and Mars; • includes a brief survey of previous rover missions; • covers rover mobility, traction and control systems; • stresses the importance of robotic vision in rovers for both navigation and science; • comprehensively covers autonomous navigation, path planning and multi-rover formations on ...

  3. Application of a high-repetition-rate laser diagnostic system for single-cycle-resolved imaging in internal combustion engines. (United States)

    Hult, Johan; Richter, Mattias; Nygren, Jenny; Aldén, Marcus; Hultqvist, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Johansson, Bengt


    High-repetition-rate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of fuel and OH concentrations in internal combustion engines are demonstrated. Series of as many as eight fluorescence images, with a temporal resolution ranging from 10 micros to 1 ms, are acquired within one engine cycle. A multiple-laser system in combination with a multiple-CCD camera is used for cycle-resolved imaging in spark-ignition, direct-injection stratified-charge, and homogeneous-charge compression-ignition engines. The recorded data reveal unique information on cycle-to-cycle variations in fuel transport and combustion. Moreover, the imaging system in combination with a scanning mirror is used to perform instantaneous three-dimensional fuel-concentration measurements.

  4. Improving the finite element model accuracy of tissue engineering scaffolds produced by selective laser sintering. (United States)

    Lohfeld, S; Cahill, S; Doyle, H; McHugh, P E


    In bone tissue engineering, both geometrical and mechanical properties of a scaffold play a major part in the success of the treatment. The mechanical stresses and strains that act on cells on a scaffold in a physiological environment are a determining factor on the subsequent tissue formation. Computational models are often used to simulate the effect of changes of internal architectures and external loads applied to the scaffold in order to optimise the scaffold geometry for the prospective implantation site. Finite element analysis (FEA) based on computer models of the scaffold is a common technique, but would not take into account actual inaccuracies due to the manufacturing process. Image based FEA using CT scans of fabricated scaffolds can provide a more accurate analysis of the scaffold, and was used in this work in order to accurately simulate and predict the mechanical performance of bone tissue engineering scaffolds, fabricated using selective laser sintering (SLS), with a view to generating a methodology that could be used to optimise scaffold design. The present work revealed that an approach that assumes isotropic properties of SLS fabricated scaffolds will lead to inaccurate predictions of the FE model. However, a dependency of the grey value of the CT scans and the mechanical properties was discovered, which may ultimately lead to accurate FE models without the need of experimental validation.

  5. Ignition of an automobile engine by high-peak power Nd:YAG/Cr⁴⁺:YAG laser-spark devices. (United States)

    Pavel, Nicolaie; Dascalu, Traian; Salamu, Gabriela; Dinca, Mihai; Boicea, Niculae; Birtas, Adrian


    Laser sparks that were built with high-peak power passively Q-switched Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG lasers have been used to operate a Renault automobile engine. The design of such a laser spark igniter is discussed. The Nd:YAG/Cr(4+):YAG laser delivered pulses with energy of 4 mJ and 0.8-ns duration, corresponding to pulse peak power of 5 MW. The coefficients of variability of maximum pressure (COV(Pmax)) and of indicated mean effective pressure (COV(IMEP)) and specific emissions like hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured at various engine speeds and high loads. Improved engine stability in terms of COV(Pmax) and COV(Pmax) and decreased emissions of CO and HC were obtained for the engine that was run by laser sparks in comparison with classical ignition by electrical spark plugs.

  6. Bulk Combinatorial Synthesis and High Throughput Characterization for Rapid Assessment of Magnetic Materials: Application of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) (United States)

    Geng, J.; Nlebedim, I. C.; Besser, M. F.; Simsek, E.; Ott, R. T.


    A bulk combinatorial approach for synthesizing alloy libraries using laser engineered net shaping (LENS™; i.e., 3D printing) was utilized to rapidly assess material systems for magnetic applications. The LENS™ system feeds powders in different ratios into a melt pool created by a laser to synthesize samples with bulk (millimeters) dimensions. By analyzing these libraries with autosampler differential scanning calorimeter/thermal gravimetric analysis and vibrating sample magnetometry, we are able to rapidly characterize the thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the libraries. The Fe-Co binary alloy was used as a model system and the results were compared with data in the literature.

  7. 3D laser scanning in plant and pipeline engineering; 3D-Laserscanning im Anlagen- und Rohrleitungsbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, T. [Kaeser und Reiner, Ingenieurbuero fuer Vermessung und Geoinformation, Fellbach (Germany)


    3D laser scanning has been in use for a number of years now in the fields of surveying, building and factory planning. Laser scanning can, however, provide a highly supportive and helpful tool for the plant and piping designer, too. The benefits of this technology are relevant wherever the geometry of existing systems and subsystems needs to be registered and recorded. This may be the case in planning changes (basic and detail engineering), collision checks, documentation, plant relocations and visual?display projects. (orig.)

  8. Planetary geosciences, 1988 (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); Plescia, Jeff L. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn (Editor)


    Research topics within the NASA Planetary Geosciences Program are presented. Activity in the fields of planetary geology, geophysics, materials, and geochemistry is covered. The investigator's current research efforts, the importance of that work in understanding a particular planetary geoscience problem, the context of that research, and the broader planetary geoscience effort is described. As an example, theoretical modelling of the stability of water ice within the Martian regolith, the applicability of that work to understanding Martian volatiles in general, and the geologic history of Mars is discussed.

  9. Strategies for formaldehyde detection in flames and engines using a single-mode Nd:YAG/OPO laser system. (United States)

    Brackmann, Christian; Li, Zhongshan; Rupinski, Martin; Docquier, Nicolas; Pengloan, Gaelle; Aldén, Marcus


    This paper presents technical developments for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O) using laser-induced fluorescence. The easily accessible third harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm was used for excitation of formaldehyde. In order to investigate potential background fluorescence, e.g., from large molecules such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, special attention was paid to investigating the possibility of scanning the wavelength of a single-mode Nd:YAG laser under the gain profile, approximately 3 cm(-1), on and off resonance. Furthermore, a technique for simultaneous detection of formaldehyde and OH using one laser system is presented. The single-mode Nd: YAG laser at 355 nm in combination with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser tuned to 283 nm was used for simultaneous two-dimensional imaging of both species using one charge-coupled device (CCD) detector equipped with a dual filter image separator. The techniques are demonstrated with measurements in laboratory flames and the combined measurements are also demonstrated in an engine.

  10. Tissue-engineered trachea regeneration using decellularized trachea matrix treated with laser micropore technique. (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Li, Dan; Yin, Zongqi; He, Aijuan; Lin, Miaomiao; Jiang, Gening; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuefei; Liu, Yi; Wang, Jinpeng; Wang, Xiaoyun; Duan, Liang; Zhou, Guangdong


    Tissue-engineered trachea provides a promising approach for reconstruction of long segmental tracheal defects. However, a lack of ideal biodegradable scaffolds greatly restricts its clinical translation. Decellularized trachea matrix (DTM) is considered a proper scaffold for trachea cartilage regeneration owing to natural tubular structure, cartilage matrix components, and biodegradability. However, cell residual and low porosity of DTM easily result in immunogenicity and incomplete cartilage regeneration. To address these problems, a laser micropore technique (LMT) was applied in the current study to modify trachea sample porosity to facilitate decellular treatment and cell ingrowth. Decellularization processing demonstrated that cells in LMT treated samples were more easily removed compared with untreated native trachea. Furthermore, after optimizing the protocols of LMT and decellular treatments, the LMT-treated DTM (LDTM) could retain their original tubular shape with only mild extracellular matrix damage. After seeding with chondrocytes and culture in vitro for 8 weeks, the cell-LDTM constructs formed tubular cartilage with relatively homogenous cell distribution in both micropores and bilateral surfaces. In vivo results further confirmed that the constructs could form mature tubular cartilage with increased DNA and cartilage matrix contents, as well as enhanced mechanical strength, compared with native trachea. Collectively, these results indicate that LDTM is an ideal scaffold for tubular cartilage regeneration and, thus, provides a promising strategy for functional reconstruction of trachea cartilage. Lacking ideal biodegradable scaffolds greatly restricts development of tissue-engineered trachea. Decellularized trachea matrix (DTM) is considered a proper scaffold for trachea cartilage regeneration. However, cell residual and low porosity of DTM easily result in immunogenicity and incomplete cartilage regeneration. By laser micropore technique (LMT), the

  11. High performance quantum cascade lasers: Loss, beam stability, and gain engineering (United States)

    Bouzi, Pierre Michel

    Quantum Cascade (QC) lasers are semiconductor devices emitting in the mid-infrared (3-30 micron) and terahertz (30-300 micron) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since their first demonstration by Jerome Faist et. al. in 1994, they have evolved very quickly into high performance devices and given rise to many applications such as trace-gas sensing, medical diagnosis, free-space communication, and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). In this thesis, we investigate a further increase of the performance of QC devices and, through meticulous device modeling and characterizations, gain a deeper understanding of several of their unique characteristics, especially their carrier transport and lifetime, their characteristic temperature, their waveguide loss and modal gain, their leakage current, and their transverse mode profile. First, in our quest to achieve higher performance, we investigate the effect of growth asymmetries on device transport characteristics. This investigation stems from recent studies on the role of interface roughness on intersubband scattering and device performance. Through a symmetric active core design, we find that interface roughness and ionized impurity scattering induced by dopant migration play a significant role in carrier transport through the device. Understanding how interface roughness affects intersubband scattering, in turn, we engineer the gain in QC devices by placing monolayer barriers at specific locations within the device band structure. These strategically placed additional thin barrier layers introduce roughness scattering into the device active region, thereby selectively decreasing the lower laser state lifetime and increasing population inversion necessary for laser action. Preliminary measurement results from modified devices reveal a 50% decrease in the emission broadening compared to the control structures, which should lead to a two-fold increase in gain. A special class of so-called "strong coupling" QC lasers

  12. From Planetary Intelligence to Planetary Wisdom (United States)

    Moser, S. C.


    "Planetary intelligence" - when understood as an input into the processes of "managing" Earth - hints at an instrumental understanding of scientific information. At minimum it is a call for useful data of political (and even military) value; at best it speaks to an ability to collect, integrate and apply such information. In this sense, 21st century society has more "intelligence" than any generation of humans before, begging the question whether just more or better "planetary intelligence" will do anything at all to move us off the path of planetary destruction (i.e., beyond planetary boundaries) that it has been on for decades if not centuries. Social scientists have argued that there are at least four shortcomings in this way of thinking that - if addressed - could open up 1) what is being researched; 2) what is considered socially robust knowledge; 3) how science interacts with policy-makers and other "planet managers"; and 4) what is being done in practice with the "intelligence" given to those positioned at the levers of change. To the extent "planetary management" continues to be approached from a scientistic paradigm alone, there is little hope that Earth's future will remain in a safe operating space in this or coming centuries.

  13. Laser Sintered Magnesium-Calcium Silicate/Poly-ε-Caprolactone Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yang Tsai


    Full Text Available In this study, we manufacture and analyze bioactive magnesium–calcium silicate/poly-ε-caprolactone (Mg–CS/PCL 3D scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mg–CS powder was incorporated into PCL, and we fabricated the 3D scaffolds using laser sintering technology. These scaffolds had high porosity and interconnected-design macropores and structures. As compared to pure PCL scaffolds without an Mg–CS powder, the hydrophilic properties and degradation rate are also improved. For scaffolds with more than 20% Mg–CS content, the specimens become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer after soaking in simulated body fluid for 1 day. In vitro analyses were directed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs on all scaffolds that were shown to be biocompatible and supported cell adhesion and proliferation. Increased focal adhesion kinase and promoted cell adhesion behavior were observed after an increase in Mg–CS content. In addition, the results indicate that the Mg–CS quantity in the composite is higher than 10%, and the quantity of cells and osteogenesis-related protein of hMSCs is stimulated by the Si ions released from the Mg–CS/PCL scaffolds when compared to PCL scaffolds. Our results proved that 3D Mg–CS/PCL scaffolds with such a specific ionic release and good degradability possessed the ability to promote osteogenetic differentiation of hMSCs, indicating that they might be promising biomaterials with potential for next-generation bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  14. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing (United States)

    Farid Seyed Shirazi, Seyed; Gharehkhani, Samira; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yarmand, Hooman; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Adib Kadri, Nahrizul; Azuan Abu Osman, Noor


    Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article.

  15. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing. (United States)

    Shirazi, Seyed Farid Seyed; Gharehkhani, Samira; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yarmand, Hooman; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Adib Kadri, Nahrizul; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu


    Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article.

  16. Analysis of nozzle effect on pulsed detonation engine performance based on laser absorption spectroscopy with Doppler frequency shift (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-long; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng; Lv, Xiao-jing


    An optical experiment system of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is designed for valveless gas-liquid PDE to reveal the mechanism of nozzle improved the thrust performance. The velocity of detonation exhaust with non-nozzle, convergent nozzle, divergent nozzle and convergent-divergent nozzle is tested by laser Doppler velocimetry. The results indicate that laser Doppler method can accurately infer the instantaneous flow velocity, especially the velocity platform where contributes more to the engine impulse. The maximum value is 1222.66 m/s, 1128.52 m/s, 1338.64 m/s and 1296.93 m/s, the time of duration which the velocity is greater than 400m/s is 8.51ms, 7.58ms, 5.83ms and 17.62ms of the velocity under the condition of non-nozzle, convergent nozzle, divergent nozzle and convergent-divergent nozzle respectively.

  17. Design of microreactor by integration of reverse engineering and direct metal laser sintering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bineli, Aulus Roberto Romao; Gimenez Perez, Ana Paula; Bernardes, Luiz Fernando; Munhoz, Andre Luiz Jardini; Maciel Filho, Rubens [Universidade de Campinas (LOPCA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Chemical Engineering. Laboratory of Optimization, Design and Advanced Process Control], Email:


    The propose of this work is to present high precision microfabrication facilities using computer aided technologies as Reverse Engineering (RE) and Rapid Manufacturing (RM) to analyze, design and construct micro reactors to produce high content hydrogen gas. Micro reactors are very compact, have a high surface to volume ratio, exhibit enhanced heat and mass transfer rates, denotes extremely low pressure drop and allow improved thermal integration in the processes involved. The main goals of micro reactors are the optimization of conventional chemical plants and low footprint, opening different ways to research new process technologies and synthesis of new products. In this work, a microchannels plate and housing structure of these plates were fabricated using DMLS method (Direct Metal Laser Sintering). The plates were analyzed to verify the minimum thickness wall that machine can produce, and the housing structure were digitalized, using a 3D scanning, to perform a 3D inspection and to verify the deflection of the constructed part in comparison with original CAD design models. It was observed that DMLS systems are able to produce micro reactors and microchannels plates with high precision at different metallic materials. However, it is important to choose appropriate conditions to avoid residual stresses and consequently warping parts. (author)

  18. Laser sintering fabrication of three-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds with a flow channel network. (United States)

    Niino, T; Hamajima, D; Montagne, K; Oizumi, S; Naruke, H; Huang, H; Sakai, Y; Kinoshita, H; Fujii, T


    The fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds for the reconstruction of highly oxygen-dependent inner organs is discussed. An additive manufacturing technology known as selective laser sintering was employed to fabricate a highly porous scaffold with an embedded flow channel network. A porogen leaching system was used to obtain high porosity. A prototype was developed using the biodegradable plastic polycaprolactone and sodium chloride as the porogen. A high porosity of 90% was successfully obtained. Micro x-ray CT observation was carried out to confirm that channels with a diameter of approximately 1 mm were generated without clogging. The amount of residual salt was 930 µg while the overall volume of the scaffold was 13 cm(3), and it was confirmed that the toxicity of the salt was negligible. The hydrophilization of the scaffold to improve cell adhesion on the scaffold is also discussed. Oxygen plasma ashing and hydrolysis with sodium hydroxide, typically employed to improve the hydrophilicity of plastic surfaces, were tested. The improvement of hydrophilicity was confirmed by an increase in water retention by the porous scaffold from 180% to 500%.

  19. Three-dimensional nanocomposite scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering. (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Wang, Min; Zhou, Wen You; Cheung, Wai Lam; Li, Zhao Yang; Lu, William W


    Bionanocomposites formed by combining biodegradable polymers and nanosized osteoconductive inorganic solids have been regarded as promising biomimetic systems which possess much improved structural and functional properties for bone tissue regeneration. In this study three-dimensional nanocomposite scaffolds based on calcium phosphate (Ca-P)/poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp)/poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanocomposite microspheres were successfully fabricated using selective laser sintering, which is a rapid prototyping technology. The sintered scaffolds had controlled material microstructure, totally interconnected porous structure and high porosity. The morphology and mechanical properties of Ca-P/PHBV and CHAp/PLLA nanocomposite scaffolds as well as PHBV and PLLA polymer scaffolds were studied. In vitro biological evaluation showed that SaOS-2 cells had high cell viability and normal morphology and phenotype after 3 and 7 days culture on all scaffolds. The incorporation of Ca-P nanoparticles significantly improved cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity for Ca-P/PHBV scaffolds, whereas CHAp/PLLA nanocomposite scaffolds exhibited a similar level of cell response compared with PLLA polymer scaffolds. The nanocomposite scaffolds provide a biomimetic environment for osteoblastic cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation and have great potential for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. On the assessment of performance and emissions characteristics of a SI engine provided with a laser ignition system (United States)

    Birtas, A.; Boicea, N.; Draghici, F.; Chiriac, R.; Croitoru, G.; Dinca, M.; Dascalu, T.; Pavel, N.


    Performance and exhaust emissions of spark ignition engines are strongly dependent on the development of the combustion process. Controlling this process in order to improve the performance and to reduce emissions by ensuring rapid and robust combustion depends on how ignition stage is achieved. An ignition system that seems to be able for providing such an enhanced combustion process is that based on plasma generation using a Q-switched solid state laser that delivers pulses with high peak power (of MW-order level). The laser-spark devices used in the present investigations were realized using compact diffusion-bonded Nd:YAG/Cr4+:YAG ceramic media. The laser igniter was designed, integrated and built to resemble a classical spark plug and therefore it could be mounted directly on the cylinder head of a passenger car engine. In this study are reported the results obtained using such ignition system provided for a K7M 710 engine currently produced by Renault-Dacia, where the standard calibrations were changed towards the lean mixtures combustion zone. Results regarding the performance, the exhaust emissions and the combustion characteristics in optimized spark timing conditions, which demonstrate the potential of such an innovative ignition system, are presented.

  1. Planetary Atmospheric Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Leblanc, F; Yair, Y; Harrison, R. G; Lebreton, J. P; Blanc, M


    This volume presents our contemporary understanding of atmospheric electricity at Earth and in other solar system atmospheres. It is written by experts in terrestrial atmospheric electricity and planetary scientists. Many of the key issues related to planetary atmospheric electricity are discussed. The physics presented in this book includes ionisation processes in planetary atmospheres, charge generation and separation, and a discussion of electromagnetic signatures of atmospheric discharges. The measurement of thunderstorms and lightning, including its effects and hazards, is highlighted by articles on ground and space based instrumentation, and new missions.Theory and modelling of planetary atmospheric electricity complete this review of the research that is undertaken in this exciting field of space science. This book is an essential research tool for space scientists and geoscientists interested in electrical effects in atmospheres and planetary systems. Graduate students and researchers who are new to t...

  2. The Planetary Data System— Archiving Planetary Data for the use of the Planetary Science Community (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Stephanie A.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Vilas, Faith; Knopf, William P.; Crichton, Daniel J.


    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, curates, and distributes digital data from NASA’s planetary missions. PDS provides the planetary science community convenient online access to data from NASA’s missions so that they can continue to mine these rich data sets for new discoveries. The PDS is a federated system consisting of nodes for specific discipline areas ranging from planetary geology to space physics. Our federation includes an engineering node that provides systems engineering support to the entire PDS.In order to adequately capture complete mission data sets containing not only raw and reduced instrument data, but also calibration and documentation and geometry data required to interpret and use these data sets both singly and together (data from multiple instruments, or from multiple missions), PDS personnel work with NASA missions from the initial AO through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. PDS makes the data in PDS easily searchable so that members of the planetary community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. To ensure long-term preservation of data and to make data sets more easily searchable with the new capabilities in Information Technology now available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), the PDS (together with the COSPAR sponsored IPDA) developed and deployed a new data archiving system known as PDS4, released in 2013. The LADEE, MAVEN, OSIRIS REx, InSight, and Mars2020 missions are using PDS4. ESA has adopted PDS4 for the upcoming BepiColumbo mission. The PDS is actively migrating existing data records into PDS4 and developing tools to aid data providers and users. The PDS is also incorporating challenge

  3. Experimental investigation on laser-induced plasma ignition of hydrocarbon fuel in scramjet engine at takeover flight conditions (United States)

    Li, Xipeng; Liu, Weidong; Pan, Yu; Yang, Leichao; An, Bin


    Laser-induced plasma ignition of an ethylene fuelled cavity is successfully conducted in a model scramjet engine combustor with dual cavities. The simulated flight condition corresponds to takeover flight Mach 4, with isolator entrance Mach number of 2.1, the total pressure of 0.65 MPa and stagnation temperature of 947 K. Ethylene is injected 35 mm upstream of cavity flameholder from four orifices with 2-mm-diameter. The 1064 nm laser beam, from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source running at 10 Hz and 940 mJ per pulse, is focused into cavity for ignition. High speed photography is used to capture the transient ignition process. The laser-induced gas breakdown, flame kernel generation and propagation are all recorded and ensuing stable supersonic combustion is established in cavity. The highly ionized plasma zone is almost round at starting, and then the surface of the flame kernel is wrinkled severely in 150 μs after the laser pulse due to the strong turbulence flow in cavity. The flame kernel is found rotating anti-clockwise and gradually moves upstream as the entrainment of circulation flow in cavity. The flame is stabilized at the corner of the cavity for about 200 μs, and then spreads from leading edge to trailing edge via the under part of shear layer to fully fill the entire cavity. The corner recirculation zone of cavity is of great importance for flame spreading. Eventually, a cavity shear-layer stabilized combustion is established in the supersonic flow roughly 2.9 ms after the laser pulse. Both the temporal evolution of normalized chemiluminescence intensity and normalized flame area show that the entire ignition process can be divided into four stages, which are referred as turbulent dissipation stage, combustion enhancement stage, reverting stage and combustion stabilization stage. The results show promising potentials of laser induced plasma for ignition in real scramjets.

  4. Innovative laser based approaches to laryngeal cancer: what an engineer and physicist need to know (United States)

    Burns, James A.


    Innovative laser-based approaches to laryngeal cancer include the clinical applications of two new technologies, photoangiolysis using a 532nm wavelength pulsed-KTP laser and fiber-based cutting using a 2μm wavelength thulium laser. Photoangiolysis is well-suited for treatment of minimally invasive glottic cancer and allows maximum preservation of phonatory surfaces needed for optimal voicing. The thulium laser offers an alternative to the carbon dioxide laser as an endolaryngeal cutting tool due to its enhanced hemostatic properties and fiber-based delivery. Clinical examples of pulsed-KTP laser involution of early glottic cancer will be presented in order to highlight the concept of targeting tumor angiogenesis in treating laryngeal cancer. The surgical experience using the thulium laser for complex endoscopic endolaryngeal excisions of large laryngeal cancers is presented to demonstrate the expanded clinical applications of endolaryngeal cutting offered by this laser. The laryngeal tissue effects of various laser power and pulse width (PW) settings, mode of delivery, active cooling to reduce thermal trauma, and wavelength selection have been extensively studied for the KTP and thulium lasers in both ex-vivo and live-perfusing models. The results from these studies, included herein, determine the clinical efficacy and safety of these innovative laser-based approaches to laryngeal cancer.

  5. Advances in Laser Surface Engineering : Tackling the Cracking Problem in Laser-Deposited Ni-Cr-B-Si-C Alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmati, I.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    Laser-deposition technologies are being increasingly used for surface modification and three-dimensional manufacturing applications. The biggest technical obstacle to a wider usage of these technologies especially for deposition of hard alloys is cracking of the deposited samples. In this work, the

  6. Microstructural characterisation of high-entropy alloy AlCoCrFeNi fabricated by laser engineered net shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunce, I., E-mail: [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 01-908 Warsaw (Poland); Polanski, M.; Karczewski, K. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 01-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, T.; Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 141 Wołoska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland)


    Laser engineered net shaping (LENS) was used to produce thin-walled samples of the high-entropy alloy AlCoCrFeNi from a prealloyed powder. To determine the effect of the cooling rate during solidification on the microstructure of the alloy, different laser scanning rates were used. A microstructural study of the surfaces of the sample walls was performed using X-ray diffraction analysis and optical and scanning/transmission electron microscopy. The crystal structure of the alloy was determined to be a body-centred cubic (bcc)-derivative B2-ordered type. The microstructure of the alloy produced by LENS was dendritic. Further, it was found that with an increase in the laser scanning rate from 2.5 to 40 mm s{sup −1}, the average grain size decreased from 108.3 ± 32.4 μm to 30.6 ± 9.2 μm. The maximum cooling rate achieved during the laser cladding of the alloy was 44 × 10{sup 3} K s{sup −1}. The electron microscopy study of the alloy showed the presence of precipitates. The morphology of the disordered bcc (Fe, Cr)-rich precipitates in the ordered B2 (Al, Ni)-rich matrix changed in the dendritic and interdendritic regions from fine and spherical (with a diameter of less 100 nm) to spinodal (with the thickness being less than 100 nm). The LENS- produced AlCoCrFeNi alloy exhibited an average microhardness of approximately 543 HV0.5; this was approximately 13% higher than the hardness in the as-cast state and can be attributed to the grain refinemet in the LENS- produced alloy. Moreover, it was found that increasing the cooling rate during laser cladding increasess the microhardness of the alloy. - Highlights: • Laser-engineered net shaping is used to produce samples of AlCoCrFeNi alloy. • The alloy has a body-centred cubic (bcc)-derivative B2-ordered crystal structure. • Electron microscopy images of the alloy show the presence of precipitates. • The microhardness of the laser-clad alloy is higher than that of the as-cast alloy. • The cooling rate

  7. Investigation of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Matrix Composite Materials (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.


    prior set of operating conditions. Weld quality was evaluated using radiography and standard metallography techniques. Another aspect of the MMCs centered around the use of the laser engineered net shaping (LENS) processing of selected Narloy-Z composites. Such an approach has been earlier studied for fabrication of stainless steels. In the present study, attempts were made to fabricate straight cylindrical specimens using LENS process of Narloy-Z and Narloy-Z with 20 vol. % Al2O3 MMCs using the direct metal deposition Optomec LENS-750 system.

  8. Bone tissue engineering using polycaprolactone scaffolds fabricated via selective laser sintering. (United States)

    Williams, Jessica M; Adewunmi, Adebisi; Schek, Rachel M; Flanagan, Colleen L; Krebsbach, Paul H; Feinberg, Stephen E; Hollister, Scott J; Das, Suman


    Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a bioresorbable polymer with potential applications for bone and cartilage repair. In this work, porous PCL scaffolds were computationally designed and then fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS), a rapid prototyping technique. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the fabricated scaffolds were assessed and compared to the designed porous architectures and computationally predicted properties. Scaffolds were then seeded with bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) transduced fibroblasts and implanted subcutaneously to evaluate biological properties and to demonstrate tissue in-growth. The work done illustrates the ability to design and fabricate PCL scaffolds with porous architecture that have sufficient mechanical properties for bone tissue engineering applications using SLS. Compressive modulus and yield strength values ranged from 52 to 67 MPa and 2.0 to 3.2 Mpa, respectively, lying within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bone. Finite element analysis (FEA) results showed that mechanical properties of scaffold designs and of fabricated scaffolds can be computationally predicted. Histological evaluation and micro-computed tomography (microCT) analysis of implanted scaffolds showed that bone can be generated in vivo. Finally, to demonstrate the clinical application of this technology, we designed and fabricated a prototype mandibular condyle scaffold based on an actual pig condyle. The integration of scaffold computational design and free-form fabrication techniques presented here could prove highly useful for the construction of scaffolds that have anatomy specific exterior architecture derived from patient CT or MRI data and an interior porous architecture derived from computational design optimization.

  9. Engineering meter-scale laser resistant coatings for the near IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Adams, J J; Shirk, M D; Norton, M A; Weiland, T L


    Laser resistant coatings are needed for beam steering (mirrors), pulse switching (polarizers), and high transport efficiency on environmental barriers (windows/lenses) on large laser systems. A range of defects limit the exposure fluence of these coatings. By understanding the origin and damage mechanisms for these defects, the deposition process can be optimized to realize coatings with greater laser resistance. Electric field modeling can provide insight into which defects are most problematic. Laser damage growth studies are useful for determining a functional laser damage criteria. Mitigation techniques such as micro-machining with a single-crystal diamond cutting tool or short pulse laser ablation using the burst technique can be used to arrest growth in damage sites to extend optic lifetime.

  10. Laser-guided direct writing for three-dimensional tissue engineering: Analysis and application of radiation forces (United States)

    Nahmias, Yaakov Koby

    Tissue Engineering aims for the creation of functional tissues or organs using a combination of biomaterials and living cells. Artificial tissues can be implanted in patients to restore tissue function that was lost due to trauma, disease, or genetic disorder. Tissue equivalents may also be used to screen the effects of drugs and toxins, reducing the use of animals in research. One of the principle limitations to the size of engineered tissue is oxygen and nutrient transport. Lacking their own vascular bed, cells embedded in the engineered tissue will consume all available oxygen within hours while out branching blood vessels will take days to vascularize the implanted tissue. Establishing capillaries within the tissue prior to implantation can potentially eliminate this limitation. One approach to establishing capillaries within the tissue is to directly write endothelial cells with micrometer accuracy as it is being built. The patterned endothelial cells will then self-assemble into vascular structures within the engineering tissue. The cell patterning technique known as laser-guided direct writing can confine multiple cells in a laser beam and deposit them as a steady stream on any non-absorbing surface with micrometer scale accuracy. By applying the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory for light scattering on laser-guided direct writing we were able to accurately predict the behavior of with various cells and particles in the focused laser. In addition, two dimensionless parameters were identified for general radiation-force based system design. Using laser-guided direct writing we were able to direct the assembly of endothelial vascular structures with micrometer accuracy in two and three dimensions. The patterned vascular structures provided the backbone for subsequent in vitro liver morphogenesis. Our studies show that hepatocytes migrate toward and adhere to endothelial vascular structures in response to endothelial-secreted hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Our

  11. Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or satellite so that the feature can be...

  12. Optimized fabrication of Ca-P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds via selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering. (United States)

    Duan, Bin; Cheung, Wai Lam; Wang, Min


    Biomaterials for scaffolds and scaffold fabrication techniques are two key elements in scaffold-based tissue engineering. Nanocomposites that consist of biodegradable polymers and osteoconductive bioceramic nanoparticles and advanced scaffold manufacturing techniques, such as rapid prototyping (RP) technologies, have attracted much attention for developing new bone tissue engineering strategies. In the current study, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) microspheres and calcium phosphate (Ca-P)/PHBV nanocomposite microspheres were fabricated using the oil-in-water (O/W) and solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation methods. The microspheres with suitable sizes were then used as raw materials for scaffold fabrication via selective laser sintering (SLS), which is a mature RP technique. A three-factor three-level complete factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of the three factors (laser power, scan spacing, and layer thickness) in SLS and to optimize SLS parameters for producing good-quality PHBV polymer scaffolds and Ca-P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds. The plots of the main effects of these three factors and the three-dimensional response surface were constructed and discussed. Based on the regression equation, optimized PHBV scaffolds and Ca-P/PHBV scaffolds were fabricated using the optimized values of SLS parameters. Characterization of optimized PHBV scaffolds and Ca-P/PHBV scaffolds verified the optimization process. It has also been demonstrated that SLS has the capability of constructing good-quality, sophisticated porous structures of complex shape, which some tissue engineering applications may require.

  13. Optimized fabrication of Ca-P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds via selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Bin; Cheung, Wai Lam; Wang, Min, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)


    Biomaterials for scaffolds and scaffold fabrication techniques are two key elements in scaffold-based tissue engineering. Nanocomposites that consist of biodegradable polymers and osteoconductive bioceramic nanoparticles and advanced scaffold manufacturing techniques, such as rapid prototyping (RP) technologies, have attracted much attention for developing new bone tissue engineering strategies. In the current study, poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) microspheres and calcium phosphate (Ca-P)/PHBV nanocomposite microspheres were fabricated using the oil-in-water (O/W) and solid-in-oil-in-water (S/O/W) emulsion solvent evaporation methods. The microspheres with suitable sizes were then used as raw materials for scaffold fabrication via selective laser sintering (SLS), which is a mature RP technique. A three-factor three-level complete factorial design was applied to investigate the effects of the three factors (laser power, scan spacing, and layer thickness) in SLS and to optimize SLS parameters for producing good-quality PHBV polymer scaffolds and Ca-P/PHBV nanocomposite scaffolds. The plots of the main effects of these three factors and the three-dimensional response surface were constructed and discussed. Based on the regression equation, optimized PHBV scaffolds and Ca-P/PHBV scaffolds were fabricated using the optimized values of SLS parameters. Characterization of optimized PHBV scaffolds and Ca-P/PHBV scaffolds verified the optimization process. It has also been demonstrated that SLS has the capability of constructing good-quality, sophisticated porous structures of complex shape, which some tissue engineering applications may require.

  14. Surface engineering with lasers : An application to co-base materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeHosson, JTM; VanOtterloo, LD; Sudarshan, TS; Khor, KA; Jeandin, M


    Electron microscopy, mechanical hardness measurements and wear experiments were carried out on laser coated cobalt based Stellite alloys. It was found that with optimum laser parameters, a poreless coating with a hardness of 11.3 GPa can be attained. Detailed analysis indicates that solid solution

  15. Enhancing the antibacterial performance of orthopaedic implant materials by fibre laser surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Chi-Wai; Carson, Louise; Smith, Graham C.


    to the effort on enhancing osseointegration, wear and corrosion resistance of implant materials. In this study, the effects of laser surface treatment on enhancing the antibacterial properties of commercially pure (CP) Ti (Grade 2), Ti6Al4V (Grade 5) and CoCrMo alloy implant materials were studied and compared...... for the first time. Laser surface treatment was performed by a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with a near-infrared wavelength of 1064 nm in a nitrogen-containing environment. Staphylococcus aureus, commonly implicated in infection associated with orthopaedic implants, was used to investigate the antibacterial....... Such properties were attributable to the combined effects of reduced hydrophobicity, thicker and stable oxide films and presence of laser-induced nano-features. No similar antibacterial effect was observed in the laser-treated CoCrMo....

  16. Nuclear-state engineering in tripod systems using x-ray laser pulses (United States)

    Nedaee-Shakarab, B.; Saadati-Niari, M.; Zolfagharpour, F.


    Coherent superposition of nuclear states in tripod systems using three x-ray laser pulses is investigated theoretically. The laser pulses transfer the population from one ground state to an arbitrary superposition of other ground states using coincident pulses and stimulated Raman adiabatic passage techniques. The short wavelengths needed in the frame of the nuclei are achieved by envisaging an accelerated nucleus interacting with three x-ray laser pulses. This study exploits the Morris-shore transformation to reduce the tripod system into a coupled three-state Λ -like system and a noncoupled state. We calculated the required laser intensities which satisfy the conditions of coincident pulses and adiabatic passage techniques. Considering the spontaneous emission from excited state |4 〉 and unstable ground states (|2 〉,|3 〉 ) to other states, we have used a master equation for numerical study, and the final fidelity of desired states with respect to the tolerance of laser intensities is studied numerically.

  17. Enhancing the antibacterial performance of orthopaedic implant materials by fibre laser surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Chi-Wai; Carson, Louise; Smith, Graham C.


    to the effort on enhancing osseointegration, wear and corrosion resistance of implant materials. In this study, the effects of laser surface treatment on enhancing the antibacterial properties of commercially pure (CP) Ti (Grade 2), Ti6Al4V (Grade 5) and CoCrMo alloy implant materials were studied and compared...... for the first time. Laser surface treatment was performed by a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with a near-infrared wavelength of 1064 nm in a nitrogen-containing environment. Staphylococcus aureus, commonly implicated in infection associated with orthopaedic implants, was used to investigate the antibacterial...... properties of the laser-treated surfaces. The surface roughness and topography of the laser-treated materials were analysed by a 2D roughness testing and by AFM. The surface morphologies before and after 24 h of bacterial cell culture were captured by SEM, and bacterial viability was determined using live...

  18. Lasers. (United States)

    Passeron, T


    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. [Lasers]. (United States)

    Passeron, T


    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving accessibility and discovery of ESA planetary data through the new planetary science archive (United States)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.; Besse, S.; Arviset, C.; Barthelemy, M.; De Marchi, G.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Lim, T.; Martinez, S.; Vallat, C.


