WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy small-scale hydropower

  1. Department of Energy Small-Scale Hydropower Program: Feasibility assessment and technology development summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, B.N.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes two subprograms under the US Department of Energy's Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program. These subprograms were part of the financial assistance activities and included the Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) feasibility assessments and the technology development projects. The other major subprograms included engineering research and development, legal and institutional aspects, and technology transfer. These other subprograms are covered in their respective summary reports. The problems of energy availability and increasing costs of energy led to a national effort to develop economical and environmental attractive alternative energy resources. One such alternative involved the utilization of existing dams with hydraulic heads of <65 ft and the capacity to generate hydroelectric power of 15 MW or less. Thus, the PRDA program was initiated along with the Technology Development program. The purpose of the PRDA feasibility studies was to encourage development of renewable hydroelectric resources by providing engineering, economic, environmental, safety, and institutional information. Fifty-five feasibility studies were completed under the PRDA. This report briefly summarizes each of those projects. Many of the PRDA projects went on to become technology development projects. 56 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. A feasibility and implementation model of small-scale hydropower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Several other site selection parameters were used to evaluate the Kwa Madiba potential small-scale hydropower site, which include accessibility by vehicle, current electrical grid con- nection and future electrical grid connectivity, environmental impact and social impact. Okot (2013) evaluates hydropower.

  3. A feasibility and implementation model of small-scale hydropower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large numbers of households and communities will not be connected to the national electricity grid for the foreseeable future due to high cost of transmission and distribution systems to remote communities and the relatively low electricity demand within rural communities. Small-scale hydropower used to play a very ...

  4. Managing Sustainable Development Conflicts: The Impact of Stakeholders in Small-Scale Hydropower Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkin, Laura Jane; Kemp, Paul S.; Williams, Ian D.; Harwood, Ian A.

    2012-06-01

    The growing importance of the environment and its management has simultaneously emphasized the benefits of hydroelectric power and its environmental costs. In a changing policy climate, giving importance to renewable energy development and environmental protection, conflict potential between stakeholders is considerable. Navigation of conflict determines the scheme constructed, making sustainable hydropower a function of human choice. To meet the needs of practitioners, greater understanding of stakeholder conflict is needed. This paper presents an approach to illustrate the challenges that face small-scale hydropower development as perceived by the stakeholders involved, and how they influence decision-making. Using Gordleton Mill, Hampshire (UK), as an illustrative case, soft systems methodology, a systems modeling approach, was adopted. Through individual interviews, a range of problems were identified and conceptually modeled. Stakeholder bias towards favoring economic appraisal over intangible social and environmental aspects was identified; costs appeared more influential than profit. Conceptual evaluation of the requirements to meet a stakeholder-approved solution suggested a complex linear systems approach, considerably different from the real-life situation. The stakeholders introduced bias to problem definition by transferring self-perceived issues onto the project owner. Application of soft systems methodology caused a shift in project goals away from further investigation towards consideration of project suitability. The challenge of sustainable hydropower is global, with a need to balance environmental, economic, and social concerns. It is clear that in this type of conflict, an individual can significantly influence outcomes; highlighting the need for more structured approaches to deal with stakeholder conflicts in sustainable hydropower development.

  5. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  6. Philippines: Small-scale renewable energy update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the application of small scale renewable energy sources in the Philippines. Sources looked at include solar, biomass, micro-hydroelectric, mini-hydroelectric, wind, mini-geothermal, and hybrid. A small power utilities group is being spun off the major utility, to provide a structure for developing rural electrification programs. In some instances, private companies have stepped forward, avoiding what is perceived as overwhelming beaurocracy, and installed systems with private financing. The paper provides information on survey work which has been done on resources, and the status of cooperative programs to develop renewable systems in the nation.

  7. Hydropower

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenhann, Jørgen Villy; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the various forms of hydropower: conventional hydropower, marine currents, tides, power from salinity gradients, ocean thermal energy conversion and wave power.......This chapter gives an overview of the various forms of hydropower: conventional hydropower, marine currents, tides, power from salinity gradients, ocean thermal energy conversion and wave power....

  8. Optimisation of small-scale hydropower using quality assurance methods - Preliminary project; Vorprojekt: Optimierung von Kleinwasserkraftwerken durch Qualitaetssicherung. Programm Kleinwasserkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, S.; Staubli, T.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary project that examined how quality assurance methods can be used in the optimisation of small-scale hydropower projects. The aim of the project, to use existing know-how, experience and synergies, is examined. Discrepancies in quality and their effects on production prices were determined in interviews. The paper describes best-practice guidelines for the quality assurance of small-scale hydro schemes. A flow chart describes the various steps that have to be taken in the project and realisation work. Information collected from planners and from interviews made with them are presented along with further information obtained from literature. The results of interviews concerning planning work, putting to tender and the construction stages of these hydro schemes are presented and commented on. Similarly, the operational phase of such power plant is also examined, including questions on operation and guarantees. The aims of the follow-up main project - the definition of a tool and guidelines for ensuring quality - are briefly reviewed.

  9. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the southeast: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Southeastern conference, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power: New Impetus for an Old Energy Source, was convened to provide a forum for state legislators and other interested persons to discuss the problems facing small-scale hydro developers, and to recommend appropriate solutions to resolve those problems. During the two-day meeting state legislators and their staffs, along with dam developers, utility and industry representatives, environmentalists and federal/state officials examined and discussed the problems impeding small-scale hydro development at the state level. Based upon the problem-oriented discussions, alternative policy options were recommended for consideration by the US Department of Energy, state legislatures and the staff of the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Emphasis was placed on the legal, institutional, environmental and economic barriers at the state level, as well as the federal delays associated with licensing small-scale hydro projects. Whereas other previously held conferences have emphasized the identification and technology of small-scale hydro as an alternative energy source, this conference stressed legislative resolution of the problems and delays in small-scale hydro licensing and development. Panel discussions and workshops are summarized. Papers on the environmental, economic, and legal aspects of small-scale hydropower development are presented. (LCL)

  10. The Small-Scale Hydropower Plants in Sites of Environmental Value: An Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rotilio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times water has been accompanying technological change in the energy sector. Used as a source of hydraulic energy, it currently generates one-fifth of the global electricity production. However, according to collective imagination, hydroelectric plants are constructions of high environmental, acoustic, and visual impact, which may harm the preservation of the territory. This paper intends to address the topic of mini-hydropower that, in addition to providing the production of renewable energy, ensures a limited environmental impact even in delicate contexts with high landscape values, by elaborating a research methodology that makes these interventions compatible with them. The process of “global compatibility” checks developed to assess the feasibility of the intervention will be explained in the paper. We intend to describe here the research process undertaken to make the planning of this type of system sustainable, in contexts that need to be rehabilitated in relation both to the accessibility of citizens and to the environmental enhancement. The intervention planned will be characterized by the combined use of other renewable energy sources, in addition to water. The proposed methodology has been tested on a case study in the village of Roccacasale, in the province of L’Aquila.

  11. Phase change material selection for small scale solar energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on choosing an appropriate phase change material for latent heat storing systems that can store excess energy of a small scale solar thermal power plant suitable for distributed or off grid power supply. Most commercially available thermal storage materials cater for Mega Watt scale power plants ...

  12. Balancing power production and instream flow regime for small scale hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perona, P.; Gorla, L.; Characklis, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    Flow diversion from river and torrent main stems is a common practice to feed water uses such run-of-river and mini-hydropower, irrigation, etc. Considering the worldwide increasing water demand, it becomes mandatory to take the importance of riparian ecosystems and related biodiversity into account before starting such practices. In this paper, we use a simple hydro-economic model (Perona et al., 2013, Gorla and Perona, 2013) to show that redistribution policies at diversion nodes allow for a clear bio-economic interpretation of residual flows. This model uses the Principle of Equal Marginal Utility (PEMU) as optimal water allocation rule for generating natural-like flow releases while maximizing the aggregated economic benefits of both the riparian environment and the traditional use (e.g., hydropower). We show that both static and dynamic release polices such Minimal Flow, and Proportional/Non-proportional Repartitions, respectively, can all be represented in terms of PEMU, making explicit the value of the ecosystem health underlying each policy. The related ecological and economical performances are evaluated by means of hydrological/ecological indicators. We recommend taking this method into account as a helpful tool guiding political, economical and ecological decisions when replacing the inadequate concept of Minimum Flow Requirement (MFR) with dynamic ones. References Perona, P., D. Dürrenmatt and G. Characklis (2013) Obtaining natural-like flow releases in diverted river reaches from simple riparian benefit economic models. Journal of Environmental Management, 118: 161-169, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.01.010 Gorla, L. and P. Perona (2013) On quantifying ecologically sustainable flow releases in a diverted river reach. Journal of Hydrology, 489: 98- 107, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.02.043

  13. Hydropower

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available —that is not consumed in the process, it is, in principle, a renewable form of energy. The use of hydropower can make a contribution to saving exhaustible energy sources such as fossil fuels....

  14. Small-scale hydro-power plant in Quinto - Preliminary project; Progetto minicentrale idroelettrica, Ri Secco - Quinto. Programma piccole centrali idrauliche. Progetto di massima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, R. [Reali e Guscetti SA, Ambri (Switzerland); Rosselli, P. [Celio Engineering SA, Ambri (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the alpine stream 'Ri Secco' in the municipality of Quinto, southern Switzerland. The Ri Secco partly flows in a steep canyon. The elevation difference of 810 or 620 m (depending on the location of the water deviation from the stream) is favorable to the installation of a small-scale high-head power plant. The report presents details on the hydrological data and the dimensioning of the installation. Several variants are considered, which also include two possible penstock diameters for each weir location. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  15. Waterpower '79: the first international conference on small-scale hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Ninety-seven papers were presented at the meeting. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 94 papers. Three papers appeared previously in Energy Research Abstracts. Fifty-five of the papers will appear in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (LCL)

  16. Small scale wind energy harvesting with maximum power tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that energy harvesting from wind can be used to power remote monitoring systems. There are several studies that use wind energy in small-scale systems, mainly with wind turbine vertical axis. However, there are very few studies with actual implementations of small wind turbines. This paper compares the performance of horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines for energy harvesting on wireless sensor network applications. The problem with the use of wind energy is that most of the time the wind speed is very low, especially at urban areas. Therefore, this work includes a study on the wind speed distribution in an urban environment and proposes a controller to maximize the energy transfer to the storage systems. The generated power is evaluated by simulation and experimentally for different load and wind conditions. The results demonstrate the increase in efficiency of wind generators that use maximum power transfer tracking, even at low wind speeds.

  17. Biomass energy use in small-scale commercial operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, K.M. [Carbon Cycle Co., Woodland, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A coffee roasting system using sawdust has been developed by Carbon Cycle, a California Company. They have shown that biomass combustion can be a safe, low-cost alternative to the use of natural gas in a food processing operation. Two systems are in operation with a combined run time of over 80,000 hours. The system uses a patented furnace technology characterized by thermal control to clean combustion, which, when used with biomass, achieves an even, slow roast of raw coffee beans. This results in high-quality coffee flavor. The technology has potential for use in other medium-temperature applications in food processing, district heating, and small-scale energy production. (author)

  18. Summary of the Midwest conference on small-scale hydropower in the Midwest: an old technology whose time has come

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    A variety of decision makers convened to examine and discuss certain significant problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric development in the Midwestern region, comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. The conference opened with an introductory panel of resource persons who outlined the objectives of the conference, presented information on small-scale hydro, and described the materials available to conference participants. A series of workshop sessions followed. Two of the workshop sessions discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The remaining two workshops dealt with economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model developed by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. A plenary session and recommendations completed the workshop.

  19. Energy transfers and magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Rohit Raj

    2013-12-01

    In this letter we investigate the dynamics of magnetic energy growth in small-scale dynamo by studying energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers. We perform dynamo simulations for the magnetic Prandtl number Pm = 20 on 10243 grid using the pseudospectral method. We demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers moves towards lower wave numbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason why the integral scale of the magnetic field increases with time. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. Copyright © EPLA, 2013.

  20. Factors hindering the development of small-scale municipal hydropower: a case study of the Black River project in Springfield, Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.; Berger, G.; Amlin, J.; Meadows, D.

    1979-03-01

    There are many good reasons to use New England's small-scale hydropower resources to generate electricity. But current production capacity in the three northern states is only 1300 MW, just 35% of the 3710 MW estimated to be available to the states. Though the benefits of properly designed projects seem substantial, many factors combine to hinder their development. The Black River project in Springfield, Vermont, exemplifies the problem. Even after the two has invested over five years and $1 million in its effort to develop 30 MW of capacity, it still has not received either federal or state approval to proceed with construction. The first 4 years of the Springfield experience are described and factors that have greatly increased the cost and planning time for the project are identified. The purpose is to identify changes that could facilitate efforts to develop small-scale hydropower at other acceptable sites. On the basis of this experience it is recommended that: after issuance of a FERC permit, a preliminary determination of the project's impacts should be made by FERC officials; if environmental impacts are solely local or limited, environmental analysis/determination should be placed in the hands of the state; short-form licensing should be used for all run-of-river hydro projects that utilize and do not significantly modify existing water impoundment areas and do not significantly alter downstream flow patterns; and a hydro ombudsman with power at the state level should be established to facilitate governmental inter-agency coordination and project-related information transfer: one-stop licensing. (LCL)

  1. Small-scale hydropower plants and rare bryophytes and lichens. Knowledge and lack of knowledge; Smaakraftverk og sjeldne moser og lav. Kunnskap og kunnskapsmangler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evju, Marianne; Hassel, Kristian; Hagen, Dagmar; Erikstad, Lars

    2011-08-15

    There is a large and increasing interest for the development of small-scale hydropower in Norway. Small-scale hydropower plants may impact the biological diversity negatively through destruction, degradation or fragmentation of habitats. Both the environmental investigations and the treatment of applications for small-scale hydropower plants put a great emphasis on red listed species, and in particular on red-listed bryophytes and lichens growing in stream ravines and in meadows and rock faces influenced by waterfalls. Bryophytes and lichens can be difficult to identify in the field, and knowledge of the species' ecology, distribution and population sizes is insufficient. A large review of environmental investigations of small-scale hydropower plants, documented that red-listed lichens were rarely recorded, and red-listed bryophytes were never recorded. In this report, we try to make visible the knowledge we have and the knowledge we lack of red listed bryophytes and lichens in areas in which the development of small-scale hydropower is relevant. Most focus is placed on bryophytes. The report is mainly a collation of existing knowledge. There is a great variation among stream ravines in the occurrence of species. Several factors, such as stability of moisture conditions, tree species composition and bedrock, interact to affect the occurrence of species. Red-listed bryophytes and lichens occur both in the forest and in affiliation with the stream. A reduction of local moisture, through e.g. logging of forest close to the stream or reduction of the water flow, will probably affect the species negatively. River regulation will change the frequency of flooding and affect the ice drift in the stream, which may negatively affect species living on dead wood in or close to the stream. Several species are vulnerable to deteriorated habitat quality and habitat fragmentation as their habitat requirements are narrow and their dispersal capacity is limited. However, we

  2. A triboelectric wind turbine for small-scale energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Matthias; Boisseau, Sebastien; Geisler, Matthias; Despesse, Ghislain; Reboud, Jean Luc

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with a rotational energy harvester including a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT), a cylindrical stator covered by several electrodes, and thin Teflon dielectric membranes hung on the rotor. The sliding contact of the Teflon membranes on the stator provides simultaneously large capacitance variations and a polarization source for the electrostatic converter by exploiting triboelectric phenomena. 1μW has been harvested at 4m/s; 130μW at 10m/s and 550μW at 20m/s with a 40mmØ device. In order to validate the energy harvesting chain, the airflow energy harvester has been connected to a power management circuit implementing Synchronous Electric Charge Extraction (SECE) to supply a wireless sensor node with temperature and acceleration measurements, transmitted to a computer at 868MHz.

  3. Small-scale hydroelectric power in the Pacific Northwest: new impetus for an old energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Energy supply is one of the most important issues facing Northwestern legislators today. To meet the challenge, state legislatures must address the development of alternative energy sources. The Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Policy Project of the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL) was designed to assist state legislators in looking at the benefits of one alternative, small-scale hydro. Because of the need for state legislative support in the development of small-scale hydroelectric, NCSL, as part of its contract with the Department of Energy, conducted the following conference on small-scale hydro in the Pacific Northwest. The conference was designed to identify state obstacles to development and to explore options for change available to policymakers. A summary of the conference proceedings is presented.

  4. A review on technology maturity of small scale energy storage technologies★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thu-Trang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current status of energy storage technologies which have the higher potential to be applied in small scale energy systems. Small scale energy systems can be categorized as ones that are able to supply energy in various forms for a building, or a small area, or a limited community, or an enterprise; typically, they are end-user systems. Energy storage technologies are classified based on their form of energy stored. A two-step evaluation is proposed for selecting suitable storage technologies for small scale energy systems, including identifying possible technical options, and addressing techno-economic aspects. Firstly, a review on energy storage technologies at small scale level is carried out. Secondly, an assessment of technology readiness level (TRL is conducted. The TRLs are ranked according to information gathered from literature review. Levels of market maturity of the technologies are addressed by taking into account their market development stages through reviewing published materials. The TRLs and the levels of market maturity are then combined into a technology maturity curve. Additionally, market driving factors are identified by using different stages in product life cycle. The results indicate that lead-acid, micro pumped hydro storage, NaS battery, NiCd battery, flywheel, NaNiCl battery, Li-ion battery, and sensible thermal storage are the most mature technologies for small scale energy systems. In the near future, hydrogen fuel cells, thermal storages using phase change materials and thermochemical materials are expected to become more popular in the energy storage market.

  5. Is small beautiful? A multicriteria assessment of small-scale energy technology applications in local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, Jonathan [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). Institute for Transport Studies; Hubacek, Klaus [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Earth and Environment, Sustainability Research Institute

    2007-12-15

    In its 2003 White Paper the UK government set ambitious renewable energy targets. Local governments and households have an increasing role in the overall energy system as consumers, suppliers of smaller-scale applications and citizens discussing energy projects. In this paper, we consider if small-scale or large-scale approaches to renewable energy provision can achieve energy targets in the most socially, economically and environmentally (SEE) effective way. We take a local case study of renewable energy provision in the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees in Yorkshire, UK, and apply a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology to compare the small-scale schemes implemented in Kirklees with large-scale alternatives. The results indicate that small-scale schemes are the most SEE effective, despite large-scale schemes being more financially viable. The selection of the criteria on which the alternatives are assessed and the assigned weights for each criterion are of crucial importance. It is thus very important to include the relevant stakeholders to elicit this information. (author)

  6. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC KINK WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES: PHASE MIXING AND ENERGY CASCADE TO SMALL SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2015-04-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. The propagation and damping of these waves may play relevant roles in the transport and dissipation of energy in the solar atmospheric medium. However, in the atmospheric plasma dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy by viscosity or resistivity needs very small spatial scales to be efficient. Here, we theoretically investigate the generation of small scales in nonuniform solar magnetic flux tubes due to phase mixing of MHD kink waves. We go beyond the usual approach based on the existence of a global quasi-mode that is damped in time due to resonant absorption. Instead, we use a modal expansion to express the MHD kink wave as a superposition of Alfvén continuum modes that are phase mixed as time evolves. The comparison of the two techniques evidences that the modal analysis is more physically transparent and describes both the damping of global kink motions and the building up of small scales due to phase mixing. In addition, we discuss that the processes of resonant absorption and phase mixing are closely linked. They represent two aspects of the same underlying physical mechanism: the energy cascade from large scales to small scales due to naturally occurring plasma and/or magnetic field inhomogeneities. This process may provide the necessary scenario for efficient dissipation of transverse MHD wave energy in the solar atmospheric plasma.

  7. modelling of hydropower reservoir variables for energy generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    hydropower is found to be of highest grade of energy (Sambo, 2006). Hydroelectricity comes from the conversion of potential energy of water through turbines and electric generator system. Aliyu and Elegba (1990) indicated that Nigeria is endowed with several potential renewable sources of energy and identified a total of ...

  8. Energy transfers in large-scale and small-scale dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Kumar, Rohit; Verma, Mahendra

    2015-11-01

    We present the energy transfers, mainly energy fluxes and shell-to-shell energy transfers in small-scale dynamo (SSD) and large-scale dynamo (LSD) using numerical simulations of MHD turbulence for Pm = 20 (SSD) and for Pm = 0.2 on 10243 grid. For SSD, we demonstrate that the magnetic energy growth is caused by nonlocal energy transfers from the large-scale or forcing-scale velocity field to small-scale magnetic field. The peak of these energy transfers move towards lower wavenumbers as dynamo evolves, which is the reason for the growth of the magnetic fields at the large scales. The energy transfers U2U (velocity to velocity) and B2B (magnetic to magnetic) are forward and local. For LSD, we show that the magnetic energy growth takes place via energy transfers from large-scale velocity field to large-scale magnetic field. We observe forward U2U and B2B energy flux, similar to SSD.

  9. Experimental Study of a Small Scale Hydraulic System for Mechanical Wind Energy Conversion into Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Zdankus

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant potential for reducing thermal energy consumption in buildings of moderate and cold climate countries lies within wind energy utilisation. Unlike solar irradiation, character of wind speeds in Central and Northern Europe correspond to the actual thermal energy demand in buildings. However, mechanical wind energy undergoes transformation into electrical energy before being actually used as thermal energy in most wind energy applications. The study presented in this paper deals with hydraulic systems, designed for small-scale applications to eliminate the intermediate energy transformation as it converts mechanical wind energy into heat directly. The prototype unit containing a pump, flow control valve, oil tank and piping was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. Results of the experiments showed that the prototype system is highly efficient and adjustable to a broad wind velocity range by modifying the definite hydraulic system resistance. Development of such small-scale replicable units has the potential to promote “bottom-up” solutions for the transition to a zero carbon society.

  10. Inference from the small scales of cosmic shear with current and future Dark Energy Survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCrann, N.; Aleksić, J.; Amara, A.; Bridle, S. L.; Bruderer, C.; Chang, C.; Dodelson, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Huff, E. M.; Huterer, D.; Kacprzak, T.; Refregier, A.; Suchyta, E.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Armstrong, R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Soares-Santos, M.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; DES Collaboration

    2017-03-01

    Cosmic shear is sensitive to fluctuations in the cosmological matter density field, including on small physical scales, where matter clustering is affected by baryonic physics in galaxies and galaxy clusters, such as star formation, supernovae feedback, and active galactic nuclei feedback. While muddying any cosmological information that is contained in small-scale cosmic shear measurements, this does mean that cosmic shear has the potential to constrain baryonic physics and galaxy formation. We perform an analysis of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification (SV) cosmic shear measurements, now extended to smaller scales, and using the Mead et al. (2015) halo model to account for baryonic feedback. While the SV data has limited statistical power, we demonstrate using a simulated likelihood analysis that the final DES data will have the statistical power to differentiate among baryonic feedback scenarios. We also explore some of the difficulties in interpreting the small scales in cosmic shear measurements, presenting estimates of the size of several other systematic effects that make inference from small scales difficult, including uncertainty in the modelling of intrinsic alignment on non-linear scales, 'lensing bias', and shape measurement selection effects. For the latter two, we make use of novel image simulations. While future cosmic shear data sets have the statistical power to constrain baryonic feedback scenarios, there are several systematic effects that require improved treatments, in order to make robust conclusions about baryonic feedback.

  11. Small-scale hydro-power plant in Anzonico - Preliminary project; Progetto microcentrale idroelettrica, Anzonico. Programma Centrali idrauliche. Progetto di massima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotti, R. [Reali e Guscetti SA, Ambri (Switzerland); Rosselli, P. [Celio Engineering SA, Ambri (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant in the municipality of Anzonico, southern Switzerland. The water of a small alpine stream is to be used for power generation and vineyard irrigation as well as for the creation of an additional water resource for fire fighting in this sensitive region. The report is foreseen to support the request for a water usage concession to the authorities of the Canton of Ticino. It presents details on the hydrological data for the river and the dimensioning of the installation. The hydrological installations and the turbine foreseen are described and discussed, as is the removal of river sediment. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project. Synergies exist with the local electricity utility that will renew and improve its power distribution and telecommunication system when the penstock will be mounted in the underground.

  12. Toward Small-Scale Wind Energy Harvesting: Design, Enhancement, Performance Comparison, and Applicability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of harvesting ambient energy as an alternative power supply for electronic systems like remote sensors to avoid replacement of depleted batteries has been enthusiastically investigated over the past few years. Wind energy is a potential power source which is ubiquitous in both indoor and outdoor environments. The increasing research interests have resulted in numerous techniques on small-scale wind energy harvesting, and a rigorous and quantitative comparison is necessary to provide the academic community a guideline. This paper reviews the recent advances on various wind power harvesting techniques ranging between cm-scaled wind turbines and windmills, harvesters based on aeroelasticities, and those based on turbulence and other types of working principles, mainly from a quantitative perspective. The merits, weaknesses, and applicability of different prototypes are discussed in detail. Also, efficiency enhancing methods are summarized from two aspects, that is, structural modification aspect and interface circuit improvement aspect. Studies on integrating wind energy harvesters with wireless sensors for potential practical uses are also reviewed. The purpose of this paper is to provide useful guidance to researchers from various disciplines interested in small-scale wind energy harvesting and help them build a quantitative understanding of this technique.

  13. A Study on Applicability of Distributed Energy Generation, Storage and Consumption within Small Scale Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez-Molina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation and storage of energy, conceived as one of the prominent applications of the Smart Grid, has become one of the most popular ways for generation and usage of electricity. Not only does it offer environmental advantages and a more decentralized way to produce energy, but it also enables former consumers to become producers (thus turning them into prosumers. Alternatively, regular power production and consumption is still widely used in most of the world. Unfortunately, accurate business models representations and descriptive use cases for small scale facilitates, either involved in distributed energy or not, have not been provided in a descriptive enough manner. What is more, the possibilities that electricity trade and its storage and consumption activities offer for small users to obtain profits are yet to be addressed and offered to the research community in a thorough manner, so that small consumers will use them to their advantage. This paper puts forward a study on four different business models for small scale facilities and offers an economical study on how they can be deployed as a way to offer profitability for end users and new companies, while at the same time showing the required technological background to have them implemented.

  14. Cost base for small-scale hydropower plants : with a generating capacity of up to 10 000 kw : price level 1 January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slapgaard, Jan

    2012-07-25

    This manual has been prepared as a tool for calculation of average foreseeable contractor costs (civil works) and supplier costs (mechanical and electrical equipment) for large hydroelectric power plants with an early phase generating capacity of up to 10 000 kw. These costs will depend on a number of conditions which may vary from plant to plant, and this requires that the user to have a sound technical knowledge. This applies in particular to the civil works associated with the hydropower plant. The manual is a supplement to our cost base for larger hydropower projects (Manual No. 1/2012) (au)

  15. Summary of the Mid-Atlantic conference on small-scale hydropower in the Mid-Atlantic states: resolution of the barriers impeding its development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    The workshop was conducted to bring together interested persons to examine and discuss the major problems associated with small-scale hydroelectric dam development in the Mid-Atlantic region. The conference opened with an introductory panel which outlined the objectives and the materials available to conference participants. Two of the workshops discussed problems and policy responses raised by state and Federal regulation. The other two workshops concerned economic issues confronting small-scale hydro development and the operation and usefulness of the systems dynamics model under development by the Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth. Various Federal and state programs designed to stimulate small-scale hydro development were discussed. A plenary session completed the workshops.

  16. The role of energy systems on hydropower in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Not only has electricity demand increased significantly, it is the fastest growing end-use of energy. Therefore, technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. On the other hand, the hydropower industry is closely linked to both water management and renewable energy production, and so has a unique role to play in contributing to sustainable development in a world where billions of people lack access to safe drinking water and adequate energy supplies. In addition to, approximately 1.6 billion people have no access to electricity and about 1.1 billion are without adequate water supply. However, resources for hydropower development are widely spread around the world. Potential exists in about 150 countries, and about 70% of the economically feasible potential remains to be developed-mostly in developing countries where the needs are most urgent. This paper deals with renewable energy systems and the role of hydropower in Turkey.

  17. The role of energy systems on hydropower in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Arman, Hasan; Halil Demirel, Ibrahim

    2017-11-01

    Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Not only has electricity demand increased significantly, it is the fastest growing end-use of energy. Therefore, technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future world energy mix, particularly in the developing countries. On the other hand, the hydropower industry is closely linked to both water management and renewable energy production, and so has a unique role to play in contributing to sustainable development in a world where billions of people lack access to safe drinking water and adequate energy supplies. In addition to, approximately 1.6 billion people have no access to electricity and about 1.1 billion are without adequate water supply. However, resources for hydropower development are widely spread around the world. Potential exists in about 150 countries, and about 70% of the economically feasible potential remains to be developed-mostly in developing countries where the needs are most urgent. This paper deals with renewable energy systems and the role of hydropower in Turkey.

  18. Potential for small-scale, decentralized energy sources and the Federal role in their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    1978-02-01

    The idea that the solution to our energy problems is to be found in an expanded role for small-scale, decentralized energy sources, particularly solar energy, has gained considerable attention and increasing respectability in recent years. One of the most articulate spokesmen for this point of view is Denis Hayes. Mr. Hayes explained his perspective on the energy problem to an invited audience of about 85 professionals and students in the energy policy field. This paper is an edited version of Mr. Hayes' presentation. In his presentation, Mr. Hayes discussed the prospects for fossil and nuclear energy, stressing the potential limitations on coal use due to the problem of CO/sub 2/ and the greenhouse effect, and highlighting the hazards of the plutonium economy. He described the role conservation can play in dealing with the energy problem, but declared that conservation alone is not enough. There is still a need, he indicated, to replace declining energy sources with some alternative. In his view, the most promising alternative is solar energy, and Mr. Hayes discussed the various ways in which it can be utilized. The presentation concluded with a number of suggestions regarding Federal actions and policy initiatives that Mr. Hayes feels are needed to encourage solar energy development. These ideas served as the focus for the question and answer session which followed the presentation. Questions dealt with many issues, including priorities in solar R and D, the role of the Federal government vis a vis the private sector, the timing of solar energy implementation, and the strategy and tactics of the solar movement.

  19. Small-scale heating events in the solar atmosphere. II. Lifetime, total energy, and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, N.; Haberreiter, M.; Hansteen, V.; Schmutz, W.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Small-scale heating events (SSHEs) are believed to play a fundamental role in understanding the process responsible for heating of the solar corona, the pervading redshifts in the transition region, and the acceleration of spicules. Aims: We determine the properties of the SSHEs and the atmospheric response to them in 3D magnetohydrodynamics (3D-MHD) simulations of the solar atmosphere. Methods: We developed a method for identifying and following SSHEs over their lifetime, and applied it to two simulation models. We identified the locations where the energy dissipation is greatest inside the SSHEs volume, and we traced the SSHEs by following the spatial and temporal evolution of the maximum energy dissipation inside the SSHEs volume. Results: The method is effective in following the SSHEs. We can determine their lifetime, total energy, and properties of the plasma, as well as the magnetic field orientation in the vicinity of the SSHEs. Conclusions: We determine that the SSHEs that have the potential to heat the corona live less than 4 min, and typically the energy they release ranges from 1020 to 1024 erg. In addition, the directional change of the field lines on the two sides of the current sheet constituting the SSHEs ranges from 5° to 15° at the moment of the absolute maximum energy dissipation.

  20. Simulation of water-energy fluxes through small-scale reservoir systems under limited data availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Pollakis, Giorgos; Moustakis, Yiannis; Markopoulos, Apostolis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Small islands are regarded as promising areas for developing hybrid water-energy systems that combine multiple sources of renewable energy with pumped-storage facilities. Essential element of such systems is the water storage component (reservoir), which implements both flow and energy regulations. Apparently, the representation of the overall water-energy management problem requires the simulation of the operation of the reservoir system, which in turn requires a faithful estimation of water inflows and demands of water and energy. Yet, in small-scale reservoir systems, this task in far from straightforward, since both the availability and accuracy of associated information is generally very poor. For, in contrast to large-scale reservoir systems, for which it is quite easy to find systematic and reliable hydrological data, in the case of small systems such data may be minor or even totally missing. The stochastic approach is the unique means to account for input data uncertainties within the combined water-energy management problem. Using as example the Livadi reservoir, which is the pumped storage component of the small Aegean island of Astypalaia, Greece, we provide a simulation framework, comprising: (a) a stochastic model for generating synthetic rainfall and temperature time series; (b) a stochastic rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters cannot be inferred through calibration and, thus, they are represented as correlated random variables; (c) a stochastic model for estimating water supply and irrigation demands, based on simulated temperature and soil moisture, and (d) a daily operation model of the reservoir system, providing stochastic forecasts of water and energy outflows. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students

  1. Validated real-time energy models for small-scale grid-connected PV-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayompe, L.M.; Duffy, A. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, School of Civil and Building Services, Dublin Institute of Technology, Bolton Street, Dublin 1 (Ireland); McCormack, S.J. [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Conlon, M. [School of Electrical Engineering Systems, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2010-10-15

    This paper presents validated real-time energy models for small-scale grid-connected PV-systems suitable for domestic application. The models were used to predict real-time AC power output from a PV-system in Dublin, Ireland using 30-min intervals of measured performance data between April 2009 and March 2010. Statistical analysis of the predicted results and measured data highlight possible sources of errors and the limitations and/or adequacy of existing models, to describe the temperature and efficiency of PV-cells and consequently, the accuracy of power prediction models. PV-system AC output power predictions using empirical models for PV-cell temperature and efficiency prediction showed lower percentage mean absolute errors (PMAEs) of 7.9-11.7% while non-empirical models had errors of 10.0-12.4%. Cumulative errors for PV-system AC output power predictions were 1.3% for empirical models and 3.3% for non-empirical models. The proposed models are suitable for predicting PV-system AC output power at time intervals suitable for smart metering. (author)

  2. The statistical analysis of energy release in small-scale coronal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Artyom; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey

    We present the results of statistical analysis of impulsive flare-like brightenings, which numerously occur in the quiet regions of solar corona. For our study, we utilized high-cadence observations performed with two EUV-telescopes - TESIS/Coronas-Photon and AIA/SDO. In total, we processed 6 sequences of images, registered throughout the period between 2009 and 2013, covering the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. Based on high-speed DEM estimation method, we developed a new technique to evaluate the main parameters of detected events (geometrical sizes, duration, temperature and thermal energy). We then obtained the statistical distributions of these parameters and examined their variations depending on the level of solar activity. The results imply that near the minimum of the solar cycle the energy release in quiet corona is mainly provided by small-scale events (nanoflares), whereas larger events (microflares) prevail on the peak of activity. Furthermore, we investigated the coronal conditions that had specified the formation and triggering of registered flares. By means of photospheric magnetograms obtained with MDI/SoHO and HMI/SDO instruments, we examined the topology of local magnetic fields at different stages: the pre-flare phase, the peak of intensity and the ending phase. To do so, we introduced a number of topological parameters including the total magnetic flux, the distance between magnetic sources and their mutual arrangement. The found correlation between the change of these parameters and the formation of flares may offer an important tool for application of flare forecasting.

  3. Evaluation of the energy fluence in the small scale gap test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, R.P.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Small Scale Gap Test is a relatively simple experimental tool to obtain a measure of the shock sensitivity of explosives. An evaluation of this test is carried out with use of a computer simulation. The simulated pressures in the water gap compare to experimental data and justify the obtained

  4. Risk management with substitution options: Valuing flexibility in small-scale energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Karl Eric

    Several features of small-scale energy systems make them more easily adapted to a changing operating environment than large centralized designs. This flexibility is often manifested as the ability to substitute inputs. This research explores the value of this substitution flexibility and the marginal value of becoming a "little more flexible" in the context of real project investment in developing countries. The elasticity of substitution is proposed as a stylized measure of flexibility and a choice variable. A flexible alternative (elasticity > 0) can be thought of as holding a fixed-proportions "nflexible" asset plus a sequence of exchange options---the option to move to another feasible "recipe" each period. Substitutability derives value from following a contour of anticipated variations and from responding to new information. Substitutability value, a "cost savings option", increases with elasticity and price risk. However, the required premium to incrementally increase flexibility can in some cases decrease with an increase in risk. Variance is not always a measure of risk. Tools from stochastic dominance are newly applied to real options with convex payoffs to correct some misperceptions and clarify many common modeling situations that meet the criteria for increased variance to imply increased risk. The behavior of the cost savings option is explored subject to a stochastic input price process. At the point where costs are identical for all alternatives, the stochastic process for cost savings becomes deterministic, with savings directly proportional to elasticity of substitution and price variance. The option is also formulated as a derivative security via dynamic programming. The partial differential equation is solved for the special case of Cobb-Douglas (elasticity = 1) (also shown are linear (infinite elasticity), Leontief (elasticity = 0)). Risk aversion is insufficient to prefer a more flexible alternative with the same expected value. Intertemporal

  5. Electric energy production with small scale wind turbines in Viladecans (Delta del Llobregat)

    OpenAIRE

    Jou Lopez, Jordi; Valle Lozano, Aaron David

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine which of the two small scale wind turbines presented (IT-PE-100 and HP-600) was the most appropriate for the wind conditions of Viladecans (Delta del Llobregat). Firstly, a wind study was conducted in order to obtain the speed distribution, using Weibull probability density function, and showed a weighted average speed of 1.46 m/s. It was decided that the best way to choose one of the two turbines would be using Fast & Aerodyn simulation software...

  6. Complementing hydropower with PV and wind: optimal energy mix in a fully renewable Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jérôme; Kahl, Annelen; Kruyt, Bert; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Like several other countries, Switzerland plans to phase out its nuclear power production and will replace most or all of it by renewables. Switzerland has the chance to benefit from a large hydropower potential and has already exploited almost all of it. Currently about 60% of the Swiss electricity consumption is covered by hydropower, which will eventually leave a gap of about 40% to the other renewables mainly composed of photovoltaics (PV) and wind. With its high flexibility, storage hydropower will play a major role in the future energy mix, providing valuable power and energy balance. Our work focuses on the interplay between PV, wind and storage hydropower, to analyze the dynamics of this complex system and to identify the best PV-wind mixing ratio. Given the current electricity consumption and the currently installed pumping capacity of the storage hydropower plants, it appears that the Swiss hydropower system can completely alleviate the intermittency of PV and wind. However, some seasonal mismatch between production and demand will remain, but we show that oversizing the production from PV and wind or enlarging the reservoir capacity can be a solution to keep it to an acceptable level or even eliminate it. We found that PV, wind and hydropower performs the best together when the share of PV in the solar - wind mix is between 20 and 60%. These findings are quantitatively specific for Switzerland but qualitatively transferable to similar mountainous environments with abundant hydropower resources.

  7. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  8. Hydropower's Contribution to Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinbilek, D.; Abdel-Malek, R.; Devernay, J.M.; Gill, R.; Leney, S.; Moss, Terry; Schiffer, H.P.; Taylor, R.M.

    2007-07-01

    The role of hydropower within mixed power systems is analysed from the point of view of both quantitative and qualitative performance. Interrelationships with all other generation technologies are discussed and synergies identified. Resources, sustainability criteria and investment challenges are reviewed in the context of development. The objective of the paper is to define hydropower's contribution within the clean, clever and competitive markets of the future.

  9. Nutrient flows in small-scale bio-energy use in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonten, L.T.C.; Wösten, J.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the opportunities for the retention and return of nutrients in local bio-energy production using energy crops (oil palm, jatropha and cassava), fuel wood, manure, rice husks and a common pest plant (water hyacinth). For all bio-energy systems some return of nutrients is possible,

  10. Double pancake superconducting coil design for maximum magnetic energy storage in small scale SMES systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekmati, Arsalan; Hekmati, Rasoul

    2016-12-01

    Electrical power quality and stability is an important issue nowadays and technology of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage systems, SMES, has brought real power storage capability to power systems. Therefore, optimum SMES design to achieve maximum energy with the least length of tape has been quite a matter of concern. This paper provides an approach to design optimization of solenoid and toroid types of SMES, ensuring maximum possible energy storage. The optimization process, based on Genetic Algorithm, calculates the operating current of superconducting tapes through intersection of a load line with the surface indicating the critical current variation versus the parallel and perpendicular components of magnetic flux density. FLUX3D simulations of SMES have been utilized for energy calculations. Through numerical analysis of obtained data, formulations have been obtained for the optimum dimensions of superconductor coil and maximum stored energy for a given length and cross sectional area of superconductor tape.

  11. Examination on the viability of various energy supply systems for a small-scale symbiotic housing development in Kitakyushu, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Q.; Ryu, Y. [Kitakyushu Univ., Kitakkyushu (Japan); Ruan, Y. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Human-Environment Studies

    2006-07-01

    This paper examined the viability of various distributed energy systems for a planned small-scale symbiotic housing development in Kitakyushu, Japan. Energy provision options included conventional energy supply systems with gas and electricity; photovoltaic (PV) systems; and combined heating and power (CHP) systems. Hourly power generation of the PV system was calculated using field studies and an expression model. Operating conditions for the CHP systems were simulated. The simulation data were then used to estimate energy savings, environmental impacts and economic benefits of the systems.The analysis was conducted using hourly weather data for the region in which the complex will be situated. Hourly energy loads and annual timescales for detached houses, terraced houses and apartments were calculated. Results indicated that distributed energy resources gained significant energy savings when compared with conventional systems. PV system energy savings ratios were estimated at 29.19 per cent, and carbon dioxide reductions were estimated at 46.28 per cent, with a payback period of 9 years. The CHP system also achieved significant energy savings. Further research is needed to determine appropriate CHP capacity for the housing complex. It was concluded that there is now a strong interest in energy systems that will reduce Japan's dependence on imported fuels. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious

  13. Small-scale automated biomass energy heating systems: a viable option for remote Canadian communities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallum, B. [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Industry, Economics and Programs Branch

    1997-12-31

    The potential benefits of wood energy (forest biomass) for space heating in Canada`s remote communities was discussed. Diesel fuel and heating oil must be transported into these communities to produce electricity and to heat large public buildings. Below the treeline, roundwood is often used to heat private homes. The move toward environmentally sustainable development has focussed much attention on renewable energy technologies such as biomass energy, (i.e. any form of energy derived from plant or animal materials). Wood is the most readily available biomass fuel in remote communities. Woodchips and sawmill waste can be burned in automated biomass heating systems which provide a convenient way to use low-grade wood to heat large buildings or groups of buildings which would not be feasible to heat with roundwood. It was shown that one cord of spruce can produce 1.5 tonnes of woodchips to ultimately displace 300 litres of heating oil. A description of a small-commercial and small-industrial biomass system was presented. The benefits of biomass were described as: (1) direct savings compared to high-cost oil heat, (2) increased circulation of energy dollars inside the community, and (3) employment opportunities in harvesting, processing and operating biomass systems. A steady supply of good quality woodchips to the heating plant must be ensured. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  14. Energy Analysis of a Small-Scale Combustion Driven Blast Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanraj, S.; Jagadeesh, G.

    There was a time when the term `Blast waves' was so synonymous with explosions, rapid destruction and injuries that it had assumed an increasingly negative stance in people's minds. It was not until researchers learnt to harness, alter and utilize the energy of blast waves that it was conceived from a different perspective and its importance was realized.

  15. Optimization of cascade hydropower system operation by genetic algorithm to maximize clean energy output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tayebiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several reservoir systems have been constructed for hydropower generation around the world. Hydropower offers an economical source of electricity with reduce carbon emissions. Therefore, it is such a clean and renewable source of energy. Reservoirs that generate hydropower are typically operated with the goal of maximizing energy revenue. Yet, reservoir systems are inefficiently operated and manage according to policies determined at the construction time. It is worth noting that with little enhancement in operation of reservoir system, there could be an increase in efficiency of the scheme for many consumers. Methods: This research develops simulation-optimization models that reflect discrete hedging policy (DHP to manage and operate hydropower reservoir system and analyse it in both single and multireservoir system. Accordingly, three operational models (2 single reservoir systems and 1 multi-reservoir system were constructed and optimized by genetic algorithm (GA. Maximizing the total power generation in horizontal time is chosen as an objective function in order to improve the functional efficiency in hydropower production with consideration to operational and physical limitations. The constructed models, which is a cascade hydropower reservoirs system have been tested and evaluated in the Cameron Highland and Batang Padang in Malaysia. Results: According to the given results, usage of DHP for hydropower reservoir system operation could increase the power generation output to nearly 13% in the studied reservoir system compared to present operating policy (TNB operation. This substantial increase in power production will enhance economic development. Moreover, the given results of single and multi-reservoir systems affirmed that hedging policy could manage the single system much better than operation of the multi-reservoir system. Conclusion: It can be summarized that DHP is an efficient and feasible policy, which could be used

  16. Energy-Efficiency Retrofits in Small-Scale Multifamily Rental Housing: A Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChambeau, Brian

    The goal of this thesis to develop a real estate investment model that creates a financial incentive for property owners to perform energy efficiency retrofits in small multifamily rental housing in southern New England. The medium for this argument is a business plan that is backed by a review of the literature and input from industry experts. In addition to industry expertise, the research covers four main areas: the context of green building, efficient building technologies, precedent programs, and the Providence, RI real estate market for the business plan. The thesis concludes that the model proposed can improve the profitability of real estate investment in small multifamily rental properties, though the extent to which this is possible depends partially on utility-run incentive programs and the capital available to invest in retrofit measures.

