WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy release analysis

  1. Development of analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Cheol Woo; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Sook Kwan

    1995-04-01

    A study for the development of an analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release is performed. For the blowdown period a modified CEFLASH-4A methodology is suggested. For the post blowdown period a modified CONTRAST boil-off model is suggested. By using these computer code improved mass and energy release data are generated. Also, a RELAP5/MOD3 analysis for finally the FLOOD-3 computer code has been modified for use in the analysis of hot leg break. The results of analysis using modified FLOOD-3 are reasonable as we expected and their trends are good. 66 figs., 8 tabs. (Author) .new

  2. Status of emission release and associated problems in energy systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasukawa, Shigeru; Mankin, Shuichi; Sato, Osamu; Koyama, Shigeo; Ihara, Seijiro.

    1987-11-01

    OECD/IEA/ETSAP (Energy Technology System Analysis Project) has been started in March 1976. Since initiation of the projects, JAERI and ETL (Electrotechnical Laboratory) have been participating in the projects as operating agent of Japan. From last October, the ETSAP has initiated its Annex III programme, which pursues the problems laid down in energy-environment relationships. Main research objective of the programme is to investigate through the systems analysis ''how various environmental constrains would affect the pattern of fuel and technology use and the choice and timing of implementation of abatement technologies''. In this report, we describe the status of emission release in Japan and associated problems in energy system analysis which has been investigated at the start of these research programme mentioned above. (author)

  3. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  4. Data Analysis of Transient Energy Releases in the LHC Superconducting Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M; Bottura, L; Di Castro, M; Masi, A; Siemko, A

    2007-01-01

    Premature training quenches are caused by transient energy released within the LHC dipole magnet coils while it is energized. Voltage signals recorded across the magnet coils and on the so-called quench antenna carry information about these disturbances. The transitory events correlated to transient energy released are extracted making use of continuous wavelet transform. Several analyses are performed to understand their relevance to the so called training phenomenon. The statistical distribution of the signals amplitude, the number of events occurring at a given current level, the average frequency content of the events are the main parameters on which the analysis have been focalized. Comparisons among different regions of the magnet, among different quenches in the same magnet and among magnets made by different builders are reported. Conclusions about the efficiency of the raw data treatment and the relevance of the parameters developed with respect to the magnet global behavior are finally given.

  5. An analysis methodology for hot leg break mass and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Taek Mo; Chung, Hae Yong; Lee, Sang Jong

    1996-07-01

    An analysis methodology for the hot leg break mass and energy release is developed. For the blowdown period a modified CEFLASH-4A analysis is suggested. For the post-blowdown period a new computer model named COMET is developed. Differently from previous post-blowdown analysis model FLOOD3, COMET is capable of analyzing both cold leg and hot leg break cases. The cold leg break model is essentially same as that of FLOOD3 with some improvements. The analysis results by the newly proposed hot leg break model in the COMET is in the same trend as those observed in scaled-down integral experiment. And the analyses results for the UCN 3 and 4 by COMET are qualitatively and quantitatively in good agreement with those predicted by best-estimate analysis by using RELAP5/MOD3. Therefore, the COMET code is validated and can be used for the licensing analysis. 6 tabs., 82 figs., 9 refs. (Author)

  6. Analysis of Wigner energy release process in graphite stack of shut-down uranium-graphite reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Bespala, E. V.; Pavliuk, A. O.; Kotlyarevskiy, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Data, which finding during thermal differential analysis of sampled irradiated graphite are presented. Results of computational modeling of Winger energy release process from irradiated graphite staking are demonstrated. It's shown, that spontaneous combustion of graphite possible only in adiabatic case.

  7. Energy storage and release of prosthetic feet. Part 1: biomechanical analysis related to user benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, K.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; de Vries, J.; de Vries, J.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Eisma, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    The energy storing and releasing behaviour of 2 energy storing feet (ESF) and 2 conventional prosthetic feet (CF) were compared (ESF: Otto Bock Dynamic Pro and Hanger Quantum; CF: Otto Bock Multi Axial and Otto Bock Lager). Ten trans-tibial amputees were selected. The study was designed as a

  8. The statistical analysis of energy release in small-scale coronal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulyanov, Artyom; Kuzin, Sergey; Bogachev, Sergey

    We present the results of statistical analysis of impulsive flare-like brightenings, which numerously occur in the quiet regions of solar corona. For our study, we utilized high-cadence observations performed with two EUV-telescopes - TESIS/Coronas-Photon and AIA/SDO. In total, we processed 6 sequences of images, registered throughout the period between 2009 and 2013, covering the rising phase of the 24th solar cycle. Based on high-speed DEM estimation method, we developed a new technique to evaluate the main parameters of detected events (geometrical sizes, duration, temperature and thermal energy). We then obtained the statistical distributions of these parameters and examined their variations depending on the level of solar activity. The results imply that near the minimum of the solar cycle the energy release in quiet corona is mainly provided by small-scale events (nanoflares), whereas larger events (microflares) prevail on the peak of activity. Furthermore, we investigated the coronal conditions that had specified the formation and triggering of registered flares. By means of photospheric magnetograms obtained with MDI/SoHO and HMI/SDO instruments, we examined the topology of local magnetic fields at different stages: the pre-flare phase, the peak of intensity and the ending phase. To do so, we introduced a number of topological parameters including the total magnetic flux, the distance between magnetic sources and their mutual arrangement. The found correlation between the change of these parameters and the formation of flares may offer an important tool for application of flare forecasting.

  9. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  10. Analysis and prospectives of the mechanism of release of energy efficiency titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, P.

    2009-01-01

    Starting from the Third annual report on the mechanism of release of energetic efficiency titles and considering the Decree Ministerial 21/12/2007, there is an analysis of the better aspects of the mechanism of release of energetic efficiency titles introduced from the norms regarding the previous annual relations. Particularly important is the role carried out from the Authority of the Electric Power and the Gas in the action of control and monitoring of the market. In this direction they have been formulated various deliberations. Analyzing the results obtained from the market of energetic efficiency titles in the course of 2007, it has been caught up 98% of the established objectives. In the course of the same year they have been cancelled many titles, as a result of verification activity. The obtained results refer to the geographic distribution, to the exchanged volumes and to the costs of the titles. At last some criticalities are placed in evidence that remain in the mechanism and that they can be resolved in order to improve the market. [it

  11. Observational study on the fine structure and dynamics of a solar jet. II. Energy release process revealed by spectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaue, Takahito; Tei, Akiko; Asai, Ayumi; Ueno, Satoru; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2018-01-01

    We report on a solar jet phenomenon associated with the C5.4 class flare on 2014 November 11. The data of the jet was provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory, the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard Hinode, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Domeless Solar Telescope (DST) at Hida Observatory, Kyoto University. These plentiful data enabled us to present this series of papers to discuss all the processes of the observed phenomena, including energy storage, event trigger, and energy release. In this paper, we focus on the energy release process of the observed jet, and mainly describe our spectral analysis on the Hα data of DST to investigate the internal structure of the Hα jet and its temporal evolution. This analysis reveals that in the physical quantity distributions of the Hα jet, such as line-of-sight velocity and optical thickness, there is a significant gradient in the direction crossing the jet. We interpret this internal structure as the consequence of the migration of the energy release site, based on the idea of ubiquitous reconnection. Moreover, by measuring the horizontal flow of the fine structures in the jet, we succeeded in deriving the three-dimensional velocity field and the line-of-sight acceleration field of the Hα jet. The analysis result indicates that part of the ejecta in the Hα jet experienced additional acceleration after it had been ejected from the lower atmosphere. This secondary acceleration was found to occur in the vicinity of the intersection between the trajectories of the Hα jet and the X-ray jet observed by Hinode/XRT. We propose that a fundamental cause of this phenomenon is magnetic reconnection involving the plasmoid in the observed jet.

  12. Energy Release in Solar Flares,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Plasma Research, Stanford University P. Kaufmanu CRAA/CNPq -Conseiho lacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico, Slo Paulo, SP, Brasil D.F...three phases of energy release in solar flares (Sturrock, 1980). However, a recent article by Feldman e a.. (1982) points to a significant

  13. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  14. Energy release rate analysis on the interface cracks of enamel-cement-bracket fracture using virtual crack closure technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samshuri, S. F.; Daud, R.; Rojan, M. A.; Mat, F.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Hassan, R.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the energy method to evaluate fracture behavior of enamel-cement-bracket system based on cement thickness. Finite element (FE) model of enamel-cement-bracket was constructed by using ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL). Three different thickness were used in this study, 0.05, 0.2, and 0.271 mm which assigned as thin, medium and thick for both enamel-cement and cement bracket interface cracks. Virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) was implemented as a simulation method to calculated energy release rate (ERR). Simulation results were obtained for each thickness are discussed by using Griffith’s energy balance approach. ERR for thin thickness are found to be the lowest compared to medium and thick. Peak value of ERR also showed a significant different between medium and thick thickness. Therefore, weakest bonding occurred at low cement thickness because less load required to produce enough energy to detach the bracket. For medium and thick thickness, both increased rapidly in energy value at about the mid-point of the enamel-cement interface. This behavior occurred because of the increasing in mechanical and surface energy when the cracks are increasing. However, result for thick thickness are higher at mid-point compared to thin thickness. In conclusion, fracture behavior of enamel cracking process for medium most likely the safest to avoid enamel fracture and withstand bracket debonding.

  15. Gravitational vacuum and energy release in microworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, V.N.; Nikolaev, Yu.M.; Stanyukovich, K.P.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that gravitati.onal interaction can be connected with the processes of energy release in microworld. Suggested is a planckeon model within the frames of which gradual production of the observed substance of the Universe during the whole evolution is explained. Burst processes in nuclei of the Galaxy are explained. It is concluded that the theory of gravitational vacuum creates preconditions for developing the general theory of the field explaining the basic peculiarities of the micro- and macroworld, reveals significant applications in the physics of elementary particles and atomic nucleus. The process of 235 U fission is considered for testing the hypothesis that the coefficient of energy release depends on the nature of the reaction in different processes of energy release in the micro- and macroworld [ru

  16. Analysis of energy released from core disruptive accident of sodium cooled fast reactor using CDA-ER and VENUS-II codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. H.; Ha, K. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The fast reactor has a unique feature in that rearranged core materials can produce a large increase in reactivity and recriticality. If such a rearrangement of core materials should occur rapidly, there would be a high rate of reactivity increase producing power excursions. The released energy from such an energetic recriticality might challenge the reactor vessel integrity. An analysis of the hypothetical excursions that result in the disassembly of the reactor plays an important role in a liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) safety analysis. The analysis of such excursions generally consists of three phases (initial or pre-disassembly phase, disassembly phase, energy-work conversion phase). The first step is referred to as the 'accident initiation' or 'pre-disassembly' phase. In this phase, the accident is traced from some initiating event, such as a coolant pump failure or control rod ejection, up to a prompt critical condition where high temperatures and pressures rapidly develop in the core. Such complex processes as fuel pin failure, sodium voiding, and fuel slumping are treated in this phase. Several computer programs are available for this type of calculation, including SAS4A, MELT-II and FREADM. A number of models have been developed for this type of analysis, including the REXCO and SOCOOL-II computer programs. VENUS-II deals with the second phase (disassembly analysis). Most of the models used in the code have been based on the original work of Bethe and Tait. The disassembly motion is calculated using a set of two-dimensional hydrodynamics equations in the VENUS code. The density changes can be explicitly calculated, which in turn allows the use of a more accurate density dependent equation of state. The main functional parts of the computational model can be summarized as follows: Power and energy (point kinetics), Temperature (energy balance), Internal pressure (equation of state), Material displacement (hydrodynamics), Reactivity

  17. Analysis of energy released from core disruptive accident of sodium cooled fast reactor using CDA-ER and VENUS-II codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S. H.; Ha, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    The fast reactor has a unique feature in that rearranged core materials can produce a large increase in reactivity and recriticality. If such a rearrangement of core materials should occur rapidly, there would be a high rate of reactivity increase producing power excursions. The released energy from such an energetic recriticality might challenge the reactor vessel integrity. An analysis of the hypothetical excursions that result in the disassembly of the reactor plays an important role in a liquid metal fast reactor (LMFR) safety analysis. The analysis of such excursions generally consists of three phases (initial or pre-disassembly phase, disassembly phase, energy-work conversion phase). The first step is referred to as the 'accident initiation' or 'pre-disassembly' phase. In this phase, the accident is traced from some initiating event, such as a coolant pump failure or control rod ejection, up to a prompt critical condition where high temperatures and pressures rapidly develop in the core. Such complex processes as fuel pin failure, sodium voiding, and fuel slumping are treated in this phase. Several computer programs are available for this type of calculation, including SAS4A, MELT-II and FREADM. A number of models have been developed for this type of analysis, including the REXCO and SOCOOL-II computer programs. VENUS-II deals with the second phase (disassembly analysis). Most of the models used in the code have been based on the original work of Bethe and Tait. The disassembly motion is calculated using a set of two-dimensional hydrodynamics equations in the VENUS code. The density changes can be explicitly calculated, which in turn allows the use of a more accurate density dependent equation of state. The main functional parts of the computational model can be summarized as follows: Power and energy (point kinetics), Temperature (energy balance), Internal pressure (equation of state), Material displacement (hydrodynamics), Reactivity feedback (Doppler and

  18. Effect of crack-microcracks interaction on energy release rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1990-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with the main crack advancing into its surrounding damage zone, and the damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as the energy of interaction between the crack and the damage zone are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for this crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed by employing a semi-empirical stress analysis which involves experimental evaluation of the average microcrack density in the damage zone.

  19. The Dark Energy Survey First Data Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Kind, Matias

    2018-01-01

    In this talk I will announce and highlight the main components of the first public data release (DR1) coming from the Dark Energy Survey (DES).In January 2016, the DES survey made available, in a simple unofficial release to the astronomical community, the first set of products. This data was taken and studied during the DES Science Verification period consisting on roughly 250 sq. degrees and 25 million objects at a mean depth of i=23.7 that led to over 80 publications from DES scientist.The DR1 release is the first official release from the main survey and it consists on the observations taken during the first 3 seasons from August 2013 to February 2016 (about 100 nights each season) of the survey which cover the entire DES footprint. All of the Single Epoch Images and the Year 3 Coadded images distributed in 10223 tiles are available for download in this release. The catalogs provide astrometry, photometry and basic classification for near 400M objects in roughly 5000 sq. degrees on the southern hemisphere with a approximate mean depth of i=23.3. Complementary footprint, masking and depth information is also available. All of the software used during the generation of these products are open sourced and have been made available through the Github DES Organization. Images, data and other sub products have been possible through the international and collaborative effort of all 25 institutions involved in DES and are available for exploration and download through the interfaces provided by a partnership between NCSA, NOAO and LIneA.

  20. Specific energy released in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaritskaya, T.S.; Kiselev, G.V.; Rudik, A.P.; Tsenter, Eh.M.

    1986-01-01

    Technique of determination are described and analysis of specific energy for different methods of critically maintance of RBMK and WWER-440 reactors are conducted. Characteristics of the optimal mode of critically maintanance are determined

  1. Energy market review releases draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2002-01-01

    The Energy Market Review Releases draft report has made recommendations consistent with the Australian Gas Association (AGA)'s submissions in a number of areas. In particular, it has endorsed: 1. the need for an independent review of the gas access regime, to address the deficiencies with current access regulation identified by the Productivity Commission's Review of the National Access Regime; 2. the need for greater upstream gas market competition; 3. the principle that significant regulatory decisions should be subject to clear merits and judicial review; and 4. the need to avoid restrictions on retail energy prices. The report also endorses the need for a 'technology neutral' approach to greenhouse emissions abatement policy. It states that 'many of the current measures employed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are poorly targeted', and that they 'target technologies or fuel types rather than greenhouse gas abatement.' Additionally, it explicitly recognises the key conclusions of the AGA's recently-released Research Paper, Reducing Greenhouse Emissions from Water Heating: Natural Gas as a Cost-effective Option. The draft report recommends the development of an economy-wide emissions trading system, to achieve a more cost-effective approach to greenhouse abatement

  2. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific.

  3. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific

  4. The surface-forming energy release rate versus the local energy release rate

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Si; Wang, He-ling; Landis, Chad M; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies two ways to extract the energy (or power) flowing into a crack tip during propagation based on the power balance of areas enclosed by a stationary contour and a comoving contour. It is very interesting to find a contradiction that two corresponding energy release rates (ERRs), a surface-forming ERR and a local ERR, are different when stress singularity exists at a crack tip. Besides a rigorous mathematical interpretation, we deduce that the stress singularity leads to an...

  5. The Dark Energy Survey Data Release 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2018-01-09

    We describe the first public data release of the Dark Energy Survey, DES DR1, consisting of reduced single epoch images, coadded images, coadded source catalogs, and associated products and services assembled over the first three years of DES science operations. DES DR1 is based on optical/near-infrared imaging from 345 distinct nights (August 2013 to February 2016) by the Dark Energy Camera mounted on the 4-m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. We release data from the DES wide-area survey covering ~5,000 sq. deg. of the southern Galactic cap in five broad photometric bands, grizY. DES DR1 has a median delivered point-spread function of g = 1.12, r = 0.96, i = 0.88, z = 0.84, and Y = 0.90 arcsec FWHM, a photometric precision of < 1% in all bands, and an astrometric precision of 151 mas. The median coadded catalog depth for a 1.95" diameter aperture at S/N = 10 is g = 24.33, r = 24.08, i = 23.44, z = 22.69, and Y = 21.44 mag. DES DR1 includes nearly 400M distinct astronomical objects detected in ~10,000 coadd tiles of size 0.534 sq. deg. produced from ~39,000 individual exposures. Benchmark galaxy and stellar samples contain ~310M and ~ 80M objects, respectively, following a basic object quality selection. These data are accessible through a range of interfaces, including query web clients, image cutout servers, jupyter notebooks, and an interactive coadd image visualization tool. DES DR1 constitutes the largest photometric data set to date at the achieved depth and photometric precision.

  6. Building an Efficient Model for Afterburn Energy Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, S; Kuhl, A; Najjar, F; Tringe, J; McMichael, L; Glascoe, L

    2012-02-03

    Many explosives will release additional energy after detonation as the detonation products mix with the ambient environment. This additional energy release, referred to as afterburn, is due to combustion of undetonated fuel with ambient oxygen. While the detonation energy release occurs on a time scale of microseconds, the afterburn energy release occurs on a time scale of milliseconds with a potentially varying energy release rate depending upon the local temperature and pressure. This afterburn energy release is not accounted for in typical equations of state, such as the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) model, used for modeling the detonation of explosives. Here we construct a straightforward and efficient approach, based on experiments and theory, to account for this additional energy release in a way that is tractable for large finite element fluid-structure problems. Barometric calorimeter experiments have been executed in both nitrogen and air environments to investigate the characteristics of afterburn for C-4 and other materials. These tests, which provide pressure time histories, along with theoretical and analytical solutions provide an engineering basis for modeling afterburn with numerical hydrocodes. It is toward this end that we have constructed a modified JWL equation of state to account for afterburn effects on the response of structures to blast. The modified equation of state includes a two phase afterburn energy release to represent variations in the energy release rate and an afterburn energy cutoff to account for partial reaction of the undetonated fuel.

  7. Energy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazjanac, Vladimir

    1981-01-01

    The Aquatic Center at Corvallis (Oregon) is analyzed for energy use. Energy conservation in the building would be accomplished best through heavy insulation of exterior surfaces and the maximization of passive solar gain. (Author/MLF)

  8. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti Freire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.

  9. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda e; Genre, Julieta; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability. PMID:28773009

  10. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda E; Genre, Julieta; Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes de; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do

    2017-06-13

    Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas-Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.

  11. Electric ignition energy evaluation and the energy distribution structure of energy released in electrostatic discharge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingming; Huang Jinxiang; Shao Huige; Zhang Yunming

    2017-01-01

    Ignition energy is one of the important parameters of flammable materials, and evaluating ignition energy precisely is essential to the safety of process industry and combustion science and technology. By using electric spark discharge test system, a series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor-stored energy in the range of 10 J, 100 J, and 1000 J, respectively. The evaluation method for energy consumed by electric spark, wire, and switch during capacitor discharge process has been studied respectively. The resistance of wire, switch, and plasma between electrodes has been evaluated by different methods and an optimized evaluation method has been obtained. The electric energy consumed by wire, electric switch, and electric spark-induced plasma between electrodes were obtained and the energy structure of capacitor-released energy was analyzed. The dynamic process and the characteristic parameters (the maximum power, duration of discharge process) of electric spark discharge process have been analyzed. Experimental results showed that, electric spark-consumed energy only accounts for 8%–14% of the capacitor-released energy. With the increase of capacitor-released energy, the duration of discharge process becomes longer, and the energy of plasma accounts for more in the capacitor-released energy. The power of electric spark varies with time as a damped sinusoids function and the period and the maximum value increase with the capacitor-released energy. (paper)

  12. 3D finite element analysis of stress distributions and strain energy release rates for adhesive bonded flat composite lap shear joints having pre-existing delaminations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parida, S. K.; Pradhan, A. K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2014-02-15

    The rate of propagation of embedded delamination in the strap adherend of lap shear joint (LSJ) made of carbon/epoxy composites has been evaluated employing three-dimensional non-linear finite elements. The delamination has been presumed to pre-exist in the thin resin layer between the first and second plies of the strap adherend. The inter-laminar peel and shear stress distributions have been studied in details and are seen to be predominantly three-dimensional in nature. The components of strain energy release rate (SERR) corresponding to the opening, sliding and cross sliding modes of delamination are significantly different at the two fronts of the embedded delamination. The sequential release of multi-point constraint (MPC) finite elements in the vicinity of the delamination fronts enables to simulate the growth of the delamination at either ends. This simulation procedure can be utilized effectively for evaluation of the status of the structural integrity of the bonded joints.

  13. Key figures for energy. Release 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Maps, graphs and tables illustrate the share of energy in the French economy (contributions of energy industries to the GDP), the monthly and annual evolution of gas and oil prices, the evolution of public opinion on nuclear energy, the energy bill evolutions (per energy type, with respect to GDP, imported crude oil price), the assessment of energy in France (production, imports, exports, consumption by different sectors, share of primary energy consumption per energy type), the French energy mix in 2011, the evolution of energy production and consumption per energy type and per sector. Then, this report addresses the different energy types: coal (production, thermal power plants, evolution of consumption per sector, of imports), oil (evolution of production, of global consumption and per sector, evolution of consumption of refined oil products and of automotive fuels, including agro-fuels, evolution of imports and bill), gas (transport, storage, compression and production sites and networks, natural gas production and consumption, imports), electricity (gross production, conventional thermal production, global assessment, consumption, nuclear sites, imports and exports, volume of radioactive wastes produced in 2010), renewable energies (total production and per sector, share in electricity consumption, evolution of wind energy, of wood consumption, of energy produced from renewable urban wastes, and solar energy), heat networks (evolution of consumption, of the number of networks). The last parts address the rational use of energy (energy intensity, evolution of GDP and energy consumption, evolution of car fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions), the evolution of energy prices, the relationship between energy and environment (CO 2 emissions)

  14. Modelling transient energy release from molten fuel coolant interaction debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.F.

    1984-05-01

    A simple model of transient energy release in a Molten Fuel Coolant Interaction is presented. A distributed heat transfer model is used to examine the effect of heat transfer coefficient, time available for rapid energy heat transfer and particle size on transient energy release. The debris is assumed to have an Upper Limit Lognormal distribution. Model predictions are compared with results from the SUW series of experiments which used thermite-generated uranium dioxide molybdenum melts released below the surface of a pool of water. Uncertainties in the physical principles involved in the calculation of energy transfer rates are discussed. (author)

  15. Analysis of drug effects on neurotransmitter release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowell, P.; Garner, A.