    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific data sets through various interfaces at Mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards which all new ESA planetary missions shall follow and the need to update the interfaces to the archive, the PSA has undergone an important re-engineering. In order to maximise the scientific exploitation of ESA's planetary data holdings, significant improvements have been made by utilising the latest technologies and implementing widely recognised open standards. To facilitate users in handling and visualising the many products stored in the archive which have spatial data associated, the new PSA supports Geographical Information Systems (GIS) by implementing the standards approved by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The modernised PSA also attempts to increase interoperability with the international community by implementing recognised planetary science specific protocols such as the PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) and EPN-TAP (EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol). In this paper we describe some of the methods by which the archive may be accessed and present the challenges that are being faced in consolidating data sets of the older PDS3 version of the standards with the new PDS4 deliveries into a single data model mapping to ensure transparent access to the data for users and services whilst maintaining a high performance.

  1. A Knowledge Discovery framework for Planetary Defense (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Yang, C. P.; Li, Y.; Yu, M.; Bambacus, M.; Seery, B.; Barbee, B.


    Planetary Defense, a project funded by NASA Goddard and the NSF, is a multi-faceted effort focused on the mitigation of Near Earth Object (NEO) threats to our planet. Currently, there exists a dispersion of information concerning NEO's amongst different organizations and scientists, leading to a lack of a coherent system of information to be used for efficient NEO mitigation. In this paper, a planetary defense knowledge discovery engine is proposed to better assist the development and integration of a NEO responding system. Specifically, we have implemented an organized information framework by two means: 1) the development of a semantic knowledge base, which provides a structure for relevant information. It has been developed by the implementation of web crawling and natural language processing techniques, which allows us to collect and store the most relevant structured information on a regular basis. 2) the development of a knowledge discovery engine, which allows for the efficient retrieval of information from our knowledge base. The knowledge discovery engine has been built on the top of Elasticsearch, an open source full-text search engine, as well as cutting-edge machine learning ranking and recommendation algorithms. This proposed framework is expected to advance the knowledge discovery and innovation in planetary science domain.

  2. Laser-induced multi-point ignition for enabling high-performance engines

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Suk-Ho


    Various multi-point laser-induced ignition techniques were reviewed, which adopted conical cavity and prechamber configurations. Up to five-point ignitions have been achieved with significant reduction in combustion duration, demonstrating potential increase in combustion system efficiency.

  3. Enhancing the antibacterial performance of orthopaedic implant materials by fibre laser surface engineering (United States)

    Chan, Chi-Wai; Carson, Louise; Smith, Graham C.; Morelli, Alessio; Lee, Seunghwan


    Implant failure caused by bacterial infection is extremely difficult to treat and usually requires the removal of the infected components. Despite the severe consequence of bacterial infection, research into bacterial infection of orthopaedic implants is still at an early stage compared to the effort on enhancing osseointegration, wear and corrosion resistance of implant materials. In this study, the effects of laser surface treatment on enhancing the antibacterial properties of commercially pure (CP) Ti (Grade 2), Ti6Al4V (Grade 5) and CoCrMo alloy implant materials were studied and compared for the first time. Laser surface treatment was performed by a continuous wave (CW) fibre laser with a near-infrared wavelength of 1064 nm in a nitrogen-containing environment. Staphylococcus aureus, commonly implicated in infection associated with orthopaedic implants, was used to investigate the antibacterial properties of the laser-treated surfaces. The surface roughness and topography of the laser-treated materials were analysed by a 2D roughness testing and by AFM. The surface morphologies before and after 24 h of bacterial cell culture were captured by SEM, and bacterial viability was determined using live/dead staining. Surface chemistry was analysed by XPS and surface wettability was measured using the sessile drop method. The findings of this study indicated that the laser-treated CP Ti and Ti6Al4V surfaces exhibited a noticeable reduction in bacterial adhesion and possessed a bactericidal effect. Such properties were attributable to the combined effects of reduced hydrophobicity, thicker and stable oxide films and presence of laser-induced nano-features. No similar antibacterial effect was observed in the laser-treated CoCrMo.

  4. Planetary noble gases (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin


    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Astredinova


    Full Text Available During the manufacturing process to the design of modern liquid rocket engines are presented important requirements, such as minimum weight, maximum stiffness and strength of nodes, maximum service life in operation, high reliability and quality of soldered and welded seams. Due to the high quality requirements soldered connections and the specific design of the nozzle, it became necessary in the development and testing of a new non-conventional non-destructive testing method – laser-ultrasound diagnosis. In accordance with regulatory guidelines, quality control soldered connections is allowed to use an acoustic kind of control methods of the reflected light, transmitted light, resonant, free vibration and acoustic emission. Attempts to use traditional methods of non-destructive testing did not lead to positive results. This is due primarily to the size of typical solder joint defects, as well as the structural features of the rocket engine, the data structure is not controllable. In connection with this, a new method that provides quality control soldered connections cameras LRE based on the thermo generation of ultrasound. Methods of ultrasonic flaw detection of photoacoustic effect, in most cases, have a number of advantages over methods that use standard (traditional piezo transducers. In the course of studies have found that the sensitivity of the laser-ultrasonic method and flaw detector UDL-2M can detect lack of adhesion in the solder joints on the upper edges of the nozzle in the sub-header area of the site.

  6. Effect of turbulence intermittence on the structure of laser beams intersecting an aero-engine jet exhaust (United States)

    Sirazetdinov, Vladmir S.; Dmitriev, Dmitry I.; Ivanova, Inga V.; Titterton, David H.


    The results of studying laser beam propagation through a turbulent jet close to the jet lateral boundary, i.e. the zone, where intermittence of turbulent stae of air medium can be expcetd, are presented. In the experiments laser beams with diameters of 10 and 30 mm and wavelengths of λ = 1.06 and 0.53 microns crossed the jet in transverse direction not far from the engine nozzle. For the purpose of comparison, similar experiments for laser beams propagation through the central area of the jet were carried out. As a result of processing a large array of 'instantaneous' far-field images of the beams, the probability of light pulses with only weakly distorted spatial structure during propagation through the jet was determined. It has been shown that for a λ=1.06 μm and 30 mm diameter beams. For propagation of the ten-millimeter beam this probability is found to be ~0.02. In the case of the 'half-micron' beam propagation through the jet under similar conditions the probability for the occurrence of 'quasi-regular' pulses is very small in all the experimental situations. The analysis of the experimental data provides evidence for conclusion that successions of such 'quasi-regular' pulses obey Poisson's or binomial statistics.

  7. Structure and properties of nano-hydroxypatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with a selective laser sintering system. (United States)

    Shuai, Cijun; Gao, Chengde; Nie, Yi; Hu, Huanlong; Zhou, Ying; Peng, Shuping


    In this study, nano-hydroxypatite (n-HAP) bone scaffolds are prepared by a homemade selective laser sintering (SLS) system based on rapid prototyping (RP) technology. The SLS system consists of a precise three-axis motion platform and a laser with its optical focusing device. The implementation of arbitrary complex movements based on the non-uniform rational B-Spline (NURBS) theory is realized in this system. The effects of the sintering processing parameters on the microstructure of n-HAP are tested with x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particles of n-HAP grow gradually and tend to become spherical-like from the initial needle-like shape, but still maintain a nanoscale structure at scanning speeds between 200 and 300 mm min(-1) when the laser power is 50 W, the light spot diameter 4 mm, and the layer thickness 0.3 mm. In addition, these changes do not result in decomposition of the n-HAP during the sintering process. The results suggest that the newly developed n-HAP scaffolds have the potential to serve as an excellent substrate in bone tissue engineering.

  8. Improved biocomposite development of poly(vinyl alcohol) and hydroxyapatite for tissue engineering scaffold fabrication using selective laser sintering. (United States)

    Wiria, Florencia Edith; Chua, Chee Kai; Leong, Kah Fai; Quah, Zai Yan; Chandrasekaran, Margam; Lee, Mun Wai


    In scaffold guided tissue engineering (TE), temporary three-dimensional scaffolds are essential to guide and support cell proliferation. Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is studied for the development of such scaffolds by eliminating pore spatial control problems faced in conventional scaffolds fabrication methods. SLS offers good user control over the scaffold's microstructures by adjusting its main processing parameters, namely the laser power, scan speed and part bed temperature. This research focuses on the improvements in the fabrication of TE scaffolds using SLS with powder biomaterials, namely hydroxyapatite (HA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Grinding of as-received PVA powder to varying particle sizes and two methods of mixing are investigated as the preparation process to determine a better mixing method that would enhance the mixture homogeneity. Suitable sintering conditions for the improved biocomposite are then achieved by varying the important process parameters such as laser power, scan speed and part bed temperature.SLS fabricated samples are characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). FTIR results show that the grinding and sintering processes neither compromise the chemical composition of the PVA nor cause undue degradation. Visual analysis of the grinding, powder mixing and sintering effect are carried out with SEM. The SEM observations show improvements in the sintering effects. The favorable outcome ascertains PVA/HA biocomposite as a suitable material to be processed by SLS for TE scaffolds.

  9. Russian Planetary Exploration History, Development, Legacy, Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian


    Russia’s accomplishments in planetary space exploration were not achieved easily. Formerly, the USSR experienced frustration in trying to tame unreliable Molniya and Proton upper stages and in tracking spacecraft over long distances. This book will assess the scientific haul of data from the Venus and Mars missions and look at the engineering approaches. The USSR developed several generations of planetary probes: from MV and Zond to the Phobos type. The engineering techniques used and the science packages are examined, as well as the nature of the difficulties encountered which ruined several missions. The programme’s scientific and engineering legacy is also addressed, as well as its role within the Soviet space programme as a whole. Brian Harvey concludes by looking forward to future Russian planetary exploration (e.g Phobos Grunt sample return mission). Several plans have been considered and may, with a restoration of funding, come to fruition. Soviet studies of deep space and Mars missions (e.g. TMK, ...

  10. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  11. Kerosene detection using laser induced fluorescence imaging for aeronautical engines application; Detection du kerozene par imagerie de fluorescence induite par laser, pour application sur foyer aeronautique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranger, Ph.


    The new concepts of aeronautical engines, developed to follow the evolution of the European standards of pollution, are generally based on an improvement of the processes of liquid fuel injection and mixture in the combustion chamber. There is currently no model mature enough to work without experimental validation. The purpose of this thesis is to assess the possibility of measuring the kerosene (Jet A1) vapour distribution by PLIF (Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence). That measurement technique must quantitatively image the instantaneous concentrations fields of the vaporized fuel in a spray. The implementation of such a technique needs an experimental spectroscopic study, which was realized on the vapour of fuel. First of all, this study allowed us to determine the properties of the kerosene fluorescence spectrum versus physical parameters such as temperature, pressure or gas mixture composition, especially in presence of oxygen molecules. Then, it was shown that the fluorescence spectrum of the fuel could be reproduce in all physical conditions by a single mixture of four aromatics. Their photophysical properties were also analyzed. Following this spectroscopic study, a phenomenological model for the fluorescence of the gaseous fuel was set up. This model led us to a protocol for an optical diagnostic on this fuel vapour. An experiment was set up to test the implementation and the limits of this technique in simple laboratory conditions. This experiment confirmed that this is indeed a promising technique for the diagnostic of the fuel vapour in aeronautical engine. (author)

  12. Nitric oxide in a diesel engine : laser-based detection and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, G.G.M.


    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most polluting components in the exhaust gases of a diesel engines. Therefore, knowledge of the time and place where it is produced during the combustion process is of interest to find a way to reduce diesel engine emissions. Non-intrusive optical diagnostics, based

  13. Testing Lorentz symmetry with planetary orbital dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hees, Aurélien; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le; Bourgoin, Adrien; Rivoldini, Attilio; Lamine, Brahim; Meynadier, Frédéric; Guerlin, Christine; Wolf, Peter


    Planetary ephemerides are a very powerful tool to constrain deviations from the theory of General Relativity using orbital dynamics. The effective field theory framework called the Standard-Model Extension (SME) has been developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of Lorentz symmetry (in the Standard Model and in the gravitational sector). In this communication, we use the latest determinations of the supplementary advances of the perihelia and of the nodes obtained by planetary ephemerides analysis to constrain SME coefficients from the pure gravity sector and also from gravity-matter couplings. Our results do not show any deviation from GR and they improve current constraints. Moreover, combinations with existing constraints from Lunar Laser Ranging and from atom interferometry gravimetry allow us to disentangle contributions from the pure gravity sector from the gravity-matter couplings.

  14. Engineering Studies of a Pilot Plant for Laser Isotope Separation of CARBON-13 by Multiphoton Dissociation of Chlorodifluoromethane (United States)

    Mehmetli, Bulent Ahmet

    Recent research in laser isotope separation by multiphoton dissociation (LISMPD) of ^{13 }C suggests that an LISMPD commercial process is more economical than the cryogenic CO distillation technology currently used to meet most of the world's ^ {13}C demand. In this dissertation, experimental studies of an engineering process for LISMPD of polyatomic molecules is examined. The experimental results have been obtained by MPD of chlorodifluoromethane (CF_2 HCl) to yield ^{13}C -enriched tetrafluoroethylene rm(C_2F _4). Emphasis is on research leading to the development of a practical chemical plant for the preparation of stable isotopes by this method. The experimental program has achieved the design, construction, and operation of a laboratory-scale ^{13}C separation apparatus and parametric dependences of enrichment factors and dissociated fractions. In this experiment, the reactant gas, industrial grade CF_2HCl, flows continuously along the axis of a stainless steel reaction cell. The beam of a commercial CO_2 TEA laser, delivering up to 3 J/pulse at a single wavelength, is focused into the cell to induce isotope-selective multiphoton dissociation. The ^{13}C-enriched reaction product, rm C_2F_4, is analyzed by mass spectroscopy for its isotopic content. Typical production rates of the setup are about 10 g/year ^{13}C at an enrichment of 15% or 1 g/year at an enrichment of 65%. The results of a detailed cost analysis, which takes into account different reaction conditions and laser types, showed that at production rates of 7,000 kg per year, the cost of ^{13}C can be as low as 4/g. This figure is about an order of magnitude less than the cost of ^13 C obtained by cryogenic distillation of CO. The design, construction, and operation of a CO _2 MOPA (Master Oscillator/ Power Amplifier) laser is proposed because a MOPA combines the advantages of favorable isotope separation reaction conditions of TEA lasers and the cheaper photons of cw discharges. Analytical

  15. Hyperthermal Pulsed-Laser Ablation Beams for Film Deposition and Surface Microstructural Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowndes, D.H.


    This paper presents an overview of pulsed-laser ablation for film deposition and surface microstructure formation. By changing the ambient gas pressure from high vacuum to several Torr (several hundred Pa) and by selecting the pulsed-laser wavelength, the kinetic energy of ablated atoms/ions can be varied from several hundred eV down to {approximately}0.1 eV and films ranging from superhard to nanocrystalline may be deposited. Furthermore, cumulative (multi-pulse) irradiation of a semiconductor surface (e.g. silicon) in an oxidizing gas (0{sub 2}, SF{sub 6}) et atmospheric pressure can produce dense, self-organized arrays of high-aspect-ratio microcolumns or microcones. Thus, a wide range of materials synthesis and processing opportunities result from the hyperthermal flux and reactive growth conditions provided by pulsed-laser ablation.

  16. Ultra-fast laser microprocessing of medical polymers for cell engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, R. [Ultraprecision Processes Unit, Fundación IK4-TEKNIKER, Iñaki Goenaga 5, 20600, Eibar, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Moreno-Flores, S., E-mail: [Biosurfaces Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, Po Miramón, 182, 20009, San Sebastián, Donostia (Spain); Quintana, I., E-mail: [Ultraprecision Processes Unit, Fundación IK4-TEKNIKER, Iñaki Goenaga 5, 20600, Eibar, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Micro and Nanoengineering Unit, CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9, 20500, Arrasate-Mondragón, Gipuzkoa (Spain); Vivanco, MdM [Cell Biology and Stem Cells Unit, CIC bioGUNE, Technology Park of Bizkaia, Ed. 801A, 48160 Derio (Spain); Sarasua, J.R. [University of the Basque Country (EHU-UPV), School of Engineering, Department of Mining and Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Toca-Herrera, J.L. [Biosurfaces Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, Po Miramón, 182, 20009, San Sebastián, Donostia (Spain); Micro and Nanoengineering Unit, CIC microGUNE, Goiru Kalea 9, 20500, Arrasate-Mondragón, Gipuzkoa (Spain)


    Picosecond laser micromachining technology (PLM) has been employed as a tool for the fabrication of 3D structured substrates. These substrates have been used as supports in the in vitro study of the effect of substrate topography on cell behavior. Different micropatterns were PLM-generated on polystyrene (PS) and poly-L-lactide (PLLA) and employed to study cellular proliferation and morphology of breast cancer cells. The laser-induced microstructures included parallel lines of comparable width to that of a single cell (which in this case is roughly 20 μm), and the fabrication of square-like compartments of a much larger area than a single cell (250,000 μm{sup 2}). The results obtained from this in vitro study showed that though the laser treatment altered substrate roughness, it did not noticeably affect the adhesion and proliferation of the breast cancer cells. However, pattern direction directly affected cell proliferation, leading to a guided growth of cell clusters along the pattern direction. When cultured in square-like compartments, cells remained confined inside these for eleven incubation days. According to these results, laser micromachining with ultra-short laser pulses is a suitable method to directly modify the cell microenvironment in order to induce a predefined cellular behavior and to study the effect of the physical microenvironment on cell proliferation. - Highlights: • Microstructuring of biocompatible polymers by ultra-short pulsed laser technology. • Contact guidance effect on a supracellular scale along microgrooved substrates. • Cell confinement inside square compartments. • Fabrication of a 3D microenvironment that induces predefined behavior of cells.

  17. The planetary scientist's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Lodders, Katharina


    A comprehensive and practical book of facts and data about the Sun, planets, asteroids, comets, meteorites, the Kuiper belt and Centaur objects in our solar system. Also covered are properties of nearby stars, the interstellar medium, and extra-solar planetary systems.

  18. On Aryabhata's Planetary Constants


    Kak, Subhash


    This paper examines the theory of a Babylonian origin of Aryabhata's planetary constants. It shows that Aryabhata's basic constant is closer to the Indian counterpart than to the Babylonian one. Sketching connections between Aryabhata's framework and earlier Indic astronomical ideas on yugas and cyclic calendar systems, it is argued that Aryabhata's system is an outgrowth of an earlier Indic tradition.

  19. Catalogues of planetary nebulae. (United States)

    Acker, A.

    Firstly, the general requirements concerning catalogues are studied for planetary nebulae, in particular concerning the objects to be included in a catalogue of PN, their denominations, followed by reflexions about the afterlife and comuterized versions of a catalogue. Then, the basic elements constituting a catalogue of PN are analyzed, and the available data are looked at each time.

  20. Random laser from engineered nanostructures obtained by surface tension driven lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Ghofraniha, N; Di Maria, F; Barbarella, G; Gigli, G; Conti, C


    The random laser emission from the functionalized thienyl-S,S-dioxide quinquethiophene (T5OCx) in confined patterns with different shapes is demonstrated. Functional patterning of the light emitter organic material in well defined features is obtained by spontaneous molecular self-assembly guided by surface tension driven (STD) lithography. Such controlled supramolecular nano-aggregates act as scattering centers allowing the fabrication of one-component organic lasers with no external resonator and with desired shape and efficiency. Atomic force microscopy shows that different geometric pattern with different supramolecular organization obtained by the lithographic process tailors the coherent emission properties by controlling the distribution and the size of the random scatterers.

  1. Tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence measurement technique for quantitative fuel/air-ratio measurements in a hydrogen internal combustion engine. (United States)

    Blotevogel, Thomas; Hartmann, Matthias; Rottengruber, Hermann; Leipertz, Alfred


    A measurement technique for the quantitative investigation of mixture formation processes in hydrogen internal combustion engines (ICEs) has been developed using tracer-based laser-induced fluorescence (TLIF). This technique can be employed to fired and motored engine operation. The quantitative TLIF fuel/air-ratio results have been verified by means of linear Raman scattering measurements. Exemplary results of the simultaneous investigation of mixture formation and combustion obtained at an optical accessible hydrogen ICE are shown.

  2. Laser engineered surfaces from glass forming alloy powder precursors : Microstructure and wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, D. T. A.; Ocelik, V.; Branagan, D.; de Hosson, J. Th. M.


    Fe-based metallic glass forming powders have been deposited on mild steel substrates using high power laser cladding. Coatings microstructures have been analysed by scanning- and transmission-electron microscopy and at varying substrate dilutions, have been found to comprise a 100 to 500 nm

  3. Surface engineering with lasers : an application to Co-base materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeHosson, JTM; vanOtterloo, LD; Boerstoel, BM; intVeld, AJH; Sarton, LAJ; Zeedijk, HB


    The present paper concentrates on the applications of CO2 laser treatments to enhance fretting wear properties of stainless steel. Stainless steel 316 is used as substrate material. Powder particles of the various stellites with sizes ranging between 45 and 125 mu m are fed onto the surface. It was

  4. Tensile Fracture Behavior and Failure Mechanism of Additively-Manufactured AISI 4140 Low Alloy Steel by Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyeol Kim


    Full Text Available AISI 4140 powder was directly deposited on AISI 4140 wrought substrate using laser engineered net shaping (LENS to investigate the compatibility of a LENS-deposited part with the substrate. Tensile testing at room temperature was performed to evaluate the interface bond performance and fracture behavior of the test specimens. All the samples failed within the as-deposited zone, indicating that the interfacial bond is stronger than the interlayer bond inside the deposit. The fracture surfaces were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS. Results show that the tensile fracture failure of the as-deposited part is primarily affected by lack-of-fusion defects, carbide precipitation, and oxide particles inclusions, which causes premature failure of the deposit by deteriorating the mechanical properties and structural integrity.

  5. Bioprinting by laser-induced forward transfer for tissue engineering applications: jet formation modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezel, C; Hallo, L [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence, Cedex (France); Souquet, A; Guillemot, F, E-mail: mezel@celia.u-bordeaux1.f [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Universite Bordeaux 2 - UMR 577, 146 Rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)


    In this paper, a nanosecond LIFT process is analyzed both from experimental and modeling points of view. Experimental results are first presented and compared to simple estimates obtained from physical analysis, i.e. energy balance, jump relations and analytical pocket dynamics. Then a self-consistent 2D axisymmetric modeling strategy is presented. It is shown that data accessible from experiments, i.e. jet diameter and velocity, can be reproduced. Moreover, some specific mechanisms involved in the rear-surface deformation and jet formation may be described by some scales of hydrodynamic process, i.e. shock waves propagation and expansion waves, as a consequence of the laser heating. It shows that the LIFT process is essentially driven by hydrodynamics and thermal transfer, and that a coupled approach including self-consistent laser energy deposition, heating by thermal conduction and specific models for matter is required.

  6. Bioprinting by laser-induced forward transfer for tissue engineering applications: jet formation modeling. (United States)

    Mézel, C; Souquet, A; Hallo, L; Guillemot, F


    In this paper, a nanosecond LIFT process is analyzed both from experimental and modeling points of view. Experimental results are first presented and compared to simple estimates obtained from physical analysis, i.e. energy balance, jump relations and analytical pocket dynamics. Then a self-consistent 2D axisymmetric modeling strategy is presented. It is shown that data accessible from experiments, i.e. jet diameter and velocity, can be reproduced. Moreover, some specific mechanisms involved in the rear-surface deformation and jet formation may be described by some scales of hydrodynamic process, i.e. shock waves propagation and expansion waves, as a consequence of the laser heating. It shows that the LIFT process is essentially driven by hydrodynamics and thermal transfer, and that a coupled approach including self-consistent laser energy deposition, heating by thermal conduction and specific models for matter is required.

  7. The Role of Planetary Data System Archive Standards in International Planetary Data Archives (United States)

    Guinness, Edward; Slavney, Susan; Beebe, Reta; Crichton, Daniel

    A major objective of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is to efficiently archive and make accessible digital data produced by NASA's planetary missions, research programs, and data analysis programs. The PDS is comprised of a federation of groups known as nodes, with each node focused on archiving and managing planetary data from a given science discipline. PDS nodes include Atmospheres, Geosciences, Small Bodies (asteroids, comets, and dust), Rings, Planetary Plasma Interactions, and Imaging. There are also support nodes for engineering, radio science, and ancillary data, such as geometry information. The PDS archives include space-borne, ground-based, and laboratory experiment data from several decades of NASA exploration of comets, asteroids, moons, and planets. PDS archives are peer-reviewed, welldocumented, and accessible online via web sites, catalogs, and other user-interfaces that provide search and retrieval capabilities. Current holdings within the PDS online repositories total approximately 50 TB of data. Over the next few years, the PDS is planning for a rapid expansion in the volume of data being delivered to its archives. The archive standards developed by the PDS are crucial elements for producing planetary data archives that are consistent across missions and planetary science disciplines and that yield archives that are useable by the planetary research community. These standards encompass the full range of archiving needs. They include standards for the format of data products and the metadata needed to detail how observations were made. They also specify how data products and ancillary information such as documentation, calibration, and geometric information are packaged into data sets. The PDS standards are documented in its Planetary Science Data Dictionary and in its Standards Reference Document and Archive Preparation Guide. The PDS standards are being used to design and implement data archives for current and future NASA planetary missions

  8. Stress engineering with silicon nitride stressors for Ge-on-Si lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Ke, Jiaxin; Guangrui,; Xia,


    Side and top silicon nitride stressors were proposed and shown to be effective ways to reduce the threshold current Ith and improve the wall-plug efficiency {\\eta}wp of Ge-on-Si lasers. Side stressors only turned out to be a more efficient way to increase {\\eta}wp than using top and side stressors together. With the side stressors only and geometry optimizations, a {\\eta}wp of 30.5% and an Ith of 50 mA (Jth of 37 kA/cm2) can be achieved with the defect limited carrier lifetime of 1 nsec. With the defect limited carrier lifetime of 10 nsec, an Ith of 7.8 mA (Jth of 5.8 kA/cm2) and a wall-plug efficiency of 38.7% can be achieved. These are tremendous improvements from the case without any stressors. These results give strong support to the Ge-on-Si laser technology and provide an effective way to improve the Ge laser performance.

  9. Microstructure evolution and lubricant wear performance of laser alloyed layers on automobile engine chains (United States)

    Sun, G. F.; Zhou, R.; Zhang, Y. K.; Yuan, G. D.; Wang, K.; Ren, X. D.; Wen, D. P.


    Wear resistant layers on nodular cast iron chains with C-B-W-Cr powders were fabricated by laser surface alloying (LSA). Microstructure, phases and lattice parameters, were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Micro-, nano-hardness and elastic modulus were measured with a Vickers microhardness tester and a nano-indendation tester. Lubricant sliding wear performance was performed on a ball-on-disk apparatus in ambient air using the straight line reciprocating wear form. Results indicate that microstructure of the alloyed layers changes from hyper-eutectic to hypo-eutectic, varing with laser specific energy. Nano-grain size and micro-hardness decrease while martensite lattice parameters increase with laser specific energy. Existence of graphite in the substrate increases the carbon content in the retained austenite to 1.59 wt%. Nano-hardness and elastic modulus of the alloyed layers are close. Friction and wear properties of the layers are improved by LSA compared with the substrate. Wear mechanism of them is illustrated.

  10. Synthesis of Fe-Al-Ti Based Intermetallics with the Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kwiatkowska


    Full Text Available The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS technique was combined with direct synthesis to fabricate L21-ordered Fe-Al-Ti based intermetallic alloys. It was found that ternary Fe-Al-Ti alloys can be synthesized using the LENS technique from a feedstock composed of a pre-alloyed Fe-Al powder and elemental Ti powder. The obtained average compositions of the ternary alloys after the laser deposition and subsequent annealing were quite close to the nominal compositions, but the distributions of the elements in the annealed samples recorded over a large area were inhomogeneous. No traces of pure Ti were observed in the deposited alloys. Macroscopic cracking and porosity were observed in all investigated alloys. The amount of porosity in the samples was less than 1.2 vol. %. It seems that the porosity originates from the porous pre-alloyed Fe-Al powders. Single-phase (L21, two-phase (L21-C14 and multiphase (L21-A2-C14 Fe-Al-Ti intermetallic alloys were obtained from the direct laser synthesis and annealing process. The most prominent feature of the ternary Fe-Al-Ti intermetallics synthesized by the LENS method is their fine-grained structure. The grain size is in the range of 3–5 μm, indicating grain refinement effect through the highly rapid cooling of the LENS process. The Fe-Al-Ti alloys synthesized by LENS and annealed at 1000 °C in the single-phase B2 region were prone to an essential grain growth. In contrast, the alloys annealed at 1000 °C in the two-phase L21-C14 region exhibited almost constant grain size values after the high-temperature annealing.

  11. Selective laser sintering of porous tissue engineering scaffolds from poly(L: -lactide)/carbonated hydroxyapatite nanocomposite microspheres. (United States)

    Zhou, Wen You; Lee, Siu Hang; Wang, Min; Cheung, Wai Lam; Ip, Wing Yuk


    This study focuses on the use of bio-nanocomposite microspheres, consisting of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp) nanospheres within a poly(L: -lactide) (PLLA) matrix, to produce tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds using a modified selective laser sintering (SLS) machine. PLLA microspheres and PLLA/CHAp nanocomposite microspheres were prepared by emulsion techniques. The resultant microspheres had a size range of 5-30 microm, suitable for the SLS process. Microstructural analyses revealed that the CHAp nanospheres were embedded throughout the PLLA microsphere, forming a nanocomposite structure. A custom-made miniature sintering platform was installed in a commercial Sinterstation((R)) 2000 SLS machine. This platform allowed the use of small quantities of biomaterials for TE scaffold production. The effects of laser power; scan spacing and part bed temperature were investigated and optimized. Finally, porous scaffolds were successfully fabricated from the PLLA microspheres and PLLA/CHAp nanocomposite microspheres. In particular, the PLLA/CHAp nanocomposite microspheres appeared to be promising for porous bone TE scaffold production using the SLS technique.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Sergeev


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of quality control for solder joints of nozzles of chambers in liquid rocket engines (LRE. The nozzle of LRE chamber is a responsible product, operating in conditions of high pressure and temperature gradient, having a complex geometric shape and consisting of a large number of milled channels. The analysis of existing methods for solving the problem of quality control of solder joints in LRE nozzles of chambers is carried out. The necessity of the development of an automated laser-ultrasonic control method of solder joints in LRE nozzles of chambers is proved. The analysis of existing automated ultrasonic means of control and the factors affecting control accuracy is carried out. The prototype hardware has been designed for the automated laser ultrasonic nondestructive quality testing of solder joints of LRE nozzles. For software control of the sensor movement mechanism for scanning the inner surface of LRE chamber nozzles and its positioning, the usage of three-layer neural network is proposed. An adaptive algorithm of automated quality control of solder joints has been worked out. A method for the integrated assessment of the quality of solder joints of LRE chambers is suggested. In the process of research methodology was developed for automated measurement of geometrical characteristics of defects and quality control of solder joints in LRE nozzles of chambers. The approbation of the developed method was carried out on three-coordinate automated stand.

  13. Planetary seismology and interiors (United States)

    Toksoz, M. N.


    This report briefly summarizes knowledge gained in the area of planetary seismology in the period 1969-1979. Attention is given to the seismic instruments, the seismic environment (noise, characteristics of seismic wave propagation, etc.), and the seismicity of the moon and Mars as determined by the Apollo missions and Viking Lander experiments, respectively. The models of internal structures of the terrestrial planets are discussed, with the earth used for reference.

  14. Galactic planetary science. (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna


    Planetary science beyond the boundaries of our Solar System is today in its infancy. Until a couple of decades ago, the detailed investigation of the planetary properties was restricted to objects orbiting inside the Kuiper Belt. Today, we cannot ignore that the number of known planets has increased by two orders of magnitude nor that these planets resemble anything but the objects present in our own Solar System. Whether this fact is the result of a selection bias induced by the kind of techniques used to discover new planets--mainly radial velocity and transit--or simply the proof that the Solar System is a rarity in the Milky Way, we do not know yet. What is clear, though, is that the Solar System has failed to be the paradigm not only in our Galaxy but even 'just' in the solar neighbourhood. This finding, although unsettling, forces us to reconsider our knowledge of planets under a different light and perhaps question a few of the theoretical pillars on which we base our current 'understanding'. The next decade will be critical to advance in what we should perhaps call Galactic planetary science. In this paper, I review highlights and pitfalls of our current knowledge of this topic and elaborate on how this knowledge might arguably evolve in the next decade. More critically, I identify what should be the mandatory scientific and technical steps to be taken in this fascinating journey of remote exploration of planets in our Galaxy.

  15. In vivo epigenetic effects induced by engineered nanomaterials: A case study of copper oxide and laser printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles. (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Miousse, Isabelle R; Pirela, Sandra V; Moore, Jodene K; Melnyk, Stepan; Koturbash, Igor; Demokritou, Philip


    Evidence continues to grow on potential environmental health hazards associated with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). While the geno- and cytotoxic effects of ENMs have been investigated, their potential to target the epigenome remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is two-fold: 1) determining whether or not industry relevant ENMs can affect the epigenome in vivo and 2) validating a recently developed in vitro epigenetic screening platform for inhaled ENMs. Laser printer-emitted engineered nanoparticles (PEPs) released from nano-enabled toners during consumer use and copper oxide (CuO) were chosen since these particles induced significant epigenetic changes in a recent in vitro companion study. In this study, the epigenetic alterations in lung tissue, alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood from intratracheally instilled mice were evaluated. The methylation of global DNA and transposable elements (TEs), the expression of the DNA methylation machinery and TEs, in addition to general toxicological effects in the lung were assessed. CuO exhibited higher cell-damaging potential to the lung, while PEPs showed a greater ability to target the epigenome. Alterations in the methylation status of global DNA and TEs, and expression of TEs and DNA machinery in mouse lung were observed after exposure to CuO and PEPs. Additionally, epigenetic changes were detected in the peripheral blood after PEPs exposure. Altogether, CuO and PEPs can induce epigenetic alterations in a mouse experimental model, which in turn confirms that the recently developed in vitro epigenetic platform using macrophage and epithelial cell lines can be successfully utilized in the epigenetic screening of ENMs.

  16. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Simulation Facilities (United States)

    Davies, G. R.; Mason, N. J.; Green, S.; Gómez, F.; Prieto, O.; Helbert, J.; Colangeli, L.; Srama, R.; Grande, M.; Merrison, J.


    EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the second TNA; Planetary Simulation Facilities. 11 laboratory based facilities are able to recreate the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of planetary systems with specific emphasis on Martian, Titan and Europa analogues. The strategy has been to offer some overlap in capabilities to ensure access to the highest number of users and to allow for progressive and efficient development strategies. For example initial testing of mobility capability prior to the step wise development within planetary atmospheres that can be made progressively more hostile through the introduction of extreme temperatures, radiation, wind and dust. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilties: Mars atmosphere simulation chambers at VUA and OU These relatively large chambers (up to 1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m) simulate Martian atmospheric conditions and the dual cooling options at VUA allows stabilised instrument temperatures while the remainder of the sample chamber can be varied between 220K and 350K. Researchers can therefore assess analytical protocols for instruments operating on Mars; e.g. effect of pCO2, temperature and material (e.g., ± ice) on spectroscopic and laser ablation techniques while monitoring the performance of detection technologies such as CCD at low T & variable p H2O & pCO2. Titan atmosphere and surface simulation chamber at OU The chamber simulates Titan's atmospheric composition under a range of

  17. Laser-assisted cold-sprayed hydroxyapatite/titanium composites: evaluation for tissues engineering applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme


    Full Text Available This research work seeks to establish titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V), in the field of tissue engineering, as material of interest for bone replacement with a particular focus on hip implants replacement. The aim of this study was to produce a surface...

  18. Engineering complex nanolasers: from spaser quantum information sources to near-field anapole lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero


    In this invited contribution I will review recent results of our research in the field of complex nanolasers. I will begin by discussing recent experimental results from a new type of ultra-dark nanoparticles, which behave as an ideal black-body and spontaneously produce single color pulses thanks to an equivalent Bose-Einstein Condensation of light. I will then discuss new quantum information sources from core-shell spaser nanoparticles. Finally, I will illustrate a new type of laser source that emits only in the near field, discussing applications in integrated optical circuits.

  19. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk


    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  20. Lightning detection in planetary atmospheres (United States)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Fischer, Georg


    Lightning in planetary atmospheres is now a well-established concept. Here we discuss the available detection techniques for, and observations of, planetary lightning by spacecraft, planetary landers and, increasingly, sophisticated terrestrial radio telescopes. Future space missions carrying lightning-related instrumentation are also summarised, specifically the European ExoMars mission and Japanese Akatsuki mission to Venus, which could both yield lightning observations in 2016.

  1. Lightning detection in planetary atmospheres


    Aplin, Karen L; Fischer, Georg


    Lightning in planetary atmospheres is now a well-established concept. Here we discuss the available detection techniques for, and observations of, planetary lightning by spacecraft, planetary landers and, increasingly, sophisticated terrestrial radio telescopes. Future space missions carrying lightning-related instrumentation are also summarised, specifically the European ExoMars mission and Japanese Akatsuki mission to Venus, which could both yield lightning observations in 2016.

  2. Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics) (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.