  17. Sustainability Assessment of a Self-Consumption Wood-Energy Chain on Small Scale for Heat Generation in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Verani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of a small-scale self-consumption wood-energy chain for heat generation in central Italy was analyzed from a technical, economic and energetic point of view. A micro-chain was developed within the CRA-ING farm at Monterotondo (Rome, Italy: The purpose of this system was to produce biomass for supplying a heating plant within the CRA-ING property as a substitute for diesel fuel. A poplar short rotation coppice, established with clones AF2, AF6 and Monviso, fed the micro-chain. The rotation was biennial. The average plantation production (Mgd.m.·ha−1·year−1 was 10.2, with a maximum of 13.53 for the twin-rows AF2 and a minimum of 8.00 for the single-row Monviso. The economic assessment was based on the Net Present Value (NPV method and the equivalent annuity cost, and found an average saving of 15.60 €·GJ−1 of heat generated by the wood chips heating system in comparison with the diesel heating system over a 10 year lifetime of the thermal power plant. The energy assessment of the poplar plantation, carried out using the Gross Energy Requirements method, reported an energy output/input ratio of 12.3. The energy output/input ratio of the whole micro-chain was 4.5.

  18. Energy Recovery Hydropower: Prospects for Off-Setting Electricity Costs for Agricultural, Municipal, and Industrial Water Providers and Users; July 2017 - September 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy; Telluride, CO (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Energy recovery hydropower is one of the most cost-effective types of new hydropower development because it is constructed utilizing existing infrastructure, and it is typically able to complete Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) review in 60 days. Recent changes in federal and state policy have supported energy recovery hydropower. In addition, some states have developed programs and policies to support energy recovery hydropower, including resource assessments, regulatory streamlining initiatives, and grant and loan programs to reduce project development costs. This report examines current federal and state policy drivers for energy recovery hydropower, reviews market trends, and looks ahead at future federal resource assessments and hydropower reform legislation.

  19. Integration of Hydropower in a Competitive power market model for water-energy scenario analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira Cardenal, Silvio Javier; Carrion-Sanchez, Laura; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    for the management of both water and energy resources, and should be assessed. We propose a coupled water-energy modeling approach in which a hydrological model imposes the water constraints on the power system model; hydropower generation is bid to the power market based on the hydrological state of the system....... The hydropower bidding strategy showed reasonable performance when tested in a simplified model of a competitive power market.......Hydrological systems and power systems are strongly linked: water is needed for most electricity generation technologies, and electricity is required for all stages of water usage. Growing water and energy demands, and potential climate changes suggest this relationship will become more important...

  20. Examples of Small-scale Urban Area. Experiment Energy Leap Built Environment; Voorbeeldenboek Kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. Experiment Energiesprong Gebouwde Omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch government considers the transition process to be necessary and stimulates investments in energy innovations in the built environment. This innovation effort is the programme 'Energy Leap' (Energiesprong), which is being carried out by the Steering Group Experimental Housing (SEV) on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations (BZK). The programme is derived from the Innovation Agenda for Energy in the Built Environment. The examples in this book are intended to inspire (potential) participants in the Experiment Energy Leap for Small-scale Urban Areas. The examples focus explicitly on the reduction of CO2 emissions in urban areas, and thus, in addition to CO2 reduction on a building level, the aspects of energy supply, (local) energy production and the energy infrastructure [Dutch] Het SEV-programma Energiesprong (SEV is Stuurgroep Experimenten Volkshuisvesting) beoogt een substantiele bijdrage te leveren aan de condities waaronder de energietransitie effectief tot stand kan komen. In dit basisplan wordt uiteengezet hoe de markt daartoe moet kunnen komen en welke activiteiten daarvoor worden ondersteund, opgezet en/of uitgevoerd vanuit Energiesprong. Het SEV-programma Energiesprong wordt in opdracht van het Ministerie van Binnenlandse Zaken en Koninkrijksrelaties (BZK) uitgevoerd. Het programma is afgeleid van de Innovatie Agenda energie Gebouwde Omgeving. Dit voorbeeldenboek dient ter inspiratie van (potentiele) deelnemers aan het Experiment Energiesprong kleinschalige Binnenstedelijke Gebieden. De voorbeelden richten zich expliciet op de CO2-reductie van binnenstedelijke gebieden en daarmee, naast de CO2-reductie op woning- en gebouwniveau, op de aspecten energievoorziening, (locale) energieopwekking en energie-infrastructuur.

  1. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-04

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  2. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  3. Hydropower Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  4. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  5. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Verme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it ombines the production of clean energy to fuel economic

  6. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-01-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic

  7. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic

  8. The future of small hydropower within the European union. An environmental policy study based on the European Water framework directive and the renewable energy directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabbruwee, Kees

    2006-01-01

    Small hydropower facilities according to European Union (EU) standards have an installed capacity of less than 10 MW. The Renewable Energy Directive has set targets for installed capacity and electricity produced by small hydropower facilities to be reach

  9. Water, energy and agricultural landuse trends at Shiroro hydropower station and environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegun, Olubunmi; Ajayi, Olalekan; Badru, Gbolahan; Odunuga, Shakirudeen

    2018-02-01

    The study examines the interplay among water resources, hydropower generation and agricultural landuse at the Shiroro hydropower station and its environs, in north-central Nigeria. Non-parametric trend analysis, hydropower footprint estimation, reservoir performance analysis, change detection analysis, and inferential statistics were combined to study the water-energy and food security nexus. Results of Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator for the period 1960 to 2013 showed a declining rainfall trend at Jos, around River Kaduna headwaters at -2.6 mm yr-1, while rainfall at Kaduna and Minna upstream and downstream of the reservoir respectively showed no trend. Estimates of hydropower footprint varied between 130.4 and 704.1 m3 GJ-1 between 1995 and 2013. Power generation reliability and resilience of the reservoir was 31.6 and 38.5 % respectively with year 2011 being the most vulnerable and least satisfactory. In addition to poor reliability and resilience indices, other challenges militating against good performance of hydropower generation includes population growth and climate change issues as exemplified in the downward trend observed at the headwaters. Water inflow and power generation shows a weak positive relationship with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.48, indicating less than optimal power generation. Total area of land cultivated increased from 884.59 km2 in 1986 prior to the commissioning of the hydropower station to 1730.83 km2 in 2016 which signifies an increased contribution of the dam to ensuring food security. The reality of reducing upstream rainfall amount coupled with high water footprint of electricity from the reservoir, therefore requires that a long term roadmap to improve operational coordination and management have to be put in place.

  10. Water, energy and agricultural landuse trends at Shiroro hydropower station and environs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Adegun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the interplay among water resources, hydropower generation and agricultural landuse at the Shiroro hydropower station and its environs, in north-central Nigeria. Non-parametric trend analysis, hydropower footprint estimation, reservoir performance analysis, change detection analysis, and inferential statistics were combined to study the water-energy and food security nexus. Results of Mann–Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator for the period 1960 to 2013 showed a declining rainfall trend at Jos, around River Kaduna headwaters at −2.6 mm yr−1, while rainfall at Kaduna and Minna upstream and downstream of the reservoir respectively showed no trend. Estimates of hydropower footprint varied between 130.4 and 704.1 m3 GJ−1 between 1995 and 2013. Power generation reliability and resilience of the reservoir was 31.6 and 38.5 % respectively with year 2011 being the most vulnerable and least satisfactory. In addition to poor reliability and resilience indices, other challenges militating against good performance of hydropower generation includes population growth and climate change issues as exemplified in the downward trend observed at the headwaters. Water inflow and power generation shows a weak positive relationship with correlation coefficient (r of 0.48, indicating less than optimal power generation. Total area of land cultivated increased from 884.59 km2 in 1986 prior to the commissioning of the hydropower station to 1730.83 km2 in 2016 which signifies an increased contribution of the dam to ensuring food security. The reality of reducing upstream rainfall amount coupled with high water footprint of electricity from the reservoir, therefore requires that a long term roadmap to improve operational coordination and management have to be put in place.

  11. Development of hydropower energy in Turkey: The case of Coruh river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, Adem [Guemueshane University, Civil Engineering Department, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey); Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Kankal, Murat [Karadeniz Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    The main objective in doing the present study is to investigate the sustainable development of hydropower plants in the Coruh river basin of Turkey, which is least problem river of Turkey in respect to international cooperation as compared with Turkey's other trans-boundary waters. Initial studies concerning the hydropower production potential in Coruh basin had been carried out by Turkish authorities in the late 1960s. Total installed power capacity and annual average energy generation of 37 dams and run of river (without storage) hydropower plants developed at various project stages by The Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration (EiE) in Coruh basin are 3132.70 MW and 10.55 TWh/yr, respectively. Today, this generation value corresponds 6.45% of Turkey's energy consumption in 2006 while it meets 6.3% of total electricity energy production of Turkey which is equal to 167.9 TWh/yr in 2006. Besides, this potential developed at various project stages in Coruh basin will provide 24.1% of Turkey's hydroelectric energy generation being equal to 43.8 TWh/yr in 2006. (author)

  12. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Qin Fen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chalise, Dol Raj [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Centurion, Emma E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost-estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  13. Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis Miller

    2009-03-22

    This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

  14. A Simple Operating Strategy of Small-Scale Battery Energy Storages for Energy Arbitrage under Dynamic Pricing Tariffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Telaretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Price arbitrage involves taking advantage of an electricity price difference, storing electricity during low-prices times, and selling it back to the grid during high-prices periods. This strategy can be exploited by customers in presence of dynamic pricing schemes, such as hourly electricity prices, where the customer electricity cost may vary at any hour of day, and power consumption can be managed in a more flexible and economical manner, taking advantage of the price differential. Instead of modifying their energy consumption, customers can install storage systems to reduce their electricity bill, shifting the energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. This paper develops a detailed storage model linking together technical, economic and electricity market parameters. The proposed operating strategy aims to maximize the profit of the storage owner (electricity customer under simplifying assumptions, by determining the optimal charge/discharge schedule. The model can be applied to several kinds of storages, although the simulations refer to three kinds of batteries: lead-acid, lithium-ion (Li-ion and sodium-sulfur (NaS batteries. Unlike literature reviews, often requiring an estimate of the end-user load profile, the proposed operation strategy is able to properly identify the battery-charging schedule, relying only on the hourly price profile, regardless of the specific facility’s consumption, thanks to some simplifying assumptions in the sizing and the operation of the battery. This could be particularly useful when the customer load profile cannot be scheduled with sufficient reliability, because of the uncertainty inherent in load forecasting. The motivation behind this research is that storage devices can help to lower the average electricity prices, increasing flexibility and fostering the integration of renewable sources into the power system.

  15. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  16. Small-scale Biorefining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Ree, van R.

    2016-01-01

    One promising way to accelerate the market implementation of integrated biorefineries is to promote small (regional) biorefinery initiatives. Small-scale biorefineries require relatively low initial investments, and therefore are often lacking the financing problems that larger facilities face. They

  17. Water-Energy Nexus in Shared River Basins: How Hydropower Shapes Cooperation and Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouangpalath Phimthong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of hydropower plants on transboundary rivers is seldom done with equal benefits to all riparians, and therefore presents coordination and cooperation challenges. Without a supra-national authority in charge of transboundary river basins, coordination between sectors (water, energy and environment and cooperation between countries largely depends on willingness of the individual nation states and the power relations between these countries. This paper discusses how the interests and relative power positions of actors in transboundary water management shape the outcomes, and what roles are played by River Basin Organisations and foreign investors (especially in hydropower development. These issues are illustrated with examples from the Mekong river in Southeast Asia (Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, the Euphrates-Tigris (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran and Kuwait and the Çoruh in Turkey and Georgia.

  18. Demonstrating a new framework for the comparison of environmental impacts from small- and large-scale hydropower and wind power projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Aase, Anne Guri; Hagen, Dagmar; Sundt, Håkon; Barton, David N; Lujala, Päivi

    2014-07-01

    Climate change and the needed reductions in the use of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy production, such as hydropower (both small- and large-scale) and wind power have adverse impacts on the local environment by causing reductions in biodiversity and loss of habitats and species. This paper compares the environmental impacts of many small-scale hydropower plants with a few large-scale hydropower projects and one wind power farm, based on the same set of environmental parameters; land occupation, reduction in wilderness areas (INON), visibility and impacts on red-listed species. Our basis for comparison was similar energy volumes produced, without considering the quality of the energy services provided. The results show that small-scale hydropower performs less favourably in all parameters except land occupation. The land occupation of large hydropower and wind power is in the range of 45-50 m(2)/MWh, which is more than two times larger than the small-scale hydropower, where the large land occupation for large hydropower is explained by the extent of the reservoirs. On all the three other parameters small-scale hydropower performs more than two times worse than both large hydropower and wind power. Wind power compares similarly to large-scale hydropower regarding land occupation, much better on the reduction in INON areas, and in the same range regarding red-listed species. Our results demonstrate that the selected four parameters provide a basis for further development of a fair and consistent comparison of impacts between the analysed renewable technologies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Different Time Series Streamflow Data on Energy Generation of a Run-of-River Hydropower Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.; Cetinkaya, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Global issues such as population increase, power supply crises, oil prices, social and environmental concerns have been forcing countries to search for alternative energy sources such as renewable energy to satisfy the sustainable development goals. Hydropower is the most common form of renewable energy in the world. Hydropower does not require any fuel, produces relatively less pollution and waste and it is a reliable energy source with relatively low operating cost. In order to estimate the average annual energy production of a hydropower plant, sufficient and dependable streamflow data is required. The goal of this study is to investigate impact of streamflow data on annual energy generation of Balkusan HEPP which is a small run-of-river hydropower plant at Karaman, Turkey. Two different stream gaging stations are located in the vicinity of Balkusan HEPP and these two stations have different observation periods: one from 1986 to 2004 and the other from 2000 to 2009. These two observation periods show different climatic characteristics. Thus, annual energy estimations based on data from these two different stations differ considerably. Additionally, neither of these stations is located at the power plant axis, thus streamflow observations from these two stream gaging stations need to be transferred to the plant axis. This requirement introduces further errors into energy estimations. Impact of different streamflow data and transfer of streamflow observations to plant axis on annual energy generation of a small hydropower plant is investigated in this study.

  20. Small hydropower projects and sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, R.; Munasinghe, M. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom); Munasinghe Inst. for Development, Colombo (Sri Lanka); Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Sustainable development has evolved to encompass three major viewpoints: economic, social and environmental. Given the wide-ranging potential impacts of energy on national sustainable development, we review the linkages between these two topics. In the Sri Lanka case study presented here, the Sustainomics framework is used to assess the role of small hydroelectric power projects in sustainable energy development. Key variables represent economic, social and environmental dimensions. This analysis helps policy-makers compare and rank project alternatives more easily and effectively. The multi-dimensional analysis, which includes environmental and social variables, supplements the more conventional cost benefit analysis based on economic values alone. (Author)

  1. Exploring the impact of co-varying water availability and energy price on productivity and profitability of Alpine hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Botter, Martina; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Alpine hydropower systems are experiencing dramatic changes both from the point of view of hydrological conditions, e.g., water availability and frequency of extremes events, and of energy market conditions, e.g., partial or total liberalization of the market and increasing share of renewable power sources. Scientific literature has, so far, mostly focused on the analysis of climate change impacts and associated uncertainty on hydropower operation, underlooking the consequences that socio-economic changes, e.g., energy demand and/or price changes, can have on hydropower productivity and profitability. In this work, we analyse how hydropower reservoir operation is affected by changes in both water availability and energy price. We consider stochastically downscaled climate change scenarios of precipitation and temperature to simulate reservoir inflows using a physically explicit hydrological model. We consider different scenarios of energy demand and generation mix to simulate energy prices using an electricity market model, which includes different generation sources, demand sinks, and features of the transmission lines. We then use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design the operation of hydropower reservoirs for different purposes, e.g. maximization of revenue and/or energy production. The objective of the work is to assess how the tradeoffs between the multiple operating objectives evolve under different co-varying climate change and socio-economic scenarios and to assess the adaptive capacity of the system. The modeling framework is tested on the real-world case study of the Mattmark reservoir in Switzerland.

  2. New Stream-reach Development: A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Samu, Nicole M [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; DeNeale, Scott T [ORNL; Yeasmin, Dilruba [California State University, Fresno; Pasha, M. Fayzul K. [California State University, Fresno; Oubeidillah, Abdoul A [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

    2014-04-01

    The rapid development of multiple national geospatial datasets related to topography, hydrology, and environmental characteristics in the past decade have provided new opportunities for the refinement of hydropower resource potential from undeveloped stream-reaches. Through 2011 to 2013, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program to evaluate the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential for more than 3 million US streams. A methodology was designed that contains three main components: (1) identification of stream-reaches with high energy density, (2) topographical analysis of stream-reaches to estimate inundated surface area and reservoir storage, and (3) environmental attribution to spatially join information related to the natural ecological systems, social and cultural settings, policies, management, and legal constraints to stream-reaches of energy potential. An initial report on methodology (Hadjerioua et al., 2013) was later reviewed and revised based on the comments gathered from two peer review workshops. After implementing the assessment across the entire United States, major findings were summarized in this final report. The estimated NSD capacity and generation, including both higher-energy-density (>1 MW per reach) and lower-energy-density (<1 MW per reach) stream-reaches is 84.7 GW, around the same size as the existing US conventional hydropower nameplate capacity (79.5 GW; NHAAP, 2013). In terms of energy, the total undeveloped NSD generation is estimated to be 460 TWh/year, around 169% of average 2002 2011 net annual generation from existing conventional hydropower plants (272 TWh/year; EIA, 2013). Given the run-of-river assumption, NSD stream-reaches have higher capacity factors (53 71%), especially compared with conventional larger-storage peaking-operation projects that usually have capacity factors of around 30%. The highest potential is identified in the Pacific Northwest

  3. Opportunities for Energy Development in Water Conduits: A Report Prepared in Response to Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Reiser, Sonya L. [Knight Piesold, Chicago, IL (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy LLC, Grand Junction, CO (United States); Bailey, Andrea C. [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Frank, Anthony [BCS, Incorporated, Laurel, MD (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    2014-09-01

    In Section 7 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act (HREA) of 2013 (P.L. 113-23), Congress directed the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare an analysis of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States and to present case studies that describe the potential energy generation from these types of hydropower projects. Those analyses have been included in a new DOE report to Congress, and this ORNL/TM provides additional technical details supporting that report. Conduit hydropower offers important new ways to enhance renewable energy portfolios in the United States, as well as to increase the energy efficiency of water delivery systems. Conduit hydropower projects are constructed on existing water-conveyance structures, such as irrigation canals or pressurized pipelines that deliver water to municipalities, industry, or agricultural water users. Although water conveyance infrastructures are usually designed for non-power purposes, new renewable energy can often be harvested from them without affecting their original purpose and without the need to construct new dams or diversions. Conduit hydropower differs from more conventional hydropower development in that it is generally not located on natural rivers or waterways and therefore does not involve the types of environmental impacts that are associated with hydropower. The addition of hydropower to existing water conduits can provide valuable new revenue sources from clean, renewable energy. The new energy can be used within the existing water distribution systems to offset other energy demands, or it can be sold into regional transmission systems.

  4. Clean energy and water conflicts: Contested narratives of small hydropower in Mexico’s Sierra Madre Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Silber-Coats

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower is poised to undergo a global boom, potentially accounting for as much as 75% of new hydroelectric installations over the next two decades. There are extensive bodies of literature arguing both that small hydropower is an environmentally benign technology benefitting rural communities, and, conversely, that unchecked small hydro development is a potential environmental calamity with dire consequences for rivers and those who depend upon them. Despite this debate, few studies have considered the ways in which small hydropower is socially constructed in the sites targeted for its development. This paper focuses on the Bobos-Nautla River Basin, in the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico, where numerous small hydropower projects are planned. The central argument is that the dominant framing of small hydropower in Mexico focuses on claimed benefits of 'clean' energy, sidelining any consideration of impacts on water resources and local environments. However, even if this narrative has dominated policy-making, it is being actively contested by a social movement that constructs these projects as water theft. The narratives surrounding small hydropower are reconstructed from interviews with government officials, activists, NGO workers and residents of communities near project sites conducted during ten weeks of fieldwork in 2014. The results of this fieldwork are contextualised by an overview of evolving trends in hydropower governance globally that situates the boom in small hydro within shifting relationships between states, international financial institutions, and private finance, as well as an historical account of the evolution of hydropower governance in Mexico that speaks to long-standing conflicts over water use for hydroelectric generation.

  5. Integrating hydropower and intermittent climate-related renewable energies: a call for hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Anquetin, Sandrine; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Engeland, Kolbjorn; Favre, Anne-Catherine; Hingray, Benoit; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Raynaud, Damien; Renard, Benjamin; Sauquet, Eric; Sauterleute, Julian-Friedrich; Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Warland, Geir

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the debate about the role of hydropower as energy storage and balancing energy source in context of high intermittency and variability of solar and wind energy exposes hydrologists to new challenges. There is a common consensus that a high penetration of wind and solar energies can only be achieved if the issues to their intermittent power outputs are solved - issues which can be at least partially approached by means of hydropower systems. Indeed, unlike wind and solar energies which are only produced when wind and sun are available, hydro resources can be stored in reservoirs for later use. Finally, the energy production should balance the energy demand which is to a large degree, controlled by weather variables, especially temperature. However, despite substantial work on the space-time variability of each individual hydro-meteorological variable, advances on the joint analysis of the processes that are underlying this integration are more limited. In this commentary, we analyze three specific challenges dedicated to the hydrological community. They aim to improve the integration of hydropower with solar and wind energy sources to make more effective the use of renewable energy and water resources. These challenges are: i) the need to provide a new hydro-meteorological framework for the analysis of the space-time co-fluctuations between runoff regimes and solar, wind and temperature variables; ii) understanding how processes like land-use and climate change affect the nature of these co-fluctuations; and iii) the need to develop means for a quantitative analysis of interactions between the use of water for power generation and other water uses including the preservation of aquatic ecosystems. In some way, the success of climate change mitigation policies based on high intermittent energy integration will depend on how these different challenges have been achieved by hydrologist community. The work presented is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX

  6. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  7. Hydropower development in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Praveen [Govt. of India, New Delhi (India). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy], E-mail: psaxena_98@yahoo.com; Kumar, Arun [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand (India). Alternate Hydro Energy Centre], E-mail: aheciitr@gmail.com

    2011-04-15

    India is posed for large deployment of hydropower in present conducive policy and investment environment. Growing energy demand and concern for carbon emission is making hydropower development more favorable. The Government of India is ensuring a good performance of the new SHP stations by linking the incentives to the SHP developers with the performance of the station. (author)

  8. Hydropower annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hunt, Richard T. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sommers, Garold L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL)

    2004-02-01

    This report describes hydropower activities supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Hydropower Program during Fiscal Year 2003 (October 1, 2002 to September 30, 2003). Background on the program, FY03 accomplishments, and future plans are presented in the following sections.

  9. Rethinking Pumped Storage Hydropower in the European Alps: A Call for New Integrated Assessment Tools to Support the Energy Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Björnsen Gurung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Alps are well positioned to contribute significantly to the energy transition. In addition to sites with above-average potential for wind and solar power, the “water towers” of Europe provide flexible, low-carbon power generation as well as energy storage. In the future, hydropower systems are expected to become more than mere electricity generators, serving a key role as flexible complements to intermittent power generators and as providers of large-scale seasonal and daily energy storage. Energy transition on national and European scales can be facilitated by expanding the capacity of pumped storage hydropower (PSHP plants. Yet the extension of hydropower production, in particular PSHP, remains controversial, primarily due to environmental concerns. Focusing on 2 Alpine countries, Austria and Switzerland, this paper provides a system view of hydropower production and energy storage in the Alps. It discusses advantages and drawbacks of various assessment tools and identifies gaps and needs for the integrated assessment of PSHP plants. It concludes that instruments that evaluate the impacts and sustainability of PSHP projects need to be developed, elaborated, and applied in a participatory manner, in order to promote public dialogue, increase social acceptance, and, ideally, encourage energy consumers to become advocates of a sustainable energy future.

  10. Thermo-hydro-mechanical modeling and analysis of cement-based energy storages for small-scale dwellings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Henok; Wuttke, Frank

    2016-04-01

    One of the common technologies for balancing the energy demand and supply in district heating, domestic hot water production, thermal power plants and thermal process industries in general is thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage, in particular sensible heat storage as compared to latent heat storage and thermo-chemical storage, has recently gained much interest in the renewable energy storage sector due to its comparatively low cost and technical development. Sensible heat storages work on the principle of storing thermal energy by raising or lowering the temperature of liquid (commonly water) or solid media, and do not involve material phase change or conversion of thermal energy by chemical reactions or adsorption processes as in latent heat and thermo-chemical storages, respectively. In this study, the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of a cement-based thermal energy storage system for domestic applications has been modeled in both saturated as well as unsaturated conditions using the Finite Element method along with an extensive experimental analysis program for parameter detection. For this purpose, a prototype model is used with three well-known thermal energy storage materials, and the temperature and heat distribution of the system were investigated under specific thermo-hydro-mechanical conditions. Thermal energy samples with controlled water to solids ratio and stored in water for up to 28 days were used for the experimental program. The determination of parameters included: thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) using a transient line-source measurement technique as well as a steady-state thermal conductivity and expansion meter; mechanical strength parameters such as uni-axial strength, young's modulus of elasticity, poisson's ratio and shear parameters using uniaxial, oedometer and triaxial tests; and hydraulic properties such as hydraulic permeability or conductivity under

  11. Effects of the uncertainty of energy price and water availability forecasts on the operation of Alpine hydropower reservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2016-12-01

    European energy markets have experienced dramatic changes in the last years because of the massive introduction of Variable Renewable Sources (VRSs), such as wind and solar power sources, in the generation portfolios in many countries. VRSs i) are intermittent, i.e., their production is highly variable and only partially predictable, ii) are characterized by no correlation between production and demand, iii) have negligible costs of production, and iv) have been largely subsidized. These features result in lower energy prices, but, at the same time, in increased price volatility, and in network stability issues, which pose a threat to traditional power sources because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. Storage hydropower systems play an important role in compensating production peaks, both in term of excess and shortage of energy. Traditionally, most of the research effort in hydropower reservoir operation has focused on modeling and forecasting reservoir inflow as well as designing reservoir operation accordingly. Nowadays, price variability may be the largest source of uncertainty in the context of hydropower systems, especially when considering medium-to-large reservoirs, whose storage can easily buffer small inflow fluctuations. In this work, we compare the effects of uncertain inflow and energy price forecasts on hydropower production and profitability. By adding noise to historic inflow and price trajectories, we build a set of synthetic forecasts corresponding to different levels of predictability and assess their impact on reservoir operating policies and performances. The study is conducted on different hydropower systems, including storage systems and pumped-storage systems, with different characteristics, e.g., different inflow-capacity ratios. The analysis focuses on Alpine hydropower systems where the hydrological regime ranges from purely ice and snow-melt dominated to mixed snow

  12. Recent Progress in Piezoelectric Conversion and Energy Harvesting Using Nonlinear Electronic Interfaces and Issues in Small Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guyomar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing an up-to-date review of nonlinear electronic interfaces for energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations using piezoelectric coupling. The basic principles and the direct application to energy harvesting of nonlinear treatment of the output voltage of the transducers for conversion enhancement will be recalled, and extensions of this approach presented. Latest advances in this field will be exposed, such as the use of intermediate energy tanks for decoupling or initial energy injection for conversion magnification. A comparative analysis of each of these techniques will be performed, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of the methods, in terms of efficiency, performance under several excitation conditions, complexity of implementation and so on. Finally, a special focus of their implementation in the case of low voltage output transducers (as in the case of microsystems will be presented.

  13. SI - Small Scale Advantages

    OpenAIRE

    Nordström, Marie; Kallin Westin, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Not being part of a larger SI-organisation has both advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we try to illustrate the advantages of doing SI small scale. In a large scale SI-organisation the supervisors are often not teachers themselves and/or not familiar with the practices of a specific course. To have teaching staff supervising a SIproject completely focused on one course is favourable in many ways. The decision to introduce SI was taken by the department of Computing Science to support...

  14. Demonstration program for small-scale straw fuel systems. Pre-study for the Swedish Energy Agency; Demonstrationsprogram foer smaaskaliga straabraenslesystem. Foerstudie foer Energimyndigheten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulrud, Susanne (Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden)); Wahlberg, Cecilia (Hushaallningssaellskapet, Stockholm (Sweden)); Arkeloev, Olof (LRF Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-02-15

    Energy crops from arable land is still an almost entirely untapped potential as a fuel for heating. Canary grass, straw and hemp could eventually form an important part of the raw-material from agriculture. For this production to increase and become a viable alternative to conventional farming it is required, however, that the whole production chain from cultivation to end-use is developed. The aim of this pilot study has been to make suggestions for the design of a Demonstration project of small-scale fuel straw-crops. The programme's vision is to within 6 years build up a number of demonstration plants for small-scale briquetting/pelletizing of straw fuels in different parts of the country. In addition, potential producers of raw materials and other actors in the programme will be made aware what opportunities and conditions there are to process the agro-fuels in small-scale production facilities. The overall objective of the programme is to increase knowledge about how straw fuels and/or residues can be used as raw material in small-scale production of briquettes/pellets, and enhance the understanding of how producers take part in different business models. In the short term, the objective of the programme to build up a network of pellets and briquettes producing demonstration. Within the activities of the programme it is proposed that demonstration is built up of at least 7 different places in the country. This is in order to be able to gain experience on the basis of local and regional conditions. Demonstration refers both to demonstrate the entire chain with existing proven technology, and to improve technologies, reduce costs and make the production and user experience. On the other hand, the intention may be to test the new technology. Demonstration refers to smaller installations and with a production capacity of plants should vary from about 100 to 500 kg/h produced fuel. Operations are limited to the supply of raw material, cultivation and harvest

  15. Spatial and temporal benthic species assemblage responses with a deployed marine tidal energy device: a small scaled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Melanie; Orme, C David L

    2014-08-01

    The addition of man-made structures to the marine environment is known to increase the physical complexity of the seafloor, which can influence benthic species community patterns and habitat structure. However, knowledge of how deployed tidal energy device structures influence benthic communities is currently lacking. Here we examined species biodiversity, composition and habitat type surrounding a tidal energy device within the European Marine Energy Centre test site, Orkney. Commercial fishing and towed video camera techniques were used over three temporal periods, from 2009 to 2010. Our results showed increased species biodiversity and compositional differences within the device site, compared to a control site. Both sites largely comprised of crustacean species, omnivore or predatory feeding regimes and marine tide-swept EUNIS habitat types, which varied over the time. We conclude that the device could act as a localised artificial reef structure, but that further in-depth investigations are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The power to produce : the role of energy in poverty reduction through small scale enterprises in the Indian Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Annemarije

    2008-01-01

    The potential of modern energy to contribute to increasing incomes for the poor in developing countries is widely recognized, and the topic is receiving increasing attention both from the perspectives of poverty reduction and from the perspective of increasing the financial feasibility of supplying

  17. Energy, Exergy and Economic Evaluation Comparison of Small-Scale Single and Dual Pressure Organic Rankine Cycles Integrated with Low-Grade Heat Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Fontalvo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat sources such as solar thermal, geothermal, exhaust gases and industrial waste heat are suitable alternatives for power generation which can be exploited by means of small-scale Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC. This paper combines thermodynamic optimization and economic analysis to assess the performance of single and dual pressure ORC operating with different organic fluids and targeting small-scale applications. Maximum power output is lower than 45 KW while the temperature of the heat source varies in the range 100–200 °C. The studied working fluids, namely R1234yf, R1234ze(E and R1234ze(Z, are selected based on environmental, safety and thermal performance criteria. Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE and Specific Investment Cost (SIC for two operation conditions are presented: maximum power output and maximum thermal efficiency. Results showed that R1234ze(Z achieves the highest net power output (up to 44 kW when net power output is optimized. Regenerative ORC achieves the highest performance when thermal efficiency is optimized (up to 18%. Simple ORC is the most cost-effective among the studied cycle configurations, requiring a selling price of energy of 0.3 USD/kWh to obtain a payback period of 8 years. According to SIC results, the working fluid R1234ze(Z exhibits great potential for simple ORC when compared to conventional R245fa.

  18. Modeling Alpine hydropower reservoirs management to study the water-energy nexus under change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletti, A.; Giuliani, M.; Fumagalli, E.; Weber, E.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change and growing population are expected to severely affect freshwater availability by the end of 21th century. Many river basins, especially in the Mediterranean region, are likely to become more prone to periods of reduced water supply, risking considerable impacts on the society, the environment, and the economy, thus emphasizing the need to rethink the way water resources are distributed, managed, and used at the regional and river basin scale. This paradigm shift will be essential to cope with the undergoing global change, characterized by growing water demands and by increasingly uncertain hydrologic regimes. Most of the literature traditionally focused on predicting the impacts of climate change on water resources, while our understanding of the human footprint on the hydrological cycle is limited. For example, changes in the operation of the Alpine hydropower reservoirs induced by socio-economic drivers (e.g., development of renewable energy) were already observed over the last few years and produced relevant impacts on multiple water uses due to the altered distribution of water volumes in time and space. Modeling human decisions as well as the links between society and environmental systems becomes key to develop reliable projections on the co-evolution of the coupled human-water systems and deliver robust adaptation strategies This work contributes a preliminary model-based analysis of the behaviour of hydropower operators under changing energy market and climate conditions. The proposed approach is developed for the San Giacomo-Cancano reservoir system, Italy. The identification of the current operating policy is supported by input variable selection methods to select the most relevant hydrological and market based drivers to explain the observed release time series.. The identified model is then simulated under a set of future scenarios, accounting for both climate and socio-economic change (e.g. expansion of the electric vehicle sector, load

  19. New Stream-reach Development (NSD): A Comprehensive Assessment of Hydropower Energy Potential in the United States Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Shih-Chieh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory with evaluating the new stream-reach development (NSD) resource potential of more than 3 million U.S. streams in order to help individuals and organizations evaluate the feasibility of developing new hydropower sources in the United States.

  20. Rolling at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim L.; Niordson, Christian F.; Hutchinson, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The rolling process is widely used in the metal forming industry and has been so for many years. However, the process has attracted renewed interest as it recently has been adapted to very small scales where conventional plasticity theory cannot accurately predict the material response. It is well......-established that gradient effects play a role at the micron scale, and the objective of this study is to demonstrate how strain gradient hardening affects the rolling process. Specifically, the paper addresses how the applied roll torque, roll forces, and the contact conditions are modified by strain gradient plasticity...... the power input to the process. The contact traction is also affected, particularly for sheet thicknesses on the order of 10 μm and below. The influences of the length parameter and the friction coefficient are emphasized, and the results are presented for multiple sheet reductions and roll sizes....

  1. Modeling and Experimental Study of a Small Scale Olive Pomace Gasifier for Cogeneration: Energy and Profitability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Borello

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of a combined heat and power (CHP plant, fed by syngas produced by dry olive pomace gasification is here presented. An experimental study is carried out to inform the proposed model. The plant is designed to produce electric power (200 kWel and hot-water by using a cogenerative micro gas turbine (micro GT. Before being released, exhausts are used to dry the biomass from 50% to 17% wb. The ChemCad software is used to model the gasification process, and input data to inform the model are taken from experimental tests. The micro GT and cogeneration sections are modeled assuming data from existing commercial plants. The paper analyzes the whole conversion process from wet biomass to heat and power production, reporting energy balances and costs analysis. The investment profitability is assessed in light of the Italian regulations, which include feed-in-tariffs for biomass based electricity generation.

  2. Alfvén wave interaction with inhomogeneous plasmas: acceleration and energy cascade towards small-scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Génot

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the process of electron acceleration in auroral regions, we present a study of the temporal evolution of the interaction of Alfvén waves (AW with a plasma inhomogeneous in a direction transverse to the static magnetic field. This type of inhomogeneity is typical of the density cavities extended along the magnetic field in auroral acceleration regions. We use self-consistent Particle In Cell (PIC simulations which are able to reproduce the full nonlinear evolution of the electromagnetic waves, as well as the trajectories of ions and electrons in phase space. Physical processes are studied down to the ion Larmor radius and electron skin depth scales. We show that the AW propagation on sharp density gradients leads to the formation of a significant parallel (to the magnetic field electric field (E-field. It results from an electric charge separation generated on the density gradients by the polarization drift associated with the time varying AW E-field. Its amplitude may reach a few percents of the AW E-field. This parallel component accelerates electrons up to keV energies over a distance of a few hundred Debye lengths, and induces the formation of electron beams. These beams trigger electrostatic plasma instabilities which evolve toward the formation of nonlinear electrostatic structures (identified as electron holes and double layers. When the electrostatic turbulence is fully developed we show that it reduces the further wave/particle exchange. This sequence of mechanisms is analyzed with the program WHAMP, to identify the instabilities at work and wavelet analysis techniques are used to characterize the regime of energy conversions (from electromagnetic to electrostatic structures, from large to small length scales. This study elucidates a possible scenario to account for the particle acceleration and the wave dissipation in inhomogeneous plasmas. It would consist of successive phases of acceleration along the magnetic field

  3. Small scale sanitation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W; Ho, G

    2005-01-01

    Small scale systems can improve the sustainability of sanitation systems as they more easily close the water and nutrient loops. They also provide alternate solutions to centrally managed large scale infrastructures. Appropriate sanitation provision can improve the lives of people with inadequate sanitation through health benefits, reuse products as well as reduce ecological impacts. In the literature there seems to be no compilation of a wide range of available onsite sanitation systems around the world that encompasses black and greywater treatment plus stand-alone dry and urine separation toilet systems. Seventy technologies have been identified and classified according to the different waste source streams. Sub-classification based on major treatment methods included aerobic digestion, composting and vermicomposting, anaerobic digestion, sand/soil/peat filtration and constructed wetlands. Potential users or suppliers of sanitation systems can choose from wide range of technologies available and examine the different treatment principles used in the technologies. Sanitation systems need to be selected according to the local social, economic and environmental conditions and should aim to be sustainable.

  4. Helical turbulence with small-scale energy and helicity sources and external intermediate scale noises as the origin of large scale generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhetiani, Otto G.; Gledzer, Evgeny B.

    2017-11-01

    Interactions violating the symmetry of positive and negative total helicity components are considered. In the ideal case where one of the components is zero, the system have two sign-definite integrals of motion, which lead to an inverse energy cascade, as occurs in two-dimensional turbulence. The generation of large-scale modes is considered in the quasi-normal approximation and is manifested as the instability of second moments, a mechanism of which was discussed at the end of previous century. A crucial point in this mechanism is the presence of mean turbulence with large-scale helical disturbances and small-scale sources of energy and helicity. In the case of both helicity components being nonzero, the possibility of the large-scale generation is studied by applying numerical experiments with a shell model and by analyzing special cases of interactions between different shells of the model. In all the approaches used, it is shown that an inverse energy flux (from small to large scales) can exist at a certain level of external helical noises in large-scale modes, which depends on the degree of ;mixing; oppositely signed helicity components.

  5. Optimization and Analysis of a Hybrid Energy Storage System in a Small-Scale Standalone Microgrid for Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and application of hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs in small-scale standalone microgrids for remote area power supply (RAPS has received extensive attention. This application mode has its own characteristics which must be considered but have not been considered in the existing research. To reflect the common satisfaction of load demands and maximize the utilization of renewable energy in a standalone microgrid, a new index named effective rate of energy storage system (ESS is proposed. To reflect the true work state of supercapacitor ESS (SC-ESS, the second-level data of field measurements is used in calculation and analysis. To further enhance the operational performance of the HESS, a coordinated control strategy based on state cooperation is adopted. To get a more reasonable and more credible HESS optimization model, the comparison of existing models and proposed model with different considerations on cost and life is provided. In addition, a comparative analysis of technical and economic characteristics improvements is presented for different ESS application schemes in practical projects.

  6. Hydropower Vision: Full Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-07-01

    Hydropower has provided clean, affordable, reliable, and renewable electricity in the United States for more than a century. Building on hydropower’s historical significance, and to inform the continued technical evolution, energy market value, and environmental performance of the industry, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has led a first-of-its-kind comprehensive analysis focused on a set of potential pathways for the environmentally sustainable expansion of hydropower (hydropower generation and pumped storage) in the United States.

  7. Analyzing Sustainable Energy Opportunities for a Small Scale Off-Grid Facility: A Case Study at Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggirala, Bhanu

    This thesis explored the opportunities to reduce energy demand and renewable energy feasibility at an off-grid science "community" called the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Ontario. Being off-grid, ELA is completely dependent on diesel and propane fuel supply for all its electrical and heating needs, which makes ELA vulnerable to fluctuating fuel prices. As a result ELA emits a large amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) for its size. Energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies can reduce energy consumption and consequently energy cost, as well as GHG. Energy efficiency was very important to ELA due to the elevated fuel costs at this remote location. Minor upgrades to lighting, equipment and building envelope were able to reduce energy costs and reduce load. Efficient energy saving measures were recommended that save on operating and maintenance costs, namely, changing to LED lights, replacing old equipment like refrigerators and downsizing of ice makers. This resulted in a 4.8% load reduction and subsequently reduced the initial capital cost for biomass by 27,000, by 49,500 for wind power and by 136,500 for solar power. Many alternative energies show promise as potential energy sources to reduce the diesel and propane consumption at ELA including wind energy, solar heating and biomass. A biomass based CHP system using the existing diesel generators as back-up has the shortest pay back period of the technologies modeled. The biomass based CHP system has a pay back period of 4.1 years at 0.80 per liter of diesel, as diesel price approaches $2.00 per liter the pay back period reduces to 0.9 years, 50% the generation cost compared to present generation costs. Biomass has been successfully tried and tested in many off-grid communities particularly in a small-scale off-grid setting in North America and internationally. Also, the site specific solar and wind data show that ELA has potential to harvest renewable resources and produce heat and power at competitive

  8. Co-combustion of household waste in small-scale energy supply and waste disposal plants; Co-Verbrennung von Siedlungsabfaellen in Kleinanlagen zur dezentralen Energieversorgung und Abfallentsorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, Ramona

    2012-07-01

    The studies described in this book demonstrate that the co-combustion of household waste in small-scale combustion plants constitutes an alternative disposal concept which facilitates the operation of decentralised waste disposal and heat supply systems. The basic idea of the concept is the co-combustion of different waste fractions in common household logwood heating systems. The experiments performed have shown that this is technically feasible using currently available technology without further modification and that these plants are capable of combusting various waste fractions at low emission levels. Several co-combustion systems were compared with basic oil, pellet and logwood heating systems in both economic and ecological respects. For this purpose cost-effectiveness calculations and a life cycle assessment were performed and brought together in an eco-efficiency analysis. The results show that the most cost-effective and eco-efficient solution is achieved when the co-combustion system is operated for high energy yield and simultaneous reduction of incombustible fractions.

  9. Realisation of a small-scale hydro-power plant between two drinking water reservoirs in the municipality of Vira Gambarogno - Feasibility study; Realizzazione di una microcentrale idroelettrica sulla condotta di adduzione tra il serbatoio Monti di Fosano e il serbatoio Fosano. Programma piccole centrali idrauliche. Studio di fattibilita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutti, M.

    2009-02-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a project for the realisation of a small hydro-power plant on the drinking water supply in the municipality of Vira Gambarogno, southern Switzerland. The old conduit connecting two drinking water reservoirs has to be replaced. The elevation difference of 260 m is favorable to the installation of a turbine near the lower reservoir. The report presents details on the hydrological data and the dimensioning of the installation. Several variants are considered, which also include the possible reconstruction of the lower reservoir and/or an increased water flow rate from the springs. The electricity production expected is discussed, as is the economic viability of the project.