    1986-01-01

    The release of neurotransmitter is routinely studied in a superfusion system in which serial samples are collected and the effects of drugs or other treatments on the amount of material in the superfusate is determined. With frequent sampling interval, this procedure provides a mechanism for dynamically characterizing the release process itself. Using automated data collection in conjunction with polyexponential computer analysis, the equation which describes the release process in each experiment is determined. Analysis of the data during the nontreated phase of the experiment allows an internal control to be used for accurately assessing any changes in neurotransmitter release which may occur during a subsequent treatment phase. The use of internal controls greatly improves the signal to noise ratio and allows determinations of very low concentrations of drugs on small amounts of tissue to be made. In this presentation, the effects of 10 μM nicotine on 3 H-dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens is described. The time course, potency and efficacy of the drug treatment is characterized using this system. Determinations of the exponential order of the release as well as the rate constants allow one to study the mechanism of the release process. A description of 3 H-dopamine release in normal as well as Ca ++ -free medium is presented

  16. Variation of kinetic energy release with temperature and electron energy for unimolecular ionic transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabia, M.A.; Fahmy, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetic energy released during seven unimolecular ionic transitions, generated from benzyl alcohol and benzyl amine have been studied as a function of ion source temperature and ionizing electron energy. Only, the kinetic energy released during H CN elimination from fragment [C 7 H 8 N]+ ion of benzyl amine displays a temperature dependence. For only two transitions, generated from benzyl alcohol, the kinetic energy released show a significant ionizing electron energy dependence. These results may reveal the role of the internal energy of reacting ions in producing the kinetic energy released some transitions produced from benzyl alcohol

  17. Energy Analysis News | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    January 9, 2018 News Release: Multi-model Effort Highlights Progress, Future Needs in Renewable Energy Accurately Calculates Degradation Rates, Saving Money and Guiding Business Decisions A new software package that examined how to plan for future large-scale integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation on

  18. Elastic energy release in great earthquakes and eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agust eGudmundsson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The sizes of earthquakes are measured using well-defined, measurable quantities such as seismic moment and released (transformed elastic energy. No similar measures exist for the sizes of volcanic eruptions, making it difficult to compare the energies released in earthquakes and eruptions. Here I provide a new measure of the elastic energy (the potential mechanical energy associated with magma chamber rupture and contraction (shrinkage during an eruption. For earthquakes and eruptions, elastic energy derives from two sources: (1 the strain energy stored in the volcano/fault zone before rupture, and (2 the external applied load (force, pressure, stress, displacement on the volcano/fault zone. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that the elastic energy released or transformed (dU during an eruption is directly proportional to the excess pressure (pe in the magma chamber at the time of rupture multiplied by the volume decrease (-dVc of the chamber, so that . This formula can be used as a basis for a new eruption magnitude scale, based on elastic energy released, which can be related to the moment-magnitude scale for earthquakes. For very large eruptions (>100 km3, the volume of the feeder-dike is negligible, so that the decrease in chamber volume during an eruption corresponds roughly to the associated volume of erupted materials , so that the elastic energy is . Using a typical excess pressures of 5 MPa, it is shown that the largest known eruptions on Earth, such as the explosive La Garita Caldera eruption (27-28 million years ago and largest single (effusive Colombia River basalt lava flows (15-16 million years ago, both of which have estimated volumes of about 5000 km3, released elastic energy of the order of 10EJ. For comparison, the seismic moment of the largest earthquake ever recorded, the M9.5 1960 Chile earthquake, is estimated at 100 ZJ and the associated elastic energy release at 10EJ.

  19. Nuclear energy release in hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    Energy release process in nuclear reactions induced by fast hadrons in hadron-nucleus collisions is discussed. Some portion of the internal nuclear energy is released when the locally damaged in a collision, and instable therefore, residual target nucleus transits itself into light nuclear fragments (nucleons, D, T) and a stable lighter final nucleus or some number of stable lighter nuclei. It is not excluded that in some of the collisions the induced intranuclear nuclear reactions may be energy overcompensating. Corresponding reconnaissance should be made - in analysing the nuclear reactions induced in hadron-nucleus collisions

  20. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  1. Consumption of energy and release of entropy into the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutscher, G.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term threat on humanity is not the shortage of energy but rather the contamination of the environment. The concept of entropy is useful to assess the impact of humane activities on the environment. During most of earth history the increase of entropy was more than compensated by the energy brought by the sun. Today the intensive use of fossil fuels has reversed the trend: the biosphere entropy increases as CO 2 piles up in the atmosphere. The release of entropy is linked to the amount of energy we consume and to the efficiency of the process we use to produce it. Nuclear power plants release entropy as low-temperature heat but this amount of entropy is far less than the entropy released by fossil-fuel power plants under the form of CO 2 . (A.C.)

  2. Barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases (BORA-Release)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklet, Snorre; Vinnem, Jan Erik; Aven, Terje

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results from a case study carried out on an offshore oil and gas production platform with the purpose to apply and test BORA-Release, a method for barrier and operational risk analysis of hydrocarbon releases. A description of the BORA-Release method is given in Part I of the paper. BORA-Release is applied to express the platform specific hydrocarbon release frequencies for three release scenarios for selected systems and activities on the platform. The case study demonstrated that the BORA-Release method is a useful tool for analysing the effect on the release frequency of safety barriers introduced to prevent hydrocarbon releases, and to study the effect on the barrier performance of platform specific conditions of technical, human, operational, and organisational risk influencing factors (RIFs). BORA-Release may also be used to analyse the effect on the release frequency of risk reducing measures

  3. Coronal Flux Rope Catastrophe Associated With Internal Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Youqiu; Wang, Yuming; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Shen, Chenglong

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic energy during the catastrophe was predominantly studied by the previous catastrophe works since it is believed to be the main energy supplier for the solar eruptions. However, the contribution of other types of energies during the catastrophe cannot be neglected. This paper studies the catastrophe of the coronal flux rope system in the solar wind background, with emphasis on the transformation of different types of energies during the catastrophe. The coronal flux rope is characterized by its axial and poloidal magnetic fluxes and total mass. It is shown that a catastrophe can be triggered by not only an increase but also a decrease of the axial magnetic flux. Moreover, the internal energy of the rope is found to be released during the catastrophe so as to provide energy for the upward eruption of the flux rope. As far as the magnetic energy is concerned, it provides only part of the energy release, or even increases during the catastrophe, so the internal energy may act as the dominant or even the unique energy supplier during the catastrophe.

  4. Fission-energy release for 16 fissioning nuclides. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, R.

    1981-03-01

    Results are presented of a least-squares evaluation of the components of energy release per fission in 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Pu. For completeness, older (1978) results based on systematics are presented for these and ten other isotopes of interest. There have been recent indications that the delayed energy components may be somewhat higher than those used previously, but the LSQ results do not seem to change significantly when modest (approx. 1 MeV) increases in the total delayed energy are included in the inputs. Additional measurements of most of the energy components are still needed to resolve remaining discrepancies

  5. Process energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, V.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 2 process energy cost analysis for chemical processing is treated in a general way, independent of the specific form of energy and power production. Especially, energy data collection and data treatment, energy accounting (metering, balance setting), specific energy input, and utility energy costs and prices are discussed. (R.P.) 14 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Fracture patterns and the energy release rate of phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Hong, Jiawang; Pidaparti, Ramana; Wang, Xianqiao

    2016-03-14

    Phosphorene, also known as monolayer black phosphorus, has been enjoying popularity in electronic devices due to its superior electrical properties. However, it's relatively low Young's modulus, low fracture strength and susceptibility to structural failure have limited its application in mechanical devices. Therefore, in order to design more mechanically reliable devices that utilize phosphorene, it is necessary to explore the fracture patterns and energy release rate of phosphorene. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate phosphorene's fracture mechanism. The results indicate that fracture under uniaxial tension along the armchair direction is attributed to a break in the interlayer bond angles, while failure in the zigzag direction is triggered by the break in both intra-layer angles and bonds. Furthermore, we developed a modified Griffith criterion to analyze the energy release rate of phosphorene and its dependence on the strain rates and orientations of cracks. Simulation results indicate that phosphorene's energy release rate remains almost unchanged in the armchair direction while it fluctuates intensively in the zigzag direction. Additionally, the strain rate was found to play a negligible role in the energy release rate. The geometrical factor α in the Griffith's criterion is almost constant when the crack orientation is smaller than 45 degree, regardless of the crack orientation and loading direction. Overall, these findings provide helpful insights into the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene.

  7. The total kinetic energy release in the fast neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Jonathan; Yanez, Ricardo; Loveland, Walter; Barrett, J. Spencer; Oscar, Breland [Oregon State University, Dept. of Chemistry, Corvallis, OR (United States); Fotiades, Nikolaos; Tovesson, Fredrik; Young Lee, Hye [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Physics Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-15

    The post-emission total kinetic energy release (TKE) in the neutron-induced fission of {sup 232}Th was measured (using white spectrum neutrons from LANSCE) for neutron energies from E{sub n} = 3 to 91 MeV. In this energy range the average post-neutron total kinetic energy release decreases from 162.3 ± 0.3 at E{sub n} = 3 MeV to 154.9 ± 0.3 MeV at E{sub n} = 91 MeV. Analysis of the fission mass distributions indicates that the decrease in TKE with increasing neutron energy is a combination of increasing yields of symmetric fission (which has a lower associated TKE) and a decrease in the TKE release in asymmetric fission. (orig.)

  8. TOXRISK, Toxic Gas Release Accident Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.E.; Chanin, D.I.; Shiver, A.W.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: TOXRISK is an interactive program developed to aid in the evaluation of nuclear power plant control room habitability in the event of a nearby toxic material release. The program uses a model which is consistent with the approach described in the NRC Regulatory Guide 1.78. Release of the gas is treated as an initial puff followed by a continuous plume. The relative proportions of these as well as the plume release rate are supplied by the user. Transport of the gas is modeled as a Gaussian distribution and occurs through the action of a constant velocity, constant direction wind. Great flexibility is afforded the user in specifying the release description, meteorological conditions, relative geometry of the accident and plant, and the plant ventilation system characteristics. Two types of simulation can be performed: multiple case (parametric) studies and probabilistic analyses. Upon execution, TOXRISK presents a menu, and the user chooses between the Data Base Manager, the Multiple Case program, and the Probabilistic Study Program. The Data Base Manager provides a convenient means of storing, retrieving, and modifying blocks of data required by the analysis programs. The Multiple Case program calculates resultant gas concentrations inside the control room and presents a summary of information that describes the event for each set of conditions given. Optimally, a time history profile of inside and outside concentrations can also be produced. The Probabilistic Study program provides a means for estimating the annual probability of operator incapacitation due to toxic gas accidents on surrounding transportation routes and storage sites. 2 - Method of solution: Dispersion or diffusion of the gas during transport is described by modified Pasquill-Gifford dispersion coefficients

  9. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  10. Fragmentation and mean kinetic energy release of the nitrogen molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.C.F.; Melo, W.S.; Sant'Anna, M.M.; Sigaud, G.M.; Montenegro, E.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ionization and fragmentation of the N 2 molecule in coincidence with the final projectile charge state have been measured for the impact of 0.188-0.875 MeV/amu He + projectiles. The average kinetic energy release (KER) of the target ionic fragments is derived from the peak widths of their time-of-flight distributions. It is shown that the KER's for singly-charged products follow scaling laws irrespectively to the collision channel

  11. Safety consequences of the release of radiation induced stored energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prij, J.

    1994-08-01

    Due to the disposal of HLW in a salt formation gamma energy will be deposited in the rock salt. Most of this energy will be converted into heat, whilst a small part will create defects in the salt crystals. Energy is stored in the damaged crystals. Due to uncertainties in the models and differences in the disposal concepts the estimated values for the stored energy range from 10 to 1000 J/g in the most heavily damaged crystals close to the waste containers. The amount of radiation damage decays exponentially with increasing distance from the containers and at distances larger than 0.2 m the stored energy can be neglected. Given the uncertainties in the model predictions and in the possible release mechanism an instantaneous release of stored energy cannot be excluded completely. Therefore the thermo-mechanical consequences of a postulated instantaneous release of an extremely high amount of radiation induced stored energy have been estimated. These estimations are based on the quasi-static solutions for line and point sources. To account for the dynamic effects and the occurrence of fractures an amplification factor has been derived from mining experience with explosives. A validation of this amplification factor has been given using post experimental observations of two nuclear explosions in a salt formation. For some typical disposal concepts in rock salt the extent of the fractured zone has been estimated. It appeared that the radial extent of the fractured zone is limited to 5 m. Given the much larger distance between the individual boreholes and the distance between the boreholes and the boundary of the salt formation (more than 100 m), the probability of a release of radiation induced stored energy creating a pathway for the nuclides from the containers to the groundwater, is extremely low. The radiological consequences of a groundwater intrusion scenario induced by this very unprobable pathway are bounded by the 'standard' groundwater intrusion

  12. Simulation of pulsed accidental energy release in a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryshanskii, V.A.; Ivanov, A.G.; Uskov, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    At the present time the strength of the load-bearing members of VVER and fast reactors during a hypothetical accident is ordinarily investigated in model experiments [1]. A power burst during an accident is simulated by a nonnuclear exothermal reaction in water, which simulates the coolant and fills the model. The problem is to make the correct choice of the simulator of the accidental energy burst as an effective (i.e., sufficiently high working capacity) source of dangerous loads, corresponding to the conditions of an accident. What factors and parameters determine the energy release? The answers to these questions are contradictory

  13. Energy released by the interaction of coronal magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheeley, N.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Comparisons between coronal spectroheliograms and photospheric magnetograms are presented to support the idea that as coronal magnetic fields interact, a process of field line reconnection usually takes place as a natural way of preventing magnetic stresses from building up in the lower corona. This suggests that the energy which would have been stored in stressed fields in continuously released as kinetic energy of material being driven aside to make way for the reconnecting fields. However, this kinetic energy is negligible compared to the thermal energy of the coronal plasma. Therefore, it appears that these slow adjustments of coronal magnetic fields cannot account for even the normal heating of the corona, much less the energetic events associated with solar flares. (Auth.)

  14. Nondestructive fission gas release measurement and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, P.M.; Packard, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) has performed reactor poolside gamma scanning measurements of fuel rods for fission gas release (FGR) detection for more than 10 yr. The measurement system has been previously described. Over the years, the data acquisition system, the method of spectrum analysis, and the means of reducing spectrum interference have been significantly improved. A personal computer (PC)-based multichannel analyzer (MCA) package is used to collect, display, and store high-resolution gamma-ray spectra measured in the fuel rod plenum. A PC spread sheet is used to fit the measured spectra and compute sample count rates after Compton background subtraction. A Zircaloy plenum spacer is often used to reduce positron annihilation interference that can arise from the INCONEL reg-sign plenum spring used in SPC-manufactured fuel rods

  15. Analysis of in-pile tritium release experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J.P.; Tam, S.W.; Johnson, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to characterize tritium release behavior from lithium ceramics and develop insight into the underlying tritium release mechanisms. Analysis of tritium release data from recent laboratory experiments with lithium aluminate has identified physical processes which were previously unaccounted for in tritium release models. A new model that incorporates the recent data and provides for release from multiple sites rather than only one site was developed. Calculations of tritium release using this model are in excellent agreement with the tritium release behavior reported for the MOZART experiment

  16. Improved Methodology of MSLB M/E Release Analysis for OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seok Jeong; Kim, Cheol Woo; Seo, Jong Tae

    2006-01-01

    A new mass and energy (M/E) release analysis methodology for the equipment environmental qualification (EEQ) on loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been recently developed and adopted on small break LOCA EEQ. The new methodology for the M/E release analysis is extended to the M/E release analysis for the containment design for large break LOCA and the main steam line break (MSLB) accident, and named KIMERA (KOPEC Improved Mass and Energy Release Analysis) methodology. The computer code systems used in this methodology is RELAP5K/CONTEMPT4 (or RELAP5-ME) which couples RELAP5/MOD3.1/K with enhanced M/E model and LOCA long term model, and CONTEMPT4/ MOD5. This KIMERA methodology is applied to the MSLB M/E release analysis to evaluate the validation of KIMERA methodology for MSLB in containment design. The results are compared with the OPR 1000 FSAR

  17. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  18. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  19. Analysis of accidental UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yumao; Tan Rui; Gao Qifa

    2012-01-01

    As interim substance in the nuclear fuel enrichment process, Uranium Hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is widely applied in nuclear processing, enrichment and fuel fabrication plants. Because of its vivid chemical characteristics and special radiological hazard and chemical toxicity, great attention must be paid to accident of UF 6 leakage. The chemical reactions involved in UF 6 release processes were introduced, therewith potential release styles, pathways and characteristics of diffusion were analyzed. The results indicated that the accidental release process of UF 6 is not a simple passive diffusion. So, specific atmospheric diffusion model related to UF 6 releases need be used in order to analyze and evaluate accurately the accidental consequences. (authors)

  20. Tunneling and reflection in unimolecular reaction kinetic energy release distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.

    2018-02-01

    The kinetic energy release distributions in unimolecular reactions is calculated with detailed balance theory, taking into account the tunneling and the reflection coefficient in three different types of transition states; (i) a saddle point corresponding to a standard RRKM-type theory, (ii) an attachment Langevin cross section, and (iii) an absorbing sphere potential at short range, without long range interactions. Corrections are significant in the one dimensional saddle point states. Very light and lightly bound absorbing systems will show measurable effects in decays from the absorbing sphere, whereas the Langevin cross section is essentially unchanged.

  1. Dynamic energy release rate in couple-stress elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, L; Piccolroaz, A; Mishuris, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with energy release rate for dynamic steady state crack problems in elastic materials with microstructures. A Mode III semi-infinite crack subject to loading applied on the crack surfaces is considered. The micropolar behaviour of the material is described by the theory of couple-stress elasticity developed by Koiter. A general expression for the dynamic J-integral including both traslational and micro-rotational inertial contributions is derived, and the conservation of this integral on a path surrounding the crack tip is demonstrated

  2. Influence of LOD variations on seismic energy release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguzzi, F.; Krumm, F.; Wang, K.; Kiszely, M.; Varga, P.

    2009-04-01

    Tidal friction causes significant time variations of geodynamical parameters, among them geometrical flattening. The axial despinning of the Earth due to tidal friction through the change of flattening generates incremental meridional and azimuthal stresses. The stress pattern in an incompressible elastic upper mantle and crust is symmetric to the equator and has its inflection points at the critical latitude close to ±45°. Consequently the distribution of seismic energy released by strong, shallow focus earthquakes should have also sharp maxima at this latitude. To investigate the influence of length of day (LOD) variations on earthquake activity an earthquake catalogue of strongest seismic events (M>7.0) was completed for the period 1900-2007. It is shown with the use of this catalogue that for the studied time-interval the catalogue is complete and consists of the seismic events responsible for more than 90% of released seismic energy. Study of the catalogue for earthquakes M>7.0 shows that the seismic energy discharged by the strongest seismic events has significant maxima at ±45°, what renders probably that the seismic activity of our planet is influenced by an external component, i.e. by the tidal friction, which acts through the variation of the hydrostatic figure of the Earth caused by it. Distribution along the latitude of earthquake numbers and energies was investigated also for the case of global linear tectonic structures, such as mid ocean ridges and subduction zones. It can be shown that the number of the shallow focus shocks has a repartition along the latitude similar to the distribution of the linear tectonic structures. This means that the position of foci of seismic events is mainly controlled by the tectonic activity.

  3. Observable Signatures of Energy Release in Braided Coronal Loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontin, D. I. [University of Dundee, Nethergate, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Janvier, M. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Bât. 121, F-91405, Orsay Cedex (France); Tiwari, S. K.; Winebarger, A. R.; Cirtain, J. W. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Galsgaard, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, Geological Museum Østervoldgade 5-7, DK-1350, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2017-03-10

    We examine the turbulent relaxation of solar coronal loops containing non-trivial field line braiding. Such field line tangling in the corona has long been postulated in the context of coronal heating models. We focus on the observational signatures of energy release in such braided magnetic structures using MHD simulations and forward modeling tools. The aim is to answer the following question: if energy release occurs in a coronal loop containing braided magnetic flux, should we expect a clearly observable signature in emissions? We demonstrate that the presence of braided magnetic field lines does not guarantee a braided appearance to the observed intensities. Observed intensities may—but need not necessarily—reveal the underlying braided nature of the magnetic field, depending on the degree and pattern of the field line tangling within the loop. However, in all cases considered, the evolution of the braided loop is accompanied by localized heating regions as the loop relaxes. Factors that may influence the observational signatures are discussed. Recent high-resolution observations from Hi-C have claimed the first direct evidence of braided magnetic fields in the corona. Here we show that both the Hi-C data and some of our simulations give the appearance of braiding at a range of scales.

  4. Carbon dioxide degassing and thermal energy release at Vesuvio (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frondini, F.; Chiodini, G.; Caliro, S.; Cardellini, C.; Granieri, D.

    2003-04-01

    At Vesuvio, basing on the data of the CO2 flux surveys carried out in April and May 2000, are discharged about 130 t d-1 of CO2 through soil diffuse degassing. In the crater area the distribution of the soil temperatures show a general correspondence between the CO2 flux anomalies and the high temperatures, suggesting that the heating of the soil is mainly due to the condensation of the rising volcanic-hydrothermal fluids. Considering that the original H2O/CO2 ratio of hydrothermal fluids is recorded by fumarolic effluents, the steam associated to the CO2 output has been computed and amount to is 475 t d-1. The energy produced by the steam condensation and cooling of the liquid phase is 1.26 1012 J d-1 (14.6 MW). The amounts of gas and energy released by Vesuvio are comparable to those released by other volcanic degassing areas of the world and their estimates, through periodical CO2 flux surveys, can constitute a powerful tool to monitor the activity of the volcano.

  5. Analysis of an LPG accidental release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demichela, M.; Piccinini, N.; Poggio, A.

    2004-03-01

    An industrial LPG storage accident due to the release of propane from a tanker is described in this paper and the sequence of events that led to the collapse of a storage tank is examined using simulation software. A model taking both released flows into account as a radiant thermal contribution in the presence of flames is presented. The progression of the accident is assessed through digitalization and processing of the film of the fireball produced by about 500 L of LPG, whose diameter was calculated as approximately 50 m. (author)

  6. Flare Energy Release: Internal Conflict, Contradiction with High Resolution Observations, Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustilnik, L.

    2017-06-01

    All accepted paradigm of solar and stellar flares energy release based on 2 whales: 1. Source of energy is free energy of non-potential force free magnetic field in atmosphere above active region; 2. Process of ultrafast dissipation of magnetic fields is Reconnection in Thin Turbulent Current Sheet (RTTCS). Progress in observational techniques in last years provided ultra-high spatial resolution and in physics of turbulent plasma showed that real situation is much more complicated and standard approach is in contradiction both with observations and with problem of RTTCS stability. We present critical analysis of classic models of pre-flare energy accumulation and its dissipation during flare energy release from pioneer works Giovanelli (1939, 1947) up to topological reconnection. We show that all accepted description of global force-free fields as source of future flare cannot be agreed with discovered in last years fine and ultra-fine current-magnetic structure included numerouse arcs-threads with diameters up to 100 km with constant sequence from photosphere to corona. This magnetic skeleton of thin current magnetic threads with strong interaction between them is main source of reserved magnetic energy insolar atmosphere. Its dynamics will be controlled by percolation of magnetic stresses through network of current-magnetic threads with transition to flare state caused by critical value of global current. We show that thin turbulent current sheet is absolutely unstable configuration both caused by splitting to numerous linear currents by dissipative modes like to tearing, and as sequence of suppress of plasma turbulence caused by anomalous heating of turbulent plasma. In result of these factors primary RTTCS will be disrupted in numerous turbulent and normal plasma domains like to resistors network. Current propagation through this network will have percolation character with all accompanied properties of percolated systems: self-organization with formation power

  7. Gasohol and energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M A

    1983-03-01

    Energy analysis contributed to the public debate on the gasohol programme in the U.S. where this analysis became a legal requirement. The published energy analyses for gasohol are reviewed and we assess their inherent assumptions and data sources. The analyses are normalised to S.I. units to faciltate comparisons. The process of rationalising the various treatments uncovered areas of uncertainties particularly in the methodologies which could be used to analyse some parts of the process. Although the definitive study has still to be written, the consensus is that maize to fuel ethanol via the traditional fermentation route is a net consumer of energy. (Refs. 13).

  8. Hot neutron stars at birth and energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsuka, Tatsuyuki

    1994-01-01

    For the discussion of hot neutron stars at birth, it is necessary to calculate the equation of state for a so-called 'supernova matter' consisting of a neutron-rich nuclear matter and degenerated leptons. One of the aims of this paper is to obtain the realistic results for the equation of state. In 10-20s after the birth, new born hot neutron stars are cooled down by neutrino diffusion process, and gradually contract to usual cold neutron starts. It is another aim of this paper to determine how much energy is released during this cooling stage. The points to which attention was paid are explained. A three-nucleon interaction was introduced phenomenologically, as a two-nucleon interaction is insufficient to satisfy the empirical saturation property of symmetric nuclear matters. The separation of uncertain part from well-known part has the merit to clarify the dependence of the results on the present theoretical uncertainties. The validity of the simplified calculation as an approximation for the exact calculation is discussed. The results by both calculations were compared for the case of hot symmetric nuclear matters. The comparison of the density profiles for a hot neutron star and a cold neutron star is shown. The binding energy for hot and cold neutron stars was plotted. These results are examined. (K.I.)