    Universal planetary tectonics (supertectonics) G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, The wave planetology [1-3 & others] proceeds from the following: "planetary structures are made by orbits and rotations". A uniform reason makes uniform structures. Inertia-gravity waves arising in planetary bodies due to their movements in Keplerian elliptical orbits with periodically changing accelerations warp these bodies in such way that they acquire polyhedron shapes (after interference of standing waves of four directions). Strong Newtonian gravity makes bodies larger than ~400 to 500 km in diameter globular and polyhedra are rarely seen. Only geomorphologic, geologic and geophysical mapping can develop these hidden structures. But small bodies, normally less than ~ 300 to 400 km in diameter, often show parts of the polyhedra, rarely fully developed forms (the asteroid Steins and satellite Amalthea present rather perfect forms of "diamond"). Depending on warping wavelengths (they make harmonics) various Plato's figures superimposed on each other can be distinguished. The fundamental wave 1 produces a tetrahedron, intrinsically dichotomic figure in which a vertex (contraction) always is opposed to a face (expansion). From the recent examples the best is the saturnian northern hexagon (a face) opposed to the southern hurricane (a vertex). The first overtone wave 2 is responsible for creation of structural octahedra. Whole ‘diamonds" and their parts are known [4, 5]. Other overtones produce less developed (because of smaller wave amplitudes) planetary shapes complicating main forms. Thus, the first common structural peculiarity of planetary bodies is their polyhedron nature. Not less important is the second common structural peculiarity. As all globular or smaller more or less isometric bodies rotate, they have an angular momentum. It is inevitably different in tropic and extra-tropic belts having uneven radii or distances to

  3. Planetary Web Resource Platform (United States)

    Xing, Z.


    In this presentation, we would like to discuss our recent work ona web-based data platform, that can simplify the use of planetarymission products and unify the operation of key applications.This platform is extensible and flexible. Products and applicationscan be added to or removed from it in a distributed fashion.It is built on top of known and proven information technologiesfor data exposure and discovery. Live examples of the end-to-endweb services and in-browser clients for current planetary missionswill be demonstrated.

  4. Tests of laser metal removal for future flexible rotor balancing in engines (United States)

    Tessarzik, J. M.; Fleming, D. P.


    This paper describes recent developments in the flexible rotor balancing technology area, with particular emphasis on methods for the addition and removal of correction weights. The currently existing multiplane-multispeed balancing procedure permits one-step balancing of final shaft-bearing assemblies simultaneously in a number of planes and at a number of speeds. Temporary addition of trial weights to the rotor, and the addition or subtraction of permanent corrections, are presently performed manually in the balancing process. The addition of a computer-controlled laser device to the balancing system shows promise of eliminating direct operator contact with the rotor in the balancing process, and thus could provide a considerable increase in the precision level at a critical step in the procedure.

  5. Laser materials processing of complex components. From reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles. (United States)

    Görgl, R.; Brandstätter, E.


    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser welding, laser cladding and additive laser manufacturing are given.

  6. Evaluation of a laser equipped rifle for the US Army Human Engineering Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, January 1977. Nonionizing radiation protection special study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, T.L.; Del Valle, P.F.


    A special study of the optical radiation hazards associated with the operation of a He-Ne laser mounted to an American International Corporation Model 180 Law Enforcement Rifle was performed by this Agency. Radiometric measurements were conducted on 11 January 1977, for the US Army Human Engineering Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground. It was determined that the protection standards for momentary viewing were exceeded out to a hazard distance of 9 m and to 100 m when viewing through an optical instrument. Long-term staring at the laser from within the beam exceeded the protection standards out to a caution distance of 490 m. (Author)

  7. Artificial Intelligence in planetary spectroscopy (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo


    The field of exoplanetary spectroscopy is as fast moving as it is new. Analysing currently available observations of exoplanetary atmospheres often invoke large and correlated parameter spaces that can be difficult to map or constrain. This is true for both: the data analysis of observations as well as the theoretical modelling of their atmospheres.Issues of low signal-to-noise data and large, non-linear parameter spaces are nothing new and commonly found in many fields of engineering and the physical sciences. Recent years have seen vast improvements in statistical data analysis and machine learning that have revolutionised fields as diverse as telecommunication, pattern recognition, medical physics and cosmology.In many aspects, data mining and non-linearity challenges encountered in other data intensive fields are directly transferable to the field of extrasolar planets. In this conference, I will discuss how deep neural networks can be designed to facilitate solving said issues both in exoplanet atmospheres as well as for atmospheres in our own solar system. I will present a deep belief network, RobERt (Robotic Exoplanet Recognition), able to learn to recognise exoplanetary spectra and provide artificial intelligences to state-of-the-art atmospheric retrieval algorithms. Furthermore, I will present a new deep convolutional network that is able to map planetary surface compositions using hyper-spectral imaging and demonstrate its uses on Cassini-VIMS data of Saturn.

  8. Virtual Planetary Analysis Environment for Remote Science (United States)

    Keely, Leslie; Beyer, Ross; Edwards. Laurence; Lees, David


    All of the data for NASA's current planetary missions and most data for field experiments are collected via orbiting spacecraft, aircraft, and robotic explorers. Mission scientists are unable to employ traditional field methods when operating remotely. We have developed a virtual exploration tool for remote sites with data analysis capabilities that extend human perception quantitatively and qualitatively. Scientists and mission engineers can use it to explore a realistic representation of a remote site. It also provides software tools to "touch" and "measure" remote sites with an immediacy that boosts scientific productivity and is essential for mission operations.

  9. Improvement of a Vertical Falling Ball Viscometer for Measuring Engine Oil Properties using 532nm diode laser, with Estimation of the Concentration of operated Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawood O. Altaify


    Full Text Available In this work, an improvement of falling ball viscometer was presented using laser beam. Several parameters such as viscosity, shear stress, shear rate, Reynolds number and drag coefficient were calculated for a sample of unused engine oil. In the other words, during the operation of engine, the variation of viscosity occurs due to the increasing in the engine temperature and may in the increasing of the concentration of engine body particles inside the oil due to friction force even with existing the oil filter there are tiny particles that pass through the oil filter, therefore a Lambert’s law was used to estimate the particles concentrations of the operated oil, the resulted graphs show increasing of the impurities concentration with operation time.

  10. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul


    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of

  11. Planetary Sciences and Exploration Programme

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has taken a number of initiatives to plan for a National. Research Programme in the area of planetary science and exploration. This announcement solicits proposals in the field of planetary science. Universities, research and educational institutions may submit proposals ...

  12. Direct Laser Writing of Magneto-Photonic Sub-Microstructures for Prospective Applications in Biomedical Engineering. (United States)

    Au, Thi Huong; Trinh, Duc Thien; Tong, Quang Cong; Do, Danh Bich; Nguyen, Dang Phu; Phan, Manh-Huong; Lai, Ngoc Diep


    We report on the fabrication of desired magneto-photonic devices by a low one-photon absorption (LOPA) direct laser writing (DLW) technique on a photocurable nanocomposite consisting of magnetite ( Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles and a commercial SU-8 photoresist. The magnetic nanocomposite was synthesized by mixing Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with different kinds of SU-8 photoresists. We demonstrated that the degree of dispersion of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in the nanocomposite depended on the concentration of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, the viscosity of SU-8 resist, and the mixing time. By tuning these parameters, the most homogeneous magnetic nanocomposite was obtained with a concentration of about 2 wt % of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in SU-8 2005 photoresist for the mixing time of 20 days. The LOPA-based DLW technique was employed to fabricate on demand various magneto-photonic submicrometer structures, which are similar to those obtained without Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The magneto-photonic 2D and 3D structures with sizes as small as 150 nm were created. We demonstrated the strong magnetic field responses of the magneto-photonic nanostructures and their use as micro-actuators when immersed in a liquid solution.

  13. Rapid prototyping: porous titanium alloy scaffolds produced by selective laser melting for bone tissue engineering. (United States)

    Warnke, Patrick H; Douglas, Timothy; Wollny, Patrick; Sherry, Eugene; Steiner, Martin; Galonska, Sebastian; Becker, Stephan T; Springer, Ingo N; Wiltfang, Jörg; Sivananthan, Sureshan


    Selective laser melting (SLM), a method used in the nuclear, space, and racing industries, allows the creation of customized titanium alloy scaffolds with highly defined external shape and internal structure using rapid prototyping as supporting external structures within which bone tissue can grow. Human osteoblasts were cultured on SLM-produced Ti6Al4V mesh scaffolds to demonstrate biocompatibility using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence microscopy after cell vitality staining, and common biocompatibility tests (lactate dihydrogenase (LDH), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU), and water soluble tetrazolium (WST)). Cell occlusion of pores of different widths (0.45-1.2 mm) was evaluated. Scaffolds were tested for resistance to compressive force. SEM investigations showed osteoblasts with well-spread morphology and multiple contact points. Cell vitality staining and biocompatibility tests confirmed osteoblast vitality and proliferation on the scaffolds. Pore overgrowth increased during 6 weeks' culture at pore widths of 0.45 and 0.5 mm, and in the course of 3 weeks for pore widths of 0.55, 0.6, and 0.7 mm. No pore occlusion was observed on pores of width 0.9-1.2 mm. Porosity and maximum compressive load at failure increased and decreased with increasing pore width, respectively. In summary, the scaffolds are biocompatible, and pore width influences pore overgrowth, resistance to compressive force, and porosity.

  14. Direct Laser Writing of Magneto-Photonic Sub-Microstructures for Prospective Applications in Biomedical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Huong Au


    Full Text Available We report on the fabrication of desired magneto-photonic devices by a low one-photon absorption (LOPA direct laser writing (DLW technique on a photocurable nanocomposite consisting of magnetite ( Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles and a commercial SU-8 photoresist. The magnetic nanocomposite was synthesized by mixing Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles with different kinds of SU-8 photoresists. We demonstrated that the degree of dispersion of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in the nanocomposite depended on the concentration of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, the viscosity of SU-8 resist, and the mixing time. By tuning these parameters, the most homogeneous magnetic nanocomposite was obtained with a concentration of about 2 wt % of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles in SU-8 2005 photoresist for the mixing time of 20 days. The LOPA-based DLW technique was employed to fabricate on demand various magneto-photonic submicrometer structures, which are similar to those obtained without Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. The magneto-photonic 2D and 3D structures with sizes as small as 150 nm were created. We demonstrated the strong magnetic field responses of the magneto-photonic nanostructures and their use as micro-actuators when immersed in a liquid solution.

  15. High-Speed Multiplexed Spatiotemporally Resolved Measurements of Exhaust Gas Recirculation Dynamics in a Multi-Cylinder Engine Using Laser Absorption Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P


    The need for more environmentally friendly and efficient energy conversion is of paramount importance in developing and designing next-generation internal combustion (IC) engines for transportation applications. One effective solution to reducing emissions of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), which has been widely implemented in modern vehicles. However, cylinder-to-cylinder and cycle-to-cycle variations in the charge-gas uniformity can be a major barrier to optimum EGR implementation on multi-cylinder engines, and can limit performance, stability, and efficiency. Precise knowledge and fine control over the EGR system is therefore crucial, particularly for optimizing advanced engine concepts such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). An absorption-based laser diagnostic was developed to study spatiotemporal charge-gas distributions in an IC engine intake manifold in real-time. The laser was tuned to an absorption band of carbon dioxide (CO2), a standard exhaust-gas marker, near 2.7 µm. The sensor was capable of probing four separate measurement locations simultaneously, and independently analyzing EGR fraction at speeds of 5 kHz (1.2 crank-angle degree (CAD) at 1 k RPM) or faster with high accuracy. The probes were used to study spatiotemporal EGR non-uniformities in the intake manifold and ultimately promote the development of more efficient and higher performance engines. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.


    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  17. An Ion-Propelled Cubesat for Planetary Defense and Planetary Science (United States)

    Russell, Christopher T.; Wirz, Richard; Lai, Hairong; Li, Jian-Yang; Connors, Martin


    Small satellites can reduce the cost of launch by riding along with other payloads on a large rocket or being launched on a small rocket, but are perceived as having limited capabilities. This perception can be at least partially overcome by innovative design, including ample in-flight propulsion. This allows achieving multiple targets and adaptive exploration. Ion propulsion has been pioneered on Deep Space 1 and honed on the long-duration, multiple-planetary body mission Dawn. Most importantly, the operation of such a mission is now well- understood, including navigation, communication, and science operations for remote sensing. We examined different mission concepts that can be used for both planetary defense and planetary science near 1 AU. Such a spacecraft would travel in the region between Venus and Mars, allowing a complete inventory of material above, including objects down to about 10m diameter to be inventoried. The ion engines could be used to approach these bodies slowly and carefully and allow the spacecraft to map debris and follow its collisional evolution throughout its orbit around the Sun, if so desired. The heritage of Dawn operations experience enables the mission to be operated inexpensively, and the engineering heritage will allow it to be operated for many trips around the Sun.

  18. Estimating Tides from a Planetary Flyby Mission (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Smith, David; Zuber, Maria; Sun, Xiaoli


    Previous and current laser altimeter instruments (e.g. MOLA, NLR, LOLA, MLA) acquired measurements in orbit to provide global topography and study the surface and sub-surface properties of planetary bodies. We show that altimetric data from multiple flybys can make significant contributions to the geophysical understanding of the target body. In particular, the detection of the body tide (e.g. surface deformation due to the tides raised by the Sun or the parent body) and the estimation of its amplitude can yield critical information about the interior structure. We conduct a full simulation of a planetary flyby mission around Europa. We use the GEODYN II program developed and maintained at NASA GSFC to process altimetric and radiometric tracking data created using truth models. The data are processed in short two-day segments (arcs) centered on each closest approach. The initial trajectory is integrated using a priori (truth) models of the planetary ephemeris, the gravity field, the tidal Love numbers k2 and h2 (which describe the amplitudes of the time-variable tidal potential and the time-variable radial deformation respectively). The gravity field is constructed using a Kaula-like power law and scaling considerations from other planetary bodies. The global-scale static topography is also chosen to follow a power law, and higher-resolution local maps consistent with recent stereo-topography work are used to assess the expected variations along altimetric profiles. We assume realistic spacecraft orientation to drive a spacecraft macro-model and model the solar radiation pressure acceleration. Radiometric tracking data are generated from the truth trajectory accounting for geometry (occultations by Europa or Jupiter or the Sun), DSN visibility and scheduling (8h per day) and measurement noise (Ka-band quality, plasma noise). Doppler data have a 10-second integration step while Range data occur every 5 minutes. The altimetric data are generated using realistic

  19. Biocompatibility of tissue engineering constructions from porous polylactide carriers obtained by the method of selective laser sintering and bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells. (United States)

    Bukharova, T B; Antonov, E N; Popov, V K; Fatkhudinov, T Kh; Popova, A V; Volkov, A V; Bochkova, S A; Bagratashvili, V N; Gol'dshtein, D V


    We studied the biocompatibility of porous polylactide carrier matrices obtained by means of surface selective laser sintering. Carrier matrices had no cytotoxic activity, but maintained adhesion and proliferation of cells. Subcutaneous transplantation of tissue engineering constructions from these carriers and bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells did not cause the inflammatory response and pathological changes in rats. The conditions for organotypic regeneration were provided at the site of transplantation (high degree of blood supply and considerable amount of immature precursor cells).

  20. [Selective Laser Sintering-produced porous titanium alloy scaffold for bone tissue engineering]. (United States)

    Ding, Ran; Wu, Zhihong; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Gui; Wang, Hai; Su, Xinlin; Yin, Bo; Ma, Shuo; Qi, Bing


    To evaluate the biocompatibility of SLS-produced titanium alloy scaffold in vitro and investigate the therapeutic effects in repairing segmental bone defects. Porous titanium alloy scaffolds were produced by SLS and their surfaces were either left untreated or acid etched. In vitro, mouse pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) were cultured on these 2 group scaffolds, and then cell proliferation and differentiation were examined after cell seeding. In vivo, bone defects were artificially made in 15 New Zealand rabbits and the porous titanium specimens were implanted into the radius of rabbits for 3 months. The regulating checks of X-ray were determined. The osteointegration of the implants was investigated by Micro-CT and histological examination at 12 weeks after surgery. A gradual increase in cell-specific ALP synthesis by cells cultured in both groups was observed with longer culture time (14 d). ALP activity did not differ significantly between two groups (0.834 ± 0.092 vs 0.815 ± 0.081, P > 0.05) . Both Micro-CT and the histological analysis indicated that the titanium alloy scaffolds had excellent ability to facilitate the osteointegration in vivo. The results were significantly different between the empty control and the 2 different surface modifications of SLS-implants (25.4% ± 4.2% vs 23.6% ± 8.4% vs 12.3% ± 4.7%, P 0.05). Selective Laser Sintering-Produced porous titanium alloy scaffold possessed admirable biocompatibility in vitro. It also could be contributed to the healing of long tulular bone defect. The porous Ti6Al4V implant not only reduced the stress-shielding but also exerted appropriate osteoconductive properties.

  1. Rheology of planetary ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  2. Modelling Planetary Magnetodiscs (United States)

    Achilleos, N. A.; Arridge, C. S.; Guio, P.


    There have been two popular approaches in the literature to constructing models of giant planet magnetodiscs. The first assumes an analytical form of the ring current a priori,and computes the corresponding magnetic field structure. The second applies the condition of balance between centrifugal force, magnetic force and plasma pressure in order to acquire a self-consistent field and plasma distribution. In this talk, we shall explore the application of both types of model to observations of planetary fields and plasmas. In particular, we shall see that the force-balance formalism predicts a natural `transition distance' between regions dominated by centrifugal (inertial) currents and pressure-gradient currents. We shall also present this type of model for Jupiter's magnetodisc, and show how the parameters of the model can be used to predict the influence of major reconfigurations of the magnetosphere upon the morphology of the jovian auroral emissions.

  3. Laser materials processing of complex components: from reverse engineering via automated beam path generation to short process development cycles (United States)

    Görgl, Richard; Brandstätter, Elmar


    The article presents an overview of what is possible nowadays in the field of laser materials processing. The state of the art in the complete process chain is shown, starting with the generation of a specific components CAD data and continuing with the automated motion path generation for the laser head carried by a CNC or robot system. Application examples from laser cladding and laser-based additive manufacturing are given.



    [Top left] - IC 3568 lies in the constellation Camelopardalis at a distance of about 9,000 light-years, and has a diameter of about 0.4 light-years (or about 800 times the diameter of our solar system). It is an example of a round planetary nebula. Note the bright inner shell and fainter, smooth, circular outer envelope. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Top center] - NGC 6826's eye-like appearance is marred by two sets of blood-red 'fliers' that lie horizontally across the image. The surrounding faint green 'white' of the eye is believed to be gas that made up almost half of the star's mass for most of its life. The hot remnant star (in the center of the green oval) drives a fast wind into older material, forming a hot interior bubble which pushes the older gas ahead of it to form a bright rim. (The star is one of the brightest stars in any planetary.) NGC 6826 is 2,200 light- years away in the constellation Cygnus. The Hubble telescope observation was taken Jan. 27, 1996 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Credits: Bruce Balick (University of Washington), Jason Alexander (University of Washington), Arsen Hajian (U.S. Naval Observatory), Yervant Terzian (Cornell University), Mario Perinotto (University of Florence, Italy), Patrizio Patriarchi (Arcetri Observatory, Italy) and NASA [Top right ] - NGC 3918 is in the constellation Centaurus and is about 3,000 light-years from us. Its diameter is about 0.3 light-year. It shows a roughly spherical outer envelope but an elongated inner balloon inflated by a fast wind from the hot central star, which is starting to break out of the spherical envelope at the top and bottom of the image. Credits: Howard Bond (Space Telescope Science Institute), Robin Ciardullo (Pennsylvania State University) and NASA [Bottom left] - Hubble 5 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or bipolar (two-lobed) nebula. The heat generated by fast winds causes

  5. Solar planetary systems stardust to terrestrial and extraterrestrial planetary sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Asit B


    The authors have put forth great efforts in gathering present day knowledge about different objects within our solar system and universe. This book features the most current information on the subject with information acquired from noted scientists in this area. The main objective is to convey the importance of the subject and provide detailed information on the physical makeup of our planetary system and technologies used for research. Information on educational projects has also been included in the Radio Astronomy chapters.This information is a real plus for students and educators considering a career in Planetary Science or for increasing their knowledge about our planetary system

  6. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report (United States)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.


    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  7. Laser-based additive manufacturing of metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S


    Full Text Available For making metallic products through Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, laser-based systems play very significant roles. Laser-based processes such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) are dominating processes...

  8. Spatial Query for Planetary Data (United States)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Powell, Mark W.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Fox, Jason M.


    Science investigators need to quickly and effectively assess past observations of specific locations on a planetary surface. This innovation involves a location-based search technology that was adapted and applied to planetary science data to support a spatial query capability for mission operations software. High-performance location-based searching requires the use of spatial data structures for database organization. Spatial data structures are designed to organize datasets based on their coordinates in a way that is optimized for location-based retrieval. The particular spatial data structure that was adapted for planetary data search is the R+ tree.

  9. Support for High Power Laser Ablation 2010 (United States)


    Spaces from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport , Science and Technology, Japan. 27 [24] An Analytical Model of Ablation in Gas Flow Leonid...Targets at 0.1-10 TW/cm2 John L. Remo Dept. of Astronomy and Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, 20 Oxford St. and Harvard...modeling of planetary cores and high velocity impact. [43] Laser and Z-pinch Simulation of High Energy Density Planetary Interactions John L. Remo

  10. Data Preservation and Curation for the Planetary Science Community (United States)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Joyner, R.; Hardman, S.; Rye, E.


    The Planetary Data System (PDS) has just released PDS4 Version 1.0, its next generation data standards for the planetary science archive. These data standards are the result of a multi-year effort to develop an information model based on accepted standards for data preservation, data curation, metadata management, and model development. The resulting information model is subsequently used to drive information system development from the generation of data standards documentation to the configuration of federated registries and search engines. This paper will provide an overview of the development of the PDS4 Information Model and focus on the application of the Open Archive Information System (OAIS) Reference Model - ISO 14721:2003, the Metadata Registry (MDR) Standard - ISO/IEC 11179, and the E-Business XML Standard to help ensure the long-term preservation and curation of planetary science data. Copyright 2013 California Institute of Technology Government sponsorship acknowledged

  11. Cost estimation for unmanned lunar and planetary programs (United States)

    Dunkin, J. H.; Pekar, P. R.; Spadoni, D. J.; Stone, C. A.


    A basic model is presented for estimating the cost of unmanned lunar and planetary programs. Cost data were collected and analyzed for eight lunar and planetary programs. Total cost was separated into the following components: labor, overhead, materials, and technical support. The study determined that direct labor cost of unmanned lunar and planetary programs comprises 30 percent of the total program cost. Twelve program categories were defined for modeling: six spacecraft subsystem categories (science, structure, propulsion, electrical power, communications, and guidance and integration, test and quality assurance, launch and flight operations, ground equipment, systems analysis and engineering, and program management). An analysis showed that on a percentage basis, direct labor cost and direct labor manhours compare on a one-to-one ratio. Therefore, direct labor hours is used as the parameter for predicting cost, with the advantage of eliminating the effect of inflation on the analysis.

  12. Magnetic Helicity and Planetary Dynamos (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.


    A model planetary dynamo based on the Boussinesq approximation along with homogeneous boundary conditions is considered. A statistical theory describing a large-scale MHD dynamo is found, in which magnetic helicity is the critical parameter

  13. Planetary geosciences, 1989-1990 (United States)

    Zuber, Maria T. (Editor); James, Odette B. (Editor); Lunine, Jonathan I. (Editor); Macpherson, Glenn J. (Editor); Phillips, Roger J. (Editor)


    NASA's Planetary Geosciences Programs (the Planetary Geology and Geophysics and the Planetary Material and Geochemistry Programs) provide support and an organizational framework for scientific research on solid bodies of the solar system. These research and analysis programs support scientific research aimed at increasing our understanding of the physical, chemical, and dynamic nature of the solid bodies of the solar system: the Moon, the terrestrial planets, the satellites of the outer planets, the rings, the asteroids, and the comets. This research is conducted using a variety of methods: laboratory experiments, theoretical approaches, data analysis, and Earth analog techniques. Through research supported by these programs, we are expanding our understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. This document is intended to provide an overview of the more significant scientific findings and discoveries made this year by scientists supported by the Planetary Geosciences Program. To a large degree, these results and discoveries are the measure of success of the programs.

  14. Planetary Vital Signs (United States)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David


    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  15. Dust in planetary nebulae (United States)

    Sloan, G. C.


    Infrared spectra from the Spitzer Space Telescope trace the evolution of carbon-rich dust from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to young planetary nebulae (PNe). On the AGB, amorphous carbon dominates the dust, but SiC and MgS also appear. In more evolved systems with warmer central stars, the spectra reveal the unidentified 21 μm feature, features from aliphatic hydrocarbons, and spectra from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), often with shifted feature positions indicative of the presence of aliphatics. More evolved systems with hot central stars show more typical PAH spectra, along with fullerenes and/or an emission feature known as the big-11 feature at ~11 μm. This features arises from a combination of SiC and PAHs, and it is usually accompanied by a shoulder at 18 μm, which while unidentified might be from cool silicate grains. The strong emission from MgS and SiC in young PNe probably arises from coatings on carbonaceous grains.

  16. Neutronic Analysis of the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine Using Various Thorium Molten Salts (United States)

    Acır, Adem


    In this study, a neutronic performance of the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) molten salt blanket is investigated. Neutronic calculations are performed by using XSDRNPM/SCALE5 codes in S8-P3 approximation. The thorium molten salt composition considered in this calculation is 75 % LiF—25 % ThF4, 75 % LiF—24 % ThF4—1 % 233UF4, 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4. Also, effects of the 6Li enrichment in molten salt are performed for all heavy metal salt. The radiation damage behaviors of SS-304 structural material with respect to higher fissionable fuel content and 6Li enrichment are computed. By higher fissionable fuel content in molten salt and with 6Li enrichment (20 and 50 %) in the coolant in form of 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4, an initial TBR >1.05 can be realized. On the other hand, the 75 % LiF—25 % ThF4 or 75 % LiF—24 % ThF4—1 % 233UF4 molten salt fuel as regards maintained tritium self-sufficiency is not suitable as regards improving neutronic performance of LIFE engine. A high quality fissile fuel with a rate of ~2,850 kg/year of 233U can be produced with 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4. The energy multiplication factor is increased with high rate fission reactions of 233U occurring in the molten salt zone. Major damage mechanisms in SS-304 first wall stell have been computed as DPA = 48 and He = 132 appm per year with 75 % LiF—23 % ThF4—2 % 233UF4. This implies a replacement of the SS-304 first wall stell of every between 3 and 4 years.

  17. Selective laser sintering fabrication of nano-hydroxyapatite/poly-ε-caprolactone scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Zhou, Panyu; Cheng, Xiaosong; Xie, Yang; Liang, Chong; Li, Chao; Xu, Shuogui


    The regeneration of functional tissue in osseous defects is a formidable challenge in orthopedic surgery. In the present study, a novel biomimetic composite scaffold, here called nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) was fabricated using a selective laser sintering technique. The macrostructure, morphology, and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were characterized. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds exhibited predesigned, well-ordered macropores and interconnected micropores. The scaffolds have a range of porosity from 78.54% to 70.31%, and a corresponding compressive strength of 1.38 MPa to 3.17 MPa. Human bone marrow stromal cells were seeded onto the nano-HA/PCL or PCL scaffolds and cultured for 28 days in vitro. As indicated by the level of cell attachment and proliferation, the nano-HA/PCL showed excellent biocompatibility, comparable to that of PCL scaffolds. The hydrophilicity, mineralization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and Alizarin Red S staining indicated that the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds are more bioactive than the PCL scaffolds in vitro. Measurements of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) release kinetics showed that after nano-HA was added, the material increased the rate of rhBMP-2 release. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the composite scaffolds, both nano-HA/PCL scaffolds and PCL scaffolds were implanted in rabbit femur defects for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The wounds were studied radiographically and histologically. The in vivo results showed that both nano-HA/PCL composite scaffolds and PCL scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility. However, the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation more than PCL scaffolds and fulfilled all the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Thus, they show large potential for use in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery.

  18. Radiative and convective properties of 316L Stainless Steel fabricated using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping process (United States)

    Knopp, Jonathan

    Temperature evolution of metallic materials during the additive manufacturing process has direct influence in determining the materials microstructure and resultant characteristics. Through the power of Infrared (IR) thermography it is now possible to monitor thermal trends in a build structure, giving the power to adjust building parameters in real time. The IR camera views radiation in the IR wavelengths and determines temperature of an object by the amount of radiation emitted from the object in those wavelengths. Determining the amount of radiation emitted from the material, known as a materials emissivity, can be difficult in that emissivity is affected by both temperature and surface finish. It has been shown that the use of a micro-blackbody cavity can be used as an accurate reference temperature when the sample is held at thermal equilibrium. A micro-blackbody cavity was created in a sample of 316L Stainless Steel after being fabricated during using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) process. Holding the sample at thermal equilibrium and using the micro-blackbody cavity as a reference and thermocouple as a second reference emissivity values were able to be obtained. IR thermography was also used to observe the manufacturing of these samples. When observing the IR thermography, patterns in the thermal history of the build were shown to be present as well as distinct cooling rates of the material. This information can be used to find true temperatures of 316L Stainless Steel during the LENS process for better control of desired material properties as well as future work in determining complete energy balance.

  19. Development of Technology and Equipment of the Automated Laser Welding for Manufacturing Heat Exchanger Details of Marine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelyagin, V.D.


    Full Text Available Based on the developed automated laser welding technology for flat tubes of copper-nickel alloys laser welding complex technological equipment, which can be applied on the enterprises of machine building, aerospace, shipbuilding and automobile industries, was designed and created. To control the integrity of welded flat tubes a technique, which consists in testing sample pressure and finding defective sections by laser interferometry in the automated mode, was developed. Specialized welding head was designed and manufactured for the industrial use of the developed laser welding technology.

  20. A review of energy bandgap engineering in III V semiconductor alloys for mid-infrared laser applications (United States)

    Yin, Zongyou; Tang, Xiaohong


    Semiconductor lasers emitting in mid-infrared (IR) range, 2-5 μm, have many important applications in semiconductor industries, military, environmental protection, telecommunications, molecular spectroscopy, biomedical surgery and researches. Different designs of the reactive regions in mid-IR laser structures have been investigated for achieving high performance devices. In this article, semiconductor mid-IR lasers with double heterostructure, quantum well, quantum cascade, quantum wire, quantum dash and quantum dot active regions have been reviewed. The performance of the lasers with these different active regions and the development of the newly emerging III-V-N materials for mid-IR applications have been discussed in details.

  1. NASA Planetary Visualization Tool (United States)

    Hogan, P.; Kim, R.


    NASA World Wind allows one to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging the combination of high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience Earth in visually rich 3D, just as if they were really there. NASA World Wind combines LandSat 7 imagery with Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data, for a dramatic view of the Earth at eye level. Users can literally fly across the world's terrain from any location in any direction. Particular focus was put into the ease of usability so people of all ages can enjoy World Wind. All one needs to control World Wind is a two button mouse. Additional guides and features can be accessed though a simplified menu. Navigation is automated with single clicks of a mouse as well as the ability to type in any location and automatically zoom to it. NASA World Wind was designed to run on recent PC hardware with the same technology used by today's 3D video games. NASA World Wind delivers the NASA Blue Marble, spectacular true-color imagery of the entire Earth at 1-kilometer-per-pixel. Using NASA World Wind, you can continue to zoom past Blue Marble resolution to seamlessly experience the extremely detailed mosaic of LandSat 7 data at an impressive 15-meters-per-pixel resolution. NASA World Wind also delivers other color bands such as the infrared spectrum. The NASA Scientific Visualization Studio at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has produced a set of visually intense animations that demonstrate a variety of subjects such as hurricane dynamics and seasonal changes across the globe. NASA World Wind takes these animations and plays them directly on the world. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) produces a set of time relevant planetary imagery that's updated every day. MODIS catalogs fires, floods, dust, smoke, storms and volcanic activity. NASA World Wind produces an easily customized view of this information and marks them directly on the globe. When one

  2. NASA's Space Lidar Measurements of Earth and Planetary Surfaces (United States)

    Abshire, James B.


    A lidar instrument on a spacecraft was first used to measure planetary surface height and topography on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon in 1971, The lidar was based around a flashlamp-pumped ruby laser, and the Apollo 15-17 missions used them to make a few thousand measurements of lunar surface height from orbit. With the advent of diode pumped lasers in the late 1980s, the lifetime, efficiency, resolution and mass of lasers and space lidar all improved dramatically. These advances were utilized in NASA space missions to map the shape and surface topography of Mars with > 600 million measurements, demonstrate initial space measurements of the Earth's topography, and measured the detailed shape of asteroid. NASA's ICESat mission in Earth orbit just completed its polar ice measurement mission with almost 2 billion measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and demonstrated measurements to Antarctica and Greenland with a height resolution of a few em. Space missions presently in cruise phase and in operation include those to Mercury and a topographic mapping mission of the Moon. Orbital lidar also have been used in experiments to demonstrate laser ranging over planetary distances, including laser pulse transmission from Earth to Mars orbit. Based on the demonstrated value of the measurements, lidar is now the preferred measurement approach for many new scientific space missions. Some missions planned by NASA include a planetary mission to measure the shape and dynamics of Europa, and several Earth orbiting missions to continue monitoring ice sheet heights, measure vegetation heights, assess atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and to map the Earth surface topographic heights with 5 m spatial resolution. This presentation will give an overview of history, ongoing work, and plans for using space lidar for measurements of the surfaces of the Earth and planets.

  3. Introduction to laser technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C Breck; Hecht, Jeff; Hitz, C Breck; John Wiley & Sons


    Electrical Engineering Introduction to Laser Technology , Third Edition. Would you like to know how a laser works, and how it can be modified for your own specific tasks? This intuitive third edition-previously published as Understanding Laser Technology , First and Second Editions-introduces engineers, scientists, technicians, and novices alike to the world of modern lasers, without delving into the mathematical details of quantum electronics. It is the only introductory text on the market today that explains the underlying physics and engineering applicable to all lasers. A unique combinatio.

  4. Planetary Geology Education on the Stage: Dynamics of Planetary Morphology in Theatre Performance (United States)

    Bérczi, Zs.; Bérczi, Sz.; Terebessy, T.


    The Living Picture Company planned and produced a performance, where planetary surface dynamics were realized and planetary morphology processes were animated, both of which are useful in planetary morphology education.

  5. High power lasers in manufacturing


    Chatwin, Chris R


    Lecture covers a brief history of lasers and the important beam parameters for manufacturing applications. It introduces the main laser types that are appropriate for manufacturing: carbon dioxide lasers, Nd YAG, Diode and fibre lasers, excimer lasers. It then looks at applications to different products and also micro-engineering

  6. Laser Transmission Measurements of Soot Extinction Coefficients in the Exhaust Plume of the X-34 60k-lb Thrust Fastrac Rocket Engine (United States)

    Dobson, C. C.; Eskridge, R. H.; Lee, M. H.


    A four-channel laser transmissometer has been used to probe the soot content of the exhaust plume of the X-34 60k-lb thrust Fastrac rocket engine at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The transmission measurements were made at an axial location about equal 1.65 nozzle diameters from the exit plane and are interpreted in terms of homogeneous radial zones to yield extinction coefficients from 0.5-8.4 per meter. The corresponding soot mass density, spatially averaged over the plume cross section, is, for Rayleigh particles, approximately equal to 0.7 micrograms/cubic cm and alternative particle distributions are briefly considered. Absolute plume radiance at the laser wavelength (515 nm) is estimated from the data at approximately equal to 2.200 K equivalent blackbody temperature, and temporal correlations in emission from several spatial locations are noted.

  7. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server


    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  8. Uncooled near- and mid-IR spectrometer engine. Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Agiltron proposes to develop an extremely compact and high sensitivity uncooled near- and mid-infrared (NMIR) spectrometer engine for planetary compositional...

  9. Planetary Image Geometry Library (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg


    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  10. The fragility of planetary systems (United States)

    Portegies Zwart, S. F.; Jílková, Lucie


    We specify the range to which perturbations penetrate a planetesimal system. Such perturbations can originate from massive planets or from encounters with other stars. The latter can have an origin in the star cluster in which the planetary system was born, or from random encounters once the planetary system has escaped its parental cluster. The probability of a random encounter, either in a star cluster or in the Galactic field depends on the local stellar density, the velocity dispersion and the time spend in that environment. By adopting order of magnitude estimates, we argue that the majority of planetary systems born in open clusters will have a Parking zone, in which planetesimals are affected by encounters in their parental star cluster but remain unperturbed after the star has left the cluster. Objects found in this range of semimajor axis and eccentricity preserve the memory of the encounter that last affected their orbits, and they can therefore be used to reconstruct this encounter. Planetary systems born in a denser environment, such as in a globular cluster are unlikely to have a Parking zone. We further argue that some planetary systems may have a Frozen zone, in which orbits are not affected either by the more inner massive planets or by external influences. Objects discovered in this zone will have preserved information about their formation in their orbital parameters.