  10. Technology Roadmap: Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Hydropower could double its contribution by 2050, reaching 2,000 GW of global capacity and over 7,000 TWh. This achievement, driven primarily by the quest of clean electricity, could prevent annual emissions of up to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from fossil-fuel plants. The bulk of this growth would come from large plants in emerging economies and developing countries. Hydroelectricity’s many advantages include reliability, proven technology, large storage capacity, and very low operating and maintenance costs. Hydropower is highly flexible, a precious asset for electricity network operators, especially given rapid expansion of variable generation from other renewable energy technologies such as wind power and photovoltaics. Many hydropower plants also provide flood control, irrigation, navigation and freshwater supply. The technology roadmap for Hydropower details action needed from policy makers to allow hydroelectric production to double, and addresses necessary conditions, including resolving environmental issues and gaining public acceptance.

  11. Thermodynamic modelling of an onsite methanation reactor for upgrading producer gas from commercial small scale biomass gasifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Malamis, D; Moustakas, K

    2017-06-26

    Small scale biomass gasifiers have the advantage of having higher electrical efficiency in comparison to other conventional small scale energy systems. Nonetheless, a major drawback of small scale biomass gasifiers is the relatively poor quality of the producer gas. In addition, several EU Member States are seeking ways to store the excess energy that is produced from renewables like wind power and hydropower. A recent development is the storage of energy by electrolysis of water and the production of hydrogen in a process that is commonly known as "power-to-gas". The present manuscript proposes an onsite secondary reactor for upgrading producer gas by mixing it with hydrogen in order to initiate methanation reactions. A thermodynamic model has been developed for assessing the potential of the proposed methanation process. The model utilized input parameters from a representative small scale biomass gasifier and molar ratios of hydrogen from 1:0 to 1:4.1. The Villar-Cruise-Smith algorithm was used for minimizing the Gibbs free energy. The model returned the molar fractions of the permanent gases, the heating values and the Wobbe Index. For mixtures of hydrogen and producer gas on a 1:0.9 ratio the increase of the heating value is maximized with an increase of 78%. For ratios higher than 1:3, the Wobbe index increases significantly and surpasses the value of 30 MJ/Nm3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Small run-of-river hydropower: tradeoff among energy production, profitability and hydrologic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, S.; Lazzaro, G.; Schirmer, M.; Botter, G.

    2013-12-01

    Energy production by run-of-river hydropower plants strongly depends on the availability and temporal variability of streamflows. Due to the absence of a reservoir, the selection of the plant capacity is a key step to reach an efficient exploitation of the available water resources, and it should rest on a characterization of the variability of river flows as well as on economic issues. In this work we propose an analytical framework to identify the capacity which maximizes the produced energy or the economic profitability of small run-of-river power plants, explicitly taking into account the streamflow variability and the management strategies used to operate the plants. The framework allows for an assessment of the gap between the economic and energy optimizations of these plants and of the effectiveness of policies aimed at its reduction. In order to consider also the value linked to protection or restoration of riverine processes and habitats, which could be heavily impacted by small run-of-river plants built in cascade along the same river reach, the alteration of the hydrologic regime between the intake and the outflow of the plant is expressed as a function of the natural regime. Two alternative withdrawal strategies (the commonly used minimum flow discharge and the percent-of-flow approaches) are analyzed and the resulting hydrologic disturbances and economic profitabilities are compared by using a set of synthetic indices. The application to three case studies in the Alps proves the framework to be a valuable tool to assess the ability of water management strategies to trade between hydrologic disturbance and anthropogenic uses of fresh water and to identify incentive policies promoting an efficient exploitation of water resources.

  13. The Water - Energy Nexus Of Hydropower. Are The Trade-Offs Between Electricity Generation And Water Supply Negligible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hydropower ranks first among renewable sources of power production and provides globally about 16% of electricity. While it is praised for its low greenhouse gas emissions, it is accused of its large water consumption which surpasses that of all conventional and most renewable energy sources (except for bioenergy) by far. Previous studies mostly applied a gross evaporation approach where all the current evaporation from the plant's reservoir is allocated to hydropower. In contrast, we only considered net evaporation as the difference between current evaporation and actual evapotranspiration before the construction of the reservoir. In addition, we take into account local water stress, its monthly fluctuations and storage effects of the reservoir in order to assess the impacts on water availability for other users. We apply the method to a large dataset of almost 1500 globally distributed hydropower plants (HPPs), covering ~43% of global annual electricity generation, by combining reservoir information from the Global Reservoir and Dam (GRanD) database with information on electricity generation from the CARMA database. While we can confirm that the gross water consumption of hydropower is generally large (production-weighted average of 97 m3/GJ), other users are not necessarily deprived of water. In contrast, they also benefit in many cases from the reservoir because water is rather stored in the wet season and released in the dry season, thereby alleviating water stress. The production-weighted water scarcity footprint of the analyzed HPPs amounts to -41 m3 H2Oe/GJ. It has to be noted that the impacts among individual plants vary a lot. Larger HPPs generally consume less water per unit of electricity generated, but also the benefits related to alleviating water scarcity are lower. Overall, reservoirs promote both, energy and water security. Other environmental impacts such as flow alterations and social impacts should, however, also be considered, as they can be

  14. Energy cascade with small-scale thermalization, counterflow metastability, and anomalous velocity of vortex rings in Fourier-truncated Gross-Pitaevskii equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Giorgio; Brachet, Marc

    2011-06-01

    The statistical equilibria of the (conservative) dynamics of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) with a finite range of spatial Fourier modes are characterized using a new algorithm, based on a stochastically forced Ginzburg-Landau equation (SGLE), that directly generates grand-canonical distributions. The SGLE-generated distributions are validated against finite-temperature GPE-thermalized states and exact (low-temperature) results obtained by steepest descent on the (grand-canonical) partition function. A standard finite-temperature second-order λ transition is exhibited. A mechanism of GPE thermalization through a direct cascade of energy is found using initial conditions with mass and energy distributed at large scales. A long transient with partial thermalization at small scales is observed before the system reaches equilibrium. Vortices are shown to disappear as a prelude to final thermalization and their annihilation is related to the contraction of vortex rings due to mutual friction. Increasing the amount of dispersion at the truncation wave number is shown to slow thermalization and vortex annihilation. A bottleneck that produces spontaneous effective self-truncation with partial thermalization is characterized in the limit of large dispersive effects. Metastable counterflow states, with nonzero values of momentum, are generated using the SGLE algorithm. Spontaneous nucleation of the vortex ring is observed and the corresponding Arrhenius law is characterized. Dynamical counterflow effects on vortex evolution are investigated using two exact solutions of the GPE: traveling vortex rings and a motionless crystal-like lattice of vortex lines. Longitudinal effects are produced and measured on the crystal lattice. A dilatation of vortex rings is obtained for counterflows larger than their translational velocity. The vortex ring translational velocity has a dependence on temperature that is an order of magnitude above that of the crystal lattice, an effect

  15. A small scale honey dehydrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R S; Hans, V S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S S

    2015-10-01

    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. The honey streams help in increasing the exposed surface area of honey in contact with drying air, thus resulting in faster dehydration of honey. The maximum drying rate per square meter area of honey exposed to drying air was found to be 197.0 g/h-m(2) corresponding to the drying air and water temperature of 40 and 45 °C respectively whereas it was found to be minimum (74.8 g/h-m(2)) corresponding to the drying air at ambient temperature (8-17 °C) and water at 35 °C. The energy cost of honey moisture content reduction from 25.2 to 16.4 % was Rs. 6.20 to Rs. 17.36 (US $ 0.10 to US $ 0.28 (One US $ = 62.00 Indian Rupee on February, 2014) per kilogram of honey.

  16. Environmental Issues Related to Conventional Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Colotelo, Alison HA; Brown, Richard S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-27

    Hydropower is the largest renewable electrical energy source in the world and has a total global capacity of approximately 1,010 GW from 150 countries. Although hydropower has many environmental advantages, hydropower dams have potential adverse ecological impacts such as fish passage, water quality, and habitat alterations.

  17. Energy contribution of OFMSW (Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste) to energy-environmental sustainability in urban areas at small scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Matteo, Umberto; Nastasi, B.; Albo, Angelo; Astiaso Garcia, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Urban waste management is one of the most challenging issues in energy planning of medium and large cities. In addition to the traditional landfill method, many studies are investigating energy harvesting from waste, not as a panacea but as a foreseeable solution. Thermo-chemical conversion to

  18. Small-Scale Renewable Technologies: Development and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Alica Dzelilovic

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss the topic of small-scale Renewable Energy (RE) technologies, their progress and prospects in developing countries. Specifically, five technologies will be given a closer look: tidal array, geothermal, anaerobic digestion, small-scale hydro (micro and mini), and small combined heat and power (CHP). The paper will explain the technologies and the setting in which they can be applied, and look at case studies from developing countries where small-scale RE are making a dif...

  19. Managing Small-scale Fisheries

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, a glance through current fisheries literature reveals a perplexing array of perspectives and prescriptions to achieve this goal. There are few simple solutions for the problems that fisheries science and management address anywhere in the world. This is particularly so for small-scale fisheries, which this book is ...

  20. Small Hydropower in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy, Telluride, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  1. A methodology to quantify and optimize time complementarity between hydropower and solar PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Ioannis; Szabó, Sándor; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Huld, Thomas; Bódis, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower and solar energy are expected to play a major role in achieving renewable energy sources' (RES) penetration targets. However, the integration of RES in the energy mix needs to overcome the technical challenges that are related to grid's operation. Therefore, there is an increasing need to explore approaches where different RES will operate under a synergetic approach. Ideally, hydropower and solar PV systems can be jointly developed in such systems where their electricity output profiles complement each other as much as possible and minimize the need for reserve capacities and storage costs. A straightforward way to achieve that is by optimizing the complementarity among RES systems both over time and spatially. The present research developed a methodology that quantifies the degree of time complementarity between small-scale hydropower stations and solar PV systems and examines ways to increase it. The methodology analyses high-resolution spatial and temporal data for solar radiation obtained from the existing PVGIS model (available online at: http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/) and associates it with hydrological information of water inflows to a hydropower station. It builds on an exhaustive optimization algorithm that tests possible alterations of the PV system installation (azimuth, tilt) aiming to increase the complementarity, with minor compromises in the total solar energy output. The methodology has been tested in several case studies and the results indicated variations among regions and different hydraulic regimes. In some cases a small compromise in the solar energy output showed significant increases of the complementarity, while in other cases the effect is not that strong. Our contribution aims to present these findings in detail and initiate a discussion on the role and gains of increased complementarity between solar and hydropower energies. Reference: Kougias I, Szabó S, Monforti-Ferrario F, Huld T, Bódis K (2016). A methodology for

  2. Hydropower Baseline Cost Modeling, Version 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Patrick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Recent resource assessments conducted by the United States Department of Energy have identified significant opportunities for expanding hydropower generation through the addition of power to non-powered dams and on undeveloped stream-reaches. Additional interest exists in the powering of existing water resource infrastructure such as conduits and canals, upgrading and expanding existing hydropower facilities, and the construction new pumped storage hydropower. Understanding the potential future role of these hydropower resources in the nation’s energy system requires an assessment of the environmental and techno-economic issues associated with expanding hydropower generation. To facilitate these assessments, this report seeks to fill the current gaps in publically available hydropower cost estimating tools that can support the national-scale evaluation of hydropower resources.

  3. Hydropower and Sustainable Development: A Journey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Kristin; Saili, Lau; Taylor, Richard; Abdel-Malek, Refaat

    2010-09-15

    Hydropower produces 16% of our electricity; it is one of the world's major renewable energy resources. It is playing an important role in enabling communities around the world to meet their power and water needs. The pace of hydropower growth has been rapid but sometimes with little guidance to ensure development is based on sustainability principles. Some of the most promising initiatives to fill the void, such as the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol, have been driven by the hydropower sector itself. Efforts focus on carrying forward this momentum to obtain a tool for hydropower sustainability agreed across sectors and stakeholders.

  4. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  5. Hydropower and its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Steller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if the documented history of hydropower reaches back as far as 5000 years ago, it owes its rapid acceleration in growth to the industrial revolution at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The end of the twentieth century brought about new challenges associated, on the one hand, with a growing demand for ancillary grid services, and on the other with new requirements for mitigating the environmental impact. Hydropower technology expansion had come about in a manner aiming to at least partially exploit the mechanical energy of sea and ocean waters. This study points out to the most important trends in and barriers to hydropower development, with particular focus on the situation in Poland. This author sees the main threats to Polish hydropower development in how it is perceived solely through the prism of the generation of a particular volume of green energy, and a total underestimation of the quality of electricity supply and the numerous non-energy benefits resulting from hydroelectric power plant operation.

  6. Generation of Electric Energy and Desalinating Water from Solar Energy and the Oceans Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfikky, Niazi

    Brief.All warnings and fears about the environment in our Earth planet due to the serious effects of the industrial revolution were certainly predicted early. But the eager contest and the powerful desire for more profits beside the human interest for welfare and development closed all minds about the expected severe destuctive impacts on our earth planet. Also, we have to remember that the majority of the African, Asian and Latin American countries are still in the first stage of their development and if they will be left to generate all their demand of energy by the conventional machine e.g (Fossil Fuel, Biofuel and Nuclear Fuel), then our Earth planet will confront an endless and ceasless severe destructive impacts due to the encroach of the released hot Carbon Doxide and hot vapours of Acids which will never forgive any fruitful aspect in our Earth Planet from destruction. 1. Importance of the New Project. Building the Extra cheap, clean Power plants with safe and smooth Operation in addition to the long life time in service for generating enough and plentiful electric energy the sustainable renwable resources will invigorate the foresaking of all Nuclear, Fossil and Biofuel power plants to avoide the nuclear hazards and stop releasing the hot carbon doxide, hot acids for the recovery of our ill environment. Also, the main sustainable, renewable, and cheap resources for generating the bulky capacity of the electric energy in our project are the Sun and the Oceans in addition to all Seas Surrounding all Continents in our Earth planet. Therefore, our recourses are so much enormous plentiful, clean, and renewable. 2. .Generation of Electricity from Solar Energy by Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs) or Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). Characteristics of Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs). It is working only by Sun's Light (Light photons) and its efficiency will decrease as the Solar Thermal Radiation will increase, i.e. as the temerature of the Solar Voltiac will increase, its output

  7. Small-scale classification schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements classificat....... This difference between the written requirements specification and the oral discussions at the meetings may help explain software engineers’ general preference for people, rather than documents, as their information sources.......Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements....... While coordination mechanisms focus on how classification schemes enable cooperation among people pursuing a common goal, boundary objects embrace the implicit consequences of classification schemes in situations involving conflicting goals. Moreover, the requirements specification focused on functional...

  8. Coordinated optimization of weekly reserve, day-ahead and balancing energy trade in hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodstad, Marte; Schou Grytli, Eirik; Korpås, Magnus

    2017-04-01

    We present a model for optimal trade in a weekly power reserve market under day-ahead and balancing market price uncertainty. The model takes the perspective of a price-taking hydropower producer and a case study for the Norwegian market design and a Norwegian multi-reservoir water course for a winter week is presented. We demonstrate how a bid curve for the reserve market can be established through a sensitivity analysis on reserve prices, and observe that the optimal trade in the succeeding day-ahead and balancing market is highly sensitive to the reserve obligation.

  9. Using hydropower to complement wind energy: a hybrid system to provide firm power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O.A.; Borja, M.A.; Huacuz, J.M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Morelos (Mexico). Energias No Convencionales

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of how wind power can be complemented by hydropower. A conceptual framework is provided for a hybrid power station that produces constant power output without the intermittent fluctuations inherent when using wind power. Two hypothetical facilities are considered as case studies. One of them is a hydropower plant located on the ''Presidente Benito Juarez'' dam in Jalapa del Marques, Oaxaca, Mexico. The other hypothetical facility is a wind farm located near ''La Venta's', an area in Juchitan, Oaxaca, Mexico. The wind-hydro-power system is a combined wind and hydro power plant in a region that is rich in both resources. The model shows that the hybrid plant could provide close to 20 MW of firm power to the electrical distribution system. On a techno-economic basis, we obtain the levelized production cost of the hybrid system. Taking into account two different discount rates of 7% and 10%, figures for levelized production cost are developed. (author)

  10. Aggregation Methods for Modelling Hydropower and Its Implications for a Highly Decarbonised Energy System in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Härtel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the pursuit of long-term decarbonisation targets, future power systems face the task of integrating the renewable power and providing flexible backup production capacity. Due to its general ability to be dispatched, hydropower offers unique features and a backup production option not to be neglected, especially when taking the flexibility potential of multireservoir systems into account. Adequate hydropower representations are a necessity when analysing future power markets and aggregation methods are crucial for overcoming computational challenges. However, a major issue is that the aggregation must not be a too flexible representation. In a first step, a novel equivalent hydro system model implementation including a possibility to integrate pumping capacity and appropriate handling of multiple water paths (hydraulic coupling by making use of an ex-ante optimisation is proposed. In a second step, a clustered equivalent hydro system model implementation employing k-means clustering is presented. A comparison of both aggregation approaches against the detailed reference system shows that both aggregated model variants yield significant reductions in computation time while keeping an adequate level of accuracy for a highly decarbonised power system scenario in Europe. The aggregation methods can easily be applied in different model types and may also be helpful in the stochastic case.

  11. Hydroeconomic Analysis of the Balance between Renewable Wind Energy, Hydropower, and Ecosystems Services in the Roanoke River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A.; Blumsack, S.; Reed, P.

    2012-04-01

    Hydropower can provide inexpensive, flexible fill-in power to compensate for intermittent renewable generation. Policies for hydropower dams maintain multiple services beyond electric generation, including environmental protection, flood control and recreation. We model the decision of a hydroelectric generator to shift some of its power production capacity away from the day-ahead energy market into a "wind-following" service that smoothes the intermittent production of wind turbines. Offering such a service imposes both private and social opportunity costs. Since fluctuations in wind energy output are not perfectly correlated with day-ahead energy prices, a wind-following service will necessarily affect generator revenues. Seasonal wind patterns produce conflicts with the goal of managing rivers for "ecosystem services" - the maintenance or enhancement of downstream ecosystems. We illustrate our decision model using the Kerr Dam in PJM's territory in North Carolina. We simulate the operation of Kerr Dam over a three-year period that features hydrologic variability from normal water years to extreme drought conditions. We use an optimization framework to estimate reservation prices for Kerr Dam offering wind-following services in the PJM market. Wind-following may be profitable for Kerr Dam at low capacity levels during some time periods if ecosystems services are neglected and if side payments, or reserves-type payments, are provided. Wind-following with ecosystem services yields revenue losses that typically cannot be recovered with reserves market payments. Water release patterns are inconsistent with ecosystem-services goals when Kerr Dam dedicates significant capacity to wind-following, particularly in drought years.

  12. A small scale honey dehydrator

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, R.S.; Hans, V. S.; Singh, Sukhmeet; Pal Singh, Parm; Dhaliwal, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    A small scale honey dehydrator has been designed, developed, and tested to reduce moisture content of honey below 17 %. Experiments have been conducted for honey dehydration by using drying air at ambient temperature, 30 and 40 °C and water at 35, 40 and 45 °C. In this dehydrator, hot water has been circulated in a water jacket around the honey container to heat honey. The heated honey has been pumped through a sieve to form honey streams through which drying air passes for moisture removal. ...

  13. A geospatial assessment of mini/small hydropower potential in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkovelos, Alexandros; Mentis, Dimitrios; Hussain Siyal, Shahid; Arderne, Christopher; Beck, Hylke; de Roo, Ad; Howells, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has been the epicenter of ongoing global dialogues around energy poverty and justifiably so. More than half of the world's unserved population lives there. At the same time, a big part of the continent is privileged with plentiful renewable energy resources. Hydropower is one of them and to a large extent it remains untapped. This study focuses on the technical assessment of small-scale hydropower (0.01-10 MW) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The underlying methodology was based on open source geospatial datasets, whose combination allowed a consistent evaluation of 712,615 km of river network spanning over 44 countries. Environmental, topological and social constraints were included in the form of geospatial restrictions to help preserve the natural wealth and promote sustainable development. The results revealed that small-scale hydropower could cover 8.5-12.5% of the estimated electricity demand in 2030, thus making it a viable option to support electrification efforts in the region.

  14. Present situation and future prospect of hydropower in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hailun; Yan, Zheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-08-15

    Hydropower is a clean and renewable energy source. Considering the economic, technical and environmental benefits of hydropower, most countries give priority to its development. China has the richest hydro resources on the planet with a total theoretical hydropower potential of 694 GW. Developing hydropower is of great importance to alleviate the energy crisis and environmental pollution resulting from the rapid economic growth of China in the 21st century. This paper provides a survey of hydropower development in China. Over the last five decades, China's hydropower has developed quickly. The installed capacity of hydropower is 145.26 GW presently. Some large hydropower plants have been in operation and many are still under construction, including the Three Gorges Project (TGP) and pumped-storage power stations. Small hydropower development accelerates rural electrification of this country. (author)

  15. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  16. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  17. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100). Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations.

  18. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Scherer

    Full Text Available Global warming is accelerating and the world urgently needs a shift to clean and renewable energy. Hydropower is currently the largest renewable source of electricity, but its contribution to climate change mitigation is not yet fully understood. Hydroelectric reservoirs are a source of biogenic greenhouse gases and in individual cases can reach the same emission rates as thermal power plants. Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2 and 2.95 kg CH4 emitted per MWh of electricity produced. This results in a combined average carbon footprint of 273 kg CO2e/MWh when using the global warming potential over a time horizon of 100 years (GWP100. Nonetheless, this is still below that of fossil energy sources without the use of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. We identified the dams most promising for capturing methane for use as alternative energy source. The spread among the ~1500 hydropower plants analysed in this study is large and highlights the importance of case-by-case examinations.

  19. 76 FR 81929 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will host a Small/Low- Impact... guidance on small/low- impact hydropower projects being developed in the Northeast region of the United...

  20. World Small Hydropower Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Heng; Esser, Lara (ICSGP (China)); Masera, Diego (UNIDO, Vienna (Austria))

    2013-07-01

    Currently, small hydropower plants with a capacity of 10 MW, exist in 148 countries or territories worldwide. Four other countries have been identified with resource potential. This report aims to identify the development status and resource potential of small hydro in various countries, territories and regions throughout the world. Working with experts at the ground level to compile and share existing information, experiences and challenges, one comprehensive report was created. Decision-makers, stakeholders and potential investors clearly need this comprehensive information to more effectively promote small hydropower as a renewable and rural energy source for sustainable development and to overcome the existing development barriers. The findings of this report show that small hydropower potential globally is approximated at almost 173 GW. The figure is arrived by totaling data from a wide range of sources with potential compromise of data integrity to varying degrees. For example, research data on economically feasible potential were more readily available in developed countries than those in the least developed or developing countries. More than half of the world's known hydropower potential is located in Asia, around one third can be found in Europe and the Americas. It is possible in the future that more small hydropower potential might be identified both on the African and American continents. The installed small hydropower capacity (up to 10 MW) is estimated to be 75 GW in 2011/2012. The report provides detailed data for each country/region, including recommendations on the national, regional and international level.

  1. Simultaneous imaging of aurora on small scale in OI (777.4 nm and N21P to estimate energy and flux of precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ivchenko

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous images of the aurora in three emissions, N21P (673.0 nm, OII (732.0 nm and OI (777.4 nm, have been analysed; the ratio of atomic oxygen to molecular nitrogen has been used to provide estimates of the changes in energy and flux of precipitation within scale sizes of 100 m, and with temporal resolution of 32 frames per second. The choice of filters for the imagers is discussed, with particular emphasis on the choice of the atomic oxygen line at 777.4 nm as one of the three emissions measured. The optical measurements have been combined with radar measurements and compared with the results of an auroral model, hence showing that the ratio of emission rates OI/N2 can be used to estimate the energy within the smallest auroral structures. In the event chosen, measurements were made from mainland Norway, near Tromso, (69.6 N, 19.2 E. The peak energies of precipitation were between 1–15 keV. In a narrow curling arc, it was found that the arc filaments resulted from energies in excess of 10 keV and fluxes of approximately 7 mW/m2. These filaments of the order of 100 m in width were embedded in a region of lower energies (about 5–10 keV and fluxes of about 3 mW/m2. The modelling results show that the method promises to be most powerful for detecting low energy precipitation, more prevalent at the higher latitudes of Svalbard where the multispectral imager, known as ASK, is now installed.

  2. Simultaneous imaging of aurora on small scale in OI (777.4 nm and N21P to estimate energy and flux of precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Lanchester

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous images of the aurora in three emissions, N21P (673.0 nm, OII (732.0 nm and OI (777.4 nm, have been analysed; the ratio of atomic oxygen to molecular nitrogen has been used to provide estimates of the changes in energy and flux of precipitation within scale sizes of 100 m, and with temporal resolution of 32 frames per second. The choice of filters for the imagers is discussed, with particular emphasis on the choice of the atomic oxygen line at 777.4 nm as one of the three emissions measured. The optical measurements have been combined with radar measurements and compared with the results of an auroral model, hence showing that the ratio of emission rates OI/N2 can be used to estimate the energy within the smallest auroral structures. In the event chosen, measurements were made from mainland Norway, near Troms\\o, (69.6 N, 19.2 E. The peak energies of precipitation were between 1–15 keV. In a narrow curling arc, it was found that the arc filaments resulted from energies in excess of 10 keV and fluxes of approximately 7 mW/m2. These filaments of the order of 100 m in width were embedded in a region of lower energies (about 5–10 keV and fluxes of about 3 mW/m2. The modelling results show that the method promises to be most powerful for detecting low energy precipitation, more prevalent at the higher latitudes of Svalbard where the multispectral imager, known as ASK, is now installed.

  3. Off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower plant to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Inês; Gueifão, Carlos; Ferreira de Jesus, J.

    2017-04-01

    In order to reduce the high dependence on imported fuels and to meet the ongoing growth of electricity demand, Cape Verde government set the goal to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island until 2020. To help maximize renewable energy penetration, an off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plant will be installed in Santiago, in one of the following locations: Chã Gonçalves, Mato Sancho and Ribeira dos Picos. This paper summarizes the studies carried out to find the optimal location and connection point of the PSH plant in Santiago’s electricity network. This goal was achieved by assessing the impact of the PSH plant, in each location, on power system stability. The simulation tool PSS/E of Siemens was used to study the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the future (2020) Santiago MV grid. Different scenarios of demand and renewable resources were created. Each hydro unit of the PSH plant was modeled as an adjustable speed reversible turbine employing a DFIM. The results show that Santiago’s grid with the PSH plant in Chã Gonçalves is the one that has the best performance.

  4. Hydropower in the Amazon: renewability and non-renewability of energy policy. Since is desired the search for renewable energy conversion why not renew the energy policy as well?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Del Moral Hernandez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay intends to discuss, with the background of the recent hydroelectric plants under way in the Brazilian Amazon, aspects relating to processes of environmental licensing, conceptual problems that concern the characterization of hydropower conversion as clean and renewable energy. This work starts from the analysis of government plans and discussions on hydropower projects, identifying the need to implement institutional changes and strengthen environmental laws and the protection of the rights of traditional and indigenous populations. We propose a new way of formulating energy problems and energy supply planning, which takes into consideration sustainable aspects and the public discussion, beyond understanding and incorporating the effects on the major biogeochemical cycles that support energy conversions.

  5. The Microphysics Explorer (MPEX) Mission: A Small Explorer Mission to Investigate the Role of Small Scale Non-Linear Time Domain Structures (TDS) and Waves in the Energization of Electrons and Energy Flow in Space Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence has accumulated that most energy conversion structures in space plasmas are characterized by intense small-scale size electric fields with strong parallel components, which are prime suspects in the rapid and efficient bulk acceleration of electrons. The proposed MPEX mission will provide, for the first time, 1 ms measurements of electrons capable of resolving the acceleration process due to these small-scale structures. These structures include Time Domain Structures (TDS) which are often organized into wave trains of hundreds of discrete structures propagating along magnetic fields lines. Recent measurements in the near Earth tail on auroral field lines indicate these wave trains are associated with electron acceleration in layers of strong energy flow in the form of particle energy flux and Poynting flux. Also coincident are kinetic Alfven waves which may be capable of driving the time domain structures or directly accelerating electrons. Other waves that may be important include lower hybrid wave packets, electron cyclotron waves, and large amplitude whistler waves. High time resolution field measurements show that such structures occur within dayside and tail reconnection regions, at the bow shock, at interplanetary shocks, and at other structures in the solar wind. The MPEX mission will be a multiphase mission with apogee boosts, which will explore all these regions. An array of electron ESAs will provide a 1 millisecond measurement of electron flux variations with nearly complete pitch angle coverage over a programmable array of selected energy channels. The electric field detector will provide measurement a fully 3-D measurement of the electric field with the benefit of an extremely large ratio of boom length to spacecraft radius and an improved sensor design. 2-D ion distribution functions will be provided by ion mass spectrometer and energetic electrons will be measured by a solid-state telescope.

  6. The water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world’s electricity supply. Although dams often have big environmental and social impacts, proponents of hydropower regard it as a comparatively clean, low-cost and renewable form of energy. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an

  7. Wish and reality during the project of small-scale hydropower plants in Lower Bavaria; Wunsch und Wirklichkeit bei Vorhaben der Kleinwasserkraftwerke in Niederbayern. Ein Beispiel aus der Planungspraxis fuer die Diskrepanz zwischen Wunsch und Wirklichkeit: Das Vorhaben Ergaenzungskraftwerk Haberlmuehle II an der Wolfsteiner Ohe in Ringelai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.

    2002-07-01

    The author is discussing on a hydropower combination project which will be realized step by step. He assumes that the conception of the intake structure and the filtration device can also operate in case of floods. Not known is a reliable operation of the filtration plant over a longer period. (GL) [German] Im vorstehenden Artikel befasst sich Dipl.-Ing. Josef Schleich mit einem Wasserkraft-Kombinationsprojekt, das stufenweise verwirklicht werden soll. Die endgueltige Genehmigung der Anlage ist noch nicht erteilt, so dass moeglicherweise noch Modifikationen dazu erforderlich werden. Der Verfasser geht u.a. davon aus, dass durch die Konzeption des Einlaufbauwerkes und der Rechenanlage auch bei Hochwaser eine volle Nutzung der Wasserkraft moeglich ist. Inwieweit sich diese Konzeption der Rechenanlage ueber einen laengeren Zeitraum bereits bewaehrt hat, ist nicht bekannt. (orig.)

  8. Harnessing Hydropower: The Earth's Natural Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-04-01

    This document is a layman's overview of hydroelectric power. It includes information on: History of Hydropower; Nature’s Water Cycle; Hydropower Plants; Turbines and Generators; Transmission Systems; power dispatching centers; and Substations. It goes on to discuss The Power Grid, Hydropower in the 21st Century; Energy and the Environment; and how hydropower is useful for Meeting Peak Demands. It briefly addresses how Western Area Power Administration is Responding to Environmental Concerns.

  9. Universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnyak, A

    2012-01-20

    We consider astrophysically relevant nonlinear MHD dynamo at large Reynolds numbers (Re). We argue that it is universal in a sense that magnetic energy grows at a rate which is a constant fraction C(E) of the total turbulent dissipation rate. On the basis of locality bounds we claim that this "efficiency of the small-scale dynamo", C(E), is a true constant for large Re and is determined only by strongly nonlinear dynamics at the equipartition scale. We measured C(E) in numerical simulations and observed a value around 0.05 in the highest resolution simulations. We address the issue of C(E) being small, unlike the Kolmogorov constant which is of order unity. © 2012 American Physical Society

  10. Energetics in robotic flight at small scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karydis, Konstantinos; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-02-06

    Recent advances in design, sensing and control have led to aerial robots that offer great promise in a range of real-world applications. However, one critical open question centres on how to improve the energetic efficiency of aerial robots so that they can be useful in practical situations. This review paper provides a survey on small-scale aerial robots (i.e. less than 1 m 2 area foot print, and less than 3 kg weight) from the point of view of energetics. The paper discusses methods to improve the efficiency of aerial vehicles, and reports on recent findings by the authors and other groups on modelling the impact of aerodynamics for the purpose of building energy-aware motion planners and controllers.

  11. Development of small-scale peat production; Pienturvetuotannon kehittaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Kallio, E. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the project is to develop production conditions, methods and technology of small-scale peat production to such a level that the productivity is improved and competitivity maintained. The aim in 1996 was to survey the present status of small-scale peat production, and research and development needs and to prepare a development plan for small-scale peat production for a continued project in 1997 and for the longer term. A questionnaire was sent to producers by mail, and its results were completed by phone interviews. Response was obtained from 164 producers, i.e. from about 75 - 85 % of small-scale peat producers. The quantity of energy peat produced by these amounted to 3.3 TWh and that of other peat to 265 000 m{sup 3}. The total production of energy peat (large- scale producers Vapo Oy and Turveruukki Oy included) amounted to 25.0 TWh in 1996 in Finland, of which 91 % (22.8 TWh) was milled peat and 9 % (2.2 TWh) of sod peat. The total production of peat other than energy peat amounted to 1.4 million m{sup 3}. The proportion of small-scale peat production was 13 % of energy peat, 11 % of milled peat and 38 % of sod peat. The proportion of small-scale producers was 18 % of other peat production. The results deviate clearly from those obtained in a study of small-scale production in the 1980s. The amount of small-scale production is clearly larger than generally assessed. Small-scale production focuses more on milled peat than on sod peat. The work will be continued in 1997. Based on development needs appeared in the questionnaire, the aim is to reduce environmental impacts and runoff effluents from small- scale production, to increase the efficiency of peat deliveries and to reduce peat production costs by improving the service value of machines by increasing co-operative use. (orig.)

  12. Small Scale Air Driven Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    generating power from stored compressed air. A. WHAT IS CAES AND WHY USE IT? Compressed air energy storage, or CAES, is the concept of using renewable ...Brayton cycle to produce the power [5,6]. The difference between the two is that CAES uses renewable energy sources to pump air into large caverns...generate and store electrical energy . This goal was achieved by pairing two key enabling technologies to produce mechanical work which was then used to

  13. 75 FR 65012 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    .../Low- Impact Hydropower Webinar on November 10, 2010, from 12 noon to 1 p.m. Eastern Time. The webinar... introduce the new Small/Low- Impact Hydropower Program website and walk participants through all phases of... Energy Regulatory Commission Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low...

  14. Modelling of a Small Scale Waste Water Treatment Plant (SSWWTP)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... source of energy. Future effort will be focus on improving the efficiency of energy used in the waste water [3]. Aim. The aim of this project is to bring into existence a Small Scale Waste Water. Treatment Plant that can convert a waste water with high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and high Biological ...

  15. Restructuring of Turkey's electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of the Eastern Black Sea Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzlu, Ergun; Koemuercue, Murat ihsan [Karadeniz Technical University, Civil Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Akpinar, Adem [Guemueshane University, Civil Engineering Department, 29000 Guemueshane (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the historical development of Turkey's electricity power sector, the efforts for introducing competition in the power industry in Turkey, and the concerns regarding restructuring in Turkey. The contribution of the hydropower energy potential in Turkey to the reconstruction of the electricity structure in Turkey is also investigated. Then, among the 25 hydrological basins in Turkey, the Eastern Black Sea Basin located in the northeast of Turkey, which has great advantages from the view point of small hydropower potential or hydropower potential without storage, is chosen as the case study to carry out some investigations concerning its potential and to analyze the contribution of the private sector (the corporate body) in regard to the development of hydro potential in this basin within the scope of the 4628 Electricity Market Law. With this law, concerning the restructuring of the electricity market, private sector investments in this segment have increased. In total, 1524 hydroelectric power projects with 22 360 MW installed capacity has been implemented until January 22nd, 2009 and this figure is continuously rising. (author)

  16. Regulation effects of the German renewable energy act on the ecological upgrade of hydro-power plants. Results of a survey; Lenkungswirkung der Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetze (EEG 2004 und 2009) fuer die oekologische Modernisierung von Wasserkraftanlagen. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderer, Pia [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Naumann, Stephan [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Germany lacks a unified register containing data on the equipment of hydropower stations with environmental facilities or of those subject to requirements for reducing the environmental impact on the status of waters. Thanks to the cooperation of the hydro-power plant operators, our survey allowed us for the first time to gain insight into the regulation effects of the German Renewable Energy Act (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz; EEG) as well as into the ecological upgrade potential of German hydro-power plants. EEG 2004 and 2009 funded measures implemented at hydro-power stations are focused on ensuring a minimum flow as well as on longitudinal connectivity. This priority is consistent with the water management requirement of achieving the goals of the Water Framework Directive in this area. (orig.)

  17. U.S. Hydropower Resource Assessment - California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Conner; B. N. Rinehart; J. E. Francfort

    1998-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the underdeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. For this purpose, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory developed a computer model called Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES). HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of California.

  18. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  19. US hydropower resource assessment for New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Hampshire.

  20. US hydropower resource assessment for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of New Jersey.

  1. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  2. US hydropower resource assessment for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Kansas.

  3. Office of Renewable Energy Technology Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division, FY 1983 Annual Operating Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-01-01

    There are between 700 and 3400 guads of recoverable geothermal energy in the US. Hydrothermal, geopressure and hot dry rock are the three principal types of geothermal resources (in order of technological readiness) which can supply large amounts of energy for electric power production and direct heat applications. Hydrothermal resources include water and steam trapped in fractured or porous rocks. A hydrothermal system is classified as either hot-water or vapor-dominated (steam), according to the principal physical state of the fluid. Geopressured resources consist of water at moderately high temperatures at pressures higher than normal hydrostatic pressure. This water contains dissolved methane. Geopressured sources in sedimentary formations along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast are believed to be quite large. Geopressured formations also exist in sedimentary basins elsewhere in the US. Hot dry rock resources consist of relatively unfractured and unusually hot rocks at accessible depths that contain little or no water. To extract usable power from hot dry rock, the rock must be fractured and a confined fluid circulation system created. A heat transfer fluid is introduced, circulated, and withdrawn. The overall goal of the Geothermal Program is to build a technology base that will be used by the private sector to exploit geothermal resources which can supply large amounts of energy for electric power production and direct-heat applications.

  4. Method and system for small scale pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Insepov, Zeke [Darien, IL; Hassanein, Ahmed [Bolingbrook, IL

    2010-01-26

    The present invention relates generally to the field of small scale pumping and, more specifically, to a method and system for very small scale pumping media through microtubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for small scale pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more microtubes, the one or more tubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more tubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the tubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the tube.

  5. Harvesting wind energy from the sea breeze in peri-urban coastal areas by means of small scale wind turbines - Case study: Viladecans, Llobregat Delta, northeast of Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jose I.; Cabrera, Barbara; Mazon, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Wind speed data recorded during 18 years (1993-2010) in the Llobregat Delta (15 km south of Barcelona city; northeast of the Iberian Peninsula) were used to assess the wind energy generated by off-grid small scale wind turbines (the IT-PE-100 and the HP-600W) for the whole year and for the sea breeze period. The computations were made using QBlade, FAST and AeroDyn simulation tools and manufacturer power curves. Using manufacturer data, the HP-600W with hub-height 8 m would deliver 157 kWh during the whole year (78 kWh during the sea breeze period), with an average power of 18 W (37 W). In this work, the results of the simulations are compared with power and energy production data measured in an HP-600W turbine installed in situ from December 2014 to April 2016. Also, the measured power is compared to the power obtained by applying the measured wind in the period 2014-2016 to the manufacturer power curve and the power curve obtained with the simulations. The results of the computations agree with the experimental data, thus validating the proposed approach for wind resource estimation. The feasibility of using a vertical axis wind turbine for obtaining wind energy from the local, thermal wind regimes is also studied. This research confirms that the sea-breeze is an interesting wind energy resource for micro-generation in peri-urban coastal areas where large-scale wind farms cannot be implemented.

  6. Chemical Transfer (Single Small-Scale) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry laboratoryThe Chemical Transfer Facility (CTF)  is the only U.S. single small-scale  facility, a single repository for the Army’s...

  7. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓ^{ϑ}, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.

  8. Climate Risk in Southern and Eastern Africa's Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Conway, D.; Landman, W.; Osborn, T.

    2016-12-01

    Hydropower comprises a major proportion of electricity production in southern and eastern Africa and is undergoing rapid expansion. Hydropower production in both regions is exposed to high levels of climate variability and regional linkages are strong, yet an understanding of aggregate climate risk is lacking. Here we map regions of coherent precipitation variability with current and planned (2030) hydropower sites, river basin configuration and regional energy grids to assess aggregate exposure to hydropower supply disruption. If fully implemented hydropower will be increasingly concentrated in the Nile basin in eastern Africa and the Zambezi basin in southern Africa. Regions of similar rainfall variability show close alignment with the main sites of hydropower. Future concentration of hydropower will greatly increase the concurrent risk of climate related electricity supply disruption. Nascent electricity sharing mechanisms could mitigate risk but face considerable political and infrastructural challenges.

  9. 2014 Hydropower Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocío Uría-Martínez, Patrick W. O’Connor, Megan M. Johnson

    2015-04-30

    The U.S. hydropower fleet has been providing clean, reliable power for more than a hundred years. However, no systematic documentation exists of the U.S. fleet and the trends influencing it in recent years. This first-ever Hydropower Market Report seeks to fill this gap and provide industry and policy makers with a quantitative baseline on the distribution, capabilities, and status of hydropower in the United States.

  10. 76 FR 30937 - Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Small Hydropower Development in the United States; Notice of Small/Low-Impact Hydropower Webinar The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) will host a Small/ Low-Impact...

  11. Appendix - A small scale research review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    A small scale research review This appendix provides an analysis of a small scale search for empirical studies regarding the efficacy of adult teacher training. The appendix is a part of a paper delivered at the ASEM conference, June 2009, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany. The paper tries to shed light...... training? This will be illustrated by describing a research design in progress at the National Centre of Competence Development, DK, regarding a program where teachers are taught Cooperative Learning as a pedagogical and didactical method. This appendix concerns the first question. In search for empiric results concerning: What do...

  12. Small Scale Regenerative Desulfurization of Biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, M.J.G.; Stille, L.C.; Miedema, M.C.; Groenestijn, J.W. van; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2016-01-01

    The application of small scale biogas digesters to supply biogas to households in developing countries is well established. The biogas is used for different applications, amongst other cooking. Generally, no further treatment of the biogas is applied. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is present in varying

  13. SMALL SCALE BIOMASS FUELED GAS TURBINE ENGINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new generation of small scale (less than 20 MWe) biomass fueled, power plants are being developed based on a gas turbine (Brayton cycle) prime mover. These power plants are expected to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of generating power from fuels such as wood. The n...

  14. Microcredit Loan Repayment Default among Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-01

    May 1, 2017 ... Microcredit Loan Repayment Default among Small Scale Enterprises: A Double Hurdle Approach. Introduction. Credit risk management is crucial to the survival of banks, microfinance institutions and related financial institutions, and the clients they serve. Credit risk can be analysed from three main angles: ...

  15. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

  16. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 2. Pacific Southwest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental, and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Pacific Southwest region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 33,000 MW of capacity with an estimated average annual energy greater than 85,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 6% of the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy generation estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 9900 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,200 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (6000 MW) and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (17,200 MW). Small-scale facilities account for less than 4% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 600 MW could be added to these and other small water resource projects. In addition, 600 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of California and Utah having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Pacific Southwest region. States comprising the Southwest are Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Utah.

  17. Biofuels in Africa: growing small-scale opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulle, Emmanuel [Tanzania Natural Resources Forum (Tanzania, United Republic of); Fauveaud, Swan [Renewable Energy Group, Environment and Solidarity (France); Vermeulen, Sonja

    2009-11-15

    Global demand for climate-friendly transport fuels is driving vast commercial biofuels projects in developing countries. At the opposite end of the spectrum is small-scale bioenergy production. This offers a way for the poor to meet their energy needs and diversify their livelihoods without compromising food security or environmental integrity. Governments hope that it will be possible to combine the advantages of both large- and small-scale production of biofuels to generate energy security and GDP at the national level, while opening up local opportunities. In Africa, most governments are keen to attract foreign direct investment, and see big business as a strategic means of scaling up rural development. But there is a middle way. By encouraging business models that bridge large and small enterprise, African governments could show that commercial competition can go hand in hand with a range of real local benefits.