  9. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur regional energy observatory - Assessment 2002, Assessment 2003, Assessment 2004, Assessment 2005, Release 2007, Release 2008, Release 2009, Release 2010, Release 2011, Assessment 2011/Release 2012, Release 2013; Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur Energy, Climate and Air regional observatory - 2013-Release 2014, 2014-Release 2015, 2015-Release 2016, 2016-Release 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabannes, Carole; Pamelle, Yohann; Le Maitre, Stephanie; Lyant, Valentin; Gondolo, Philippe; Belhcen, Ludovic; Laverdiere, Folco; Moynet, Matthieu; Luneau, Gaelle; Borel, F.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs, maps and tables, this set of documents provides and comments (sometimes in a rather developed way for some issues, depending on the publication year), for years between 2002 and 2016, information and data related to regional energy consumption (in terms of consuming sector and in terms of energy source), energy production (from different sources: wood, coal, hydraulic, wastes, solar photovoltaic and thermal), greenhouse gas emissions, electric power production and demand (with a focus on some specific sectors). Issues addressed in these documents evolve in time as the concept of renewable energy emerged, as important consuming sector are identified (transports, buildings, for example), and also as the issue of energy saving is more precisely studied. Activities of the regional energy observatory are also mentioned. From 2013, issues related to climate and air quality are also addressed at the same level as power production, solar photovoltaic and thermal energy, wind energy, wood-energy, energy savings, energy prices, studies performed by the observatory, and issues related to transports

  10. The mechanism of nuclear energy release in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanism of intranuclear energy release in reactions induced by nucleus-nucleus collisions at energies higher than ∼ 0.5 GeV/nucl. is presented - as prompted experimentally. The intranuclear energy release goes through local damages of the colliding nuclei

  11. The Temperature Condition of the Plate with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity and Energy Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature state of a solid body, in addition to the conditions of its heat exchange with the environment, can greatly depend on the heat release (or heat absorption processes within the body volume. Among the possible causes of these processes should be noted such as a power release in the fuel elements of nuclear reactors, exothermic or endothermic chemical reactions in the solid body material, which respectively involve heat release or absorbtion, heat transfer of a part of the electric power in the current-carrying conductors (so-called Joule’s heat or the energy radiation penetrating into the body of a semitransparent material, etc. The volume power release characterizes an intensity of these processes.The extensive list of references to the theory of heat conductivity of solids offers solutions to problems to determine a stationary (steady over time and non-stationary temperature state of the solids (as a rule, of the canonical form, which act as the sources of volume power release. Thus, in general case, a possibility for changing power release according to the body volume and in solving the nonstationary problems also a possible dependence of this value on the time are taken into consideration.However, in real conditions the volume power release often also depends on the local temperature, and such dependence can be nonlinear. For example, with chemical reactions the intensity of heat release or absorption is in proportion to their rate, which, in turn, is sensitive to the temperature value, and a dependence on the temperature is exponential. A further factor that in such cases makes the analysis of the solid temperature state complicated, is dependence on the temperature and the thermal conductivity of this body material, especially when temperature distribution therein  is significantly non-uniform. Taking into account the influence of these factors requires the mathematical modeling methods, which allow us to build an adequate

  12. Volatiles and energy released by Puracé volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Luisa Fernanda Meza; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Jaramillo, Marco Tulio; Valencia, Gustavo Garzón; Mazot, Agnes

    2017-12-01

    Total CO2 output of Puracé volcano (Colombia) was estimated on the basis of fluids discharged by fumaroles, soil gases, and dissolved carbon species in the aquifer. The soil CO2 emission was computed from a field survey of 512 points of CO2 soil flux measurements at the main degassing areas of Puracé volcano. The CO2 flux from Puracé's plume was estimated using an indirect method, that used the SO2 plume flux and CO2/SO2 ratio of the main high temperature fumarole. The total output of CO2 was estimated at ≅ 1500 t/day. The main contribution of CO2 comes from the plume (summit degassing) and from soil degassing that emit 673 and 812 t/day, respectively. The contributions of summit and soil degassing areas are comparable, indicating an intermediate degassing style partitioned between closed and open conduit systems. The estimated water vapor discharge (as derived from the chemical composition of the fumaroles, the H2O/CO2 ratio, and the SO2 plume flux) allowed calculation of the total thermal energy (fumarolic, soil degassing, and aquifer) released from the Puracé volcanic system. This was 360 MW.

  13. Study on crack propagation of adhesively bonded DCB for aluminum foam using energy release rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Hye Jin; Lee, Sang Kyo; Cho, Chong Du [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Ung [Kongju National University, Choenan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Aluminum foam with initial crack, which has a closed cell form adhesively bonded, is studied to compare and analyze the crack propagation behavior by using both experimental and finite element analysis techniques. The specimen is loaded in Mode I type of fracture as 15 mm/min speed of a displacement control method. The experimental results were used to accommodate the finite element analysis performed with commercial software ABAQUS 6.10. First, using a video recording, five steps of experiment were selected at random and then the energy release rate was calculated. The estimated energy release rate was then used as fracture energy into the finite element analysis. Comparing the experimental axial load-displacement graphs and the finite element analysis results, roughly equivalent peak values were observed in the cohesive strength of the aluminum foam double cantilever beam. However, force versus displacement patterns showed somewhat different: little deformation was observed in aluminum foam, whereas adhesive parts in double cantilever beam were significantly deformed.

  14. Energy analysis of crack-damage interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1989-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with a main crack propagating into a surrounding damage zone, and a damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as an energy of interaction between the two are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for the crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed employing a semi-empirical stress analysis and experimental evaluation of the average craze density in the crazed zone.

  15. Radiological release analysis for the EFR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carluec, B.; Dechelette, S.; Balard, F.

    1996-01-01

    Tile safety approach of the European Fast Reactor project (EFR) requires to deal with certain hypothetical CDA and therefore to enhance the containment structure in order to mitigate the consequences. The analyses are performed in order to design a containment taking advantages of die inherent characteristics of the liquid metal fast reactor. Adequate computer codes describing the sequences which follow the core disruptive accident, are used. One of the main tool is the computer code CONTAIN-LMR. The goal of these analyses is to identify the most sensitive phenomena such as the overpressure due to sodium fire, to assess the involvement of some design parameters such as the leaktightness of the structures, the arrangement of the ventilation system- the effects of the implementation of filters or a retention chamber. The results of the calculations allow to propose a robust containment for EFR, and to verify that the radiological releases in the environment can be limited. The paper presents the safety approach of EFR adopted with regard to the accidents leading to a radiological source term, and the main design options retained for the containment of EFR. Then, the methods used to describe the phenomena and some representative calculations, will be presented. The main useful information and knowledge which derive from these studies for the designers conclude the paper. (author)

  16. An analysis of the additional fission product release phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Tsuneo; Nagai, Hitoshi

    1978-09-01

    The additional fission product release behavior through a defect hole on the cladding of fuel rods has been studied qualitatively with a computer program CODAC-ARFP. The additional fission product release phenomena are described as qualitative evaluation. The additional fission product release behavior in coolant temperature and pressure fluctuations and in reactor start-up and shut-down depends on coolant water flow behavior into and from the free space of fuel rods through a defect hole. Based on the results of evaluations, the experimental results with an inpile water loop OWL-1 are described in detail. The estimation methods of fission product quantity in the free space and fission product release ratio (quantity released into the coolant/quantity in the free space before beginning of release) are necessary for analysis of the fission product release behavior; the estimation method of water flow through a defect hole is also necessary. In development of the above estimation methods, outpile and capsule experiments supporting the additional fission product release experiments are required. (author)

  17. Energy-Water Modeling and Analysis | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generation (ReEDS Model Analysis) U.S. Energy Sector Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Extreme Weather Modeling and Analysis Energy-Water Modeling and Analysis NREL's energy-water modeling and analysis vulnerabilities from various factors, including water. Example Projects Renewable Electricity Futures Study

  18. The Midi-Pyrenees regional energy observatory - Release 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malvy, Martin; Daubigny, Jean; Fraysse, Jean-Marie; Dedieu-Casties, Francoise; RIEY, Benedicte

    2005-01-01

    Illustrated with maps and graphs, this publication proposes a synthetic and brief energy assessment for the Midi-Pyrenees region. It briefly presents the regional energy situation in terms of final energy consumption between 1990 and 2003, of primary energy production during the same period, of inventories of greenhouse gas emissions, and of CO 2 emissions by the energy sector. It also proposes an overview of the situation, evolution and production of various energy sources: hydroelectricity, wood, wind, solar photovoltaic, solar and thermal energy, co-generation, and other types of energy valorisation modes (biogas, combustion). It proposes a focus on two important sectors, transports and housing

  19. Bioremediation: Application of slow-release fertilizers on low-energy shorelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Tremblay, G.H.; Levy, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    In situ biodegradation, the activation of microbial processes capable of destroying contaminants where they are found in the environment, is a biological process that responds rapidly to changing environmental factors. Accordingly, in situ sediment enclosures were used to test the efficacy of selected nutrient formulations to enhance the biodegradation of a waxy crude oil in a low-energy shoreline environment. The addition of soluble inorganic fertilizers (ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate) and slow-release nutrient formulations (sulfur-coated urea) stimulated microbial activity and prolonged the period of oil degradation, despite a decline in seasonal temperatures. Low temperatures reduced the permeability of the coating on the slow-release fertilizers, effectively suppressing nutrient release. Of the nutrient formulations evaluated, the authors recommend the application of granular slow-release fertilizers (such as sulfur-coated urea) when the overlying water temperatures are above 15 degrees C, and the application of soluble inorganic fertilizers (such as ammonium nitrate) at lower temperatures. Comprehensive analysis of the experimental results indicate that application protocols for bioremediation (form and type of fertilizer or type and frequency of application), be specifically tailored to account for differences in environmental parameters (including oil characteristics) at each contaminated site

  20. Hydrogen release from irradiated elastomers measured by Nuclear Reaction Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagielski, J., E-mail: jacek.jagielski@itme.edu.pl [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland); Ostaszewska, U. [Institute for Engineering of Polymer Materials & Dyes, Division of Elastomers & Rubber Technology, Harcerska 30, 05-820 Piastow (Poland); Bielinski, D.M. [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Polymer & Dye Technology, Stefanowskiego 12/16, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Grambole, D. [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, PO Box 51 01 19, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Romaniec, M.; Jozwik, I.; Kozinski, R. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-926 Warszawa (Poland); Kosinska, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, A. Soltana 7, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)

    2016-03-15

    Ion irradiation appears as an interesting method of modification of elastomers, especially friction and wear properties. Main structural effect caused by heavy ions is a massive loss of hydrogen from the surface layer leading to its smoothening and shrinking. The paper presents the results of hydrogen release from various elastomers upon irradiation with H{sup +}, He{sup +} and Ar{sup +} studied by using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method. The analysis of the experimental data indicates that the hydrogen release is controlled by inelastic collisions between ions and target electrons. The last part of the study was focused on preliminary analysis of mechanical properties of irradiated rubbers.

  1. Stored energy analysis in the scaled-down test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Chengcheng; Chang, Huajian; Qin, Benke; Wu, Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three methods are developed to evaluate stored energy in the scaled-down test facilities. • The mechanism behind stored energy distortion in the test facilities is revealed. • The application of stored energy analysis is demonstrated for the ACME facility of China. - Abstract: In the scaled-down test facilities that simulate the accident transient process of the prototype nuclear power plant, the stored energy release in the metal structures has an important influence on the accuracy and effectiveness of the experimental data. Three methods of stored energy analysis are developed, and the mechanism behind stored energy distortion in the test facilities is revealed. Moreover, the application of stored energy analysis is demonstrated for the ACME test facility newly built in China. The results show that the similarity requirements of three methods analyzing the stored energy release decrease gradually. The physical mechanism of stored energy release process can be characterized by the dimensionless numbers including Stanton number, Fourier number and Biot number. Under the premise of satisfying the overall similarity of natural circulation, the stored energy release process in the scale-down test facilities cannot maintain exact similarity. The results of the application of stored energy analysis illustrate that both the transient release process and integral total stored energy of the reactor pressure vessel wall of CAP1400 power plant can be well reproduced in the ACME test facility.

  2. Influence of ceramic dental crown coating substrate thickness ratio on strain energy release rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasnulhadi, K.; Daud, R.; Mat, F.; Noor, S. N. F. M.; Basaruddin, K. S.; Sulaiman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the analysis of coating substrate thickness ratio effect on the crown coating fracture behaviour. The bi-layer material is examined under four point bending with pre-crack at the bottom of the core material by using finite element. Three different coating thickness of core/substrate was tested which is 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1. The fracture parameters are analysed based on bilayer and homogenous elastic interaction. The result shows that the ratio thickness of core/veneer provided a significant effect on energy release rate.

  3. Unleashing elastic energy: dynamics of energy release in rubber bands and impulsive biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Mark; Cox, Suzanne; Egelmeers, Thijs; Patek, S. N.; Crosby, Alfred J.

    Impulsive biological systems - which include mantis shrimp, trap-jaw ants, and venus fly traps - can reach high speeds by using elastic elements to store and rapidly release energy. The material behavior and shape changes critical to achieving rapid energy release in these systems are largely unknown due to limitations of materials testing instruments operating at high speed and large displacement. In this work, we perform fundamental, proof-of-concept measurements on the tensile retraction of elastomers. Using high speed imaging, the kinematics of retraction are measured for elastomers with varying mechanical properties and geometry. Based on the kinematics, the rate of energy dissipation in the material is determined as a function of strain and strain-rate, along with a scaling relation which describes the dependence of maximum velocity on material properties. Understanding this scaling relation along with the material failure limits of the elastomer allows the prediction of material properties required for optimal performance. We demonstrate this concept experimentally by optimizing for maximum velocity in our synthetic model system, and achieve retraction velocities that exceed those in biological impulsive systems. This model system provides a foundation for future work connecting continuum performance to molecular architecture in impulsive systems.

  4. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  5. Improving containment mass and energy releases for CONTEMPT-LT/028 TU with RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DaSilva, H.C.; Choe, W.G.

    1996-01-01

    In order to obtain boundary conditions for RELAP5/MOD3 best estimate (BE) large break (LB) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) calculations, it is necessary to utilize a separate containment analysis code CONTEMPT-LT/028 TU, which in turn accepts mass and energy releases from the RELAP5/MOD3 calculation. When these boundary conditions are obtained, they are observed to be significantly lower than those reported in FSAR containment analyses. This motivates the present study, where RELAP5/MOD3 mass and energy releases are generated using the same assumptions listed in the FSAR containment calculations. Then CONTEMPT-LT/028 TU pressures and temperatures calculated with both sets of mass and energy releases are compared. It is seen that those obtained with the RELAP5/MOD3 input are still significantly lower, indicating a level of conservatism in the FSAR mass and energy releases that is even above that explicitly listed and also incorporated into the RELAP5/MOD3 calculation. An important conclusion from this finding is that Environmental Qualification (EQ) issues requiring containment re-analyses are likely to be easily resolved if new mass and energy releases are calculated with state-of-the-art LOCA codes modeling the entire reactor coolant system, even when conservative assumptions are incorporated

  6. MIGRATIONS OF RELEASED SEISMIC ENERGY IN VARIOUS GEODYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Novopashina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of slow seismic activity migration have been revealed by the space-time analysis of the total earthquake energy (LgEsum. Our study of seismic activity covers the fragments of  the Central Asian, Pacific and Alpine seismic belts: the Baikal rift system (BRS, Russia, the San Andreas fault zone (California, USA, the Christchurch fault (New Zealand, the North and East Anatolian faults (Turkey, the Philippine subduction zone, and the central fragment of the Mid-Atlantic oceanic ridge. The chains of LgEsum clusters mark the propagation of the maximum stresses front in the weaker crust areas, the zones of fault dynamic influence, and the regions of conjugated tectonic structures. The migration process is characterized by a periodicity, changes in direction, and similar modular values of the migration rates within a single fault segment (or a fault zone, which is probably related to the mechanical and rheological crust and upper mantle properties. The data analysis shows that a strong earthquake source may occur at a location wherein the front of seismic activity propagates with periodical changes in direction, and such a source can develop within a period that is multiple of the migration fluctuations, probably associated with the influence of external periodic factors. The main periods of migration fluctuations (2–4 years, and 9–13 years, in different ratios are present in the seismic regimes of different seismic belts. The migration rate, as well as the propagation velocity of the maximum stresses front, directly depends on the velocity of movements between the plates in the region.

  7. Lifetime and kinetic energy release of metastable dications dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagia, M.; Candori, P.; Falcinelli, S.; Mundim, K.C.; Mundim, M.S.P.; Pirani, F.; Richter, R.; Stranges, S.; Vecchiocattivi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A statistical method is proposed for extracting dynamics information from coincidence data in double photoionization of molecules. Highlights: ► When a photon, with sufficient energy, hits a molecule, a doubly charged ion can be formed. This dication has often a large probability of dissociate in two positive singly charged ions. ► Experiments of photoelectron–photoion–photoion coincidence can provide valuable information about the dynamics of such dissociation processes. ► A statistical method is proposed for extracting such information from the coincidence data. - Abstract: A new method for the determination of dynamical features of the molecular dication dissociation processes, following the single photon double ionization, investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique has been developed. The method is based on an extension of the generalized simulated annealing statistical methodology, previously applied in other fields. Here it is described and applied, as an example, to the case of the dissociation of the CO 2 2+ dication giving CO + + O + ion fragments. The results are consistent with previous determination of the metastable lifetime of the dication, but the analysis also provides additional information about the dynamics of the reaction.

  8. Preliminary analysis of public dose from CFETR gaseous tritium release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Baojie [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Ni, Muyi, E-mail: muyi.ni@fds.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lian, Chao; Jiang, Jieqiong [Key Laboratory of Neutronics and Radiation Safety, Institute of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Present the amounts and limit dose of tritium release to the environment for CFETR. • Perform a preliminary simulation of radiation dose for gaseous tritium release. • Key parameters about soil types, wind speed, stability class, effective release height and age were sensitivity analyzed. • Tritium release amount is recalculated consistently with dose limit in Chinese regulation for CFETR. - Abstract: To demonstrate tritium self-sufficiency and other engineering issues, the scientific conception of Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) has been proposed in China parallel with ITER and before DEMO reactor. Tritium environmental safety for CFETR is an important issue and must be evaluated because of the huge amounts of tritium cycling in reactor. In this work, different tritium release scenarios of CFETR and dose limit regulations in China are introduced. And the public dose is preliminarily analyzed under normal and accidental events. Furthermore, after finishing the sensitivity analysis of key input parameters, the public dose is reevaluated based on extreme parameters. Finally, tritium release amount is recalculated consistently with the dose limit in Chinese regulation for CFETR, which would provide a reference for tritium system design of CFETR.

  9. Mechanistic analysis of double-shell tank gas release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Friley, J.R.; Haines, C.E.; Liljegren, L.M.; Somasundaram, S.

    1991-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from the double-shell waste storage tanks at Hanford. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report discusses the work done through November 1990. Safe management of the wastes at Hanford depends on an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms that take place in the waste tanks. An example of the need to understand these mechanisms is tank 101-SY. The waste in this tank is generating and periodically releasing potentially flammable gases into the tank vent system according to observations of the tank. How these gases are generated and become trapped, the causes of periodic release, and the mechanism of the release are not known in detail. In order to develop a safe mitigation strategy, possible physical mechanisms for the periodic release of flammable gases need to be understood.

  10. Climate, air and energy - Release 2015 - Key figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-05-01

    After an indication of some remarkable key figures (general data, data about office building, housing, industries, renewable energies, wastes, transports, agriculture and forests, and households, indication of some French and European objectives for 2020 and 2030), and a table containing indications of some international official texts (Kyoto protocol and its amendment, European directives) and of their content and scope (bio-fuels in transports, energy efficiency, buildings, labelling and eco-design, transports, renewable energies, energy and climate, greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation, air quality, wastes), and national texts (laws, plans) regarding the same issues, this publication presents figures and data under the form of graphs and tables to illustrate their evolution. They are general data on energy consumptions and intensities (data per sector and per country in Europe), markets and jobs related to renewable energies, certificates of energy saving, greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, regional data for France. The other chapters present large sets of graphs and tables of relevant data concerning housing buildings, office buildings, transports, industries, agriculture and forests, renewable energies and heat networks, wastes, and households. Generally, these data are presented in terms of evolution since the 1970's or the 1990's. They propose a detailed analytical point of view of the various energy and energy-related issues in these different sectors and fields

  11. Experiment calculated ascertainment of factors affecting the energy release in IGR reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpesheva, A.M.; Zhotabayev, Zh.R.

    2006-01-01

    different situations, after all empiric dependences between reactor physical parameters are checked, and based on which, ratio coefficient is determined. The main aspects of the work are: 1) Examination of empiric dependences between reactor physical parameters by means of designed model. ρ 0 = f(X r ) - 'initial reactivity step from working position of control rod'. There are three start rods at IGR reactor. The reactor starts-up when they are removed. There is a linear dependence of insertion reactance on position of the start rod, when two other rods remain at their initial position. At start-up, initial insertion reactance from displacement of two or three start rods is defined by total reactivity for each rod position. That is why the main objectives of this paragraph will be the examination of empirical dependence 'reactivity - working position of control rod' and creations of tables of insertion reactance from disposition of two or three start rods. Also, rods group interference theory will be reviewed. T 0 = f(ρ 0 ) - 'reactor runaway period from initial reactivity step', Q m ax = f(ρ 0 ) - 'maximum power in flash from initial reactivity step'. 2) Definition of design energy release in executed start-ups with blank experimental channel. In this paragraph, influence of different core configurations on 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio coefficient for each IPC will be studied. Design energy release value will be compared with averaged value of energy release for each chamber. Therefore, power 'averaging' method for each chamber will be developed. 3) Definition of the design energy release in the executed start-ups with loaded experimental channel. In this paragraph, influence of physical weight of experimental device on 'IPC current - reactor power' ratio for the same core configuration, and, vice versa, influence of different configuration for the same physical weight on 'IPC current - reactor power' will be analyzed. 4) Thorough analysis of work executed. In

  12. Mechanical energy release in CABRI-2 experiments with Viggen-4 fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    1993-07-01

    The results of mechanical energy release evaluations in CABRI-2 experiments with Viggen-4 fuel pins (12 atom % burnup) are described. In general the experience gained by the CABRI-1 experiments is confirmed. Those physical phenomena are enhanced which are influenced by the release of fission products. Especially the late blow-out of pressurized fission gases from the lower test pin plenum led to large flow variations. The corresponding mechanical power releases are low

  13. Improvement in energy release properties of boron-based propellant by oxidant coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jzliu@zju.edu.cn; Chen, Binghong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}, KNO{sub 3}, KClO{sub 4} and HMX coated B were used to prepare propellant samples. • FTIR, XRD and SEM were used for the microstructure analysis of the prepared B. • Thermal oxidation and combustion characteristics of the propellants were studied. • HMX coating was the most beneficial to the energy release of the samples. - Abstract: The energy release properties of a propellant can be improved by coating boron (B) particles with oxidants. In the study, B was coated with four different oxidants, namely, NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4}, KNO{sub 3}, LiClO{sub 4}, and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX), and the corresponding propellant samples were prepared. First, the structural and morphological analyses of the pretreated B were carried out. Then, the thermal analysis and laser ignition experiments of the propellant samples were carried out. Coating with NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} showed a better performance than mechanical mixing with the same component. Coating with KNO{sub 3} efficiently improved the ignition characteristics of the samples. Coating with LiClO{sub 4} was the most beneficial in reducing the degree of difficulty of B oxidation. Coating with HMX was the most beneficial in the heat release of the samples. The KNO{sub 3}-coated sample had a very high combustion intensity in the beginning, but then it rapidly became weak. Large amounts of sparks were ejected during the combustion of the LiClO{sub 4}-coated sample. The HMX-coated sample had the longest self-sustaining combustion time (4332 ms) and the highest average combustion temperature (1163.92 °C).

  14. Mechanical efficiency of the energy release during a steam explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, R.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanical processes during the expansion phase of a steam explosion with intimately fragmented liquid particles is investigated based on elementary principles and analytical solutions. During a short load pulse, the different densities of the water and the melted particles lead to different velocities. After the load pulse, viscosity effects lead to a slow down of the higher velocities and to a corresponding reconversion of the kinetic energy of the mixture into thermal energy. It is shown that both effects are proportional to each other. The ratio between the residual and the applied mechanical energy is defined as the mechanical efficiency of the steam explosion. Using data typical for a steam explosion in a pressurized water reactor, mechanical efficiencies of <50% are estimated. Considering that the thermodynamic efficiencies are quite limited, the very low conversion rates from thermal energy into mechanical energy observed during steam explosion experiments can be more easily understood

  15. 2015 TRI National Analysis: Toxics Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic chemicals were released and how the 2015 TRI data compare to data from previous years. This dataset reports US state, county, large aquatic ecosystem, metro/micropolitan statistical area, and facility level statistics from 2015 TRI releases, including information on: number of 2015 TRI facilities in the geographic area and their releases (total, water, air, land); population information, including populations living within 1 mile of TRI facilities (total, minority, in poverty); and Risk Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) model related pounds, toxicity-weighted pounds, and RSEI score. The source of administrative boundary data is the 2013 cartographic boundary shapefiles. Location of facilities is provided by EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS). Large Aquatic Ecosystems boundaries were dissolved from the hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was revised for inclusion in the National Atlas of the United States of America (November 2002), and updated to match the streams file created by the USGS National Mapping Division (NMD) for the National Atlas of the United States of America.

  16. Overview on phenomena of mechanical energy release in the CABRI-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, J.

    1989-01-01

    Mechanical energy release phenomena observed in the CABRI-experiments are overviewed and discussed. Intensifying and mitigating effects are identified. They are caused by fission gases, inertia effects, pressure dissipation and fissile power

  17. ANSYS workbench tutorial release 14 structural & thermal analysis using the ANSYS workbench release 14 environment

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, Kent L

    2012-01-01

    The exercises in ANSYS Workbench Tutorial Release 14 introduce you to effective engineering problem solving through the use of this powerful modeling, simulation and optimization software suite. Topics that are covered include solid modeling, stress analysis, conduction/convection heat transfer, thermal stress, vibration, elastic buckling and geometric/material nonlinearities. It is designed for practicing and student engineers alike and is suitable for use with an organized course of instruction or for self-study. The compact presentation includes just over 100 end-of-chapter problems covering all aspects of the tutorials.