  11. Robotic vehicles for planetary exploration (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian; Matthies, Larry; Gennery, Donald; Cooper, Brian; Nguyen, Tam; Litwin, Todd; Mishkin, Andrew; Stone, Henry


    A program to develop planetary rover technology is underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Developmental systems with the necessary sensing, computing, power, and mobility resources to demonstrate realistic forms of control for various missions have been developed, and initial testing has been completed. These testbed systems and the associated navigation techniques used are described. Particular emphasis is placed on three technologies: Computer-Aided Remote Driving (CARD), Semiautonomous Navigation (SAN), and behavior control. It is concluded that, through the development and evaluation of such technologies, research at JPL has expanded the set of viable planetary rover mission possibilities beyond the limits of remotely teleoperated systems such as Lunakhod. These are potentially applicable to exploration of all the solid planetary surfaces in the solar system, including Mars, Venus, and the moons of the gas giant planets.

  12. Time-resolved Raman spectroscopy for in situ planetary mineralogy. (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Rossman, George R; Gleckler, Anthony


    Planetary mineralogy can be revealed through a variety of remote sensing and in situ investigations that precede any plans for eventual sample return. We briefly review those techniques and focus on the capabilities for on-surface in situ examination of Mars, Venus, the Moon, asteroids, and other bodies. Over the past decade, Raman spectroscopy has continued to develop as a prime candidate for the next generation of in situ planetary instruments, as it provides definitive structural and compositional information of minerals in their natural geological context. Traditional continuous-wave Raman spectroscopy using a green laser suffers from fluorescence interference, which can be large (sometimes saturating the detector), particularly in altered minerals, which are of the greatest geophysical interest. Taking advantage of the fact that fluorescence occurs at a later time than the instantaneous Raman signal, we have developed a time-resolved Raman spectrometer that uses a streak camera and pulsed miniature microchip laser to provide picosecond time resolution. Our ability to observe the complete time evolution of Raman and fluorescence spectra in minerals makes this technique ideal for exploration of diverse planetary environments, some of which are expected to contain strong, if not overwhelming, fluorescence signatures. We discuss performance capability and present time-resolved pulsed Raman spectra collected from several highly fluorescent and Mars-relevant minerals. In particular, we have found that conventional Raman spectra from fine grained clays, sulfates, and phosphates exhibited large fluorescent signatures, but high quality spectra could be obtained using our time-resolved approach.

  13. Spice Tools Supporting Planetary Remote Sensing (United States)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.


    NASA's "SPICE"* ancillary information system has gradually become the de facto international standard for providing scientists the fundamental observation geometry needed to perform photogrammetry, map making and other kinds of planetary science data analysis. SPICE provides position and orientation ephemerides of both the robotic spacecraft and the target body; target body size and shape data; instrument mounting alignment and field-of-view geometry; reference frame specifications; and underlying time system conversions. SPICE comprises not only data, but also a large suite of software, known as the SPICE Toolkit, used to access those data and subsequently compute derived quantities-items such as instrument viewing latitude/longitude, lighting angles, altitude, etc. In existence since the days of the Magellan mission to Venus, the SPICE system has continuously grown to better meet the needs of scientists and engineers. For example, originally the SPICE Toolkit was offered only in Fortran 77, but is now available in C, IDL, MATLAB, and Java Native Interface. SPICE calculations were originally available only using APIs (subroutines), but can now be executed using a client-server interface to a geometry engine. Originally SPICE "products" were only available in numeric form, but now SPICE data visualization is also available. The SPICE components are free of cost, license and export restrictions. Substantial tutorials and programming lessons help new users learn to employ SPICE calculations in their own programs. The SPICE system is implemented and maintained by the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF)-a component of NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS). * Spacecraft, Planet, Instrument, Camera-matrix, Events

  14. Lambda quantification by laser optical measuring methods on a supercharged Otto engine with Benz indirect injection; Lambdaquantifizierung mittels laseroptischer Messmethoden am aufgeladenen Ottomotor mit Benzindirekteinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogler, Philipp


    For the optimization of upcoming SI engine generations it is indispensable to understand the mixture formation process in detail because it is the basis requirement for reducing emissions and fuel consumption. On this account, fuel sprays used for gasoline direct injection are investigated with advanced laser optical measurement techniques. The spatial fuel distribution of both vapor and liquid phase is measured with a new technology approach, in which the 3D-tomography is combined with the laser induced exciplex fluorescence to create a new technology. With this laser-induced exciplex fluorescence tomography (TLIEF) the vapor and liquid phase fuel distribution of annular orifice and multi hole injectors are investigated under stationary boundary conditions in an optically accessible spray vessel. The particle density inside the spray chamber is kept constant and set to resemble that of a typical stratified engine operation point during the injection phase. Pressure and temperature are varied for parameter studies. The 3D spray visualizations show a significant dependency of the spray propagation on the ambient temperature. The vaporized fuel generated by multihole injectors with nearby oriented spray plumes is elongated differently under high ambient temperatures (500 K) compared to room temperature. PIV flow field measurements revealed that the reason for this temperature dependent behavior is the spray induced air flow. The vapor phase, which is with increasing temperatures in greater distance from the injector predominantly present, with its, compared to fuel droplets, lower moment of inertia is stronger elongated by the spray induced air flow. For a more detailed understanding of the mixture formation processes, the air-fuel-ratio {lambda} is computed from the quantified TLIEF signals. Therefore the total fluorescence intensity within the spray volume at a time where the vaporization process has been completed is equalized to the known total injected mass

  15. Spray Formation from Spark-Eroded and Laser-Drilled Injectors for DISI Engines with Gasoline and Alcohol Fuels


    Behringer, M.; Aleiferis, P; OudeNijeweme, D; Freeland, P


    Copyright ? 2014 SAE International.One of the latest advancements in injector technology is laser drilling of the nozzle holes. In this context, the spray formation and atomisation characteristics of gasoline, ethanol and 1-butanol were investigated for a 7-hole spark eroded (SE) injector and its ?direct replacement? Laser-drilled (LD) injector using optical techniques. In the first step of the optical investigation, high-speed spray imaging was performed in a quiescent injection chamber with...

  16. Planetary Nomenclature: An Overview and Update (United States)

    Gaither, T.; Hayward, R. K.; Blue, J.; Gaddis, L.; Schulz, R.; Aksnes, K.; Burba, G.; Consolmagno, G.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Masson, P.; Sheehan, W.; Smith, B. A.; Williams, G.; Wood, C.


    This contribution is an update for the planetary science community on the status of planetary nomenclature, its purpose and rules, the process for submitting name requests, and the IAU approval process.

  17. SPEX: The spectropolarimeter for planetary EXploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, F.; Rietjens, J.H.H.; Harten, G. van; Stam, D.M.; Keller, C.U.; Smit, J.M.; Laan, E.C.; Verlaan, A.L.; Horst, R. ter; Navarro, R.; Wielinga, K.; Moon, S.G.; Voors, R.


    SPEX (Spectropolarimeter for Planetary EXploration) is an innovative, compact instrument for spectropolarimetry, and in particular for detecting and characterizing aerosols in planetary atmospheres. With its ∼1-liter volume it is capable of full linear spectropolarimetry, without moving parts. The

  18. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang


    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  19. Data indicating temperature response of Ti–6Al–4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett J. Marshall


    Full Text Available An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™ 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti–6Al–4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  20. Data indicating temperature response of Ti-6Al-4V thin-walled structure during its additive manufacture via Laser Engineered Net Shaping. (United States)

    Marshall, Garrett J; Thompson, Scott M; Shamsaei, Nima


    An OPTOMEC Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS(™)) 750 system was retrofitted with a melt pool pyrometer and in-chamber infrared (IR) camera for nondestructive thermal inspection of the blown-powder, direct laser deposition (DLD) process. Data indicative of temperature and heat transfer within the melt pool and heat affected zone atop a thin-walled structure of Ti-6Al-4V during its additive manufacture are provided. Melt pool temperature data were collected via the dual-wavelength pyrometer while the dynamic, bulk part temperature distribution was collected using the IR camera. Such data are provided in Comma Separated Values (CSV) file format, containing a 752×480 matrix and a 320×240 matrix of temperatures corresponding to individual pixels of the pyrometer and IR camera, respectively. The IR camera and pyrometer temperature data are provided in blackbody-calibrated, raw forms. Provided thermal data can aid in generating and refining process-property-performance relationships between laser manufacturing and its fabricated materials.

  1. Virtual reality and planetary exploration (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    Exploring planetary environments is central to NASA's missions and goals. A new computing technology called Virtual Reality has much to offer in support of planetary exploration. This technology augments and extends human presence within computer-generated and remote spatial environments. Historically, NASA has been a leader in many of the fundamental concepts and technologies that comprise Virtual Reality. Indeed, Ames Research Center has a central role in the development of this rapidly emerging approach to using computers. This ground breaking work has inspired researchers in academia, industry, and the military. Further, NASA's leadership in this technology has spun off new businesses, has caught the attention of the international business community, and has generated several years of positive international media coverage. In the future, Virtual Reality technology will enable greatly improved human-machine interactions for more productive planetary surface exploration. Perhaps more importantly, Virtual Reality technology will democratize the experience of planetary exploration and thereby broaden understanding of, and support for, this historic enterprise.

  2. Planetary Science Resource Data Model (United States)

    Cecconi, B.; Berthier, J.; Bourrel, N.; Gangloff, M.; Erard, S.; Le Sidaner, P.; André, N.; Jacquey, C.; Lormant, N.


    One the goals of the Europlanet/IDIS project is the prototyping a Planetary Sciences Virtual Observatory (VO). Planetary sciences are covering several science thematics: atmospheres, surfaces, interiors, small bodies, orbital parameters, in situ exploration, plasma (waves, particle and fields), radio astronomy... They also include a large variety of data types: images, spectra, times series, movies, dynamic spectra, profiles, maps... and an even larger variety of physical parameters, including remote data, in-situ data, models, lab experiments, field analogs. The main challenge is thus to be able to homogeneously describe all the planetary science resources (dataset, files, services...). The skeleton of a such a description is the data model. The Planetary Science Resource Data Model (PSRDM) has been built using IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance). We describe the content of Datasets and Granules (i.e., product, file, or the smallest granularity distributed by the service), not the access to the data. This description includes: Resource identification, Targets, Instruments (including hosting facility), Axis (including bounds, resolution, sampling, unit), Physical parameter (including UCD, unit).

  3. Planetary imaging with amateur astronomical instruments (United States)

    Papathanasopoulos, k.; Giannaris, G.


    Planetary imaging can be varied by the types and size of instruments and processing. With basic amateur telescopes and software, can be captured images of our planetary system, mainly Jupiter, Saturn and Mars, but also solar eclipses, solar flares, and many more. Planetary photos can be useful for professional astronomers, and how amateur astronomers can play a role on that field.

  4. Planetary Protection Bioburden Analysis Program (United States)

    Beaudet, Robert A.


    is programmed in Visual Basic for Applications for installation as a simple add-in for Microsoft Excel. The user is directed to a graphical user interface (GUI) that requires user inputs and provides solutions directly in Microsoft Excel workbooks. This work was done by Shannon Ryan of the USRA Lunar and Planetary Institute for Johnson Space Center. Further information is contained in a TSP (see page 1). MSC- 24582-1 Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD) Shield Ballistic Limit Analysis Program Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas Commercially, because it is so generic, Enigma can be used for almost any project that requires engineering visualization, model building, or animation. Models in Enigma can be exported to many other formats for use in other applications as well. Educationally, Enigma is being used to allow university students to visualize robotic algorithms in a simulation mode before using them with actual hardware. This work was done by David Shores and Sharon P. Goza of Johnson Space Center; Cheyenne McKeegan, Rick Easley, Janet Way, and Shonn Everett of MEI Technologies; Mark Manning of PTI; and Mark Guerra, Ray Kraesig, and William Leu of Tietronix Software, Inc. For further information, contact the JSC Innovation Partnerships Office at (281) 483-3809. MSC-24211-1 Spitzer Telemetry Processing System NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California The Spitzer Telemetry Processing System (SirtfTlmProc) was designed to address objectives of JPL's Multi-mission Image Processing Lab (MIPL) in processing spacecraft telemetry and distributing the resulting data to the science community. To minimize costs and maximize operability, the software design focused on automated error recovery, performance, and information management. The system processes telemetry from the Spitzer spacecraft and delivers Level 0 products to the Spitzer Science Center. SirtfTlmProc is a unique system with automated error notification and recovery, with a real

  5. Planetary volatile history - Principles and practice (United States)

    Fanale, F. P.


    The history and evolution of planetary volatile inventories are considered. Planetary bulk volatile inventories are greatly affected by the distance from the preplanetary nebula center at which material accreted, with volatile contents increasing with increasing distance from the nebula center. Other significant factors include: planetary energetics and internal thermal history, planetary volatile sinks (including space), and operation of external variables such as solar energy on the transient, steady-state array of surface volatiles. The net result of all these processes is a volatile history that is itself a controlling factor in overall planetary history.

  6. The Anthropocene: A Planetary Perspective (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.; York, A.; Selin, C.


    The Anthropocene is a new planetary epoch defined by the emergence of human activity as one of the most important driving forces on Earth, rivaling and also stressing the other systems that govern the planet's habitability. Public discussions and debates about the challenges of this epoch tend to be polarized. One extreme denies that humans have a planetary-scale impact, while the other wishes that this impact could disappear. The tension between these perspectives is often paralyzing. Effective adaptation and mitigation requires a new perspective that reframes the conversation. We propose a planetary perspective according to which this epoch is the result of a recent major innovation in the 4 ­billion ­year history of life on Earth: the emergence of an energy-intensive planetary civilization. The rate of human energy use is already within an order of magnitude of that of the rest of the biosphere, and rising rapidly, and so this innovation is second only to the evolution of photosynthesis in terms of energy capture and utilization by living systems. Such energy use has and will continue to affect Earth at planetary scale. This reality cannot be denied nor wished away. From this pragmatic perspective, the Anthropocene is not an unnatural event that can be reversed, as though humanity is separate from the Earth systems with which we are co-evolving. Rather, it is an evolutionary transition to be managed. This is the challenge of turning a carelessly altered planet into a carefully designed and managed world, maintaining a "safe operating space" for human civilization (Steffen et al., 2011). To do so, we need an integrated approach to Earth systems science that considers humans as a natural and integral component of Earth's systems. Insights drawn from the humanities and the social sciences must be integrated with the natural sciences in order to thrive in this new epoch. This type of integrated perspective is relatively uncontroversial on personal, local, and even

  7. Research report for fiscal 1998. Development of advanced surface processing technology for methane-fueled aircraft engine members (Laser-aided advanced processing system technology); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Methane nenryo kokukiyo engine buzai no kodo hyomen kako gijutsu kaihatsu (Laser oyo senshin kako system gijutsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    For the research and development of erosion-resistant abradable materials for the methane-fueled aircraft engine front section, a laser-aided surface reform technology was developed for Ti alloys and the like. In relation with the article 'Intermetallic Compound Coating Formation Technology,' an NiTi sprayed coating containing excess Ni solid solution was found to be quite high in resistance to erosion, and similar to Ti-6Al-4V in resistance to oxidation at 300 degrees C. Furthermore, an MCrAlY erosion-resistant coating was formed capable of resisting oxidation at temperatures higher than 1000 degrees C. In relation with the article 'Spraying Phenomenon Evaluation Technology,' studies were made of combustion synthesis reaction during plasma spraying and of the prediction of flight trajectories of different powders, for which optical fiber dichroic temperature measuring, 2-dimensional imaging, and LDV (laser Doppler velocimetry) were applied in combination. Concerning the spraying of intermetallic compound coatings, a temperature rise occurred when heating by laser was performed simultaneously with the laser-induced combustion synthesis reaction. In relation with the article 'Technology of Multiple Spraying on Curved Substrate,' it was found that the gas cooled method works effectively when spraying an erosion-resistant coating onto a thin Ti alloy made turbine blade. (NEDO)

  8. Laser weapons (United States)

    Tsipis, K.


    The potential for deploying lasers as an effective antimissile system is assessed. High intensity and precise collimation are noted as essential for lasers as weapons, although size and material properties determine the actual performance. Gas-dynamic, electron, and chemical lasers are reviewed as prime weapons candidates. Space-, ground-, and ship-based uses are considered; each demands precision pointing, involving movable mirrors, target tracking and condition sensors, and central processing for target choice, along with large capacity power generation and storage. Laser propagation in the atmosphere is degraded by absorption, scattering, thermal blooming, turbulence (causes diffraction), and plasma formation ahead of the beam. Different modes of damaging missiles are reviewed, and it is found that mirrored surfaces, ablative coatings, and fluid layers have significant abilities to protect a missile in-flight. Destroying an ICBM in the boost phase is calculated to require a one million MW generator, far beyond current power engineering capabilities. Conventional weapons are viewed as more effective than lasers, although high energy laser research may have definite applications in areas such as chemical engineering

  9. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.


    This is the final report of a program that examined the fundamentals of education associated with space activities, promoted educational policy development in appropriate forums, and developed pathfinder products and services to demonstrate the utility of advanced communication technologies for space-based education. Our focus was on space astrophysics and planetary exploration, with a special emphasis on the themes of the Origins Program, with which the Principal Investigator (PI) had been involved from the outset. Teaching, Learning, and Planetary Exploration was also the core funding of the Space Telescope Science Institute's (ST ScI) Special Studies Office (SSO), and as such had provided basic support for such important NASA studies as the fix for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spherical aberration, scientific conception of the HST Advanced Camera, specification of the Next-Generation Space Telescope (NGST), and the strategic plan for the second decade of the HST science program.

  10. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates

    CERN Document Server

    Calisesi, Y; Gray, L; Langen, J; Lockwood, M


    Variations in solar activity, as revealed by variations in the number of sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. To what extent changes in the solar output may affect planetary climates, though, remains today more than ever a subject of controversy. In 2000, the SSSI volume on Solar Variability and Climate reviewed the to-date understanding of the physics of solar variability and of the associated climate response. The present volume on Solar Variability and Planetary Climates provides an overview of recent advances in this field, with particular focus at the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere. The book structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005, the collection of invited workshop contributions and of complementary introductory papers synthesizing the current understanding in key research areas such as middle atmospheric processes, stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling, tropospheric aerosols chemistry, solar storm influences, solar variability physics, and terrestri...

  11. Gigayear Instabilities in Planetary Systems (United States)

    Fabrycky, Daniel

    One of the biggest modern discoveries about the Solar System is that it is chaotic (Laskar 1989, 1994). On million-year timescales, nearby trajectories exponentially diverge; on billion-year timescales, planets can develop large eccentricities and even collide. This is possible because our planets interact with enough energy and with the right (secular) timescales. This has the potential to put the planet Mercury on an unstable orbit in the future, before the Sun exhausts its fuel. Currently, as a standard step in the analysis, exoplanet observing teams check whether the planetary systems they are discovering are stable. This usually involves a few-Megayear numerical integration, and the system usually passes that test. However, the signatures of continuing instability have not been looked for in the exoplanet population, nor has its implications for planetary formation and evolution been fully recognized. We will study several specific evolutionary scenarios in which instability may manifest only on gigayear timescales, i.e. midway through the lives of the host stars. This is relevant to the solicitation in that it characterizes the dynamics of exoplanetary systems. In the first project, we will compare N-body, numerically-calculated secular, and Fourier-expansion secular theories to determine what essential ingredients go into the conclusion that a general planetary system is chaotic. We will apply these tools to specific realizations of Kepler-discovered close-in planetary systems consisting of three or more Neptunes or super-Earths, which is the most populous known exoplanet population. We will thus find the common ailments afflicting middle-age planetary systems. In the second project, we will consider how planets might get stranded in their Kuiper and Oort clouds during early system evolution, only to destabilize the inner system later on. Various investigators have wondered whether the Solar System is accompanied by a massive planetary companion, including a

  12. Teaching Planetary Science as Part of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Greenberg, Adam H.


    In Spring 2016 and 2017, UCLA offered a course titled "EPSS C179/279 - Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Theory and Applications". The course is designed for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students in the science, technical, engineering, and mathematical fields. Each year, students designed an observing sequence for the Green Bank telescope, observed known planetary systems remotely, wrote a sophisticated and modular data processing pipeline, analyzed the data, and presented their results. In 2016, 15 students participated in the course (9U, 5G; 11M, 3F) and observed 14 planetary systems in the Kepler field. In 2017, 17 students participated (15U, 2G; 10M, 7F) and observed 10 planetary systems in the Kepler field, TRAPPIST-1, and LHS 1140. In order to select suitable targets, students learned about planetary systems, planetary habitability, and planetary dynamics. In addition to planetary science fundamentals, students learned radio astronomy fundamentals, collaborative software development, signal processing techniques, and statistics. Evaluations indicate that the course is challenging but that students are eager to learn because of the engrossing nature of SETI. Students particularly value the teamwork approach, the observing experience, and working with their own data. The next offering of the course will be in Spring 2018. Additional information about our SETI work is available at

  13. Gazetteer of planetary nomenclature 1994 (United States)

    Batson, Raymond M.; Russell, Joel F.


    Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or satellite so that the feature can be easily located, described, and discussed. This volume contains detailed information about all names of topographic and albedo features on planets and satellites (and some planetary ring and ring-gap systems) that the International Astronomical Union has named and approved from its founding in 1919 through its triennial meeting in 1994.This edition of the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature supersedes an earlier informal volume distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1986 as Open-File Report 84-692 (Masursky and others, 1986). Named features are depicted on maps of the Moon published first by the U.S. Defense Mapping Agency or the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center and more recently by the U.S. Geological Survey; on maps of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus published by the U.S. Geological Survey; and on maps of the Moon, Venus, and Mars produced by the U.S.S.R.Although we have attempted to check the accuracy of all data in this volume, we realize that some errors will remain in a work of this size. Readers noting errors or omissions are urged to communicate them to the U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology, Rm. 409, 2255 N. Gemini Drive, Flagstaff, AZ 86001.

  14. Finite element predictions compared to experimental results for the effective modulus of bone tissue engineering scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering. (United States)

    Cahill, S; Lohfeld, S; McHugh, P E


    A current challenge in bone tissue engineering is to create scaffolds with suitable mechanical properties, high porosity, full interconnectivity and suitable pore size. In this paper, polyamide and polycaprolactone scaffolds were fabricated using a solid free form technique known as selective laser sintering. These scaffolds had fully interconnected pores, minimized strut thickness, and a porosity of approximately 55%. Tensile and compression tests as well as finite element analysis were carried out on these scaffolds. It was found that the values predicted for the effective modulus by the FE model were much higher than the actual values obtained from experimental results. One possible explanation for this discrepancy, viz. the surface roughness of the scaffold and the presence of micropores in the scaffold struts, was investigated with a view to making recommendations on improving FE model configurations for accurate effective property predictions.

  15. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.


    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  16. PASCAL - Planetary Atmospheres Spectral Catalog (United States)

    Rothman, Laurence; Gordon, Iouli


    Spectroscopic observation of planetary atmospheres, stellar atmospheres, comets, and the interstellar medium is the most powerful tool for extracting detailed information concerning the properties of these objects. The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database1 has traditionally served researchers involved with terrestrial atmospheric problems, such as remote-sensing of constituents in the atmosphere, pollution monitoring at the surface, identification of sources seen through the atmosphere, and numerous environmental issues. A new thrust of the HITRAN program is to extend this longstanding database to have capabilities for studying the above-mentioned planetary and astronomical systems. The new extension is called PASCAL (Planetary Atmospheres Spectral Catalog). The methodology and structure are basically identical to the construction of the HITRAN and HITEMP databases. We will acquire and assemble spectroscopic parameters for gases and spectral bands of molecules that are germane to the studies of planetary atmospheres. These parameters include the types of data that have already been considered for transmission and radiance algorithms, such as line position, intensity, broadening coefficients, lower-state energies, and temperature dependence values. Additional parameters beyond what is currently considered for the terrestrial atmosphere will be archived. Examples are collision-broadened halfwidths due to various foreign partners, collision-induced absorption, and temperature dependence factors. New molecules (and their isotopic variants), not currently included in the HITRAN database, will be incorporated. That includes hydrocarbons found on Titan but not archived in HITRAN (such as C3H4, C4H2, C3H8). Other examples include sulfur-bearing molecules such as SO and CS. A further consideration will be spectral bands that arise as opportunities to study exosolar planets. The task involves acquiring the best high-resolution data, both experimental and theoretical

  17. Biomedical engineering meets acupuncture - development of a miniaturized 48-channel skin impedance measurement system for needle and laser acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lu


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to controversially discussed results in scientific literature concerning changes of electrical skin impedance before and during acupuncture a new measurement system has been developed. Methods The prototype measures and analyzes the electrical skin impedance computer-based and simultaneously in 48 channels within a 2.5×3.5 cm matrix. Preliminary measurements in one person were performed using metal needle and violet laser (405 nm acupuncture at the acupoint Kongzui (LU6. The new system is an improvement on devices previously developed by other researchers for this purpose. Results Skin impedance in the immediate surroundings of the acupoint was lowered reproducibly following needle stimulation and also violet laser stimulation. Conclusions A new instrumentation for skin impedance measurements is presented. The following hypotheses suggested by our results will have to be tested in further studies: Needle acupuncture causes significant, specific local changes of electrical skin impedance parameters. Optical stimulation (violet laser at an acupoint causes direct electrical biosignal changes.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of IN100 Superalloy Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair: Process Development, Modeling, Microstructural Characterization, and Process Control (United States)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Das, Suman


    This article describes additive manufacturing (AM) of IN100, a high gamma-prime nickel-based superalloy, through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE), aimed at the creation of thick deposits onto like-chemistry substrates for enabling repair of turbine engine hot-section components. SLE is a metal powder bed-based laser AM technology developed for nickel-base superalloys with equiaxed, directionally solidified, and single-crystal microstructural morphologies. Here, we combine process modeling, statistical design-of-experiments (DoE), and microstructural characterization to demonstrate fully metallurgically bonded, crack-free and dense deposits exceeding 1000 μm of SLE-processed IN100 powder onto IN100 cast substrates produced in a single pass. A combined thermal-fluid flow-solidification model of the SLE process compliments DoE-based process development. A customized quantitative metallography technique analyzes digital cross-sectional micrographs and extracts various microstructural parameters, enabling process model validation and process parameter optimization. Microindentation measurements show an increase in the hardness by 10 pct in the deposit region compared to the cast substrate due to microstructural refinement. The results illustrate one of the very few successes reported for the crack-free deposition of IN100, a notoriously "non-weldable" hot-section alloy, thus establishing the potential of SLE as an AM method suitable for hot-section component repair and for future new-make components in high gamma-prime containing crack-prone nickel-based superalloys.

  19. Laser engineered net shaping of quasi-continuous network microstructural TiB reinforced titanium matrix bulk composites: Microstructure and wear performance (United States)

    Hu, Yingbin; Ning, Fuda; Wang, Hui; Cong, Weilong; Zhao, Bo


    Titanium (Ti) and its alloys have been successfully applied to the aeronautical and biomedical industries. However, their poor tribological properties restrict their fields of applications under severe wear conditions. Facing to these challenges, this study investigated TiB reinforced Ti matrix composites (TiB-TMCs), fabricated by in-situ laser engineered net shaping (LENS) process, through analyzing parts quality, microstructure formation mechanisms, microstructure characterizations, and workpiece wear performance. At high B content areas (original B particle locations), reaction between Ti and B particles took place, generating flower-like microstructure. At low B content areas, eutectic TiB nanofibers contacted with each other with the formation of crosslinking microstructure. The crosslinking microstructural TiB aggregated and connected at the boundaries of Ti grains, forming a three-dimensional quasi-continuous network microstructure. The results show that compared with commercially pure Ti bulk parts, the TiB-TMCs exhibited superior wear performance (i.e. indentation wear resistance and friction wear resistance) due to the present of TiB reinforcement and the innovative microstructures formed inside TiB-TMCs. In addition, the qualities of the fabricated parts were improved with fewer interior defects by optimizing laser power, thus rendering better wear performance.

  20. New Carriers and Sensors for Robotic Planetary Exploration (United States)

    Romstedt, J.; Schiele, A.; Boudin, N.; Coste, P.; Lindner, R.

    The robotic element of planetary exploration missions does play a crucial role for a successful mission completion. The development of reliable and rugged systems with at the same time low resource requirements and a generous acceptance of harsh environmental conditions is an important constituent of supportive research and development programs. This paper introduces a selection of new technologies developed by ESA support programs to foster the European scientific community and industry. Presented is a focused selection of potential scientific payload carrier modules and its highly integrated scientific instruments designed for in-situ exploration missions to planets and small bodies of our solar system. These developments could serve surface modules with very low resource availability. Low resource requirements and a highly integrated character is an important technology driver of all development plans. The Nanokhod micro-rover is a mobile element capable to explore the surrounding of a stationary lander unit within a radius of 50 meter. Via a tether connection the provision of all communication and power distribution is ensured. The Nanokhod concepts merges the idea of the design of an "as small as possible" mobile element yet keeping the capability to carry a substantial scientific payload suite to analyse the near-by landing site. The engineering model has been build and will undergo a challenging test campaign in the near future. The development of the Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility (GIPF), the payload suite designed for the Nanokhod rover, has been finalized and delivered to ESA. It consists of an Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), a Mössbauer spectrometer (MIMOS2) and a micro camera (MIROCAM). The instrument front ends have already been thermally qualified at cryogenic temperatures. Beyond a partial heritage from existing flight models all instruments were modified towards an accommodation in the rover's payload cabin and an increased

  1. Small Innovative Missions for Planetary Exploration (SIMPLEx) (United States)

    Daou, D.


    The Small Innovative Missions for Planetary Exploration (SIMPLEx) supports the formulation and development of science investigations that require a spaceflight mission that can be accomplished using small spacecraft. SIMPLEx is responsive to the goals of the Planetary Science Division, as described in the 2014 NASA Science Plan. This presentation will discuss the NASA Planetary Science Divisions SIMPLEx initiative and provide a status update on the first cadre of selected investigations.

  2. Compact, Dual Channel, Mid-IR Laser Spectrometer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a dual channel, compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer for planetary atmosphere...

  3. Compact, Dual Channel, Mid-IR Laser Spectrometer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a dual channel, compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer for planetary atmosphere...

  4. Planetary Science Training for NASA's Astronauts: Preparing for Future Human Planetary Exploration (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Young, K. E.; Zeigler, R.


    Astronauts selected in 2017 and in future years will carry out in situ planetary science research during exploration of the solar system. Training to enable this goal is underway and is flexible to accommodate an evolving planetary science vision.

  5. Copper Vapor Laser with One-Beam Radiation of Diffraction Quality and Its Capabilities for Microprocessing of Materials for Electronic Engineering Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lyabin


    Full Text Available The structure, spatial, time and energy characteristics of copper vapor laser radiation (CVL with optical resonators possessing high spatial selectivity have been investigated: with an unstable resonator (UR with two convex mirrors and telescopic UR, and the conditions to form one-beam radiation with diffraction divergence and high stability of directivity pattern axis have been defined.The most weighty and prospective application of CVL with UR with two convex mirrors is to use it as a driving oscillator (DO in a copper vapor laser system (CVLS of the type: driving oscillator – power amplifier (DO – PA when diffraction beam radiating power and power density in a focused spot of 10-20 µm in diameter increases by 1-2 orders. Using industrial sealed-off active elements (AE of “Kulon” series with an average radiation power of 15-25 W as PAs the peak power density increases up to 1011 W/cm 2 while an application of AE “Crystal” with 30- 50 W power gives up to 1012 W/cm 2 , which is sufficient for efficient and qualitative microprocessing of materials up to 1…2 mm thick. Such a CVLS has become the basis for creating up-to-date automated laser technological installations (ALTI of “Karavella-1” and “Karavella-1M” types to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.5 mm thick and of non-metal up to 1.5…1.8 mm thick.CVL with a telescopic UR with an average power of 5-6 W diffraction radiation beam has become the basis for creating industrial ALTI “Karavella-2” and “Karavella-2M” to manufacture precision parts of electronic engineering products (EEP of metal up to 0.3 mm thick and of non-metal up to 0.5 – 0.7 mm thick.Practical work on all types of ALTI “Karavella” has shown a set of significant advantages of a laser way of pulsed microprocessing over the traditional ones, including electro-erosion machining: a wide range of structural metal and non-metal materials to be

  6. Robotic Tool Changer for Planetary Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future planetary exploration missions will require compact, lightweight robotic manipulators for handling a variety of tools & instruments without increasing the...

  7. Sealed Planetary Return Canister (SPRC) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample return missions have primary importance in future planetary missions. A basic requirement is that samples be returned in pristine, uncontaminated condition,...

  8. Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Institute of Geophysics, Planetary Physics, and Signatures at Los Alamos National Laboratory is committed to promoting and supporting high quality, cutting-edge...

  9. Space Robotics: Robotic Rovers for Planetary Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ellery


    Full Text Available In this third of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of planetary rovers with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to planetary robotics and not usually associated with terrestrial mobile robotics. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and this paper stresses the issue of rover-terrain interaction as an important consideration. Soil-vehicle interaction originates from military vehicle research but may be regarded as part of the dynamical approach to mobile robotics. For hostile planetary surfaces, this is essential in order to design a robotic rover with sufficient tractive capability to traverse planetary surfaces.

  10. PSUP: A Planetary SUrface Portal (United States)

    Poulet, F.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Ballans, H.; Dassas, K.; Audouard, J.; Carter, J.; Gondet, B.; Lozac'h, L.; Malapert, J.-C.; Marmo, C.; Riu, L.; Séjourné, A.


    The large size and complexity of planetary data acquired by spacecraft during the last two decades create a demand within the planetary community for access to the archives of raw and high level data and for the tools necessary to analyze these data. Among the different targets of the Solar System, Mars is unique as the combined datasets from the Viking, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions provide a tremendous wealth of information that can be used to study the surface of Mars. The number and the size of the datasets require an information system to process, manage and distribute data. The Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) have developed a portal, called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal), for providing users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the Martian surface. The objectives of the portal are: 1) to allow processing and downloading of data via a specific application called MarsSI (Martian surface data processing Information System); 2) to provide the visualization and merging of high level (image, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu), and 3) to distribute some of these specific high level data with an emphasis on products issued by the science teams of OSUPS and OSUL. As the MarsSI service is extensively described in a companion paper (Quantin-Nataf et al., companion paper, submitted to this special issue), the present paper focus on the general architecture and the functionalities of the web-based user interface MarsVisu. This service provides access to many data products for Mars: albedo, mineral and thermal inertia global maps from spectrometers; mosaics from imagers; image footprints and rasters from the MarsSI tool; high level specific products (defined as catalogs or vectors). MarsVisu can be used to quickly assess the visualized processed data and maps as well as identify areas that have not been mapped yet

  11. Planetary Radars Operating Centre PROC (United States)

    Catallo, C.; Flamini, E.; Seu, R.; Alberti, G.


    Planetary exploration by means of radar systems, mainly using Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR) plays an important role in Italy. Numerous scientific international space programs are currently carried out jointly with ESA and NASA by Italian Space Agency, the scientific community and the industry. Three important experiments under Italian leadership ( designed and manufactured by the Italian industry), provided by ASI either as contribution to ESA programs either within a NASA/ASI joint venture framework, are now operating: MARSIS on-board Mars Express, SHARAD on-board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and CASSINI Radar on-board Cassini spacecraft. In order to support all the scientific communities, institutional customers and experiment teams operation three Italian dedicated operational centers have been realized, namely SHOC, (Sharad Operating Centre), MOC (Marsis Operating Center) and CASSINI PAD ( Processing Altimetry Data). Each center is dedicated to a single instrument management and control, data processing and distribution. Although they had been conceived to operate autonomously and independently one from each other, synergies and overlaps have been envisaged leading to the suggestion of a unified center, the Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC). PROC is conceived in order to include the three operational centers, namely SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD, either from logistics point of view and from HW/SW capabilities point of view. The Planetary Radar Processing Center shall be conceived as the Italian support facility to the scientific community for on-going and future Italian planetary exploration programs. Therefore, scalability, easy use and management shall be the design drivers. The paper describes how PROC is designed and developed, to allow SHOC, MOC and CASSINI PAD to operate as before, and to offer improved functionalities to increase capabilities, mainly in terms of data exchange, comparison, interpretation and exploitation. Furthermore, in the frame of

  12. Introduction to laser technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C Breck; Hecht, Jeff


    The only introductory text on the market today that explains the underlying physics and engineering applicable to all lasersAlthough lasers are becoming increasingly important in our high-tech environment, many of the technicians and engineers who install, operate, and maintain them have had little, if any, formal training in the field of electro-optics. This can result in less efficient usage of these important tools. Introduction to Laser Technology, Fourth Edition provides readers with a good understanding of what a laser is and what it can and cannot do. The book explains what types of las.