  18. Hydropower Modeling Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andrade, Juan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Hydropower facilities are important assets for the electric power sector and represent a key source of flexibility for electric grids with large amounts of variable generation. As variable renewable generation sources expand, understanding the capabilities and limitations of the flexibility from hydropower resources is important for grid planning. Appropriately modeling these resources, however, is difficult because of the wide variety of constraints these plants face that other generators do not. These constraints can be broadly categorized as environmental, operational, and regulatory. This report highlights several key issues involving incorporating these constraints when modeling hydropower operations in terms of production cost and capacity expansion. Many of these challenges involve a lack of data to adequately represent the constraints or issues of model complexity and run time. We present several potential methods for improving the accuracy of hydropower representation in these models to allow for a better understanding of hydropower's capabilities.

  19. Federal subsidies for preliminary studies for small-scale hydropower installations: degree of implementation of preliminary study projects 1993-2001 - Short evaluation of the effect of federal subsidies; Bundesbeitraege an Vorstudien fuer Kleinwasserkraftwerke. Realisierungsstand der Vorstudienprojekte 1993 bis 2001. Kurzevaluation der Auswirkungen der Bundesbeitraege (1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuster, J.; Suter, Ph.

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a short survey of 70 projects that received support from the Swiss Federation during their preliminary study phases. Projects are reviewed for the period between 1993 and 2001. The results obtained from the survey are presented; these are considered by the authors to be well-founded as a result of the high questionnaire return rate of 84%. The report analyses the projects as far as their degree of realisation is concerned and discusses the results. The survey also provides information on the power produced by those installations that have already been realised. For those projects that were not realised, the reasons for the negative investment decision are noted. Projects that are in the process of being implemented are discussed.

  20. Mapping of stakeholders in renewable energy in Grenland; Kartlegging av aktoerer innen fornybar energi i Grenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvitsand, Christine

    2011-07-01

    The survey shows that there is a significant activity related to renewable energy in Grenland. It is developed hydropower both in small-scale and large-scale, and there are activities related to the establishment of additional heating based on bioenergy. There are good technology companies in the region, including renewable energy. Several companies are already, or have the potential to be, significant suppliers in an international context. (Author)

  1. Hydropower research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is a compilation of information on hydropower research and development (R and D) activities of the Federal government and hydropower industry. The report includes descriptions of on-going and planned R and D activities, 1996 funding, and anticipated future funding. Summary information on R and D projects and funding is classified into eight categories: fish passage, behavior, and response; turbine-related; monitoring tool development; hydrology; water quality; dam safety; operations and maintenance; and water resources management. Several issues in hydropower R and D are briefly discussed: duplication; priorities; coordination; technical/peer review; and technology transfer/commercialization. Project information sheets from contributors are included as an appendix.

  2. The potential impacts of climate change on hydropower: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osborne

    Climate change has the potential to affect hydropower generation by either increasing or reducing ... proven, mature, efficient and cost competitive renewable energy source. Hydropower requires relatively high initial investment but has low operation costs and it offers ... areas to global warming because water resources are.

  3. Hydropower's Biogenic Carbon Footprint

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    .... Little is known about the severity of their emissions at the global scale. Here we show that the carbon footprint of hydropower is far higher than previously assumed, with a global average of 173 kg CO2...

  4. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  5. Hydropower potential of the lower Vistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Szydłowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an estimate analysis of the hydropower potential of the lower Vistula River from Warsaw to Gdańsk Bay. The calculations were made for a hydraulic model of the lower Vistula which takes into account potential development of barrages in a cascade system. Results obtained from the model simulations and from hydrological calculations were used to estimate the power of hydropower plants and the average annual energy output from the entire cascade system. The results of calculations indicate significant energy benefits resulting from the development of a cascade of hydropower plants in the lower Vistula. This study does not discuss the cascade project’s economic viability or other aspects of its development (inland waterways, flood control, etc..

  6. Development potential for hydropower; Ausbaupotential der Wasserkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, F.; Groetzinger, S.; Peter, M.; Schmutz, A.

    2004-11-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the potential for the development of hydropower in Switzerland. The report updates the energy perspectives made ten years earlier. An overview of Swiss electricity production and consumption is presented and the proportion provided by hydropower is noted. Figures on installed capacity and import/export quantities are presented and discussed. Technological developments and the economical frameworks involved are discussed, as are regulatory measures that can be taken. Theoretical and technically realisable potentials for increased use of hydropower are discussed. The methods used to do this are examined. Strategies and measures to be taken are listed and discussed. An appendix includes data sheets on power plant modelling, including examples

  7. Land Systems Impacts of Hydropower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. C.; Torn, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Hydropower is often seen as the low-cost, low-carbon, and high-return technology for meeting rising electricity demand and fueling economic growth. Despite the magnitude and pace of hydropower expansion in many developing countries, the potential land use and land cover change (LULCC), particularly indirect LULCC, resulting from hydropower development is poorly understood. Hydropower-driven LULCC can have multiple impacts ranging from global and local climate modification (e.g., increased extreme precipitation events or increased greenhouse gas emissions), ecosystem degradation and fragmentation, to feedbacks on hydropower generation (e.g., increased sedimentation of the reservoir). As a result, a better understanding of both direct and indirect LULCC impacts can inform a more integrated and low-impact model for energy planning in countries with transitioning or growing energy portfolios. This study uses multi-scale remote sensing imagery (Landsat, MODIS, fine-resolution commercial imagery) to estimate LULCC from past hydropower projects intended primarily for electricity generation in 12 countries in Africa, South and Central America, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. It is important to examine multiple locations to determine how socio-political and environmental context determines the magnitude of LULCC. Previous studies have called for the need to scale-up local case studies to examine "cumulative impacts" of multiple development activities within a watershed. We use a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design using a time series of classified images and vegetation indices before and after hydropower plant construction as the response variable in an interrupted time series regression analysis. This statistical technique measures the "treatment" effect of hydropower development on indirect LULCC. Preliminary results show land use change and landscape fragmentation following hydropower development, primarily agricultural and urban in nature. These results suggest

  8. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  9. Passive Plasma Contact Mechanisms for Small-Scale Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, Jesse K.

    Small-scale spacecraft represent a paradigm shift in how entities such as academia, industry, engineering firms, and the scientific community operate in space. However, although the paradigm shift produces unique opportunities to build satellites in unique ways for novel missions, there are also significant challenges that must be addressed. This research addresses two of the challenges associated with small-scale spacecraft: 1) the miniaturization of spacecraft and associated instrumentation and 2) the need to transport charge across the spacecraft-environment boundary. As spacecraft decrease in size, constraints on the size, weight, and power of on-board instrumentation increase--potentially limiting the instrument's functionality or ability to integrate with the spacecraft. These constraints drive research into mechanisms or techniques that use little or no power and efficiently utilize existing resources. One limited resource on small-scale spacecraft is outer surface area, which is often covered with solar panels to meet tight power budgets. This same surface area could also be needed for passive neutralization of spacecraft charging. This research explores the use of a transparent, conductive layer on the solar cell coverglass that is electrically connected to spacecraft ground potential. This dual-purpose material facilitates the use of outer surfaces for both energy harvesting of solar photons as well as passive ion collection. Mission capabilities such as in-situ plasma measurements that were previously infeasible on small-scale platforms become feasible with the use of indium tin oxide-coated solar panel coverglass. We developed test facilities that simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit to test the dual-purpose material and the various application of this approach. Particularly, this research is in support of two upcoming missions: OSIRIS-3U, by Penn State's Student Space Programs Lab, and MiTEE, by the University of Michigan. The purpose of

  10. Design and 3D printing of controllable-pitch archimedean screw for pico hydropower generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Tae; Kim, Eun Seob; Chu, Won Shik; Ahn, Sung Hoon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Renewable energy has attracted considerable attention because the energy problem has become a worldwide issue. The development of pico-hydropower generation, as a component of distributed generation, has been a subject of concern. In particular, the Archimedean screw generator (ASG) has more benefits, such as low cost, easy maintenance, and fish-friendly characteristic, compared with other types of hydro turbine. Despite these advantages, no appropriate design theory of ASG and Controllable-pitch Archimedean screw (CPAS) exists. Hence, a design theory of ASG and CPAS was theoretically investigated and designed in this study. CPAS was designed for a small-scale hydro-power generation system. With a 3D printer, fused deposition modeling was used to fabricate the blade of CPAS with polylactic acid and epoxy surface coating. A performance evaluation was conducted and analyzed. Results indicate a similar trend with the proposed theory. The power generation was 123 W and efficiency was 71% in 0.04 m{sup 3}/s.

  11. Small-Scale Tunnel Tests for Blast Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, Joshua; Lee, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The data reported here provides a validation of a small-scale tunnel test as a tool to guide the optimization of new explosives for blast performance in tunnels. The small-scale arrangement consisted of a 2-g booster and 10-g sample mounted at the closed end of a 127-mm diameter by 4.6-m long steel tube with pressure transducers along its length. The three performance characteristics considered were peak pressure, initial energy release, and impulse. The relative performance from six explosives was compared to that from a 1.16-m diameter by 30-m long tunnel that used 2.27-kg samples. The peak pressure and impulse vs. distance did not scale between the small and larger scale tests but the relative ranking was preserved. The initial energy release was determined from a one-dimensional point-source analysis, which tracked with peak pressure vs. distance results but not with impulse suggesting additional energy released further down the tunnel for some explosives. This test is a viable tool for optimizing compositional variations for blast performance in target scenarios of similar form factor.

  12. Small-scale tunnel test for blast performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felts, J. E.; Lee, R. J.

    2014-05-01

    The data reported here provide a validation of a small-scale tunnel test as a tool to guide the optimization of new explosives for blast performance in tunnels. The small-scale arrangement consisted of a 2-g booster and 10-g sample mounted at the closed end of a 127mm diameter by 4.6-m long steel tube with pressure transducers along its length. The three performance characteristics considered were peak pressure, initial energy release, and impulse. The relative performance from five explosives was compared to that from a 1.16-m diameter by 30-m long tunnel that used 2.27-kg samples. The peak pressure values didn't correlate between the tunnels. Partial impulse for the explosives did rank similarly. The initial energy release was determined from a one-dimensional point-source analysis, which nearly tracked with impulse suggesting additional energy released further down the tunnel for some explosives. This test is a viable tool for optimizing compositional variations for blast performance in target scenarios of similar geometry.

  13. Small-scale fisheries in Greenlandic planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses an ongoing planning process in Greenlandic fisheries governance aiming to reform the coastal Greenland halibut fishery. It examines the way certain truths about this fishery and the need for reform are produced up to and in the final policy document ‘regulation concerning...... the coastal fishery for Greenland halibut’. Findings highlight the way the small-scale Greenland halibut fishery system becomes a particular governance problem with respect to particular contextual meanings of sustainability and long-term planning. The article then examines whether this governance problem...... could also be understood as primarily a problem to a certain ‘governmentality’ mode of governance. Whereas some fishery studies document how governmentality modes of governance in fisheries succeeds in transforming subjectivities, this study offers a view into the process that might go before successful...

  14. Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Søreng Bjørge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industry, hydrocarbon process equipment was previously often thermally insulated by applying insulation directly to the metal surface. Fire protective insulation was applied outside the thermal insulation. In some cases, severe corrosion attacks were observed due to ingress of humidity and condensation at cold surfaces. Introducing a 25 mm air gap to prevent wet thermal insulation and metal wall contact is expected to solve the corrosion issues. This improved insulation methodology does, however, require more space that may not be available when refurbishing older process plants. Relocating structural elements would introduce much hot work, which should be minimized in live plants. It is also costly. The aim of the present study is therefore to develop a test concept for testing fire resistance of equipment protected with only air-gap and thermal insulation, i.e., without the fire-protective insulation. The present work demonstrates a conceptual methodology for small scale fire testing of mockups resembling a section of a distillation column. The mockups were exposed to a small-scale propane flame in a test configuration where the flow rate and the flame zone were optimized to give heat flux levels in the range 250–350 kW/m2. Results are presented for a mockup resembling a 16 mm thick distillation column steel wall. It is demonstrated that the modern distance insulation in combination with the heat capacity of the column wall indicates 30+ minutes fire resistance. The results show that this methodology has great potentials for low cost fire testing of other configurations, and it may serve as a set-up for product development.

  15. Cold dark matter: Controversies on small scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, David H; Bullock, James S; Governato, Fabio; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Peter, Annika H G

    2015-10-06

    The cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological model has been remarkably successful in explaining cosmic structure over an enormous span of redshift, but it has faced persistent challenges from observations that probe the innermost regions of dark matter halos and the properties of the Milky Way's dwarf galaxy satellites. We review the current observational and theoretical status of these "small-scale controversies." Cosmological simulations that incorporate only gravity and collisionless CDM predict halos with abundant substructure and central densities that are too high to match constraints from galaxy dynamics. The solution could lie in baryonic physics: Recent numerical simulations and analytical models suggest that gravitational potential fluctuations tied to efficient supernova feedback can flatten the central cusps of halos in massive galaxies, and a combination of feedback and low star formation efficiency could explain why most of the dark matter subhalos orbiting the Milky Way do not host visible galaxies. However, it is not clear that this solution can work in the lowest mass galaxies, where discrepancies are observed. Alternatively, the small-scale conflicts could be evidence of more complex physics in the dark sector itself. For example, elastic scattering from strong dark matter self-interactions can alter predicted halo mass profiles, leading to good agreement with observations across a wide range of galaxy mass. Gravitational lensing and dynamical perturbations of tidal streams in the stellar halo provide evidence for an abundant population of low-mass subhalos in accord with CDM predictions. These observational approaches will get more powerful over the next few years.

  16. On the competitivity of hydropower in deregulated power markets. A model-supported analysis exemplarily presented on the Swiss energy supply system; Zur Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Wasserkraft in liberalisierten Elektrizitaetsmaerkten. Eine modellgestuetzte Analyse dargestellt am Beispiel des schweizerischen Energieversorgungssystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moest, D.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a method for the quantitative analysis of the long-term competitiveness of hydropower in a liberalised European energy market. The method employed by the present model is based on a multi-period mixed-integer linear optimization. In this study it is applied to the Swiss power supply system as an example. Switzerland's European neighbours are included in the study in order to capture any effects of interregional electricity exchange options, thus doing justice to the internationalisation of the European energy markets. The study provides a well-founded basis for decisions on the renovation, extension or dismantling of hydropower plants. The method presented herein also offers information on the long-term development of electricity prices.

  17. DOE Hydropower Program Annual Report for FY 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garold L. Sommers; R. T. Hunt

    2003-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducts research on advanced hydropower technology through its hydropower program, which is organized under the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. This annual report describes the various projects supported by the hydropower program in FY 2002. The program=s current focus is on improving the environmental performance of hydropower projects by addressing problems such as fish mortality during passage through turbines, alteration of instream habitat, and water quality in tailwaters. A primary goal of this research is to develop new, environmentally friendly technology. DOE-funded projects have produced new conceptual designs for turbine systems, and these are now being tested in pilot-scale laboratory tests and in the field. New design approaches range from totally new turbine runners to modifications of existing designs. Biological design criteria for these new turbines have also been developed in controlled laboratory tests of fish response to physical stresses, such as hydraulic shear and pressure changes. These biocriteria are being combined with computational tools to locate and eliminate areas inside turbine systems that are damaging to fish. Through the combination of laboratory, field, and computational studies, new solutions are being found to environmental problems at hydropower projects. The diverse program activities continue to make unique contributions to clean energy production in the U.S. By working toward technology improvements that can reduce environmental problems, the program is helping to reposition hydropower as an acceptable, renewable, domestic energy choice.

  18. Chinese State-Owned Enterprise Investment in Mekong Hydropower: Political and Economic Drivers and Their Implications across the Water, Energy, Food Nexus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Nathanial; Motta, Stew

    2015-01-01

    ...), with an emphasis on Cambodia. The analysis reveals how powerful political and economic forces from within China and the GMS influence the pace, location and scale of investments in hydropower...

  19. Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas; Smaaskalig uppgradering och foeraedling av biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Helena; Mccann, Michael; Westman, Johan (Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    Small-scale upgrading and refinement of biogas is a report which aims to compile the state of knowledge in small-scale biogas upgrading. The project have been a collaboration with Agrovaest and Energy Farm and was funded by the Foundation for Agricultural Research, Western Goetaland and the Agriculture Department. The technology available for small scale upgrade has been examined from the technical and economic standpoint. An economic comparison has been made and the production of upgraded biogas has been estimated for different raw gas flows. The work also contains information related to biogas production, upgrading and a comparison of liquid biogas, DME and Ecopar-diesel

  20. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Idaho.

  1. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Ohio.

  2. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-02-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Michigan.

  3. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1998-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of New York.

  4. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Connecticut.

  5. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydro-power potential in the United States. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The software measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven software program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Maine.

  6. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-10-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Nevada.

  7. U.S. hydropower resource assessment for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, A.M.; Francfort, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the undeveloped hydropower potential in the US. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the undeveloped hydropower resources available in the US, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a menu-driven program that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report describes the resource assessment results for the State of Illinois.

  8. Suprathermal Charged Particle Acceleration by Small-scale Flux Ropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    We consider different limits of our recently developed kinetic transport theory to investigate the potential of super-Alvenic solar wind regions containing several small-scale flux ropes to explain the acceleration of suprathermal ions to power-law spectra as observations show. Particle acceleration is modeled in response to flux-rope activity involving contraction, merging (reconnection), and collisions in the limit where the particle gyoradius is smaller than the characteristic flux-rope scale length. The emphasis is mainly on the statistical variance in the electric fields induced by flux-rope dynamics rather than on the mean electric field induced by multiple flux ropes whose acceleration effects are discussed elsewhere. Our steady-state analytical solutions suggest that particle drift acceleration by flux ropes, irrespective of whether displaying incompressible or compressible behavior, can yield power laws asymptotically at higher energies whereas an exponential spectral rollover results asymptotically when field-aligned guiding center motion acceleration occur by reconnection electric fields from merging flux ropes. This implies that at sufficiently high particle energies, drift acceleration might dominate. We also expect compressive flux ropes to yield harder power-law spectra than incompressible flux ropes. Preliminary results will be discussed to illustrate how particle acceleration might be affected when both diffusive shock and small-scale flux acceleration occur simultaneously at interplanetary shocks.

  9. ESTIMATING HYDROPOWER POTENTIAL OF SMALL RIVERS OF REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA USING GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. CASTRAVEŢ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimating hydropower potential of small rivers of Republic of Moldova using GIS, The increasing demand for energy, especially from renewable and sustainable sources, spurs the development of small hydropower plants and encourages investment in new survey studies (Larentis et al., 2010. Preliminary hydropower survey studies usually carry huge uncertainties about the technical, economic and environmental feasibility of the undeveloped potential. This paper presents a methodology for hydropower potential sites assessment. The sequence of procedures to identify hydropower sites is based on remote sensing data and streamflow and rainfall data and was automated within GIS environment.

  10. Small Scale Foundries in Ghana: The challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony ANDREWS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Small Scale Foundries (SSFs have been in existence for several years in Ghana. The industry has created several jobs for the people of Ghana and has minimized the burden on government to find ways of disposing scrap metals generated within the country. While scrap metals are still being exported, the quantity exported has decreased as a result of recycling by foundrymen in producing various parts. The government of Ghana has not paid special attention to this industry. Nevertheless, individuals and private investors are heavily involved in producing several thousands of tonnes of castings annually generating revenue for the government through taxation as well as helping with metal waste disposal. Metal cast products are sold both locally and internationally to neighbouring countries. The industry is however faced with numerous challenges. These include quality issues due to lack of technical know-how, access to funding from both government and private financial institutions and foundry waste management. To promote this industry, government and private financial institutions must be encouraged to come on board. Policies must be established and proper training programme developed to improve and promote this technology. This could go a long way in reducing the high unemployment rate in Ghana.

  11. Slip Dynamics in Small Scale Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Robert; Derlet, Peter; Greer, Julia; Volkert, Cynthia

    2015-03-01

    Classical work showed that dislocation velocities are strongly dependent on applied stress. Numerous experiments have validated this for individual or groups of dislocations in macroscopic crystals by using imaging techniques combined with either mechanical data or time resolved topological data. Developments in small scale mechanical testing allow to correlate the intermittency of collective dislocation motion with the mechanical response. Discrete forward surges in displacement can be related to dislocation avalanches, which are triggered by the evolving dislocation sub-structure. We study the spatiotemporal characteristics of intermittent plastic flow in quasi-statically sheared single crystalline Au crystals with diameters between 300 nm and 10000 nm, whose displacement bursts were recorded at several kHz (Scripta Mater. 2013, 69, 586; Small, available online). Both the crystallographic slip magnitude, as well as the velocity of the slip events are exhibiting power-law scaling as. The obtained slip velocity distribution has a cubic decay at high values, and a saturated flat shoulder at lower velocities. No correlation between the slip velocity and the applied stress or plastic strain is found. Further, we present DD-simulations that are supportive of our experimental findings. The simulations suggest that the dynamics of the internal stress fields dominate the evolving dislocation structure leading to velocities that are insensitive to the applied stress - a regime indicative of microplasticity.

  12. A small-scale anatomical dosimetry model of the liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenvall, Anna; Larsson, Erik; Strand, Sven-Erik; Jönsson, Bo-Anders

    2014-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy is a growing and promising approach for treating and prolonging the lives of patients with cancer. For therapies where high activities are administered, the liver can become a dose-limiting organ; often with a complex, non-uniform activity distribution and resulting non-uniform absorbed-dose distribution. This paper therefore presents a small-scale dosimetry model for various source-target combinations within the human liver microarchitecture. Using Monte Carlo simulations, Medical Internal Radiation Dose formalism-compatible specific absorbed fractions were calculated for monoenergetic electrons; photons; alpha particles; and 125I, 90Y, 211At, 99mTc, 111In, 177Lu, 131I and 18F. S values and the ratio of local absorbed dose to the whole-organ average absorbed dose was calculated, enabling a transformation of dosimetry calculations from macro- to microstructure level. For heterogeneous activity distributions, for example uptake in Kupffer cells of radionuclides emitting low-energy electrons (125I) or high-LET alpha particles (211At) the target absorbed dose for the part of the space of Disse, closest to the source, was more than eight- and five-fold the average absorbed dose to the liver, respectively. With the increasing interest in radionuclide therapy of the liver, the presented model is an applicable tool for small-scale liver dosimetry in order to study detailed dose-effect relationships in the liver.

  13. Hydropower resources at risk: The status of hydropower regulation and development - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.A. [Richard Hunt Associates, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report documents today`s hydropower licensing and development status based on published data as follows: (a) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) databases, maintained by FERC`s Office of Hydropower Licensing, of: (1) operating FERC-regulated projects, federal projects, and known unlicensed projects; (2) surrendered licenses; and, (3) recent licensing and relicensing actions; (b) Energy Information Administration (EIA) data on installed capacity and generation from 1949 through 1995 for the various resources used to produce electricity in the U.S.; and, (c) FERC licensing orders, and environmental assessments or environmental impact statements for each individual project relicensed since 1980. The analysis conducted to prepare this paper includes the effects of all FERC hydropower licensing actions since 1980, and applies those findings to estimate the costs of hydropower licensing and development activity for the next 15 years. It also quantifies the national cost of hydropower regulation. The future estimates are quite conservative. The are presented in 1996 dollars without speculating on the effects of future inflation, license surrenders, conditions imposed through open-ended license articles, license terms greater than 30 years, or low water years. Instead, they show the most directly predictable influences on licensing outcomes using actual experiences since ECPA (after 1986).

  14. Thayer Lake Hydropower Development -- Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matousek, Mark [ORENCO Hydropower, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The Thayer Lake Hydropower Development (THLD) has been under study since the late 1970’s as Angoon explored opportunities to provide lower cost renewable power to the Community and avoid the high cost of diesel generation. Kootznoowoo Inc. (Kootznoowoo), the tribal corporation for Angoon’s current and past residents, was provided the rights by Congress to develop a hydropower project within the Admiralty Island National Monument. This grant (DE-EE0002504) by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Indian Energy and a matching grant from the Alaska Energy Authority (AEA) were provided to Kootznoowoo to enable the design, engineering and permitting of this hydropower project on Thayer Creek. Prior to the grant, the USFS had performed a final environmental impact statement (FEIS) and issued a Record of Decision (ROD) in 2009 for a 1.2 MW hydropower project on Thayer Creek that would Angoon’s needs with substantial excess capacity for growth. Kootznoowoo hired Alaska Power & Telephone (AP&T) in 2013 to manage this project and oversee its development. AP&T and its subcontractors under Kootznoowoo’s guidance performed several activities, aligned with the task plan defined in the grant.

  15. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  16. Hydropower development priority using MCDM method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supriyasilp, Thanaporn [Department of Civil Engineering, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Pongput, Kobkiat [Department of Water Resource Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkhen Campus, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Boonyasirikul, Thana [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Bang Kruai, Nonthaburi 11130 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Hydropower is recognized as a renewable and clean energy sources and its potential should be realized in an environmentally sustainable and socially equitable manner. Traditionally, the decision criteria when analyzing hydropower projects, have been mostly a technical and economical analysis which focused on the production of electricity. However, environmental awareness and sensitivity to locally affected people should also be considered. Multi-criteria decision analysis has been applied to study the potential to develop hydropower projects with electric power greater than 100 kW in the Ping River Basin, Thailand, and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the projects in five main criteria: electricity generation, engineering and economics, socio-economics, environment, and stakeholder involvement. There are 64 potential sites in the study area. Criteria weights have been discussed and assigned by expert groups for each main criteria and subcriteria. As a consequence of weight assignment, the environmental aspect is the most important aspect in the view of the experts. Two scenarios using expert weight and fair weight have been studied to determine the priority for development of each project. This study has been done to assist policy making for hydropower development in the Ping River Basin. (author)

  17. Chinese State-Owned Enterprise Investment in Mekong Hydropower: Political and Economic Drivers and Their Implications across the Water, Energy, Food Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanial Matthews

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Chinese State-Owned Enterprises have emerged as among the most active investors in Mekong Basin hydropower development. This paper uses a political economy analysis to examine the forces that drive Chinese State-Owned Enterprises to invest in hydropower in the Mekong Basin. We focus our analysis on the Lancang (Upper Mekong River in China and in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS, with an emphasis on Cambodia. The analysis reveals how powerful political and economic forces from within China and the GMS influence the pace, location and scale of investments in hydropower. These forces include foreign exchange reserves, trade packages and foreign direct investment, and political alliances. Combining the political economy and nexus approaches, we conclude that although policies from China recognize interconnections across the nexus, political and economic forces craft narratives that downplay or disregard these nexus interconnections and trade-offs. This in turn, influences how trade-offs and interconnections in hydropower development are managed and recognized in both local and transboundary contexts, thereby, creating potentially significant negative impacts on livelihoods, food security and the environment.

  18. Small Scale Gasification: Gas Engine CHP for Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandin, Jan (Linnaeus Univ., Vaexjoe. Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering (Sweden)); Tuner, Martin; Odenbrand, Ingemar (The Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    In a joint project, Linnaeus Univ. in Vaexjoe (LNU) and the Faculty of Engineering at Lund Univ. (LTH) were commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency to make an inventory of the techniques and systems for small scale gasifier-gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) production and to evaluate the technology. Small scale is defined here as plants up to 10 MW{sub th}, and the fuel used in the gasifier is some kind of biofuel, usually woody biofuel in the form of chips, pellets, or sawdust. The study is presented in this report. The report has been compiled by searching the literature, participating in seminars, visiting plants, interviewing contact people, and following up contacts by e-mail and phone. The first, descriptive part of the report, examines the state-of-the-art technology for gasification, gas cleaning, and gas engines. The second part presents case studies of the selected plants: - Meva Innovation's VIPP-VORTEX CHP plant - DTU's VIKING CHP plant - Guessing bio-power station - Harbooere CHP plant -Skive CHP plant The case studies examine the features of the plants and the included unit operations, the kinds of fuels used and the net electricity and overall efficiencies obtained. The investment and operating costs are presented when available as are figures on plant availability. In addition we survey the international situation, mainly covering developing countries. Generally, the technology is sufficiently mature for commercialization, though some unit operations, for example catalytic tar reforming, still needs further development. Further development and optimization will probably streamline the performance of the various plants so that their biofuel-to-electricity efficiency reaches 30-40 % and overall performance efficiency in the range of 90 %. The Harbooere, Skive, and Guessing plant types are considered appropriate for municipal CHP systems, while the Viking and VIPP-VORTEX plants are smaller and considered appropriate for replacing hot

  19. Re-Linking Governance of Energy with Livelihoods and Irrigation in Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Buechler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower is often termed “green energy” and proffered as an alternative to polluting coal-generated electricity for burgeoning cities and energy-insecure rural areas. India is the third largest coal producer in the world; it is projected to be the largest coal consumer by 2050. In the Himalayan state of Uttarakhand, India, over 450 hydroelectric power schemes are proposed or are under development. Hydropower projects ranging from micro hydro (run-of-the-river systems with generating capacity up to 100 kW to large reservoirs (storage systems up to 2000 MW such as the Tehri Dam are in various stages of planning, construction or implementation. Run-of-the-river hydropower projects are being developed in Uttarakhand in order to avoid some of the costs to local communities created by large dams. Stakeholders in this rapid hydropower expansion include multiple actors with often diverging sets of interests. The resulting governance challenges are centered on tradeoffs between local electricity and revenue from the sale of hydropower, on the one hand, and the impacts on small-scale irrigation systems, riparian-corridor ecosystem services, and other natural resource-based livelihoods, on the other. We focus on the Bhilangana river basin, where water dependent livelihoods differentiated by gender include farming, fishing, livestock rearing and fodder collection. We examine the contradictions inherent in hydropower governance based on the interests of local residents and other stakeholders including hydropower developers, urban and other regional electricity users, and state-level policymakers. We use a social justice approach applied to hydropower projects to examine some of the negative impacts, especially by location and gender, of these projects on local communities and then identify strategies that can safeguard or enhance livelihoods of women, youth, and men in areas with hydropower projects, while also maintaining critical ecosystem services

  20. Woodbased fuels in small-scale regional heating plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkonen, M.

    2012-07-01

    This biomass heating report is compiled as part of the joint Nordic countries EU-Bothnia-Atlantica funded Forest Power project and it explores wood fuels and especially the use of woodchips primarily in the small-scale regional heating plants of Central Ostrobothnia energy cooperatives. The Forest Power project's main coordinator is the Kannus Unit of the Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA). Other partners in Finland are CENTRIA, the research and development unit of the Central Ostrobothnia University of Applied Sciences, the Kannus Unit of the Central Ostrobothnia Rural Institute, Central Ostrobothnia Forest Owners Association and, of course, the region's energy cooperatives. The ETPC unit at Umeaa University in Sweden also actively participated in this project. This report is based on field measurements conducted during the project at the Kaelviae energy cooperative's woodchip heating plant and is CENTRIA's most visible project outcome. The following individuals participated as researchers in the field measurements: Kari Manninen, project engineer, Anu-Sisko Perttunen, project officer, Martti Harkonen, principal lecturer, Lasse Jansson, director, research and development CENTRIA, Pentti Etelamaki, Central Ostrobothnia Forest Owners Association, Heikki Kykyri and Perttu Suonpera, Kaelviae energy cooperative. The following were project members: Dan Bostrom, Christoffer Boman, Jonathan Fagerstrom, Markus Brostrom and Rainer Backman of Umeaa University's ETPC unit. Martti Harkonen was responsible for the further analysis of the measurement results and report writing. (orig.)

  1. Production performance and profitability analysis of small scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a descriptive survey to study production performance, profitability and constraints of small scale layer projects funded through CASP in Germiston Region, Gauteng Province. Data was collected using a well-structured questionnaire from 26 small scale layer producers using ...

  2. Managing Small-Scale Fisheries : Alternative Directions and Methods

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couverture du livre Managing Small-Scale Fisheries: Alternative Directions and Methods ... Small-scale Fisheries va plus loin que le champ d'application de la gestion classique des pêches pour aborder d'autres concepts, outils, méthodes et stratégies de conservation. ... IDRC renews food security partnership with ACIAR.

  3. Understanding Women's Experiences in Artisanal and Small Scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding Women's Experiences in Artisanal and Small Scale Mining in Central and East Africa. This project will provide empirical evidence on the constraints and opportunities for women's economic empowerment in artisanal and small scale mining (ASM), and on the impact of regulatory reforms. ASM refers to ...

  4. Internationalisation of Artisanal and Small Scale Mining in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It takes a closer look at the causes, effects and dynamics of confrontation and collaboration between migrant artisanal and small scale miners and their counterparts in the host nation. It argues that the current governance system of small scale mining based on national control over exploitation is anachronic and not well ...

  5. Production hygiene and training influences on rural small-scale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Questions of hygiene and sub- sequent microbial quality in the rural small-scale farming sector of South Africa are even more crucial, given the policy drive to develop small- scale farming as a measure for reinforcement of household food security and reduction of pover- ty (Matshe, 2009; Statistics South Africa, 2012:6. -7).

  6. Economic efficiency among small scale poultry farmers in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... household size and extension, were found to be the significant factors that account for the observed variation in efficiency among the small scale poultry farmers. Keywords: economic efficiency, small scale poultry farmers, stochastic frontier production model. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development Vol.

  7. New perspectives in small-scale fisheries management: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide, the past 15–20 years has seen a significant shift in thinking and approaches to the management of small-scale fisheries. This is in response to the recognition that conventional fisheries management is not equipped to deal with the complexities, uncertainties and challenges prevalent in small-scale fishery ...

  8. Small-scale societies and environmental transformations: coevolutionary dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Reyes-García

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This editorial introduces the special feature of Ecology and Society entitled Small-Scale Societies and Environmental Transformations: Coevolutionary Dynamics. The contributions to this feature explore coevolutionary dynamics developed between small-scale societies and environmental features and the larger-scale effects of these interactions in spatial and chronological terms. Acknowledging the importance of small-scale societies in our evolutionary past and nowadays, contributions to this issue use insights from both archaeological and anthropological case studies, concepts, and methods. This editorial introduces the contributions in three different ways. We start by reviewing the use of the term "small-scale society" in the literature. Then, we briefly examine the concept of "co-evolutionary dynamics" by providing examples of how the process operates between past and present small-scale societies and their surrounding environments. In the last section, we introduce each of the papers.

  9. Standard Modular Hydropower Technology Acceleration Workshop: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mobley, Miles H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fernandez, Alisha R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    In support of the Department of Energy (DOE) funded Standard Modular Hydropower (SMH) Technology Acceleration project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff convened with five small hydropower technology entrepreneurs on June 14 and 15, 2017 to discuss gaps, challenges, and opportunities for small modular hydropower development. The workshop was designed to walk through SMH concepts, discuss the SMH research vision, assess how each participant’s technology aligns with SMH concepts and research, and identify future pathways for mutually beneficial collaboration that leverages ORNL expertise and entrepreneurial industry experience. The goal coming out of the workshop is to advance standardized, scalable, modular hydropower technologies and development approaches with sustained and open dialogue among diverse stakeholder groups.

  10. Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Roger Carson

    This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long

  11. Small Scale Mass Flow Plug Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A simple control volume model has been developed to calculate the discharge coefficient through a mass flow plug (MFP) and validated with a calibration experiment. The maximum error of the model in the operating region of the MFP is 0.54%. The model uses the MFP geometry and operating pressure and temperature to couple continuity, momentum, energy, an equation of state, and wall shear. Effects of boundary layer growth and the reduction in cross-sectional flow area are calculated using an in- integral method. A CFD calibration is shown to be of lower accuracy with a maximum error of 1.35%, and slower by a factor of 100. Effects of total pressure distortion are taken into account in the experiment. Distortion creates a loss in flow rate and can be characterized by two different distortion descriptors.

  12. Smart grid integration of small-scale trigeneration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacheva, Gergana; Kanchev, Hristiyan; Hinov, Nikolay

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a study on the possibilities for implementation of local heating, air-conditioning and electricity generation (trigeneration) as distributed energy resource in the Smart Grid. By the means of microturbine-based generators and absorption chillers buildings are able to meet partially or entirely their electrical load curve or even supply power to the grid by following their heating and air-conditioning daily schedule. The principles of small-scale cooling, heating and power generation systems are presented at first, then the thermal calculations of an example building are performed: the heat losses due to thermal conductivity and the estimated daily heating and air-conditioning load curves. By considering daily power consumption curves and weather data for several winter and summer days, the heating/air-conditioning schedule is estimated and the available electrical energy from a microturbine-based cogeneration system is estimated. Simulation results confirm the potential of using cogeneration and trigeneration systems for local distributed electricity generation and grid support in the daily peaks of power consumption.

  13. Policy instruments force climate protection by increasing the energy efficiency of electric appliances and electrical systems in private households and the commercial and small-scale sector; Politikinstrumente zur Effizienzsteigerung von Elektrogeraeten und -anlagen in Privathaushalten, Bueros und im Kleinverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Markus; Seebach, Dominik; Griessmann, Benjamin [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The implementation of new, more market-oriented instruments represents an additional starting point for future developments. This path was started on in the EU in 2005 with the CO{sub 2} emission trade. The price signals that could be expected for end customers in households and trade from this alone would most likely be too low to be a sufficient motivation for exhausting the electricity efficiency potential. At this point, we must again point out that only rarely are there economic hindrances to the complete use of potential, but rather a lack of information and organization leads to increased transaction costs in the implementation. This must be corrected by accompanying efficiency instruments and programs. However, implementing these programs does not (yet) represent an economic alternative to the efficiency measures in their own systems for the industry and power company involved in the emission trade due to such transaction costs. Otherwise there would be initiatives in the meantime for this type of privately organized program, as these have been suggested in this report as tasks for a national electricity fund. Therefore, the instrument of the EU emission trade must be supplemented in the foreseeable future with the instruments presented here. There is not much evidence as to how much a comparable implementation of tradable energy efficiency certificates (often referred to as ''white certificates'') is a suitable start for concluding efficiency potential at the level of the very inhomogeneous group of end consumers. We still see a need for research before such an instrument can be recommended as a guide for Germany or even Europe. The questions still to be clarified include, among other things, the ability of standardizing the assignment rules as well as the amount of the transaction costs to be expected, even in dependency on the market level at which the trade is started (end consumer, energy service provider, electronic equipment

  14. Modeling and dynamic behaviour of hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Kishor, Nand

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a systematic approach to mathematical modeling of different configurations of hydropower plants over four sections - modeling and simulation approaches; control of hydropower plants; operation and scheduling of hydropower plants, including pumped storage; and special features of small hydropower plants.

  15. Seismic detection method for small-scale discontinuities based on dictionary learning and sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Caixia; Zhao, Jingtao; Wang, Yanfei

    2017-02-01

    Studying small-scale geologic discontinuities, such as faults, cavities and fractures, plays a vital role in analyzing the inner conditions of reservoirs, as these geologic structures and elements can provide storage spaces and migration pathways for petroleum. However, these geologic discontinuities have weak energy and are easily contaminated with noises, and therefore effectively extracting them from seismic data becomes a challenging problem. In this paper, a method for detecting small-scale discontinuities using dictionary learning and sparse representation is proposed that can dig up high-resolution information by sparse coding. A K-SVD (K-means clustering via Singular Value Decomposition) sparse representation model that contains two stage of iteration procedure: sparse coding and dictionary updating, is suggested for mathematically expressing these seismic small-scale discontinuities. Generally, the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm is employed for sparse coding. However, the method can only update one dictionary atom at one time. In order to improve calculation efficiency, a regularized version of OMP algorithm is presented for simultaneously updating a number of atoms at one time. Two numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of the developed method for clarifying and enhancing small-scale discontinuities. The field example of carbonate reservoirs further demonstrates its effectiveness in revealing masked tiny faults and small-scale cavities.

  16. Financing of private small scale hydroelectric projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smukler, L.M.

    1981-03-01

    This manual is a description of the financing process associated with the private development of SSH projects. It examines the institutional framework and the actors within that framework who will have vital impact upon the potential for success of a project. The manual describes the information a developer should obtain in order to make intelligent decisions concerning the multiple directions in which project development can proceed. This information should assist the developer in formulating a business plan. Factors to be considered in choosing a business organizational form are discussed. Included is an analysis of the federal income tax factors relevant to SSH in context of the treatment of specific items: business expenses, depreciation, the Investment Tax Credit, and the Energy Tax Credit as modified by COWPTA. In addition, the tax and organizational factors are applied to an analysis of two mechanisms which can lower development costs through maximum utilization of available tax benefits: limited partnerships and leveraged leases. The manual lists and analyzes the major sources of debt and equity financing that are potentially available to a developer. Finally, all the previously discussed pieces are put together and how the decisions relating to such factors as marketing, taxation and debt financing interrelate to determine the probable success and profitability of a project are investigated. Furthermore, this part of the manual will provide an illustrated guide to understanding the financing process, leading the reader through the decisionmaking and negotiation points, and highlighting what should be borne in mind, what a developer may be giving up and what the perspective of other key actors will be at those points.

  17. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Popescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB, and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040. Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years, whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970–2000 and topographical characteristics of the area.

    Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy. The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  18. Assessing residual hydropower potential of the La Plata Basin accounting for future user demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, I.; Brandimarte, L.; Perera, M. S. U.; Peviani, M.

    2012-08-01

    La Plata Basin is shared by five countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), which have fast growing economies in South America. These countries need energy for their sustainable development; hence, hydropower can play a very important role as a renewable clean source of energy. This paper presents an analysis of the current hydropower production and electricity demand in La Plata Basin (LPB), and it analyses the maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin for a horizon of 30 yr (i.e. year 2040). Current hydropower production is estimated based on historical available data, while future energy production is deduced from the available water in the catchment (estimated based on measured hydrographs of the past years), whereas electricity demand is assessed by correlating existing electricity demand with the estimated population growth and economic development. The maximum and residual hydropower potential of the basin were assessed for the mean annual flows of the present hydrological regime (1970-2000) and topographical characteristics of the area. Computations were performed using an integrated GIS environment called VAPIDRO-ASTE released by the Research on Energy System (Italy). The residual hydropower potential of the basin is computed considering first that the water supply needs for population, industry and agriculture are served, and then hydropower energy is produced. The calculated hydropower production is found to be approximately half of the estimated electricity demand, which shows that there is a need to look for other sources of energy in the future.

  19. Small-scale bioenergy projects in rural China: Lessons to be learnt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Large amounts of small-scale bioenergy projects were carried out in China's rural areas in light of its national renewable energy policies. These projects applied pyrolysis gasification as the main technology, which turns biomass waste at low costs into biogas. This paper selects seven bioenergy

  20. Exemplary Design Envelope Specification for Standard Modular Hydropower Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Adam M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smith, Brennan T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tsakiris, Achilleas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Papanicolaou, Thanos [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Pries, Jason L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Burress, Timothy A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stewart, Kevin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lee, Kyutae [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeNeale, Scott T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pracheil, Brenda M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamay, Ryan A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ekici, Kivanc [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Kutz, Benjamin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Curd, Shelaine L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bishop, Norm [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Welch, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Rabon, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE); Fernandez, Alisha [McKeown and Associates, Moberly, MO (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Hydropower is an established, affordable renewable energy generation technology supplying nearly 18% of the electricity consumed globally. A hydropower facility interacts continuously with the surrounding water resource environment, causing alterations of varying magnitude in the natural flow of water, energy, fish, sediment, and recreation upstream and downstream. A universal challenge in facility design is balancing the extraction of useful energy and power system services from a stream with the need to maintain ecosystem processes and natural environmental function. On one hand, hydroelectric power is a carbon-free, renewable, and flexible asset to the power system. On the other, the disruption of longitudinal connectivity and the artificial barrier to aquatic movement created by hydraulic structures can produce negative impacts that stress fresh water environments. The growing need for carbon-free, reliable, efficient distributed energy sources suggests there is significant potential for hydropower projects that can deploy with low installed costs, enhanced ecosystem service offerings, and minimal disruptions of the stream environment.

  1. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale anaerobic digestion plant from cattle waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mezzullo, William G.; Mcmanus, Marcelle C.; Hammond, Geoff P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of a comprehensive life cycle study of the production of energy, in the form of biogas, using a small scale farm based cattle waste fed anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The life cycle assessment (LCA) shows that in terms of environmental and energy impact the plant manufacture contributes very little to the whole life cycle impacts. The results show that compared with alternative energy supply the production and use of biogas is beneficial in terms of greenhouse...