  18. An atomistic methodology of energy release rate for graphene at nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lee, James D.; Wang, Xianqiao

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb architecture, serving as a fundamental building block for electric devices. Understanding the fracture mechanism of graphene under various conditions is crucial for tailoring the electrical and mechanical properties of graphene-based devices at atomic scale. Although most of the fracture mechanics concepts, such as stress intensity factors, are not applicable in molecular dynamics simulation, energy release rate still remains to be a feasible and crucial physical quantity to characterize the fracture mechanical property of materials at nanoscale. This work introduces an atomistic simulation methodology, based on the energy release rate, as a tool to unveil the fracture mechanism of graphene at nanoscale. This methodology can be easily extended to any atomistic material system. We have investigated both opening mode and mixed mode at different temperatures. Simulation results show that the critical energy release rate of graphene is independent of initial crack length at low temperature. Graphene with inclined pre-crack possesses higher fracture strength and fracture deformation but smaller critical energy release rate compared with the graphene with vertical pre-crack. Owing to its anisotropy, graphene with armchair chirality always has greater critical energy release rate than graphene with zigzag chirality. The increase of temperature leads to the reduction of fracture strength, fracture deformation, and the critical energy release rate of graphene. Also, higher temperature brings higher randomness of energy release rate of graphene under a variety of predefined crack lengths. The energy release rate is independent of the strain rate as long as the strain rate is small enough

  19. Costs of renewable energies in France. Release 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Marchal, David; Gerson, Raphael; Berrou, Yolene; Grouzard, Patrice

    2016-12-01

    For each renewable energy, this study reports the assessment of the range of the theoretical variation of costs with respect to the most important parameters of the concerned sector. Low range notably corresponds to particularly favourable financing modalities added to a good field quality and to low investment costs. At the opposite, the capital cost is particularly high for high ranges. Thus, after a presentation of the adopted methodology, the report addresses the costs of electric power generation for on-shore wind energy, offshore wind energy, sea hydraulics, photovoltaic, thermodynamic solar, and geothermal energy. The next part addresses heat production costs in the case of individuals (biomass, individual thermal solar, individual heat pumps) and of collective housing and office and industrial buildings (collective biomass with or without heat network, industrial biomass, thermal solar in collective housing of in network, collective geothermal heat pumps, deep geothermal energy). The fourth chapter addresses the cost of power and heat production by co-generation (biomass co-generation, methanization). Appendices provide computation hypotheses, and reference data

  20. Analysis of hazardous substances released during CFRP laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Michael; Walter, Juergen; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Due to their outstanding mechanical properties, in particular their high specific strength parallel to the carbon fibers, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) have a high potential regarding resource-efficient lightweight construction. Consequently, these composite materials are increasingly finding application in important industrial branches such as aircraft, automotive and wind energy industry. However, the processing of these materials is highly demanding. On the one hand, mechanical processing methods such as milling or drilling are sometimes rather slow, and they are connected with notable tool wear. On the other hand, thermal processing methods are critical as the two components matrix and reinforcement have widely differing thermophysical properties, possibly leading to damages of the composite structure in terms of pores or delamination. An emerging innovative method for processing of CFRP materials is the laser technology. As principally thermal method, laser processing is connected with the release of potentially hazardous, gaseous and particulate substances. Detailed knowledge of these process emissions is the basis to ensure the protection of man and the environment, according to the existing legal regulations. This knowledge will help to realize adequate protective measures and thus strengthen the development of CFRP laser processing. In this work, selected measurement methods and results of the analysis of the exhaust air and the air at the workplace during different laser processes with CFRP materials are presented. The investigations have been performed in the course of different cooperative projects, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in the course of the funding initiative "Photonic Processes and Tools for Resource-Efficient Lightweight Structures".

  1. Analysis of Project Finance | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of Project Finance Analysis of Project Finance NREL analysis helps potential renewable energy developers and investors gain insights into the complex world of project finance. Renewable energy project finance is complex, requiring knowledge of federal tax credits, state-level incentives, renewable

  2. NANA Strategic Energy Plan & Energy Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson; Brian Yanity

    2008-12-31

    Biomass Feasibility analysis in the upper Kobuk; • Run of the river hydroelectric development for the Upper Kobuk; • Solar photovoltaic (PV) power demonstration projects for Noatak, Ambler, Selawik, Kiana, and Noorvik; • Heat Recovery for several communities; In September 2008, the NRC team participated at the Alaska Rural Energy Conference in Girdwood, Alaska In November 2008, the NRC team gave a presentation on the NANA regional energy plans at a DOE Tribal Energy Program conference in Denver, Colorado. In January 2009, the final SEP report was submitted to NRC.

  3. Drug release kinetic analysis and prediction of release data via polymer molecular weight in sustained release diltiazem matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibkia, K; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Mohammadi, G; Khiavi, H Z; Sabzevari, A; Barzegar-Jalali, M

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of HPMC (K4M and K100M) as well as tragacanth on the drug release rate of diltiazem (DLTZ) from matrix tablets prepared by direct compression method.Mechanism of drug transport through the matrices was studied by fitting the release data to the 10 kinetic models. 3 model independent parameters; i. e., mean dissolution time (MDT), mean release rate (MRR) and release rate efficacy (RE) as well as 5 time point approaches were established to compare the dissolution profiles. To find correlation between fraction of drug released and polymer's molecular weight, dissolution data were fitted into two proposed equations.All polymers could sustain drug release up to 10 h. The release data were fitted best to Peppas and Higuchi square root kinetic models considering squared correlation coefficient and mean percent error (MPE). RE and MRR were decreased when polymer to drug ratio was increased. Conversely, t60% was increased with raising polymer /drug ratio. The fractions of drug released from the formulations prepared with tragacanth were more than those formulated using the same amount of HPMC K4M and HPMC K100M.Preparation of DLTZ matrices applying HPMCK4M, HPMC K100M and tragacanth could effectively extend the drug release. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Geological Structure, Seismic energy Release and Forecasting of Rockburst Occurrence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; Číž, Radim; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Vilhelm, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 16 (2000), s. 171-173 ISSN 1211-1910. [Czech - Polish - Slovak Symposium on Mining Geophysics /27./. Ramzová, 05.10.1999-07.10.1999] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : seismoacustic emission * energy -frequency distribution * multichannel statistic extrapolation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  5. Regional energy facility siting analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhart, R.C.; Eagles, T.W.

    1976-01-01

    Results of the energy facility siting analysis portion of a regional pilot study performed for the anticipated National Energy Siting and Facility Report are presented. The question of cell analysis versus site-specific analysis is explored, including an evaluation of the difference in depth between the two approaches. A discussion of the possible accomplishments of regional analysis is presented. It is concluded that regional sitting analysis could be of use in a national siting study, if its inherent limits are recognized

  6. Dependence of anaphylactic histamine release from rat mast cells on cellular energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben

    1981-01-01

    The relation between anaphylactic histamine release and the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content of the mast cells was studied. The cells were incubated with glycolytic (2-deoxyglucose) and respiratory inhibitors (antimycin A and oligomycin) in order to decrease the ATP content of the cells prior...... to initiation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction. The secretory capacity of mast cells was less related to the cellular level of ATP at the time of activation of the release process by the antigen-antibody reaction than to the rate of cellular energy supply. Furthermore, mast cells were...... pretreated with 2-deoxyglucose. The release of histamine from these cells was reduced when respiratory inhibitors were added to the cell suspension 5 to 20 sec after exposure of the cells to antigen. This may indicate that the secretory process requires energy, and it seems necessary that energy should...

  7. Energy analysis program. 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This report provides an energy analysis overview. The following topics are described: building energy analysis; urban and energy environmental issues; appliance energy efficiency standards; utility planning and policy; energy efficiency, economics, and policy issues; and international energy and environmental issues.

  8. Analysis of tritium releases to the atmosphere by a CTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renne, D.S.; Sandusky, W.F.; Dana, M.T.

    1975-08-01

    Removal by atmospheric processes of routinely and accidentally released tritium from a controlled thermonuclear reactor (CTR) was investigated. Based on previous studies, the assumed form of the tritium for this analysis was HTO or tritiated water vapor. Assuming a CTR operation in Morris, Illinois, surface water and ground-level air concentration values of tritium were computed for three space (or time) scales: local (50 Km of a plant), regional (up to 1000 Km of the plant), and global

  9. Analysis of hydrogen sulfide releases in heavy water production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, Cornelia; Dumitrescu, Maria; Preda, Irina; Lazar, Roxana

    1996-01-01

    Safety analyses conducted at ICIS concern primarily the heavy water production installations. The quantitative risk assessment needs the frequency calculation of accident sequences and consequences. In heavy water plants which obtain primary isotopic concentration of water by H 2 O - H 2 S exchange, large amounts of hydrogen sulfide which is a toxic, inflammable and explosive gas, are circulated. The first stage in calculating the consequences consists in potential analysis of H 2 S release. This work presents a study of this types of releases for pilot installations of the heavy water production at ICIS (Plant 'G' at Rm. Valcea). The installations which contain and maneuver large quantities of H 2 S and the mathematical models for different types of releases are presented. The accidents analyzed are: catastrophic column, container, spy-hole failures or gas-duct rupture and wall cracks in the installation. The main results are given as tables while the time variations of the flow rate and quantities of H 2 O released by stack disposal are plotted

  10. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2017-06-01

    Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe2O3) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe2O3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe2O3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe2O3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe2O3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe2O3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  11. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  12. Mechanism of energy release from nucleus-target in hadron-nucleus collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    2000-01-01

    The collisions of hadrons (protons, mesons) with 131 Xe nucleus and arising light nuclear fragments as nuclear refraction products have been observed in bubble chamber. Mechanism of energy release during these collisions has been discussed. The quantitative calculations has proved that this phenomena can be treated as potential energy source with use of many different target materials

  13. Radionuclides release possibility analysis of MSR at various accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choong Wie; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    There are some accidents which go beyond our expectation such as Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster and amounts of radionuclides release to environment, so more effort and research are conducted to prevent it. MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) is one of GEN-IV reactor types, and its coolant and fuel are mixtures of molten salt. MSR has a schematic like figure 1 and it has different features with the solid fuel reactor, but most important and interesting feature of MSR is its many safety systems. For example, MSR has a large negative void coefficient. Even though power increases, the reactor slows down soon. Radionuclides release possibility of MSR was analyzed at various accident conditions including Chernobyl and Fukushima ones. The MSR was understood to prevent the severe accident by the negative reactivity coefficient and the absence of explosive material such as water at the Chernobyl disaster condition. It was expected to contain fuel salts in the reactor building and not to release radionuclides into environment even if the primary system could be ruptured or broken and fuel salts would be leaked at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster condition of earthquake and tsunami. The MSR, which would not lead to the severe accident and therefore prevents the fuel release to the environment at many expected scenarios, was thought to have priority in the aspect of accidents. A quantitative analysis and a further research are needed to evaluate the possibility of radionuclide release to the environment at the various accident conditions based on the simple comparison of the safety feature between MSR and solid fuel reactor.

  14. Theoretical energy release of thermites, intermetallics, and combustible metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1998-06-01

    Thermite (metal oxide) mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability, and possess insensitive ignition properties. In this paper, the authors review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  15. Theoretical Energy Release of Thermites, Intermetallics, and Combustible Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-05-14

    Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability and possess insensitive ignition properties. For the specific applications of humanitarian demining and disposal of unexploded ordnance, these pyrotechnic formulations offer additional benefits. The combination of high thermal input with low brisance can be used to neutralize the energetic materials in mines and other ordnance without the "explosive" high-blast-pressure events that can cause extensive collateral damage to personnel, facilities, and the environment. In this paper, we review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  16. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun; Hao, Haixia; Hui, Longfei; Zhao, Fengqi; Feng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energetic rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanocompositeswerefabricatedbyatomiclayerdepositionapproach. • A novel Al@Fe 2 O 3 unit featuring core-shell structure was decorated on the graphene nanosheet. • RGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanocomposite exhibits superior energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe 2 O 3 was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe 2 O 3 nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe 2 O 3 composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  17. Iron oxide/aluminum/graphene energetic nanocomposites synthesized by atomic layer deposition: Enhanced energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ning; Qin, Lijun [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hao, Haixia [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Hui, Longfei [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Zhao, Fengqi [Science and Technology on Combustion and Explosion Laboratory, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); Feng, Hao, E-mail: fenghao98@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Material Surface Engineering and Nanofabrication, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China); State Key Laboratory of Fluorine and Nitrogen Chemicals, Xi’an Modern Chemistry Research Institute, Shaanxi (China)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Energetic rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}nanocompositeswerefabricatedbyatomiclayerdepositionapproach. • A novel Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} unit featuring core-shell structure was decorated on the graphene nanosheet. • RGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite exhibits superior energy release and reduced electrostatic ignition hazard. - Abstract: Nanocomposites consisting of iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and nano-sized aluminum (Al), possessing outstanding exothermic redox reaction characteristics, are highly promising nanothermite materials. However, the reactant diffusion inhibited in the solid state system makes the fast and complete energy release very challenging. In this work, Al nanoparticles anchored on graphene oxide (GO/Al) was initially prepared by a solution assembly approach. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on GO/Al substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Simultaneously thermal reduction of GO occurs, resulting in rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} energetic composites. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis reveals that rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite containing 4.8 wt% of rGO exhibits a 50% increase of the energy release compared to the Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite synthesized by ALD, and an increase of about 130% compared to a random mixture of rGO/Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. The enhanced energy release of rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is attributed to the improved spatial distribution as well as the increased interfacial intimacy between the oxidizer and the fuel. Moreover, the rGO/Al@Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite with an rGO content of 9.6 wt% exhibits significantly reduced electrostatic discharge sensitivity. These findings may inspire potential pathways for engineering energetic nanocomposites with enhanced energy release and improved safety characteristics.

  18. Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases (METER) Program. Annual progress report, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1980-04-01

    The METER (Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases) Program was organized to develop and verify methods for predicting the maximum amount of energy that can be dissipated to the atmosphere (through cooling towers or cooling ponds) from proposed nuclear energy centers without affecting...the local and regional environment. The initial program scope (mathematical modeling, laboratory and field experimentation, and societal impact assessment) has now narrowed to emphasis on the acquisition of field data of substantial quality and extent

  19. Releasable Kinetic Energy-Based Inertial Control of a DFIG Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jinsik; Muljadi, Eduard; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbine generators (WTGs) in a wind power plant (WPP) contain different levels of releasable kinetic energy (KE) because of the wake effects. This paper proposes a releasable KE-based inertial control scheme for a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) WPP that differentiates the contributions....... The proposed scheme adjusts the two loop gains in a DFIG controller depending on its rotor speed so that a DFIG operating at a higher rotor speed releases more KE. The performance of the proposed scheme was investigated under various wind conditions. The results clearly indicate that the proposed scheme...

  20. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  1. Analysis of integrated energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhashi, Takaharu; Kaya, Yoichi; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Taketo; Yasukawa, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    World attention is now attracted to the concept of Novel Horizontally Integrated Energy System (NHIES). In NHIES, all fossil fuels are fist converted into CO and H 2 . Potential environmental contaminants such as sulfur are removed during this process. CO turbines are mainly used to generate electric power. Combustion is performed in pure oxygen produced through air separation, making it possible to completely prevent the formation of thermal NOx. Thus, NHIES would release very little amount of such substances that would contribute to acid rain. In this system, the intermediate energy sources of CO, H 2 and O 2 are integrated horizontally. They are combined appropriately to produce a specific form of final energy source. The integration of intermediate energy sources can provide a wide variety of final energy sources, allowing any type of fossil fuel to serve as an alternative to other types of fossil fuel. Another feature of NHIES is the positive use of nuclear fuel to reduce the formation of CO 2 . Studies are under way in Japan to develop a new concept of integrated energy system. These studies are especially aimed at decreased overall efficiency and introduction of new liquid fuels that are high in conversion efficiency. Considerations are made on the final form of energy source, robust control, acid fallout, and CO 2 reduction. (Nogami, K.)

  2. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  3. Translational and extensional energy release rates (the J- and M-integrals) for a crack layer in thermoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Gommerstadt, B.

    1985-01-01

    A number of papers have been presented on the evaluation of energy release rate for thermoelasticity and corresponding J integral. Two main approaches were developed to treat energy release rate in elasticity. The first is based on direct calculation of the potential energy rate with respect to crack length. The second makes use of Lagrangian formalism. The translational and expansional energy release rates in thermoelasticity are studied by employing the formalism of irreversible thermodynamics and the Crack Layer Approach.

  4. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility

  5. An efficient and accurate method for computation of energy release rates in beam structures with longitudinal cracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel, efficient, and accurate framework for fracture analysis of beam structures with longitudinal cracks. The three-dimensional local stress field is determined using a high-fidelity beam model incorporating a finite element based cross section analysis tool. The Virtual...... Crack Closure Technique is used for computation of strain energy release rates. The devised framework was employed for analysis of cracks in beams with different cross section geometries. The results show that the accuracy of the proposed method is comparable to that of conventional three......-dimensional solid finite element models while using only a fraction of the computation time....

  6. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation.

  7. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M.K.; Moon, K.H.; Kim, S.S.; Lim, C.Y.; Song, K.D.; Kim, H.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the contribution of nuclear energy to the energy use in the economical way, based on the factor survey performed on the internal and external environmental changes occurred recent years. Internal and external environmental changes are being occurred recent years involving with using nuclear energy. This study summarizes the recent environmental changes in nuclear energy such as sustainable development issues, climate change talks, Doha round and newly created electricity fund. This study also carried out the case studies on nuclear energy, based on the environmental analysis performed above. The case studies cover following topics: role of nuclear power in energy/environment/economy, estimation of environmental external cost in electric generation sector, economic comparison of hydrogen production, and inter-industrial analysis of nuclear power generation

  8. Protocol for development of authorized release limits for concrete at U.S. Department of Energy sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnish, J.; Kamboj, S.; Chen, S.-Y.; Parker, F. L.; Smith, A. M.; Meservey, R. H.; Tripp, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this protocol is to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in releasing concrete for reuse. Current regulations allow the sites to release surface-contaminated materials if their radioactivity falls below certain levels and to possibly release materials with volumetric contamination or higher levels of surface contamination on a case-by-case basis. In all cases, an ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) analysis that evaluates the risks of releasing volumetrically contaminated concrete or concrete with higher levels of surface contamination is required as a basis for proposing and setting new release limits that allow for reuse of the concrete material. To evaluate the dose impacts of reusing radioactively contaminated material, the measured radiation levels (pCi/g or disintegrations per minute [dpm]/100 cm 2 ) must be converted to the estimated dose (mrem/yr) that would be received by affected individuals. The dose depends on the amounts and types of isotopes present and the time, distance, and method of exposure (e.g., inhalation or external exposure). For each disposition alternative, the protocol provides a systematic method to evaluate the impact of the dose on the affected individuals. The cost impacts of reusing concrete also need to be evaluated. They too depend on the disposition alternative and the extent and type of contamination. The protocol provides a method to perform a detailed analysis of these factors and evaluate the dose and cost impacts for various disposition alternatives. Once the dose and cost impacts of the various alternatives have been estimated, the protocol outlines the steps required to propose new release standards that allow release and reuse of the concrete material

  9. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 2006 through 2010.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poch, L. A.; Veselka, T. D.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B. (Decision and Information Sciences); (Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center)

    2011-08-22

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. A report released in January 2011 examined the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. This report continues the analysis and examines the financial implications of the experimental flows conducted at the GCD from 2006 to 2010. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes both that operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and the experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP powerplant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western

  10. Computer enhanced release scenario analysis for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stottlemyre, J.A.; Petrie, G.M.; Mullen, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    An interactive (user-oriented) computer tool is being developed at PNL to assist in the analysis of release scenarios for long-term safety assessment of a continental geologic nuclear waste repository. Emphasis is on characterizing the various ways the geologic and hydrologic system surrounding a repository might vary over the 10 6 to 10 7 years subsequent to final closure of the cavern. The potential disruptive phenomena are categorized as natural geologic and man-caused and tend to be synergistic in nature. The computer tool is designed to permit simulation of the system response as a function of the ongoing disruptive phenomena and time. It is designed to be operated in a determinatic manner, i.e., user selection of the desired scenarios and associated rate, magnitude, and lag time data; or in a stochastic mode. The stochastic mode involves establishing distributions for individual phenomena occurrence probabilities, rates, magnitudes, and phase relationships. A Monte-Carlo technique is then employed to generate a multitude of disruptive event scenarios, scan for breaches of the repository isolation, and develop input to the release consequence analysis task. To date, only a simplified one-dimensional version of the code has been completed. Significant modification and development is required to expand its dimensionality and apply the tool to any specific site

  11. On gasohol and energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M A

    1983-03-01

    Energy analysis contributed to the public debate on the gasohol program in the U.S., where this analysis became a legal requirement. The published energy analyses for gasohol are reviewed and the authors assess their inherent assumptions and data sources. The analyses are normalized to S.I. units to facilitate comparisons. The process of rationalizing the various treatments uncovered areas of uncertainties, particularly in the methodologies which could be used to analyze some parts of the process. Although the definitive study has still to be written, the consensus is that maize-to-fuel ethanol via the traditional fermentation route is a net consumer of energy.

  12. Energy-Water Nexus | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nexus Energy-Water Nexus Water is required to produce energy. Energy is required to pump, treat , and transport water. The energy-water nexus examines the interactions between these two inextricably linked sectors. A cartoon showing the nexus of water and energy using red and blue arrows to indicate the

  13. Process for the transport of heat energy released by a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberg, H.W.; Wolff, G.

    1978-01-01

    The heat produced in a nuclear reactor is converted into latent chemical binding energy. The heat can be released again below 400 0 C by recombination after transport by decomposition of ethane or propane into ethylene or propylene and hydrogen. (TK) [de

  14. On the energy release rate in a turbulent current sheet on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardakov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that turbulent current sheets on the Sun, realizing in the form of the Parker - Sweet flow, are in quasilinear regime of turbulence (or in the regime of instability threshold). The energy release rate in such sheets does not exceed 10 26 erg/s for typical plasma parameters in active regions

  15. Regional distribution of released earthquake energy in northern Egypt along with Inahass area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-hemamy, S.T.; Adel, A.A. Othman

    1999-01-01

    A review of the seismic history of Egypt indicates sone areas of high activity concentrated along Oligocene-Miocene faults. These areas support the idea of recent activation of the Oligocene-Miocene stress cycle. There are similarities in the special distribution of recent and historical epicenters. Form the tectonic map of Egypt, distribution of Intensity and magnitude show strong activity along Nile Delta. This due to the presence of a thick layers of recent alluvial sediments. The released energy of the earthquakes are effective on the structures. The present study deals with the computed released energies of the reported earthquakes in Egypt and around Inshas area . Its effect on the urban and nuclear facilities inside Inshas site is considered. Special consideration will be given to old and new waste repository sites. The application of the determined released energy reveals that Inshas site is affected by seismic activity from five seismo-tectonic source zones, namely the Red Sea, Nile Delta, El-Faiyum, the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba seismo-tectonic zones. El-Faiyum seismo-tectonic source zone has the maximum effect on the site and gave a high released energy reaching to 5.4E +2 1 erg

  16. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Han Myung; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2002-12-01

    This study deals with current energy issues, environmental aspects of energy, project feasibility evaluation, and activities of international organizations. Current energy issues including activities related with UNFCCC, sustainable development, and global concern on energy issues were surveyed with focusing on nuclear related activities. Environmental aspects of energy includes various topics such as, inter- industrial analysis of nuclear sector, the role of nuclear power in mitigating GHG emission, carbon capture and sequestration technology, hydrogen production by using nuclear energy, Life Cycle Analysis as a method of evaluating environmental impacts of a technology, and spent fuel management in the case of introducing fast reactor and/or accelerator driven system. Project feasibility evaluation includes nuclear desalination using SMART reactor, and introduction of COMFAR computer model, developed by UNIDO to carry out feasibility analysis in terms of business attitude. Activities of international organizations includes energy planning activities of IAEA and OECD/NEA, introduction of the activities of FNCA, one of the cooperation mechanism among Asian countries. In addition, MESSAGE computer model was also introduced. The model is being developed by IAEA to effectively handle liberalization of electricity market combined with environmental constraints

  17. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  18. Forecasting of future earthquakes in the northeast region of India considering energy released concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarola, Amit; Sil, Arjun

    2018-04-01

    This study presents the forecasting of time and magnitude size of the next earthquake in the northeast India, using four probability distribution models (Gamma, Lognormal, Weibull and Log-logistic) considering updated earthquake catalog of magnitude Mw ≥ 6.0 that occurred from year 1737-2015 in the study area. On the basis of past seismicity of the region, two types of conditional probabilities have been estimated using their best fit model and respective model parameters. The first conditional probability is the probability of seismic energy (e × 1020 ergs), which is expected to release in the future earthquake, exceeding a certain level of seismic energy (E × 1020 ergs). And the second conditional probability is the probability of seismic energy (a × 1020 ergs/year), which is expected to release per year, exceeding a certain level of seismic energy per year (A × 1020 ergs/year). The logarithm likelihood functions (ln L) were also estimated for all four probability distribution models. A higher value of ln L suggests a better model and a lower value shows a worse model. The time of the future earthquake is forecasted by dividing the total seismic energy expected to release in the future earthquake with the total seismic energy expected to release per year. The epicentre of recently occurred 4 January 2016 Manipur earthquake (M 6.7), 13 April 2016 Myanmar earthquake (M 6.9) and the 24 August 2016 Myanmar earthquake (M 6.8) are located in zone Z.12, zone Z.16 and zone Z.15, respectively and that are the identified seismic source zones in the study area which show that the proposed techniques and models yield good forecasting accuracy.