  13. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Sample Analysis Facilities (United States)

    Cloquet, C.; Mason, N. J.; Davies, G. R.; Marty, B.


    study of long (e.g. Rb- Sr, Sm-Nd…) and short-lived radioisotope (e.g. Mg- Al, Hf-W..), including also Os isotopes, stable and non traditional stable isotope facilities (e.g. Fe, Pb, Zn…). The facility comprises three multicollector Thermal ionization mass spectrometers (TIMS) and two multi-collector ICP-MS one of which is fitted with 193 nm laser for in situ work. In addition these instruments are fully supported by sample preparation labs (crushing, mineral separation/picking), a clean lab and geochemical support (XRF; ICP; ICP-MS etc). Data that can be obtained on samples containing sub nano gram to nanogram amounts. Organic matter analysis at OU Leco Pegasus IV GCxGC-TOFMS - mass spectrometric complete characterisation of very complex mixtures of organic materials. The Pegasus EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00437, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 4D GCxGC-TOFMS system, from Leco, provides the analyst with four dimensions of analytical resolution for significantly more complete sample analysis compared to conventional GC-Mass Spectrometry. The main advantages include: 1) The significantly increased sensitivity over the whole mass range (5- 1000 amu); 2)The separation of compounds that coelute on standard gas chromatograph systems; 3) Separation of analytes by volatility and polarity enables traditionally unresolved mixtures to be examined in detail, and vastly increases the number of compounds identified; 4) Greatly increased signal to noise ratio, due to compounds being separated from the column bleed of the first column on the second GC column and an enormous increase in the Spectral Generation Rate. A number of different pyrolysis and injection sample introduction facilities are available and access to off-line data processing and reference libraries. This is the only instrument of this type in a European laboratory with a significant focus on extraterrestrial materials. Thermo MAT 253 GC-IRMS -isotopic measurements of H, C or N on

  14. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G


    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  15. Theory of Planetary System Formation (United States)

    Cassen, Patrick


    Observations and theoretical considerations support the idea that the Solar System formed by the collapse of tenuous interstellar matter to a disk of gas and dust (the primitive solar nebula), from which the Sun and other components separated under the action of dissipative forces and by the coagulation of solid material. Thus, planets are understood to be contemporaneous byproducts of star formation. Because the circumstellar disks of new stars are easier to observe than mature planetary systems, the possibility arises that the nature and variety of planets might be studied from observations of the conditions of their birth. A useful theory of planetary system formation would therefore relate the properties of circumstellar disks both to the initial conditions of star formation and to the consequent properties of planets to those of the disk. Although the broad outlines of such a theory are in place, many aspects are either untested, controversial, or otherwise unresolved; even the degree to which such a comprehensive theory is possible remains unknown.

  16. Molecular studies of Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Zhang, Yong


    Circumstellar envelopes (CEs) around evolved stars are an active site for the production of molecules. After evolving through the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), proto-planetary nebula (PPN), to planetary nebula (PN) phases, CEs ultimately merge with the interstellar medium (ISM). The study of molecules in PNe, therefore, is essential to understanding the transition from stellar to interstellar materials. So far, over 20 molecular species have been discovered in PNe. The molecular composition of PNe is rather different from those of AGB and PPNe, suggesting that the molecules synthesized in PN progenitors have been heavily processed by strong ultraviolet radiation from the central star. Intriguingly, fullerenes and complex organic compounds having aromatic and aliphatic structures can be rapidly formed and largely survive during the PPN/PN evolution. The similar molecular compositions in PNe and diffuse clouds as well as the detection of C60 + in the ISM reinforce the view that the mass-loss from PNe can significantly enrich the ISM with molecular species, some of which may be responsible for the diffuse interstellar bands. In this contribution, I briefly summarize some recent observations of molecules in PNe, with emphasis on their implications on circumstellar chemistry.

  17. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin


    I present here a new, indivisible planetary science paradigm, a wholly self-consistent vision of the nature of matter in the Solar System, and dynamics and energy sources of planets. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures. Earth's complete condensation included a 300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions stripped the gases away from the inner planets and stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet, and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System and formed the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. In response to decompression-driven planetary volume increases, cracks form to increase surface area and mountain ranges ...

  18. Assessing the Potential of Stratospheric Balloons for Planetary Science (United States)

    Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot; Landis, Robert; Noll, Keith; Baines, Kevin


    Recent developments in high altitude balloon platform capabilities, specifically long duration flights in excess of 50 days at over 100,000 ft and precision pointing with performance at the arc sec level or better have raised the question whether this platform can be utilized for high-value planetary science observations. In January of 2012 a workshop was held at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio to explore what planetary science can be achieved utilizing such a platform. Over 40 science concepts were identified by the scientists and engineers attending the workshop. Those ideas were captured and then posted to a public website for all interested planetary scientists to review and give their comments. The results of the workshop, and subsequent community review, have demonstrated that this platform appears to have potential for high-value science at very competitive costs. Given these positive results, the assessment process was extended to include 1) examining, in more detail, the requirements for the gondola platform and the mission scenarios 2) identifying technical challenges and 3) developing one or more platform concepts in enough fidelity to enable accurate estimating of development and mission costs. This paper provides a review of the assessment, a summary of the achievable science and the challenges to make that science a reality with this platform.

  19. Use of terrestrial laser scanning for engineering geological applications on volcanic rock slopes – an example from Madeira island (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Nguyen


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the adoption of a modern, widely-used Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS application to investigate volcanic rock slopes in Ribeira de João Gomes valley (Funchal, Madeira island. The TLS data acquisition in May and December 2008 provided information for a characterization of the volcanic environment, detailed structural analysis and detection of potentially unstable rock masses on a slope. Using this information, it was possible to determine specific parameters for numerical rockfall simulations such as average block size, shape or potential sources. By including additional data, such as surface roughness, the results from numerical rockfall simulations allowed us to classify different hazardous areas based on run-out distances, frequency of impacts and related kinetic energy. Afterwards, a monitoring of hazardous areas can be performed in order to establish a rockfall inventory.

  20. Mpo - the Bepicolombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter. (United States)

    Benkhoff, J.


    proximity of the Sun Since and considering that the advance Mercury's perihelion was explained in terms of relativistic spacetime curvature. MPO Scientific Instruments BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter's and Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter's instruments were selected in November 2004, by ESA and JAXA respectively. The MPO will carry a highly sophisticated suit of eleven scientific instruments, ten of which will be provided by Principal Investigators through national funding by ESA Member States and one from Russia: BepiColombo Laser Altimeter (BELA) will characterise the topography and surface morphology of Mercury. It will also provide a digital terrain model that, compared with the data from the MORE instrument, will allow to obtain information about the internal structure, the geology, the tectonics, and the age of the planet's surface. The objectives of the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) are strongly connected with those of the MORE experiment. Together the experiments can give information on Mercury's interior structure as well as test Einstein's theory of the General Relativity. Mercury Magnetometer (MPO-MAG) will provide measurements that will lead to the detailed description of Mercury's planetary magnetic field and its source, to better understand the origin, evolution and current state of the planetary interior , as well as the interaction between Mercury's magnetosphere with the planet's itself and with the solar wind. Mercury Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS) will provide detailed information about the mineralogical composition of Mercury's surface layer with a high spectral resolution, crucial for selecting the valid model for origin and evolution of the planet. Mercury Gamma ray and Neutron Spectrometer (MGNS) will determine the elemental compositions of the surface and subsurface of Mercury, and will determine the regional distribution of volatile depositions on the polar areas which are permanently shadowed from the Sun. Mercury Imaging X

  1. The Formation of a Planetary Nebula. (United States)

    Harpaz, Amos


    Proposes a scenario to describe the formation of a planetary nebula, a cloud of gas surrounding a very hot compact star. Describes the nature of a planetary nebula, the number observed to date in the Milky Way Galaxy, and the results of research on a specific nebula. (MDH)

  2. Visualization of Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion (United States)

    Lu, Meishu; Su, Jun; Wang, Weiguo; Lu, Jianlong


    For this article, we use a 3D printer to print a surface similar to universal gravitation for demonstrating and investigating Kepler's laws of planetary motion describing the motion of a small ball on the surface. This novel experimental method allows Kepler's laws of planetary motion to be visualized and will contribute to improving the…

  3. Interoperability in the Planetary Science Archive (PSA) (United States)

    Rios Diaz, C.


    The protocols and standards currently being supported by the recently released new version of the Planetary Science Archive at this time are the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), the EuroPlanet- Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. We explore these protocols in more detail providing scientifically useful examples of their usage within the PSA.

  4. Optical observations of southern planetary nebula candidates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandeSteene, GC; Sahu, KC; Pottasch, [No Value


    We present H alpha+[NII] images and low resolution spectra of 16 IRAS-selected, southern planetary nebula candidates previously detected in the radio continuum. The H alpha+[NII] images are presented as finding charts. Contour plots are shown for the resolved planetary nebulae. From these images

  5. Planetary Protection: Two Relevant Terrestrial Examples (United States)

    Chyba, C.


    Concerns about potential pathogens in returned samples from Mars ("Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations", National Research Council, 1997) or planetary satellites ("Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies", National Research Council, 1998) focus on two potential types of pathogenesis, toxic and infectious. The National Research Council reports cited above state that the chances of extraterrestrial organisms proving either toxic or infectious to humans are extremely low, but cannot be entirely ruled out. Here I discuss recently discovered terrestrial examples relevant to each possibility, in order to make these concerns concrete. The first example concerns the production of hepatotoxins (toxins affecting the liver) and neurotoxins by cyanobacteria in glacial lakes on alpine pastures in Switzerland. In this example, mat-forming benthic cyanobacteria are implicated in a hundred cattle poisonings that have been reported from alpine pasteurs in southeastern Switzerland over the past twenty-five years (e.g. K. Mez et al, Hydrobiologia 368, 1-15 (1998)). It is unlikely that these cyanobacteria evolved the toxins in response to dairy cows; rather the susceptibility of cattle to these toxins seems simply to be an unfortunate coincidence of a toxin working across a large evolutionary distance. The second example concerns the recent demonstration that the decimation of shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral is due to infection by a common fecal enterobacterium associated with the human gut (K. L. Patterson et al., PNAS 99, 8725-8730 (2002)). The bacterium, Serratia marcenscens, is also a free-living microbe in water and soil, as well as an opportunistic pathogen in a variety of animal species. The distance between humans and corals emphasizes the possibility that certain organisms may prove pathogenic across a wide evolutionary divide. Of course, in neither of these cases are the evolutionary

  6. Laser Processing and Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bäuerle, Dieter


    This book gives an overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser-matter interactions, in particular with regard to laser material processing. Special attention is given to laser-induced physical and chemical processes at gas-solid, liquid-solid, and solid-solid interfaces. Starting with the background physics, the book proceeds to examine applications of lasers in “standard” laser machining and laser chemical processing (LCP), including the patterning, coating, and modification of material surfaces. This fourth edition has been enlarged to cover the rapid advances in the understanding of the dynamics of materials under the action of ultrashort laser pulses, and to include a number of new topics, in particular the increasing importance of lasers in various different fields of surface functionalizations and nanotechnology. In two additional chapters, recent developments in biotechnology, medicine, art conservation and restoration are summarized. Graduate students, physicists, chemists, engineers, a...

  7. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC): A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology (United States)

    Mateo-Marti, Eva


    The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres' conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces. Furthermore, the

  8. Planetary Atmosphere and Surfaces Chamber (PASC: A Platform to Address Various Challenges in Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mateo-Marti


    Full Text Available The study of planetary environments of astrobiological interest has become a major challenge. Because of the obvious technical and economical limitations on in situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are one of the most feasible research options to make advances both in planetary science and in developing a consistent description of the origin of life. With this objective in mind, we applied vacuum technology to the design of versatile vacuum chambers devoted to the simulation of planetary atmospheres’ conditions. These vacuum chambers are able to simulate atmospheres and surface temperatures representative of the majority of planetary objects, and they are especially appropriate for studying the physical, chemical and biological changes induced in a particular sample by in situ irradiation or physical parameters in a controlled environment. Vacuum chambers are a promising potential tool in several scientific and technological fields, such as engineering, chemistry, geology and biology. They also offer the possibility of discriminating between the effects of individual physical parameters and selected combinations thereof. The implementation of our vacuum chambers in combination with analytical techniques was specifically developed to make feasible the in situ physico-chemical characterization of samples. Many wide-ranging applications in astrobiology are detailed herein to provide an understanding of the potential and flexibility of these experimental systems. Instruments and engineering technology for space applications could take advantage of our environment-simulation chambers for sensor calibration. Our systems also provide the opportunity to gain a greater understanding of the chemical reactivity of molecules on surfaces under different environments, thereby leading to a greater understanding of interface processes in prebiotic chemical reactions and facilitating studies of UV photostability and photochemistry on surfaces

  9. Visualization Tools for Planetary Data (United States)

    DeWolfe, Alexandria; Larsen, Kristopher; Brain, David; Chaffin, Michael; Harter, Bryan; Putnam, Brian


    We have developed a set of software tools for displaying and analyzing data from the MAVEN and MMS missions. In order to better visualize the science data and models, we have constructed 3D visualizations of MAVEN orbiting Mars and MMS orbiting Earth using the CesiumJS library. These visualizations allow viewing of not only spacecraft orientation and position over time, but also scientific data from the spacecraft, and atmospheric models as well. We have also developed a Python toolkit which replicates the functionality of the widely-used IDL "tplot" toolkit for analyzing planetary atmospheric data. We use the bokeh and matplotlib libraries to generate interactive line plots and spectrograms, providing additional functionality beyond the capabilities of IDL graphics. These Python tools are generalized to work with missions beyond MAVEN, and our open-source software is available on Github.

  10. Planetary protection - some legal questions (United States)

    Fasan, E.


    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  11. Profiling of Microbial Colonies for High-Throughput Engineering of Multistep Enzymatic Reactions via Optically Guided Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    Si, Tong; Li, Bin; Comi, Troy J; Wu, Yuwei; Hu, Pingfan; Wu, Yuying; Min, Yuhao; Mitchell, Douglas A; Zhao, Huimin; Sweedler, Jonathan V


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry (MS) imaging has been used for rapid phenotyping of enzymatic activities, but is mainly limited to single-step conversions. Herein we report a label-free method for high-throughput engineering of multistep biochemical reactions based on optically guided MALDI-ToF MS analysis of bacterial colonies. The bacterial cells provide containment of multiple enzymes and access to substrates and cofactors via metabolism. Automated MALDI-ToF MS acquisition from randomly distributed colonies simplifies procedures to prepare strain libraries without liquid handling. MALDI-ToF MS profiling was utilized to screen both substrate and enzyme libraries for natural product biosynthesis. Computational algorithms were developed to process and visualize the resulting mass spectral data sets. For analogues of the peptidic antibiotic plantazolicin, multivariate analyses by t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding were used to group similar spectra for rapid identification of nonisobaric variants. After MALDI-ToF MS screening, follow-up analyses using high-resolution MS and tandem MS were readily performed on the same sample target. Separately, relative ion intensities of rhamnolipid congeners with various lipid moieties were evaluated to engineer enzymatic specificity. The glycolipid profiles of each colony were overlaid with optical images to facilitate the recovery of desirable mutants. For both the antibiotic and rhamnolipid cases, large populations of colonies were rapidly surveyed at the molecular level, providing information-rich insights not easily obtained with traditional screening assays. Utilizing standard microbiological techniques with routine microscopy and MALDI-ToF MS instruments, this simple yet effective workflow is applicable for a wide range of screening campaigns targeting multistep enzymatic reactions.

  12. Fabrication of 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering using indirect selective laser sintering. (United States)

    Kolan, Krishna C R; Leu, Ming C; Hilmas, Gregory E; Brown, Roger F; Velez, Mariano


    Bioactive glasses are promising materials for bone scaffolds due to their ability to assist in tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, bioactive glasses can convert into hydroxyapatite, the main mineral constituent of human bone, and form a strong bond with the surrounding tissues, thus providing an advantage over polymer scaffold materials. Bone scaffold fabrication using additive manufacturing techniques can provide control over pore interconnectivity during fabrication of the scaffold, which helps in mimicking human trabecular bone. 13-93 glass, a third-generation bioactive material designed to accelerate the body's natural ability to heal itself, was used in the research described herein to fabricate bone scaffolds using the selective laser sintering (SLS) process. 13-93 glass mixed with stearic acid (as the polymer binder) by ball milling was used as the powder feedstock for the SLS machine. The fabricated green scaffolds underwent binder burnout to remove the stearic acid binder and were then sintered at temperatures between 675 °C and 695 °C. The sintered scaffolds had pore sizes ranging from 300 to 800 µm with 50% apparent porosity and an average compressive strength of 20.4 MPa, which is excellent for non-load bearing applications and among the highest reported for an interconnected porous scaffold fabricated with bioactive glasses using the SLS process. The MTT labeling experiment and measurements of MTT formazan formation are evidence that the rough surface of SLS scaffolds provides a cell-friendly surface capable of supporting robust cell growth.

  13. Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Nickel-Based Superalloy Inconel 718 Powders onto AISI 4140 Alloy Steel Substrates: Interface Bond and Fracture Failure Mechanism (United States)

    Kim, Hoyeol; Cong, Weilong; Zhang, Hong-Chao; Liu, Zhichao


    As a prospective candidate material for surface coating and repair applications, nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718 (IN718) was deposited on American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 4140 alloy steel substrate by laser engineered net shaping (LENS) to investigate the compatibility between two dissimilar materials with a focus on interface bonding and fracture behavior of the hybrid specimens. The results show that the interface between the two dissimilar materials exhibits good metallurgical bonding. Through the tensile test, all the fractures occurred in the as-deposited IN718 section rather than the interface or the substrate, implying that the as-deposited interlayer bond strength is weaker than the interfacial bond strength. From the fractography using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS), three major factors affecting the tensile fracture failure of the as-deposited part are (i) metallurgical defects such as incompletely melted powder particles, lack-of-fusion porosity, and micropores; (ii) elemental segregation and Laves phase, and (iii) oxide formation. The fracture failure mechanism is a combination of all these factors which are detrimental to the mechanical properties and structural integrity by causing premature fracture failure of the as-deposited IN718. PMID:28772702

  14. Bone Tissue Engineering with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Bioactive Composites of Laser-Sintered Porous Polycaprolactone Scaffolds and Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Tsung Liao


    Full Text Available Three-dimensional porous polycaprolactone (PCL scaffolds with consistent inter-pore channels, 83% porosity and 300–400 μm pore size were fabricated via selective laser sintering. The PCL scaffold was combined with platelet-rich plasma (PRP to form a bioactive composite and studied for potential application in bone tissue engineering using porcine adipose-derived stem cells (PASCs. The PCL/PRP/PASCs construct showed enhanced cell seeding efficiency and synergistically increased the differentiation capability of PASCs in osteogenic medium toward the osteoblast lineage, judging from elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and up-regulated osteogenic genes expression. For in vivo study, a 3 cm × 3 cm mandible defect was created in pigs and reconstructed by implanting acellular PCL scaffolds or PCL/PRP/PASCs constructs. Both groups showed new bone formation, however, the new bone volume was 5.1 times higher for PCL/PRP/PASCs 6 months post-operation. The bone density was less and loose in the acellular PCL group and the Young’s modulus was only 29% of normal bone. In contrast, continued and compact bone formation was found in PCL/PRP/PASCs and the Young’s modulus was 81% that of normal bone. Masson’s trichrome stain, immunohistochemical analysis of osteocalcin and collagen type I also confirmed new bone formation.

  15. Robustness versus thermal effects of single-mode operation of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with engineered leakage of high-order transverse optical modes (United States)

    Kalosha, V. P.; Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Kropp, J.-R.; Ledentsov, N. N.


    Design of the oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) with enhanced engineered lateral leakage of high-order transverse optical modes is studied by three-dimensional optical modeling to evaluate the robustness of the leakage selection approach with respect to thermal effects. Both Joule heat and heat generated by the free carrier absorption of the optical mode in the doped semiconductor layers and their impact on the refractive index profile are considered. We show that for typical regimes of the VCSEL design and operation absorption-induced heat exceeds by several times the Joule heat while the shape of the generated heated domains strongly differ. Modeling shows that well defined spectral separation between the transverse optical modes persists upon increase in injection current. Further, upon increase in current the lateral extension of the fundamental mode decreases and the mode shrinks towards the center of the VCSEL structure thus reducing the lateral leakage and increasing the mode lifetime, whereas similar effect for high-order transverse modes is much weaker. Thus the preferred conditions for the lasing of the fundamental mode persist and even improve upon current increase. At high currents the fundamental mode becomes favorable at all aperture diameters, also for those where the cold cavity approximation predicts preference for the excited mode lasing.

  16. Engineering of optical modes in vertical-cavity microresonators by aperture placement: applications to single-mode and near-field lasers (United States)

    Shchukin, V. A.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Kropp, J.-R.; Steinle, G.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Choquette, K. D.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.


    Oxide-confined vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) are inherently leaky structures, despite the fact that the oxidized periphery region surrounding the all-semiconductor core has a lower refractive index. The reason is that the VCSEL modes in the non-oxidized core region can be coupled to tilted modes in the selectively oxidized periphery as the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Engineered VCSEL designs show that the overlap between the VCSEL mode of the core and the tilted mode in the periphery can reach >30% resulting in significant leakage. Three-dimensional modeling confirms that the leakage losses are much stronger for high order transverse modes which have a higher field intensity close to the oxidized region. Single mode lasing in the fundamental mode can thus proceed up to large aperture diameters. A 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSEL based on this concept is designed, modeled and fabricated, showing single-mode lasing with aperture diameters up to 5 μm. Side mode suppression ratio >20dB is realized at the current density of 10kA/cm2 in devices with the series resistance of 90 Ω.

  17. Where Do Messy Planetary Nebulae Come From? (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    If you examined images of planetary nebulae, you would find that many of them have an appearance that is too messy to be accounted for in the standard model of how planetary nebulae form. So what causes these structures?Examples of planetary nebulae that have a low probability of having beenshaped by a triple stellar system. They are mostly symmetric, with only slight departures (labeled) that can be explained by instabilities, interactions with the interstellar medium, etc. [Bear and Soker 2017]A Range of LooksAt the end of a stars lifetime, in the red-giant phase, strong stellar winds can expel the outer layers of the star. The hot, luminous core then radiates in ultraviolet, ionizing the gas of the ejected stellar layers and causing them to shine as a brightly colored planetary nebula for a few tens of thousands of years.Planetary nebulae come in a wide variety of morphologies. Some are approximately spherical, but others can be elliptical, bipolar, quadrupolar, or even more complex.Its been suggested that non-spherical planetary nebulae might be shaped by the presence of a second star in a binary system with the source of the nebula but even this scenario should still produce a structure with axial or mirror symmetry.A pair of scientists from Technion Israel Institute of Technology, Ealeal Bear and Noam Soker, argue that planetary nebulae with especially messy morphologies those without clear axial or point symmetries may have been shaped by an interacting triple stellar system instead.Examples of planetary nebulae that might have been shaped by a triple stellar system. They have some deviations from symmetry but also show signs of interacting with the interstellar medium. [Bear and Soker 2017]Departures from SymmetryTo examine this possibility more closely, Bear and Soker look at a sample of thousands planetary nebulae and qualitatively classify each of them into one of four categories, based on the degree to which they show signs of having been shaped by a

  18. Cold aqueous planetary geochemistry with FREZCHEM from modeling to the search for life at the limits

    CERN Document Server

    Marion, Giles M


    This book explicitly investigates issues of astrobiological relevance in the context of cold aqueous planetary geochemistry. At the core of the technical chapters is the FREZCHEM model, initially developed over many years by one of the authors to quantify aqueous electrolyte properties and chemical thermodynamics at subzero temperatures. FREZCHEM, of general relevance to biogeochemists and geochemical modelers, cold planetary scientists, physicochemists and chemical engineers, is subsequently applied to the exploration of biogeochemical applications to solar systems bodies in general, and to speculations about the limits for life in cold environments in particular.

  19. Implementation of an EPN-TAP Service to Improve Accessibility to the Planetary Science Archive (United States)

    Macfarlane, A.; Barabarisi, I.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.; Martinez, S.; Arviset, C.; Besse, S.; Vallat, C.


    The re-engineered PSA has a focus on improved access and search-ability to ESA's planetary science data. In addition to the new web interface released in January 2017, the new PSA supports several common planetary protocols in order to increase the visibility and ways in which the data may be queried and retrieved. Work is on-going to provide an EPN-TAP service covering as wide a range of parameters as possible to facilitate the discovery of scientific data and interoperability of the archive.

  20. Planetary Data Archiving Plan at JAXA (United States)

    Shinohara, Iku; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Yamamoto, Yukio; Abe, Masanao; Okada, Tatsuaki; Imamura, Takeshi; Sobue, Shinichi; Takashima, Takeshi; Terazono, Jun-Ya

    After the successful rendezvous of Hayabusa with the small-body planet Itokawa, and the successful launch of Kaguya to the moon, Japanese planetary community has gotten their own and full-scale data. However, at this moment, these datasets are only available from the data sites managed by each mission team. The databases are individually constructed in the different formats, and the user interface of these data sites is not compatible with foreign databases. To improve the usability of the planetary archives at JAXA and to enable the international data exchange smooth, we are investigating to make a new planetary database. Within a coming decade, Japan will have fruitful datasets in the planetary science field, Venus (Planet-C), Mercury (BepiColombo), and several missions in planning phase (small-bodies). In order to strongly assist the international scientific collaboration using these mission archive data, the planned planetary data archive at JAXA should be managed in an unified manner and the database should be constructed in the international planetary database standard style. In this presentation, we will show the current status and future plans of the planetary data archiving at JAXA.

  1. Planetary climates (princeton primers in climate)

    CERN Document Server

    Ingersoll, Andrew


    This concise, sophisticated introduction to planetary climates explains the global physical and chemical processes that determine climate on any planet or major planetary satellite--from Mercury to Neptune and even large moons such as Saturn's Titan. Although the climates of other worlds are extremely diverse, the chemical and physical processes that shape their dynamics are the same. As this book makes clear, the better we can understand how various planetary climates formed and evolved, the better we can understand Earth's climate history and future.

  2. An online planetary exploration tool: ;Country Movers; (United States)

    Gede, Mátyás; Hargitai, Henrik


    Results in astrogeologic investigations are rarely communicated towards the general public by maps despite the new advances in planetary spatial informatics and new spatial datasets in high resolution and more complete coverage. Planetary maps are typically produced by astrogeologists for other professionals, and not by cartographers for the general public. We report on an application designed for students, which uses cartography as framework to aid the virtual exploration of other planets and moons, using the concepts of size comparison and travel time calculation. We also describe educational activities that build on geographic knowledge and expand it to planetary surfaces.

  3. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K


    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  4. Second NASA Conference on Laser Energy Conversion (United States)

    Billman, K. W. (Editor)


    The possible transmission of high power laser beams over long distances and their conversion to thrust, electricity, or other useful forms of energy is considered. Specific topics discussed include: laser induced chemistry; developments in photovoltaics, including modification of the Schottky barrier devices and generation of high voltage emf'sby laser radiation of piezoelectric ceramics; the thermo electronic laser energy converter and the laser plasmadynamics converters; harmonic conversion of infrared laser radiation in molecular gases; and photon engines.

  5. The Planetary Data System--preparing for a New Decade (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; Knopf, William P.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.


    In order to improve NASA’s ability to serve the Planetary Science Community, the Planetary Data System (PDS) has been transformed. NASA has used the highly successful virtual institute model (e.g., for NASA’s Astrobiology Program) to re-compete the Science Nodes within the PDS Structure. The new institute structure will facilitate our efforts within the PDS to improve both archive searchability and product discoverability. We will continue the adaption of the new PDS4 Standard, and enhance our ability to work with other archive/curation activities within NASA and with the community of space faring nations (through the IPDA). PDS science nodes will continue to work with NASA missions from the initial Announcement of Opportunity through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented.The Science nodes were selected through a Cooperative Agreement Notice (NNH15ZDA006C) which specifically allowed the community to propose specific archive concepts. The selected nodes are: Cartography and Imaging Sciences, Rings-Moon Systems, Planetary Geosciences, Planetary Plasma Interactions, Atmospheres, and Small Bodies. Other elements of the PDS include an Engineering Node, the Navigation and Ancillary Information Facility, and a small project office.The prime role of the PDS is unchanged. We archive and distribute scientific data from NASA planetary missions, astronomical observations, and laboratory measurements. NASA’s Science Mission Directorate sponsors the PDS. Its purpose is to ensure the long-term usability of NASA data and to stimulate advanced research.In this presentation we discuss recent changes in the PDS, and our future activities to build on the new Institute. Near term efforts include developing a PDS Roadmap for the next decade lead by PDS Chief Scientist, Dr

  6. Lunar Team Report from a Planetary Design Workshop at ESTEC (United States)

    Gray, A.; MacArthur, J.; Foing, B. H.


    On February 13, 2014, GeoVUsie, a student association for Earth science majors at Vrijie University (VU), Amsterdam, hosted a Planetary Sciences: Moon, Mars and More symposium. The symposium included a learning exercise the following day for a planetary design workshop at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) for 30 motivated students, the majority being from GeoVUsie with little previous experience of planetary science. Students were split into five teams and assigned pre-selected new science mission projects. A few scientific papers were given to use as reference just days before the workshop. Three hours were allocated to create a mission concept before presenting results to the other students and science advisors. The educational backgrounds varied from second year undergraduate students to masters' students from mostly local universities.The lunar team was told to design a mission to the lunar south pole, as this is a key destination agreed upon by the international lunar scientific community. This region has the potential to address many significant objectives for planetary science, as the South Pole-Aitken basin has preserved early solar system history and would help to understand impact events throughout the solar system as well as the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, particularly if samples could be returned. This report shows the lunar team's mission concept and reasons for studying the origin of volatiles on the Moon as the primary science objective [1]. Amundsen crater was selected as the optimal landing site near the lunar south pole [2]. Other mission concepts such as RESOLVE [3], L-VRAP [4], ESA's lunar lander studies and Luna-27 were reviewed. A rover and drill were selected as being the most suitable architecture for the requirements of this mission. Recommendations for future student planetary design exercises were to continue events like this, ideally with more time, and also to invite a more diverse range of

  7. Europa Clipper Mission Concept Preliminary Planetary Protection Approach (United States)

    Jones, Melissa; Schubert, Wayne; Newlin, Laura; Cooper, Moogega; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Ellyin, Raymond; Vaishampayan, Parag; Crum, Ray


    sterilized to a level deemed to be unable to cause harmful contamination of any of the icy Galilean satellites (Europa, Ganymede and Callisto). Due to the intricacies of meeting the driving planetary protection requirement on the mission concept, the project has invested in early development studies to integrate a feasible approach for implementing these planetary protection requirements within the engineering constraints of the mission. Results of the following studies will be presented: evaluation of the impact of new Heat Microbial Reduction specifications on the mission; bulk material encapsulated bioburden; developing vapor hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for the integration environment. The overall planetary protection implementation approach will be discussed.

  8. Planetary protection - assaying new methods (United States)

    Nellen, J.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.

    Space age began in 1957 when the USSR launched the first satellite into earth orbit. In response to this new challenge the International Council for Science, formerly know as International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), established the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) in 1958. The role of COSPAR was to channel the international scientific research in space and establish an international forum. Through COSPAR the scientific community agreed on the need for screening interplanetary probes for forward (contamination of foreign planets) and backward (contamination of earth by returned samples/probes) contamination. To prevent both forms of contamination a set of rules, as a guideline was established. Nowadays the standard implementation of the planetary protection rules is based on the experience gained during NASA's Viking project in 1975/76. Since then the evaluation-methods for microbial contamination of spacecrafts have been changed or updated just slowly. In this study the standard method of sample taking will be evaluated. New methods for examination of those samples, based on the identification of life on the molecular level, will be reviewed and checked for their feasibility as microbial detection systems. The methods will be examined for their qualitative (detection and verification of different organisms) and quantitative (detection limit and concentration verification) qualities. Amongst the methods analyzed will be i.e. real-time / PCR (poly-chain-reaction), using specific primer-sets for the amplification of highly conserved rRNA or DNA regions. Measurement of intrinsic fluorescence, i.e ATP using luciferin-luciferase reagents. The use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) and microchips for microbial identification purposes. The methods will be chosen to give a good overall coverage of different possible molecular markers and approaches. The most promising methods shall then be lab-tested and evaluated for their use under spacecraft assembly

  9. Extension of Einstein's Planetary Theory Based on Generalized ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, the generalized Einstein's radial equation of motion in the equatorial plane of the Sun is transformed to obtain additional correction terms to all order of C2 to Einstein's planetary equation of motion and hence to the planetary parameters. Keywords: Radial Equation; Planetary Equation; Planetary parameters ...

  10. Planetary science: Haze cools Pluto's atmosphere (United States)

    West, Robert A.


    Modelling suggests that Pluto's atmospheric temperature is regulated by haze, unlike the other planetary bodies in the Solar System. The finding has implications for our understanding of exoplanetary atmospheres. See Letter p.352

  11. Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC is developing an innovative Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) to excavate in situ regolith, ice-regolith mixes, and a variety of other geologic materials...

  12. Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop an innovative Low-energy Planetary Excavator (LPE) to excavate in situ regolith, ice-regolith mixes, and a variety of other geologic...

  13. Planetary science: Flow of an alien ocean (United States)

    Goodman, Jason


    Liquid water may lurk beneath the frozen surfaces of Jupiter's moon Europa and other icy worlds. Extending ocean science beyond Earth, planetary oceanographers are linking Europa's ocean dynamics to its enigmatic surface geology.

  14. Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions (United States)

    Brasunas, John; Kolasinski, John; Kostiuk, Ted; Hewagama, Tilak


    Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system. Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, we have developed CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. We discuss the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions, including the recent increased emphasis on ocean worlds (Europa, Encelatus, Titan) and also on smaller payloads such as CubeSats and SmallSats.

  15. Sensor Array Analyzer for Planetary Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future planetary exploration missions such as those planned by NASA and other space agencies over the next few decades require advanced chemical and biological...

  16. The Soil of Mars - Planetary Geology (United States)

    Bullock, Mark A.


    What would it be like to walk on Mars, to let martian dirt run through your fingers? Planetary geologists, aided by amateur astronomers, are slowly figuring out what Mars is like. With a sidebar by Jack D. Farmer.

  17. A barotropic planetary boundary layer (United States)

    Yordanov, D.; Syrakov, D.; Djolov, G.


    The temperature and wind profiles in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are investigated. Assuming stationary and homogeneous conditions, the turbulent state in the PBL is uniquely determined by the external Rossby number and the stratification parameters. In this study, a simple two-layer barotropic model is proposed. It consists of a surface (SL) and overlying Ekman-type layer. The system of dynamic and heat transfer equations is closed using K theory. In the SL, the turbulent exchange coefficient is consistent with the results of similarity theory while in the Ekman layer, it is constant. Analytical solutions for the wind and temperature profiles in the PBL are obtained. The SL and thermal PBL heights are properly chosen functions of the stratification so that from the solutions for wind and temperature, the PBL resistance laws can be easily deduced. The internal PBL characteristics necessary for the calculation (friction velocity, angle between surface and geostrophic winds and internal stratification parameter) are presented in terms of the external parameters. Favorable agreement with experimental data and model results is demonstrated. The simplicity of the model allows it to be incorporated in large-scale weather prediction models as well as in the solution of various other meteorological problems.

  18. Structured Light-Based Hazard Detection For Planetary Surface Navigation (United States)

    Nefian, Ara; Wong, Uland Y.; Dille, Michael; Bouyssounouse, Xavier; Edwards, Laurence; To, Vinh; Deans, Matthew; Fong, Terry


    This paper describes a structured light-based sensor for hazard avoidance in planetary environments. The system presented here can also be used in terrestrial applications constrained by reduced onboard power and computational complexity and low illumination conditions. The sensor is on a calibrated camera and laser dot projector system. The onboard hazard avoidance system determines the position of the projected dots in the image and through a triangulation process detects potential hazards. The paper presents the design parameters for this sensor and describes the image based solution for hazard avoidance. The system presented here was tested extensively in day and night conditions in Lunar analogue environments. The current system achieves over 97 detection rate with 1.7 false alarms over 2000 images.

  19. Astronomic Bioethics: Terraforming X Planetary protection


    Palhares, Dario; Santos, Íris Almeida dos


    A hard difficulty in Astrobiology is the precise definition of what life is. All living beings have a cellular structure, so it is not possible to have a broader concept of life hence the search for extraterrestrial life is restricted to extraterrestrial cells. Earth is an astronomical rarity because it is difficult for a planet to present liquid water on the surface. Two antagonistic bioethical principles arise: planetary protection and terraforming. Planetary protection is based on the fear...

  20. Space Robotics: Robotic Rovers for Planetary Exploration


    Alex Ellery


    In this third of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of planetary rovers with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to planetary robotics and not usually associated with terrestrial mobile robotics. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and this paper stresses the issue of rover-terrain interaction as an important consideration. Soil-vehicle interaction originates from military vehicle research but may be regarded as part ...

  1. Spin of Planetary Probes in Atmospheric Flight (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.

    Probes that enter planetary atmospheres are often spun during entry or descent for a variety of reasons. Their spin rate histories are influenced by often subtle effects. The spin requirements, control methods and flight experience from planetary and earth entry missions are reviewed. An interaction of the probe aerodynamic wake with a drogue parachute, observed in Gemini wind tunnel tests, is discussed in connection with the anomalous spin behaviour of the Huygens probe.

  2. Using Planetary Nebulae to Teach Physics (United States)

    Kwitter, Karen B.