  2. The hazardous nature of small scale underground mining in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Bansah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Small scale mining continues to contribute significantly to the growth of Ghana's economy. However, the sector poses serious dangers to human health and the environment. Ground failures resulting from poorly supported stopes have led to injuries and fatalities in recent times. Dust and fumes from drilling and blasting of ore present health threats due to poor ventilation. Four prominent small scale underground mines were studied to identify the safety issues associated with small scale underground mining in Ghana. It is recognized that small scale underground mining in Ghana is inundated with unsafe acts and conditions including stope collapse, improper choice of working tools, absence of personal protective equipment and land degradation. Inadequate monitoring of the operations and lack of regulatory enforcement by the Minerals Commission of Ghana are major contributing factors to the environmental, safety and national security issues of the operations.

  3. Reducing global mercury emissions in artisanal and small-scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    caused mercury emissions, surpassing even coal-burning. With more than 15 million small-scale gold miners operating in more than 70 countries today, finding a way to reduce mercury emissions is vital.

  4. Small-scale fisheries in Asia: socioeconomic analysis and policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panayotou, T

    1985-01-01

    .... It contains 23 papers on small-scale capture and culture fisheries from five Asian countries - Bangladesh, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand - based on original field research sponsored...

  5. Hopewell Furnace NHS Small Scale Features (Linear Features)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile represents the linear small scale features found at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site based on the Cultural Landscape Report completed in...

  6. Influence of small-scale turbulence on cup anemometer calibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marraccini, M.; Bak-Kristensen, K.; Horn, A.; Fifield, E.; Hansen, S. O.

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents and discusses the calibration results of cup anemometers under different levels of small-scale turbulence. Small-scale turbulence is known to govern the curvature of shear layers around structures and is not related to the traditional under and over speeding of cup anemometers originating from large-scale turbulence components. The paper has shown that the small-scale turbulence has a significant effect on the calibration results obtained for cup anemometers. At 10m/s the rotational speed seems to change by approx. 0.5% due to different simulations of the small-scale turbulence. The work which this paper is based on, is part of the TrueWind research project, aiming to increase accuracy of mast top-mounted cup anemometer measurements.

  7. Reducing global mercury emissions in artisanal and small-scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    caused mercury emissions, surpassing even coal-burning. With more than 15 million small-scale gold miners operating in more than 70 countries today, finding a way to reduce mercury emissions is vital.

  8. Hydropower's future, the environment, and global electricity systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, R. [Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, 1 Normal Ave, Montclair, NJ 07043-1624 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Hydropower is a well established electricity system on the global scene. Global electricity needs by far exceed the amount of electricity that hydrosystems can provide to meet global electricity needs. Much of the world's hydropower remains to be brought into production. Improved technology, better calibrated environmental parameters for large projects have become the norm in the past 15 years. How and why does hydropower retain a prominent role in electricity production? How and why does hydropower find social acceptance in diverse social systems? How does hydropower project planning address issues beyond electricity generation? How does the systems approach to hydropower installations further analysis of comparative energy sources powering electricity systems? Attention to the environmental impact of hydropower facilities forms an integral part of systems analysis. Similarly, the technical, political and economic variables call for balanced analysis to identify the viability status of hydro projects. Economic competition among energy systems requires in context assessments as these shape decision making in planning of hydropower systems. Moreover, technological change has to be given a time frame during which the sector advances in productivity and share in expanding electricity generation. The low production costs per kWh assure hydropower at this juncture, 2009, a very viable future. (author)

  9. Small Scale Perturbations in a General MDM Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wayne; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    1997-01-01

    For a universe with massive neutrinos, cold dark matter, and baryons, we solve the linear perturbation equations analytically in the small-scale limit and find agreement with numerical codes at the 1-2% level. The inclusion of baryons, a cosmological constant, or spatial curvature reduces the small-scale power and tightens limits on the neutrino density from observations of high redshift objects. Using the asymptotic solution, we investigate neutrino infall into potential wells and show that ...

  10. Building a Small Scale Anaerobic Digester in Quelimane

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Silja

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a process where biogas is generated from organic substance in the absence of oxygen. The most common application of the anaerobic digestion technology in developing countries is small-scale household digesters producing biogas for cooking purposes. These systems are usually fed with cattle dung or organic household waste. The typical small-scale digester models are fixed-dome digester, floating-drum digester and rubber-balloon digester. Biogas systems contribute to self...

  11. Small-scale anaerobic digestion: case studies in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    De Dobbelaere, Anke; De Keulenaere, Bram; De Mey, Jonathan; Lebuf, Viooltje; Meers, Erik; Ryckaert, Bart; Schollier, Céline; Van Driessche, Jason

    2015-01-01

    This brochure is intended to meet farmers’ demand for more information concerning the current market situation of the small-scale anaerobic digestion technology. The authors aim to quickly guide those who are interested in the technology so that they can adopt a targeted approach in their search for information. This brochure elaborates on how the implementation of small-scale anaerobic digestion can take place at the company level, based on five practical examples. A broad market study in...

  12. Renewable energy projects in the Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viani, B.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a US/Dominican Republic program to develop renewable energy projects in the country. The objective is to demonstrate the commercial viability of renewable energy generation projects, primarily small-scale wind and hydropower. Preliminary studies are completed for three micro-hydro projects with a total capacity of 262 kWe, and two small wind power projects for water pumping. In addition wind resource assessment is ongoing, and professional training and technical assistance to potential investors is ongoing. Projects goals include not less than ten small firms actively involved in installation of such systems by September 1998.

  13. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  14. Guide to financing: small-scale geothermal energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    A brief overview is given of the current financing sources for projects requiring $1 million or less in capital investment and the major considerations commonly encountered in assembling financing. A directory of technical and financial assistance and a glossary of geothermal/financial terms are included.

  15. 75 FR 7469 - Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution; Notice Extending Filing Date...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute Resolution; Notice Extending Filing Date for Applications for Panel Member List for Hydropower Licensing Study Dispute...) requested applications to be included on a list of resource experts willing to serve as a third panel member...

  16. "Fish Friendly" Hydropower Turbine Development and Deployment. Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report presents the results of a collaborative research project funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and hydropower industry partners with the objective of completing the remaining developmental engineering required for a “fish-friendly” hydropower turbine called the Alden turbine.

  17. High-resolution assessment of global technical and economic hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gernaat, David E.H.J.; Bogaart, Patrick W.; Vuuren, van Detlef P.; Biemans, Hester; Niessink, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Hydropower is the most important renewable energy source to date, providing over 72% of all renewable electricity globally. Yet, only limited information is available on the global potential supply of hydropower and the associated costs. Here we provide a high-resolution assessment of the technical

  18. Hidroenergia 2010: International congress on small hydropower. Conference report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This conference, held in 2010 in Lausanne, Switzerland, gathered together the main stakeholders of the small hydropower community to debate about topics affecting the development of the sector, to exchange experience and to present new advances in the technological area. The two-day conference was held in a total of nine sessions, a poster session and a workshop. The first session was dedicated to water management in the Alps and covered new regulations, administrative procedures and finance issues. Contributions included a review of the present situation and the development of common guidelines to meet the challenge of conflicting technical and environmental objectives, the facilitation of small hydropower in Switzerland and the institutional frameworks involved, recent trends in small hydro project financing and the growing roles of venture capital, private equity and changing market dynamics. Finally the prospects for small hydropower in Serbia were discussed. In two parallel sessions the following topics were looked at: The promotion of small hydropower in Switzerland using various sources of water and remuneration for the power produced, small hydro in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland, the use of karst groundwater for the underground production of power were looked at as well as the analysis of hydraulic facilities for combining pumped storage hydropower systems and wind power in Austria. The final presentation took a look at the new 'La Tzintre' hydropower project. The parallel session dealt with technical innovations and engineering solutions with presentations on the development of small diagonal turbines, the adaptation of propeller turbines to higher specific needs and the problems encountered in doing so. The use of centrifugal pumps as turbines, including a review of technology and applications were also dealt with. Two further parallel sessions looked at EU-funded projects and sustainability issues. The Sustainable Energy Europe project was

  19. Systematic high-resolution assessment of global hydropower potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoes, Olivier A C; Meijer, Lourens J J; Van Der Ent, Ruud J.; Van De Giesen, Nick C.

    2017-01-01

    Population growth, increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves necessitate a search for sustainable alternatives for electricity generation. Hydropower could replace a large part of the contribution of gas and oil to the present energy mix. However, previous high-resolution

  20. Memorandum of Understanding for Hydropower Two-Year Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-04-01

    On March 24, 2010, the Department of the Army (DOA) through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE or Corps), the Department of Energy, and the Department of the Interior signed the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for Hydropower. The purpose of the MOU is to “help meet the nation’s needs for reliable, affordable, and environmentally sustainable hydropower by building a long-term working relationship, prioritizing similar goals, and aligning ongoing and future renewable energy development efforts.” This report documents efforts so far.

  1. Small-scale fisheries bycatch jeopardizes endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hoyt Peckham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS/METHODOLOGY: 30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996-2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS. We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1 observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2 through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year(-1, rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide

  2. Tools for Small Hydropower Plant Resource Planning and Development: A Review of Technology and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitana Vyciene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and compares software tools for the planning and design of small hydropower (SHP plants. The main emphasis is on small scale hydropower resource assessment computer tools and methodologies for the development of SHP plants corresponding to a preliminary or prefeasibility study level. The paper presents a brief evaluation of the historic software tools and the current tools used in the small hydro industry. The reviewed tools vary from simple initial estimates to quite sophisticated software. The integration of assessment tools into Geographic Information System (GIS environments has led to a leap forward in the strengthening of the evaluation of the power potential of water streams in the case of the spatial variability of different factors affecting stream power. A number of countries (e.g., Canada, Italy, Norway, Scotland and the US have re-assessed their hydropower capacities based on spatial information of their water stream catchments, developing tools for automated hydro-site identification and deploying GIS-based tools, so-called Atlases, of small-scale hydropower resources on the Internet. However, a reliable assessment of real SHP site feasibility implies some “on the ground” surveying, but this traditional assessment can be greatly facilitated using GIS techniques that involve the spatial variability of catchment characteristics.

  3. Regulatory Approaches for Adding Capacity to Existing Hydropower Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kazerooni, Borna [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    In 2015, hydroelectric generation accounted for more than 6 percent of total net electricity generation in the United States and 46 percent of electricity generation from all renewables. The United States has considerable hydroelectric potential beyond what is already being developed. Nearly 7 GW of this potential is found by adding capacity to existing hydropower facilities. To optimize the value of hydroelectric generation, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Vision Study highlights the importance of adding capacity to existing facilities. This report provides strategic approaches and considerations for Federal Energy Regulatory Commission licensed and exempt hydropower facilities seeking to increase generation capacity, which may include increases from efficiency upgrades. The regulatory approaches reviewed for this report include capacity and non-capacity amendments, adding capacity during relicensing, and adding capacity when converting a license to a 10-MW exemption.

  4. Resilience of small-scale societies: a view from drylands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Balbo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To gain insights on long-term social-ecological resilience, we examined adaptive responses of small-scale societies to dryland-related hazards in different regions and chronological periods, spanning from the mid-Holocene to the present. Based on evidence from Africa (Sahara and Sahel, Asia (south margin of the Thar desert, and Europe (South Spain, we discuss key traits and coping practices of small-scale societies that are potentially relevant for building resilience. The selected case studies illustrate four main coping mechanisms: mobility and migration, storage, commoning, and collective action driven by religious beliefs. Ultimately, the study of resilience in the context of drylands emphasizes the importance of adaptive traits and practices that are distinctive of small-scale societies: a strong social-ecological coupling, a solid body of traditional ecological knowledge, and a high degree of internal cohesion and self-organization.

  5. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are examined. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Additional sections cover acquisition; liability; Department for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection; energy utilities; local regulations; incidental impacts; financial considerations; and sources of information. In Kentucky, many of the impacts have not been implemented with regard to small-scale hydroelectric energy, since in Kentucky most electricity is coal-generated and any hydroelectric power that does exist, is derived from TVA or the Army Corp of Engineer projects.

  6. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1996-1997 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This report, the latest in a series of biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1996 and 1997. The report discusses the activities in the six areas of the hydropower program: advanced hydropower turbine systems; environmental research; hydropower research and development; renewable Indian energy resources; resource assessment; and technology transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  7. Large and small-scale structures in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, N.; Rehnberg, M. E.; Brown, Z. L.; Sremcevic, M.; Esposito, L. W.

    2017-09-01

    Observations made by the Cassini spacecraft have revealed both large and small scale structures in Saturn's rings in unprecedented detail. Analysis of high-resolution measurements by the Cassini Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) and the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) show an abundance of intrinsic small-scale structures (or clumping) seen across the entire ring system. These include self-gravity wakes (50-100m), sub-km structure at the A and B ring edges, and "straw"/"ropy" structures (1-3km).

  8. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Orifice Plugging Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Kimura, Marcia L.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2012-09-01

    included round holes and rectangular slots. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. The purpose of the study described in this report is to provide experimental data for the first key technical area, potential plugging of small breaches, by performing small-scale tests with a range of orifice sizes and orientations representative of the WTP conditions. The simulants used were chosen to represent the range of process stream properties in the WTP. Testing conducted after the plugging tests in the small- and large-scale test stands addresses the second key technical area, aerosol generation. The results of the small-scale aerosol generation tests are included in Mahoney et al. 2012. The area of spray generation from large breaches is covered by large-scale testing in Schonewill et al. 2012.

  9. Organizing environmental flow frameworks to meet hydropower mitigation needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.

  10. Organizing Environmental Flow Frameworks to Meet Hydropower Mitigation Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Jager, Henriette I.; Troia, Matthew J.

    2016-09-01

    The global recognition of the importance of natural flow regimes to sustain the ecological integrity of river systems has led to increased societal pressure on the hydropower industry to change plant operations to improve downstream aquatic ecosystems. However, a complete reinstatement of natural flow regimes is often unrealistic when balancing water needs for ecosystems, energy production, and other human uses. Thus, stakeholders must identify a prioritized subset of flow prescriptions that meet ecological objectives in light of realistic constraints. Yet, isolating aspects of flow regimes to restore downstream of hydropower facilities is among the greatest challenges of environmental flow science due, in part, to the sheer volume of available environmental flow tools in conjunction with complex negotiation-based regulatory procedures. Herein, we propose an organizational framework that structures information and existing flow paradigms into a staged process that assists stakeholders in implementing environmental flows for hydropower facilities. The framework identifies areas where regulations fall short of the needed scientific process, and provide suggestions for stakeholders to ameliorate those situations through advanced preparation. We highlight the strengths of existing flow paradigms in their application to hydropower settings and suggest when and where tools are most applicable. Our suggested framework increases the effectiveness and efficiency of the e-flow implementation process by rapidly establishing a knowledge base and decreasing uncertainty so more time can be devoted to filling knowledge gaps. Lastly, the framework provides the structure for a coordinated research agenda to further the science of environmental flows related to hydropower environments.

  11. High-temperature Elastic Structural Analysis on a Small-Scale PHE prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Hong, S. D. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. Y. [AD solution, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Hydrogen is considered a promising future energy solution because it is clean, abundant, and storable, and has high-energy density. One of the major challenges in establishing a hydrogen economy is how to produce massive quantities of hydrogen in a clean, safe, and economical way. Among the various hydrogen production methods, nuclear hydrogen production is garnering worldwide attention since it can produce hydrogen, a promising energy carrier, without an environmental burden. The PHE (Process Heat Exchanger) is a component that utilizes the nuclear heat from the nuclear reactor to provide hydrogen. A PHE is used in several processes such as nuclear steam reforming, nuclear methanol, nuclear steel, nuclear oil refinery, and nuclear steam. The PHE of the SO{sub 3} decomposer, which generates the process gas such as H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 3} at a very high temperature, is a key component in the nuclear hydrogen program in Korea. Recently, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) established a small-scale gas loop for the performance test of VHTR components and manufactured a small-scale PHE prototype made of Hastelloy-X. A performance test on the PHE prototype is under way in the small-scale gas loop at KAERI. In this study, in an effort to evaluate the high-temperature structural integrity of the PHE prototype under the test condition of the gas loop, a high-temperature elastic structural analysis was performed

  12. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development IV: fish mortality resulting from turbine passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turbak, S. C.; Reichle, D. R.; Shriner, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    This document presents a state-of-the-art review of literature concerning turbine-related fish mortality. The review discusses conventional and, to a lesser degree, pumped-storage (reversible) hydroelectric facilities. Much of the research on conventional facilities discussed in this report deals with studies performed in the Pacific Northwest and covers both prototype and model studies. Research conducted on Kaplan and Francis turbines during the 1950s and 1960s has been extensively reviewed and is discussed. Very little work on turbine-related fish mortality has been undertaken with newer turbine designs developed for more modern small-scale hydropower facilities; however, one study on a bulb unit (Kaplan runner) has recently been released. In discussing turbine-related fish mortality at pumped-storage facilities, much of the literature relates to the Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant. As such, it is used as the principal facility in discussing research concerning pumped storage.

  13. Risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds can only tolerate narrow temperature changes; therefore, poultry flocks are vulnerable to climate induced risk. This study investigated risk management strategies utilized by small scale poultry farmers in Oyo state. A total of 118 respondents were sampled using multi stage sampling procedure. Interview schedule was ...

  14. Small-scale soft-bodied robot with multimodal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenqi; Lum, Guo Zhan; Mastrangeli, Massimo; Sitti, Metin

    2018-02-01

    Untethered small-scale (from several millimetres down to a few micrometres in all dimensions) robots that can non-invasively access confined, enclosed spaces may enable applications in microfactories such as the construction of tissue scaffolds by robotic assembly, in bioengineering such as single-cell manipulation and biosensing, and in healthcare such as targeted drug delivery and minimally invasive surgery. Existing small-scale robots, however, have very limited mobility because they are unable to negotiate obstacles and changes in texture or material in unstructured environments. Of these small-scale robots, soft robots have greater potential to realize high mobility via multimodal locomotion, because such machines have higher degrees of freedom than their rigid counterparts. Here we demonstrate magneto-elastic soft millimetre-scale robots that can swim inside and on the surface of liquids, climb liquid menisci, roll and walk on solid surfaces, jump over obstacles, and crawl within narrow tunnels. These robots can transit reversibly between different liquid and solid terrains, as well as switch between locomotive modes. They can additionally execute pick-and-place and cargo-release tasks. We also present theoretical models to explain how the robots move. Like the large-scale robots that can be used to study locomotion, these soft small-scale robots could be used to study soft-bodied locomotion produced by small organisms.

  15. Resource Use Productivity Among Small-Scale Farmers In Yola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study conducted in Yola Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria, has the overall objective of determining resource use productivity among the small-scale farmers. The findings of the study revealed that characteristics of the farmers such as age, level of education, farm size, sources of farm labour and of ...

  16. Small Scale Beekeeping. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Curtis

    This manual is designed to assist Peace Corps volunteers in the development and implementation of small-scale beekeeping programs as a tool for development. Addressed in the individual chapters are bees and humans; project planning; the types and habits of bees; the essence of beekeeping; bee space and beehives; intermediate technology beekeeping;…

  17. Lessons from Small-scale Standardised Testing of English Reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale standardised testing for ESL performance is an assessment strategy that can contribute to identifying specific needs at a particular school. Standardised testing, as a sub-component of the broader concept of assessment which includes a range of assessment options, is defined as any form of test that requires all ...

  18. Farm Input Management Strategies In Small Scale Farming In Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farm Input Management Strategies In Small Scale Farming In Niger State, Nigeria. ... Tools used for analysis were frequency distribution tables and percentages. The results showed preference for the ... quality of their lives. Keywords: Adoption, effective farm input management, income generation, strategies, Niger State

  19. Internationalisation of Artisanal and Small Scale Mining in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... located at Tarkwa affirmed that, “The arrival of the. Chinese has helped small scale mining. The major problem we have here is lower gold recovery rates in processing. The Chinese are helping to solve recovery problems. We wouldn't have got new technologies for milling and processing without the.

  20. Gender, Small Scale Industrial Development and Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender, Small Scale Industrial Development and Poverty Reduction in the Ajumako Enyan Essiam District (AEED) in the Central Region of Ghana. ... The multi-stage sampling technique was also employed, using the cluster, simple random and systematic techniques to get sixty (60) non-SSI households to compare with the ...

  1. Analysis of Women Small Scale Entrepreneurs Practices during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frederick Iraki

    loan schemes and agro processing clusters specifically for women under various organizations such as Small Industry Development Organization (SIDO). Despite donor agency and NGO support for over 30 years, the expected growth and transition of most of informal sector micro-to- small-scale enterprises have been ...

  2. Understanding local differences in small - scale fisheries: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The small-scale fishery in Antsiranana Bay, northern Madagascar, constitutes a very active industry with fishers using multiple methods based on traditional techniques. In this first study of the fishing activities in Antsiranana Bay, two villages were surveyed, both through direct observation and by means of interviews with ...

  3. Cooperatives in Small Scale Amaranthus Production in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed cooperative in small scale amaranthus vegetable production in Kwara State, Nigeria with reference to cooperator and non- cooperator amaranthus vegetable farmers. Specifically, the study looked at the costs and returns to amaranthus vegetable farming for both groups and the effect of cooperative ...

  4. management and growth paradox of rural small-scale industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. It has been argued that Small Scale Industries (SSIs) scarcely grow rather they stagnate and most of them eventually die off mainly due to poor management. The situation has been blamed on a number of factors and therefore a systematic analysis of the key influential factors will give better understanding of ...

  5. Simulating Small-Scale Object Stacking Using Stack Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg Thomsen, Kasper; Kraus, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an extension system to a closed-source, real-time physics engine for improving structured stacking behavior with small-scale objects such as wooden toy bricks. The proposed system was implemented and evaluated. The tests showed that the system is able to simulate several common...

  6. Small-scale processing of biomass for biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The current fossil-based economy is moving towards a more bio-based economy. To enable this transition, many different processes for biorefinery are being developed. Small-scale biorefinery processes can be beneficial, not only socially and ecologically, but also economically. The main motivation

  7. Factors influencing adoption of Small-Scale Palm Oil Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of respondents' socio-economic characteristics on adoption was investigated along with other factors influencing adoption of the Small-Scale palm oil Processing Equipment (SSPE) in Delta State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in administrating 164 structured questionnaires. Data were ...

  8. Factors affecting adoption behaviour of small scale farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is recommended that all agricultural development schemes and interventions programs in the study area should focus more on factors affecting adoption behavior of farmers in order to encourage adoption and sustain the use of agricultural innovations. Keywords: Factors, Adoption, behavior, rice, small- scale farmer.

  9. Small scale processors' engagement in cassava postharvest and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to provide the needed services to the processors in terms of technical advice which will help them maximize the benefits of post-harvest technologies. Also, policies that will encourage the rural processors in diversification is recommended. Keywords: Cassava, Small scale, Processors, Livelihood activities and Household ...

  10. Nitrate-nitrogen removal with small-scale reverse osmosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nitrate-nitrogen concentration in water supplied to clinics in Limpopo Province is too high to be fit for human consumption (35 to 75 mg/ℓ NO3-N). Therefore, small-scale technologies (reverse osmosis, ion-exchange and electrodialysis) were evaluated for nitrate-nitrogen removal to make the water potable (< 10 mg/ℓ ...

  11. Influence of Small Scale Businesses on Decision Making Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financially independence of women's doesn't always lead in decision making on issues related income utilization and choices of life. This research aimed to assess the influence of small scale business on women's decision making capacity. For the assessment the case of a credit and saving association in Muketure was ...

  12. Productivity and production efficiency among small scale irrigated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined productivity and production efficiency among small scale irrigated sugarcane farmers in Niger State, Nigeria using a stochastic translog frontier function. Data for the study were obtained using structured questionnaires administered to 100 randomly selected sugarcane farmers from Paiko and Gurara ...

  13. Pesticide safety practice and its determinants among small scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticide safety practice and its determinants among small scale vegetables farmers in Eyasi area, Arusha region Tanzania. ... the lack of protective behavior, it is then very important that farmers and farm workers are reminded of the hazardous nature of pesticides and the need to have their health monitored regularly.

  14. Shaping Component Leads for Small-Scale Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Simple tool makes it easy to bend leads of electronic components quickly and uniformly for assembly on circuit board. Useful in small-scale production of electronic circuits; saves labor but avoids cost of complicated machinery. Made in range of sizes to accommodate components in variety of dimensions.

  15. Production hygiene and training influences on rural small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was therefore to determine the extent to which training in organic farming methods, including modules such as the Importance of Production Hygiene' influenced the hygienic farming practices of small-scale, organic farmers in eTholeni, uMbumbulu, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Questionnaires were ...

  16. The Relevance of Indigenous Knowledge for Small-Scale Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Relevance of Indigenous Knowledge for Small-Scale Farming in Tanzania. ... It is thus important to understand and facilitate the identification, documentation and use of this knowledge as well as integrating it with conventional knowledge for improved agricultural activities. The knowledge intermediaries (research, ...

  17. Dynamics of fresh produce marketing in small-scale irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale irrigation schemes provide a worthwhile livelihood for smallholder farmers, though those farmers struggle to obtain a guaranteed and consistent market for their produce. This article focuses on constraints and opportunities that different types of smallholder irrigation farmers in South Africa have in meeting ...

  18. Small scale irrigation management practices: A study of fadama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is important because sustainability of fadama irrigation development depends to a large extent on the efficiency of the input and extension systems in terms of continuous provision of adequate and accessible inputs. In establishing an effective small scale irrigation system, pump provision at subsidized price should be ...

  19. Analyses of Small-Scale Turkey Production in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse small scale turkey production in Imo State of Nigeria. Owerri agricultural zone of Imo State harbours most of the urban cities with large population thus providing greatest market for turkey in the area. Fifty farmers in turkey production constituted sample size for this study. The data ...

  20. Small-Scale Chp Potential in Latvia and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, A.; Latõšv, E.; Siirde, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the research the small-scale CHP potential of Latvia and Estonia has been defined. Factors, which influence the CHP development, were analyzed in this paper, including political, geographic, climatological, legislative and technological factors. For the small-scale CHP potential assessment the three alternatives were chosen. The first alternative is the case, when only the hot water is taken into account. In this case the CHP can work with full load during the whole year because the heat load will not change (k=0,13). For the second alternative the results of the previous research were used. In this case an optimal relative heat load has been found for a small-scale CHP. This optimum value is 0,3. According to this optimum value the CHP can produce more electricity working with full load than in the first case. However, the CHP does not work whole year round. The third alternative shows the situation for the small-scale CHP when a half of the maximum heat load will be covered by the CHP. The formulas and the results for each case were provided.

  1. Small-Scale Helicopter Automatic Autorotation : Modeling, Guidance, and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taamallah, S.

    2015-01-01

    Our research objective consists in developing a, model-based, automatic safety recovery system, for a small-scale helicopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in autorotation, i.e. an engine OFF flight condition, that safely flies and lands the helicopter to a pre-specified ground location. In pursuit

  2. Formalizing artisanal and small-scale mining: Whither the workforce?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, B.L.P.; Besmanos, B.

    2016-01-01

    This article develops a critique of ongoing formalization efforts in the Artisanal and Small-scale Mining (ASM) sector. By departing from erroneous assumptions about a homogeneous ASM-sector, and by focusing on the recognition of mineral property rights, these formalization efforts tend to overlook

  3. Relationship Between Perceived Roles of Small Scale Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the contributions of small-scale enterprise to the rural economy of Ekiti State. A structured questionnaire was administered to 80 randomly selected rural dwellers in Ise L.G.A. of Ekiti State. Frequency distribution, percentages and Pearson correlation were used to analyse data. Findings revealed that ...

  4. Contributions of Small-Scale Community-Owned Infrastructure (SCI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to ascertain the contribution of small-scale community- owned infrastructure and asset acquisition to the attainment of Fadama III Project Development Objectives in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study employed the mixed method approach, involving quantitative and qualitative techniques. A total of ...

  5. Small - Scale Livestock Farming in Developing Areas of Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shortage of feed, poor breading practice, lack of production skills, poor infrastructure, livestock theft, inadequate veterinary services, poor marketing services, and poor extension services. Keywords: Small scale farmer, livestock farming, agricultural development, socio-economic development, developing areas, Swaziland ...

  6. Understanding Women's Experiences in Artisanal and Small Scale ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will provide empirical evidence on the constraints and opportunities for women's economic empowerment in artisanal and small scale mining (ASM), and on the impact ... Genre, entrepreneuriat et croissance partagée : les institutions et la promotion des petites et moyennes entreprises à Maurice et au Botswana.

  7. Effects of artisanal small-scale gold mining on fisheries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artisanal Small-scale Gold Mining (ASGM) has direct and indirect impacts on fisheries management. These impacts are mainly about the quality of the water where fish lives, ownership of the surrounding waters, land and human health. This study was carried out in two landing sites of Wagusu and Riskis Kogwari in ...

  8. Transaction Cost Of Borrowing Among Small Scale Farmers In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... farmers not aware of loan facilities, inability to provide securities, non-existence of banking services and high transaction cost. Transaction costs such as interest charges, transport, feeding, money paid for processing forms and gratification may influence the willingness of the small scale farmers to borrow or not to borrow.

  9. Economic Analysis of Small Scale Fish Pond Production in Oguta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the socio-economic factors affecting fish farming enterprises along shores of Oguta Lake in Imo State, Nigeria. The study was guided by the following research questions: what are the socio-economic characteristics of the small-scale farmers? What constitutes the attitude of farmers towards fish ...

  10. Technical efficiency of small-scale fishing households in Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical efficiency of small-scale fishing households in Tanzanian coastal villages: an empirical analysis. ... problems should be considered. Keywords: coastal areas, fisheries development, policy development, socio-economic factors, stochastic production frontier. African Journal of Aquatic Science 2007, 32(1): 51–61 ...

  11. Resource-Use Efficiency in Rice Production Under Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: The study was conducted in Bunkure Local Government Area of Kano State to appraise the efficiency of the resources used in rice production under small scale irrigation. The specific objectives of the study were to determine resource use efficiency, describe socio-economic characteristics of irrigated rice ...

  12. Agricultural Credit Utilization among Small Scale Women Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... monitor regularly the disbursement of agricultural loan to women farmers at the appropriate planning season with reasonable interest charge and that extension agents should ensure that the loan is utilized for only agricultural purposes. Key words: Credit utilization, small-scale farmer's income generation, Niger State.

  13. Integrated bioenergy conversion concepts for small scale gasification power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldas, Rizaldo Elauria

    Thermal and biological gasification are promising technologies for addressing the emerging concerns in biomass-based renewable energy, environmental protection and waste management. However, technical barriers such as feedstock quality limitations, tars, and high NOx emissions from biogas fueled engines impact their full utilization and make them suffer at the small scale from the need to purify the raw gas for most downstream processes, including power generation other than direct boiler use. The two separate gasification technologies may be integrated to better address the issues of power generation and waste management and to complement some of each technologies' limitations. This research project investigated the technical feasibility of an integrated thermal and biological gasification concept for parameters critical to appropriately matching an anaerobic digester with a biomass gasifier. Specific studies investigated the thermal gasification characteristics of selected feedstocks in four fixed-bed gasification experiments: (1) updraft gasification of rice hull, (2) indirect-heated gasification of rice hull, (3) updraft gasification of Athel wood, and (4) downdraft gasification of Athel and Eucalyptus woods. The effects of tars and other components of producer gas on anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperature of 36°C and the biodegradation potentials and soil carbon mineralization of gasification tars during short-term aerobic incubation at 27.5°C were also examined. Experiments brought out the ranges in performance and quality and quantity of gasification products under different operating conditions and showed that within the conditions considered in the study, these gasification products did not adversely impact the overall digester performance. Short-term aerobic incubation demonstrated variable impacts on carbon mineralization depending on tar and soil conditions. Although tars exhibited low biodegradation indices, degradation may be improved if the

  14. World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013 - Eastern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available cent) in electricity generation in Burundi, Ethiopia, Zambia, Mozambique and Malawi and it produces a significant amount of electricity in Uganda, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Madagascar and Kenya. The island topography of Seychelles is not suitable... Energy Information Portal – Reegle3 d. Burundi information: International Renewable Energy Agency. Renewable Energy Profiles4 e. The International Journal on Hydropower & Dams5 f. Kenya, Ministry of Energy6 g. Madagascar, Agence de Développement de l...

  15. State Models to Incentivize and Streamline Small Hydropower Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Taylor [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Levine, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Kurt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-31

    In 2016, the hydropower fleet in the United States produced more than 6 percent (approximately 265,829 gigawatt-hours [GWh]) of the total net electricity generation. The median-size hydroelectric facility in the United States is 1.6 MW and 75 percent of total facilities have a nameplate capacity of 10 MW or less. Moreover, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Vision study identified approximately 79 GW hydroelectric potential beyond what is already developed. Much of the potential identified is at low-impact new stream-reaches, existing conduits, and non-powered dams with a median project size of 10 MW or less. To optimize the potential and value of small hydropower development, state governments are crafting policies that provide financial assistance and expedite state and federal review processes for small hydroelectric projects. This report analyzes state-led initiatives and programs that incentivize and streamline small hydroelectric development.

  16. Small-scale nuclear reactors for remote military operations: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Small-scale nuclear reactors for remote military operations: opportunities and challenges Bret Strogen, PE, PhD August 25, 2015 NDIA Joint Service...military applications  DoD’s previous research initiatives and expressions of interest regarding terrestrial small modular ( nuclear ) reactor R&D • Army... Nuclear Reactor Program (1950s-1970s) • Recent DoD science board recommendations related to nuclear energy (2009 & 2012) • DARPA RFI/Study on

  17. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Zhao, D.; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Guan, D.

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China

  18. Frequency Stability of Hierarchically Controlled Hybrid Photovoltaic-Battery-Hydropower Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    is derived to analyze the system stability of the hybrid microgrid. The simulation results show system frequency and voltage stability for a hybrid microgrid demonstration which includes 2 MWp PV installations, a 15.2 MWh battery system, and a 12.8 MVA hydropower plant. Experimental results on a small......Hybrid photovoltaic (PV) -battery-hydropower microgrids can be considered to enhance electricity accessibility and availability in remote areas. However, the coexistence of different renewable energy sources with different inertias and control strategies may affect system stability. In this paper......, a hierarchical controller for hybrid PV-battery-hydropower microgrid is proposed in order to achieve the parallel operation of hydropower and PV-battery system with different rates, and to guarantee power sharing performance among PV voltage controlled inverters, while the required power to hydropower...

  19. A Holistic Framework for Environmental Flows Determination in Hydropower Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    Among the ecological science community, the consensus view is that the natural flow regime sustains the ecological integrity of river systems. This prevailing viewpoint by many environmental stakeholders has progressively led to increased pressure on hydropower dam owners to change plant operations to affect downstream river flows with the intention of providing better conditions for aquatic biological communities. Identifying the neccessary magnitude, frequency, duration, timing, or rate of change of stream flows to meet ecological needs in a hydropower context is challenging because the ecological responses to changes in flows may not be fully known, there are usually a multitude of competing users of flow, and implementing environmental flows usually comes at a price to energy production. Realistically, hydropower managers must develop a reduced set of goals that provide the most benefit to the identified ecological needs. As a part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project (IFP) was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argon National Laboratory (ANL) as an attempt to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. The application of these tools ranges from national to site-specific scales; thus, the utility of each tool will depend on various phases of the environmental flow process. Given the complexity and sheer volume of applications used to determine environmentally acceptable flows for hydropower, a framework is needed to organize efforts into a staged process dependent upon spatial, temporal, and functional attributes. By far, the predominant domain for determining environmental flows related to hydropower is within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) relicensing process. This process can take multiple years and can be very expensive depending on the scale of each hydropower project. The utility of such a

  20. Small-scale impacts as potential trigger for landslides on small Solar system bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Marc; Sierks, Holger; Blum, Jürgen

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a set of experiments to investigate whether millimetre-sized impactors impinging on a granular material at several m s-1 are able to trigger avalanches on small, atmosphereless planetary bodies. These experiments were carried out at the Zentrum für angewandte Raumfahrttechnologie und Mikrogravitation (ZARM) drop tower facility in Bremen, Germany to facilitate a reduced gravity environment. Additional data were gathered at Earth gravity levels in the laboratory. As sample materials we used a ground Howardites, Eucrites and Diogenites (HED) meteorite and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mars-1 Martian soil simulant. We found that this type of small-scale impact can trigger avalanches with a moderate probability, if the target material is tilted to an angle close to the angle of repose. We additionally simulated a small-scale impact using the discrete element method code esys-particle. These simulations show that energy transfer from impactor to the target material is most efficient at low- and moderate-impactor inclinations and the transferred energy is retained in particles close to the surface due to a rapid dissipation of energy in lower material layers driven by inelastic collisions. Through Monte Carlo simulations we estimate the time-scale on which small-scale impacts with the observed characteristics will trigger avalanches covering all steep slopes on the surface of a small planetary body to be of the order 105 yr.

  1. Universal small-scale structure in turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Lesur, Geoffroy

    2017-05-01

    The intermittent small-scale structure of turbulence governs energy dissipation in many astrophysical plasmas and is often believed to have universal properties for sufficiently large systems. In this work, we argue that small-scale turbulence in accretion discs is universal in the sense that it is insensitive to the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and background shear, and therefore indistinguishable from standard homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence at small scales. We investigate the intermittency of current density, vorticity and energy dissipation in numerical simulations of incompressible MHD turbulence driven by the MRI in a shearing box. We find that the simulations exhibit a similar degree of intermittency as in standard MHD turbulence. We perform a statistical analysis of intermittent dissipative structures and find that energy dissipation is concentrated in thin sheet-like structures that span a wide range of scales up to the box size. We show that these structures exhibit strikingly similar statistical properties to those in standard MHD turbulence. Additionally, the structures are oriented in the toroidal direction with a characteristic tilt of approximately 17.^{circ}5, implying an effective guide field in that direction.

  2. DOE Hydropower Program Biennial Report for FY 2005-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sale, Michael J [ORNL; Cada, Glenn F [ORNL; Acker, Thomas L. [Northern Arizona State University and National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Carlson, Thomas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Dauble, Dennis D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Laboratory (INL)

    2006-07-01

    SUMMARY The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Program is part of the Office of Wind and Hydropower Technologies, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Program's mission is to conduct research and development (R&D) that will increase the technical, societal, and environmental benefits of hydropower. The Department's Hydropower Program activities are conducted by its national laboratories: Idaho National Laboratory (INL) [formerly Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory], Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and by a number of industry, university, and federal research facilities. Programmatically, DOE Hydropower Program R&D activities are conducted in two areas: Technology Viability and Technology Application. The Technology Viability area has two components: (1) Advanced Hydropower Technology (Large Turbine Field Testing, Water Use Optimization, and Improved Mitigation Practices) and (2) Supporting Research and Testing (Environmental Performance Testing Methods, Computational and Physical Modeling, Instrumentation and Controls, and Environmental Analysis). The Technology Application area also has two components: (1) Systems Integration and Technology Acceptance (Hydro/Wind Integration, National Hydropower Collaborative, and Integration and Communications) and (2) Supporting Engineering and Analysis (Valuation Methods and Assessments and Characterization of Innovative Technology). This report describes the progress of the R&D conducted in FY 2005-2006 under all four program areas. Major accomplishments include the following: Conducted field testing of a Retrofit Aeration System to increase the dissolved oxygen content of water discharged from the turbines of the Osage Project in Missouri. Contributed to the installation and field testing of an advanced, minimum gap runner turbine at the Wanapum Dam project in Washington

  3. The impacts of climate change on a Norwegian high-head hydropower plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernet, Haregewoin Haile; Alfredsen, Knut; Killintveit, Aanund

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Norway relies on hydropower for 99 percent of the electricity production and thus Hydropower is important for Norway today and in the future energy system. The work presented in this paper shows how a high-head hydropower system in Norway will be affected in the future climate. The Aurland Hydropower system, operated by E-Co Vannkraft, Norway is the test case for the study. The Aurland hydropower system has many reservoirs and transfer systems and is considered to be one of the complex systems in Norway, but also a typical example of a Norwegian high head system. The nMAG Hydropower simulation model, which has been developed at the Norwegian Hydro technical Laboratory, is used to simulate the hydropower system. Historical and future inflow series were transposed from the neighbouring catchment Flaamselvi using scaling based on area and specific runoff, as there is no discharge station in Aurland catchment with long unregulated inflow series to set up the model and to be used for developing future climate scenarios. To generate the future inflow series for the analysis, the HBV hydrological model is calibrated for the Flaamselvi catchment. The model is then used to generate future inflow series of using the Hadley GCM (HADAm3) and A2, B2 climate scenarios. The operation of the hydropower system is then simulated for the period 2071 -2100 to see how future power production is affected by the change in the inflow conditions. The HBV model is also used to see how snow accumulation will be affected in the future as snow melt is important for Norwegian reservoir and hydropower systems. The Hydrologic scenarios under climate change imply an average increase in runoff for the system. Snow accumulation will decrease with sooner snow melt and more winter precipitation as rain. The hydropower simulation results show that associated with the increase in runoff there is an increase in energy generation with 10-20% under the current reservoir operation strategies

  4. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1990--1991 (with updated annotated bibliography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, J.R.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Sale, M.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hydropower Program for fiscal years 1990 and 1991, and provides an annotated bibliography of research, engineering, operations, regulations, and costs of projects pertinent to hydropower development. The Hydropower Program is organized as follows: background (including Technology Development and Engineering Research and Development); Resource Assessment; National Energy Strategy; Technology Transfer; Environmental Research; and, the bibliography discusses reports written by both private and non-Federal Government sectors. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Accelerating Sustainability by Hydropower Development in China: The Story of HydroLancang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is a shared responsibility. Accelerating sustainability of water–energy–people nexus and building a common awareness of issues pertaining to sustainable development are essential for any sort of success in this direction. Hydropower has been a useful sustainable energy for development, yet highly controversial. This paper reviews the overall situation of hydropower development and China’s energy reforms and policies, accompanied with a case study of hydropower development the Lancang River by the HydroLancang, aiming to illustrate the two opposite sides of hydropower development—economy and environment. The paper concludes with a neutral view of hydropower as the necessary facilitator for development. Water is a shared responsibility. Hydropower might not be the optimum solution to eliminate the tension between human demand of energy and finite natural resource and the rising pressure of climate change worldwide, but it serves well as an “Electricity Bridge” before better alternatives become available. This is a more balanced view of hydropower rather than two extreme viewpoints that present themselves: on the one hand, exaggerated claims of the human power to tame the wild river, and, on the other hand, the idealistic fantasy of preserving nature by abandoning all human activity.

  6. The influence of climate change on Tanzania's hydropower sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Boehlert, Brent; Meijer, Karen; Schellekens, Jaap; Magnell, Jan-Petter; Helbrink, Jakob; Kassana, Leonard; Liden, Rikard

    2015-04-01

    Economic costs induced by current climate variability are large for Tanzania and may further increase due to future climate change. The Tanzanian National Climate Change Strategy addressed the need for stabilization of hydropower generation and strengthening of water resources management. Increased hydropower generation can contribute to sustainable use of energy resources and stabilization of the national electricity grid. To support Tanzania the World Bank financed this study in which the impact of climate change on the water resources and related hydropower generation capacity of Tanzania is assessed. To this end an ensemble of 78 GCM projections from both the CMIP3 and CMIP5 datasets was bias-corrected and down-scaled to 0.5 degrees resolution following the BCSD technique using the Princeton Global Meteorological Forcing Dataset as a reference. To quantify the hydrological impacts of climate change by 2035 the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB was set-up for Tanzania at a resolution of 3 minutes and run with all 78 GCM datasets. From the full set of projections a probable (median) and worst case scenario (95th percentile) were selected based upon (1) the country average Climate Moisture Index and (2) discharge statistics of relevance to hydropower generation. Although precipitation from the Princeton dataset shows deviations from local station measurements and the global hydrological model does not perfectly reproduce local scale hydrographs, the main discharge characteristics and precipitation patterns are represented well. The modeled natural river flows were adjusted for water demand and irrigation within the water resources model RIBASIM (both historical values and future scenarios). Potential hydropower capacity was assessed with the power market simulation model PoMo-C that considers both reservoir inflows obtained from RIBASIM and overall electricity generation costs. Results of the study show that climate change is unlikely to negatively affect the

  7. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies. PMID:26503683

  8. A Success Story of Organizing Small Scale Farmers in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    , will through this have a chance to contribute to national development, but to also enhance their own livelihood. The big problem of relying on small scale farmers is an organization model that ensures endurance and reliability. The Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) has through almost 50 years been successful...... in integrating 600.000 smallholders in the tea production making tea number one income earner in Kenya and enhancing the livelihoods of the involved contract growers. The article argues that lessons should be learned from the success of KTDA in possibly replicating the organizational model to other crops......, but not least to be used in PES schemes. The article emphasizes vertical integration and production diversification, enabling market conditions, and democratization as the main factors in KTDA’s success that could possibly be replicated in promoting small scale farmers participating in the post-Kyoto carbon...