  19. Kokhanok Renewable Energy Retrofit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, Edward I. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jimenez, Antonio [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olis, Daniel R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-21

    In 2010, the community of Kokhanok, Alaska, installed two 90-kW wind turbines, battery storage, a converter, and equipment for integration. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an analysis and modeling using the HOMER and REopt software modeling packages.The analysis was designed to answer the following questions: 1) What is required to achieve a 50 percent reduction in power plant diesel fuel consumption in a diesel microgrid? 2) What is required to achieve a 50 percent reduction in 'total' (diesel and heating oil) consumption in a remote community? 3) What is the impact and role of energy efficiency? This presentation provides an introduction to the community of Kokhanok, Alaska; a summary of energy data; and an overview of analysis results and conceptual design.

  20. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Bahari Othman; Mohd Zamri Yusoff

    2006-01-01

    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (f c ) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  1. Which research for tomorrow's energy? 2012 Energy Colloquium 2. release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Gerard; Arrif, Teddy; Bain, Pascal; Beguin, Francois; Bruneaux, Gilles; Cetin, Derya; Czernichowski, Isabelle; Escudie, Dany; Folacci, Marie-Ange; Gosse, Kevin; Hareux, Sylvie; Metaye, Romain; Morel, Herve; Odru, Pierre; Oukacine, Linda; Pons, Liz; Tournier, Aline; Corgier, David; Thollin, Jacques; Barret, Mickael; Mosdale, Renaut; Hervouet, Veronique; Pourcelly, Gerald; Brousse, Thierry; Lincot, Daniel; Schmidt-Laine, Claudine; Artero, Vincent; Robinson, Darren; Bigot, Bernard; Salha, Bernard; Minster, Jean-Francois; Hauet, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    This huge publication gathers interventions and contributions of a colloquium which notably addressed the following issues: bio-energies, hydrogen and fuel cells, energy storage, photovoltaic solar energy, energy efficiency in buildings, transports and industry, CO 2 capture and storage. On the first day, after two interventions on Energies Programmes at the ANR and an overview of R and D world challenges regarding energy, the contributions addressed the above mentioned issues. During the next day, besides these issues, contributions addressed challenges for tomorrow's society and perspectives for research. Thematic sessions addressed bio-energies (optimized production of cellulose ethanol, the third generation, technological deadlocks for the thermal-chemical route), photovoltaic solar energy (new concepts, massive crystalline silicon and photovoltaic thin layers), high energy efficiency buildings, energetic equipment and climate engineering, CO 2 storage, CO 2 capture, fuel cells, hydrogen production, transport and storage, electrochemical and non-electrochemical storage of energy, transports (internal combustion engine and power units, electric transports)

  2. Blast Shock Wave Mitigation Using the Hydraulic Energy Redirection and Release Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Huang, Wei; Constantini, Shlomi

    2012-01-01

    A hydraulic energy redirection and release technology has been developed for mitigating the effects of blast shock waves on protected objects. The technology employs a liquid-filled plastic tubing as a blast overpressure transformer to transfer kinetic energy of blast shock waves into hydraulic energy in the plastic tubings. The hydraulic energy is redirected through the plastic tubings to the openings at the lower ends, and then is quickly released with the liquid flowing out through the openings. The samples of the specifically designed body armor in which the liquid-filled plastic tubings were installed vertically as the outer layer of the body armor were tested. The blast test results demonstrated that blast overpressure behind the body armor samples was remarkably reduced by 97% in 0.2 msec after the liquid flowed out of its appropriate volume through the openings. The results also suggested that a volumetric liquid surge might be created when kinetic energy of blast shock wave was transferred into hydraulic energy to cause a rapid physical movement or displacement of the liquid. The volumetric liquid surge has a strong destructive power, and can cause a noncontact, remote injury in humans (such as blast-induced traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder) if it is created in cardiovascular system. The hydraulic energy redirection and release technology can successfully mitigate blast shock waves from the outer surface of the body armor. It should be further explored as an innovative approach to effectively protect against blast threats to civilian and military personnel. PMID:22745740

  3. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. S.; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Nam, J. H.; Noh, B. C.; Kim, H. R.

    2008-12-01

    The concerns on the global warming issues in the international community are bringing about a paradigm shift in the national economy including energy technology development. In this connection, the green growth mainly utilizing green technology, which emits low carbon, is being initiated by many advanced countries including Korea. The objective of the study is to evaluate the contribution to the national economy from nuclear energy attributable to the characteristics of green technology, to which nuclear energy belongs. The study covers the role of nuclear in addressing climate change issues, the proper share of nuclear in the electricity sector, the cost analyses of decommissioning and radioactive waste management, and the analysis on the economic performance of nuclear R and D including cost benefit analysis

  4. Energy analysis of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Next to economic viability, the holistic energy balance of electricity generation options' is a factor of major importance. All aspects of the energy balance, i. e. all expenditures and all revenues, are compared in a life cycle analysis. This turns out to be a complex task, especially because of the large number of input quantities to be determined, including the balancing limits to be taken into account. The article presents in detail the findings of analyses of energy balances for various types of nuclear power plants as well as electricity generation in fossil-fired power plants, and for renewable energies. The analyses and their databases are discussed. Moreover, the findings are presented for the energetic amortization periods and the amounts of CO 2 emissions specific to the respective generating technologies. (orig.)

  5. The energy distribution structure and dynamic characteristics of energy release in electrostatic discharge process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingming; Shao, Huige; Zhang, Yunming

    2015-01-01

    The detail structure of energy output and the dynamic characteristics of electric spark discharge process have been studied to calculate the energy of electric spark induced plasma under different discharge condition accurately. A series of electric spark discharge experiments were conducted with the capacitor stored energy in the range of 10J 100J and 1000J respectively. And the resistance of wire, switch and plasma between electrodes were evaluated by different methods. An optimized method ...

  6. Status of JENDL High Energy File. Evaluation method, tools, specification, release procedure, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF-6 format file should be kept as a standard distribution file and it is not difficult to convert into some other form for code`s libraries. From this point of view, status of JENDL High Energy File is introduced in this report as well as evaluation strategy, recommended specification, stored nuclides and quantities, a format structure, evaluation methods and tools, and release plan. (author)

  7. Electron transfer rates and energy releases during denitrification of municipal wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul-Talib, S.; Ujang, Z; Vollertsen, J.

    2004-01-01

    could be simplified by a two-stage process. In the first stage, nitrate was utilised with significant accumulation of nitrite. In the second stage nitrite was utilised when nitrate depleted. Denitrification rates during the two stages were expressed in terms of electron equivalents (e-eq.) in order...... to compare the process when differennt electron acceptors namlely, nitrate and nitrite were utilised. The energy release rates during the two stages were calculated and compared....

  8. Energy transformation, transfer, and release dynamics in high speed turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Secondly, a new high -order (4 th -order) convective flux formulation was developed that uses the tabulated information, yet produces a fully consistent...Klippenstein 2012 Comprehensive H2/O2 Kinetic Model for High - Pressure Combustion. Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 44:444-474. Cabot, W.H., A.W. Cook, P.L. Miller, D.E...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0054 Energy Transformation, Transfer, and Release Dynamics in High -Speed Turbulent Flows Paul Dimotakis CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE

  9. Energy release and its containment within thin-walled, backed vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.I.

    1983-01-01

    The problem adressed is the containment of a sudden release of energy of a magnitude up to 4 x 10 11 joules in a reusable vessel. The design process began by formulating dynamic models for both the input to such a vessel and the vessel itself and using these models to generate a general response. Modifications to the input and a more specific response are discussed. Computer codes used in calculations are described and listed

  10. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in experimental pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryan, R.H.; Bryson, J.W.; Merkle, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    In nonlinear applications of computational fracture mechanics, energy release rate techniques are used increasingly for computing stress intensity parameters of crack configurations. Recently, deLorenzi used the virtual-crack-extension method to derive an analytical expression for the energy release rate that is better suited for three-dimensional calculations than the well-known J-integral. Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. This combined thermo-mechanical formulation of the energy release rate is valid for general fracture, including nonplanar fracture, and applies to thermo-elastic as well as deformation plasticity material models. Two applications of the technique are described here. In the first, semi-elliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loadings

  11. Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Waste Form Release.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardie, S. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Paris, B. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Apted, M. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in DOE O 435.1 Chg. 1, Radioactive Waste Management, requires the preparation and maintenance of a composite analysis (CA). The primary purpose of the CA is to provide a reasonable expectation that the primary public dose limit is not likely to be exceeded by multiple source terms that may significantly interact with plumes originating at a low-level waste disposal facility. The CA is used to facilitate planning and land use decisions that help assure disposal facility authorization will not result in long-term compliance problems; or, to determine management alternatives, corrective actions or assessment needs, if potential problems are identified.

  12. Fluctuations of global energy release and crackling in nominally brittle heterogeneous fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barés, J; Hattali, M L; Dalmas, D; Bonamy, D

    2014-12-31

    The temporal evolution of mechanical energy and spatially averaged crack speed are both monitored in slowly fracturing artificial rocks. Both signals display an irregular burstlike dynamics, with power-law distributed fluctuations spanning a broad range of scales. Yet, the elastic power released at each time step is proportional to the global velocity all along the process, which enables defining a material-constant fracture energy. We characterize the intermittent dynamics by computing the burst statistics. This latter displays the scale-free features signature of crackling dynamics, in qualitative but not quantitative agreement with the depinning interface models derived for fracture problems. The possible sources of discrepancies are pointed out and discussed.

  13. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B.

    2006-12-01

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics

  14. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Oh, K. B

    2006-12-15

    It has been well recognized that securing economic viabilities along with technologies are very important elements in the successful implementation of nuclear R and D projects. The objective of the Project is to help nuclear energy to be utilized in an efficient way by analyzing major issues related with nuclear economics. The study covers following subjects: the role of nuclear in the future electric supply system, economic analysis of nuclear R and D project, contribution to the regional economy from nuclear power. In addition, the study introduces the international cooperation in the methodological area of efficient use of nuclear energy by surveying the international activities related with nuclear economics.

  15. ENERGY RELEASE FROM IMPACTING PROMINENCE MATERIAL FOLLOWING THE 2011 JUNE 7 ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A. [Solar Physics Laboratory, Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10{sup 26}-5.8 × 10{sup 27} erg) to the radiative energy (≈1.9 × 10{sup 25}-2.5 × 10{sup 26} erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  16. Energy Release from Impacting Prominence Material Following the 2011 June 7 Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H. R.; Inglis, A. R.; Mays, M. L.; Ofman, L.; Thompson, B. J.; Young, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    Solar filaments exhibit a range of eruptive-like dynamic activity, ranging from the full or partial eruption of the filament mass and surrounding magnetic structure as a coronal mass ejection to a fully confined or failed eruption. On 2011 June 7, a dramatic partial eruption of a filament was observed by multiple instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory. One of the interesting aspects of this event is the response of the solar atmosphere as non-escaping material falls inward under the influence of gravity. The impact sites show clear evidence of brightening in the observed extreme ultraviolet wavelengths due to energy release. Two plausible physical mechanisms for explaining the brightening are considered: heating of the plasma due to the kinetic energy of impacting material compressing the plasma, or reconnection between the magnetic field of low-lying loops and the field carried by the impacting material. By analyzing the emission of the brightenings in several SDO/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly wavelengths, and comparing the kinetic energy of the impacting material (7.6 × 10(exp 26) - 5.8 × 10(exp 27) erg) to the radiative energy (approx. 1.9 × 10(exp 25) - 2.5 × 10(exp 26) erg), we find the dominant mechanism of energy release involved in the observed brightening is plasma compression.

  17. Thermal desorption and bombardment-induced release of deuterium implanted into stainless steels at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, G.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectra have been obtained for low energy (15-750 eV) deuterons implanted into types 321 and 304 stainless steel, to total fluences in the range 10 13 - 10 17 deuterons/cm 2 . In each case the spectra show a peak at about 350 K, but in the 321 steel there is a second peak in the region of 900 K, the population and peak temperature of which increase with energy. Activation energies of 0.99 and 2.39 eV and a rate constant of 7 x 10 15 /s have been derived for the peaks and it is thought that the first peak corresponds to release from sites close to the surface, while the second peak may be related to trapping at impurities such as Ti. Measurements have also been made of the release of deuterium resulting from post-implantation bombardment with hydrogen ions. It is found that depletion of the first peak in the 321 steel is the result of gas sputtering, but depletion of the second peak is the result of the formation of HD during desorption, while depletion of the peak in the 304 stainless steel also results from HD formation even though this peak is the same as the first peak in the 321 steel. Estimates have also been made of the deuterium self-sputtering cross section at various energies, which show a monotonic decrease as energy increases. (Auth.)

  18. Ultrastructural analysis of nanoparticles and ions released in periprosthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Maurizio; Gatti, Giorgio; Renò, Filippo; Bosetti, Michela; Marchese, Leonardo; Cannas, Mario

    2014-12-30

    The distribution and relationship of hydroxyapatite debris, nanometric organic and metal wear particles and metal ions on periimplant interface membranes following aseptic and septic arthroplastic loosening were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopic analysis were used to analyze debris and ion distribution. Hydroxyapatite debris appeared with different morphology in a particular distribution among several membranes. These differences may reflect the occurrence of different friction forces taking place between prosthesis and bone interface in the several types of prostheses studied. Metal wear particles were detected in greater numbers in membranes from noncemented prostheses compared with those from cemented ones. In contrast, more organic particles were present in membrane from cemented prosthesis. No differences were observed between aseptic and septic membranes. Our findings support the need to evaluate the occurrence of friction forces that periprosthetic bone debris production may induce to exacerbate cellular reactivity. Furthermore, cellular engulfment of debris and the high level of different ions released indicate the occurrence of a toxic environment that may induce failure of any reparative pathways.

  19. Anisotropic kinetic energy release and gyroscopic behavior of CO2 super rotors from an optical centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew J.; Ogden, Hannah M.; Mullin, Amy S.

    2017-10-01

    An optical centrifuge is used to generate an ensemble of CO2 super rotors with oriented angular momentum. The collision dynamics and energy transfer behavior of the super rotor molecules are investigated using high-resolution transient IR absorption spectroscopy. New multipass IR detection provides improved sensitivity to perform polarization-dependent transient studies for rotational states with 76 ≤ J ≤ 100. Polarization-dependent measurements show that the collision-induced kinetic energy release is spatially anisotropic and results from both near-resonant energy transfer between super rotor molecules and non-resonant energy transfer between super rotors and thermal molecules. J-dependent studies show that the extent and duration of the orientational anisotropy increase with rotational angular momentum. The super rotors exhibit behavior akin to molecular gyroscopes, wherein molecules with larger amounts of angular momentum are less likely to change their angular momentum orientation through collisions.

  20. Advancing Knowledge on Fugitive Natural Gas from Energy Resource Development at a Controlled Release Field Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, A. G.; Chao, J.; Forde, O.; Prystupa, E.; Mayer, K. U.; Black, T. A.; Tannant, D. D.; Crowe, S.; Hallam, S.; Mayer, B.; Lauer, R. M.; van Geloven, C.; Welch, L. A.; Salas, C.; Levson, V.; Risk, D. A.; Beckie, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    Fugitive gas, comprised primarily of methane, can be unintentionally released from upstream oil and gas development either at surface from leaky infrastructure or in the subsurface through failure of energy well bore integrity. For the latter, defective cement seals around energy well casings may permit buoyant flow of natural gas from the deeper subsurface towards shallow aquifers, the ground surface and potentially into the atmosphere. Concerns associated with fugitive gas release at surface and in the subsurface include contributions to greenhouse gas emissions, subsurface migration leading to accumulation in nearby infrastructure and impacts to groundwater quality. Current knowledge of the extent of fugitive gas leakage including how to best detect and monitor over time, and particularly its migration and fate in the subsurface, is incomplete. We have established an experimental field observatory for evaluating fugitive gas leakage in an area of historic and ongoing hydrocarbon resource development within the Montney Resource Play of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin, British Columbia, Canada. Natural gas will be intentionally released at surface and up to 25 m below surface at various rates and durations. Resulting migration patterns and impacts will be evaluated through examination of the geology, hydrogeology, hydro-geochemistry, isotope geochemistry, hydro-geophysics, vadose zone and soil gas processes, microbiology, and atmospheric conditions. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles and remote sensors for monitoring and detection of methane will also be assessed for suitability as environmental monitoring tools. Here we outline the experimental design and describe initial research conducted to develop a detailed site conceptual model of the field observatory. Subsequently, results attained from pilot surface and sub-surface controlled natural gas releases conducted in late summer 2017 will be presented as well as results of numerical modelling conducted

  1. PHEBUS FP release analysis using a microstructure-based code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, L.N.

    1992-03-01

    The results of pre-test fission-product (FP) release analyses of the first two PHEBUS FP experiments, FPT0 and FPT1, indicate that the FREEDOM microstructure-based code predicts significant differences in both the timing and percent of gaseous FP releases for the two tests. To provide an indication of its predictive capability, FREEDOM was also used to model the high-burnup fuel tested in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory experiments VI-2 and VI-3. For these, the code was found to overpredict releases during the early stages of the tests and to underpredict releases during the later stages. The release kinetics in both tests were reasonably predicted, however. In view of the above, it is likely that the FREEDOM predictions of the final cumulative releases for the first two PHEBUS FP tests are lower-bound estimates. However, the significant difference in the predicted timing of initial releases for the two tests is felt to be indicative of what will occur. Therefore, this difference should be considered in the planning and conduct of the two tests, particularly aspects related to on-line measurements

  2. Energy and greenhouse gas profile of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region. Release 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Alain; Poitevin, Lionel; Loeb, Amandine; Philippot, Herve; Rebouillat, Lea; Jacquelin, Antoine

    2017-06-01

    This publication first proposes graphs and comments characterising final energy consumption of the Nouvelle Aquitaine region: regional situation in 2015 (analysis per sector and per energy), primary resources, social-economic analysis (energy bill, level of energy poverty, burden due to old housing and commuting for households), evolution of energy consumption between 2005 and 2015 (per sector, per source of energy, evolution of energy intensity and of the energy bill). The next part addresses greenhouse gas emissions: regional situation in 2015 (distribution in terms of emission type and per gas), evolutions between 1990 and 2015, evolutions per sector. The third part addresses renewable energies: regional situation for the different types of renewable energy, comparison with final energy consumption, comparison with national data, production evolutions, focus per sector (wood and wood by-products, heat pumps in the housing sector, urban waste valorisation units, biogas valorisation, bio-fuels, wind energy, hydroelectricity, solar photovoltaic). The last part recalls national objectives related to energy, to greenhouse gas emissions for France and for the region, in relationship with the law on energy transition and for a green growth

  3. Computational modeling and analysis of iron release from macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka A Potdar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A major process of iron homeostasis in whole-body iron metabolism is the release of iron from the macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Macrophages recognize and phagocytose senescent or damaged erythrocytes. Then, they process the heme iron, which is returned to the circulation for reutilization by red blood cell precursors during erythropoiesis. The amount of iron released, compared to the amount shunted for storage as ferritin, is greater during iron deficiency. A currently accepted model of iron release assumes a passive-gradient with free diffusion of intracellular labile iron (Fe2+ through ferroportin (FPN, the transporter on the plasma membrane. Outside the cell, a multi-copper ferroxidase, ceruloplasmin (Cp, oxidizes ferrous to ferric ion. Apo-transferrin (Tf, the primary carrier of soluble iron in the plasma, binds ferric ion to form mono-ferric and di-ferric transferrin. According to the passive-gradient model, the removal of ferrous ion from the site of release sustains the gradient that maintains the iron release. Subcellular localization of FPN, however, indicates that the role of FPN may be more complex. By experiments and mathematical modeling, we have investigated the detailed mechanism of iron release from macrophages focusing on the roles of the Cp, FPN and apo-Tf. The passive-gradient model is quantitatively analyzed using a mathematical model for the first time. A comparison of experimental data with model simulations shows that the passive-gradient model cannot explain macrophage iron release. However, a facilitated-transport model associated with FPN can explain the iron release mechanism. According to the facilitated-transport model, intracellular FPN carries labile iron to the macrophage membrane. Extracellular Cp accelerates the oxidation of ferrous ion bound to FPN. Apo-Tf in the extracellular environment binds to the oxidized ferrous ion, completing the release process. Facilitated-transport model can

  4. Fission and explosive energy releases of PuO2, PuO2--UO2, UO2, and UO3 assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelling, J.J.; Hansen, G.E.; Byers, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The critical masses and fission and explosive energy releases of PuO 2 , PuO 2 --UO 2 , UO 2 , and UO 3 assemblies have been calculated. The parameters selected for the model are conservative. They were chosen after review of appropriate plants that have been and are proposed for construction in the future. The resulting data envelopes are intended to include any conceivable set of circumstances that could ultimately lead to a nuclear incident. All energy release analysis was performed for initial fission spikes only: recriticality mechanisms were not considered

  5. Current work in energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work performed at Berkeley Lab most recently. One of the Labs accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of US Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the US. This analysis is described and played a key role in shaping the US position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. The Labs participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. Described also is a study of leaking electricity, which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of US residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the report summarize results of research activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national Energy Star{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China.

  6. Using SDO's AIA to investigate energy transport from a flare's energy release site to the chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, J. W.; Holman, G. D.

    2012-04-01

    Context. Coordinated observations of a GOES B4.8 microflare with SDO's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) on 2010 July 31 show that emission in all seven of AIA's EUV channels brightened simultaneously nearly 6 min before RHESSI or GOES detected emission from plasma at temperatures around 10 MK. Aims: To help interpret these and AIA flare observations in general, we characterized the expected temporal responses of AIA's 94, 131, 171, 193, 211, and 335 Å channels to solar flare brightenings by combining (1) AIA's nominal temperature response functions available through SSWIDL with (2) EUV spectral line data observed in a flare loop footpoint on 2001 April 24 with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on timescales comparable to AIA's image cadence. Methods: The nine emission lines observed by CDS cover a wide range of formation temperature from about 0.05 to 8 MK. Line brightenings observed early during the CDS flare occurred at temperatures less than about 0.7 MK, with the largest values around 0.1 MK. These brightenings were consistent with the flare's energy transport being dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Because all of AIA's EUV channels are sensitive to emission from plasma in the 0.1 to 0.7 MK temperature range, we show that all of AIA's EUV channels will brighten simultaneously during flares like this, in which energy transport is dominated by nonthermal particle beams. Results: The 2010 July 31 flare observed by AIA and RHESSI displays this behavior, so we conclude that such beams likely dominated the flare's energy transport early during the event. When thermal conduction from a reconnection-heated, hot (~10 MK) plasma dominates the energy transport, the AIA channels that are sensitive to emission from such temperatures (particularly the 94 and 131 Å channels) will brighten earlier than the channels that are not sensitive to such temperatures (171 and 211 Å). Conclusions: Thus

  7. Energy release from a stream of infalling prominence debris on 2011 September 7-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, A. R.; Gilbert, H. R.; Ofman, L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years high-resolution and high-cadence EUV imaging has revealed a new phenomenon, impacting prominence debris, where prominence material from failed or partial eruptions can impact the lower atmosphere and release energy. We present a clear example of this phenomenon occurring on 2011 September 7-8. The initial eruption of prominence material was associated with an X1.8-class flare from AR11283, occurring at 22:30 UT on 2011 September 7, resulting in a semi-continuous stream of this material returning to the solar surface between 00:20 - 00:40 UT on 2011 September 8. A substantial area remote from the original active region experienced brightening in multiple EUV channels observed by SDO/AIA. Using the differential emission measure, we estimated the energetic properties of this event. We found that the radiated energy of the impacted plasma was of order 10^27 ergs, while the upper limit on the thermal energy peaked at 10^28 ergs. Based on these estimates we were able to determine the mass content of the debris to be in the range 2x10^14 energy release takes place during these events, and that such impacts may be used as a novel diagnostic tool for investigating prominence material properties.

  8. ENERGY RELEASE AND TRANSFER IN SOLAR FLARES: SIMULATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONNECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.; Fletcher, L.; Hesse, M.; Neukirch, T.

    2009-01-01

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations we investigate energy release and transfer in a three-dimensional extension of the standard two-ribbon flare picture. In this scenario, reconnection is initiated in a thin current sheet (suggested to form below a departing coronal mass ejection) above a bipolar magnetic field. Two cases are contrasted: an initially force-free current sheet (low beta) and a finite-pressure current sheet (high beta), where beta represents the ratio between gas (plasma) and magnetic pressure. The energy conversion process from reconnection consists of incoming Poynting flux turned into up- and downgoing Poynting flux, enthalpy flux, and bulk kinetic energy flux. In the low-beta case, the outgoing Poynting flux is the dominant contribution, whereas the outgoing enthalpy flux dominates in the high-beta case. The bulk kinetic energy flux is only a minor contribution in the downward direction. The dominance of the downgoing Poynting flux in the low-beta case is consistent with an alternative to the thick target electron beam model for solar flare energy transport, suggested recently by Fletcher and Hudson, whereas the enthalpy flux may act as an alternative transport mechanism. For plausible characteristic parameters of the reconnecting field configuration, we obtain energy release timescales and energy output rates that compare favorably with those inferred from observations for the impulsive phase of flares. Significant enthalpy flux and heating are found even in the initially force-free case with very small background beta, resulting mostly from adiabatic compression rather than Ohmic dissipation. The energy conversion mechanism is most easily understood as a two-step process (although the two steps may occur essentially simultaneously): the first step is the acceleration of the plasma by Lorentz forces in layers akin to the slow shocks in the Petschek reconnection model, involving the conversion of magnetic energy to bulk kinetic

  9. A new method for calculating energy release rate in tunnel excavation subjected to high in situ stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qinghua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy theory, energy release rate (EER and local energy release rate (LEER, a new index called FERR (Fractional Energy Release Rate is proposed, and this method can not only evaluate the risk of rock burst, but also can point out the location of high risk and the scale of rockburst. The FERR index is applied to the TBM assembling tunnel in Jinping Hydro Power Station II to evaluate the scale and intensity of rockburst, as well as the location where rockburst occurs. With FDM method adopted, the energy release rate of 3 excavation plans are calculated and the scale and risk of rockburst is evaluated, and the location of high risk of rockburst is also mapped. With FERR used in the evaluation, the rockburst is nicely controlled which ensured the safety and construction schedule of the project.