    We have developed an interactive website, "Gallery of Planetary Nebula Spectra," ( that contains high-quality optical-to-near-infrared spectra, atlas information, and bibliographic references for more than 160 planetary nebulae that we have observed in the Milky Way Galaxy. To make the material more accessible to students, I have created three undergraduate-level exercises that explore physics-related aspects of planetary nebulae. "Emission Lines and Central Star Temperature” uses the presence or absence of emission lines from species with different ionization potentials to rank the temperatures of the exciting stars in a selection of nebulae. "Interstellar Reddening” uses the observed Balmer decrement in a sample of planetary nebulae at different Galactic latitudes to infer the distribution of interstellar dust in the Milky Way. Finally, "Determining the Gas Density in Planetary Nebulae,” which I will focus on here, uses the observed intensity ratio of the 6717 Å and 6731 Å emission lines from singly ionized sulfur to determine the electron density in the nebular gas. These exercises demonstrate that planetary nebula spectra are useful real-world examples illustrating a variety of physical principles, including the behavior of blackbodies, wavelength-dependent particle scattering, recombination-line ratios, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics.

  3. Automatic Feature Extraction from Planetary Images (United States)

    Troglio, Giulia; Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Benediktsson, Jon A.; Moser, Gabriele; Serpico, Sebastiano B.


    With the launch of several planetary missions in the last decade, a large amount of planetary images has already been acquired and much more will be available for analysis in the coming years. The image data need to be analyzed, preferably by automatic processing techniques because of the huge amount of data. Although many automatic feature extraction methods have been proposed and utilized for Earth remote sensing images, these methods are not always applicable to planetary data that often present low contrast and uneven illumination characteristics. Different methods have already been presented for crater extraction from planetary images, but the detection of other types of planetary features has not been addressed yet. Here, we propose a new unsupervised method for the extraction of different features from the surface of the analyzed planet, based on the combination of several image processing techniques, including a watershed segmentation and the generalized Hough Transform. The method has many applications, among which image registration and can be applied to arbitrary planetary images.

  4. Planetary Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Using Envelope Manifold Demodulation


    Weigang Wen; Gao, Robert X.; Weidong Cheng


    The important issue in planetary gear fault diagnosis is to extract the dependable fault characteristics from the noisy vibration signal of planetary gearbox. To address this critical problem, an envelope manifold demodulation method is proposed for planetary gear fault detection in the paper. This method combines complex wavelet, manifold learning, and frequency spectrogram to implement planetary gear fault characteristic extraction. The vibration signal of planetary gear is demodulated by w...

  5. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.


    Geologic maps present, in an historical context, fundamental syntheses of interpretations of the materials, landforms, structures, and processes that characterize planetary surfaces and shallow subsurfaces. Such maps also provide a contextual framework for summarizing and evaluating thematic research for a given region or body. In planetary exploration, for example, geologic maps are used for specialized investigations such as targeting regions of interest for data collection and for characterizing sites for landed missions. Whereas most modern terrestrial geologic maps are constructed from regional views provided by remote sensing data and supplemented in detail by field-based observations and measurements, planetary maps have been largely based on analyses of orbital photography. For planetary bodies in particular, geologic maps commonly represent a snapshot of a surface, because they are based on available information at a time when new data are still being acquired. Thus the field of planetary geologic mapping has been evolving rapidly to embrace the use of new data and modern technology and to accommodate the growing needs of planetary exploration. Planetary geologic maps have been published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since 1962. Over this time, numerous maps of several planetary bodies have been prepared at a variety of scales and projections using the best available image and topographic bases. Early geologic map bases commonly consisted of hand-mosaicked photographs or airbrushed shaded-relief views and geologic linework was manually drafted using mylar bases and ink drafting pens. Map publishing required a tedious process of scribing, color peel-coat preparation, typesetting, and photo-laboratory work. Beginning in the 1990s, inexpensive computing, display capability and user-friendly illustration software allowed maps to be drawn using digital tools rather than pen and ink, and mylar bases became obsolete. Terrestrial geologic maps published by

  6. Micromechanical finite-element modeling and experimental characterization of the compressive mechanical properties of polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering. (United States)

    Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman


    Bioresorbable scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) by selective laser sintering (SLS) and modeled by finite-element analysis (FEA). Both solid gage parts and scaffolds having 1-D, 2-D and 3-D orthogonal, periodic porous architectures were made with 0, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% HA. PCL:HA scaffolds manufactured by SLS had nearly full density (99%) in the designed solid regions and had excellent geometric and dimensional control. Through optimization of the SLS process, the compressive moduli for our solid gage parts and scaffolds are the highest reported in the literature for additive manufacturing. The compressive moduli of solid gage parts were 299.3, 311.2, 415.5 and 498.3 MPa for PCL:HA loading at 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30, respectively. The compressive effective stiffness tended to increase as the loading of HA was increased and the designed porosity was lowered. In the case of the most 3-D porous scaffold, the compressive modulus more than doubled from 14.9 to 36.2 MPa when changing the material from 100:0 to 70:30 PCL:HA. A micromechanical FEA model was developed to investigate the reinforcement effect of HA loading on the compressive modulus of the bulk material. Using a first-principles based approach, the random distribution of HA particles in a solidified PCL matrix was modeled for any HA loading to predict the bulk mechanical properties of the composites. The bulk mechanical properties were also used for FEA of the scaffold geometries. The results of the FEA were found to be in good agreement with experimental mechanical testing. The development of patient- and site-specific composite tissue-engineering constructs with tailored properties can be seen as a direct extension of this work on computational design, a priori modeling of mechanical properties and direct digital manufacturing. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  7. Micromechanical finite element modeling and experimental characterization of the compressive mechanical properties of polycaprolactone:hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering (United States)

    Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman


    Bioresorbable scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) by selective laser sintering (SLS) and modeled by finite element analysis (FEA). Both solid gage parts and scaffolds having 1-D, 2-D and 3-D orthogonal, periodic porous architectures were made with 0, 10, 20 and 30% HA by volume. PCL:HA scaffolds manufactured by SLS had nearly full density (99%) in the designed solid regions and had excellent geometric and dimensional control. Through optimization of the SLS process, the compressive moduli for our solid gage parts and scaffolds are the highest reported in the literature for additive manufacturing. The compressive moduli of solid gage parts were 299.3, 311.2, 415.5 and 498.3 MPa for PCL:HA loading at 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 respectively. The compressive effective stiffness tended to increase as the loading of HA was increased and the designed porosity was lowered. In the case of the most 3-D porous scaffold, the compressive modulus more than doubled from 14.9 MPa to 36.2 MPa when changing the material from 100:0 to 70:30 PCL:HA. A micromechanical finite element analysis (FEA) model was developed to investigate the reinforcement effect of HA loading on the compressive modulus of the bulk material. Using a first-principles based approach, the random distribution of HA particles in a solidified PCL matrix was modeled for any loading of HA to predict the bulk mechanical properties of the composites. The bulk mechanical properties were also used for FEA of the scaffold geometries. Results of the FEA were found to be in good agreement with experimental mechanical testing. The development of patient and site-specific composite tissue engineering constructs with tailored properties can be seen as a direct extension of this work on computational design, a priori modeling of mechanical properties and direct digital manufacturing. PMID:22522129

  8. Constant Volume Combustion Engine for Planetary Ascent Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Sample Return mission is being planned to return samples of Martian rock, regolith, and atmosphere to Earth for scientific analysis. The Martian sample size...

  9. Laser controlled flame stabilization (United States)

    Early, James W.; Thomas, Matthew E.


    A method and apparatus is provided for initiating and stabilizing fuel combustion in applications such as gas turbine electrical power generating engines and jet turbine engines where it is desired to burn lean fuel/air mixtures which produce lower amounts of NO.sub.x. A laser induced spark is propagated at a distance from the fuel nozzle with the laser ignitor being remotely located from the high temperature environment of the combustion chamber. A laser initiating spark generated by focusing high peak power laser light to a sufficiently tight laser spot within the fuel to cause the ionization of air and fuel into a plasma is unobtrusive to the flow dynamics of the combustion chamber of a fuel injector, thereby facilitating whatever advantage can be taken of flow dynamics in the design of the fuel injector.

  10. High power lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Niku-Lari, A


    The use of lasers for the working and treatment of materials is becoming increasingly common in industry. However, certain laser applications, for example, in welding, cutting and drilling, are more widely exploited than others. Whilst the potential of lasers for the surface treatment of metals is well recognised, in practice, this particular application is a relative newcomer. The 24 papers in this volume present the latest research and engineering developments in the use of lasers for processes such as surface melting, surface alloying and cladding, and machining, as well as discussing th

  11. Laser safety in the lab

    CERN Document Server

    Barat, Ken L


    There is no more challenging setting for laser use than a research environment. In almost every other setting the laser controls count on engineering controls, and human exposure is kept to a minimum. In research, however, the user often manipulates the optical layout and thereby places him or herself in peril, but this does not mean that accidents and injury are unavoidable. On the contrary, laser accidents can be avoided by following a number of simple approaches. [i]Laser Safety in the Lab[/i] provides the laser user and laser safety officer with practical guidelines from housekeeping to ey

  12. Three-dimensional laser micro- and nano-structuring of acrylated poly(ethylene glycol) materials and evaluation of their cytoxicity for tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Ovsianikov, A; Malinauskas, M; Schlie, S; Chichkov, B; Gittard, S; Narayan, R; Löbler, M; Sternberg, K; Schmitz, K-P; Haverich, A


    The natural cell environment is characterized by complex three-dimensional structures, which contain features at multiple length scales. Many in vitro studies of cell behavior in three dimensions rely on the availability of artificial scaffolds with controlled three-dimensional topologies. In this paper, we demonstrate fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering out of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGda) materials by means of two-photon polymerization (2PP). This laser nanostructuring approach offers unique possibilities for rapid manufacturing of three-dimensional structures with arbitrary geometries. The spatial resolution dependence on the applied irradiation parameters is investigated for two PEGda formulations, which are characterized by molecular weights of 302 and 742. We demonstrate that minimum feature sizes of 200nm are obtained in both materials. In addition, an extensive study of the cytotoxicity of the material formulations with respect to photoinitiator type and photoinitiator concentration is undertaken. Aqueous extracts from photopolymerized PEGda samples indicate the presence of water-soluble molecules, which are toxic to fibroblasts. It is shown that sample aging in aqueous medium reduces the cytotoxicity of these extracts; this mechanism provides a route for biomedical applications of structures generated by 2PP microfabrication and photopolymerization technologies in general. Finally, a fully biocompatible combination of PEGda and a photoinitiator is identified. Fabrication of reproducible scaffold structures is very important for systematic investigation of cellular processes in three dimensions and for better understanding of in vitro tissue formation. The results of this work suggest that 2PP may be used to polymerize poly(ethylene glycol)-based materials into three-dimensional structures with well-defined geometries that mimic the physical and biological properties of native cell environments. Copyright © 2010

  13. Direct visualization of the in-plane leakage of high-order transverse modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers mediated by oxide-aperture engineering (United States)

    Ledentsov, N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Kropp, J.-R.; Burger, S.; Schmidt, F.; Ledentsov, N. N.


    Oxide-confined apertures in vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) can be engineered such that they promote leakage of the transverse optical modes from the non- oxidized core region to the selectively oxidized periphery of the device. The reason of the leakage is that the VCSEL modes in the core can be coupled to tilted modes in the periphery if the orthogonality between the core mode and the modes at the periphery is broken by the oxidation-induced optical field redistribution. Three-dimensional modeling of a practical VCSEL design reveals i) significantly stronger leakage losses for high-order transverse modes than that of the fundamental one as high-order modes have a higher field intensity close to the oxide layers and ii) narrow peaks in the far-field profile generated by the leaky component of the optical modes. Experimental 850-nm GaAlAs leaky VCSELs produced in the modeled design demonstrate i) single-mode lasing with the aperture diameters up to 5μm with side mode suppression ratio >20dB at the current density of 10kA/cm2; and ii) narrow peaks tilted at 37 degrees with respect to the vertical axis in excellent agreement with the modeling data and confirming the leaky nature of the modes and the proposed mechanism of mode selection. The results indicate that in- plane coupling of VCSELs, VCSELs and p-i-n photodiodes, VCSEL and delay lines is possible allowing novel photonic integrated circuits. We show that the approach enables design of oxide apertures, air-gap apertures, devices created by impurity-induced intermixing or any combinations of such designs through quantitative evaluation of the leaky emission.

  14. Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Systems (United States)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    The apparent regularity of the motion of the giant planets of our solar system suggested for decades that said planets formed onto orbits similar to the current onesand that nothing dramatic ever happened during their lifetime. The discovery of extrasolar planets showed astonishingly that the orbital structure of our planetary system is not typical. Many giant extrasolar planets have orbits with semimajor axes of ˜ 1 AU,and some have even smaller orbital radii, sometimes with orbital periods of just a few days. Moreover, most extrasolar planets have large eccentricities, up to values that only comets have in our solar system. Why is there such a great diversitybetween our solar system and the extrasolar systems, as well as among the extrasolar systems themselves? This chapter aims to give a partial answer to this fundamental question. Its guideline is a discussion of the evolution of our solarsystem, certainly biased by a view that emerges, in part, from a series of works comprising the "Nice model." According to this view, the giant planets of the solar system migrated radially while they were still embedded in a protoplanetary disk of gas and presumably achieved a multi-resonant orbital configuration, characterized by smaller interorbital spacings and smaller eccentricities and inclinations with respect to the current configuration.The current orbits of the giant planets may have been achieved during a phase of orbital instability, during which the planets acquired temporarily large-eccentricity orbits and all experienced close encounters with at least oneother planet. This instability phase occurred presumably during the putative "Late Heavy Bombardment" of the terrestrial planets, approximately ˜ 3.9 Gy ago (Tera et al. 1974). The interaction with a massive, distant planetesimal disk (the ancestor of the current Kuiper belt) eventually damped the eccentricities of the planets, ending the phase of mutual planetary encounters and parking the planets onto their

  15. Future of Software Engineering Standards (United States)

    Poon, Peter T.


    In the new millennium, software engineering standards are expected to continue to influence the process of producing software-intensive systems which are cost-effetive and of high quality. These sytems may range from ground and flight systems used for planetary exploration to educational support systems used in schools as well as consumer-oriented systems.

  16. Geophysics of Small Planetary Bodies (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik I.


    As a SETI Institute PI from 1996-1998, Erik Asphaug studied impact and tidal physics and other geophysical processes associated with small (low-gravity) planetary bodies. This work included: a numerical impact simulation linking basaltic achondrite meteorites to asteroid 4 Vesta (Asphaug 1997), which laid the groundwork for an ongoing study of Martian meteorite ejection; cratering and catastrophic evolution of small bodies (with implications for their internal structure; Asphaug et al. 1996); genesis of grooved and degraded terrains in response to impact; maturation of regolith (Asphaug et al. 1997a); and the variation of crater outcome with impact angle, speed, and target structure. Research of impacts into porous, layered and prefractured targets (Asphaug et al. 1997b, 1998a) showed how shape, rheology and structure dramatically affects sizes and velocities of ejecta, and the survivability and impact-modification of comets and asteroids (Asphaug et al. 1998a). As an affiliate of the Galileo SSI Team, the PI studied problems related to cratering, tectonics, and regolith evolution, including an estimate of the impactor flux around Jupiter and the effect of impact on local and regional tectonics (Asphaug et al. 1998b). Other research included tidal breakup modeling (Asphaug and Benz 1996; Schenk et al. 1996), which is leading to a general understanding of the role of tides in planetesimal evolution. As a Guest Computational Investigator for NASA's BPCC/ESS supercomputer testbed, helped graft SPH3D onto an existing tree code tuned for the massively parallel Cray T3E (Olson and Asphaug, in preparation), obtaining a factor xIO00 speedup in code execution time (on 512 cpus). Runs which once took months are now completed in hours.

  17. Long-distance Dating: In situ geochronology for planetary missions (United States)

    Cho, Y.; Cohen, B. A.


    Isotopic dating is an essential tool to establish an absolute chronology for geological events. It enables a planet's crystallization history, magmatic evolution, and alteration to be placed into the framework of solar system history. The capability for in situ geochronology will open up the ability for this crucial measurement to be accomplished as part of lander or rover complement. An in situ geochronology package can also complement sample return missions by identifying the most interesting rocks to cache or return to Earth. The capability of flight instruments to conduct in situ geochronology is called out in the NASA Planetary Science Decadal Survey and the NASA Technology Roadmap as needing development to serve the community's needs. Beagle 2 is the only mission launched to date with the explicit aim to perform in situ K-Ar isotopic dating [1], but it failed to communicate and was lost. The first in situ K-Ar date on Mars, using SAM and APXS measurements on the Cumberland mudstone [2], yielded an age of 4.21 ± 0.35 Ga and validated the idea of K-Ar dating on other planets, though the Curiosity method is not purpose-built for dating and requires many assumptions that degrade its precision. To get more precise and meaningful ages, multiple groups are developing dedicated in situ dating instruments [3-7], including the K-Ar Laser Experiment (KArLE) [5]. KArLE ablates a rock sample, measures K using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), measures liberated Ar using mass spectrometry (MS), and relates the two by measuring the volume of the ablated pit with optical imaging. The KArLE breadboard tested planetary analog samples yielding ages with 25% uncertainty on very young samples (<50Ma) and 10% uncertainties on older samples. [1] Talboys, et al. (2009) Planetary and Space Science 57, 1237-1245, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2009.02.012. [2] Farley, et al. (2014) Science 343, doi:10.1126/science.1247166. [3] Anderson, et al. (2015) Rapid Comm. Mass Spec. 29, 191

  18. Volume Measurements of Laser-generated Pits for in Situ Geochronology Using KArLE (Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment) (United States)

    French, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Miller, J. S.


    KArLE (Potassium-­-Argon Laser Experiment) has been developed for in situ planetary geochronology using the K - Ar (potassium-­-argon) isotope system, where material ablated by LIBS (Laser-­-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) is used to calculate isotope abundances. We are determining the accuracy and precision of volume measurements of these pits using stereo and laser microscope data to better understand the ablation process for isotope abundance calculations. If a characteristic volume can be determined with sufficient accuracy and precision for specific rock types, KArLE will prove to be a useful instrument for future planetary rover missions.

  19. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma


    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  20. Turning Planetary Theory Upside Down (United States)


    The discovery of nine new transiting exoplanets is announced today at the RAS National Astronomy Meeting (NAM2010). When these new results were combined with earlier observations of transiting exoplanets astronomers were surprised to find that six out of a larger sample of 27 were found to be orbiting in the opposite direction to the rotation of their host star - the exact reverse of what is seen in our own Solar System. The new discoveries provide an unexpected and serious challenge to current theories of planet formation. They also suggest that systems with exoplanets of the type known as hot Jupiters are unlikely to contain Earth-like planets. "This is a real bomb we are dropping into the field of exoplanets," says Amaury Triaud, a PhD student at the Geneva Observatory who, with Andrew Cameron and Didier Queloz, leads a major part of the observational campaign. Planets are thought to form in the disc of gas and dust encircling a young star. This proto-planetary disc rotates in the same direction as the star itself, and up to now it was expected that planets that form from the disc would all orbit in more or less the same plane, and that they would move along their orbits in the same direction as the star's rotation. This is the case for the planets in the Solar System. After the initial detection of the nine new exoplanets [1] with the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP, [2]), the team of astronomers used the HARPS spectrograph on the 3.6-metre ESO telescope at the La Silla observatory in Chile, along with data from the Swiss Euler telescope, also at La Silla, and data from other telescopes to confirm the discoveries and characterise the transiting exoplanets [3] found in both the new and older surveys. Surprisingly, when the team combined the new data with older observations they found that more than half of all the hot Jupiters [4] studied have orbits that are misaligned with the rotation axis of their parent stars. They even found that six exoplanets in this

  1. Planetary Protection Approaches for a Mars Atmospheric Sample Return (United States)

    Clark, B.; Leshin, L.; Barengoltz, J.

    The Sample Collection for Investigation of Mars (SCIM) mission proposes to fly through the upper atmosphere of Mars at hypervelocity to collect airborne dust and gas, and return the material to Earth for detailed analysis in a variety of specialized and sophisticated laboratories. SCIM would accomplish the first low-cost return of martian material, and could provide crucial insights into the poorly understood history of water and weathering processes on Mars. Planetary protection forward contamination can be satisfied by straight-forward, established procedures. The more challenging concern for back-contamination of Earth has been directly addressed through a number of detailed engineering analyses to identify which portions of the spacecraft are susceptible to contamination by surviving organisms, combined with in-space heating to sterilize the aerogel collecting medium after acquisition of samples. Systems for "breaking-the-chain" of back contamination have been designed. Review of established heat sterilization procedures on Earth have provided a rationale for specifying a conservative temperature-time cycle for sterilization onboard the spacecraft. In-flight monitoring of onborad systems will provide the Planetary Protection Office with confirmatory information needed to enable approval for final re-targeting of the trajectory to return to Earth.

  2. Power Laser Ablation Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, Claude


    Laser ablation describes the interaction of intense optical fields with matter, in which atoms are selectively driven off by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The field of laser ablation physics is advancing so rapidly that its principal results are seen only in specialized journals and conferences. This is the first book that combines the most recent results in this rapidly advancing field with authoritative treatment of laser ablation and its applications, including the physics of high-power laser-matter interaction. Many practical applications exist, ranging from inertial confinement fusion to propulsion of aerostats for pollution monitoring to laser ignition of hypersonic engines to laser cleaning nanoscale contaminants in high-volume computer hard drive manufacture to direct observation of the electronic or dissociative states in atoms and molecules, to studying the properties of materials during 200kbar shocks developed in 200fs. Selecting topics which are representative of such a broad field is difficu...

  3. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui


    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  4. Laser rocket system analysis (United States)

    Jones, W. S.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.


    The laser rocket systems investigated in this study were for orbital transportation using space-based, ground-based and airborne laser transmitters. The propulsion unit of these systems utilizes a continuous wave (CW) laser beam focused into a thrust chamber which initiates a plasma in the hydrogen propellant, thus heating the propellant and providing thrust through a suitably designed nozzle and expansion skirt. The specific impulse is limited only by the ability to adequately cool the thruster and the amount of laser energy entering the engine. The results of the study showed that, with advanced technology, laser rocket systems with either a space- or ground-based laser transmitter could reduce the national budget allocated to space transportation by 10 to 345 billion dollars over a 10-year life cycle when compared to advanced chemical propulsion systems (LO2-LH2) of equal capability. The variation in savings depends upon the projected mission model.

  5. Access to the Online Planetary Research Literature (United States)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.


    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private library capabilities (a useful tool for building bibliographies), plus access to scanned pages of published articles. The ADS also provides powerful search capabilities, allowing users to find e.g. the most instructive or most important articles on a given subject . For the Planetary Sciences, the citation statistics of the ADS have improved considerably with the inclusion of the references from Elsevier journals, including Icarus, Planetary and Space Science, and Earth and Planetary Science Letters. We currently have about 78 journals convering the planetary and space sciences (Advances in Space Research, Icarus, Solar Physics, Astrophusics and Space Science, JGRE, Meteoritics, to name a few). Currently, this set of journals represents about 180,000 articles and 1.1 million references. Penetration into the Solar Physics, Planetary Sciences and Geophysics community has increased significantly. During the period 2004-2008, user access to JGR and Icarus increased by a factor of 4.4, while e.g. access to the Astrophysical Journal "only" increased by a factor of 1.8.

  6. Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions (United States)

    Brasunas, John C.; Hewagama, Tilak; Kolasinski, John R.; Kostiuk, Theodor


    Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system.Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, NASA Goddard was funded via the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Progrem (PIDDP) to develop CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. Following the initial validation of CIRS-lite operation in the laboratory, we have been acquiring atmospheric data in the 8-12 micron window at the 1.2 m telescope at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) in Greenbelt, MD. Targets so far have included Earth's atmosphere (in emission, and in absorption against the moon), and Venus.We will present the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions.

  7. Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER) (United States)

    Cezzar, Ruknet; Sen, Ranjan K.


    The Parallel Architectures for Planetary Exploration Requirements (PAPER) project is essentially research oriented towards technology insertion issues for NASA's unmanned planetary probes. It was initiated to complement and augment the long-term efforts for space exploration with particular reference to NASA/LaRC's (NASA Langley Research Center) research needs for planetary exploration missions of the mid and late 1990s. The requirements for space missions as given in the somewhat dated Advanced Information Processing Systems (AIPS) requirements document are contrasted with the new requirements from JPL/Caltech involving sensor data capture and scene analysis. It is shown that more stringent requirements have arisen as a result of technological advancements. Two possible architectures, the AIPS Proof of Concept (POC) configuration and the MAX Fault-tolerant dataflow multiprocessor, were evaluated. The main observation was that the AIPS design is biased towards fault tolerance and may not be an ideal architecture for planetary and deep space probes due to high cost and complexity. The MAX concepts appears to be a promising candidate, except that more detailed information is required. The feasibility for adding neural computation capability to this architecture needs to be studied. Key impact issues for architectural design of computing systems meant for planetary missions were also identified.

  8. Laser structuring of carbon nanoframe in a protein matrix for the creation of 3D composite materials and coatings for applications in tissue engineering (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Alexander Yu.; Glukhova, Olga E.; Savostyanov, Georgy V.; Savelyev, Mikhail S.; Ichkitidze, Levan P.; Masloboev, Yurii P.; Selishchev, Sergey V.; Podgaetsky, Vitaly M.


    The results of experimental creation of nanocomposites using femtosecond laser are presented. We have theoretically proved the formation of a carbon nanotube frame in a protein matrix during laser structuring of single-walled carbon nanotubes. We have selected the technological parameters of synthesis of nanocomposites, which provide the proliferation of living cells.

  9. Survey of Capabilities and Applications of Accurate Clocks: Directions for Planetary Science (United States)

    Dehant, Véronique; Park, Ryan; Dirkx, Dominic; Iess, Luciano; Neumann, Gregory; Turyshev, Slava; Van Hoolst, Tim


    For planetary science, accurate clocks are mainly used as part of an onboard radioscience transponder. In the case of two-way radio data, the dominating data type for planetary radioscience, an accurate spacecraft clock is not necessary since the measurements can be calibrated using high-precision clocks on Earth. In the case of one-way radio data, however, an accurate clock can make the precision of one-way radio data be comparable to the two-way data, and possibly better since only one leg of radio path would be affected by the media. This article addresses several ways to improve observations for planetary science, either by improving the onboard clock or by using further variants of the classical radioscience methods, e.g., Same Beam Interferometry (SBI). For a clock to be useful for planetary science, we conclude that it must have at least a short-time stability (<1{,}000 s) better than 10^{-13} and its size be substantially miniaturized. A special case of using laser ranging to the Moon and the implication of having an accurate clock is shown as an example.

  10. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Terrestrial Planets: Building Blocks and Differentiation (United States)


    The session "Terrestrial Planets: Building Blocks and Differentiation: included the following topics:Magnesium Isotopes in the Earth, Moon, Mars, and Pallasite Parent Body: High-Precision Analysis of Olivine by Laser-Ablation Multi-Collector ICPMS; Meteoritic Constraints on Collision Rates in the Primordial Asteroid Belt and Its Origin; New Constraints on the Origin of the Highly Siderophile Elements in the Earth's Upper Mantle; Further Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Isotopic Data on Planetary Materials and Consequences for Planetary Differentiation; A Deep Lunar Magma Ocean Based on Neodymium, Strontium and Hafnium Isotope Mass Balance Partial Resetting on Hf-W System by Giant Impacts; On the Problem of Metal-Silicate Equilibration During Planet Formation: Significance for Hf-W Chronometry ; Solid Metal-Liquid Metal Partitioning of Pt, Re, and Os: The Effect of Carbon; Siderophile Element Abundances in Fe-S-Ni-O Melts Segregated from Partially Molten Ordinary Chondrite Under Dynamic Conditions; Activity Coefficients of Silicon in Iron-Nickel Alloys: Experimental Determination and Relevance for Planetary Differentiation; Reinvestigation of the Ni and Co Metal-Silicate Partitioning; Metal/Silicate Paritioning of P, Ga, and W at High Pressures and Temperatures: Dependence on Silicate Melt Composition; and Closure of the Fe-S-Si Liquid Miscibility Gap at High Pressure and Its Implications for Planetary Core Formation.

  11. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.


    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  12. Instruments for Planetary Exploration with CubeSats and SmallSats (United States)

    Raymond, Carol; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Yano, Hajime


    Planetary sensors and instruments are undergoing a revolutionary transformation as solid-state electronics and advanced detectors allow drastic reductions in size, mass and power relative to instruments flown in the past. Given their reduced resource needs, these capable new systems are potentially compatible with use on smallsats. New built-in processing techniques further enable increased science return in constrained resource environments. In the summer of 2014 an international group of scientists, engineers, and technologists started a study to define investigations to be carried out by nano-spacecraft, and instruments that would enable breakthrough science from these small platforms were identified. The possibilities include passive remote sensing instruments such as imagers, spectrometers, magnetometers, dust analyzers; active instruments such as radar, lidar, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), muonography, projectiles; and landed packages and in-situ probes such as instrumented penetrators, seismometers, and in-situ sample analysis packages. Many of the passive and active instruments could be used in-situ for very high-resolution measurements over limited areas. Smallsats lend themselves to observing strategies that allow dense spatial and temporal sampling using multiple flight system elements, covering a range of observing conditions, and multi-scale measurements with concurrent surface and remote observations. The lower cost of smallsats allows visiting a large range of targets and provides an architecture for cooperating distributed networks of sensors. The current state-of-the-art in smallsat payloads includes instrument suites on the Philae lander (Rosetta), and the MINERVA-II rovers and MASCOT on Hayabusa-2. Many Cubesat form factor instruments are either built or in development, including impactors and penetrators, and several new technologies are making their debut in the smallsat arena. The Philae payload included the CONSERT active radar

  13. Obtaining and Using Planetary Spatial Data into the Future: The Role of the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT) (United States)

    Radebaugh, J.; Thomson, B. J.; Archinal, B.; Hagerty, J.; Gaddis, L.; Lawrence, S. J.; Sutton, S.


    Planetary spatial data, which include any remote sensing data or derived products with sufficient positional information such that they can be projected onto a planetary body, continue to rapidly increase in volume and complexity. These data are the hard-earned fruits of decades of planetary exploration, and are the end result of mission planning and execution. Maintaining these data using accessible formats and standards for all scientists has been necessary for the success of past, present, and future planetary missions. The Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT) is a group of planetary community members tasked by NASA Headquarters to work with the planetary science community to identify and prioritize their planetary spatial data needs to help determine the best pathways for new data acquisition, usable product derivation, and tools/capability development that supports NASA's planetary science missions.

  14. Isolated quantum heat engine. (United States)

    Fialko, O; Hallwood, D W


    We present a theoretical and numerical analysis of a quantum system that is capable of functioning as a heat engine. This system could be realized experimentally using cold bosonic atoms confined to a double well potential that is created by splitting a harmonic trap with a focused laser. The system shows thermalization, and can model a reversible heat engine cycle. This is the first demonstration of the operation of a heat engine with a finite quantum heat bath.

  15. Isolated quantum heat engine


    Fialko, O.; Hallwood, D.


    We present a theoretical and numerical analysis of a quantum system that is capable of functioning as a heat engine. This system could be realized experimentally using cold bosonic atoms confined to a double well potential that is created by splitting a harmonic trap with a focused laser. The system shows thermalization, and can model a reversible heat engine cycle. This is the first demonstration of the operation of a heat engine with a finite quantum heat bath.

  16. Magnetic investigations for studying planetary interiors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Santis


    Full Text Available Most of the magnetic methods used for investigating planetary interiors are based on the reasonable hypothesis that the mechanism for the origin of the field is an Earth-like hydromagnetic dynamo: in this case the planet has an electrically conducting fluid shell within it as in the case of the Earth's core. The present paper describes several techniques of planetary magnetic investigation which give important clues on the internal constitution of planets. Some considerations on the possible mechanisms for maintaining a dynamo and simple concepts with the help of a few non-dimensional numbers are also introduced and discussed. Then some fundamental relationships are given in order to relate the planetary magnetism to other physical parameters, such as angular rotation, core dimensions etc. It finally summarizes some results available for the planets of the Solar System.

  17. VOEvent for Solar and Planetary Sciences (United States)

    Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; André, N.; Marmo, C.


    With its Planetary Space Weather Service (PSWS), the Europlanet-H2020 Research Insfrastructure (EPN2020RI) project is proposing a compelling set of databases and tools to that provides Space Weather forecasting throughout the Solar System. We present here the selected event transfer system (VOEvent). We describe the user requirements, develop the way to implement event alerts, and chain those to the 1) planetary event and 2) planetary space weather predictions. The service of alerts is developed with the objective to facilitate discovery or prediction announcements within the PSWS user community in order to watch or warn against specific events. The ultimate objective is to set up dedicated amateur and/or professional observation campaigns, diffuse contextual information for science data analysis, and enable safety operations of planet-orbiting spacecraft against the risks of impacts from meteors or solar wind disturbances.

  18. Miniaturisation of imaging spectrometer for planetary exploration (United States)

    Drossart, Pierre; Sémery, Alain; Réess, Jean-Michel; Combes, Michel


    Future planetary exploration on telluric or giant planets will need a new kind of instrumentation combining imaging and spectroscopy at high spectral resolution to achieve new scientific measurements, in particular for atmospheric studies in nadir configuration. We present here a study of a Fourier Transform heterodyne spectrometer, which can achieve these objectives, in the visible or infrared. The system is composed of a Michelson interferometer, whose mirrors have been replaced by gratings, a configuration studied in the early days of Fourier Transform spectroscopy, but only recently reused for space instrumentation, with the availability of large infrared mosaics. A complete study of an instrument is underway, with optical and electronic tests, as well as data processing analysis. This instrument will be proposed for future planetary missions, including ESA/Bepi Colombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter or Earth orbiting platforms.

  19. Planetary Nebulae Beyond the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, L; Douglas, N. G; Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Garching, Germany, 19-21 May, 2004


    In the last decade extra-galactic planetary nebulae (PNe) have gained increasing importance. Improved observational capabilities have allowed fainter and fainter PNe to be studied in galaxies well beyond the Milky Way. Planetary nebulae can be detected to at least 30Mpc. They are found in galaxies of all types and also between the galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters. They are valuable as probes, both for providing the velocity of their host stars and also the evolutionary status and relation to the stellar population from which they formed. This book contains the proceedings of a workshop held at ESO headquarters in Garching in 2004, the first meeting devoted entirely to Extra-galactic Planetary Nebulae. A wide range of topics is covered, from stellar and nebular astrophysics to galactic dynamics and galaxy clusters, making this volume a unique and timely reference of broad astrophysical interest.

  20. Energy Balance Models and Planetary Dynamics (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn


    We know that planetary dynamics can have a significant affect on the climate of planets. Planetary dynamics dominate the glacial-interglacial periods on Earth, leaving a significant imprint on the geological record. They have also been demonstrated to have a driving influence on the climates of other planets in our solar system. We should therefore expect th.ere to be similar relationships on extrasolar planets. Here we describe a simple energy balance model that can predict the growth and thickness of glaciers, and their feedbacks on climate. We will also describe model changes that we have made to include planetary dynamics effects. This is the model we will use at the start of our collaboration to handle the influence of dynamics on climate.

  1. Teaching Planetary Gear Trains with the Aid of Nomographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Lauibi Esmail


    Full Text Available Planetary gear trains (PGTs are introduced to undergraduate mechanical engineering students in the course of Theory of Machines. The complexity of the traditional methods for analyzing PGTs has kept many from becoming familiar with the capability of PGTs in mechanisms and machine design. In this paper a unified general formulation for simultaneously visualizing velocities, torques, and power flow through a train is presented on a single nomograph. Therefore, the increasing complex mechanical systems, such as automotive transmissions, are much easier to understand. Nomographs of Fundamental Gear Entities (FGEs are constructed based on the nomographs of their fundamental circuits, without specifying the exact gear dimensions. They are then unified in one system nomograph. Nomographs are promising to provide designers with an efficient tool for the design of geared mechanisms.

  2. Reconsideration of the planetary boundary for phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, Stephen R [Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bennett, Elena M, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Natural Resource Sciences and McGill School of Environment, McGill University, 21 111 Lakeshore Road, Ste-Anne de Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9 (Canada)


    Phosphorus (P) is a critical factor for food production, yet surface freshwaters and some coastal waters are highly sensitive to eutrophication by excess P. A planetary boundary, or upper tolerable limit, for P discharge to the oceans is thought to be ten times the pre-industrial rate, or more than three times the current rate. However this boundary does not take account of freshwater eutrophication. We analyzed the global P cycle to estimate planetary boundaries for freshwater eutrophication. Planetary boundaries were computed for the input of P to freshwaters, the input of P to terrestrial soil, and the mass of P in soil. Each boundary was computed for two water quality targets, 24 mg P m{sup -3}, a typical target for lakes and reservoirs, and 160 mg m{sup -3}, the approximate pre-industrial P concentration in the world's rivers. Planetary boundaries were also computed using three published estimates of current P flow to the sea. Current conditions exceed all planetary boundaries for P. Substantial differences between current conditions and planetary boundaries demonstrate the contrast between large amounts of P needed for food production and the high sensitivity of freshwaters to pollution by P runoff. At the same time, some regions of the world are P-deficient, and there are some indications that a global P shortage is possible in coming decades. More efficient recycling and retention of P within agricultural ecosystems could maintain or increase food production while reducing P pollution and improving water quality. Spatial heterogeneity in the global P cycle suggests that recycling of P in regions of excess and transfer of P to regions of deficiency could mitigate eutrophication, increase agricultural yield, and delay or avoid global P shortage.