  9. Design and Modelling of Small Scale Low Temperature Power Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, Jorrit

    he work presented in this report contributes to the state of the art within design and modelling of small scale low temperature power cycles. The study is divided into three main parts: (i) fluid property evaluation, (ii) expansion device investigations and (iii) heat exchanger performance. The t...... scale plate heat exchanger. Working towards a validation of heat transfer correlations for ORC conditions, a new test rig was designed and built. The test facility can be used to study heat transfer in both ORC and high temperature heat pump systems.......he work presented in this report contributes to the state of the art within design and modelling of small scale low temperature power cycles. The study is divided into three main parts: (i) fluid property evaluation, (ii) expansion device investigations and (iii) heat exchanger performance...

  10. The small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. P.; Sandage, Allan

    1991-01-01

    Two results on the small-scale clustering properties of dwarf galaxies are reported, which were identified in the vicinity of early-type Shapley-Ames galaxies on high-resolution photographic plates. The first result indicates that dwarf galaxies display the same trend of stronger clustering toward earlier morphological type on small scales as their giant counterparts on larger scales. It is suggested that early-type dwarfs can be used as dynamical probes of dark halos around early-type giant galaxies and as tracers of the dynamical evolution of such halos in dense environments. The second result pertains to the trend of increasing early-type dwarf frequency per early-type giant with environment richness previously established for rich groups. It is found that a minimum value of isolated early-type galaxies is approximately 0.25, as compared to a maximum of approximately 8 in rich environments like the Virgo Cluster.

  11. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-12-05

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Managing Small-Scale Fisheries : Alternative Directions and Methods

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Small-scale Fisheries va plus loin que le champ d'application de la gestion classique des pêches pour aborder d'autres concepts, outils, méthodes et stratégies de conservation. On insiste davantage, par exemple, sur la gestion des écosystèmes et la prise de décision participative. Les gestionnaires des pêches, ...

  13. Effectiveness of 3D Printing in Small Scale Production

    OpenAIRE

    Huttunen, Jani

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to estimate the effectiveness of two 3D printing methods (fused deposition modeling and stereolithography) for prototyping and small-scale production at a 3D printing laboratory at Metropolia University of Applied Sciences. The 3D printing technology is currently developing, so not much literature is available yet. That is the reason why before actual production a thorough analysis is needed of the advantages and disadvantages and of the effectiveness of the...

  14. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies

    OpenAIRE

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social c...

  15. Legal factors affecting the financing of small scale hydroelectric projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.H.; Ringo, M.J.; Forgione, N.

    1983-09-01

    An introduction to the major business organizational options open to small-scale hydroelectric (SSH) projects is given. The major federal income tax treatments of these options are compared. Significant general federal income tax factors affecting SSH projects are reintroduced and explained. Some of the special federal income tax problem areas in SSH development are isolated. Tax benefit flow through or transfer mechanisms are discussed. Tax exempt financing opportunities for private SSH projects are reviewed. (MHR)

  16. Small-Scale Flat Plate Collectors for Solar Thermal Scavenging in Low Conductivity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ogbonnaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is great opportunity to develop power supplies for autonomous application on the small scale. For example, remote environmental sensors may be powered through the harvesting of ambient thermal energy and heating of a thermoelectric generator. This work investigates a small-scale (centimeters solar thermal collector designed for this application. The absorber is coated with a unique selective coating and then studied in a low pressure environment to increase performance. A numerical model that is used to predict the performance of the collector plate is developed. This is validated based on benchtop testing of a fabricated collector plate in a low-pressure enclosure. Model results indicate that simulated solar input of about 800 W/m2 results in a collector plate temperature of 298 K in ambient conditions and up to 388 K in vacuum. The model also predicts the various losses in W/m2 K from the plate to the surroundings. Plate temperature is validated through the experimental work showing that the model is useful to the future design of these small-scale solar thermal energy collectors.

  17. Initial Market Assessment for Small-Scale Biomass-Based CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Mann, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to reexamine the energy generation market opportunities for biomass CHP applications smaller than 20 MW. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of and challenges for biomass CHP in terms of policy, including a discussion of the drivers behind, and constraints on, the biomass CHP market. The report provides a summary discussion of the available biomass supply types and technologies that could be used to feed the market. Two primary markets are outlined--rural/agricultural and urban--for small-scale biomass CHP, and illustrate the primary intersections of supply and demand for those markets. The paper concludes by summarizing the potential markets and suggests next steps for identifying and utilizing small-scale biomass.

  18. Extraction of Extended Small-Scale Objects in Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V. Y.

    2015-05-01

    Detection and localization problem of extended small-scale objects with different shapes appears in radio observation systems which use SAR, infra-red, lidar and television camera. Intensive non-stationary background is the main difficulty for processing. Other challenge is low quality of images, blobs, blurred boundaries; in addition SAR images suffer from a serious intrinsic speckle noise. Statistics of background is not normal, it has evident skewness and heavy tails in probability density, so it is hard to identify it. The problem of extraction small-scale objects is solved here on the basis of directional filtering, adaptive thresholding and morthological analysis. New kind of masks is used which are open-ended at one side so it is possible to extract ends of line segments with unknown length. An advanced method of dynamical adaptive threshold setting is investigated which is based on isolated fragments extraction after thresholding. Hierarchy of isolated fragments on binary image is proposed for the analysis of segmentation results. It includes small-scale objects with different shape, size and orientation. The method uses extraction of isolated fragments in binary image and counting points in these fragments. Number of points in extracted fragments is normalized to the total number of points for given threshold and is used as effectiveness of extraction for these fragments. New method for adaptive threshold setting and control maximises effectiveness of extraction. It has optimality properties for objects extraction in normal noise field and shows effective results for real SAR images.

  19. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  20. Accurate age estimation in small-scale societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Yoan; Smith, Daniel; Gerbault, Pascale; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Thomas, Mark G

    2017-08-01

    Precise estimation of age is essential in evolutionary anthropology, especially to infer population age structures and understand the evolution of human life history diversity. However, in small-scale societies, such as hunter-gatherer populations, time is often not referred to in calendar years, and accurate age estimation remains a challenge. We address this issue by proposing a Bayesian approach that accounts for age uncertainty inherent to fieldwork data. We developed a Gibbs sampling Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that produces posterior distributions of ages for each individual, based on a ranking order of individuals from youngest to oldest and age ranges for each individual. We first validate our method on 65 Agta foragers from the Philippines with known ages, and show that our method generates age estimations that are superior to previously published regression-based approaches. We then use data on 587 Agta collected during recent fieldwork to demonstrate how multiple partial age ranks coming from multiple camps of hunter-gatherers can be integrated. Finally, we exemplify how the distributions generated by our method can be used to estimate important demographic parameters in small-scale societies: here, age-specific fertility patterns. Our flexible Bayesian approach will be especially useful to improve cross-cultural life history datasets for small-scale societies for which reliable age records are difficult to acquire.

  1. Driving small-scale fisheries in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven W. Purcell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries (SSFs engage the vast majority of the world’s fishers but are struggling to keep pace with coastal populations, and stocks are declining to levels that threaten reproductive capacity. The provision of food and livelihoods to low-income fishers into the future will be unlikely without radical changes to fisheries policy. We draw on repeating analogies of driving a car to illustrate fundamental reforms needed for driving (managing small-scale fisheries. SSFs will continue to be unsustainable by relying too heavily on output controls (the ‘brake’. Managers need to move away from routinely using moratoria (i.e. the ‘handbrake’ as a management measure, although these measures may be needed as a last resort. Scientists (‘backseat drivers’ must engage more directly with fishery management agencies to understand their constraints and needs. Resource managers must come to terms with regulating fishing inputs (the ‘accelerator’ by imposing limited-entry rules, vessel limitations or short fishing seasons in addition to sensible output controls. Reforms to resource management will need to entail unpopular measures if small-scale fisheries are to deliver sustained benefits to fishing communities into the future.

  2. Sustainable Small-Scale Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Spielmann

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For at least the past 8000 years, small-scale farmers in semi-arid environments have had to mitigate shortfalls in crop production due to variation in precipitation and stream flow. To reduce their vulnerability to a shortfall in their food supply, small-scale farmers developed short-term strategies, including storage and community-scale sharing, to mitigate inter-annual variation in crop production, and long-term strategies, such as migration, to mitigate the effects of sustained droughts. We use the archaeological and paleoclimatic records from A.D. 900-1600 in two regions of the American Southwest to explore the nature of variation in the availability of water for crops, and the strategies that enhanced the resilience of prehistoric agricultural production to climatic variation. Drawing on information concerning contemporary small-scale farming in semi-arid environments, we then suggest that the risk coping and mitigation strategies that have endured for millennia are relevant to enhancing the resilience of contemporary farmers' livelihoods to environmental and economic perturbations.

  3. Dislocation dynamics simulations of plasticity at small scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Caizhi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    As metallic structures and devices are being created on a dimension comparable to the length scales of the underlying dislocation microstructures, the mechanical properties of them change drastically. Since such small structures are increasingly common in modern technologies, there is an emergent need to understand the critical roles of elasticity, plasticity, and fracture in small structures. Dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations, in which the dislocations are the simulated entities, offer a way to extend length scales beyond those of atomistic simulations and the results from DD simulations can be directly compared with the micromechanical tests. The primary objective of this research is to use 3-D DD simulations to study the plastic deformation of nano- and micro-scale materials and understand the correlation between dislocation motion, interactions and the mechanical response. Specifically, to identify what critical events (i.e., dislocation multiplication, cross-slip, storage, nucleation, junction and dipole formation, pinning etc.) determine the deformation response and how these change from bulk behavior as the system decreases in size and correlate and improve our current knowledge of bulk plasticity with the knowledge gained from the direct observations of small-scale plasticity. Our simulation results on single crystal micropillars and polycrystalline thin films can march the experiment results well and capture the essential features in small-scale plasticity. Furthermore, several simple and accurate models have been developed following our simulation results and can reasonably predict the plastic behavior of small scale materials.

  4. Game theory competition analysis of reservoir water supply and hydropower generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.

    2013-12-01

    The total installed capacity of the power generation systems in Taiwan is about 41,000 MW. Hydropower is one of the most important renewable energy sources, with hydropower generation capacity of about 4,540 MW. The aim of this research is to analyze competition between water supply and hydropower generation in water-energy systems. The major relationships between water and energy systems include hydropower generation by water, energy consumption for water system operation, and water consumption for energy system. In this research, a game-theoretic Cournot model is formulated to simulate oligopolistic competition between water supply, hydropower generation, and co-fired power generation in water-energy systems. A Nash equilibrium of the competitive market is derived and solved by GAMS with PATH solver. In addition, a case study analyzing the competition among water supply and hydropower generation of De-ji and Ku-Kuan reservoirs, Taipower, Star Energy, and Star-Yuan power companies in central Taiwan is conducted.

  5. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, John S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  6. Present and future hydropower scheduling in Statkraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruland, O.

    2012-12-01

    uncertainties have thus far been handled superficially. Statkraft has initiated a program called ENKI to approach these issues. A part of this program is to apply distributed models for hydrological forecasting. Developing methodologies to handle uncertainties in the observations, the meteorological forecasts, the model itself and how to update the model with this information are other parts of the program. Together with energy price expectations and information about the state of the energy production system the hydrological forecast is input to the next step in the production scheduling both on short and long term. The long term schedule for reservoir filling is premise provider to the short term optimizing of water. The long term schedule is based on the actual reservoir levels, snow storages and a long history of meteorological observations and gives an overall schedule at a regional level. Within the regions a more detailed tool is used for short term optimizing of the hydropower production Each reservoir is scheduled taking into account restrictions in the water courses and cost of start and stop of aggregates. The value of the water is calculated for each reservoir and reflects the risk of water spillage. This compared to the energy price determines whether an aggregate will run or not. In a gradually more complex energy system with relatively lower regulated capacity this is an increasingly more challenging task.

  7. Development of Sustainability Assessment Framework in Hydropower sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliha Sahimi, Nur; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Johan, Kartina

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, Malaysian demand in energy sector was drastically increase due to technological developments. Since, hydropower is one of potential renewable energy source in Malaysia. The largest electricity utility company, Tenaga Nasional Berhad was provide an electricity to more than seven million people via independent suppliers in peninsular Malaysia and Sabah by intended a potential sustainable hydropower system. In order to increasingly the power capacity from current use, 1882 MW to more than 3000 MW by years 2020. In this study, the environmental issues and also the penalty to the responsible company especially on Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) towards their project or business are one of the problems. Other than that, every project or business has to prepare a sustainability statement or sustainability report as vital to Bursa Malaysia Securities Berhad under their listing requirements. Next, the sustainability performance on their project cannot be determined to achieve the key performance indicators (KPI) satisfaction from Government, stakeholder or any responsible agencies. This study presents an exhaustive review of these studies and suggests a direction for future developments. Sustainability Assessment framework or self-assessment is decidedly as a significant framework to assist towards sustainability reporting and to produce a Sustainability index for Hydropower sector using a mathematical model study. The results reveal that, the quantitative measurement from Sustainability Assessment framework to Systematic Sustainability Asssesment tool can be produce. In doing so, it is possible to improve the performance of the project especially in hydropower planner.

  8. False Shades of Green: The Case of Brazilian Amazonian Hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Randall Kahn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Federal Government of Brazil has ambitious plans to build a system of 58 additional hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon, with Hundreds of additional dams planned for other countries in the watershed. Although hydropower is often billed as clean energy, we argue that the environmental impacts of this project are likely to be large, and will result in substantial loss of biodiversity, as well as changes in the flows of ecological services. Moreover, the projects will generate significant greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation and decay of organic matter in the reservoirs. These emissions are equivalent to the five years of emissions that would be generated by gas powered plants of equivalent capacity. In addition, we examine the economic benefits of the hydropower in comparison to new alternatives, such as photovoltaic energy and wind power. We find that current costs of hydropower exceed alternatives, and the costs of costs of these alternatives are likely to fall substantially below those of hydropower, while the environmental damages from the dams will be extensive and irreversible.

  9. A GIS based assessment of hydropower potential in Hornád basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    �ofia Kuzevičová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of efficient use of hydropower, ones of the available renewable resources is currently in the process of sustainable development of each country, often addressing the issue. Incite multiple aspects. It is now seen just growing interest in exploiting the potential of hydropower. On the basis of active efforts are developed to map the total quantity of usability hydropower at basin level in Slovakia. GIS as a powerful and sophisticated tool for processing spatially localized information and offers support for renewable energy sources (not excluding the field of hydropower. Through the integration of spatial data allows assessing the real problems and thus contributing effectively to make rational decisions. Especially in the field of hydropower projects have GIS well founded importance. Of course is important to mention that the potential for hydroelectric power is useless without the operation of hydropower that converts water into electrical energy. For the needs of administrators of watercourses and operators of water systems, the proposed model can be an important tool for decision-making in relation to its implementation activities. Contribution to the design solutions for potential hydropower will address river basin Hornád.

  10. The Role of Hydropower in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Berga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower is a clean, renewable, and environmentally friendly source of energy. It produces 3930 (TW.h.a−1, and yields 16% of the world’s generated electricity and about 78% of renewable electricity generation (in 2015. Hydropower and climate change show a double relationship. On the one hand, as an important renewable energy resource, hydropower contributes significantly to the avoidance of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and to the mitigation of global warming. On the other hand, climate change is likely to alter river discharge, impacting water availability and hydropower generation. Hydropower contributes significantly to the reduction of GHG emissions and to energy supply security. Compared with conventional coal power plants, hydropower prevents the emission of about 3 GT CO2 per year, which represents about 9% of global annual CO2 emissions. Hydropower projects may also have an enabling role beyond the electricity sector, as a financing instrument for multipurpose reservoirs and as an adaptive measure regarding the impacts of climate change on water resources, because regulated basins with large reservoir capacities are more resilient to water resource changes, less vulnerable to climate change, and act as a storage buffer against climate change. At the global level, the overall impact of climate change on existing hydropower generation may be expected to be small, or even slightly positive. However, there is the possibility of substantial variations across regions and even within countries. In conclusion, the general verdict on hydropower is that it is a cheap and mature technology that contributes significantly to climate change mitigation, and could play an important role in the climate change adaptation of water resource availability. However, careful attention is necessary to mitigate the substantial environmental and social costs. Roughly more than a terawatt of capacity could be added in upcoming decades.

  11. Development activities, challenges and prospects for the hydropower sector in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Beatrice; Hauer, Christoph; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-04-01

    This contribution intends to give an overview of hydropower development activities in Austria and deepen the knowledge on actual strategies and planning documents. Thereby, the focus is on a climate and energy policy based perspective, also analyzing economic trends at the hydropower sector due to energy market changes in the last years. This includes a comparison with other political strategies and programs dealing with hydropower exploitation based on selected countries. With respect to technology developments, a concise review on technological innovations, such as hydrokinetic energy conversion systems, and new constructive designs of conventional hydropower plants in Austria will be given. Moreover, potential impacts on environment and aquatic ecosystems are described. Finally, key challenges and prospects will be identified and discussed.

  12. A small scale education experiment kit with wind generator-PEM electrolyser system and modelling

    OpenAIRE

    ATLAM, Özcan

    2010-01-01

    A small scale experiment wind energy kit is prepared in order to introduce renewable energy applications. The kit consists of a wind turbine with horizontal axis, a direct current (dc) motor as generator and variable wind excitation system. Performance characteristics of the wind system are defined for different wind speeds. It is found that at the highest 10 m/s wind excitation, the maximum turbine mechanical power from wind is about 0.30 W at 5.3 V., maximum output power of the ge...

  13. Investigation of small scale solar concentration parabolic dish with heat storage: (low to medium temperature application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madessa, Habtamu Bayera

    2012-07-01

    This PhD thesis focuses on the development and testing of a small scale concentrating parabolic dish with heat storage for low to medium temperature applications. The system consists of a parabolic dish solar concentrator that concentrates solar radiation, a fibrous mat solar absorber that captures concentrated solar rays and converts them to thermal energy and a packed bed with pebble rock as a thermal energy storage unit. This research has targeted several issues in which there is a lack of knowledge on small scale concentrating solar energy technologies, with the work summarized in eight papers. Paper 1 concerns experimental measurement of the dynamic temperature profiles along a rock bed heat storage unit during thermal charging and degradation. The study examined both finned and non-finned types of rock bed storages. The effects of the long fins. which are incorporated to transport heat from the bottom to the top surface of the heat storage, were investigated in relation to temperature distribution. As an extension of Paper 1, the performance of a rock bed fitted with long fins was studied as a heat storage unit and a cooking device. The bed charging efficiency, as well as the capacity to store thermal energy and extract heat for boiling of water was discussed. Paper 3 describes the implemention of a 1D numerical model in the MATLAB environment to simulate the transient temperature profiles of rock bed heat storage units. Conservation equations were formulated for the air, rock pebble and fins. The equations were solved on a staggered grid, and the model predicts the experimental results reasonably well. The thesis also investigates two types of volumetric solar absorbers (a fibrous wire mesh and a ceramic) that could be incorporated with a small scale solar concentrating parabolic dish system. Both the fibrous mesh and ceramic type absorbers display a better performance, as discussed in Paper 4. Another contribution of the PhD work is to investigate a 1D sun

  14. Assessing the Impact of Small-Scale Magnetic Morphology on Solar Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Courtney; Rast, Mark; Criscuoli, Serena

    2017-08-01

    Spectral solar irradiance (SSI), the radiant energy flux per wavelength of the Sun received at Earth, is an important driver of chemical reactions in the Earth’s atmosphere. Accurate measurements of SSI are therefore necessary as an input for global climate models. While models and observations of the spectrally-integrated total solar irradiance (TSI) variations agree within ˜ 95%, they can disagree on the sign and magnitude of the SSI variations. In this work, we examine the contribution of currently-unresolved small-scale magnetic structures to SSI variations in the photosphere. We examine the emergent spectra of two atmospheres with differing imposed-field conditions — one with a small-scale dynamo and the other with a predominantly vertical magnetic field — with similar mean field strengths at wavelengths spanning from visible to infrared. Comparing the radiative output at various viewing angles of pixels of equal vertical magnetic field strength between the two simulations, we find that the small-scale dynamo simulations produce higher radiative output than those in the predominantly vertical field simulation. This implies that the radiative output of a small magnetic structure depends on the magnetic morphology of the environment in which it is embedded, which is currently not included in SSI models. We deduce the effect on inferred irradiance by comparing the disk-integrated irradiance of these two atmospheres with standard 1D model atmospheres used in SSI modeling.

  15. Modeling small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico using multi-criteria programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Arreola, D; Kebreab, E; France, J

    2006-05-01

    Milk supply from Mexican dairy farms does not meet demand and small-scale farms can contribute toward closing the gap. Two multi-criteria programming techniques, goal programming and compromise programming, were used in a study of small-scale dairy farms in central Mexico. To build the goal and compromise programming models, 4 ordinary linear programming models were also developed, which had objective functions to maximize metabolizable energy for milk production, to maximize margin of income over feed costs, to maximize metabolizable protein for milk production, and to minimize purchased feedstuffs. Neither multi-criteria approach was significantly better than the other; however, by applying both models it was possible to perform a more comprehensive analysis of these small-scale dairy systems. The multi-criteria programming models affirm findings from previous work and suggest that a forage strategy based on alfalfa, ryegrass, and corn silage would meet nutrient requirements of the herd. Both models suggested that there is an economic advantage in rescheduling the calving season to the second and third calendar quarters to better synchronize higher demand for nutrients with the period of high forage availability.

  16. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  17. Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.

    2015-04-06

    Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.

  18. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1992--1993 (with an updated annotated bibliography)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Francfort, J.E.; Rinehart, B.N.; Sommers, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental research; resource assessment; research coat shared with industry; and technology transfer. The report also offers an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by persons in Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  19. DOE Hydropower Program biennial report 1994--1995 with an updated annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, B.N.; Francfort, J.E.; Sommers, G.L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This report, the latest in a series of annual/biennial Hydropower Program reports sponsored by the US Department of Energy, summarizes the research and development and technology transfer activities of fiscal years 1994 and 1995. The report discusses the activities in the four areas of the hydropower program: Environmental Research; Resource Assessment; Research Cost-Shared with Industry; and Technology Transfer. The report also includes an annotated bibliography of reports pertinent to hydropower, written by the staff of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Federal and state agencies, cities, metropolitan water districts, irrigation companies, and public and independent utilities. Most reports are available from the National Technical Information Service.

  20. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2013-05-29

    rectangular slots. For the combination of both test stands, the round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the much larger flow rates and equipment that would be required. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  1. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Initial Aerosol Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, Garrett N.; Kurath, Dean E.; Buchmiller, William C.; Smith, Dennese M.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Song, Chen; Daniel, Richard C.; Wells, Beric E.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2012-11-01

    rectangular slots. The round holes ranged in size from 0.2 to 4.46 mm. The slots ranged from (width × length) 0.3 × 5 to 2.74 × 76.2 mm. Most slots were oriented longitudinally along the pipe, but some were oriented circumferentially. In addition, a limited number of multi-hole test pieces were tested in an attempt to assess the impact of a more complex breach. Much of the testing was conducted at pressures of 200 and 380 psi, but some tests were conducted at 100 psi. Testing the largest postulated breaches was deemed impractical because of the large size of some of the WTP equipment. This report presents the experimental results and analyses for the aerosol measurements obtained in the small-scale test stand. It includes a description of the simulants used and their properties, equipment and operations, data analysis methodologies, and test results. The results of tests investigating the role of slurry particles in plugging small breaches are reported in Mahoney et al. (2012). The results of the aerosol measurements in the large-scale test stand are reported in Schonewill et al. (2012) along with an analysis of the combined results from both test scales.

  2. Small-scale Conformity of the Virgo Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ran; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Jeong, Hyunjin; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the small-scale conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions in the Virgo Cluster. Cluster member galaxies are spectroscopically determined using the Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We find that the luminosity-weighted mean color of faint galaxies depends on the color of adjacent bright galaxy as well as on the cluster-scale environment (gravitational potential index). From this result for the entire area of the Virgo Cluster, it is not distinguishable whether the small-scale conformity is genuine or if it is artificially produced due to cluster-scale variation of galaxy color. To disentangle this degeneracy, we divide the Virgo Cluster area into three sub-areas so that the cluster-scale environmental dependence is minimized: A1 (central), A2 (intermediate), and A3 (outermost). We find conformity in color between bright galaxies and their faint companions (color-color slope significance S ˜ 2.73σ and correlation coefficient {cc}˜ 0.50) in A2, where the cluster-scale environmental dependence is almost negligible. On the other hand, the conformity is not significant or very marginal (S ˜ 1.75σ and {cc}˜ 0.27) in A1. The conformity is not significant either in A3 (S ˜ 1.59σ and {cc}˜ 0.44), but the sample size is too small in this area. These results are consistent with a scenario in which the small-scale conformity in a cluster is a vestige of infallen groups and these groups lose conformity as they come closer to the cluster center.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL-SCALE ENTERPRISES IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrial Syarif

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale enterprises in West Sumatra experienced slow growth and some constraints in their development process. In 1998, small businesses represented 99.61% of total business units operating in West Sumatra and absorbed 88.8% of total employment. The orientation of their businesses mostly on domestic market although recently they enter international market. Export contribution of small businesses still very low but growing steadily during the last three years. This research showed that enterprises dealing with embroideries, garments and handicrafts are ambitiously orienting their products towards foreign markets. At the same time these business categories are also proven to be the most profitable businesses.

  4. Arduino-Based Small Scale Electric Brewing System

    OpenAIRE

    Farineau, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this project is to create a small-scale, low cost, electric home brewing system that allows a user to more easily brew large (5 gallon) batches of beer in an enclosed space. This is accomplished by using an Arduino microcontroller in conjunction with a Yun WiFi shield to host a local website which allows a user to enter a temperature into the system via their phone, tablet, or computer. This data is then passed from a website running on the Yun shield to the Arduino sketch which r...

  5. Innovative equipment for small-scale hydro developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. D.; Pereira, L.

    1981-06-01

    The feasibility of using off the shelf pumps as turbines, with induction motors as generators, and combinations of available equipment such as speed increasers, inlet valves, and gates for typical small scale hydro installations are discussed. A computer simulation model was developed in the study which provides a basis to estimate the performance of pumps in the turbine mode of operation. It is indicated that a major part of the small hydro plant potential can be economically covered by the use of pumps as turbines and induction motors as generators especially for the smaller ratings.

  6. Model Predictive Control for a Small Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfu Du

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinematical and dynamical equations of a small scale unmanned helicoper are presented in the paper. Based on these equations a model predictive control (MPC method is proposed for controlling the helicopter. This novel method allows the direct accounting for the existing time delays which are used to model the dynamics of actuators and aerodynamics of the main rotor. Also the limits of the actuators are taken into the considerations during the controller design. The proposed control algorithm was verified in real flight experiments where good perfomance was shown in postion control mode.

  7. Aerodynamics of small-scale vertical-axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Desy, P.

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the influence of various rotor parameters on the aerodynamic performance of a small-scale Darrieus wind turbine. To do this, a straight-bladed Darrieus rotor is calculated by using the double-multiple-streamtube model including the streamtube expansion effects through the rotor (CARDAAX computer code) and the dynamicstall effects. The straight-bladed Darrieus turbine is as expected more efficient with respect the curved-bladed rotor but for a given solidity is operates at higher wind speeds.

  8. Villacidro solar demo plant: Integration of small-scale CSP and biogas power plants in an industrial microgrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerada, M.; Cau, G.; Cocco, D.; Damiano, A.; Demontis, V.; Melis, T.; Musio, M.

    2016-05-01

    The integration of small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) in an industrial district, in order to develop a microgrid fully supplied by renewable energy sources, is presented in this paper. The plant aims to assess in real operating conditions, the performance, the effectiveness and the reliability of small-scale concentrating solar power technologies in the field of distributed generation. In particular, the potentiality of small scale CSP with thermal storage to supply dispatchable electricity to an industrial microgrid will be investigated. The microgrid will be realized in the municipal waste treatment plant of the Industrial Consortium of Villacidro, in southern Sardinia (Italy), which already includes a biogas power plant. In order to achieve the microgrid instantaneous energy balance, the analysis of the time evolution of the waste treatment plant demand and of the generation in the existing power systems has been carried out. This has allowed the design of a suitable CSP plant with thermal storage and an electrochemical storage system for supporting the proposed microgrid. At the aim of obtaining the expected energy autonomy, a specific Energy Management Strategy, which takes into account the different dynamic performances and characteristics of the demand and the generation, has been designed. In this paper, the configuration of the proposed small scale concentrating solar power (CSP) and of its thermal energy storage, based on thermocline principle, is initially described. Finally, a simulation study of the entire power system, imposing scheduled profiles based on weather forecasts, is presented.

  9. Basic investigation on feasibility of verification researches for new energy technologies in Asian developing countries (Nepal, Mongolia and Bhutan); Asia kohatsu kaihatsu tojokoku (Neparu Mongoru Butan) ni okeru shin energy gijutsu jissho kenkyu kanosei kiso chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    A basic investigation has been carried out on feasibility for performing joint verification researches on new energy technologies being developed in Japan with Asian developing countries (Nepal, Mongolia, and Bhutan). Nepal has abundant new energy resources including mini-hydropower, solar energy, wind power, and biomass energy. Among them, the mini-hydropower generation is applied to electrification of communities. Other energy sources are also used though in small scales. The Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology is actively engaged in efforts for the research and development of new energies. The energy policy of the Mongolian Government calls for expansion of coal burning thermal power plants with the abundant coal availability as the background, and development of new energies to reduce import of liquid fuels. The research and development on new energy has been conducted by the Renewable Energies Scientific Production Corporation. The Bhutan`s energy policy is to develop mini-hydropower stations using inexhaustible hydraulic power in an attempt to replace the conventional fuel resources of firewoods and charcoals with electric power. The agency to be dealt with is the Department of Electric Power of the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Electric Power. 7 figs., 40 tabs.

  10. Quadrennial Technology Review 2015: Technology Assessments--Hydropower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sam Baldwin, Gilbert Bindewald, Austin Brown, Charles Chen, Kerry Cheung, Corrie Clark, Joe Cresko,

    2015-10-07

    Hydropower has provided reliable and flexible base and peaking power generation in the United States for more than a century, contributing on average 10.5% of cumulative U.S. power sector net generation over the past six and one-half decades (1949–2013). It is the nation’s largest source of renewable electricity, with 79 GW of generating assets and 22 GW of pumped-storage assets in service, with hydropower providing half of all U.S. renewable power-sector generation (50% in 2014). In addition to this capacity, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has identified greater than 80 GW of new hydropower resource potential: at least 5 GW from rehabilitation and expansion of existing generating assets, up to 12 GW of potential at existing dams without power facilities, and over 60 GW of potential low-impact new development (LIND) in undeveloped stream reaches. However, despite this growth potential, hydropower capacity and production growth have stalled in recent years, with existing assets even experiencing decreases in capacity and production from lack of sustaining investments in infrastructure and increasing constraints on water use.

  11. Modelling and controlling hydropower plants

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Hernandez, German Ardul; Jones, Dewi Ieuan

    2013-01-01

    Hydroelectric power stations are a major source of electricity around the world; understanding their dynamics is crucial to achieving good performance.  Modelling and Controlling Hydropower Plants discusses practical and well-documented cases of modelling and controlling hydropower station modelling and control, focussing on a pumped storage scheme based in Dinorwig, North Wales.  Single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output models, which cover the linear and nonlinear characteristics of pump-storage hydroelectric power stations, are reviewed. The most important dynamic features are discussed, and the verification of these models by hardware in the loop simulation is described. To show how the performance of a pump-storage hydroelectric power station can be improved, classical and modern controllers are applied to simulated models of the Dinorwig power plant. These include PID, fuzzy approximation, feed-forward and model-based predictive control with linear and hybrid prediction models. Mod...

  12. Development of small scale cluster computer for numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, N. H. N.; Sapit, A.; Mohammed, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, two units of personal computer were successfully networked together to form a small scale cluster. Each of the processor involved are multicore processor which has four cores in it, thus made this cluster to have eight processors. Here, the cluster incorporate Ubuntu 14.04 LINUX environment with MPI implementation (MPICH2). Two main tests were conducted in order to test the cluster, which is communication test and performance test. The communication test was done to make sure that the computers are able to pass the required information without any problem and were done by using simple MPI Hello Program where the program written in C language. Additional, performance test was also done to prove that this cluster calculation performance is much better than single CPU computer. In this performance test, four tests were done by running the same code by using single node, 2 processors, 4 processors, and 8 processors. The result shows that with additional processors, the time required to solve the problem decrease. Time required for the calculation shorten to half when we double the processors. To conclude, we successfully develop a small scale cluster computer using common hardware which capable of higher computing power when compare to single CPU processor, and this can be beneficial for research that require high computing power especially numerical analysis such as finite element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, and computational physics analysis.

  13. Profitability of Small-Scale Fisheries in Elmina, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Okyere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve sustainable fishing livelihoods in coastal communities, data on profitability of small-scale fisheries relative to fish species caught and gear types used by fishermen is required as part of a broader fisheries management strategy. This study was undertaken with this in mind. Interviews were conducted among 60 fishermen between February and March 2010. Economic assessment of small-scale fishing activities were done using questionnaires based on direct market pricing and contingent valuation methods. The results indicate that highly profitable fish species include Epinephelus aeneus, Sparus caeruleostictus, Dentex angolensis and Lutjanus goreensis valued at US$2.97, US$2.87, US$2.85 and US$2.63 per kilogram respectively. The less profitable species include Dasyatis margarita, Caranx crysos and Sardinella aurita valued at US$0.34, US$0.66 and US$ 0.85 per kilogram respectively. Although Sardinella aurita was among the less valuable fish species, it was the main species driving profits for the fishermen due to its high share volume among the fish catches. Findings from this study suggest high rates of exploitation, in that stocks generally cannot provide for increased economic return in the face of increased investment. This is a clear indicator that the open-access nature of Ghanaian fisheries is not sustainable, and management reform is well overdue.

  14. Preliminary Scaling Estimate for Select Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Fort, James A.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2013-09-12

    The Hanford Site double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions’ Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems.

  15. Methods for evaluation of small scale quality improvement projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, G; Wensing, M

    2003-06-01

    Evaluation is an integral component of quality improvement and there is much to be learned from the evaluation of small scale quality improvement initiatives at a local level. This type of evaluation is useful for a number of different reasons including monitoring the impact of local projects, identifying and dealing with issues as they arise within a project, comparing local projects to draw lessons, and collecting more detailed information as part of a bigger evaluation project. Focused audits and developmental studies can be used for evaluation within projects, while methods such as multiple case studies and process evaluations can be used to draw generalised lessons from local experiences and to provide examples of successful projects. Evaluations of small scale quality improvement projects help those involved in improvement initiatives to optimise their choice of interventions and use of resources. Important information to add to the knowledge base of quality improvement in health care can be derived by undertaking formal evaluation of local projects, particularly in relation to building theory around the processes of implementation and increasing understanding of the complex change processes involved.

  16. Private equity, public affair: Hydropower financing in the Mekong Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merme, V.; Ahlers, R.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale hydropower development is increasingly popular. Although international finance is a significant driver of hydropower market expansion, financial data is relatively obscure and literature remains scarce. This article tracks the financial process in hydropower development in the Mekong

  17. Surge Tank Atlas for Hydropower Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvåg, Simon Utseth

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this master's thesis is to describe the existing surge tank solutions and additional improvements, and to simulate the hydraulic behavior of the surge tanks and how it affects the hydropower plant. The high head hydropower plant Torpa and the low head hydropower plant Åna-Sira are used for the case study, thus the surge tanks can be simulated under different hydraulic conditions. Turbine pressures and mass oscillations after a complete turbine shutdown, and turbine regulation...

  18. Scenario Analysis on Global Hydropower Development Paths and Their Contribution to GHG Mitigation Utilizing a Dynamic CGE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Z.; Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.; Masaki, Y.; Hijioka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Currently, hydropower accounts for 16% of the worldwide electricity power supply and 86% of the total renewable electricity energy source due to its low cost, low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, and relatively high reliability. It is well known that the global hydropower has not yet been fully developed, but the future paths of development and corresponding contribution to GHG mitigation in each region combined with socioeconomic activities are less known. Here we investigated following three questions. How much will hydropower generation increase in the future? Will hydropower generation reach the economically exploitable capability (EEC)? If this will be the case, when and where will it occur? How much GHG emission will be reduced by adding new hydropower? In order to address these questions, we used the AIM/CGE model, a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to quantify the global hydropower development paths and corresponding GHG mitigation contribution for 17 regions in the world associated with a socio-economic scenario termed SSP2. We compared two scenarios with different assumptions on EEC. One is BAU which takes EEC from the report of "World Energy Resources", the other is FIX_BAU which fix EEC at the current hydropower generation amount throughout the research period (2005-2100) or no additional installation of hydropower plants. The comparison between two scenarios indicated that promoting hydropower development contributed to GHG emission reduction globally but the magnitude varied by region. For example we found that in North Africa, hydropower development grew fast because of the rapid economic development, but it reached EEC as soon as in 2040 because of limitation in EEC due to its climatic and geographical conditions. Conversely, in Brazil, it grew steadily and did not reach its abundant EEC. Consequently, GHG mitigation contribution of North Africa is far less than Brazil. This research provides important information for policy makers to

  19. Integrated management of the Blue Nile Basin in Ethiopia: Hydropower and irrigation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    "Ethiopia is at a critical crossroads with a large and increasing population, a depressed national economy, insufficient agricultural production, and a low number of developed energy sources. The upper Blue Nile basin harbors considerable untapped potential for irrigation and hydropower development and expansion. Numerous hydrologic models have been developed to assess hydropower and agricultural irrigation potential within the basin, yet often fail to adequately address critical aspects, inc...

  20. Investments in hydropower from a political ecology perspective. Case study: Hidro Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Mazariegos Samayoa, Zoila Sofia Lorena

    2016-01-01

    This thesis intends to explore and analyse the discrepancies that exist between the accepted global narratives that promote investing in hydropower projects with the argument that it will bring development, economic growth and access to clean and affordable energy in developing countries, and the demands of the local communities where the hydropower projects are being built. By using a political ecology approach, the thesis aims to analyse the existing narratives and power relations in hydrop...

  1. The non-self-propelled hydropower vessel for electrical energy providing of Arctic and Far East hard-to-reach areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisova L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The floating tidal unceasing action power plant design based on the non-self-propelled vessel has been proposed. To produce electric energy the renewable energy of wind and tidal waves has been used

  2. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in New Jersey are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is discussed. New Jersey follows the riparian theory of water law. Following an extensive discussion of the New Jersey water law, New Jersey regulatory law and financial considerations regarding hydroelectric power development are discussed.

  3. Background information to the installers guide for small scale mains connected PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report contains background information used by BRE, EA Technology, Halcrows and Sundog when compiling guidance for the UK's New and Renewable Energy Programme on the installation of small-scale photovoltaics (PV) in buildings. The report considers: relevant standards; general safety issues; fire and safety issues, including the fire resistance of PV modules; PV module ratings such as maximum voltage and maximum current; DC cabling; the DC disconnect; the DC junction box; fault analysis; general and AC side earthing; DC earthing; lightning and surge suppression; inverters; AC modules; AC systems; getting connection; mounting options; and installation issues.

  4. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The first obstacle which any developer must confront in Michigan is obtaining the authority to utilize the river bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed, and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Michigan follows the riparian theory of water law. The direct regulation; indirect regulation; public utilities regulation; financing; and taxation are discussed.

  5. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Pennsylvania, there are 3 methods by which rights in water may be acquired: riparian ownership, prescription, and condemnation. These are discussed.

  6. Developer's guide to small-scale hydroelectric development in the southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report is intended primarily to provide to small-scale hydroelectric developers precise information on the federal and state permitting processes in the eight states of Region IV of the US Department of Energy, i.e., Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. The procedures for each permit are described in the text and flow charts are provided at the end of each chapter. Information is also included on state financing and taxation incentives which may apply to small hydro and on the Public Utility Policies Act as it applies to small hydro.

  7. Modular Hydropower Engineering and Pilot Scale Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesser, Phillip C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Emrgy has developed, prototyped and tested a modular hydropower system for renewable energy generation. ORNL worked with Emrgy to demonstrate the use of additive manufacturing in the production of the hydrofoils and spokes for the hydrokinetic system. Specifically, during Phase 1 of this effort, ORNL printed and finished machined patterns for both the hydrofoils and spokes that were subsequently used in a sand casting manufacturing process. Emrgy utilized the sand castings for a pilot installation in Denver, CO, where the parts represented an 80% cost savings from the previous prototype build that was manufactured using subtractive manufacturing. In addition, the castings were completed with ORNL’s newly developed AlCeMg alloy that will be tested for performance improvements including higher corrosion resistance in a water application than the 6160 alloy used previously

  8. Estimated cumulative sediment trapping in future hydropower reservoirs in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucía, Ana; Berlekamp, Jürgen; Zarfl, Christiane

    2017-04-01

    Despite a rapid economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa, almost 70% of the human population in this area remain disconnected from electricity access (International Energy Agency 2011). Mitigating climate change and a search for renewable, "climate neutral" electricity resources are additional reasons why Africa will be one key centre for future hydropower dam building, with only 8% of the technically feasible hydropower potential actually exploited. About 300 major hydropower dams with a total capacity of 140 GW are currently under construction (11.4%) or planned (88.6%) (Zarfl et al. 2015). Despite the benefits of hydropower dams, fragmentation of the rivers changes the natural flow, temperature and sediment regime. This has consequences for a high number of people that directly depend on the primary sector linked to rivers and floodplains. But sediment trapping in the reservoir also affects dam operation and decreases its life span. Thus, the objective of this work is to quantify the dimension of sediment trapping by future hydropower dams in African river basins. Soil erosion is described with the universal soil loss equation (Wischmeier & Smith 1978) and combined with the connectivity index (Cavalli et al. 2013) to estimate the amount of eroded soil that reaches the fluvial network and finally ends up in the existing (Lehner et al. 2011) and future reservoirs (Zarfl et al. 2015) per year. Different scenarios assuming parameter values from the literature are developed to include model uncertainty. Estimations for existing dams will be compared with literature data to evaluate the applied estimation method and scenario assumptions. Based on estimations for the reservoir volume of the future dams we calculated the potential time-laps of the future reservoirs due to soil erosion and depending on their planned location. This approach could support sustainable decision making for the location of future hydropower dams. References Cavalli, M., Trevisani, S., Comiti

  9. Small-scale volcanoes on Mars: distribution and types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Petr; Hauber, Ernst

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes differ in sizes, as does the amount of magma which ascends to a planetary surface. On Earth, the size of volcanoes is anti-correlated with their frequency, i.e. small volcanoes are much more numerous than large ones. The most common terrestrial volcanoes are scoria cones (images now enable discovering and studying kilometer-size volcanoes with various shapes in unprecedented detail. Several types of small-scale volcanoes in various regions on Mars were recently described. Scoria cones provide a record of magmatic volatile content and have been identified in Tharsis (Ulysses Colles), on flanks of large volcanoes (e.g., Pavonis Mons), in the caldera of Ulysses Patera, in chaotic terrains or other large depressions (Hydraotes Colles, Coprates Chasma) and in the northern lowlands. Tuff rings and tuff cones, formed as a result of water-magma interaction, seem to be relatively rare on Mars and were only tentatively identified in three locations (Nepenthes/Amenthes region, Arena Colles and inside Lederberg crater), and alternative interpretations (mud volcanoes) seem possible. Other relatively rare volcanoes seem to be lava domes, reported only from two regions (Acracida Planitia and Terra Sirenum). On the other hand, small shields and rootless cones (which are not primary volcanic landforms) represent widely spread phenomena recognized in Tharsis and Elysium. Based on these new observations, the distribution of small volcanoes on Mars seems to be much more widespread than anticipated a decade ago. There are sometimes significant differences in the final morphologies between Martian hypothesized and possible terrestrial analogs, despite fact that the physical processes behind volcano formation should be similar on both planets. For example, Martian scoria cones are ~2.6 times wider than terrestrial analogues, as lower gravity and atmospheric pressure enable wider dispersion of pyroclasts from the vent. In addition, exit velocities of ejected particles should be

  10. A multi-scale spatial approach to address environmental effects of small hydropower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, Ryan A; Samu, Nicole; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Hetrick, Shelaine C

    2015-01-01

    Hydropower development continues to grow worldwide in developed and developing countries. While the ecological and physical responses to dam construction have been well documented, translating this information into planning for hydropower development is extremely difficult. Very few studies have conducted environmental assessments to guide site-specific or widespread hydropower development. Herein, we propose a spatial approach for estimating environmental effects of hydropower development at multiple scales, as opposed to individual site-by-site assessments (e.g., environmental impact assessment). Because the complex, process-driven effects of future hydropower development may be uncertain or, at best, limited by available information, we invested considerable effort in describing novel approaches to represent environmental concerns using spatial data and in developing the spatial footprint of hydropower infrastructure. We then use two case studies in the US, one at the scale of the conterminous US and another within two adjoining rivers basins, to examine how environmental concerns can be identified and related to areas of varying energy capacity. We use combinations of reserve-design planning and multi-metric ranking to visualize tradeoffs among environmental concerns and potential energy capacity. Spatial frameworks, like the one presented, are not meant to replace more in-depth environmental assessments, but to identify information gaps and measure the sustainability of multi-development scenarios as to inform policy decisions at the basin or national level. Most importantly, the approach should foster discussions among environmental scientists and stakeholders regarding solutions to optimize energy development and environmental sustainability.