  10. Energy efficient bead milling of microalgae: Effect of bead size on disintegration and release of proteins and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, P R; Suarez-Garcia, E; Safi, C; Yonathan, K; Olivieri, G; Barbosa, M J; Wijffels, R H; Eppink, M H M

    2017-01-01

    The disintegration of three industry relevant algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Neochloris oleoabundans and Tetraselmis suecica) was studied in a lab scale bead mill at different bead sizes (0.3-1mm). Cell disintegration, proteins and carbohydrates released into the water phase followed a first order kinetics. The process is selective towards proteins over carbohydrates during early stages of milling. In general, smaller beads led to higher kinetic rates, with a minimum specific energy consumption of ⩽0.47kWhkg DW -1 for 0.3mm beads. After analysis of the stress parameters (stress number and stress intensity), it appears that optimal disintegration and energy usage for all strains occurs in the 0.3-0.4mm range. During the course of bead milling, the native structure of the marker protein Rubisco was retained, confirming the mildness of the disruption process. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Oh, K. B.

    2004-12-01

    This study evaluated the role of nuclear energy in various aspects in order to provide a more comprehensive standard of judgement to the justification of the utilization of nuclear energy. Firstly, this study evaluated the economic value addition of nuclear power generation technology and Radio-Isotope(RI) technology quantitatively by using modified Input-Output table. Secondly, a comprehensive cost-benefit analysis of nuclear power generation was conducted with an effort to quantify the foreign exchange expenditure, the environmental damage cost during 1986-2015 for each scenario. Thirdly, the effect of the regulation of CO 2 emission on the Korean electric supply system was investigated. In more detail, an optimal composition of power plant mix by energy source was investigated, under the assumption of the CO 2 emission regulation at a certain level, by using MESSAGE model. Finally, the economic spillover effect from technology self-reliance of NSSS by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute was evaluated. Both production spillover effect and value addition spillover effect were estimated by using Input-Output table

  12. Analysis of metal ion release from biomedical implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Dimić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials are commonly used for fixation or replacement of damaged bones in the human body due to their good combination of mechanical properties. The disadvantage of metals as implant materials is their susceptibility to corrosion and metal ion release, which can cause serious health problems. In certain concentrations metals and metal ions are toxic and their presence can cause diverse inflammatory reactions, genetic mutations or even cancer. In this paper, different approaches to metal ion release examination, from biometallic materials sample preparation to research results interpretation, will be presented. An overview of the analytical techniques, used for determination of the type and concentration of released ions from implants in simulated biofluids, is also given in the paper.

  13. Dividing by four CO2 releases due to energy: the Negatep scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Negatep scenario aims at dividing CO 2 releases by 4, which means, more or less, dividing the consumption of fossil energies by the same factor, in order to comply with the French 2005 energy act. After a description of the situation in 2006, of trends, and a recall of the objectives defined by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' regarding energy savings and renewable energies, the authors show that reaching such a reduction requires to: decrease to nearly zero oil and gas in the residential and tertiary sectors, reduce significantly the use of oil in the transport sector, reduce significantly the use of fossil fuels in industry, increase massively the share of electricity in the energy mix, maintain the share of nuclear in the electricity generation and, as long as the storage of electricity is not developed, limit the share of intermittent energies to a level compatible with that of gas turbines. The study shows that the proposed measures can fulfill the objectives for 2020 proposed by the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement'

  14. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping, although this is an event of extremely low probability. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21 mole percent oxygen with humidity. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabatic pressure rise which peaks in several seconds. This analytical tool has indicated reasonable agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen and water vapor concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  15. Sodium spray release accident analysis for fast reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shire, P.R.

    1976-10-01

    A computer code has been developed to model the effects of postulated sodium spray release from LMFBR piping. The calculation method utilizes gas convection and droplet combustion theory to calculate the pressure and temperature effects in a range of 0 to 21% oxygen. Droplet motion and large aggregate sodium surface area result in rapid release of combustion and sensible heat causing a nearly adiabtic pressure pulse peaking in a matter of seconds. This analytical tool has indicated good agreement with prototypic test data for a range of oxygen concentrations, cell volumes and droplet sizes

  16. Variation of the energy release rate as a crack approaches and passes through an elastic inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongshun; Chudnovsky, A.

    1993-01-01

    The variation of the energy release rate (ERP) at the tip of a crack penetrating an elastic inclusion is analyzed using an approach involving modeling the random array of microcracks or other defects by an elastic inclusion with effective elastic properties. Computations are carried out using a finite element procedure. The eight-noded isoparametric serendipity element with the shift of the midpoint to the quarter-point is used to simulate the singularity at the crack tip, and the crack growth is accommodated by implementing a mesh regeneration technique. The ERP values were calculated for various crack tip positions which simulate the process of the crack approaching and penetrating the inclusion.

  17. Spatiotemporal Organization of Energy Release Events in the Quiet Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvenic interactions.

  18. Commercial Building Energy Saver: An energy retrofit analysis toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Chen, Yixing; Lee, Sang Hoon; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.; Zhang, Rongpeng; Sun, Kaiyu; Price, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercial Building Energy Saver is a powerful toolkit for energy retrofit analysis. • CBES provides benchmarking, load shape analysis, and model-based retrofit assessment. • CBES covers 7 building types, 6 vintages, 16 climates, and 100 energy measures. • CBES includes a web app, API, and a database of energy efficiency performance. • CBES API can be extended and integrated with third party energy software tools. - Abstract: Small commercial buildings in the United States consume 47% of the total primary energy of the buildings sector. Retrofitting small and medium commercial buildings poses a huge challenge for owners because they usually lack the expertise and resources to identify and evaluate cost-effective energy retrofit strategies. This paper presents the Commercial Building Energy Saver (CBES), an energy retrofit analysis toolkit, which calculates the energy use of a building, identifies and evaluates retrofit measures in terms of energy savings, energy cost savings and payback. The CBES Toolkit includes a web app (APP) for end users and the CBES Application Programming Interface (API) for integrating CBES with other energy software tools. The toolkit provides a rich set of features including: (1) Energy Benchmarking providing an Energy Star score, (2) Load Shape Analysis to identify potential building operation improvements, (3) Preliminary Retrofit Analysis which uses a custom developed pre-simulated database and, (4) Detailed Retrofit Analysis which utilizes real-time EnergyPlus simulations. CBES includes 100 configurable energy conservation measures (ECMs) that encompass IAQ, technical performance and cost data, for assessing 7 different prototype buildings in 16 climate zones in California and 6 vintages. A case study of a small office building demonstrates the use of the toolkit for retrofit analysis. The development of CBES provides a new contribution to the field by providing a straightforward and uncomplicated decision

  19. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how the economics of nuclear power generation are affected by the change in nuclear environmental factors and then, to suggest desirable policy directions to improve the efficiency of the use of nuclear energy resources in korea. This study focused to analyze the impact of the change in 3 major nuclear environmental factors in Korea on the economics of nuclear power generation. To do this, environmental external cost, nuclear R and fund, and carbon emission control according to UNFCCC were selected as the major factors. First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power plant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environmental impact in to monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and 'Impacts of atmospheric release' model developed by IAEA were used. Secondly, the impact of nuclear R and D fund raised by the utility on the increment of nuclear power generating cost was evaluated. Then, the desirable size of the fund in Korea was suggested by taking into consideration the case of Japan. This study also analyzed the influences of the fund on the economics of nuclear power generation. Finally, the role of nuclear power under the carbon emission regulation was analyzed. To do this, the econometric model was developed and the impact of the regulation on the national economy was estimated. Further efforts were made to estimate the role by developing CGE model in order to improve the reliability of the results from the econometric model.

  20. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze how the economics of nuclear power generation are affected by the change in nuclear environmental factors and then, to suggest desirable policy directions to improve the efficiency of the use of nuclear energy resources in korea. This study focused to analyze the impact of the change in 3 major nuclear environmental factors in Korea on the economics of nuclear power generation. To do this, environmental external cost, nuclear R and fund, and carbon emission control according to UNFCCC were selected as the major factors. First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power plant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environmental impact in to monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and 'Impacts of atmospheric release' model developed by IAEA were used. Secondly, the impact of nuclear R and D fund raised by the utility on the increment of nuclear power generating cost was evaluated. Then, the desirable size of the fund in Korea was suggested by taking into consideration the case of Japan. This study also analyzed the influences of the fund on the economics of nuclear power generation. Finally, the role of nuclear power under the carbon emission regulation was analyzed. To do this, the econometric model was developed and the impact of the regulation on the national economy was estimated. Further efforts were made to estimate the role by developing CGE model in order to improve the reliability of the results from the econometric model

  1. 2015 TRI National Analysis: Toxics Release Inventory Releases at Various Summary Levels

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The TRI National Analysis is EPA's annual interpretation of TRI data at various summary levels. It highlights how toxic chemical wastes were managed, where toxic...

  2. Photochemical Energy Storage and Electrochemically Triggered Energy Release in the Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane System: UV Photochemistry and IR Spectroelectrochemistry in a Combined Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, Olaf; Waidhas, Fabian; Bauer, Udo; Wu, Yanlin; Bochmann, Sebastian; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Papp, Christian; Bachmann, Julien; Libuda, Jörg

    2017-07-06

    The two valence isomers norbornadiene (NBD) and quadricyclane (QC) enable solar energy storage in a single molecule system. We present a new photoelectrochemical infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PEC-IRRAS) experiment, which allows monitoring of the complete energy storage and release cycle by in situ vibrational spectroscopy. Both processes were investigated, the photochemical conversion from NBD to QC using the photosensitizer 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone (Michler's ketone, MK) and the electrochemically triggered cycloreversion from QC to NBD. Photochemical conversion was obtained with characteristic conversion times on the order of 500 ms. All experiments were performed under full potential control in a thin-layer configuration with a Pt(111) working electrode. The vibrational spectra of NBD, QC, and MK were analyzed in the fingerprint region, permitting quantitative analysis of the spectroscopic data. We determined selectivities for both the photochemical conversion and the electrochemical cycloreversion and identified the critical steps that limit the reversibility of the storage cycle.

  3. Linear free energy correlations for fission product release from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, David G; Schwantes, Jon M

    2015-03-03

    This paper extends the preliminary linear free energy correlations for radionuclide release performed by Schwantes et al., following the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Through evaluations of the molar fractionations of radionuclides deposited in the soil relative to modeled radionuclide inventories, we confirm the initial source of the radionuclides to the environment to be from active reactors rather than the spent fuel pool. Linear correlations of the form In χ = −α ((ΔGrxn°(TC))/(RTC)) + β were obtained between the deposited concentrations, and the reduction potentials of the fission product oxide species using multiple reduction schemes to calculate ΔG°rxn (TC). These models allowed an estimate of the upper bound for the reactor temperatures of TC between 2015 and 2060 K, providing insight into the limiting factors to vaporization and release of fission products during the reactor accident. Estimates of the release of medium-lived fission products 90Sr, 121mSn, 147Pm, 144Ce, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu, and 151Sm through atmospheric venting during the first month following the accident were obtained, indicating that large quantities of 90Sr and radioactive lanthanides were likely to remain in the damaged reactor cores.

  4. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  5. Sludge thermal oxidation processes: mineral recycling, energy impact, and greenhouse effect gases release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelin, Eric

    2003-07-01

    Different treatment routes have been studied for a mixed sludge: the conventional agricultural use is compared with the thermal oxidation processes, including incineration (in gaseous phase) and wet air oxidation (in liquid phase). The interest of a sludge digestion prior to the final treatment has been also considered according to the two major criteria, which are the fossil energy utilisation and the greenhouse effect gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O) release. Thermal energy has to be recovered on thermal processes to make these processes environmentally friendly, otherwise their main interest is to extract or destroy micropollutants and pathogens from the carbon cycle. In case of continuous energy recovery, incineration can produce more energy than it consumes. Digestion is especially interesting for agriculture: according to these two schemes, the energy final balance can also be in excess. As to wet air oxidation, it is probably one of the best way to minimize greenhouse effect gases emission. (author)

  6. DEM code-based modeling of energy accumulation and release in structurally heterogeneous rock masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrikov, S. V.; Revuzhenko, A. F.

    2015-10-01

    Based on discrete element method, the authors model loading of a physical specimen to describe its capacity to accumulate and release elastic energy. The specimen is modeled as a packing of particles with viscoelastic coupling and friction. The external elastic boundary of the packing is represented by particles connected by elastic springs. The latter means introduction of an additional special potential of interaction between the boundary particles, that exercises effect even when there is no direct contact between the particles. On the whole, the model specimen represents an element of a medium capable of accumulation of deformation energy in the form of internal stresses. The data of the numerical modeling of the physical specimen compression and the laboratory testing results show good qualitative consistency.

  7. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...... and designed a model for the future energy system of Denmark, putting emphasis on energy efficiency, CO2 reduction, and industrial development. The energy system analysis methodology includes hour by hour computer simulations leading to the design of flexible energy systems with the ability to balance...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power...

  8. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  9. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments.

  10. Economic analysis of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Kim, H. S.

    2000-12-01

    This study identified the role of nuclear energy in the following three major aspects. First of all, this study carried out cost effectiveness of nuclear as a CDM technology, which is one of means of GHG emission reduction in UNFCCC. Secondly, environmental externalities caused by air pollutants emitted by power options were estimated. The 'observed market behaviour' method and 'responses to hypothetical market' method were used to estimate objectively the environmental external costs by electric source, respectively. Finally, the role of nuclear power in securing electricity supply in a liberalized electricity market was analyzed. This study made efforts to investigate whether nuclear power generation with high investment cost could be favored in a liberalized market by using 'option value' analysis of investments

  11. EMERALD, Radiation Release and Dose after PWR Accident for Design Analysis and Operation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunot, W.K.; Fray, R.R.; Gillespie, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The EMERALD program is designed for the calculation of radiation releases and exposures resulting from abnormal operation of a large pressurized water reactor (PWR). The approach used in EMERALD is similar to an analog simulation of a real system. Each component or volume in the plant which contains a radioactive material is represented by a subroutine which keeps track of the production, transfer, decay and absorption of radioactivity in that volume. During the course of the analysis of an accident, activity is transferred from subroutine to subroutine in the program as it would be transferred from place to place in the plant. For example, in the calculation of the doses resulting from a loss-of-coolant accident the program first calculates the activity built up in the fuel before the accident, then releases some of this activity to the containment volume. Some of this activity is then released to the atmosphere. The rates of transfer, leakage, production, cleanup, decay, and release are read in as input to the program. Subroutines are also included which calculate the on-site and off-site radiation exposures at various distances for individual isotopes and sums of isotopes. The program contains a library of physical data for the twenty-five isotopes of most interest in licensing calculations, and other isotopes can be added or substituted. Because of the flexible nature of the simulation approach, the EMERALD program can be used for most calculations involving the production and release of radioactive materials during abnormal operation of a PWR. These include design, operational, and licensing studies. 2 - Method of solution - Explicit solutions of first-order linear differential equations are included. In addition, a subroutine is provided which solves a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 25 isotopes, 7 time periods, 15 volumes or components, 10

  12. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, E; Umeno, Y

    2017-01-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses. (paper)

  13. Theoretical prediction of energy release rate for interface crack initiation by thermal stress in environmental barrier coatings for ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, E.; Umeno, Y.

    2017-05-01

    As weight reduction of turbines for aircraft engines is demanded to improve fuel consumption and curb emission of carbon dioxide, silicon carbide (SiC) fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites (SiC/SiC) are drawing enormous attention as high-pressure turbine materials. For preventing degradation of SiC/SiC, environmental barrier coatings (EBC) for ceramics are deposited on the composites. The purpose of this study is to establish theoretical guidelines for structural design which ensures the mechanical reliability of EBC. We conducted finite element method (FEM) analysis to calculate energy release rates (ERRs) for interface crack initiation due to thermal stress in EBC consisting of Si-based bond coat, Mullite and Ytterbium (Yb)-silicate layers on a SiC/SiC substrate. In the FEM analysis, the thickness of one EBC layer was changed from 25 μm to 200 μm while the thicknesses of the other layers were fixed at 25 μm, 50 μm and 100 μm. We compared ERRs obtained by the FEM analysis and a simple theory for interface crack in a single-layered structure where ERR is estimated as nominal strain energy in the coating layers multiplied by a constant factor (independent of layer thicknesses). We found that, unlike the case of single-layered structures, the multiplication factor is no longer a constant but is determined by the combination of consisting coating layer thicknesses.

  14. Gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis evaluated for aroma release from rehydrated French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.; Cozijnsen, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The technique of gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis was evaluated for studying the release of aroma compounds from rehydrated diced French beans. The aroma compounds 2-—methylbutanal and hexanal were released at a constant rate over time. An identical selection of odour active compounds was

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility Issues in Media Releases: A Stakeholder Analysis of Australian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Reinig

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates Australia's four major national banks, analysing the use of media releases in the marketing and communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR. Using content analysis, the extent and nature of the media releases issued in 2006, and aimed at specific stakeholders, is determined for each bank. The findings indicate that over one-third of the banks' media releases discuss CSR, predominantly communicating issues related to community involvement. Furthermore, customers and communities are found to be the intended audiences for the majority of the CSR-related media releases.

  16. Comprehensive default methodology for the analysis of exposures to mixtures of chemicals accidentally released to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Baskett, R.L.; Powell, T.J.; Davis, J.S.; Dukes, L.L.; Hansen, D.J.; Petrocchi, A.J.; Sutherland, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Safety analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities requires consideration of potential exposures to mixtures of chemicals released to the atmosphere. Exposure to chemical mixtures may lead to additive, synergistic, or antagonistic health effects. In the past, the consequences of each chemical have been analyzed separately. This approach may not adequately protect the health of persons exposed to mixtures. However, considerable time would be required to evaluate all possible mixtures. The objective of this paper is to present reasonable default methodology developed by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group Nonradiological Hazardous Material Subgroup (NHMS) for use in safety analysis within the DOE Complex

  17. San Carlos Apache Tribe - Energy Organizational Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, James; Albert, Steve

    2012-04-01

    The San Carlos Apache Tribe (SCAT) was awarded $164,000 in late-2011 by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Tribal Energy Program's "First Steps Toward Developing Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency on Tribal Lands" Grant Program. This grant funded:  The analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of tribal energy organization (this Energy Organization Analysis, hereinafter referred to as "EOA").  Start-up staffing and other costs associated with the Phase 1 SCAT energy organization.  An intern program.  Staff training.  Tribal outreach and workshops regarding the new organization and SCAT energy programs and projects, including two annual tribal energy summits (2011 and 2012). This report documents the analysis and selection of preferred form(s) of a tribal energy organization.

  18. Stochastic Fermi Energization of Coronal Plasma during Explosive Magnetic Energy Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis; Anastasiadis, Anastasios

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of charged particles (ions and electrons) with randomly formed particle scatterers (e.g., large-scale local “magnetic fluctuations” or “coherent magnetic irregularities”) using the setup proposed initially by Fermi. These scatterers are formed by the explosive magnetic energy release and propagate with the Alfvén speed along the irregular magnetic fields. They are large-scale local fluctuations (δB/B ≈ 1) randomly distributed inside the unstable magnetic topology and will here be called Alfvénic Scatterers (AS). We constructed a 3D grid on which a small fraction of randomly chosen grid points are acting as AS. In particular, we study how a large number of test particles evolves inside a collection of AS, analyzing the evolution of their energy distribution and their escape-time distribution. We use a well-established method to estimate the transport coefficients directly from the trajectories of the particles. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker-Planck equation numerically, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles. We have shown that the stochastic Fermi energization of mildly relativistic and relativistic plasma can heat and accelerate the tail of the ambient particle distribution as predicted by Parker & Tidman and Ramaty. The temperature of the hot plasma and the tail of the energetic particles depend on the mean free path (λsc) of the particles between the scatterers inside the energization volume.

  19. Stochastic Fermi Energization of Coronal Plasma during Explosive Magnetic Energy Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisokas, Theophilos; Vlahos, Loukas; Isliker, Heinz; Tsiolis, Vassilis [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GR-52124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Anastasiadis, Anastasios [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens GR-15236 Penteli (Greece)

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction of charged particles (ions and electrons) with randomly formed particle scatterers (e.g., large-scale local “magnetic fluctuations” or “coherent magnetic irregularities”) using the setup proposed initially by Fermi. These scatterers are formed by the explosive magnetic energy release and propagate with the Alfvén speed along the irregular magnetic fields. They are large-scale local fluctuations ( δB / B ≈ 1) randomly distributed inside the unstable magnetic topology and will here be called Alfvénic Scatterers (AS). We constructed a 3D grid on which a small fraction of randomly chosen grid points are acting as AS. In particular, we study how a large number of test particles evolves inside a collection of AS, analyzing the evolution of their energy distribution and their escape-time distribution. We use a well-established method to estimate the transport coefficients directly from the trajectories of the particles. Using the estimated transport coefficients and solving the Fokker–Planck equation numerically, we can recover the energy distribution of the particles. We have shown that the stochastic Fermi energization of mildly relativistic and relativistic plasma can heat and accelerate the tail of the ambient particle distribution as predicted by Parker and Tidman and Ramaty. The temperature of the hot plasma and the tail of the energetic particles depend on the mean free path ( λ {sub sc}) of the particles between the scatterers inside the energization volume.

  20. Spartan Release Engagement Mechanism (REM) stress and fracture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, D. S.; West, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    The revised stress and fracture analysis of the Spartan REM hardware for current load conditions and mass properties is presented. The stress analysis was performed using a NASTRAN math model of the Spartan REM adapter, base, and payload. Appendix A contains the material properties, loads, and stress analysis of the hardware. The computer output and model description are in Appendix B. Factors of safety used in the stress analysis were 1.4 on tested items and 2.0 on all other items. Fracture analysis of the items considered fracture critical was accomplished using the MSFC Crack Growth Analysis code. Loads and stresses were obtaind from the stress analysis. The fracture analysis notes are located in Appendix A and the computer output in Appendix B. All items analyzed met design and fracture criteria.

  1. Detection of cold gas releases in space via low energy neutral atom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1993-01-01

    Low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) are produced in space plasmas by charge exchange between the ambient magnetospheric plasma ions and cold neutral atoms. Under normal conditions these cold neutrals come from the terrestrial geocorona, a shroud of few-eV hydrogen atoms surrounding the Earth. As a consequence of this charge exchange, it has become possible to remotely image many regions of the magnetosphere for the first time utilizing recently developed LENA imaging technology. In addition to the natural hydrogen geocorona, conventional explosions and maneuvering thruster firings can also introduce large amounts of cold gas into the space environment. In this paper the authors examine whether such potentially clandestine activities could also be remotely observed for the first time via LENA imaging. First, they examine the fluxes of LENAs produced in the space environment from a conventional explosion. Then they review the present state of the art in the emerging field of LENA detection and imaging. Recent work has shown that LENAs can be imaged by first converting the neutrals to ions with ultra-thin (10s of angstrom) foils and then electrostatically analyzing these newly created ions to reject the large (> 10 10 cm -2 s -1 ) UV background to which the low energy detectors are sensitive. They conclude that the sensitivities for present LENA imager designs may be just adequate for detecting some man-made releases. With additional improvements in LENA detection capabilities, this technique could become an important new method for monitoring for conventional explosions, as well as other man-made neutral releases, in the space environment

  2. A Bayesian Analysis of the Radioactive Releases of Fukushima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomioka, Ryota; Mørup, Morten

    2012-01-01

    the types of nuclides and their levels of concentration from the recorded mixture of radiations to take necessary measures. We presently formulate a Bayesian generative model for the data available on radioactive releases from the Fukushima Daiichi disaster across Japan. From the sparsely sampled...... the Fukushima Daiichi plant we establish that the model is able to account for the data. We further demonstrate how the model extends to include all the available measurements recorded throughout Japan. The model can be considered a first attempt to apply Bayesian learning unsupervised in order to give a more......The Fukushima Daiichi disaster 11 March, 2011 is considered the largest nuclear accident since the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and has been rated at level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale. As different radioactive materials have different effects to human body, it is important to know...