  3. Planetary exploration with nanosatellites: a space campus for future technology development (United States)

    Drossart, P.; Mosser, B.; Segret, B.


    Planetary exploration is at the eve of a revolution through nanosatellites accompanying larger missions, or freely cruising in the solar system, providing a man-made cosmic web for in situ or remote sensing exploration of the Solar System. A first step is to build a specific place dedicated to nanosatellite development. The context of the CCERES PSL space campus presents an environment for nanosatellite testing and integration, a concurrent engineering facility room for project analysis and science environment dedicated to this task.

  4. Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank


    Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)

  5. Technology for NASA's Planetary Science Vision 2050. (United States)

    Lakew, B.; Amato, D.; Freeman, A.; Falker, J.; Turtle, Elizabeth; Green, J.; Mackwell, S.; Daou, D.


    NASAs Planetary Science Division (PSD) initiated and sponsored a very successful community Workshop held from Feb. 27 to Mar. 1, 2017 at NASA Headquarters. The purpose of the Workshop was to develop a vision of planetary science research and exploration for the next three decades until 2050. This abstract summarizes some of the salient technology needs discussed during the three-day workshop and at a technology panel on the final day. It is not meant to be a final report on technology to achieve the science vision for 2050.

  6. Innovations at a European Planetary Simulation Facility (United States)

    Merrison, J.; Iversen, J. J.; Alois, S.; Rasmussen, K. R.


    This unique and recently improved planetary simulation facility is capable of re-creating extreme terrestrial, Martian and other planetary environments. It is supported by EU activities including Europlanet 2020 RI and a volcanology network VERTIGO. It is also used as a test facility by ESA for the forthcoming ExoMars 2020 mission. Specifically it is capable of recreating the key physical parameters such as temperature, pressure (gas composition), wind flow and importantly the suspension/transport of dust or sand particulates. This facility is available both to the scientific and Industrial community. The latest research and networking activities will be presented.

  7. Magnetic fields in Planetary Nebulae: paradigms and related MHD frontiers (United States)

    Blackman, Eric G.


    Many, if not all, post AGB stellar systems swiftly transition from a spherical to a powerful aspherical pre-planetary nebula (pPNE) outflow phase before waning into a PNe. The pPNe outflows require engine rotational energy and a mechanism to extract this energy into collimated outflows. Just radiation and rotation are insufficient but a symbiosis between rotation, differential rotation and large scale magnetic fields remains promising. Present observational evidence for magnetic fields in evolved stars is suggestive of dynamically important magnetic fields, but both theory and observation are rife with research opportunity. I discuss how magnetohydrodynamic outflows might arise in pPNe and PNe and distinguish different between approaches that address shaping vs. those that address both launch and shaping. Scenarios involving dynamos in single stars, binary driven dynamos, or accretion engines cannot be ruled out. One appealing paradigm involves accretion onto the primary post-AGB white dwarf core from a low mass companion whose decaying accretion supply rate owers first the pPNe and then the lower luminosity PNe. Determining observational signatures of different MHD engines is a work in progress. Accretion disk theory and large scale dynamos pose many of their own fundamental challenges, some of which I discuss in a broader context.

  8. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.


    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  9. Training Early Career Scientists in Flight Instrument Design Through Experiential Learning: NASA Goddard's Planetary Science Winter School. (United States)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Lakew, B.; Bracken, J.; Brown, T.; Rivera, R.


    The NASA Goddard Planetary Science Winter School (PSWS) is a Goddard Space Flight Center-sponsored training program, managed by Goddard's Solar System Exploration Division (SSED), for Goddard-based postdoctoral fellows and early career planetary scientists. Currently in its third year, the PSWS is an experiential training program for scientists interested in participating on future planetary science instrument teams. Inspired by the NASA Planetary Science Summer School, Goddard's PSWS is unique in that participants learn the flight instrument lifecycle by designing a planetary flight instrument under actual consideration by Goddard for proposal and development. They work alongside the instrument Principal Investigator (PI) and engineers in Goddard's Instrument Design Laboratory (IDL;, to develop a science traceability matrix and design the instrument, culminating in a conceptual design and presentation to the PI, the IDL team and Goddard management. By shadowing and working alongside IDL discipline engineers, participants experience firsthand the science and cost constraints, trade-offs, and teamwork that are required for optimal instrument design. Each PSWS is collaboratively designed with representatives from SSED, IDL, and the instrument PI, to ensure value added for all stakeholders. The pilot PSWS was held in early 2015, with a second implementation in early 2016. Feedback from past participants was used to design the 2017 PSWS, which is underway as of the writing of this abstract.

  10. Spectropolarimeter for planetary exploration (SPEX) : Performance measurements with a prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voors, R.; Moon, S.G.; Hannemann, S.; Rietjens, J.H.H.; Harten, G. van; Snik, F.; Smit, M.; Stam, D.M.; Keller, C.U.; Laan, E.C.; Verlaan, A.L.; Vliegenthart, W.A.; Horst, R. ter; Navarro, R.; Wielinga, K.


    SPEX (Spectropolarimeter for Planetary Exploration) was developed in close cooperation between scientific institutes and space technological industries in the Netherlands. It is used for measuring microphysical properties of aerosols and cloud particles in planetary atmospheres. SPEX utilizes a


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is intended to include published colors of small planetary satellites published up through December 2003. Small planetary satellites are defined as all...

  12. Planetary Protection Technology Definition Team: Tasks, Status, and Feedback (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Rummel, J. D.


    A Planetary Protection and Technology Definition Team will assess challenges to meeting planetary protection requirements to instruments and will suggest technological solutions. Status and initial findings will be reported.

  13. Gasdynamic lasers and photon machines. (United States)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Hertzberg, A.


    The basic operational highlights of CO2-N2 gasdynamic lasers (GDL's) are described. Features common to powerful gas lasers are indicated. A simplified model of the vibrational kinetics of the system is presented, and the importance of rapid expansion nozzles is shown from analytic solutions of the equations. A high-power pulsed GDL is described, along with estimations of power extraction. A closed-cycle laser is suggested, leading to a description of a photon generator/engine. Thermodynamic analysis of the closed-cycle laser illustrates in principle the possibility of direct conversion of laser energy to work.

  14. NASA's laser-propulsion project (United States)

    Jones, L. W.; Keefer, D. R.


    Design concepts, study results, and research directions toward development of CW laser heating of remotely flying spacecraft fuels to provide high impulse thrust are presented. The incident laser radiation would be absorbed by hydrogen through a medium of a laser-supported plasma. The laser energy could be furnished from an orbiting solar-powered laser platform and used to drive the engines of an orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) at costs less than with a chemical propulsion system. The OTV propulsion chamber would be reduced in size comparable to the volume addition of the incident laser energy absorber. The temperatures in the hydrogen-fueled system could reach 5000-15,000 K, and studies have been done to examine the feasibility of ion-electron recombination. Kinetic performance, temperature field, and power necessary to sustain a laser thrust augmented system modeling results are discussed, along with near-term 30 kW CO2 laser system tests.

  15. SPEX: the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary Exploration (United States)

    Rietjens, J. H. H.; Snik, F.; Stam, D. M.; Smit, J. M.; van Harten, G.; Keller, C. U.; Verlaan, A. L.; Laan, E. C.; ter Horst, R.; Navarro, R.; Wielinga, K.; Moon, S. G.; Voors, R.


    We present SPEX, the Spectropolarimeter for Planetary Exploration, which is a compact, robust and low-mass spectropolarimeter designed to operate from an orbiting or in situ platform. Its purpose is to simultaneously measure the radiance and the state (degree and angle) of linear polarization of sunlight that has been scattered in a planetary atmosphere and/or reflected by a planetary surface with high accuracy. The degree of linear polarization is extremely sensitive to the microphysical properties of atmospheric or surface particles (such as size, shape, and composition), and to the vertical distribution of atmospheric particles, such as cloud top altitudes. Measurements as those performed by SPEX are therefore crucial and often the only tool for disentangling the many parameters that describe planetary atmospheres and surfaces. SPEX uses a novel, passive method for its radiance and polarization observations that is based on a carefully selected combination of polarization optics. This method, called spectral modulation, is the modulation of the radiance spectrum in both amplitude and phase by the degree and angle of linear polarization, respectively. The polarization optics consists of an achromatic quarter-wave retarder, an athermal multiple-order retarder, and a polarizing beam splitter. We will show first results obtained with the recently developed prototype of the SPEX instrument, and present a performance analysis based on a dedicated vector radiative transport model together with a recently developed SPEX instrument simulator.

  16. Detection of transient events on planetary bodies . (United States)

    Di Martino, M.; Carbognani, A.

    Transient phenomena on planetary bodies are defined as luminous events of different intensities, which occur in planetary atmospheres and surfaces, their duration spans from about 0.1 s to some hours. They consist of meteors, bolides, lightning, impact flashes on solid surfaces, auroras, etc. So far, the study of these phenomena has been very limited, due to the lack of an ad hoc instrumentation, and their detection has been performed mainly on a serendipitous basis. Recently, ESA has issued an announcement of opportunity for the development of systems devoted to the detection of transient events in the Earth atmosphere and/or on the dark side of other planetary objects. One of such a detector as been designed and a prototype (\\textit{Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head}, SPOSH) has been constructed at Galileo Avionica S.p.A (Florence, Italy). For sake of clarity, in what follows, we classify the transient phenomena in ``Earth phenomena'' and ``Planetary phenomena'', even though some of them originate in a similar physical context.

  17. Planetary sciences and exploration: An Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the last two decades and a future perspective, including those for planetary exploration. 1. Introduction. The solar system consists ... and suitable chemical etching of mineral grains in meteorites. The high track density near the grain .... samples provide the integrated exposure ages of these samples to cosmic rays in space ...

  18. Abundances of planetary nebula NGC2392

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Roellig, T. L.

    The spectra of the planetary nebula NGC2392 is reanalysed using spectral measurements made in the mid-infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The aim is to determine the chemical composition of this object. We also make use of IUE and ground based spectra. Abundances determined from the

  19. Abundances in planetary nebulae : NGC 2792

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, S. R.; Surendiranath, R.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Roellig, T. L.

    The mid-infrared spectrum of the rather circular planetary nebula NGC2792 taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope is presented. This spectrum is combined with the ultraviolet IUE spectrum and with the spectrum in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The

  20. Fullerenes and the Nature of Planetary Gases (United States)

    Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Nuth, Joe


    Over the past several decades, two issues have dominated the discussion of planetary noble gas patterns: 1) the general resemblance of the noble gas abundances in carbonaceous chondrites to those measured in the Earth s atmosphere and; 2) atmospheric inventories of argon and neon that fall off significantly with increasing distance from the Sun. The recognition of the latter has led to the conclusion that the planetary component is not found on planets. In particular, the inability to explain the missing xenon reservoir, once thought to be sequestered in crustal rocks has been extremely troublesome. Some models have focused on various fractionations of solar wind rather than condensation as the process for the evolution of noble gases in the terrestrial planets. However, these models cannot explain the observed gradient of the gases, nor do they account for the similar Ne/Ar ratios and the dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have focused on hydrodynamic escape to explain the fractionation of gases, like neon, in the atmosphere and the mantle. Escape theory also seems to explain, in part, the isotopically heavy argon on Mars, however, it does not explain the discrepancies observed for the abundances of argon and neon on Venus and the Earth. This has led to the assumption that some combination of solar wind implantation, absorption and escape are needed to explain the nature of planetary noble gases.

  1. Keplerian planetary orbits in multidimensional Euclidian spaces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that together, laid the foundation for classical three dimensional mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. Kepler's laws of planetary motion are also three scientific laws describing the ...

  2. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.


    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  3. Equations Governing Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 12. Equations Governing Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion. Renuka Ravindran. General Article Volume 14 Issue 12 December 2009 pp 1166-1170. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  4. 1. Why Planetary Orbits are Closed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 12. Planetary Orbits as Simple Harmonic Motion. Bikram Phookun. Classroom Volume 8 Issue 12 December 2003 pp 83-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  5. Multiscale regime shifts and planetary boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, T.P.; Carpenter, S.; Rockstrom, J.; Scheffer, M.; Walker, B.


    Life on Earth has repeatedly displayed abrupt and massive changes in the past, and there is no reason to expect that comparable planetary-scale regime shifts will not continue in the future. Different lines of evidence indicate that regime shifts occur when the climate or biosphere transgresses a

  6. Planetary boundaries : Governing emerging risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galaz, V.; de Zeeuw, Aart; Shiroyama, Hideaki; Tripley, Debbie

    The climate, ecosystems and species, ozone layer, acidity of the oceans, the flow of energy and elements through nature, landscape change, freshwater systems, aerosols, and toxins—these constitute the planetary boundaries within which humanity must find a safe way to live and prosper. These are

  7. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers (United States)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  8. Planetary Sciences Literature - Access and Discovery (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; ADS Team


    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been around for over 2 decades, helping professional astronomers and planetary scientists navigate, without charge, through the increasingly complex environment of scholarly publications. As boundaries between disciplines dissolve and expand, the ADS provides powerful tools to help researchers discover useful information efficiently. In its new form, code-named ADS Bumblebee (, it may very well answer questions you didn't know you had! While the classic ADS ( focuses mostly on searching basic metadata (author, title and abstract), today's ADS is best described as a an "aggregator" of scholarly resources relevant to the needs of researchers in astronomy and planetary sciences, and providing a discovery environment on top of this. In addition to indexing content from a variety of publishers, data and software archives, the ADS enriches its records by text-mining and indexing the full-text articles (about 4.7 million in total, with 130,000 from planetary science journals), enriching its metadata through the extraction of citations and acknowledgments. Recent technology developments include a new Application Programming Interface (API), a new user interface featuring a variety of visualizations and bibliometric analysis, and integration with ORCID services to support paper claiming. The new ADS provides powerful tools to help you find review papers on a given subject, prolific authors working on a subject and who they are collaborating with (within and outside their group) and papers most read by by people who read recent papers on the topic of your interest. These are just a couple of examples of the capabilities of the new ADS. We currently index most journals covering the planetary sciences and we are striving to include those journals most frequently cited by planetary science publications. The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA

  9. Planetary Dynamos from a Solar Perspective (United States)

    Christensen, U. R.; Schmitt, D.; Rempel, M.


    Direct numerical simulations of the geodynamo and other planetary dynamos have been successful in reproducing the observed magnetic fields. We first give an overview on the fundamental properties of planetary magnetism. We review the concepts and main results of planetary dynamo modeling, contrasting them with the solar dynamo. In planetary dynamos the density stratification plays no major role and the magnetic Reynolds number is low enough to allow a direct simulation of the magnetic induction process using microscopic values of the magnetic diffusivity. The small-scale turbulence of the flow cannot be resolved and is suppressed by assuming a viscosity far in excess of the microscopic value. Systematic parameter studies lead to scaling laws for the magnetic field strength or the flow velocity that are independent of viscosity, indicating that the models are in the same dynamical regime as the flow in planetary cores. Helical flow in convection columns that are aligned with the rotation axis play an important role for magnetic field generation and forms the basis for a macroscopic α-effect. Depending on the importance of inertial forces relative to rotational forces, either dynamos with a dominant axial dipole or with a small-scale multipolar magnetic field are found. Earth is predicted to lie close to the transition point between both classes, which may explain why the dipole undergoes reversals. Some models fit the properties of the geomagnetic field in terms of spatial power spectra, magnetic field morphology and details of the reversal behavior remarkably well. Magnetic field strength in the dipolar dynamo regime is controlled by the available power and found to be independent of rotation rate. Predictions for the dipole moment agree well with the observed field strength of Earth and Jupiter and moderately well for other planets. Dedicated dynamo models for Mercury, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, which assume stably stratified layers above or below the dynamo

  10. Characterisation of Spray Development from Spark-Eroded and Laser-Drilled Multihole Injectors in an Optical DISI Engine and in a Quiescent Injection Chamber


    Butcher, AJ; Aleiferis, PG; Richardson, D


    This paper addresses the need for fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of fuel spray formation and mixture preparation in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines. Fuel injection systems for DISI engines undergo rapid developments in their design and performance, therefore, their spray breakup mechanisms in the physical conditions encountered in DISI engines over a range of operating conditions and injection strategies require continuous attention. In this context, there are spar...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Naß


    Full Text Available Planetary Cartography does not only provides the basis to support planning (e.g., landing-site selection, orbital observations, traverse planning and to facilitate mission conduct during the lifetime of a mission (e.g., observation tracking and hazard avoidance. It also provides the means to create science products after successful termination of a planetary mission by distilling data into maps. After a mission’s lifetime, data and higher level products like mosaics and digital terrain models (DTMs are stored in archives – and eventually into maps and higher-level data products – to form a basis for research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The complexity of such tasks increases with every new dataset that has been put on this stack of information, and in the same way as the complexity of autonomous probes increases, also tools that support these challenges require new levels of sophistication. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to summarize recent activities in Planetary Cartography, highlighting current issues the community is facing to derive the future opportunities in this field. By this we would like to invite cartographers/researchers to join this community and to start thinking about how we can jointly solve some of these challenges.

  12. Planetary Cartography and Mapping: where we are Today, and where we are Heading For? (United States)

    Naß, A.; Di, K.; Elgner, S.; van Gasselt, S.; Hare, T.; Hargitai, H.; Karachevtseva, I.; Kersten, E.; Manaud, N.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Skinner, J., Jr.; Wählisch, M.


    Planetary Cartography does not only provides the basis to support planning (e.g., landing-site selection, orbital observations, traverse planning) and to facilitate mission conduct during the lifetime of a mission (e.g., observation tracking and hazard avoidance). It also provides the means to create science products after successful termination of a planetary mission by distilling data into maps. After a mission's lifetime, data and higher level products like mosaics and digital terrain models (DTMs) are stored in archives - and eventually into maps and higher-level data products - to form a basis for research and for new scientific and engineering studies. The complexity of such tasks increases with every new dataset that has been put on this stack of information, and in the same way as the complexity of autonomous probes increases, also tools that support these challenges require new levels of sophistication. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to summarize recent activities in Planetary Cartography, highlighting current issues the community is facing to derive the future opportunities in this field. By this we would like to invite cartographers/researchers to join this community and to start thinking about how we can jointly solve some of these challenges.

  13. An Ontology-Based Archive Information Model for the Planetary Science Community (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; Crichton, Daniel J.; Mattmann, Chris


    The Planetary Data System (PDS) information model is a mature but complex model that has been used to capture over 30 years of planetary science data for the PDS archive. As the de-facto information model for the planetary science data archive, it is being adopted by the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) as their archive data standard. However, after seventeen years of evolutionary change the model needs refinement. First a formal specification is needed to explicitly capture the model in a commonly accepted data engineering notation. Second, the core and essential elements of the model need to be identified to help simplify the overall archive process. A team of PDS technical staff members have captured the PDS information model in an ontology modeling tool. Using the resulting knowledge-base, work continues to identify the core elements, identify problems and issues, and then test proposed modifications to the model. The final deliverables of this work will include specifications for the next generation PDS information model and the initial set of IPDA archive data standards. Having the information model captured in an ontology modeling tool also makes the model suitable for use by Semantic Web applications.

  14. Proteomic Analyses of the Acute Tissue Response for Explant Rabbit Corneas and Engineered Corneal Tissue Models Following In Vitro Exposure to 1540 nm Laser Light

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eurell, T. E; Johnson, T. E; Roach, W. P


    Two-dimensional electrophoresis and histomorphometry were used to determine if equivalent protein changes occurred within native rabbit corneas and engineered corneal tissue models following in vitro...

  15. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations (United States)

    Daou, Doris; Green, James L.


    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. The PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of another

  16. Optical pulses, lasers, measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology: Volume II: Optical Pulses - Lasers - Measuring Techniques focuses on the theoretical and engineering problems that result from the capacitor discharge technique.This book is organized into three main topics: light flash production from a capacitive energy storage; signal transmission and ranging systems by capacitor discharges and lasers; and impulse measuring technique. This text specifically discusses the air spark under atmospheric conditions, industrial equipment for laser flashing, and claims for light transmitting system. The application of light impulse sign

  17. Laser Diagnostics for Spacecraft Propulsion (United States)


    Absorption Spectroscopy (DLAS) – Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS) • Arcjets • Hall thrusters/Ion enginesLaser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) – Time...technologies • Tunable diode lasers developed in the 1960s – Diagnostic techniques have been developed alongside propulsion technologies – Simulation of – Cut open thruster to examine catalyst • Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy – Non-intrusive, in-situ measurements – Temperature, species

  18. Confronting unknown planetary boundary threats from chemical pollution. (United States)

    Persson, Linn M; Breitholtz, Magnus; Cousins, Ian T; de Wit, Cynthia A; MacLeod, Matthew; McLachlan, Michael S


    Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimitate a "safe operating space for humanity". One of the planetary boundaries is determined by "chemical pollution", however no clear definition was provided. Here, we propose that there is no single chemical pollution planetary boundary, but rather that many planetary boundary issues governed by chemical pollution exist. We identify three conditions that must be simultaneously met for chemical pollution to pose a planetary boundary threat. We then discuss approaches to identify chemicals that could fulfill those conditions, and outline a proactive hazard identification strategy that considers long-range transport and the reversibility of chemical pollution.

  19. Laser Beam Scintillation with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Larry C; Young, Cynthia


    Renewed interest in laser communication systems has sparked development of useful new analytic models. This book discusses optical scintillation and its impact on system performance in free-space optical communication and laser radar applications, with a detailed look at propagation phenomena and the role of scintillation on system behavior. Intended for practicing engineers, scientists, and students.

  20. The final fate of planetary systems (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris


    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet around a main-sequence star in 1995 has changed the way we think about the Universe: our solar system is not unique. Twenty years later, we know that planetary systems are ubiquitous, orbit stars spanning a wide range in mass, and form in an astonishing variety of architectures. Yet, one fascinating aspect of planetary systems has received relatively little attention so far: their ultimate fate.Most planet hosts will eventually evolve into white dwarfs, Earth-sized stellar embers, and the outer parts of their planetary systems (in the solar system, Mars and beyond) can survive largely intact for billions of years. While scattered and tidally disrupted planetesimals are directly detected at a small number of white dwarfs in the form infrared excess, the most powerful probe for detecting evolved planetary systems is metal pollution of the otherwise pristine H/He atmospheres.I will present the results of a multi-cycle HST survey that has obtained COS observations of 136 white dwarfs. These ultraviolet spectra are exquisitely sensitive to the presence of metals contaminating the white atmosphere. Our sophisticated model atmosphere analysis demonstrates that at least 27% of all targets are currently accreting planetary debris, and an additional 29% have very likely done so in the past. These numbers suggest that planet formation around A-stars (the dominant progenitors of today's white dwarf population) is similarly efficient as around FGK stars.In addition to post-main sequence planetary system demographics, spectroscopy of the debris-polluted white dwarf atmospheres provides a direct window into the bulk composition of exo-planetesimals, analogous to the way we use of meteorites to determine solar-system abundances. Our ultraviolet spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the detection of Si, a dominant rock-forming species, and we identify up to ten additional volatile and refractory elements in the most strongly

  1. Work on Planetary Atmospheres and Planetary Atmosphere Probes (United States)

    Lester, Peter


    A summary final report of work accomplished is presented. Work was performed in the following areas: (1) Galileo Probe science analysis, (2) Galileo probe Atmosphere Structure Instrument, (3) Mars Pathfinder Atmosphere Structure/Meteorology instrument, (4) Mars Pathfinder data analysis, (5) Science Definition for future Mars missions, (6) Viking Lander data analysis, (7) winds in Mars atmosphere Venus atmospheric dynamics, (8) Pioneer Venus Probe data analysis, (9) Pioneer Venus anomaly analysis, (10) Discovery Venus Probe Titan probe instrument design, and (11) laboratory studies of Titan probe impact phenomena. The work has resulted in more than 10 articles published in archive journals, 2 encyclopedia articles, and many working papers. This final report is organized around the four planets on which there was activity, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Titan, with a closing section on Miscellaneous Activities. A major objective was to complete the fabrication, test, and evaluation of the atmosphere structure experiment on the Galileo probe, and to receive, analyze and interpret data received from the spacecraft. The instrument was launched on April 14, 1989. Calibration data were taken for all experiment sensors. The data were analyzed, fitted with algorithms, and summarized in a calibration report for use in analyzing and interpreting data returned from Jupiter's atmosphere. The sensors included were the primary science pressure, temperature and acceleration sensors, and the supporting engineering temperature sensors. Computer programs were written to decode the Experiment Data Record and convert the digital numbers to physical quantities, i.e., temperatures, pressures, and accelerations. The project office agreed to obtain telemetry of checkout data from the probe. Work to extend programs written for use on the Pioneer Venus project included: (1) massive heat shield ablation leading to important mass loss during entry; and (2) rapid planet rotation, which introduced

  2. Planetary Gearbox Fault Diagnosis Using Envelope Manifold Demodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigang Wen


    Full Text Available The important issue in planetary gear fault diagnosis is to extract the dependable fault characteristics from the noisy vibration signal of planetary gearbox. To address this critical problem, an envelope manifold demodulation method is proposed for planetary gear fault detection in the paper. This method combines complex wavelet, manifold learning, and frequency spectrogram to implement planetary gear fault characteristic extraction. The vibration signal of planetary gear is demodulated by wavelet enveloping. The envelope energy is adopted as an indicator to select meshing frequency band. Manifold learning is utilized to reduce the effect of noise within meshing frequency band. The fault characteristic frequency of the planetary gear is shown by spectrogram. The planetary gearbox model and test rig are established and experiments with planet gear faults are conducted for verification. All results of experiment analysis demonstrate its effectiveness and reliability.

  3. Beam Switching of an Nd:YAG Laser Using Domain-Engineered Prisms in Magnesium-Oxide-Doped Congruent Lithium Niobate (United States)


    tests at positive values. Table 5.5 shows the beam location data for SGC-2 as processed by the center of amplitude and expected value filter section...preliminary tests , high pump powers (>1  as measured by the internal power meter of the T-Series Laser) induced some damage within the 5%MgO:CLN. It is...Gopalan, D. Chauvin , and K.L. Schepler, “Phased-array electro-optic steering of large aperture laser beams using ferroelectrics” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86

  4. Planetary Suit Hip Bearing Model for Predicting Design vs. Performance (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew S.; Margerum, Sarah; Harvil, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    Designing a planetary suit is very complex and often requires difficult trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. In order to verifying that new suit designs meet requirements, full prototypes must eventually be built and tested with human subjects. Using computer models early in the design phase of new hardware development can be advantageous, allowing virtual prototyping to take place. Having easily modifiable models of the suit hard sections may reduce the time it takes to make changes to the hardware designs and then to understand their impact on suit and human performance. A virtual design environment gives designers the ability to think outside the box and exhaust design possibilities before building and testing physical prototypes with human subjects. Reductions in prototyping and testing may eventually reduce development costs. This study is an attempt to develop computer models of the hard components of the suit with known physical characteristics, supplemented with human subject performance data. Objectives: The primary objective was to develop an articulating solid model of the Mark III hip bearings to be used for evaluating suit design performance of the hip joint. Methods: Solid models of a planetary prototype (Mark III) suit s hip bearings and brief section were reverse-engineered from the prototype. The performance of the models was then compared by evaluating the mobility performance differences between the nominal hardware configuration and hardware modifications. This was accomplished by gathering data from specific suited tasks. Subjects performed maximum flexion and abduction tasks while in a nominal suit bearing configuration and in three off-nominal configurations. Performance data for the hip were recorded using state-of-the-art motion capture technology. Results: The results demonstrate that solid models of planetary suit hard segments for use as a performance design tool is feasible. From a general trend perspective

  5. Flyover Modeling of Planetary Pits - Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (United States)

    Bhasin, N.; Whittaker, W.


    On the surface of the moon and Mars there are hundreds of skylights, which are collapsed holes that are believed to lead to underground caves. This research uses Vision, Inertial, and LIDAR sensors to build a high resolution model of a skylight as a landing vehicle flies overhead. We design and fabricate a pit modeling instrument to accomplish this task, implement software, and demonstrate sensing and modeling capability on a suborbital reusable launch vehicle flying over a simulated pit. Future missions on other planets and moons will explore pits and caves, led by the technology developed by this research. Sensor software utilizes modern graph-based optimization techniques to build 3D models using camera, LIDAR, and inertial data. The modeling performance was validated with a test flyover of a planetary skylight analog structure on the Masten Xombie sRLV. The trajectory profile closely follows that of autonomous planetary powered descent, including translational and rotational dynamics as well as shock and vibration. A hexagonal structure made of shipping containers provides a terrain feature that serves as an appropriate analog for the rim and upper walls of a cylindrical planetary skylight. The skylight analog floor, walls, and rim are modeled in elevation with a 96% coverage rate at 0.25m2 resolution. The inner skylight walls have 5.9cm2 color image resolution and the rims are 6.7cm2 with measurement precision superior to 1m. The multidisciplinary student team included students of all experience levels, with backgrounds in robotics, physics, computer science, systems, mechanical and electrical engineering. The team was commited to authentic scientific experimentation, and defined specific instrument requirements and measurable experiment objectives to verify successful completion.This work was made possible by the NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Project Educational Flight Opportunity 2013 program. Additional support was provided by the sponsorship of an

  6. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers (United States)

    Rickman, Doug; Hannan, Mike; Srinivasan, Karthik


    Present day robotic missions to other planets require precise, a priori knowledge of the terrain to pre-determine a landing spot that is safe. Landing sites can be miles from the mission objective, or, mission objectives may be tailored to suit landing sites. Future robotic exploration missions should be capable of autonomously identifying a safe landing target within a specified target area selected by mission requirements. Such autonomous landing sites must (1) 'see' the surface, (2) identify a target, and (3) land the vehicle. Recent advances in radar technology have resulted in small, lightweight, low power radars that are used for collision avoidance and cruise control systems in automobiles. Such radar systems can be adapted for use as active hazard avoidance systems for planetary landers. The focus of this CIF proposal is to leverage earlier work on collision avoidance systems for MSFC's Mighty Eagle lander and evaluate the use of automotive radar systems for collision avoidance in planetary landers.

  7. Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter (United States)

    Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.


    NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the atmosphere, gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions. Its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design.The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

  8. Lunar and Planetary Webcam User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mobberley, Martin


    Inexpensive webcams are revolutionizing imaging in amateur astronomy by providing an affordable alternative to cooled-chip astronomical CCD cameras, for photographing the brighter astronomical objects. Webcams – costing only a few tens of dollars – are capable of more advanced high resolution work than "normal" digital cameras because their rapid image download speed can freeze fine planetary details, even through the Earth's turbulent atmosphere. Also, their simple construction makes it easy to remove the lens, allowing them to be used at high power at the projected focus of an astronomical telescope. Webcams also connect direct to a PC, so that software can be used to "stack" multiple images, providing a stunning increase in image quality. In the Lunar and Planetary Webcam User’s Guide Martin Mobberley de-mystifies the jargon of webcams and computer processing, and provides detailed hints and tips for imaging the Sun, Moon and planets with a webcam. He looks at each observing target separately, descri...

  9. Concluding Remarks on the Planetary Rings Conference


    Stone, E. C.


    In the past five years ring systems have been discovered around Uranus and Jupiter and a wealth of new data acquired about Saturn's rings. This vigorous observational program has been accompanied by renewed theoretical interest in ring systems. Although all of these topics have been addressed in papers at this first conference on planetary rings, these concluding remarks are focused on some of the key aspects of Saturn's rings about which more needs to be understood throu...

  10. Information architecture for a planetary 'exploration web' (United States)

    Lamarra, N.; McVittie, T.


    'Web services' is a common way of deploying distributed applications whose software components and data sources may be in different locations, formats, languages, etc. Although such collaboration is not utilized significantly in planetary exploration, we believe there is significant benefit in developing an architecture in which missions could leverage each others capabilities. We believe that an incremental deployment of such an architecture could significantly contribute to the evolution of increasingly capable, efficient, and even autonomous remote exploration.

  11. Planetary Sciences: American and Soviet Research (United States)

    Donahue, Thomas M. (Editor); Trivers, Kathleen Kearney (Editor); Abramson, David M. (Editor)


    Papers presented at the US-USSR Workshop on Planetary Sciences are compiled. The purpose of the workshop was to examine the current state of theoretical understanding of how the planets were formed and how they evolved to their present state. The workshop assessed the types of observations and experiments that are needed to advance understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system based on the current theoretical framework.

  12. Large-Scale Structures of Planetary Systems (United States)

    Murray-Clay, Ruth; Rogers, Leslie A.


    A class of solar system analogs has yet to be identified among the large crop of planetary systems now observed. However, since most observed worlds are more easily detectable than direct analogs of the Sun's planets, the frequency of systems with structures similar to our own remains unknown. Identifying the range of possible planetary system architectures is complicated by the large number of physical processes that affect the formation and dynamical evolution of planets. I will present two ways of organizing planetary system structures. First, I will suggest that relatively few physical parameters are likely to differentiate the qualitative architectures of different systems. Solid mass in a protoplanetary disk is perhaps the most obvious possible controlling parameter, and I will give predictions for correlations between planetary system properties that we would expect to be present if this is the case. In particular, I will suggest that the solar system's structure is representative of low-metallicity systems that nevertheless host giant planets. Second, the disk structures produced as young stars are fed by their host clouds may play a crucial role. Using the observed distribution of RV giant planets as a function of stellar mass, I will demonstrate that invoking ice lines to determine where gas giants can form requires fine tuning. I will suggest that instead, disk structures built during early accretion have lasting impacts on giant planet distributions, and disk clean-up differentially affects the orbital distributions of giant and lower-mass planets. These two organizational hypotheses have different implications for the solar system's context, and I will suggest observational tests that may allow them to be validated or falsified.

  13. High scale anisotropies in planetary nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascoli, G.


    We present a new classification of Planetary Nebulae (PN) grounded on their characteristic symmetries: bipolarity, ring shape, spiral structure, etc... The different anisotropic models (rotation of nucleus, binary progenitor intranebular magnetic field, nebular rotation, etc...) which have been lately proposed, are analysed and their explanatory power is tested with certain morphological criterious. The comparison with the other classifications (Acker, 1980; Kaler, 1978; Peimbert, 1978) reveals that the morphology has been insufficiently discussed in these latters.

  14. Budgeting for Exploration: the History and Political Economy of Planetary Science (United States)

    Callahan, Jason


    The availability of financial resources continues to be one of the greatest limiting factors to NASA’s planetary science agenda. Historians and members of the space science community have offered many explanations for the scientific, political, and economic actions that combine to form NASA’s planetary science efforts, and this essay will use budgetary and historical analysis to examine how each of these factors have impacted the funding of U.S. exploration of the solar system. This approach will present new insights into how the shifting fortunes of the nation’s economy or the changing priorities of political leadership have affected government investment in science broadly, and space science specifically. This paper required the construction of a historical NASA budget data set displaying layered fiscal information that could be compared equivalently over time. This data set was constructed with information collected from documents located in NASA’s archives, the Library of Congress, and at the Office of Management and Budget at the White House. The essay will examine the effects of the national gross domestic product, Federal debt levels, the budgets of other Federal agencies engaged in science and engineering research, and party affiliation of leadership in Congress and the White House on the NASA budget. It will also compare historic funding levels of NASA’s astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science efforts to planetary science funding. By examining the history of NASA’s planetary science efforts through the lens of the budget, this essay will provide a clearer view of how effectively the planetary science community has been able to align its goals with national science priorities.

  15. Determining the geotechnical properties of planetary regolith using Low Velocity Penetrometers (United States)

    Seweryn, K.; Skocki, K.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Kolano, M.; Kuciński, T.; Mazurek, J.; Morawski, M.; Białek, A.; Rickman, H.; Wawrzaszek, R.


    Measurements of mechanical and thermophysical properties of planetary surface allow determining many important parameters useful for planetologists. For example, effective heat conductivity or thermal inertia of the regolith can help to better understand the processes occurring in the bodies interior. Chemical and mineralogical composition gives us a chance to determine the origin and evolution of moons and satellites. Mechanical properties of the surface are one of the key factors needed by civil engineers for developing future bases on space bodies. Space missions to planetary bodies highly restrict the payload concerning its mass and power consumption. Therefore, it is quite impossible to use a standard terrestrial technique like the Load Plate Test or Direct Shear Tests to determine the geotechnical parameters of the planetary regolith. Even the Dynamic Cone Penetration (DCP) method, which is frequently used for field testing, does not fit well with the constraints imposed by a space mission. Nevertheless, its operation principle is very similar to that of at the Low Velocity Penetrators (LVP), several of them being currently on their way to planetary bodies (e.g. the MUPUS instrument) or which were developed in the last couple of years (e.g. the CHOMIK instrument or the KRET device). In this paper we present a comparison between DCP method and LVP operation which was observed during several tests campaigns during mole KRET and CHOMIK instrument development. The tests were performed in different planetary analogues: JSC-1A, Chenobi and AGK-2010, Phobos analogue, cometary analogues F1, F2 and F3 (SRC) and dry quartz sand. In the last part of the paper the concept of results' interpretation is presented.