  11. The blue water footprint of electricity from hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Mekonnen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower accounts for about 16% of the world's electricity supply. It has been debated whether hydroelectric generation is merely an in-stream water user or whether it also consumes water. In this paper we provide scientific support for the argument that hydroelectric generation is in most cases a significant water consumer. The study assesses the blue water footprint of hydroelectricity – the water evaporated from manmade reservoirs to produce electric energy – for 35 selected sites. The aggregated blue water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 90 Gm3 yr−1, which is equivalent to 10% of the blue water footprint of global crop production in the year 2000. The total blue water footprint of hydroelectric generation in the world must be considerably larger if one considers the fact that this study covers only 8% of the global installed hydroelectric capacity. Hydroelectric generation is thus a significant water consumer. The average water footprint of the selected hydropower plants is 68 m3 GJ−1. Great differences in water footprint among hydropower plants exist, due to differences in climate in the places where the plants are situated, but more importantly as a result of large differences in the area flooded per unit of installed hydroelectric capacity. We recommend that water footprint assessment is added as a component in evaluations of newly proposed hydropower plants as well as in the evaluation of existing hydroelectric dams, so that the consequences of the water footprint of hydroelectric generation on downstream environmental flows and other water users can be evaluated.

  12. Transition from large-scale to small-scale dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponty, Y; Plunian, F

    2011-04-15

    The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The dynamo mechanism is governed by a generalized α effect, which includes both the usual α effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized α effect scales as O(Rm(-1)), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed.

  13. Microbial inoculants for small scale composting of putrescible kitchen wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, J; Okamitsu, K

    2010-06-01

    This research looked at the need for ligno-cellulolytic inoculants (EM bacteria and Trichoderma sp.) in small to medium scale composting of household wastes. A mixture of household organic waste comprised of kitchen waste, paper, grass clippings and composted material was subjected to various durations of thermo composting followed by vermicomposting with and without microbial inoculants for a total of 28days. The results revealed that ligno-celluloytic inoculants are not essential to speed up the process of composting for onsite small scale household organic waste treatment as no significant difference was observed between the control and those inoculated with Trichoderma and EM in terms of C:N ratio of the final product. However, it was observed that EM inoculation enhanced reproductive rate of earthworms, and so probably created the best environment for vermicomposting, in all treatment groups. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Small-Scale Shock Reactivity and Internal Blast Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granholm, R. H.; Sandusky, H. W.

    2006-07-01

    Explosives react from a strong shock, even in quantities too small for detonation. The potential for a new material to be an explosive can be evaluated from this shock reactivity. The recently developed small-scale shock reactivity test (SSRT) uses very high confinement to allow prompt reactions to occur in less than half-gram samples well below critical diameter. Early and late-time reactions are simultaneously measured from a single sample subjected to the output from an RP-80 detonator. Prompt reactions are quantified by a dent in a soft aluminum witness block, while later reactions, such as from fuel/air combustion, are measured by recording blast pressure. Internal blast quasi-static pressure is obtained by confining the sample apparatus within a three-liter chamber. Late-time reaction effects of plastics, and results from HMX, HMX/Aluminum, and a plastic-bonded explosive (PBX) are reported.

  15. Novel Small-scale Technique for Determining Detonation Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Daniel; Hill, Larry; Tappan, Bryce

    2013-06-01

    Measuring the local detonation velocity of an explosive has been limited to rate stick and cylinder tests. These tests traditionally used break wires, pins, and more recently PDV as a velocity diagnostic. These experimental techniques can be very accurate at measuring detonation velocities but are costly and require tens to hundreds of grams of material. This paper presents a novel small-scale technique for inferring detonation velocity from a modest sized pellet of explosive. A streak image is taken of the breakout shock on the flat output side of the pellet. Assuming a spherical shock wave, one can show that the breakout trace is of hyperbolic form. From this, one can simultaneously infer detonation velocty and apparent center. This method is ideal for energetic formulation and synthesis development due to the small amount of material required. Furthermore, this paper discusses the accuracy and limitations of this technique.

  16. Exergoeconomic analysis of small-scale biomass steam cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Sotomonte, Cesar Adolfo; Lora, Electo Eduardo Silva [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mails: c.rodriguez32@unifei.edu.br, electo@unifei.edu.br; Venturini, Osvaldo Jose; Escobar, Jose Carlos [Universidad Federal de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: osvaldo@unifei.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The principal objective of this work is to develop a calculation process, based on the second law of thermodynamics, for evaluating the thermoeconomic potential of a small steam cogeneration plant using waste from pulp processing and/or sawmills as fuel. Four different configurations are presented and assessed. The exergetic efficiency of the cycles that use condensing turbines is found to be around 11%, which has almost 3 percent higher efficiency than cycles with back pressure turbines. The thermoeconomic equations used in this paper estimated the production costs varying the fuel price. The main results show that present cost of technologies in a small-scale steam cycle cogeneration do not justify the implementation of more efficient systems for biomass prices less than 100 R$/t. (author)

  17. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    of small-scale laboratory tests. Six quasi-static tests are conducted on piles with diameters of 40mm and 100mm and a slenderness ratio, L/D, of 5. To minimise scale effects, the tests are carried out in a pressure tank at various stress levels. From the obtained load-deflection relationships...... it is revealed that the uncertainties of the results for the pile with a diameter of 40mm are large. The load-deflection relationships normalised as H/(L2Dγ’) and y/D indicate that the lateral load, H, is proportional to L2D. Comparison of the normalised load-deflection relationships for different stress levels...

  18. Small-Scale Pellet Boiler with Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Wilhelm; Friedl, Guenther; Haslinger, Walter [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Wieselburg (Austria); Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-15

    Pellet burners need auxiliary electrical power to provide CO{sub 2}-balanced heat in a comfortable and environment-friendly way. The idea is to produce this and some extra electricity within the furnace in order to save resources and to gain operation reliability and independency. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) allow the direct conversion of heat to electrical power to a certain extent. They have the advantages of a maintenance-free long life and soundless operation without moving parts or any working fluid. A novel kind of decentralised small-scale biomass-based combined heat and power generation will be developed. The basic system allows grid-independent operation of automatically running biomass furnaces including fuel delivery from storage and circulating the cooling respectively heating water or air. The advanced system also provides electricity for network supply or for other electrical devices and is an additional benefit.

  19. Concepts for Small-Scale Testing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschman, Steven Craig [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip Lon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report documents a concept for a small-scale test involving between one and three Boiling Water Rector (BWR) high burnup (HBU) fuel assemblies. This test would be similar to the DOE funded High Burn-Up (HBU) Confirmatory Data Project to confirm the behavior of used high burn-up fuel under prototypic conditions, only on a smaller scale. The test concept proposed would collect data from fuel stored under prototypic dry storage conditions to mimic, as closely as possible, the conditions HBU UNF experiences during all stages of dry storage: loading, cask drying, inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage.

  20. Experimental evaluation of small-scale erectable truss hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgowan, David M.; Lake, Mark S.

    1987-01-01

    To aid in the prediction of the dynamic behavior of the space station, a one-tenth scale dynamic test model is to be constructed of commercially available, small scale truss hardware. Tests have been performed to determine the axial stiffness characteristics and failure loads of the truss joint. A parametric study has shown that the stiffness of the joint increases as the attachment bolt torque value is increased. Furthermore, at torque values equal to or higher than 250 in-lbs, hysteresis in the load-deflection curve is essentially eliminated. Also, the joint stiffness remained relatively constant between specimens. The effective stiffness of a joint subassembly tested is 76 percent that of the strut. Tensile and compressive failure occurred in the region of the bonded plug, with lower failure loads corresponding to compressive loadings.

  1. Determining the Products of Inertia for Small Scale UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Joseph S.; Banuelos, Leonel C.; Clarke, Robert; Murillo, Oscar J.; Bowers, Albion H.

    2017-01-01

    Moments of inertia and products of inertia often need to be determined for aircraft. As complex bodies, their mass properties need to be determined experimentally for best accuracy. While several moment of inertia experimental techniques have been developed, there are few to determine the products of inertia. Products of inertia can be easily determined mathematically if the angle between the aircraft x body axis and principal x axis is known. This method finds the principal inclination angle by mathematically correlating the measured moments of inertia about a range of axes of the aircraft. This correlation uses a least squares error minimization of a mathematical model that describes the ellipse of inertia in the aircraft's x-z axes plane. Results from a test conducted on a small scale UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) at NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center is also presented, which is an example of the intended application of this technique.

  2. Formation control for a network of small-scale robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonsoo

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a network of small-scale robots (typically centimeter-scale robots) equipped with artificial actuators such as electric motors is considered. The purpose of this network is to have the robots keep a certain formation shape (or change to another formation shape) during maneuvers. The network has a fixed communication topology in the sense that robots have a fixed group of neighbors to communicate during maneuvers. Assuming that each robot and its actuator can be modeled as a linear system, a decentralized control law (such that each robot activates its actuator based on the information from its neighbors only) is introduced to achieve the purpose of formation keeping or change. A linear matrix inequality (LMI) for deriving the upper bound on the actuator's time constant is also presented. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the merit of the introduced control law.

  3. Dark matter self-interactions and small scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulin, Sean; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2018-02-01

    We review theories of dark matter (DM) beyond the collisionless paradigm, known as self-interacting dark matter (SIDM), and their observable implications for astrophysical structure in the Universe. Self-interactions are motivated, in part, due to the potential to explain long-standing (and more recent) small scale structure observations that are in tension with collisionless cold DM (CDM) predictions. Simple particle physics models for SIDM can provide a universal explanation for these observations across a wide range of mass scales spanning dwarf galaxies, low and high surface brightness spiral galaxies, and clusters of galaxies. At the same time, SIDM leaves intact the success of ΛCDM cosmology on large scales. This report covers the following topics: (1) small scale structure issues, including the core-cusp problem, the diversity problem for rotation curves, the missing satellites problem, and the too-big-to-fail problem, as well as recent progress in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxy formation; (2) N-body simulations for SIDM, including implications for density profiles, halo shapes, substructure, and the interplay between baryons and self-interactions; (3) semi-analytic Jeans-based methods that provide a complementary approach for connecting particle models with observations; (4) merging systems, such as cluster mergers (e.g., the Bullet Cluster) and minor infalls, along with recent simulation results for mergers; (5) particle physics models, including light mediator models and composite DM models; and (6) complementary probes for SIDM, including indirect and direct detection experiments, particle collider searches, and cosmological observations. We provide a summary and critical look for all current constraints on DM self-interactions and an outline for future directions.

  4. The Grossmatt hydro-power station; Wasserkraftwerk Grossmatt. Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintermann, M.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the project for a small hydropower station on the Birs river in north-western Switzerland. The report reviews the history of the project, in which a new 385 kW-hydro-power station at the site of an earlier installation is foreseen. Details are presented on the investigations made and on the co-ordination with the owners of the hydro-power station situated up-river, the local power utility and the local authorities. Also, the requirements placed on the project by the fishing authorities are quoted and the solution foreseen is described. Also discussed are the requirements placed on the project by legislation on environmental impact and flood protection. Figures on electrical energy production and building costs are presented.

  5. Enhancing the resiliency of small hydropower projects: environmental function, modularity, and stakeholder elicitation as design priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Adam M [ORNL; Smith, Brennan T [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Small hydropower plants supply reliable renewable energy to the grid, though few new plants have been developed in the Unites States over the past few decades due to complex environmental challenges and poor project economics. This paper describes the current landscape of small hydropower development, and introduces a new approach to facility design that co-optimizes the extraction of hydroelectric power from a stream with other important environmental functions such as fish, sediment, and recreational passage. The approach considers hydropower facilities as an integrated system of standardized interlocking modules, designed to sustain stream functions, generate power, and interface with the streambed. It is hypothesized that this modular eco-design approach, when guided by input from the broader small hydropower stakeholder community, can lead to cost savings across the facility, reduced licensing and approval timelines, and ultimately, to enhanced resiliency through improved environmental performance over the lifetime of the project.

  6. Decision making algorithms for hydro-power plant location

    CERN Document Server

    Majumder, Mrinmoy

    2013-01-01

    The present study has attempted to apply the advantage of neuro-genetic algorithms for optimal decision making in maximum utilization of natural resources. Hydro-power is one of the inexpensive, but a reliable source of alternative energy which is foreseen as the possible answer to the present crisis in the energy sector. However, the major problem related to hydro-energy is its dependency on location. An ideal location can produce maximum energy with minimum loss. Besides, such power-plant also requires substantial amount of land which is a precious resource nowadays due to the rapid and unco

  7. System dynamics in hydropower plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuksrud, Dag Birger

    1998-12-31

    The main purpose of this thesis on system dynamics in hydropower plants was to establish new models of a hydropower system where the turbine/conduits and the electricity supply and generation are connected together as one unit such that possible interactions between the two power regimes can be studied. In order to describe the system dynamics as well as possible, a previously developed analytic model of high-head Francis turbines is improved. The model includes the acceleration resistance in the turbine runner and the draft tube. Expressions for the loss coefficients in the model are derived in order to obtain a purely analytic model. The necessity of taking the hydraulic inertia into account is shown by means of simulations. Unstable behaviour and a higher transient turbine speed than expected may occur for turbines with steep characteristics or large draft tubes. The turbine model was verified previously with respect to a high-head Francis turbine; the thesis performs an experimental verification on a low-head Francis turbine and compares the measurements with simulations from the improved turbine model. It is found that the dynamic turbine model is, after adjustment, capable of describing low-head machines as well with satisfying results. The thesis applies a method called the ``Limited zero-pole method`` to obtain new rational approximations of the elastic behaviour in the conduits with frictional damping included. These approximations are used to provide an accurate state space formulation of a hydropower plant. Simulations performed with the new computer programs show that hydraulic transients such as water-hammer and mass oscillations are reflected in the electric grid. Unstable governing performance in the electric and hydraulic parts also interact. This emphasizes the need for analysing the whole power system as a unit. 63 refs., 149 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Integrated biological treatment and biogas production in a small-scale slaughterhouse in rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aklaku, E D; Jones, K; Obiri-Danso, K

    2006-11-01

    A small-scale anaerobic slaughter waste treatment plant in rural Ghana was tested for the production of energy and a microbiologically clean effluent suitable for use in irrigation. A typical day's slaughter, comprising 4 cattle, 12 sheep, and 12 goats, produced 8.5 m3 of biogas. Annually, this is equivalent to the energy from 17 metric tons of fuel wood, which is the annual productivity of 2 ha of savanna vegetation. Fecal indicator bacteria were reduced by 2 to 3 logs, nitrates by 86 to 90%, phosphates by 23%, biochemical oxygen demand by 42 to 92%, and suspended solids and dissolved solids by 73 to 86% and 19 to 37%, respectively. The effluent is used for irrigation, and the organic biomass from the digester is used as a biofertilizer. Besides energy and a cleaner effluent, the community benefited from a lessening dependency on fuel wood and reductions in unpleasant smells and nuisance animals, such as flies, dogs, and vultures.

  9. Detection of Small-Scaled Features Using Landsat and Sentinel-2 Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensen, Torge; Muller, Sonke; Dresen, Boris; Buscher, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    In advanced times of renewable energies, our attention has to be on secondary features that can be utilised to enhance our independence from fossil fuels. In terms of biomass, this focus lies on small-scaled features like vegetation units alongside roads or hedges between agricultural fields. Currently, there is no easily- accessible inventory, if at all, outlining the growth and re-growth patterns of such vegetation. Since they are trimmed at least annually to allow the passing of traffic, we can, theoretically, harvest the cut and convert it into energy. This, however, requires a map outlining the vegetation growth and the potential energy amount at different locations as well as adequate transport routes and potential processing plant locations. With the help of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data sets, we explore the possibilities to create such a map. Additional data is provided in the form of regularly acquired, airborne orthophotos and GIS-based infrastructure data.

  10. Solar Coronal Loops Associated with Small-scale Mixed Polarity Surface Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitta, L. P.; Peter, H.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Noort, M. van [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rodríguez, J. Blanco [Grupo de Astronomía y Ciencias del Espacio, Universidad de Valencia, E-46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro; Suárez, D. Orozco [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado de Correos 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Schmidt, W. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstr. 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Pillet, V. Martínez [National Solar Observatory, 3665 Discovery Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Knölker, M., E-mail: chitta@mps.mpg.de [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    How and where are coronal loops rooted in the solar lower atmosphere? The details of the magnetic environment and its evolution at the footpoints of coronal loops are crucial to understanding the processes of mass and energy supply to the solar corona. To address the above question, we use high-resolution line-of-sight magnetic field data from the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment instrument on the Sunrise balloon-borne observatory and coronal observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory of an emerging active region. We find that the coronal loops are often rooted at the locations with minor small-scale but persistent opposite-polarity magnetic elements very close to the larger dominant polarity. These opposite-polarity small-scale elements continually interact with the dominant polarity underlying the coronal loop through flux cancellation. At these locations we detect small inverse Y-shaped jets in chromospheric Ca ii H images obtained from the Sunrise Filter Imager during the flux cancellation. Our results indicate that magnetic flux cancellation and reconnection at the base of coronal loops due to mixed polarity fields might be a crucial feature for the supply of mass and energy into the corona.

  11. THE SMALL-SCALE DYNAMO AND NON-IDEAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS IN PRIMORDIAL STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schober, Jennifer; Federrath, Christoph; Glover, Simon; Klessen, Ralf S. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schleicher, Dominik [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Banerjee, Robi, E-mail: schober@stud.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu, E-mail: glover@uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: klessen@uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: dschleic@astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de, E-mail: banerjee@hs.uni-hamburg.de [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-08-01

    We study the amplification of magnetic fields during the formation of primordial halos. The turbulence generated by gravitational infall motions during the formation of the first stars and galaxies can amplify magnetic fields very efficiently and on short timescales up to dynamically significant values. Using the Kazantsev theory, which describes the so-called small-scale dynamo-a magnetohydrodynamical process converting kinetic energy from turbulence into magnetic energy-we can then calculate the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field. Our calculations are based on a detailed chemical network and we include non-ideal magnetohydrodynamical effects such as ambipolar diffusion and Ohmic dissipation. We follow the evolution of the magnetic field up to larger scales until saturation occurs on the Jeans scale. Assuming a weak magnetic seed field generated by the Biermann battery process, both Burgers and Kolmogorov turbulence lead to saturation within a rather small density range. Such fields are likely to become relevant after the formation of a protostellar disk and, thus, could influence the formation of the first stars and galaxies in the universe.

  12. Extension needs of small-scale dairy farmers in the North-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to a lack of mechanical implements, all the small-scale dairy farmers in the sample made use of manual labour. ... and the livelihoods of the small-scale dairy farmers, thereby ensuring equity and reducing economic vulnerability of small-scale dairy projects, should take into account a number of different factors.

  13. A Niche for Small-Scale Farmers: Report of a Five-State Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John A.

    This paper reports on a survey of 221 small-scale farmers conducted in 5 western states. Despite the current productive dominance of large farms, an argument can be made that small-scale farming is desirable both for social and ecological reasons. Discussion focuses on the tradition-oriented goals and values of small-scale farmers, special…

  14. An evaluation of the Indonesian law and policy on small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To improve this small-scale fishing, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has initiated the adoption of 'International Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries.' It is still in negotiation regarding the main principles that are to be implemented by states in securing the sustainability of small-scale ...

  15. EFFECT OF WITH/WITHOUT AGITATIONOF AGRICULTURAL WASTE ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION-A SMALL SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Naphon Keanoi; KanokornHussaro; Sombat Teekasap

    2014-01-01

    The growing worldwide concerns over environment, health and monetary aspects have triggered a search for efficient and economic renewable sources of energy production. Agricultural sector holds the potential for development of one of the major source of renewable energy such as biogas. In this study, CSTR-small scale fermentation (200 L stainless steel) was studied to observe the effect of stirring for natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth ratio (2:1:1:1), which there are sui...

  16. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  17. Quantifying seismic anisotropy induced by small-scale chemical heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, C.; Bodin, T.; Ricard, Y.; Capdeville, Y.; Debayle, E.; Montagner, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of seismic anisotropy are usually used as a proxy for lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of anisotropic minerals in the Earth's mantle. In this way, seismic anisotropy observed in tomographic models provides important constraints on the geometry of mantle deformation associated with thermal convection and plate tectonics. However, in addition to LPO, small-scale heterogeneities that cannot be resolved by long-period seismic waves may also produce anisotropy. The observed (i.e. apparent) anisotropy is then a combination of an intrinsic and an extrinsic component. Assuming the Earth's mantle exhibits petrological inhomogeneities at all scales, tomographic models built from long-period seismic waves may thus display extrinsic anisotropy. In this paper, we investigate the relation between the amplitude of seismic heterogeneities and the level of induced S-wave radial anisotropy as seen by long-period seismic waves. We generate some simple 1-D and 2-D isotropic models that exhibit a power spectrum of heterogeneities as what is expected for the Earth's mantle, that is, varying as 1/k, with k the wavenumber of these heterogeneities. The 1-D toy models correspond to simple layered media. In the 2-D case, our models depict marble-cake patterns in which an anomaly in shear wave velocity has been advected within convective cells. The long-wavelength equivalents of these models are computed using upscaling relations that link properties of a rapidly varying elastic medium to properties of the effective, that is, apparent, medium as seen by long-period waves. The resulting homogenized media exhibit extrinsic anisotropy and represent what would be observed in tomography. In the 1-D case, we analytically show that the level of anisotropy increases with the square of the amplitude of heterogeneities. This relation is numerically verified for both 1-D and 2-D media. In addition, we predict that 10 per cent of chemical heterogeneities in 2-D marble-cake models can

  18. Multicriterion analysis of hydropower operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckstein, L.; Hobbs, B.F. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (US)); Tecle, A. (School of Forestry, Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (US)); Nachnebel, H.P. (Institute of Water Resources, Univ. fur Bodenkulur, Gregormendelstr. 33, 1180 Wien (AT))

    1989-12-01

    Two examples are presented to show how multicriterion decision-making (MCDM) techniques can help hydropower engineers mitigate the environmental and social effects of hydropower development and operation. A brief introduction and overview of MCDM is presented, consisting of an 11-step process that starts with problem definition and ends with implementation. A typology of MCDM is provided, dividing the techniques into three groups: outranking, distance-based, and value- or utility-based typed. The operation of the Upper Isar River project in Bavaria is analyzed by means of a value technique and an out-ranking technique called multicriterion Q-analysis. Fourteen criteria are considered in that study, including power production, habitat quality for four groups of species, aesthetics, several recreation indices, minimum flows, and phosphorus loadings. The case study of the Erlauf River Division in Austria is evaluated using a distance-based technique, called composite programming, combined with Monte Carlo simulation. An outcome of that study is that the facility's owners have increased the minimum instream flow in order to protect ecological values.

  19. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Green

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a water-tight barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachement complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement.. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organising cell-cell connections, cell-matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis.

  20. Small-Scale Thermal Violence Cook Off Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Malcolm; Curtis, John; Stennett, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The Small-Scale thermal Violence Test (SSVT) is designed to quantify the violence (explosiveness) of test materials by means of observing the velocity history of a metal burst disk that forms one end of a strong thick-walled cylindrical test vehicle. A copper heating block is placed to the rear of, but in contact with, the sample and provides sealing. The difference in thermal conductivity between copper and steel is sufficient that thermal runaway is induced near to the explosive / copper interface in an unlagged test. A series of experiments has been made, in which explosive specimens were confined and heated to explosion. A high-accuracy velocity measurement system was used to record the motion of the bursting disk. These experiments have shown that the early-time motion of the bursting disk corresponds qualitatively to the onset of thermal explosion and growth of reaction within the explosive specimens. However, the velocity history traces are more complex than had been anticipated. In particular, unexplained shoulders were observed in the Phase-Doppler Velocimeter (PDV) data. Some preliminary modelling studies have been carried out in order to shed light on the complex shapes of the projectile velocity histories.

  1. Small-scale fixed wing airplane software verification flight test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Natasha R.

    The increased demand for micro Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAV) driven by military requirements, commercial use, and academia is creating a need for the ability to quickly and accurately conduct low Reynolds Number aircraft design. There exist several open source software programs that are free or inexpensive that can be used for large scale aircraft design, but few software programs target the realm of low Reynolds Number flight. XFLR5 is an open source, free to download, software program that attempts to take into consideration viscous effects that occur at low Reynolds Number in airfoil design, 3D wing design, and 3D airplane design. An off the shelf, remote control airplane was used as a test bed to model in XFLR5 and then compared to flight test collected data. Flight test focused on the stability modes of the 3D plane, specifically the phugoid mode. Design and execution of the flight tests were accomplished for the RC airplane using methodology from full scale military airplane test procedures. Results from flight test were not conclusive in determining the accuracy of the XFLR5 software program. There were several sources of uncertainty that did not allow for a full analysis of the flight test results. An off the shelf drone autopilot was used as a data collection device for flight testing. The precision and accuracy of the autopilot is unknown. Potential future work should investigate flight test methods for small scale UAV flight.

  2. Small-scale dislocation plasticity in strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stukowski, Alexander; Javaid, Farhan; Durst, Karsten; Albe, Karsten [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Strontium titanate (STO) is an optically transparent perovskite oxide ceramic material. In contrast to other ceramics, single crystal STO plastically deforms under ambient condition, without showing a phase transition or early fracture. This remarkable ductility makes it a prime candidate for different technological applications. However, while the mechanical behavior of bulk STO has been studied extensively using uniaxial compression testing techniques, little is known about the local, small-scale behavior and the details of dislocation-based nanoplasticity in this perovskite material. In this contribution we compare results obtained from new nanoindentation experiments and corresponding large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. The evolution of the plastic zone and dislocation structures that form underneath the indenter is investigated using etch-pit methods in experiments and a novel three-dimensional defect identification technique in atomistic computer models. The latter allows tracing the evolution of the complete dislocation line network as function of indentation depth, quantifying the activity of different slip systems, and correlating this information with the recorded load-displacement curves and hardness data.

  3. Small-Scale Fabrication of Biomimetic Structures for Periodontal Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David W.; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Han-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The periodontium is the supporting tissues for the tooth organ and is vulnerable to destruction, arising from overpopulating pathogenic bacteria and spirochaetes. The presence of microbes together with host responses can destroy large parts of the periodontium sometimes leading tooth loss. Permanent tissue replacements are made possible with tissue engineering techniques. However, existing periodontal biomaterials cannot promote proper tissue architectures, necessary tissue volumes within the periodontal pocket and a “water-tight” barrier, to become clinically acceptable. New kinds of small-scale engineered biomaterials, with increasing biological complexity are needed to guide proper biomimetic regeneration of periodontal tissues. So the ability to make compound structures with small modules, filled with tissue components, is a promising design strategy for simulating the anatomical complexity of the periodotium attachment complexes along the tooth root and the abutment with the tooth collar. Anatomical structures such as, intima, adventitia, and special compartments such as the epithelial cell rests of Malassez or a stellate reticulum niche need to be engineered from the start of regeneration to produce proper periodontium replacement. It is our contention that the positioning of tissue components at the origin is also necessary to promote self-organizing cell–cell connections, cell–matrix connections. This leads to accelerated, synchronized and well-formed tissue architectures and anatomies. This strategy is a highly effective preparation for tackling periodontitis, periodontium tissue resorption, and to ultimately prevent tooth loss. Furthermore, such biomimetic tissue replacements will tackle problems associated with dental implant support and perimimplantitis. PMID:26903872

  4. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-03

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone.

  5. Small-Scale Convection Raising East Anatolia and Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Sengul Uluocak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The East Anatolia and Iranian plateaus (originally referred as a Turkish-Iranian plateau) are characterized by 1.5-2 km average elevation and have been deformed through Alpine-Himalayan continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent seismological and geological studies suggest that the lithospheric structure between these two plateaus differs significantly since the Zagros fold-thrust belt in western Iran is associated with a thick lithospheric root (up to 225 km) whereas the East Anatolia seems to be lacking its mantle lithosphere. In this work, we use 2-D numerical experiments to test the applicability of small-scale convection model to account for the anomalous topography and uplift across the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Our models are designed to track the evolution of the surface topography as a response to a mantle flow activity in the step like morphology of the lithospheric base as wells as the temperature field. We test the role of several rheological parameters (e.g., viscosity) and variation in the lithospheric thickness in a series of experiments. Modeling results are tested against various observables for eastern Anatolia and Iran such as surface topography, crustal thickness, and surface strain rate. Our results provide new insight in the geodynamic evolution of Alpine type orogenic systems and suggest alternative mechanism to lithospheric delamination and/or slab break-off for the uplift of mountain belts.

  6. Social and Ecological Dynamics of Small-Scale Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K.; Kramer, D.; Frank, K.

    2012-12-01

    Globalization's reach is rapidly extending to touch some of the most remote communities of the world, but we have yet to understand its scale and impact. On Nicaragua's previously remote Miskitu Coast, the introduction of new markets and global demand for seafood has resulted in changes in fishermen's harvest behavior manifested within the local fishery. Small-scale fisheries are a significant component in sustaining global fish trade, ensuring food security, and alleviating poverty, but because the fishermen are disperse, numerous and located in remote areas, the social and ecological dynamics of the system are poorly understood. Previous work has indicated a decline in fish abundance as a result of connection to markets, yet fishermen's response to this decline and the resulting shift in harvest strategy requires further examination. I identify the ecological and social factors that explain changes in fishermen behavior and use an innovative application of social network analysis to understand these changes. I also use interviews with fishermen and fishery-dependent surveys to measure catch and release behavior and seasonal gear use. Results demonstrate multiple cliques within a community that mitigate the response of fishermen to changes in the fishery. This research applies techniques in social science to address challenges in sustainable management of fisheries. As fisheries managers consider implementing new regulations, such as seasonal restrictions on gear, it is essential to understand not just how this might impact fish abundance, but how and why human systems respond as they do.

  7. Small Scale Turbopump Manufacturing Technology and Material Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Erika; Morgan, Kristin; Wells, Doug; Zimmerman, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As part of an internal research and development project, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing a high specific impulse 9,000-lbf LOX/LH2 pump-fed engine testbed with the capability to throttle 10:1. A Fuel Turbopump (FTP) with the ability to operate across a speed range of 30,000-rpm to 100,000-rpm was developed and analyzed. This small size and flight-like Fuel Turbopump has completed the design and analysis phase and is currently in the manufacturing phase. This paper highlights the manufacturing and processes efforts to fabricate an approximately 20-lb turbopump with small flow passages, intricately bladed components and approximately 3-in diameter impellers. As a result of the small scale and tight tolerances of the hardware on this turbopump, several unique manufacturing and material challenges were encountered. Some of the technologies highlighted in this paper include the use of powder metallurgy technology to manufacture small impellers, electron beam welding of a turbine blisk shroud, and casting challenges. The use of risk reduction efforts such as non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE), fractography, material testing, and component spin testing are also discussed in this paper.

  8. Small Scale Turbulence Measurements in Shallow Florida Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanak, Manhar R.; Holappa, Ken

    1997-11-01

    Small scale oceanic turbulence measurements, made during winter in 18m deep waters off the east coast of Florida using two shear probes mounted on board an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), are described. The measurements were made over a substantial region as the AUV dived to a depth of 9m while moving forward at 1m/s. The velocity spectra from the probes, which were mounted in close proximity of each other and which measured the two cross-stream velocity components, agree well with each other and with the Nasmyth spectrum. Dissipation rates in the range ɛ = O (10-8 - 10-9) W/kg were measured. Analysis shows that the gathered data are of high quality and suggests that the use of a small AUV, whose self noise is well isolated from the measurement platform, promises to be an inexpensive, practical way of making a four-dimensional survey of significant regions of the ocean. The statistics of homogeneous turbulence, based on current measurements, will be discussed.

  9. Small scale modelling of dynamic impact of debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvitale, Nicoletta; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Fast landslides, such as debris flows, involve high speed downslope motion of rocks, soil and water. Engineering attempts to reduce the risk posed by these natural hazards often involve the placement of barriers or obstacles to inhibit movement. The impact pressures exert by debris flows are difficult to estimate because they not only depend on the geometry and size of the flow and the obstacle but also on the characteristics of the flow mixture. The presence of a solid phase can increase local impact pressure due to hard contact often caused by single boulder. This can lead to higher impact forces compared to the estimates of the peak pressure value obtained from hydraulic based models commonly adopted in such analyses. The proposed study aims at bringing new insight to the impact loading of structures generated by segregating granular debris flow. A small-scale flume, designed to enable plane laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and digital image correlation (DIC) to be applied internally will be used for 2D analyses. The flow will incorporate glass particles suitable for refractive index matching (RIM) with a matched fluid to gain optical access to the internal behaviour of the flow, via a laser sheet applied away from sidewall boundaries. For these tests, the focus will be on assessing 2D particle interactions in unsteady flow. The paper will present in details the methodology and the set-up of the experiments together with some preliminary results

  10. Requirements for future development of small scale rainfall simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Ries, Johannes B.; Seeger, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall simulation with small scale simulators is a method used worldwide to assess the generation of overland flow, soil erosion, infiltration and interrelated processes such as soil sealing, crusting, splash and redistribution of solids and solutes. Following the outcomes of the project "Comparability of simulation results of different rainfall simulators as input data for soil erosion modelling (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG, Project No. Ri 835/6-1)" and the "International Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011" in Trier, the necessity for further technical improvements of simulators and strategies towards an adaption of designs and methods becomes obvious. Uniform measurements of artificially generated rainfall and comparative measurements on a prepared bare fallow with rainfall simulators used by European research groups showed limitations of the comparability of the results. The following requirements, essential for small portable rainfall simulators, were identified: (I) Low and efficient water consumption for use in areas with water shortage, (II) easy handling and control of test conditions, (III) homogeneous spatial rainfall distribution, (IV) best possible drop spectrum (physically), (V) reproducibility and knowledge of spatial distribution and drop spectrum, (VI) easy and fast training of operators to obtain reproducible experiments and (VII) good mobility and easy installation for use in remote areas and in regions where highly erosive rainfall events are rare or irregular. The presentation discusses possibilities for a common use of identical plot designs, rainfall intensities and nozzles.

  11. Performance of small-scale tidal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, J. A.; Smachlo, M. A.

    1983-12-01

    Small-scale tidal power plants - having electric power between 1 and 100 MW, approximately - possess several attractive economic and environmental benefits. The dynamical behavior of such systems is calculated in terms of dimensionless variables and parameters, so that the size of the system is inconsequential (except for one parameter related to the slope of the walls of the tidal basin). Two measures of system performance are defined: capacity factor (ratio of average to rated power) and effectiveness (ratio of average to ideal tidal power). It was found that improving both parameters is mutually incompatible so that an economic analysis will determine the optimum values of the system design and performance parameters. The effects of variation of tidal range and basin shape were determined. Using typical variable flow properties of low-head hydroturbines, a favorable design head could be determined from the analysis. It was found that the change in the area of the intertidal zone relative to the surface area of the tidal pond is greater for small, as compared to large, systems, possibly leading to proportionately greater environmental effects. A comparison of the performance of several tidal power plant designs with the methodology of this paper showed generally good agreement with the dimensionless performance parameters and only a modest difference among them over several orders of magnitude in size of power plant.

  12. Asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunturu, Udaya Bhaskar; Hallgren, Willow

    2017-08-18

    Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation - canonical and Modoki - on the wind and hydro resources. Also, the Modoki El Ni˜no and the Modoki La Ni˜na phases have greater impact. The seasonal impact patterns corroborate these results. As the proportion of wind power increases in Australia's energy mix, this negative covariation has implications for storage capacity of excess wind generation at short time scales and for generation system adequacy at the longer time scales.

  13. Asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources in Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Gunturu, Udaya

    2017-08-14

    Wind and hydropower together constitute nearly 80% of the renewable capacity in Australia and their resources are collocated. We show that wind and hydro generation capacity factors covary negatively at the interannual time scales. Thus, the technology diversity mitigates the variability of renewable power generation at the interannual scales. The asynchrony of wind and hydropower resources is explained by the differential impact of the two modes of the El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation – canonical and Modoki – on the wind and hydro resources. Also, the Modoki El Ni˜no and the Modoki La Ni˜na phases have greater impact. The seasonal impact patterns corroborate these results. As the proportion of wind power increases in Australia’s energy mix, this negative covariation has implications for storage capacity of excess wind generation at short time scales and for generation system adequacy at the longer time scales.

  14. Small hydropower station in Lavin - Preliminary study; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Lavin - Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, F.

    2008-05-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a preliminary study regarding a proposed small hydropower installation on the alpine river Lavinuoz in Lavin, Switzerland. The geographical situation with mountains and glaciers in the catchment area of the proposed hydropower installation is discussed as are the appropriate water catchment installations. Possible dangers caused by avalanches and rock fall are examined. The power to be produced - 5,500,000 kWh/y - by the turbine which is nominally rated at 1350 kW is discussed, as are estimates of production costs. Figures on the investments required and the economic feasibility of the project are discussed, as are environmental factors that are to be taken into account.

  15. When and how to activate large new hydropower reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geressu, Robel; Harou, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Water resources system planners are increasingly required to address multiple long and short-term management objectives and the trade-offs these imply. Expansion planning in hydropower reservoir systems, where assets either temporarily or permanently reduce each other's performance, is a complex and potentially conflictual task requiring attention to multiple impacts. This paper proposes a multi-criteria scheduling approach considering many objectives and their associated uncertainties. The method considers the coordination and flexibility of reservoir operation in different expansion stages. The impact of abstraction (i.e., during filling of new reservoirs) and regulation of inflows by upstream reservoirs, is represented by simultaneously optimizing the storage size of reservoirs. Sensitivity analysis of performance given financial uncertainty and hydrological variability reveals which expansion schedules are robust to a wide range of future conditions. This informs how alternative designs compare in multiple performance dimensions and can serve stakeholders with differing attitudes towards risk and opportunity. The method is applied to proposed Blue Nile hydropower reservoirs to find efficient new dam activation schedules considering energy revenues, downstream release requirements, and energy generation during reservoir filling periods. Results take the form of Pareto-optimal trade-offs where each point on the curve or surface represents asset choices, size, activation date, and filling period reservoir operating rules. The results help explore the complex planning and management issues involved in the Blue Nile and demonstrate a possible approach to negotiate the design, filling and coordinated use of hydropower reservoirs.

  16. Advanced inflow forecasting for a hydropower plant in an Alpine hydropower regulated catchment - coupling of operational and hydrological forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilg, Anna-Maria; Schöber, Johannes; Huttenlau, Matthias; Messner, Jakob; Achleitner, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Hydropower is a renewable energy source which can help to stabilize fluctuations in the volatile energy market. Especially pumped-storage infrastructures in the European Alps play an important role within the European energy grid system. Today, the runoff of rivers in the Alps is often influenced by cascades of hydropower infrastructures where the operational procedures are triggered by energy market demands, water deliveries and flood control aspects rather than by hydro-meteorological variables. An example for such a highly hydropower regulated river is the catchment of the river Inn in the Eastern European Alps, originating in the Engadin (Switzerland). A new hydropower plant is going to be built as transboundary project at the boarder of Switzerland and Austria using the water of the Inn River. For the operation, a runoff forecast to the plant is required. The challenge in this case is that a high proportion of runoff is turbine water from an upstream situated hydropower cascade. The newly developed physically based hydrological forecasting system is mainly capable to cover natural hydrological runoff processes caused by storms and snow melt but can model only a small degree of human impact. These discontinuous parts of the runoff downstream of the pumped storage are described by means of an additional statistical model which has been developed. The main goal of the statistical model is to forecast the turbine water up to five days in advance. The lead time of the data driven model exceeds the lead time of the used energy production forecast. Additionally, the amount of turbine water is linked to the need of electricity production and the electricity price. It has been shown that especially the parameters day-ahead prognosis of the energy production and turbine inflow of the previous week are good predictors and are therefore used as input parameters for the model. As the data is restricted due to technical conditions, so-called Tobit models have been used to

  17. Disappearing rivers — The limits of environmental assessment for hydropower in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlewein, Alexander, E-mail: erlewein@sai.uni-heidelberg.de

    2013-11-15

    The mountain rivers of the Indian Himalaya possess a vast potential for hydropower generation. After decades of comparatively modest development recent years have seen a major intensification in the construction of new hydropower dams. Although increasingly portrayed as a form of renewable energy generation, hydropower development may lead to extensive alterations of fluvial systems and conflicts with resource use patterns of local communities. To appraise and reduce adverse effects is the purpose of statutory Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and corresponding mitigation plans. However, in the light of ambitious policies for hydropower expansion conventional approaches of environmental assessment are increasingly challenged to keep up with the intensity and pace of development. This paper aims to explore the systemic limitations of environmental assessment for hydropower development in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Based on a qualitative methodology involving interviews with environmental experts, document reviews and field observations the study suggests that the current practice of constraining EIAs to the project level fails to address the larger effects of extensive hydropower development. Furthermore, it is critically discussed as to what extent the concept of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) might have the potential to overcome existing shortcomings.

  18. Hydropower versus irrigation—an analysis of global patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ruijie; Cai, Ximing; Ringler, Claudia; Zhu, Tingju

    2017-03-01

    Numerous reservoirs around the world provide multiple flow regulation functions; key among these are hydroelectricity production and water releases for irrigation. These functions contribute to energy and food security at national, regional and global levels. While reservoir operations for hydroelectricity production might support irrigation, there are also well-known cases where hydroelectricity production reduces water availability for irrigated food production. This study assesses these relationships at the global level using machine-learning techniques and multi-source datasets. We find that 54% of global installed hydropower capacity (around 507 thousand Megawatt) competes with irrigation. Regions where such competition exists include the Central United States, northern Europe, India, Central Asia and Oceania. On the other hand, 8% of global installed hydropower capacity (around 79 thousand Megawatt) complements irrigation, particularly in the Yellow and Yangtze River Basins of China, the East and West Coasts of the United States and most river basins of Southeast Asia, Canada and Russia. No significant relationship is found for the rest of the world. We further analyze the impact of climate variables on the relationships between hydropower and irrigation. Reservoir flood control functions that operate under increased precipitation levels appear to constrain hydroelectricity production in various river basins of the United States, South China and most basins in Europe and Oceania. On the other hand, increased reservoir evaporative losses and higher irrigation requirements due to higher potential evaporation levels may lead to increased tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower due to reduced water availability in regions with warmer climates, such as India, South China, and the Southern United States. With most reservoirs today being built for multiple purposes, it is important for policymakers to understand and plan for growing tradeoffs between key

  19. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level is described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. A developer must obtain title or interest to a streambed from the proper riparian owners. Ohio provides assistance to an electric company in this undertaking by providing it with the power of eminent domain in the event it is unable to reach a purchase agreement with the riparian proprietors. The Ohio Water Law is discussed in detail, followed by discussions: Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations; Ohio Public Utilities Commission; Ohio Department of Energy; Incidental Provision; and Financial Considerations.