  3. Effects on LOCA mass and energy release of the SIT Fluidic device for SKN 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jeung Hyo; Kim, Tae Yoon; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae

    2003-01-01

    A fluidic device is employed for the control of safety injection tank flow during a large break loss of coolant accident in Shin Kori Nuclear power plant Unit 3 and 4. It is installed in the safety injection tank and provides two stages of safety injection tank flow injection, initially high flow injection and then low flow injection after the reactor vessel downcomer annulus full. This allows a more effective use of safety injection tank water inventory during a loss of coolant accident. However, the fluidic device may have an adverse impact on the mass and energy release during the accident. That is, the steam mass and energy release will be increased by a considerable amount because the safety injection tank low flow injection via fluidic device is not credited to condense the steam flows through intact cold legs. The increased mass and energy releases have an impact on the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. This effect of the fluidic device is analyzed on the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. The calculation has been done using the CEFLASH-4A, the FLOOD3 with some modifications for the fluidic device and the CONTEMPT-LT code. The results show that the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature were considerably increased when compared with the case without the fluidic device. However, the results satisfy the required design margin

  4. Effects on LOCA mass and energy release of the SIT Fluidic device for SKN 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jeung Hyo; Kim, Tae Yoon; Choi, Han Rim; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A fluidic device is employed for the control of safety injection tank flow during a large break loss of coolant accident in Shin Kori Nuclear power plant Unit 3 and 4. It is installed in the safety injection tank and provides two stages of safety injection tank flow injection, initially high flow injection and then low flow injection after the reactor vessel downcomer annulus full. This allows a more effective use of safety injection tank water inventory during a loss of coolant accident. However, the fluidic device may have an adverse impact on the mass and energy release during the accident. That is, the steam mass and energy release will be increased by a considerable amount because the safety injection tank low flow injection via fluidic device is not credited to condense the steam flows through intact cold legs. The increased mass and energy releases have an impact on the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. This effect of the fluidic device is analyzed on the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature of the containment. The calculation has been done using the CEFLASH-4A, the FLOOD3 with some modifications for the fluidic device and the CONTEMPT-LT code. The results show that the mass and energy release and the peak pressure and temperature were considerably increased when compared with the case without the fluidic device. However, the results satisfy the required design margin.

  5. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  6. EMERALD-NORMAL, Routine Radiation Release and Dose for PWR Design Analysis and Operation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, S.G.; Brunot, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: EMERALD-NORMAL is designed for the calculation of radiation releases and exposures resulting from normal operation of a large pressurized water reactor. The approach used is similar to an analog simulation of a real system. Each component or volume in the plant which contains a radioactive material is represented by a subroutine which keeps track of the production, transfer, decay, and absorption of radioactivity in that volume. During the course of the analysis, activity is transferred from subroutine to subroutine in the program as it would be transferred from place to place in the plant. Some of this activity is then released to the atmosphere and to the discharge canal. The rates of transfer, leakage, production, cleanup, decay, and release are read as input to the program. Subroutines are also included which calculate the off-site radiation exposures at various distances for individual isotopes and sums of isotopes. The program contains a library of physical data for the forty isotopes of most interest in licensing calculations, and other isotopes can be added or substituted. Because of the flexible nature of the simulation approach, the EMERALD-NORMAL program can be used for most calculations involving the production and release of radioactive material. These include design, operation, and licensing studies. 2 - Method of solution: Explicit solutions of first-order linear differential equations are included. In addition, a subroutine is provided which solves a set of simultaneous linear algebraic equations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Many parameters and systems included in the program, particularly the radiation waste-treatment system, are unique to the PG and E Diablo Canyon PWR plant. Maxima of: 50 isotopes, 9 distances, 16 angular sectors, 1 operating period, 1 reactor power level

  7. Analysis of energy intensity in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeharu; Okajima, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, defined as energy consumption divided by GDP, since the early 1990s. The significant reduction in Japan's energy intensity ceased in the early 1980s and has even slightly increased since the early 1990s, indicating that Japan seemingly stopped taking aggressive action to improve energy use. However, further analysis at prefecture level and sector level provides additional insight on energy intensity trends. To analyze the causes of the increase in Japan's energy intensity, energy intensity is decomposed into energy efficiency (improvements in energy efficiency) and energy activity (structural changes from the secondary sector to the tertiary sector of the economy). Our result indicates that the non-uniform energy intensity trends between prefectures are attributed to a high variability in energy efficiency. At sector level, we estimate the income elasticity of energy consumption in each sector and find that a structural change in energy consumption behaviors occurred in all sectors at different time points. The industrial sector and commercial sector became less energy efficient after 1981 and 1988, respectively, which is presumably responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity since the early 1990s. - Highlights: • We examine why the reduction in Japan's energy intensity increased in the early 1990s. • There is a high variability in energy intensity trends between regions. • The structural changes in energy consumption behaviors occurred in sector level. • These changes may be responsible for the deterioration of Japan's energy intensity

  8. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. NO CORRELATION BETWEEN HOST GALAXY METALLICITY AND GAMMA-RAY ENERGY RELEASE FOR LONG-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Berger, Edo

    2010-01-01

    We compare the redshifts, host galaxy metallicities, and isotropic (E γ,iso ) and beaming-corrected (E γ ) gamma-ray energy release of 16 long-duration gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) at z γ,iso , or E γ . These results are at odds with previous theoretical and observational predictions of an inverse correlation between gamma-ray energy release and host metallicity, as well as the standard predictions of metallicity-driven wind effects in stellar evolutionary models. We consider the implications that these results have for LGRB progenitor scenarios, and discuss our current understanding of the role that metallicity plays in the production of LGRBs.

  10. 40 CFR 68.28 - Alternative release scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... overfilling and spill, or overpressurization and venting through relief valves or rupture disks; and (v... Consequence Analysis Guidance or any commercially or publicly available air dispersion modeling techniques, provided the techniques account for the specified modeling conditions and are recognized by industry as...

  11. Toxic release consequence analysis tool (TORCAT) for inherently safer design plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariff, Azmi Mohd; Zaini, Dzulkarnain

    2010-01-01

    Many major accidents due to toxic release in the past have caused many fatalities such as the tragedy of MIC release in Bhopal, India (1984). One of the approaches is to use inherently safer design technique that utilizes inherent safety principle to eliminate or minimize accidents rather than to control the hazard. This technique is best implemented in preliminary design stage where the consequence of toxic release can be evaluated and necessary design improvements can be implemented to eliminate or minimize the accidents to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) without resorting to costly protective system. However, currently there is no commercial tool available that has such capability. This paper reports on the preliminary findings on the development of a prototype tool for consequence analysis and design improvement via inherent safety principle by utilizing an integrated process design simulator with toxic release consequence analysis model. The consequence analysis based on the worst-case scenarios during process flowsheeting stage were conducted as case studies. The preliminary finding shows that toxic release consequences analysis tool (TORCAT) has capability to eliminate or minimize the potential toxic release accidents by adopting the inherent safety principle early in preliminary design stage.

  12. Dynamic energy analysis and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.

    1974-01-01

    An initial inquiry (intended for the layman) into how the net energy balance of exponential programmes of energy conversion facilities varies in time; what are the energy inputs and outputs of commercial nuclear reactors, both singly and in such programmes; what are the possible errors and omissions in this analysis; and what are the policy and research implications of the results. (author)

  13. Effect of synchronizing the rate of degradation of dietary energy and nitrogen release on growth performance in Brahman cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virote Pattarajinda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the effect of synchronizing the rate of degradation of dietary energy and nitrogen release on growth performance in Brahman beef cattle. Fifteen Brahman cattle, 1.5 years old, with an average initial body weight of 184.8±11.1 kg were assigned to one of three treatments according to a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments contained 3 levels of synchrony index (0.39, 0.56 and 0.74 that were derived from laboratory chemical composition analysis and degradation kinetics using nylon bag technique. Diets were fed at the rate of 2.5% BW by separate concentrate and roughage. Average daily gain increased linearly (P<0.05 with increase levels of synchrony index in the diets. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber increased linearly (P<0.01. The digestibility of acid detergent fiber increased linearly (P<0.05. Ruminal total volatile fatty acids concentration increased linearly (P<0.05 at 6 h post feeding. Higher concentration and fluctuation of ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were observed in animals that received lower synchrony index in their diets. Rumen microbial population tended to increase with diets having higher levels of synchrony index. The results indicated that synchronized rate of dietary energy and nitrogen degradation improved ruminal fermentation and digestibility, thus this increased the growth rate in Brahman cattle fed with ricestraw- based diets.

  14. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, ''Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,'' part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program's researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings

  15. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,'' part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program's researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  16. Energy Analysis Program 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program has played an active role in the analysis and discussion of energy and environmental issues at several levels. (1) at the international level, with programs as developing scenarios for long-term energy demand in developing countries and organizing leading an analytic effort, ``Energy Efficiency, Developing Countries, and Eastern Europe,`` part of a major effort to increase support for energy efficiency programs worldwide; (2) at national level, the Program has been responsible for assessing energy forecasts and policies affecting energy use (e.g., appliance standards, National Energy Strategy scenarios); and (3) at the state and utility levels, the Program has been a leader in promoting integrated resource utility planning; the collaborative process has led to agreement on a new generation of utility demand-site programs in California, providing an opportunity to use knowledge and analytic techniques of the Program`s researchers. We continue to place highest on analyzing energy efficiency, with particular attention given to energy use in buildings. The Program continues its active analysis of international energy issues in Asia (including China), the Soviet Union, South America, and Western Europe. Analyzing the costs and benefits of different levels of standards for residential appliances continues to be the largest single area of research within the Program. The group has developed and applied techniques for forecasting energy demand (or constructing scenarios) for the United States. We have built a new model of industrial energy demand, are in the process of making major changes in our tools for forecasting residential energy demand, have built an extensive and documented energy conservation supply curve of residential energy use, and are beginning an analysis of energy-demand forecasting for commercial buildings.

  17. Energy demand analysis in the industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillone, B.

    1991-01-01

    This Chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector.Different estimates of energy consumption in Industry taking Thailand as an example is given. Major energy consuming industrial sectors in selected Asian countries are given. Suggestion for the analysis of the energy consumption trends in industry, whether at the overall level or at the sub-sector level (e.g. food) using the conventional approach , through energy/output ratio is given. 4 refs, 7 figs, 13 tabs

  18. Analysis of Institutional Press Releases and its Visibility in the Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alcoceba-Hernando, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between institutional communication and media communication influence the shaping of social representations of public issues. This research article analyses these relationships based on the case study of the external communication of a public institution, the press releases of Spain’s Youth Institute (Instituto de la Juventud, aka, Injuve, during three years and their repercussion in the press during the same period of time. The results obtained in this research allowed drawing conclusions on the types of communication production of the aforementioned institution and the news treatment of such pieces of information by the printed and digital media. The press releases and the news items were studied using quantitative media content analysis which focused, especially, in referential issues like the information treatment, the thematic analysis, youth representations in the case of the releases; and the visibility of the press releases in the making of news

  19. Thermal energy systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Penoncello, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionThermal Energy Systems Design and AnalysisSoftwareThermal Energy System TopicsUnits and Unit SystemsThermophysical PropertiesEngineering DesignEngineering EconomicsIntroductionCommon Engineering Economics NomenclatureEconomic Analysis Tool: The Cash Flow DiagramTime Value of MoneyTime Value of Money ExamplesUsing Software to Calculate Interest FactorsEconomic Decision MakingDepreciation and TaxesProblemsAnalysis of Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionNomenclatureThermophysical Properties of SubstancesSuggested Thermal Energy Systems Analysis ProcedureConserved and Balanced QuantitiesConservation of MassConservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics)Entropy Balance (The Second Law of Thermodynamics)Exergy Balance: The Combined LawEnergy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesDetailed Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesProblemsFluid Transport in Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionPiping and Tubing StandardsFluid Flow FundamentalsValves and FittingsDesign and Analysis of Pipe NetworksEconomi...

  20. PROGNOSYS AND ANALYSIS OF DOSIMETRIC SITUATION AFTER EMERGENCY ATMOSPHERIC RELEASE OF NPP IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iu. V. Bonchuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The system for the operative analysis of dosimetric situation after radiation emergencies at nuclear power plants in Ukraine (KADO is developed for decision making support. Emergency release in KADO is modelled as sequence of the discrete elements which are emitted after small time intervals that allows to take into account in calculations heterogeneity of distribution of pollution in a released cloud. Calculated predicted and avertable doses are the base information for justification of emergency and urgent countermeasures.

  1. Analysis of surface with low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, A.; Miranda, J.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear techniques applied to element analysis presents different characteristics depending on projectile energy. It can seen observed than an energy (E ≅ 1 MeV) exists which separate two regions for which sensitivity, information analysis and resolution in detection are different. For this work, we describe for the energy region E ≤ 1 MeV, the advantage of the three most used techniques which are PIXE, RBS y RNR. (Author)

  2. Energy analysis and projecting of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirlow, K.

    1975-01-01

    Energy analysis aims at a better explanation of energy flow and energy exchange at different production processes. In this report the energy budget is analysed for separate nuclear power plants and for expanding systems of power plants. A mathematical model is developed for linear and exponential expanding of nuclear power. The profitableness for nuclear power plants in Sweden is considered to be good. (K.K.)

  3. Static and dynamic strain energy release rates in toughened thermosetting composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the static and dynamic fracture properties of several thermosetting resin based composite laminates are presented. Two classes of materials are explored. These are homogeneous, thermosetting resins and toughened, multi-phase, thermosetting resin systems. Multi-phase resin materials have shown enhancement over homogenous materials with respect to damage resistance. The development of new dynamic tests are presented for composite laminates based on Width Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam (WTDCB) for Mode 1 fracture and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The WTDCB sample was loaded via a low inertia, pneumatic cylinder to produce rapid cross-head displacements. A high rate, piezo-electric load cell and an accelerometer were mounted on the specimen. A digital oscilloscope was used for data acquisition. Typical static and dynamic load versus displacement plots are presented. The ENF specimen was impacted in three point bending with an instrumented impact tower. Fracture initiation and propagation energies under static and dynamic conditions were determined analytically and experimentally. The test results for Mode 1 fracture are relatively insensitive to strain rate effects for the laminates tested in this study. The test results from Mode 2 fracture indicate that the toughened systems provide superior fracture initiation and higher resistance to propagation under dynamic conditions. While the static fracture properties of the homogeneous systems may be relatively high, the apparent Mode 2 dynamic critical strain energy release rate drops significantly. The results indicate that static Mode 2 fracture testing is inadequate for determining the fracture performance of composite structures subjected to conditions such as low velocity impact. A good correlation between the basic Mode 2 dynamic fracture properties and the performance is a combined material/structural Compression After Impact (CAI) test is found. These results underscore the importance of

  4. Phase changing nanocomposites for low temperature thermal energy storage and release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dorigato

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop new elastomeric phase change materials (PCM for the thermal energy storage/release below room temperature. In particular, poly(cyclooctene (PCO/paraffin blends filled with various concentrations of carbon nanotubes (CNTs, were prepared by a melt compounding process. The microstructural, thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of the resulting materials were investigated. The microstructure of these materials was characterized by the presence of paraffin domains inside the PCO, and CNTs were located only inside the paraffin domains in forms of aggregated clusters. DSC tests evidenced the existence of two distinct crystallization peaks at –10 and at 6 °C, respectively associated to the paraffin and the PCO phases, indicating that both the polymeric constituents are thermally active below room temperature. Moreover, CNT addition did not substantially alter the melting/crystallization properties of the material. Noticeable improvements of the mechanical properties and of the electrical conductivity with respect to the neat PCO/paraffin blend could be obtained upon CNT addition, and also thermal conductivity/diffusivity values were considerably enhanced above the percolation threshold. Finite element modeling demonstrated the efficacy of the prepared nanocomposites for applications in the thermal range from –30 to 6 °C.

  5. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300 0 C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed

  6. Thermodynamic analysis for syngas production from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Arauzo, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis experiments have been conducted in a continuous auger reactor. • Pyrolysis temperature influence on composition of both volatiles and char was studied. • A process for syngas production has been proposed from the volatiles. • Equivalence ratio down to 0.4 is a practical limit for syngas production. • The results provide essential data prior to perform any experimental campaign. - Abstract: This paper shows the maximum limit on syngas composition obtained from volatiles released in waste tire pyrolysis when they are submitted to an air–steam partial oxidation process. Thus, from mass and energy balances and a stoichiometric equilibrium model, syngas composition and reaction temperature as well as some process parameters were predicted by varying both the equivalence ratio (ER) and the steam to fuel ratio (SF). In addition, pyrolysis experiments were performed using a continuous auger reactor, and the influence of pyrolysis temperature on composition of both volatiles and char was studied. Consequently, the resulting syngas characteristics were correlated with the pyrolysis temperature. The stoichiometric equilibrium model showed that an ER down to 0.4 is a practical limit to perform the air–steam partial oxidation process. When the process is carried out only with air, volatiles obtained at high pyrolysis temperature lead to lower reaction temperature and higher LHV of syngas in comparison with those found at low pyrolysis temperature. The H 2 production is favored between 0.20 and 0.40 of ER and seems to be more influenced by the H/C ratio than by the water gas-shift reaction. On the other hand, the steam addition shows a more notable effect on the H 2 production for volatiles obtained at the highest pyrolysis temperature (600 °C) in agreement with the lower reaction temperature under these experimental conditions. This thermodynamic analysis provides essential data on the optimization of syngas production from volatiles

  7. Dark energy as consequence of release of cosmological nuclear binding-energy, and its further extension towards a new theory of inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Pradhan, Anirudh; Gupta, Sushant

    2012-01-01

    Comparatively recent observations on Type-Ia supernovae and low density (Um = 0.3) measurement of matter including dark matter suggest that the present day universe consists mainly of repulsive-gravity type 'exotic matter' with negative-pressure often said 'dark energy' (Ux = O7). But the nature of dark energy is mysterious and its puzzling questions, such as why, how, where and when about the dark energy, are intriguing. In the present paper the authors attempt to answer these questions while making an effort to reveal the genesis of dark energy, and suggest that the cosmological nuclear binding energy liberated during primordial nucleo-synthesis remains trapped dormant for a long time and then is released free which manifests itself as dark energy in the universe. It is also explained why for dark energy the parameter w = -2/3. Noting that w = 1 for stiff matter and w = 1/3 for radiation; w = -2/3 is for dark energy because '- 1' is due to 'deficiency of stiff- nuclear-matter' and that this binding energy is ultimately released as 'radiation' contributing '+ 1/3', making w = -1+ 1/3 = -2/3. When dark energy is released free at Z = 80, w = -2/3. But as on present day at Z = 0 when radiation strength has diminished to ä ? 0, the parameter w = -1 + ä 1/3 = -1. This, thus almost solves the dark- energy mystery of negative pressure and repulsive-gravity. The proposed theory makes several estimates/predictions which agree reasonably well with the astrophysical constraints and observations. Though there are many candidate-theories, the proposed model of this paper presents an entirely new approach (cosmological nuclear energy) as a possible candidate for dark energy. The secret of acceleration of big-universe is hidden in the small-nucleus. (author)

  8. Econometric analysis and energy substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.J.

    1981-09-01

    As part of its long-term assessment of new applications for nuclear energy, AECL is becoming acquainted with the techniques of mathematical modelling as used in the areas of energy and economics. Early in 1980, a contract was arranged with DataMetrics Limited of Calgary to prepare an econometric model of the manufacturing sector for Ontario, and to provide AECL with all the information necessary to understand the theory, derivation, and use of the model. This report summarizes the results of this exercise

  9. Analysis of long-term energy scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemming, J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1998-09-01

    When addressing the role of fusion energy in the 21. century, the evaluation of possible future structures in the electricity market and the energy sector as a whole, can be a useful tool. Because fusion energy still needs demonstration, commercialized fusion energy is not likely to be a reality within the next few decades. Therefore long-term scenarios are needed describing the energy markets, which fusion energy eventually will be part of. This report performs an analysis of two of the most detailed existing long-term scenarios describing possible futures of the energy system. The aim is to clarify the frames in which the future development of the global energy demand, as well as the structure of the energy system can be expected to develop towards the year 2100. (au) 19 refs.

  10. Examination of Conservatism in Ground-level Source Release Assumption when Performing Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    One of these assumptions frequently assumed is the assumption of ground-level source release. The user manual of a consequence analysis software HotSpot is mentioning like below: 'If you cannot estimate or calculate the effective release height, the actual physical release height (height of the stack) or zero for ground-level release should be used. This will usually yield a conservative estimate, (i.e., larger radiation doses for all downwind receptors, etc).' This recommendation could be agreed in aspect of conservatism but quantitative examination of the effect of this assumption to the result of consequence analysis is necessary. The source terms of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident have been estimated by several studies using inverse modeling and one of the biggest sources of the difference between the results of these studies was different effective source release height assumed by each studies. It supports the importance of the quantitative examination of the influence by release height. Sensitivity analysis of the effective release height of radioactive sources was performed and the influence to the total effective dose was quantitatively examined in this study. Above 20% difference is maintained even at longer distances, when we compare the dose between the result assuming ground-level release and the results assuming other effective plume height. It means that we cannot ignore the influence of ground-level source assumption to the latent cancer fatality estimations. In addition, the assumption of ground-level release fundamentally prevents detailed analysis including diffusion of plume from effective plume height to the ground even though the influence of it is relatively lower in longer distance. When we additionally consider the influence of surface roughness, situations could be more serious. The ground level dose could be highly over-estimated in short downwind distance at the NPP sites which have low surface roughness such as Barakah site in

  11. Financial Analysis of Experimental Releases Conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during Water Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziano, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Poch, L. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Veselka, T. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report examines the financial implications of experimental flows conducted at the Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) in water year (WY) 2015. It is the seventh report in a series examining the financial implications of experimental flows conducted since the Record of Decision (ROD) was adopted in February 1997 (Reclamation 1996). A report released in January 2011 examined WYs 1997 to 2005 (Veselka et al. 2011); a report released in August 2011 examined WYs 2006 to 2010 (Poch et al. 2011); a report released June 2012 examined WY 2011 (Poch et al. 2012); a report released April 2013 examined WY 2012 (Poch et al. 2013); a report released June 2014 examined WY 2013 (Graziano et al. 2014); and a report released September 2015 examined WY 2014 (Graziano et al. 2015). An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. Only one experimental release was conducted at GCD in WY 2015; specifically, a high flow experimental (HFE) release conducted in November 2014. For this experimental release, financial costs of approximately $2.1 million were incurred because the HFE required sustained water releases that exceeded the powerplant’s maximum flow rate. In addition, during the month of the experiment, operators were not allowed to shape GCD power production to either follow firm power customer loads or to respond to market prices. This study identifies the main factors that contribute to HFE costs and examines the interdependencies among these factors. It applies an integrated set of tools to estimate financial impacts by simulating the GCD operations under two scenarios: (1) a baseline scenario that mimics both HFE operations during the experiment and during the rest of the year when it complies with the 1996 ROD operating criteria, and (2) a “without experiments” scenario that is identical to the baseline except it assumes that the HFE did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the

  12. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out b...... by 11 university and industry partners has improved the basis for decision-making within energy planning and energy scenario making by providing new and improved tools and methods for energy systems analyses.......This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...

  13. Energy analysis program. 1995 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.

    1996-05-01

    This year the role of energy technology research and analysis supporting governmental and public interests is again being challenged at high levels of government. This situation is not unlike that of the early 1980s, when the Administration questioned the relevance of a federal commitment to applied energy research, especially for energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Then Congress continued to support such activities, deeming them important to the nation`s interest. Today, Congress itself is challenging many facets of the federal role in energy. The Administration is also selectively reducing its support, primarily for the pragmatic objective of reducing federal expenditures, rather than because of principles opposing a public role in energy. this report is divided into three sections: International Energy and the global environment; Energy, economics, markets, and policy; and Buildings and their environment.

  14. A method for measurements of neutral fragments kinetic energies released to a specific dissociation threshold: optical translational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roney, A.; Frigon, C.; Larzilliere, M.

    1999-01-01

    The optical translational spectroscopy technique, based on the principles of fast ion beam laser spectroscopy (FIBLAS) and translational spectroscopy, allows the kinetic energies study of neutral fragments released through free dissociation of a neutral molecule. This method presents interesting features such as near-threshold energy measurements and selection of a specific dissociation limit. The fragments resulting from free dissociation (not induced) of neutral molecules, produced by charge exchange processes with a fast ion beam, are probed by laser radiation. Monitoring of the laser-induced fluorescence allows high-resolution spectra due to the kinematic compression of the velocity spread. Measurements of kinetic energies released to the second limit of dissociation H(1s) + H(2l) of H 2 are put forth and compared with those obtained by means of off-axis translational spectroscopy

  15. A unified model of hydride cracking based on elasto-plastic energy release rate over a finite crack extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, X.J.; Metzger, D.R.; Sauve, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    A fracture criterion based on energy balance is proposed for elasto-plastic cracking at hydrides in zirconium, assuming a finite length of crack advance. The proposed elasto-plastic energy release rate is applied to the crack initiation at hydrides in smooth and notched surfaces, as well as the subsequent delayed hydride cracking (DHC) considering limited crack-tip plasticity. For a smooth or notched surface of an elastic body, the fracture parameter is related to the stress intensity factor for the initiated crack. For DHC, a unique curve relates the non-dimensionalized elasto-plastic energy release rate with the length of crack extension relative to the plastic zone size. This fracture criterion explains experimental observations concerning DHC in a qualitative manner. Quantitative comparison with experiments is made for fracture toughness and DHC tests on specimens containing certain hydride structures; very good agreement is obtained. ((orig.))