  16. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A


    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  17. Fabricating hierarchical micro and nano structures on implantable Co-Cr-Mo alloy for tissue engineering by one-step laser ablation. (United States)

    Qin, Liguo; Wu, Hongxing; Guo, Junde; Feng, Xinan; Dong, Guangneng; Shao, Jinyou; Zeng, Qunfeng; Zhang, Yali; Qin, Yuanbin


    Surface texturing is one of the effective strategies to improve bioactivity of implantable materials. In this study, hierarchical micro and nano structure (HMN) were fabricated on Co-Cr-Mo alloy substrate by a movable picosecond laser irradiation. Respectively, microgrooves with nano ripples and islands were produced on Co-Cr-Mo alloy by low and high laser power density. X-ray diffraction apparatus (XRD) phase analysis illustrated that substrate was in the phase of γ- face-centered cubic structure (FCC) before laser treatment, while it was in ε-hexagonal closest packing structure (HCP) phase dominant after laser treatment. Cell adhesion and proliferation studies showed that the HMN surface exhibits enhanced adhesion of MC3TC-E1 osteoblast and promoted cell activity. Analyzing of the morphology of osteoblast cells indicated cells were in high ratio of elongation on the HMN surface, while they mainly kept in round shape on the polished surface. Results indicated the formation of hierarchical structure on Co-Cr-Mo alloy was able to improve biological performances, suggesting the potential application in cobalt based orthopedic implants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An Analysis of Laser-Welded Nicr-Ir and Nicr-Pt Micro Joints on Spark Plug Electrodes in Biogas-Fuelled Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabas B.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the laser beam welding of tips to central and side spark plug electrodes made of a nickel-chromium alloy. The tips attached to the central electrodes were made from a solid iridium wire 0.8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in length, while the tips connected to the side electrodes were made from a platinum wire 1.5 mm in diameter and 0.25 mm in thickness. In both cases, accurate positioning of the tips was required before they were resistance welded to the electrodes. Then, a fillet weld was produced with an Nd:YAG laser using single, partly overlapping conductive pulses. The laser welding was performed at different laser power levels and pulse durations. Metallographic sections of the joints were prepared to observe changes in the microstructure and determine their correlation with the changes in the process parameters. The results were used to select appropriate welding parameters for the materials joined. The microscopic analysis indicated welding imperfections such as micro cracks at the interface between the elements joined. The tips welded to the spark plug electrodes can help extend the service life of spark plugs in highly corrosive environments.

  19. SmallSat Innovations for Planetary Science (United States)

    Weinberg, Jonathan; Petroy, Shelley; Roark, Shane; Schindhelm, Eric


    As NASA continues to look for ways to fly smaller planetary missions such as SIMPLEX, MoO, and Venus Bridge, it is important that spacecraft and instrument capabilities keep pace to allow these missions to move forward. As spacecraft become smaller, it is necessary to balance size with capability, reliability and payload capacity. Ball Aerospace offers extensive SmallSat capabilities matured over the past decade, utilizing our broad experience developing mission architecture, assembling spacecraft and instruments, and testing advanced enabling technologies. Ball SmallSats inherit their software capabilities from the flight proven Ball Configurable Platform (BCP) line of spacecraft, and may be tailored to meet the unique requirements of Planetary Science missions. We present here recent efforts in pioneering both instrument miniaturization and SmallSat/sensorcraft development through mission design and implementation. Ball has flown several missions with small, but capable spacecraft. We also have demonstrated a variety of enhanced spacecraft/instrument capabilities in the laboratory and in flight to advance autonomy in spaceflight hardware that can enable some small planetary missions.

  20. Interstellar and Planetary Analogs in the Laboratory (United States)

    Salama, Farid


    We present and discuss the unique capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to investigate the interaction of ionizing radiation (UV, charged particles) with molecular species (neutral molecules, radicals and ions) and carbonaceous grains in the Solar System and in the Interstellar Medium (ISM). COSmIC stands for Cosmic Simulation Chamber, a laboratory chamber where interstellar and planetary analogs are generated, processed and analyzed. It is composed of a pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) expansion that generates a free jet supersonic expansion in a plasma cavity coupled to two ultrahigh-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) system for photonic detection and a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection. This setup allows the study of molecules, ions and solids under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate some interstellar, circumstellar and planetary physical environments providing new fundamental insights on the molecular level into the processes that are critical to the chemistry in the ISM, circumstellar and planet forming regions, and on icy objects in the Solar System. Recent laboratory results that were obtained using COSmIC will be discussed, in particular the progress that have been achieved in monitoring in the laboratory the formation of solid particles from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as circumstellar outflow and planetary atmospheres.

  1. Chemical kinetics and modeling of planetary atmospheres (United States)

    Yung, Yuk L.


    A unified overview is presented for chemical kinetics and chemical modeling in planetary atmospheres. The recent major advances in the understanding of the chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere make the study of planets more interesting and relevant. A deeper understanding suggests that the important chemical cycles have a universal character that connects the different planets and ultimately link together the origin and evolution of the solar system. The completeness (or incompleteness) of the data base for chemical kinetics in planetary atmospheres will always be judged by comparison with that for the terrestrial atmosphere. In the latter case, the chemistry of H, O, N, and Cl species is well understood. S chemistry is poorly understood. In the atmospheres of Jovian planets and Titan, the C-H chemistry of simple species (containing 2 or less C atoms) is fairly well understood. The chemistry of higher hydrocarbons and the C-N, P-N chemistry is much less understood. In the atmosphere of Venus, the dominant chemistry is that of chlorine and sulfur, and very little is known about C1-S coupled chemistry. A new frontier for chemical kinetics both in the Earth and planetary atmospheres is the study of heterogeneous reactions. The formation of the ozone hole on Earth, the ubiquitous photochemical haze on Venus and in the Jovian planets and Titan all testify to the importance of heterogeneous reactions. It remains a challenge to connect the gas phase chemistry to the production of aerosols.

  2. 3He Abundances in Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Guzman-Ramirez, Lizette


    Determination of the 3He isotope is important to many fields of astrophysics, including stellar evolution, chemical evolution, and cosmology. The isotope is produced in stars which evolve through the planetary nebula phase. Planetary nebulae are the final evolutionary phase of low- and intermediate-mass stars, where the extensive mass lost by the star on the asymptotic giant branch is ionised by the emerging white dwarf. This ejecta quickly disperses and merges with the surrounding ISM. 3He abundances in planetary nebulae have been derived from the hyperfine transition of the ionised 3He, 3He+, at the radio rest frequency 8.665 GHz. 3He abundances in PNe can help test models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Many hours have been put into trying to detect this line, using telescopes like the Effelsberg 100m dish of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) 140-foot telescope, the NRAO Very Large Array, the Arecibo antenna, the Green Bank Telescope, and only just recently, the Deep Space Station 63 antenna from the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex.

  3. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Lasers Technology Program of IPEN is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of optical materials and new technologies, as well to laser applications in several areas: Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. The Program is basically divided into two main areas: Material and Laser Development and Laser Applications.

  4. An informal teaching of light and lasers through the CSIR-NLC PULSE programme

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shikwambana, L


    Full Text Available The PULSE programme of the CSIR relates to the public understanding of laser science and engineering and the awareness of laser science and engineering to schools and tertiary institutions....

  5. The Long-Term Growth Prospects for Planetary and Space Colonies (United States)

    Ashworth, S.

    In order to live and function, multicellular creatures such as human beings need land area with gravity, an atmosphere and plentiful liquid water. The resources of the Solar System offer opportunities for extraterrestrial colonisation at locations where these basic services may be found or engineered. Two different patterns of activity are possible: planetary versus space colonisation, and these are compared. It is concluded that space colonisation, based on asteroidal resources, offers a prospect of growth greater than that of planetary settlement by three orders of magnitude, as well as a better springboard to growth on an interstellar scale. The space-based rather than planet-based mode of technological life is therefore likely to predominate in the long-term future of successful industrial species.

  6. The UK Virtual Observatory - Adding Planetary Data (United States)

    Allan, Peter

    The UK has built a virtual observatory called AstroGrid. Using this facility, scientists can already get access to a wide range of data on traditional astronomy, the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics (STP). This paper describes the AstroGrid system and what would be involved in adding access to planetary data to those already on offer. In recent years, there have been activities in several countries to create what are known as virtual observatories. The idea is that you should be able to easily get to all of the astronomical data that exist from your desktop computer. You do not need to know that specific data exist and you do not need to know where these data reside. In order to make this possible, it is essential that data archives and software that accesses those archives is built around a set of internationally agreed standards. These standards have been developed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). A data archive that adheres to these standards can publish data on the internet to registries of resources that client software can search. The AstroGrid software developed in the UK adheres to these standards and provides a comprehensive set of services for data archives to provide dataset access, registries of data holdings, virtual file stores, communities of users, workflow for execution of complex grid applications and an environment into which pre-existing data processing applications can be plugged. There is also client software for searching registries and remote data archives, accessing the remote data, and a basic set of tools for displaying and analysing those data. AstroGrid is unique amongst virtual observatories in that it includes major data sources on the Sun and solar-terrestrial physics as well as more traditional astronomy. The need to support these very different types of data has led to the development of tools that can handle very different coordinate systems and display data in a variety of ways. For example, we have a

  7. Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies Report (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph; Shkolnik, Evgenya; Hallinan, Gregg


    The W. M. Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) sponsored the "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" study to review the state of knowledge of extrasolar planetary magnetic fields and the prospects for their detection.There were multiple motivations for this Study. Planetary-scale magnetic fields are a window to a planet's interior and provide shielding of the planet's atmosphere. The Earth, Mercury, Ganymede, and the giant planets of the solar system all contain internal dynamo currents that generate planetary-scale magnetic fields. In turn, these internal dynamo currents arise from differential rotation, convection, compositional dynamics, or a combination of these in objects' interiors. If coupled to an energy source, such as the incident kinetic or magnetic energy from the solar wind or an orbiting satellite, a planet's magnetic field can produce intense electron cyclotron masers in its magnetic polar regions. The most well known example of this process in the solar system is the Jovian decametric emission, but all of the giant planets and the Earth contain similar electron cyclotron masers within their magnetospheres. Extrapolated to extrasolar planets, the remote detection of the magnetic field of an extrasolar planet would provide a means of obtaining constraints on the thermal state, composition, and dynamics of its interior--all of which will be difficult to determine by other means--as well as improved understanding of the basic planetary dynamo process.We review the findings from the Study, including potential mission concepts that emerged and recent developments toward one of the mission concepts, a space-based radio wavelength array. There was an identification of that radio wavelength observations would likely be key to making significant progress in this field.We acknowledge ideas and advice from the participants in the "Planetary Magnetic Fields: Planetary Interiors and Habitability" study organized by the W. M. Keck

  8. The Planetary Data System - A solution to data management for the planetary science community (United States)

    Dobinson, Elaine R.


    An overview of the first release of the Planetary Data System (PDS) is presented, and some of the challenges encountered during development of the system are described. The principal goals of the PDS are to distribute planetary science data and information about these data to NASA, to provide scientific knowledge to users of these data, and to provide for permanent storage. The current architecture and capabilities of the PDS (Version 1.0) are examined, and some of the special challenges encountered and lessons learned during the application are highlighted. Finally, implications for future versions of the PDS as well as for other science data systems are discussed.

  9. High Temperature, Controlled-Atmosphere Aerodynamic Levitation Experiments with Applications in Planetary Science (United States)

    Macris, C. A.; Badro, J.; Eiler, J. M.; Stolper, E. M.


    The aerodynamic levitation laser apparatus is an instrument in which spherical samples are freely floated on top of a stream of gas while being heated with a CO2laser to temperatures up to about 3500 °C. Laser heated samples, ranging in size from 0.5 to 3.5 mm diameter, can be levitated in a variety of chemically active or inert atmospheres in a gas-mixing chamber (e.g., Hennet et al. 2006; Pack et al. 2010). This allows for containerless, controlled-atmosphere, high temperature experiments with potential for applications in earth and planetary science. A relatively new technique, aerodynamic levitation has been used mostly for studies of the physical properties of liquids at high temperatures (Kohara et al. 2011), crystallization behavior of silicates and oxides (Arai et al. 2004), and to prepare glasses from compositions known to crystallize upon quenching (Tangeman et al. 2001). More recently, however, aerodynamic levitation with laser heating has been used as an experimental technique to simulate planetary processes. Pack et al. (2010) used levitation and melting experiments to simulate chondrule formation by using Ar-H2 as the flow gas, thus imposing a reducing atmosphere, resulting in reduction of FeO, Fe2O3, and NiO to metal alloys. Macris et al. (2015) used laser heating with aerodynamic levitation to reproduce the textures and diffusion profiles of major and minor elements observed in impact ejecta from the Australasian strewn field, by melting a powdered natural tektite mixed with 60-100 μm quartz grains on a flow of pure Ar gas. These experiments resulted in quantitative modeling of Si and Al diffusion, which allowed for interpretations regarding the thermal histories of natural tektites and their interactions with the surrounding impact vapor plume. Future experiments will employ gas mixing (CO, CO2, H2, O, Ar) in a controlled atmosphere levitation chamber to explore the range of fO2applicable to melt-forming impacts on other rocky planetary bodies

  10. Development of laser technology in Poland: 2016 (United States)

    Jankiewicz, Zdzisław; Jabczyński, Jan K.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.


    The paper is an introduction to the volume of proceedings and a concise digest of works presented during the XIth National Symposium on Laser Technology (SLT2016) [1]. The Symposium is organized since 1984 every three years [2-8]. SLT2016 was organized by the Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology (IO, WAT) [9], Warsaw, with cooperation of Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) [10], in Jastarnia on 27-30 September 2016. Symposium Proceedings are traditionally published by SPIE [11-19]. The meeting has gathered around 150 participants who presented around 120 research and technical papers. The Symposium, organized every 3 years is a good portrait of laser technology and laser applications development in Poland at university laboratories, governmental institutes, company R&D laboratories, etc. The SLT also presents the current technical projects under realization by the national research, development and industrial teams. Topical tracks of the Symposium, traditionally divided to two large areas - sources and applications, were: laser sources in near and medium infrared, picosecond and femtosecond lasers, optical fiber lasers and amplifiers, semiconductor lasers, high power and high energy lasers and their applications, new materials and components for laser technology, applications of laser technology in measurements, metrology and science, military applications of laser technology, laser applications in environment protection and remote detection of trace substances, laser applications in medicine and biomedical engineering, laser applications in industry, technologies and material engineering.

  11. Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) (United States)

    Martel, L.; Taylor, J.


    working today. PSRD Headline articles are illustrated with graphics and animations. We also provide pdf versions for easier printing, short slide summaries of articles for use in classrooms or public seminars, CosmoSparks reports that give quick views of big advances in cosmochemistry, a comprehensive archive, news links, glossary, search engine, a subscription service with 1,825 current subscribers from 57 countries and territories, rss feed, social-media sharing links, and comments page. One reader wrote, "If planetary science and space exploration are to compete successfully with other demands on the public purse, it will do so because sites like yours make the results of research accessible to laymen of all ages and levels of involvement. I was especially happy to see that links were made available to users who need a more detailed coverage of the research." PSRD is supported by the Cosmochemistry Program of NASA's SMD and the Hawaii Space Grant Consortium.

  12. Paint removal using lasers. (United States)

    Liu, K; Garmire, E


    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 10(7) in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m(2) area of paint 14 µm thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power.

  13. Planetary Gearbox Vibration Signal Characteristics Analysis and Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Miao


    Full Text Available Planetary gearboxes are widely used in helicopters, wind turbines, mining machinery, and so forth. The structure and motion type of a planetary gearbox are more complex in comparison with a fixed-shaft one, which makes condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of planetary gearbox a challenging issue in practical applications. In order to understand the fundamental nature of planetary gearbox vibration, this paper conducts an investigation on vibration characteristics of a single-stage planetary gearbox. Assuming that the gearbox and the sensor revolve inversely at the speed of planet carrier, the problem can be transformed into two easier parts: research on fixed-shaft gearbox signal model and research on influence of sensor spinning. Based on this assumption, a vibration signal model of planetary gearbox is obtained. Experimental data are used to validate the model.

  14. Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis of Planetary Gear Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Wang


    Full Text Available A method to simulate residual stress field of planetary gear is proposed. In this method, the finite element model of planetary gear is established and divided to tooth zone and profile zone, whose different temperature field is set. The gear's residual stress simulation is realized by the thermal compression stress generated by the temperature difference. Based on the simulation, the finite element model of planetary gear train is established, the dynamic meshing process is simulated, and influence of residual stress on equivalent stress of addendum, pitch circle, and dedendum of internal and external meshing planetary gear tooth profile is analyzed, according to non-linear contact theory, thermodynamic theory, and finite element theory. The results show that the equivalent stresses of planetary gear at both meshing and nonmeshing surface are significantly and differently reduced by residual stress. The study benefits fatigue cracking analysis and dynamic optimization design of planetary gear train.

  15. Planetary Exploration Education: As Seen From the Point of View of Subject Matter Experts (United States)

    Milazzo, M. P.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Vaughan, R. G.


    Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) was selected as one of 27 new projects to support the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice. Our goal is to develop and disseminate out-of-school time (OST) curricular and related educator professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. We are a partnership between planetary science Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), curriculum developers, science and engineering teacher professional development experts and OST teacher networks. The PLANETS team includes the Center for Science Teaching and Learning (CSTL) at Northern Arizona University (NAU); the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center (Astrogeology), and the Boston Museum of Science (MOS). Here, we present the work and approach by the SMEs at Astrogeology. As part of this overarching project, we will create a model for improved integration of SMEs, curriculum developers, professional development experts, and educators. For the 2016 and 2017 Fiscal Years, our focus is on creating science material for two OST modules designed for middle school students. We will begin development of a third module for elementary school students in the latter part of FY2017. The first module focuses on water conservation and treatment as applied on Earth, the International Space Station, and at a fictional Mars base. This unit involves the science and engineering of finding accessible water, evaluating it for quality, treating it for impurities (i.e., dissolved and suspended), initial use, a cycle of greywater treatment and re-use, and final treatment of blackwater. The second module involves the science and engineering of remote sensing as it is related to Earth and planetary exploration. This includes discussion and activities related to the electromagnetic spectrum, spectroscopy and various remote sensing systems and techniques. In

  16. The evolution of planetary nebulae. VII. Modelling planetary nebulae of distant stellar systems (United States)

    Schönberner, D.; Jacob, R.; Sandin, C.; Steffen, M.


    Aims: By means of hydrodynamical models we do the first investigations of how the properties of planetary nebulae are affected by their metal content and what can be learned from spatially unresolved spectrograms of planetary nebulae in distant stellar systems. Methods: We computed a new series of 1D radiation-hydrodynamics planetary nebulae model sequences with central stars of 0.595 M⊙ surrounded by initial envelope structures that differ only by their metal content. At selected phases along the evolutionary path, the hydrodynamic terms were switched off, allowing the models to relax for fixed radial structure and radiation field into their equilibrium state with respect to energy and ionisation. The analyses of the line spectra emitted from both the dynamical and static models enabled us to systematically study the influence of hydrodynamics as a function of metallicity and evolution. We also recomputed selected sequences already used in previous publications, but now with different metal abundances. These sequences were used to study the expansion properties of planetary nebulae close to the bright cut-off of the planetary nebula luminosity function. Results: Our simulations show that the metal content strongly influences the expansion of planetary nebulae: the lower the metal content, the weaker the pressure of the stellar wind bubble, but the faster the expansion of the outer shell because of the higher electron temperature. This is in variance with the predictions of the interacting-stellar-winds model (or its variants) according to which only the central-star wind is thought to be responsible for driving the expansion of a planetary nebula. Metal-poor objects around slowly evolving central stars become very dilute and are prone to depart from thermal equilibrium because then adiabatic expansion contributes to gas cooling. We find indications that photoheating and line cooling are not fully balanced in the evolved planetary nebulae of the Galactic halo

  17. Teaching Planetary Sciences at the Universidad del País Vasco in Spain: The Aula Espazio Gela and its Master in Space Science and Technology (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.


    Planetary science is a highly multidisciplinary field traditionally associated to Astronomy, Physics or Earth Sciences Departments. Spanish universities do not generally offer planetary sciences courses but some departments give courses associated to studies on Astronomy or Geology. We show a different perspective obtained at the Engeneering School at the Universidad del País Vasco in Bilbao, Spain, which offers a Master in Space Science and Technology to graduates in Engineering or Physics. Here we detail the experience acquired in two years of this master which offers several planetary science courses: Solar System Physics, Astronomy, Planetary Atmospheres & Space Weather together with more technical courses. The university also owns an urban observatory in the Engineering School which is used for practical exercises and student projects. The planetary science courses have also resulted in motivating part of the students to do their master thesis in scientific subjects in planetary sciences. Since the students have very different backgrounds their master theses have been quite different: From writing open software tools to detect bolides in video observations of Jupiter atmosphere to the photometric calibration and scientific use or their own Jupiter and Saturn images or the study of atmospheric motions of the Venus' South Polar Vortex using data from the Venus Express spacecraft. As a result of this interaction with the students some of them have been engaged to initiate Ph.D.s in planetary sciences enlarging a relative small field in Spain. Acknowledgements: The Master in Space Science and Technology is offered by the Aula Espazio Gela at the Universidad del País Vasco Engineer School in Bilbao, Spain and is funded by Diputación Foral de Bizkaia.

  18. Laser space propulsion overview (United States)

    Phipps, Claude; Luke, James; Helgeson, Wesley


    In this paper, we review the history of laser space propulsion from its earliest theoretical conceptions to modern practical applicatons. Applications begin with the "Lightcraft" flights of Myrabo and include practical thrusters for satellites now completing development as well as proposals for space debris removal and direct launch of payloads into orbit. We consider laser space propulsion in the most general sense, in which laser radiation is used to propel a vehicle in space. In this sense, the topic includes early proposals for pure photon propulsion, laser ablation propulsion, as well as propulsion using lasers to detonate a gas, expel a liquid, heat and expel a gas, or even to propagate power to a remote conventional electric thruster. We also discuss the most recent advances in LSP. For the first time, it is possible to consider space propulsion engines which exhibit thrust of one to several newtons while simultaneously delivering 3,000 seconds, or greater, specific impulse. No other engine concept can do both in a compact format. These willl use onboard, rather than remote, lasers. We will review the concept of chemically augmented electric propulsion, which can provide overall thrust efficiency greater than unity while maintaining very low mass to power ratio, high mean time to failure and broad operating range. The main advantage of LSP is exhaust velocity which can be instantaneously varied from 2km/s to 30km/s, simply by varying laser pulsewidth and focal spot size on target. The laser element will probably be a diode-pumped, fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) system. Liquid fuels are necessary for volumetric efficiency and reliable performance at the multi-kW optical power levels required for multi-N thrust.

  19. The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) (United States)

    Stein, Thomas; Gopala Krishna, Barla; Crichton, Daniel J.


    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is a close association of partners with the aim of improving the quality of planetary science data and services to the end users of space based instrumentation. The specific mission of the IPDA is to facilitate global access to, and exchange of, high quality scientific data products managed across international boundaries. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual member space agencies. The IPDA is focused on developing an international standard that allows discovery, query, access, and usage of such data across international planetary data archive systems. While trends in other areas of space science are concentrating on the sharing of science data from diverse standards and collection methods, the IPDA concentrates on promoting governing data standards that drive common methods for collecting and describing planetary science data across the international community. This approach better supports the long term goal of easing data sharing across system and agency boundaries. An initial starting point for developing such a standard will be internationalization of NASA's Planetary Data System's (PDS) PDS4 standard. The IPDA was formed in 2006 with the purpose of adopting standards and developing collaborations across agencies to ensure data is captured in common formats. It has grown to a dozen member agencies represented by a number of different groups through the IPDA Steering Committee. Member agencies include: Armenian Astronomical Society, China National Space Agency (CNSA), European Space Agency (ESA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Italian Space Agency (ASI), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), Space Research Institute (IKI), UAE Space Agency, and UK Space Agency. The IPDA Steering Committee oversees the execution of

  20. Laser principles. (United States)

    Bogdan Allemann, Inja; Kaufman, Joely


    Since the construction of the first laser in the 1960s, the role that lasers play in various medical specialities, including dermatology, has steadily increased. However, within the last 2 decades, the technological advances and the use of lasers in the field of dermatology have virtually exploded. Many treatments have only become possible with the use of lasers. Especially in aesthetic medicine, lasers are an essential tool in the treatment armamentarium. Due to better research and understanding of the physics of light and skin, there is now a wide and increasing array of different lasers and devices to choose from. The proper laser selection for each indication and treatment requires a profound understanding of laser physics and the basic laser principles. Understanding these principles will allow the laser operator to obtain better results and help avoid complications. This chapter will give an in-depth overview of the physical principles relevant in cutaneous laser surgery. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Ices Under Conditions of Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Yeghikyan, A. G.


    A large number of molecules are observed in planetary nebulae, both simple, the most common (H2, CO and OH), and more complex (H2O, SiO, HCN, HNC, HCO+), and even the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fullerenes containing a few dozen and more atoms. The water molecules are observed, as a rule, in the young objects, in the gas phase (water "fountains" and related water masers) and solid phase (emission of crystalline ice particles), and, regardless of the C/O ratio, water and carbon-containing molecules may be linked to the same object. On the other hand, the results of calculations by the well known Cloudy computer program given in this paper for stationery models, show that the abundance of water ice in planetary nebulae, other conditions being equal, is dependent on the ionization rate of hydrogen, which depends in turn on the flux of energetic particles (protons and alpha particles) in the range of MeV energies and higher. The possibility of the increased flux of such particles in planetary nebulae under conditions of the standard interacting stellar winds scenario is discussed, when the flux may locally exceed by 1-3 orders of magnitude that of caused by galactic cosmic rays. Calculated water ice column densities reach values up to 1018-1019 cm-2 at the usual average ISM H2 ionisation rate of 10-16s -1 and sharply decrease for the thousands times larger rates. Known observed results of NGC 6302 show for the column density of crystalline ice about 1019cm-2 close to the calculated one.

  2. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective (United States)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David


    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature. Slovic shows that public fears of hazards are greatest for hazards that are uncontrollable, involuntary, fatal, dreadful, globally catastrophic, and which have consequences that seem

  3. Precision Time Protocol Based Trilateration for Planetary Navigation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision for planetary exploration requires development and field testing of the key technologies required for extended habitation. To support extended lunar...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to apply to planetary terrain mapping an alternative, multiresolution method, subdivision surfaces (subdivs), in place of conventional digital elevation...

  5. Urey prize lecture: On the diversity of plausible planetary systems (United States)

    Lissauer, J. J.


    Models of planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are used to predict the variety of planetary and satellite systems that may be present within our galaxy. A new approximate global criterion for orbital stability of planetary systems based on an extension of the local resonance overlap criterion is proposed. This criterion implies that at least some of Uranus' small inner moons are significantly less massive than predicted by estimates based on Voyager volumes and densities assumed to equal that of Miranda. Simple calculations (neglecting planetary gravity) suggest that giant planets which acrete substantial amounts of gas while their envelopes are extremely distended ultimately rotate rapidly in the prgrade direction.

  6. Simultaneous Localization and Mapping for Planetary Surface Mobility Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop localization and mapping technologies for planetary rovers....

  7. Planetary Simulation Chambers bring Mars to laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E.


    Although space missions provide fundamental and unique knowledge for planetary exploration, they are always costly and extremely time-consuming. Due to the obvious technical and economical limitations of in-situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are among the most feasible research options for making advances in planetary exploration. Therefore, laboratory simulations of planetary environments are a necessary and complementary option to expensive space missions. Simulation chambers are economical, more versatile, and allow for a higher number of experiments than space missions. Laboratory-based facilities are able to mimic the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of a majority of planetary objects. Number of relevant applications in Mars planetary exploration will be described in order to provide an understanding about the potential and flexibility of planetary simulation chambers systems: mainly, stability and presence of certain minerals on Mars surface; and microorganisms potential habitability under planetary environmental conditions would be studied. Therefore, simulation chambers will be a promising tools and necessary platform to design future planetary space mission and to validate in-situ measurements from orbital or rover observations. (Author)

  8. High Performance Monopropellants for Future Planetary Ascent Vehicles Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. proposes to design, develop, and demonstrate, a novel high performance monopropellant for application in future planetary ascent vehicles. Our...

  9. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.


    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look forward to the results of the exciting work currently being undertaken. Additional data products and tools continue to be added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions, and working with the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office's Lunar Apollo Sample database in order to help better visualize the geographic contexts from which samples were retrieved. A new user interface provides, among other improvements, significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation. Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. This effort is concentrating on enhancing Mars Trek with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. The portals also serve as

  10. Automatic extraction of planetary image features (United States)

    LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline J. (Inventor); Troglio, Giulia (Inventor); Benediktsson, Jon A. (Inventor); Serpico, Sebastiano B. (Inventor); Moser, Gabriele (Inventor)


    A method for the extraction of Lunar data and/or planetary features is provided. The feature extraction method can include one or more image processing techniques, including, but not limited to, a watershed segmentation and/or the generalized Hough Transform. According to some embodiments, the feature extraction method can include extracting features, such as, small rocks. According to some embodiments, small rocks can be extracted by applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient. According to some embodiments, applying a watershed segmentation algorithm to the Canny gradient can allow regions that appear as close contours in the gradient to be segmented.

  11. Chemistry of Planetary Atmospheres: Insights and Prospects (United States)

    Yung, Yuk


    Using observations from the Mariners, Pioneers, Vikings, Voyagers, Pioneer Venus, Galileo, Venus Express, Curiosity, Cassini, New Horizons, and numerous observatories both in orbit of Earth and on the ground, I will give a survey of the major chemical processes that control the composition of planetary atmospheres. For the first time since the beginning of the space age, we understand the chemistry of planetary atmospheres ranging from the primitive atmospheres of the giant planets to the highly evolved atmospheres of terrestrial planets and small bodies. Our understanding can be distilled into three important ideas: (1) The stability of planetary atmospheres against escape of their constituents to space, (2) the role of equilibrium chemistry in determining the partitioning of chemical species, and (3) the role of disequilibrium chemistry, which produces drastic departures from equilibrium chemistry. To these three ideas we must also add a fourth: the role of biochemistry at Earth's surface, which makes its atmospheric chemistry unique in the cosmochemical environment. Only in the Earth's atmosphere do strong reducing and oxidizing species coexist to such a degree. For example, nitrogen species in the Earth's atmosphere span eight oxidation states from ammonia to nitric acid. Much of the Earth's atmospheric chemistry consists of reactions initiated by the degradation of biologically produced molecules. Life uses solar energy to drive chemical reactions that would otherwise not occur; it represents a kind of photochemistry that is special to Earth, at least within the Solar System. It remains to be seen how many worlds like Earth there are beyond the Solar System, especially as we are now exploring the exoplanets using Kepler, TESS, HST, Spitzer, soon to be launched missions such as JWST and WFIRST, and ground-based telescopes. The atmospheres of the Solar System provide a benchmark for studying exoplanets, which in turn serve to test and extend our current

  12. Exploring the planetary boundary for chemical pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Miriam L.; de Wit, Cynthia A.; Molander, Sverker


    of ecosystems and humanity. The central concept of the planetary boundary (or boundaries) for chemical pollution (PBCP or PBCPs) is that the Earth has a finite assimilative capacity for chemical pollution, which includes persistent, as well as readily degradable chemicals released at local to regional scales...... forward, at this point single or multiple PBCPs are challenging to operationalize due to the extremely large number of commercial chemicals or mixtures of chemicals that cause myriad adverse effects to innumerable species and ecosystems, and the complex linkages between emissions, environmental...... efforts; and facilitate implementation of multiple (and potentially decentralized) control efforts involving scientists, civil society, government, non-governmental organizations and international bodies....

  13. Iron isotope fractionation in planetary crusts


    Wang, Kun; Moynier, Frédéric; Dauphas, Nicolas; Barrat, Jean-Alix,; Craddock, Paul; Sio, Corliss,


    International audience; We present new high precision iron isotope data (δ56Fe vs. IRMM-014 in per mil) for four groups of achondrites: one lunar meteorite, 11 martian meteorites, 32 howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites (HEDs), and eight angrites. Angrite meteorites are the only planetary materials, other than Earth/Moon system, significantly enriched in the heavy isotopes of Fe compared to chondrites (by an average of +0.12‰ in δ56Fe). While the reason for such fractionation is not complet...

  14. Developing the Planetary Science Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Erard, Stéphane; Cecconi, Baptiste; Le Sidaner, Pierre; Henry, Florence; Chauvin, Cyril; Berthier, Jérôme; André, Nicolas; Génot, Vincent; Schmitt, Bernard; Capria, Teresa; Chanteur, Gérard


    In the frame of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science has been set up. Most of the activity was dedicated to the definition of standards to handle data in this field. The aim was to facilitate searches in big archives as well as sparse databases, to make on-line data access and visualization possible, and to allow small data providers to make their data available in an interoperable environment with minimum effort. This system makes intensive use of studies and developments led in Astronomy (IVOA), Solar Science (HELIO), and space archive services (IPDA).The current architecture connects existing data services with IVOA or IPDA protocols whenever relevant. However, a more general standard has been devised to handle the specific complexity of Planetary Science, e.g. in terms of measurement types and coordinate frames. This protocol, named EPN-TAP, is based on TAP and includes precise requirements to describe the contents of a data service (Erard et al Astron & Comp 2014). A light framework (DaCHS/GAVO) and a procedure have been identified to install small data services, and several hands-on sessions have been organized already. The data services are declared in standard IVOA registries. Support to new data services in Europe will be provided during the proposed Europlanet H2020 program, with a focus on planetary mission support (Rosetta, Cassini…).A specific client (VESPA) has been developed at VO-Paris ( It is able to use all the mandatory parameters in EPN-TAP, plus extra parameters from individual services. A resolver for target names is also available. Selected data can be sent to VO visualization tools such as TOPCAT or Aladin though the SAMP protocol.Future steps will include the development of a connection between the VO world and GIS tools, and integration of heliophysics, planetary plasma and reference spectroscopic data.The EuroPlaNet-RI project was funded by the European

  15. Emission Lines of Northern Planetary Nebulae (United States)

    Aksaker, Nazim; Yerli, Sinan K.; Kızıloǧlu, Ümit; Atalay, Betül


    In this work, we present results of long slit spectrophotometric emission line flux observations of selected planetary nebulae (PNe). We have measured absolute fluxes and equivalent widths (EW) of all observable emission lines. In addition to these observations, electron temperatures (Te), densities (Ne), and chemical abundances were also calculated. The main purpose of this work is to fill the gaps in emission line flux standards for the northern hemisphere. It is expected that the measured fluxes would be used as standard data set for further photometric and spectrometric measurements of HII regions, supernova remnants etc.

  16. Planetary Environments: Scientific Issues and Perspectives


    Encrenaz Th.


    What are the planetary environments where conditions are best suited for habitability? A first constraint is provided by the presence of liquid water. This condition allows us to define two kinds of media: (1) the atmospheres of solid (exo)planets with a temperature typically ranging between 0°C and 100°C, and (2) the interiors of icy bodies (outer satellites or possibly exosatellites) where the pressure and temperature would fit the liquid phase region of the water phase diagram. In the case...

  17. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle


    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  18. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R


    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  19. Teaching optical engineering to electrical engineering undergraduates (United States)

    Boreman, Glenn D.


    We describe a one-semester undergraduate course in optical engineering that has been taught at University of Central Florida since 1985 to junior and senior students of electrical engineering. The choice of topics emphasizes first-order system-engineering calculations, rather than the more traditional theoretical viewpoint often found in junior/senior-level optics courses. Representative topics include: paraxial raytracing, field of view and F/#, diffraction-limited resolution, Fresnel equations, radiometric/photometric units, paraxial flux transfer, blackbody radiation, detector responsivity and sensitivity, shot noise, Johnson noise, and laser-beam propagation. Homework problems emphasize estimation of magnitudes, as well as more exact numerical calculations. We have found this approach to be accessible to typical engineering undergraduates, and to be a good foundation for entry-level practitioners.

  20. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of diode lasers and solid state lasers in medicine. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, S.L. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Cancer Center; Welch, A.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Motamedi, M. [Texas Univ., Galveston, TX (United States). Medical Branch; Rastegar, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Tittel, F. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Esterowitz, L. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)


    The Texas Medical Center in Houston and the nearby UT Medical Branch at Galveston together constitute a major center of medical research activities. Laser applications in medicine are under development with the engineering assistance of the collaborating engineering enters at Rice University, UT-Austin, Texas A&M Univ. In addition, this collective is collaborating with the naval Research Laboratory, where new developments in laser design are underway, in order to transfer promising new laser technology rapidly into the medical environment.