  20. Projected impacts of climate change on hydropower potential in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xingcai; Tang, Qiuhong; Voisin, Nathalie; Cui, Huijuan

    2016-01-01

    Hydropower is an important renewable energy source in China, but it is sensitive to climate change, because the changing climate may alter hydrological conditions (e.g., river flow and reservoir storage). Future changes and associated uncertainties in China's gross hydropower potential (GHP) and developed hydropower potential (DHP) are projected using simulations from eight global hydrological models (GHMs), including a large-scale reservoir regulation model, forced by five general circulation models (GCMs) with climate data under two representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). Results show that the estimation of the present GHP of China is comparable to other studies; overall, the annual GHP is projected to change by −1.7 to 2 % in the near future (2020–2050) and increase by 3 to 6 % in the late 21st century (2070–2099). The annual DHP is projected to change by −2.2 to −5.4 % (0.7–1.7 % of the total installed hydropower capacity (IHC)) and −1.3 to −4 % (0.4–1.3 % of total IHC) for 2020–2050 and 2070–2099, respectively. Regional variations emerge: GHP will increase in northern China but decrease in southern China – mostly in south central China and eastern China – where numerous reservoirs and large IHCs currently are located. The area with the highest GHP in southwest China will have more GHP, while DHP will reduce in the regions with high IHC (e.g., Sichuan and Hubei) in the future. The largest decrease in DHP (in %) will occur in autumn or winter, when streamflow is relatively low and water use is competitive. Large ranges in hydropower estimates across GHMs and GCMs highlight the necessity of using multimodel assessments under climate change conditions. This study prompts the consideration of climate change in planning for hydropower development and operations in China, to be further combined with a socioeconomic analysis for strategic expansion.

  1. Magnetic field amplification by small-scale dynamo action: dependence on turbulence models and Reynolds and Prandtl numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Federrath, Christoph; Klessen, Ralf; Banerjee, Robi

    2012-02-01

    The small-scale dynamo is a process by which turbulent kinetic energy is converted into magnetic energy, and thus it is expected to depend crucially on the nature of the turbulence. In this paper, we present a model for the small-scale dynamo that takes into account the slope of the turbulent velocity spectrum v(ℓ)proportional ℓ([symbol see text])V}, where ℓ and v(ℓ) are the size of a turbulent fluctuation and the typical velocity on that scale. The time evolution of the fluctuation component of the magnetic field, i.e., the small-scale field, is described by the Kazantsev equation. We solve this linear differential equation for its eigenvalues with the quantum-mechanical WKB approximation. The validity of this method is estimated as a function of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. We calculate the minimal magnetic Reynolds number for dynamo action, Rm_{crit}, using our model of the turbulent velocity correlation function. For Kolmogorov turbulence ([symbol see text] = 1/3), we find that the critical magnetic Reynolds number is Rm(crit) (K) ≈ 110 and for Burgers turbulence ([symbol see text] = 1/2) Rm(crit)(B) ≈ 2700. Furthermore, we derive that the growth rate of the small-scale magnetic field for a general type of turbulence is Γ proportional Re((1-[symbol see text])/(1+[symbol see text])) in the limit of infinite magnetic Prandtl number. For decreasing magnetic Prandtl number (down to Pm >/~ 10), the growth rate of the small-scale dynamo decreases. The details of this drop depend on the WKB approximation, which becomes invalid for a magnetic Prandtl number of about unity.

  2. Quantifying the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, T. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Rogers, L. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Brooks, D. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States); Tuohy, A. [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Knovville, TN (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The report summarizes research to Quantify the Value of Hydropower in the Electric Grid. This 3-year DOE study focused on defining value of hydropower assets in a changing electric grid. Methods are described for valuation and planning of pumped storage and conventional hydropower. The project team conducted plant case studies, electric system modeling, market analysis, cost data gathering, and evaluations of operating strategies and constraints. Five other reports detailing these research results are available a project website, www.epri.com/hydrogrid. With increasing deployment of wind and solar renewable generation, many owners, operators, and developers of hydropower have recognized the opportunity to provide more flexibility and ancillary services to the electric grid. To quantify value of services, this study focused on the Western Electric Coordinating Council region. A security-constrained, unit commitment and economic dispatch model was used to quantify the role of hydropower for several future energy scenarios up to 2020. This hourly production simulation considered transmission requirements to deliver energy, including future expansion plans. Both energy and ancillary service values were considered. Addressing specifically the quantification of pumped storage value, no single value stream dominated predicted plant contributions in various energy futures. Modeling confirmed that service value depends greatly on location and on competition with other available grid support resources. In this summary, ten different value streams related to hydropower are described. These fell into three categories; operational improvements, new technologies, and electricity market opportunities. Of these ten, the study was able to quantify a monetary value in six by applying both present day and future scenarios for operating the electric grid. This study confirmed that hydropower resources across the United States contribute significantly to operation of the grid in terms

  3. AN AUTOMATIC DETECTION METHOD FOR EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET DIMMINGS ASSOCIATED WITH SMALL-SCALE ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alipour, N.; Safari, H. [Department of Physics, University of Zanjan, P.O. Box 45195-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Innes, D. E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany)

    2012-02-10

    Small-scale extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) dimming often surrounds sites of energy release in the quiet Sun. This paper describes a method for the automatic detection of these small-scale EUV dimmings using a feature-based classifier. The method is demonstrated using sequences of 171 Angstrom-Sign images taken by the STEREO/Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI) on 2007 June 13 and by Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on 2010 August 27. The feature identification relies on recognizing structure in sequences of space-time 171 Angstrom-Sign images using the Zernike moments of the images. The Zernike moments space-time slices with events and non-events are distinctive enough to be separated using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The SVM is trained using 150 events and 700 non-event space-time slices. We find a total of 1217 events in the EUVI images and 2064 events in the AIA images on the days studied. Most of the events are found between latitudes -35 Degree-Sign and +35 Degree-Sign . The sizes and expansion speeds of central dimming regions are extracted using a region grow algorithm. The histograms of the sizes in both EUVI and AIA follow a steep power law with slope of about -5. The AIA slope extends to smaller sizes before turning over. The mean velocity of 1325 dimming regions seen by AIA is found to be about 14 km s{sup -1}.

  4. Financing Sustainable Small-Scale Forestry: Lessons from Developing National Forest Financing Strategies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Savenije

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems that hamper the financing of sustainable forest management (SFM are manifold and complex. However, forestry is also facing unprecedented opportunities. The multiple functions and values of forests are increasingly recognized as part of the solution to pressing global issues (e.g., climate change, energy scarcity, poverty, environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and raw material supply. Emerging initiatives to enhance forest carbon stocks and cut greenhouse gas emissions associated with forest clearing (known as REDD+, together with voluntary carbon markets, are offering additional funding options for SFM. Indigenous peoples, local communities and small scale farmers feature as key players in the discourse on implementing such initiatives. Based on the experience of countries developing national forest financing strategies and instruments, we suggest the following points be considered when financing such initiatives, particularly for small scale forestry: (1 Integrate financing of REDD+ and similar initiatives within broader national strategies for SFM financing; (2 Design REDD+ finance mechanisms that are ‘community ready’, i.e., tailored to local realities; (3 Consider existing livelihood strategies as the starting point; (4 Build on existing structures, but be mindful of their strengths and weaknesses; (5 Be strategic with your priority actions; and (6 Promote innovation, knowledge sharing and information exchange.

  5. Harmonic Propagation and Interaction Evaluation between Small-Scale Wind Farms and Nonlinear Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Xiong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation is a flexible and effective way to utilize renewable energy. The dispersed generators are quite close to the load, and pose some power quality problems such as harmonic current emissions. This paper focuses on the harmonic propagation and interaction between a small-scale wind farm and nonlinear loads in the distribution grid. Firstly, by setting the wind turbines as P – Q(V nodes, the paper discusses the expanding Newton-Raphson power flow method for the wind farm. Then the generalized gamma mixture models are proposed to study the non-characteristic harmonic propagation of the wind farm, which are based on Gaussian mixture models, improved phasor clustering and generalized Gamma models. After the integration of the small-scale wind farm, harmonic emissions of nonlinear loads will become random and fluctuating due to the non-stationary wind power. Furthermore, in this paper the harmonic coupled admittance matrix model of nonlinear loads combined with a wind farm is deduced by rigorous formulas. Then the harmonic propagation and interaction between a real wind farm and nonlinear loads are analyzed by the harmonic coupled admittance matrix and generalized gamma mixture models. Finally, the proposed models and methods are verified through the corresponding simulation models in MATLAB/SIMULINK and PSCAD/EMTDC.

  6. Sustaining mechanism of small-scale turbulent eddies in a precessing sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimoto, Yasufumi; Goto, Susumu

    2017-11-01

    It has been known for a long time that fully developed turbulence is sustained in a precessing container. The aim of the present study is to reveal the sustaining mechanism of turbulence in a precessing sphere by means of laboratory experiments. We conduct experiments using a Newtonian fluid (water) and viscoelastic fluids (dilute solutions of surfactant, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride, and polymers, polyethylene oxide) to understand the sustaining mechanism of turbulence of Newtonian fluids by examining turbulence modifications due to the surfactant and polymer additives. When the Reynolds number based on the spin angular velocity and radius of the sphere is fixed, the most developed turbulence is sustained with the Poincaré number (the precession rate) being about 0.1. The key ingredient of the developed turbulence is a pair of large-scale vortex tubes which robustly exists in the flow. Assuming that these vortex tubes sustain small-scale turbulent eddies through an energy cascading process, we can explain all our experimental observations. Concerning the turbulence modification by the additives, the time-scale criteria by Lumley [J. Polymer Sci.: Macromol. Rev. 7, 263 (1973), 10.1002/pol.1973.230070104] and the refined theory by Tabor and de Gennes [Europhys. Lett. 2, 519 (1986), 10.1209/0295-5075/2/7/005] explain the experimental result that the pair of large-scale vortex tubes survives even when small-scale turbulent eddies are drastically suppressed by the surfactant additive.

  7. Handbook for Small-Scale Densified Biomass Fuel (Pellets) Manufacturing for Local Markets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folk, Richard L.; Govett, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    Wood pellet manufacturing in the Intermountain West is a recently founded and rapidly expanding energy industry for small-scale producers. Within a three-year period, the total number of manufacturers in the region has increased from seven to twelve (Folk et al., 1988). Small-scale industry development is evolving because a supply of raw materials from small and some medium-sized primary and secondary wood processors that has been largely unused. For the residue producer considering pellet fuel manufacturing, the wastewood generated from primary products often carries a cost associated with residue disposal when methods at-e stockpiling, landfilling or incinerating. Regional processors use these methods for a variety of reasons, including the relatively small amounts of residue produced, residue form, mixed residue types, high transportation costs and lack of a local market, convenience and absence of regulation. Direct costs associated with residue disposal include the expenses required to own and operate residue handling equipment, costs for operating and maintaining a combustor and tipping fees charged to accept wood waste at public landfills. Economic and social costs related to environmental concerns may also be incurred to include local air and water quality degradation from open-air combustion and leachate movement into streams and drinking water.

  8. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

  9. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The first step the small scale hydroelectric developer must take is that of acquiring title to the real property comprising the development site. The real estate parcel must include the requisite interest in the land adjacent to the watercourse, access to the underlying streambed and where needed, the land necessary for an upstream impoundment area. Land acquisition may be effectuated by purchase, lease, or grant by the state. In addition to these methods, New York permits the use of the eminent domain power of the state for public utilities under certain circumstances.

  10. Harnessing the hydropower potential in Africa: What should be the place and role of Grand Inga hydropower project?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fall, Latsoucabe

    2010-09-15

    Harnessing Africa's huge hydropower potential should be made a priority for the sustainable development of the Continent. Particularly, Grand Inga hydropower project in DRC, due to its gigantic size (40,000 MW) and favourable natural characteristics, could be 'Africa's flagship Project of the 21st Century' offering enormous comparative advantages and opportunities for the benefits of the entire African Continent. Nevertheless, to make it a feasible and palpable 'Model Project', capable of producing clean and affordable energy, the paper tries to respond to key questions on the several daunting challenges to address for its sustainable, cost-effective and timely development and operation.

  11. Alpine hydropower in a low carbon economy: Assessing the local implication of global policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the global transition towards a more efficient and low-carbon economy, renewable energy plays a major role in displacing fossil fuels, meeting global energy demand while reducing carbon dioxide emissions. In Europe, Variable Renewable Sources (VRS), such as wind and solar power sources, are becoming a relevant share of the generation portfolios in many countries. Beside the indisputable social and environmental advantages of VRS, on the short medium term the VRS-induced lowering energy prices and increasing price's volatility might challenge traditional power sources and, among them, hydropower production, because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. In this study, we focus on the Swiss hydropower sector analysing how different low-carbon targets and strategies established at the Swiss and European level might affect energy price formation and thus impact - through hydropower operation - water availability and ecosystems services at the catchment scale. We combine a hydrological model to simulate future water availability and an electricity market model to simulate future evolution of energy prices based on official Swiss and European energy roadmaps and CO2 price trends in the European Union. We use Multi-Objective optimization techniques to design alternative hydropower reservoir operation strategies, aiming to maximise the hydropower companies' income or to provide reliable energy supply with respect to the energy demand. This integrated model allows analysing to which extent global low-carbon policies impact reservoir operation at the local scale, and to gain insight on how to prioritise compensation measures and/or adaptation strategies to mitigate the impact of VRS on hydropower companies in increasingly water constrained settings. Numerical results are shown for a real-world case study in the Swiss Alps.

  12. Modeling coastal upwelling around a small-scale coastline promontory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, K. A.; Cai, D.; Freismuth, T. M.; MacMahan, J.; Di Lorenzo, E.; Suanda, S. H.; Kumar, N.; Miller, A. J.; Edwards, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    On the US west coast, northerly winds drive coastal ocean upwelling, an important process which brings cold nutrient rich water to the nearshore. The coastline geometry has been shown to be a significant factor in the strength of the upwelling process. In particular, the upwelling in the lee of major headlands have been shown to be enhanced. Recent observations from the Pt. Sal region on the coast of southern California have shown the presence of cooler water south of a small (350 m) rocky promontory (Mussel Pt.) during upwelling events. The hypothesis is that the small scale promontory is creating a lee side enhancement to the upwelling. To shed some light on this process, numerical simulations of the inner shelf region centered about Pt. Sal are conducted with the ROMS module of the COAWST model system. The model system is configured with four nested grids with resolutions ranging from approximately 600 m to the outer shelf ( 200 m) to the inner shelf ( 66 m) and finally to the surf zone ( 22 m). A solution from a 1 km grid encompassing our domain provides the boundary conditions for the 600 m grid. Barotropic tidal forcing is incorporated at the 600 m grid to provide tidal variability. This model system with realistic topography and bathymetry, winds and tides, is able to isolate the forcing mechanisms that explain the emergence of the cold water mass. The simulations focus on the time period of June - July, 2015 corresponding to the pilot study in which observational experiment data was collected. The experiment data in part consists of in situ measurement, which includes mooring with conductivity, temperature, depth, and flow velocity. The model simulations are able to reproduce the important flow features including the cooler water mass south of Mussel Pt. As hypothesized, the strength of the upwelling is enhanced on the side of Mussel Pt. In addition, periods of wind relaxation where the upwelling ceases and even begins to transform towards downwelling is

  13. ARCADE small-scale docking mechanism for micro-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesso, A.; Francesconi, A.

    2013-05-01

    The development of on-orbit autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) capabilities represents a key point for a number of appealing mission scenarios that include activities of on-orbit servicing, automated assembly of modular structures and active debris removal. As of today, especially in the field of micro-satellites ARD, many fundamental technologies are still missing or require further developments and micro-gravity testing. In this framework, the University of Padova, Centre of Studies and Activities for Space (CISAS), developed the Autonomous Rendezvous Control and Docking Experiment (ARCADE), a technology demonstrator intended to fly aboard a BEXUS stratospheric balloon. The goal was to design, build and test, in critical environment conditions, a proximity relative navigation system, a custom-made reaction wheel and a small-size docking mechanism. The ARCADE docking mechanism was designed against a comprehensive set of requirements and it can be classified as small-scale, central, gender mating and unpressurized. The large use of commercial components makes it low-cost and simple to be manufactured. Last, it features a good tolerance to off-nominal docking conditions and a by-design soft docking capability. The final design was extensively verified to be compliant with its requirements by means of numerical simulations and physical testing. In detail, the dynamic behaviour of the mechanism in both nominal and off-nominal conditions was assessed with the multibody dynamics analysis software MD ADAMS 2010 and functional tests were carried out within the fully integrated ARCADE experiment to ensure the docking system efficacy and to highlight possible issues. The most relevant results of the study will be presented and discussed in conclusion to this paper.

  14. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  15. Detecting small scale CO2 emission structures using OCO-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Eldering, Annmarie; Verhulst, Kristal R.; Miller, Charles E.; Nguyen, Hai M.; Oda, Tomohiro; O'Dell, Christopher; Rao, Preeti; Kahn, Brian; Crisp, David; Gunson, Michael R.; Sanchez, Robert M.; Ashok, Manasa; Pieri, David; Linick, Justin P.; Yuen, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Localized carbon dioxide (CO2) emission structures cover spatial domains of less than 50 km diameter and include cities and transportation networks, as well as fossil fuel production, upgrading and distribution infra-structure. Anthropogenic sources increasingly upset the natural balance between natural carbon sources and sinks. Mitigation of resulting climate change impacts requires management of emissions, and emissions management requires monitoring, reporting and verification. Space-borne measurements provide a unique opportunity to detect, quantify, and analyze small scale and point source emissions on a global scale. NASA's first satellite dedicated to atmospheric CO2 observation, the July 2014 launched Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2), now leads the afternoon constellation of satellites (A-Train). Its continuous swath of 2 to 10 km in width and eight footprints across can slice through coincident emission plumes and may provide momentary cross sections. First OCO-2 results demonstrate that we can detect localized source signals in the form of urban total column averaged CO2 enhancements of ~2 ppm against suburban and rural backgrounds. OCO-2's multi-sounding swath observing geometry reveals intra-urban spatial structures reflected in XCO2 data, previously unobserved from space. The transition from single-shot GOSAT soundings detecting urban/rural differences (Kort et al., 2012) to hundreds of soundings per OCO-2 swath opens up the path to future capabilities enabling urban tomography of greenhouse gases. For singular point sources like coal fired power plants, we have developed proxy detections of plumes using bands of imaging spectrometers with sensitivity to SO2 in the thermal infrared (ASTER). This approach provides a means to automate plume detection with subsequent matching and mining of OCO-2 data for enhanced detection efficiency and validation. © California Institute of Technology

  16. Multi-Objective Optimization for Analysis of Changing Trade-Offs in the Nepalese Water-Energy-Food Nexus with Hydropower Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhaubanjar, Sanita; Davidsen, Claus; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2017-01-01

    While the water-energy-food nexus approach is becoming increasingly important for more efficient resource utilization and economic development, limited quantitative tools are available to incorporate the approach in decision-making. We propose a spatially explicit framework that couples two well......-established water and power system models to develop a decision support tool combining multiple nexus objectives in a linear objective function. To demonstrate our framework, we compare eight Nepalese power development scenarios based on five nexus objectives: minimization of power deficit, maintenance of water...... availability for irrigation to support food self-sufficiency, reduction in flood risk, maintenance of environmental flows, and maximization of power export. The deterministic multi-objective optimization model is spatially resolved to enable realistic representation of the nexus linkages and accounts for power...

  17. Fuzzy multiobjective models for optimal operation of a hydropower system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.; Ferreira, André R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2013-06-01

    Optimal operation models for a hydropower system using new fuzzy multiobjective mathematical programming models are developed and evaluated in this study. The models use (i) mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) with binary variables and (ii) integrate a new turbine unit commitment formulation along with water quality constraints used for evaluation of reservoir downstream impairment. Reardon method used in solution of genetic algorithm optimization problems forms the basis for development of a new fuzzy multiobjective hydropower system optimization model with creation of Reardon type fuzzy membership functions. The models are applied to a real-life hydropower reservoir system in Brazil. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are used to (i) solve the optimization formulations to avoid computational intractability and combinatorial problems associated with binary variables in unit commitment, (ii) efficiently address Reardon method formulations, and (iii) deal with local optimal solutions obtained from the use of traditional gradient-based solvers. Decision maker's preferences are incorporated within fuzzy mathematical programming formulations to obtain compromise operating rules for a multiobjective reservoir operation problem dominated by conflicting goals of energy production, water quality and conservation releases. Results provide insight into compromise operation rules obtained using the new Reardon fuzzy multiobjective optimization framework and confirm its applicability to a variety of multiobjective water resources problems.

  18. Hydropower developments in Canada: number, size and jurisdictional and ecological distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Peter G.; Hanneman, Matt; Cheng, Ryan [Global Forest Watch Canada (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    For over 200 years, energy production and consumption, along with all human activities, have been contributing to global warming. This report is part of a project that examines 10 major energy sectors to provide information on Canada's energy options in the face of climate change; this present study gives information on hydropower reservoirs and associated dams in Canada. The mapping, jurisdictional and ecological distribution of reservoirs and dams across Canada is provided herein. Canada's hydropower installations are composed of 271 large hydropower facilities covering 58,015 km2 with a capacity of 71,857 MW, accounting for 44% of Canada's total technical hydroelectric capacity. Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia are the provinces with the most large hydropower dams; 19% of the watersheds are occupied in part by hydropower reservoirs and the taiga shield, boreal shield and montane cordillera ecozones contain most of the reservoir areas. The majority of future developments are expected to be built within 5km of intact forest landscapes.

  19. Socioeconomic impacts of hydropower development on the Yibin-Chongqing section, upper reaches of the Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Liu, Yu; Wang, Hao; Yan, Deng Hua; Lv, Ying Kang; Yang, Zhaohui

    The aim of this paper is to quantify the socioeconomic impacts of hydropower development to reflect its positive functions from multiple perspectives and dimensions. By applying the multi-regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to a case study of the Yibin-Chongqing section along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, the analysis shows that hydropower development has outstanding benefits for the regional economy and livelihood improvement, as proved by various indicators including consumption, investment, GDP, employment, and income. Meanwhile, application of the CGE model provides an effective way to quantitatively assess the socioeconomic impact of hydropower and other clean energy development.

  20. Simple Supercapacitor Charging Scheme of an Electric Vehicle on Small-scale Hardware Simulator: a Prototype Development for Education Purpose

    OpenAIRE

    Al Tahtawi, Adnan Rafi; Rohman, Arief Syaichu

    2016-01-01

    Supercapacitor is one of electrical energy sources that have faster charging-discharging times when compared to other power sources, such as battery and fuel cell. Therefore, it is often used as an additional power source in an electric vehicle. In this paper, a prototype of small-scale electric vehicle simulator (EVS) is built and a simple charging scheme of supercapacitor is used for education purpose. EVS is an electric vehicle prototype which can show the vehicle's powertrain on small-sca...

  1. Visualization of small scale structures on high resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Zakšek, Klemen; Pehani, Peter; Čotar, Klemen; Oštir, Krištof

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge on the terrain morphology is very important for observation of numerous processes and events and digital elevation models are therefore one of the most important datasets in geographic analyses. Furthermore, recognition of natural and anthropogenic microrelief structures, which can be observed on detailed terrain models derived from aerial laser scanning (lidar) or structure-from-motion photogrammetry, is of paramount importance in many applications. In this paper we thus examine and evaluate methods of raster lidar data visualization for the determination (recognition) of microrelief features and present a series of strategies to assist selecting the preferred visualization of choice for structures of various shapes and sizes, set in varied landscapes. Often the answer is not definite and more frequently a combination of techniques has to be used to map a very diverse landscape. Researchers can only very recently benefit from free software for calculation of advanced visualization techniques. These tools are often difficult to understand, have numerous options that confuse the user, or require and produce non-standard data formats, because they were written for specific purposes. We therefore designed the Relief Visualization Toolbox (RVT) as a free, easy-to-use, standalone application to create visualisations from high-resolution digital elevation data. It is tailored for the very beginners in relief interpretation, but it can also be used by more advanced users in data processing and geographic information systems. It offers a range of techniques, such as simple hillshading and its derivatives, slope gradient, trend removal, positive and negative openness, sky-view factor, and anisotropic sky-view factor. All included methods have been proven to be effective for detection of small scale features and the default settings are optimised to accomplish this task. However, the usability of the tool goes beyond computation for visualization purposes, as sky

  2. Experimental investigation of small-scale gasification of woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrio, Maria

    2002-05-01

    A small-scale stratified down draft gasifier has been built and operated under stable conditions using wood pellets as fuel and air as gasification agent. The problems observed during the preliminary experiments have been described and explained; they are mainly related to the stability of the process. The stable operation of the gasifier has been characterised by the gas composition and the product gas tar and particle content. The biomass feeding rate has varied between 4,5 and 6,5 kg/h. The CO content of the product gas (23-26 % vol.) is higher than in similar gasifiers and the H{sub 2} content has been found to vary between 14 and 16 % vol. The tar content in the product gas (Ca. 3 g/Nm{sup 3}) is rather high compared with similar gasifiers. The temperature profile, together with other relevant parameters like the air-excess ratio, the air to fuel ratio and gas to fuel ratio have been calculated. The experiments show that the air excess ratio is rather constant, varying between 0,25 and 0,3. Experiments have been conducted with a gas engine using mixtures of CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} as a fuel. NO{sub x} and CO emissions are analysed. The char gasification process has been studied in detail by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis. The study comprises the chemical kinetics of the gasification reactions of wood char in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O, including the inhibition effect of CO and H{sub 2}. A kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics has been found which relates the mass loss rate to the temperature, gas composition and degree of conversion for each reaction. The ratio CO/CO{sub 2} has been found to be a relevant parameter for reactivity. The gasification experiments in mixtures of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O give reasons to believe that the rate of desorption for the complex C(O) varies depending on the gas mixture surrounding the char. It has been found that if the experimental data are obtained from separate H{sub 2}O/N{sub 2

  3. Process improvement of knives production in a small scale industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Muktasim, Irfan

    2017-06-01

    Small scale industry that produces several kinds of knive should increase its capacity due to the demand from the market. Qualitatively, this case study consisted of formulating the problems, collecting and analyzing the necessary data, and determining the possible recommendations for the improvement. While the current capacity is only 9 (nine), it is expected that 20 units of knife will produced per month. The processes sequence are: profiling (a), truing (b), beveling (c), heat treatment (d), polishing (e), assembly (f), sharpening (g) and finishing (h). The first process (a) is held by out-house vendor company while other steps from (b) to (g) are executed by in-house vendor. However, there is a high dependency upon the high skilled operator who executes the in -house processes that are mostly held manually with several unbalance successive tasks, where the processing time of one or two tasks require longer duration than others since the operation is merely relied on the operator's skill. The idea is the improvement or change of the profiling and beveling process. Due to the poor surface quality and suboptimal hardness resulted from the laser cut machine for profiling, it is considered to subst itute this kind of process with wire cut that is capable to obtain good surface quality with certain range levels of roughness. Through simple cutting experiments on the samples, it is expected that the generated surface quality is adequate to omit the truing process (b). In addition, the cutting experiments on one, two, and four test samples resulted the shortest time that was obtained through four pieces in one cut. The technical parameters were set according to the recommendation of machine standard as referred to samples condition such as thickness and path length that affect ed the rate of wear. Meanwhile, in order to guarantee the uniformity of knife angles that are formed through beveling process (c), a grinding fixture was created. This kind of tool diminishes the

  4. Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, Jason R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    Hydropower Manufacturing and Supply Chain Analysis presentation from the WPTO FY14-FY16 Peer Review. The project objective is to provide data and insights to inform investment strategies, policy, and other decisions to promote economic growth and manufacturing.

  5. Effects of Climate Change on Federal Hydropower. Report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This is a formal Department of Energy report to Congress. It outlines the findings of an assessment directed by Congress in Section 9505 of the SECURE Water Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-11), the US Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the federal Power Marketing Administrations (PMAs) and other federal agencies, including federal dam owners, has prepared a comprehensive assessment examining the effects of climate change on water available for hydropower at federal facilities and on the marketing of power from these federal facilities.

  6. Hydropower scene: boost for Dominican power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    When it is completed in 1991, the 150 MW Jiguey-Aguacate multi-purpose hydropower scheme will be the largest hydro project in the Dominican Republic. Construction of the scheme was recommended as a result of various studies carried out by the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Hidraulicos (INDHRI), which examined the hydropower potential of the Niazo river. Work is now in progress on site, with commissioning of the first unit expected in 1990.

  7. Application of Heterogeneous Catalysis in Small-Scale Biomass Combustion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Thiel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of solid biomass fuels for heat generation is an important renewable energy resource. The major part among biomass combustion applications is being played by small-scale systems like wood log stoves and small wood pellet burners, which account for 75% of the overall biomass heat production. Despite an environmentally friendly use of renewable energies, incomplete combustion in small-scale systems can lead to the emission of environmental pollutants as well as substances which are hazardous to health. Besides particles of ash and soot, a wide variety of gaseous substances can also be emitted. Among those, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and several organic volatile and semi-volatile compounds (VOC are present. Heterogeneous catalysis is applied for the reduction of various gaseous compounds as well as soot. Some research has been done to examine the application of catalytic converters in small-scale biomass combustion systems. In addition to catalyst selection with respect to complete oxidation of different organic compounds, parameters such as long-term stability and durability under flue gas conditions are considered for use in biomass combustion furnaces. Possible catalytic procedures have been identified for investigation by literature and market research. Experimental studies with two selected oxidation catalysts based on noble metals have been carried out on a wood log stove with a retrofit system. The measurements have been performed under defined conditions based on practical mode of operation. The measurements have shown that the catalytic flue gas treatment is a promising method to reduce carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds. Even a reduction of particulate matter was observed, although no filtering effect could be detected. Therefore, the oxidation of soot or soot precursors can be assumed. The selected catalysts differed in their activity, depending on the compound to be oxidized. Examinations showed that

  8. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power in Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Rhode Island, any private rights in the flowing waters of a river or stream depend upon ownership of the abutting land. It appears Rhode Island follows the reasonable use theory of riparian law. The Department of Environmental Management is the most significant administrative agency with regard to dam construction, alteration, and operation in the state of Rhode Island.

  9. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of the hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. The first obstacle which every developer in Illinois must confront is obtaining authority to utilize the river bed, banks, and flowing water at the proposed site. This involves determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Illinois follows the riparian theory of water law. Following the detailed discussion of the water law, direct and indirect regulations and financial considerations are discussed.

  10. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric potential in Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. The initial obstacle that all developers confront in Wisconsin is obtaining the authority to utilize the bed, banks, and flowing water at a proposed dam site. This involves a determination of ownership of the stream banks and bed and the manner of obtaining either their title or use; and existing constraints with regard to the use of the water. Wisconsin follows the riparian theory of water law.

  11. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric projects in Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The discussion is designed to aid the developer in the determination of which permits, licenses, and laws of the state must be secured or complied with for the development of a project. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC. Specific sections that follow are: Massachusetts Water Law; Licensing, Permitting, and Review Procedures; Indirect Considerations (by departments); Department of Public Utilities Regulation of Privately Owned Electric Utilities; Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric Company; Miscellaneous Legal Issues Relating to Low-Head Hydroelectric Power; and Financial Considerations.

  12. Experimental study on a small scale of gas hydrate cold storage apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yingming; Li, Gang; Liu, Daoping; Liu, Ni; Qi, Yingxia [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai (China); Liang, Deqing; Guo, Kaihua; Fan, Shuanshi [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-11-15

    To have an overall investigation of cold storage characteristics to help to promote the application, a novel small scale of gas hydrate cold storage apparatus was designed. The amount of cold energy, growth rate, Hydrate Packed Factor (HPF) and overall heat transfer coefficient during the cold storage process were calculated and analyzed under different heat exchangers, sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDS) concentrations, hydration enhancement ways, inlet coolant temperatures and flow rates, etc. Results show that the cold storage performance could be improved greatly by adding a heat exchanger with vertical metal fins; SDS with concentration of 0.04 wt.% could help to improve the cold storage performance effectively. In addition, decreasing of the coolant temperature or increasing of the coolant flow rate could also make the amount of cold storage increased; it was found that mechanical blending for 5 min was the better hydration enhancement way than others, which presents the perspective for practical application. (author)

  13. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level in Vermont are discussed. The dual regulatory system involving state and Federal governments is discussed followed by discussions on property interests; direct regulation by the Public Service Board; indirect regulation; and financial considerations. An initial step required of any developer is that of real property acquisition. Ordinarily this involves acquiring the stream bed, land along the stream banks, and land needed for the impoundment reservoir. Ownership of land along the stream banks places the developer in the position of a riparian owner. This status is important in that only riparian owners are entitled to a reasonable use of the flowing water. In addition to acquisition by sale, lease, or gift, Vermont law allows certain developers to acquire property via eminent domain. Some general rules which have evolved as riparian law and applied in Vermont are discussed.

  14. 76 FR 65717 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the project. The project does not occupy any federal...

  15. 76 FR 35208 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... draft environmental assessment (draft EA). The project is located on the Merrimack River in Middlesex...

  16. 76 FR 40719 - Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... a multi-project environmental assessment (EA), which analyzes the potential environmental effects of...

  17. 76 FR 46287 - Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Erie Boulevard Hydropower, L.P.; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... environmental assessment (EA). The project is located on the Sacandaga River in Saratoga County, New York. The...

  18. 76 FR 80924 - Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Boott Hydropower, Inc.; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and ] the Federal Energy... an environmental assessment (EA). The project is located on the Merrimack River in Middlesex County...

  19. 78 FR 79433 - Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, Ohio, Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Mahoning Hydropower, LLC, Ohio, Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory... Resources. The project would not occupy federal lands. Staff prepared an environmental assessment (EA...

  20. Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

  1. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  2. The impacts of small scale artisanal diamond mining on the environment

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.A. This mini-dissertation establishes the extent to which small scale artisanal diamond mining impacts on the environment. There has, in the past, been research undertaken specifically on the water related impacts of small scale artisanal diamond mining. This study however, looks at the environment holistically, and gauges the total degradation to the receiving environment. Small scale artisanal diamond mining is considered to be a major contributor to the local economy and improved qual...

  3. Mercury Pollution Due to Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Asirot, Jasminda

    2000-01-01

    The study reviews small-scale gold mining in the Philippines and economically assesses mercury pollution and other development problems in the industry. The end purpose is to suggest measures to address the problems and promote better environmental and overall management of small-scale mining. The study has used secondary data from mining institutions and primary data from key informants and small-scale gold miners and processors in the two case study sites. brazzer

  4. Mercury Pollution Due to Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aniceto C. Orbeta; Israel, Danilo C.; Asirot, Jasminda

    2000-01-01

    The study reviews small-scale gold mining in the Philippines and economically assesses mercury pollution and other development problems in the industry. The end purpose is to suggest measures to address the problems and promote better environmental and overall management of small-scale mining. The study has used secondary data from mining institutions and primary data from key informants and small-scale gold miners and processors in the two case study sites.

  5. Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Demonstration Project. Pennsylvania Hydroelectric Development Corporation Flat Rock Dam: Project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleeson, L.

    1991-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Field Office, Idaho, Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Program was initiated in conjunction with the restoration of three power generating plants in Idaho Falls, Idaho, following damage caused by the Teton Dam failure on June 5, 1976. There were many parties interested in this project, including the state and environmental groups, with different concerns. This report was prepared by the developer and describes the design alternatives the applicant provided in an attempt to secure the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission license. Also included are correspondence between the related parties concerning the project, major design alternatives/project plan diagrams, the license, and energy and project economics.

  6. Small-scale geodiversity and dirt road management, Ede (NL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2016-04-01

    potholes; - Although in general the natural infiltration of the terrains surrounding the roads is sufficient, in some road sections water from adjacent sloping terrain brings extra water on the road; - A thin cover of leaves on the footpaths and road sections with low car traffic improves the infiltration in the road, and reduces the run-off to other the road sections to nearly zero. Leaves along the roadside also help to retard and reduce the run-off over the roads. However leaves on or along the road are not tolerated by most inhabitants, the roads need to be 'clean'. Our conclusion: Each dirt road is unique, but also within one dirt road there are important geological differences that have consequences for its maintenance. Knowledge of geodiversity of the terrain and study of small-scale erosion processes can help to improve the management of dirt roads. References Gemeente Ede, Nota Zandwegen, 2009.

  7. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power: Bull Run, Portland, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-05-01

    The National Conference of State Legislatures' Small-Scale Hydroelectric Policy Project is designed to assist selected state legislatures in looking at the benefits that a state can derive from the development of small-scale hydro, and in carrying out a review of state laws and regulations that affect the development of the state's small-scale hydro resources. The successful completion of the project should help establish state statutes and regulations that are consistent with the efficient development of small-scale hydro. As part of the project's work with state legislatures, seven case studies of small-scale hydro sites were conducted to provide a general analysis and overview of the significant problems and opportunities for the development of this energy resource. The case study approach was selected to expose the actual difficulties and advantages involved in developing a specific site. Such an examination of real development efforts will clearly reveal the important aspects about small-scale hydro development which could be improved by statutory or regulatory revision. Moreover, the case study format enables the formulation of generalized opportunities for promoting small-scale hydro based on specific development experiences. The case study for small-scale hydro power development at the City of Portland's water reserve in the Bull Run Forest is presented with information included on the Bull Run hydro power potential, current water usage, hydro power regulations and plant licensing, technical and economic aspects of Bull Run project, and the environmental impact. (LCL)

  8. Metaheuristic Approaches for Hydropower System Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda G. Hidalgo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the short-term scheduling problem of hydropower systems. The objective is to meet the daily energy demand in an economic and safe way. The individuality of the generating units and the nonlinearity of their efficiency curves are taken into account. The mathematical model is formulated as a dynamic, mixed integer, nonlinear, nonconvex, combinatorial, and multiobjective optimization problem. We propose two solution methods using metaheuristic approaches. They combine Genetic Algorithm with Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization. Both approaches are divided into two phases. In the first one, to maximize the plant’s net generation, the problem is solved for each hour of the day (static dispatch. In the second phase, to minimize the units’ switching on-off, the day is considered as a whole (dynamic dispatch. The proposed methodology is applied to two Brazilian hydroelectric plants, in cascade, that belong to the national interconnected system. The nondominated solutions from both approaches are presented. All of them meet demand respecting the physical, electrical, and hydraulic constraints.

  9. Off-grid hybrid electric power supply system, using a combination of solar cells, small scale wind turbine and batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeter, W.

    1994-03-01

    The design of an off-grid electric power supply system consisting of a small scale wind turbine, a combination of solar cells and batteries is described. The robust, small scale FC 4000 wind turbine, which needs little maintenance, can be used under varying climatic conditions. It is equipped with a permanent-magnet generator with an output of 1.5 kW. The generator`s rotor is directly coupled with the wind turbine`s rotor and is without a gearbox, so the frequency and output varies according to wind speed. The 12 m{sup 2} solar cell system consists of round modules embedded in glass and with an efficiency of 13%. The lead acid batteries are used when power consumption exceeds production and store energy for future use. Further adjustments are necessary in order to optimize the performance of this hybrid system. (AB)

  10. Evaluation on the High-temperature Structural Integrity of the small-scale PHE prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kee Nam; Hong, S. D.; Kim, Y. W.; Park, H. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Recently, nuclear hydrogen production is garnering worldwide attention since it can produce hydrogen, a promising energy carrier, without an environmental burden. The nuclear hydrogen program in the Republic of Korea (ROK) is strongly considering producing hydrogen by employing a Sulfur-Iodine (SI) water-splitting hydrogen production processes. An intermediate loop that transports the nuclear heat to the hydrogen production process is necessitated for the nuclear hydrogen program as shown in Fig. 1. In the intermediate loop, whereas the HGD (Hot Gas Duct) provide a route of a high temperature gas from the nuclear reactor to the IHX (Intermediate Heat Exchanger), the PHE (Process Heat Exchanger) is a component that utilizes the nuclear heat from the nuclear reactor to provide hydrogen. PHE is used in several processes such as nuclear steam reforming, nuclear methanol, nuclear steel, nuclear oil refinery, and nuclear steam. PHE of the SO{sub 3} decomposer which generates processed gas, such as H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and SO{sub 3} at very high temperature is a key component in the nuclear hydrogen program in ROK. A performance test on the small-scale PHE prototype made of Hastelloy-X is under way in the small-scale gas loop at KAERI as shown in Fig. 2. In this study, in order to evaluate the high-temperature structural integrity of the PHE prototype under the test condition of the gas loop, structural analysis on the PHE prototype is carried out, considering the stiffness of pipelines connected to the PHE prototype in the gas loop

  11. A small-scale dynamo in feedback-dominated galaxies - III. Cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Michael; Teyssier, Romain

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic fields are widely observed in the Universe in virtually all astrophysical objects, from individual stars to entire galaxies, even in the intergalactic medium, but their specific genesis has long been debated. Due to the development of more realistic models of galaxy formation, viable scenarios are emerging to explain cosmic magnetism, thanks to both deeper observations and more efficient and accurate computer simulations. We present here a new cosmological high-resolution zoom-in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, using the adaptive mesh refinement technique, of a dwarf galaxy with an initially weak and uniform magnetic seed field that is amplified by a small-scale dynamo (SSD) driven by supernova-induced turbulence. As first structures form from the gravitational collapse of small density fluctuations, the frozen-in magnetic field separates from the cosmic expansion and grows through compression. In a second step, star formation sets in and establishes a strong galactic fountain, self-regulated by supernova explosions. Inside the galaxy, the interstellar medium becomes highly turbulent, dominated by strong supersonic shocks, as demonstrated by the spectral analysis of the gas kinetic energy. In this turbulent environment, the magnetic field is quickly amplified via a SSD process and is finally carried out into the circumgalactic medium by a galactic wind. This realistic cosmological simulation explains how initially weak magnetic seed fields can be amplified quickly in early, feedback-dominated galaxies, and predicts, as a consequence of the SSD process, that high-redshift magnetic fields are likely to be dominated by their small-scale components.

  12. A survey of small-scale cattle farming systems in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    A survey of small-scale cattle farming systems in the North West Province of. South Africa ... Abstract. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a purposive sample of 60 small-scale cattle farmers in the .... has a negative impact on pasture and soil resources and represents a potential threat to the sustainability of.

  13. A survey of small-scale cattle farming systems in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted among a purposive sample of 60 small-scale cattle farmers in the Mopeane Rustenburg district, all of whom owned five or more head of cattle. Results showed that small-scale cattle farming is a part-time activity for most farmers in this district, and a way of investing or saving ...

  14. The Impact of Small Scale Mining on Irrigation Water Quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small scale mining is a major threat to water resources and agricultural activities in most mining communities across Ghana. This study investigated the effect of small scale mining on the quality of water for irrigation from some selected sites along a river and a reservoir which was used as a control. The physical and ...

  15. Methodological foundations of evaluation of effectiveness indicators of small-scale business activities

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova T.

    2013-01-01

    The methodological approach to the measurement of financial indicators of small-scale enterprises has been developed. It enables to secure the comparability of financial condition indicators and the results of small-scale enterprise activities, and also to develop the methods of vertical integral estimate calculation at separate aspects of financial condition and the results of smallscale enterprise activities.

  16. Category, narrative and value in the governance of small-scale fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1970s, small-scale fisheries have had an important place in fisheries social science and in fisheries management. While there has been substantial discussion of what constitutes the category of small-scale fisheries, its considerable ambiguity is nevertheless often passed over. This paper

  17. Socio-technical study of small-scale gold mining in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seccatore, J; de Theije, M.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale gold mining is Suriname’s main economic sector, producing about two thirds of the nation’s gold. Despite this, the sector is only very loosely regulated and most small-scale mining activities are informal. Surinamese miners are only a minority: the majority are Brazilian migrants, who

  18. Upgrading Traditional Technologies in Small-Scale Industry: Collaboration and Innovation Adoption in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Sandee, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    There is by now sufficient evidence that small-scale industry clusters matter in developing countries. This article intends to contribute to the discussion on cluster transformation by focusing on innovation adoption in a roof tile cluster in Indonesia. Clustering allows small-scale enterprises to

  19. Upgrading Traditional Technologies in Small-Scale Industry Clusters: Collaboration and Innovation Adoption in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandee, H.M.; Rietveld, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is by now sufficient evidence that small-scale industry clusters matter in developing countries. This article intends to contribute to the discussion on cluster transformation by focusing on innovation adoption in a roof tile cluster in Indonesia. Clustering allows small-scale enterprises to

  20. Methodological foundations of evaluation of effectiveness indicators of small-scale business activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological approach to the measurement of financial indicators of small-scale enterprises has been developed. It enables to secure the comparability of financial condition indicators and the results of small-scale enterprise activities, and also to develop the methods of vertical integral estimate calculation at separate aspects of financial condition and the results of smallscale enterprise activities.