  16. A mechanical energy analysis of gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. A.; Verstraete, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of gait initiation (the transient state between standing and walking) is an important diagnostic tool to study pathologic gait and to evaluate prosthetic devices. While past studies have quantified mechanical energy of the body during steady-state gait, to date no one has computed the mechanical energy of the body during gait initiation. In this study, gait initiation in seven normal male subjects was studied using a mechanical energy analysis to compute total body energy. The data showed three separate states: quiet standing, gait initiation, and steady-state gait. During gait initiation, the trends in the energy data for the individual segments were similar to those seen during steady-state gait (and in Winter DA, Quanbury AO, Reimer GD. Analysis of instantaneous energy of normal gait. J Biochem 1976;9:253-257), but diminished in amplitude. However, these amplitudes increased to those seen in steady-state during the gait initiation event (GIE), with the greatest increase occurring in the second step due to the push-off of the foundation leg. The baseline level of mechanical energy was due to the potential energy of the individual segments, while the cyclic nature of the data was indicative of the kinetic energy of the particular leg in swing phase during that step. The data presented showed differences in energy trends during gait initiation from those of steady state, thereby demonstrating the importance of this event in the study of locomotion.

  17. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  18. Rapid fabrication of superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film with excellent energy-release characteristics and long-term storage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Xiang; Zhou, Xiang, E-mail: zhouxiang@njust.edu.cn; Hao, Gaozi; Xiao, Lei; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: superfine_jw@126.com

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film is prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. • The deposition system and kinetics of electrophoretic deposition process are investigated to optimize parameters to obtain smooth films. • Energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic films are significantly improved for both fresh and aged samples. • Superhydrophobic films exhibit excellent long-time storage stability both in natural and accelerated aging test. • A preignition reaction is found to enhance the energy-release characteristics of superhydrophobic nanothermite film. - Abstract: One of the challenges for the application of energetic materials is their energy-retaining capabilities after long-term storage. In this study, we report a facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film by combining electrophoretic deposition and surface modification technologies. Different concentrations of dispersion solvents and additives are investigated to optimize the deposition parameters. Meanwhile, the dependence of deposition rates on nanoparticle concentrations is also studied. The surface morphology and chemical composition are characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A static contact angles as high as 156° shows the superhydrophobicity of the nanothermite film. Natural and accelerated aging tests are performed and the thermal behavior is analyzed. Thermal analysis shows that the surface modification contributes to significantly improved energy-release characteristics for both fresh and aged samples, which is supposed to be attributed to the preignition reaction between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell and FAS-17. Superhydrophobic Al/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanothermite film exhibits excellent long-time storage stability with 83.4% of energy left in

  19. Advanced nuclear energy analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Murata, Kenneth K.; Romero, Vicente Josce; Young, Michael Francis; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2004-01-01

    A two-year effort focused on applying ASCI technology developed for the analysis of weapons systems to the state-of-the-art accident analysis of a nuclear reactor system was proposed. The Sandia SIERRA parallel computing platform for ASCI codes includes high-fidelity thermal, fluids, and structural codes whose coupling through SIERRA can be specifically tailored to the particular problem at hand to analyze complex multiphysics problems. Presently, however, the suite lacks several physics modules unique to the analysis of nuclear reactors. The NRC MELCOR code, not presently part of SIERRA, was developed to analyze severe accidents in present-technology reactor systems. We attempted to: (1) evaluate the SIERRA code suite for its current applicability to the analysis of next generation nuclear reactors, and the feasibility of implementing MELCOR models into the SIERRA suite, (2) examine the possibility of augmenting ASCI codes or alternatives by coupling to the MELCOR code, or portions thereof, to address physics particular to nuclear reactor issues, especially those facing next generation reactor designs, and (3) apply the coupled code set to a demonstration problem involving a nuclear reactor system. We were successful in completing the first two in sufficient detail to determine that an extensive demonstration problem was not feasible at this time. In the future, completion of this research would demonstrate the feasibility of performing high fidelity and rapid analyses of safety and design issues needed to support the development of next generation power reactor systems

  20. Energy sources and nuclear energy. Comparative analysis and ethical reflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenraet, C.

    1999-01-01

    Under the authority of the episcopacy of Brugge in Belgium an independent working group Ethics and Nuclear Energy was set up. The purpose of the working group was to collect all the necessary information on existing energy sources and to carry out a comparative analysis of their impact on mankind and the environment. Also attention was paid to economical and social aspects. The results of the study are subjected to an ethical reflection. The book is aimed at politicians, teachers, journalists and every interested layman who wants to gain insight into the consequences of the use of nuclear energy and other energy sources. Based on the information in this book one should be able to objectively define one's position in future debates on this subject

  1. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Jiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E and energy release rate (η peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  2. The effect of explosive percentage on underwater explosion energy release of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane and octogen based aluminized explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qingjie; Wang, Qiushi; Nie, Jianxin; Guo, Xueyong; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Wenqi

    2018-03-01

    To control the explosion energy output by optimizing explosive components is a key requirement in a number of different application areas. The effect of different Al/O Ratio on underwater explosion of aluminized explosives has been studied detailedly. However, the effect of explosive percentage in the same Al/O Ratio is rarely researched, especially for Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) based aluminized explosives. In this study, we performed the underwater explosion experiments with 1.2-kilogram explosives in order to investigate the explosion energy released from CL-20 and Octogen (HMX) based aluminized explosives. The percentage of the explosive varied from 5% to 30% and it is shown that: the shockwave peak pressure (pm) grows gradually; shock wave energy (Es) continues increasing, bubble energy (Eb) increases then decreases peaking at 15% for both formulas, and the total energy (E) and energy release rate (η) peak at 20% for CL-20 and 15% for HMX. This paper outlines the physical mechanism of Eb change under the influence of an aluminium initial reaction temperature and reaction active detonation product percentage coupling. The result shows that CL-20 is superior as a new high explosive and has promising application prospects in the regulation of explosive energy output for underwater explosives.

  3. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE.

  4. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1997-02-01

    This regulatory analysis was developed to respond to three petitions for rulemaking to amend 10 CFR parts 20 and 35 regarding release of patients administered radioactive material. The petitions requested revision of these regulations to remove the ambiguity that existed between the 1-millisievert (0.1-rem) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) public dose limit in Part 20, adopted in 1991, and the activity-based release limit in 10 CFR 35.75 that, in some instances, would permit release of individuals in excess of the current public dose limit. Three alternatives for resolution of the petitions were evaluated. Under Alternative 1, NRC would amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to match the annual public dose limit in Part 20 of 1 millisievert (0.1 rem) TEDE. Alternative 2 would maintain the status quo of using the activity-based release criteria currently found in 10 CFR 35.75. Under Alternative 3, the NRC would revise the release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) TEDE

  5. 24 Energy production and financial analysis of photovoltaic energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernabé Marí Soucase

    A techno-economic analysis has been used for project cost control, ... First of all, we defined Cash Flow as movements of money in and out of any ... cost of electric energy in Côte d'Ivoire for the common use of families and small companies [9].

  6. ORADEA URBAN BUS SYSTEM ENERGY EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIBOR L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brief description of Public Transport Company and network in Oradea, passenger statistics, analysis of energy consumption, passenger/kilometer parameter evaluation, compare liquid fuel and electricity consumption, cost reduction, optimization.

  7. Piezoelectric Energy Generation from Vehicle Traffic with Technoeconomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical simulation based system to support the concept of generating energy from road traffic using piezoelectric materials. The simulation based system design replicates a real life system implementation. It investigates practicality and feasibility using a real-time simulation platform known as MATLAB-Simulink. The system design structure was proposed considering factors involved with the field of material sciences for piezoelectric generator modeling and field of power electronics for additional components in producing a realist outcome. It also ensures ease of vehicle performance, as this system utilizes energy source derived as kinetic energy released from vehicles into electrical power output, that is, obtained by harnessing kinetic energy due to strain of vehicles over asphalt road surface. Due to the real-time simulation platform, the system simulation predicts the effective global carbon footprint. In addition to evaluating technical viability, a technoeconomical business analysis provides a strategic perspective. By using the simulation based power generation results, an estimation of implementation cost and payback time in real life (for United Arab Emirates was derived, hence validating and predicting real-time economic outcome. This is followed by a comparative study with other sources of renewable energy based on levelized energy cost factor that justifies the performance of the proposed system over other renewable energy sources, in support of providing an economical solution on reducing global carbon footprint.

  8. Mechanistic analysis of double-shell tank gas release. Progress report, November 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allemann, R.T.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Friley, J.R.; Haines, C.E.; Liljegren, L.M.; Somasundaram, S.

    1991-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is studying possible mechanisms and fluid dynamics contributing to the periodic release of gases from the double-shell waste storage tanks at Hanford. This study is being conducted for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), a contractor for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report discusses the work done through November 1990. Safe management of the wastes at Hanford depends on an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms that take place in the waste tanks. An example of the need to understand these mechanisms is tank 101-SY. The waste in this tank is generating and periodically releasing potentially flammable gases into the tank vent system according to observations of the tank. How these gases are generated and become trapped, the causes of periodic release, and the mechanism of the release are not known in detail. In order to develop a safe mitigation strategy, possible physical mechanisms for the periodic release of flammable gases need to be understood.

  9. Financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration

    2010-04-21

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a ''without experiments'' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental

  10. Quantitative data analysis with SPSS release 8 for Windows a guide for social scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Bryman, Alan

    2002-01-01

    The latest edition of this best-selling introduction to Quantitative Data Analysis through the use of a computer package has been completely updated to accommodate the needs of users of SPSS Release 8 for Windows. Like its predecessor, it provides a non-technical approach to quantitative data analysis and a user-friendly introduction to the widely used SPSS for Windows. It assumes no previous familiarity with either statistics or computing but takes the reader step-by-step through the techniques, reinforced by exercises for further practice. Techniques explained in Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS Release 8 for Windows include: * correlation * simple and multiple regression * multivariate analysis of variance and covariance * factor analysis The book also covers issues such as sampling, statistical significance, conceptualization and measurement and the selection of appropriate tests. For further information or to download the book's datasets, please visit the webstite: http://www.routledge.com/textbooks/...

  11. Energy development potential: An analysis of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perobelli, Fernando Salgueiro; Oliveira, Caio Cézar Calheiros de

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an indicator for the energy development potential (EDP) of 27 Brazilian states. This indicator uses data on a state's infrastructure and its supply of and demand for energy. The indicator measures the data for three periods: the first part of the 1990s, which is a period of low economic growth; the first part of the 2000s, which is a period of high economic growth but with a historical crisis in the Brazilian energy sector; and 2009–2011, which is a period of economic growth after the energy crisis. Using a factor analysis, we are able to identify three factors for EDP. They are the demand for energy, the supply of renewable energy, and the supply of nonrenewable energy. We use these factors to classify the Brazilian states according to their EDP and to perform an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) by using the Moran indicators and the local indicators of spatial association (LISA). - Highlights: • This paper deals with the spatial dimension of the Brazilian energy sector. • We construct an index of the energy development potential for Brazilian states. • Energy issues are defined over time and space, thus have spatial dimensions. • The spatial results show that there are two well-defined spatial patterns

  12. Exploring Environmental Inequity in South Korea: An Analysis of the Distribution of Toxic Release Inventory (TRI Facilities and Toxic Releases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Yoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, location data regarding the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI in South Korea was released to the public. This study investigated the spatial patterns of TRIs and releases of toxic substances in all 230 local governments in South Korea to determine whether spatial clusters relevant to the siting of noxious facilities occur. In addition, we employed spatial regression modeling to determine whether the number of TRI facilities and the volume of toxic releases in a given community were correlated with the community’s socioeconomic, racial, political, and land use characteristics. We found that the TRI facilities and their toxic releases were disproportionately distributed with clustered spatial patterning. Spatial regression modeling indicated that jurisdictions with smaller percentages of minorities, stronger political activity, less industrial land use, and more commercial land use had smaller numbers of toxic releases, as well as smaller numbers of TRI facilities. However, the economic status of the community did not affect the siting of hazardous facilities. These results indicate that the siting of TRI facilities in Korea is more affected by sociopolitical factors than by economic status. Racial issues are thus crucial for consideration in environmental justice as the population of Korea becomes more racially and ethnically diverse.

  13. Economic Analysis of Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Man Ki; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lim, C. Y.; Song, K. D.; Lee, H. M.; Oh, K. B.

    2003-12-01

    This study consists of various issues as follows; electricity price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, establishment of carbon emission limit in national electricity sector, the role of nuclear power as an future energy supply option, the future prospect of CO2 capture and sequestration and current research status of that area in Korea, and Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer). In the price regulation in the liberalized electricity market, the characteristic of liberalized electricity market in terms of regulation was discussed. The current status and future projection of GHG emission in Korean electricity sector was also investigated. After that, how to set the GHG emission limit in the national electricity sector was discussed. The characteristic of nuclear technology and the research in progress were summarized with the suggestion of the possible new application of nuclear power. The current status and future prospect of the CO2 capture and sequestration research was introduced and current research status of that area in Korea was investigated. Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP(Medical Isotopes Producer), using liquid nuclear fuel to produce medical isotopes of Mo-99 and Sr-89, was performed

  14. Influence of ultrasonic energy on dispersion of aggregates and released amounts of organic matter and polyvalent cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M.; Kleber, M.; Berhe, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Aggregates play important roles in soil carbon storage and stabilization. Identification of scale-dependent mechanisms of soil aggregate formation and stability is necessary to predict and eventually manage the flow of carbon through terrestrial ecosystems. Application of ultrasonic energy is a common tool to disperse soil aggregates. In this study, we used ultra sonic energy (100 to 2000 J cm-3) to determine the amount of polyvalent cations and organic matter involved in aggregation processes in three arable and three forest soils that varied in soil mineral composition. To determine the amount of organic matter and cations released after application of different amount of ultrasonic energy, we removed the coarse fraction (>250 µm). The remaining residue (solid residue freeze dried before we analyzed the amounts of water-extracted organic carbon (OC), Fe, Al, Ca, Mn, and Mg in the filtrates. The extracted OM and solid residues were further characterized by Fourier Transformed Infra Red spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. Our results show a linear increase in amount of dissolved OC with increasing amounts of ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3 indicating maximum dispersion of soil aggregates at this energy level independent from soil type or land use. In contrast to Mn, and Mg, the amounts of dissolved Ca, Fe, and Al increase with increasing ultra sonic energy up to 1500 J cm-3. At 1500 J cm-3, the absolute amounts of OC, Ca, Fe, and Al released were specific for each soil type, likely indicating differences in type of OM-mineral interactions involved in micro-scaled aggregation processes. The amounts of dissolved Fe, and Al released after an application of 1500 J cm-3 are not related to oxalate- and dithionite- extractable, or total Al content indicating less disintegration of pedogenic oxides or clay minerals due to high levels of ultrasonic energy.

  15. Corporate Responsibility in Communication: Empirical Analysis of Press Releases in a Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimaki, Hanna; Kujala, Johanna; Heikkinen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The paper examines how the tensions of corporate responsibility are articulated and reconciled in a controversial situation of a foreign investment. We conducted a conventionalist analysis on the company press releases in a case where a Finnish forest industry company invested in a pulp mill in South America. The findings show that the use of…

  16. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  17. Analytical definition of fission chain reaction parameters for cylindrical uranium bar and energy release evaluations for HIF hybrid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imshennik, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    Within the conditions of Heavy-Ion Fusion (HIF) arises a possibility to obtain the fission chain reaction for a cylindrical HIF target. The paper contains the solution interpolated with the diffusion approximation in order to receive the general approximation expressions for the bar critical radius as well as for over-critical state. The obtained critical parameters generalized for uranium envelope are used for rough evaluation of the energy release in HIF hybrid targets [ru

  18. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members

  19. Regulatory analysis on criteria for the release of patients administered radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, S.; McGuire, S.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Behling, U.H.; Behling, K.; Goldin, D. [Cohen (S.) and Associates, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has received two petitions to amend its regulations in 10 CFR Parts 20 and 35 as they apply to doses received by members of the public exposed to patients released from a hospital after they have been administered radioactive material. While the two petitions are not identical they both request that the NRC establish a dose limit of 5 millisieverts (0.5 rem) per year for individuals exposed to patients who have been administered radioactive materials. This Regulatory Analysis evaluates three alternatives. Alternative 1 is for the NRC to amend its patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to use the more stringent dose limit of 1 millisievert per year in 10 CFR 20.1301(a) for its patient release criteria. Alternative 2 is for the NRC to continue using the existing patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 of 1,110 megabecquerels of activity or a dose rate at one meter from the patient of 0.05 millisievert per hour. Alternative 3 is for the NRC to amend the patient release criteria in 10 CFR 35.75 to specify a dose limit of 5 millisieverts for patient release. The evaluation indicates that Alternative 1 would cause a prohibitively large increase in the national health care cost from retaining patients in a hospital longer and would cause significant personal and psychological costs to patients and their families. The choice of Alternatives 2 or 3 would affect only thyroid cancer patients treated with iodine-131. For those patients, Alternative 3 would result in less hospitalization than Alternative 2. Alternative 3 has a potential decrease in national health care cost of $30,000,000 per year but would increase the potential collective dose from released therapy patients by about 2,700 person-rem per year, mainly to family members.

  20. HPLC analysis of potentially harmful substances released from dental filing aterials available on the EU market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Małkiewicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Incomplete cross-linking of composite dental materials leads to their susceptibility to degradation in the environment of non-organic and organic solvents, contributing to the release of chemical compounds which are potentially harmful to living organisms. Objective. The aim of the study was an evaluation in in vitro conditions of releasing of potentially toxic substances from six dental composite materials available in EU countries. Materials and methods. The following compounds released from the samples stored in water were analyzed: bisphenol A (BPA, triethylene glycol-dimethacrylate (TEGDMA, urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDGMA. Analysis of the substances was performed with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, after the following incubation periods: 1 hour, 24 hours, 7 days and 30 days. Results. Among the analyzed substances, after 1 hour of incubation, the highest average concentration was found for TEGDMA – 2045 μg cm-3 (in Herculite XRV material, after 24 hours – for UDMA 4.402 μg cm-3 (in Gradia Direct Anterior material and after 7 and 30 days for TEGDMA: 8.112 and 6.458 μg•cm-3 respectively (in Charisma material. Conclusions. The examined composites used for reconstruction of hard tissues of teeth remain chemically unstable after polymerization, and release potentially harmful substances in conditions of the present study. The dynamics of the releasing of potentially harmful substances is correlated with the period of sample storage in water.

  1. Analysis of the energy development variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvetanov, P.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of the variants of energy development is made as the third stage of a procedure of energy-economy interrelations dynamics study, the other two stages being the scenarios description and the formulation of the variants. This stage includes a research on the dimensions and the dynamics of the resources demands, the general features and the trends of the national energy development. There is a presentation of a comparative analysis of the variants in terms of economic indices and energy values, computed by the model IMPACT-B. A resource evaluation of the development variants is given in terms of investments, requirements (direct, indirect and total) and limited national resources demands of the energy system. The trends of the national energy development discussed are: trends characterizing the changes in the structure of the energy consumption, resulting from changes in the economy; trends of the energy system impact on the productivity of labor; general trends of the proportionality in the industrial, the household and services sector development. 16 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs. (R.Ts.)

  2. Lean energy analysis of CNC lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liana, N. A.; Amsyar, N.; Hilmy, I.; Yusof, MD

    2018-01-01

    The industrial sector in Malaysia is one of the main sectors that have high percentage of energy demand compared to other sector and this problem may lead to the future power shortage and increasing the production cost of a company. Suitable initiatives should be implemented by the industrial sectors to solve the issues such as by improving the machining system. In the past, the majority of the energy consumption in industry focus on lighting, HVAC and office section usage. Future trend, manufacturing process is also considered to be included in the energy analysis. A study on Lean Energy Analysis in a machining process is presented. Improving the energy efficiency in a lathe machine by enhancing the cutting parameters of turning process is discussed. Energy consumption of a lathe machine was analyzed in order to identify the effect of cutting parameters towards energy consumption. It was found that the combination of parameters for third run (spindle speed: 1065 rpm, depth of cut: 1.5 mm, feed rate: 0.3 mm/rev) was the most preferred and ideal to be used during the turning machining process as it consumed less energy usage.

  3. Low energy analysis techniques for CUORE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Huang, H.Z.; Sakai, M.; Schmidt, J. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R.; Rusconi, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Padua (Italy); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F.; Piperno, G. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Benato, G.; Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nastasi, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Branca, A.; Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genoa (Italy); Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); D' Aguanno, D.; Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Di Vacri, M.L.; Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Drobizhev, A.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Freedman, S.J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Schmidt, B.; Smith, A.R.; Welliver, B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Giuliani, A.; Novati, V. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Ouellet, J.L.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Saragossa (Spain); Moggi, N.; Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Universita di Bologna - Alma Mater Studiorum, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (IT); Nones, C. [CEA/Saclay, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette (FR); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (US); O' Donnell, T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Center for Neutrino Physics, Blacksburg, VA (US); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (US); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (US); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (US); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (GB); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (US)

    2017-12-15

    CUORE is a tonne-scale cryogenic detector operating at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) that uses tellurium dioxide bolometers to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 130}Te. CUORE is also suitable to search for low energy rare events such as solar axions or WIMP scattering, thanks to its ultra-low background and large target mass. However, to conduct such sensitive searches requires improving the energy threshold to 10 keV. In this paper, we describe the analysis techniques developed for the low energy analysis of CUORE-like detectors, using the data acquired from November 2013 to March 2015 by CUORE-0, a single-tower prototype designed to validate the assembly procedure and new cleaning techniques of CUORE. We explain the energy threshold optimization, continuous monitoring of the trigger efficiency, data and event selection, and energy calibration at low energies in detail. We also present the low energy background spectrum of CUORE-0 below 60 keV. Finally, we report the sensitivity of CUORE to WIMP annual modulation using the CUORE-0 energy threshold and background, as well as an estimate of the uncertainty on the nuclear quenching factor from nuclear recoils in CUORE-0. (orig.)

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Dousing Spray Trip on Radioactive Release in Pressure Tube Rupture Accident with Both End Fitting Failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, M. S.; Kang, H. S; Kim, S. R. [NESS, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    We analyzed the sensitivity analysis of dousing spray trip conditions on radioactive release. In terms of conservativeness, the set 1 trip would be more appropriate in RR analysis than set 2 trip, which is the general condition of RR analysis. Radioactive releases from the containment building is related to containment air pressure, which increases by the coolant discharge from loss of coolant accident and the actuation conditions of dousing spray and so on. In LOCA analysis, the dousing spray trip conditions are set for the analysis objectives; for peak pressure (PP), for pressure signal (PS), for radioactive release (RR) and etc. In RR analysis, we would determine the dousing spray trip condition to increase radioactive release to the public for conservatism. Therefore, we carried out the sensitivity analysis of dousing spray trip condition on radioactive release from containment building using GOTHIC and SMART program for CANDU.

  5. Energy analysis of various grassland utilisation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Ržonca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 and 2004 was carried out the energy analysis of the different types of permanent grassland utilization on the Hrubý Jeseník locality. There were estimated values of the particular entrances of additional energy. Energy entrances moved according to the pratotechnologies from 2.17 GJ. ha–1 to 22.70 GJ.ha–1. The biggest share on energy entrances had fertilizers. It was 84.93% by the nitrogen fertilisation. The most energy benefit of brutto and nettoenergy was marked by the low intensive utilisation (33.40 GJ.ha–1 NEL and 32.40 GJ.ha–1 NEV on average. The highest value of energy efficiency (13.23% was marked by the low intensive utilization of permanent grassland. By using of higher doses of industrial fertilizers has energy efficiency decreased. From view of energy benefit and intensiveness on energy entrances it appears the most available utilisation of permanent grassland with three cuts per year (first cut on May 31st at the latest, every next after 60 days or two cuts per year (first cut on July 15th, next cuts after 90 days.

  6. Substance flow analysis and environmental releases of PBDEs in life cycle of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used in many applications in industry such as automobiles, textiles, and electronics. This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of PBDEs in automobiles in order to identify their flow by life cycle and treatment pathways of PBDEs-containing materials in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea. In addition, this study has estimated environmental releases of PBDEs in automobiles by life cycle in Korea. During this study, PBDEs were analyzed for the samples collected from several ELVs treatment facilities using X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The system boundary for SFA of PBDEs ranged from manufacturing/trade to disposal stage of automobiles by life cycle. Based on the result of the SFA, it was found that the amount of PBDEs in automobiles were the highest in use stage (7748ton/year), followed by production stage (1743ton/year) in 2014. In disposal stage, automobile shredded residues (ASR) and seat fabrics were the main components with relatively high levels of PBDEs in ELVs. The major treatment methods of such components included incineration (84%), energy recovery (9%), and landfilling (6%). This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the highest amount from interior components during the use stage of automobiles, followed by recycling processes such as dismantling and shredding. This study suggests that PBDEs in ASR and seat fabrics should be properly managed to prevent the widespread dispersion in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of environmental problems of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaganovich Boris M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problems of the ecological analysis of physicochemical processes in power units and the impact of energy systems on the nature in large territorial regions. The model of extreme intermediate states developed at the Energy Systems Institute based on the principles of classical equilibrium thermodynamics was chosen to devise specific computational methods. The results of the conducted studies are presented and directions for further work are outlined.

  8. Foundation of statistical energy analysis in vibroacoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bot, A

    2015-01-01

    This title deals with the statistical theory of sound and vibration. The foundation of statistical energy analysis is presented in great detail. In the modal approach, an introduction to random vibration with application to complex systems having a large number of modes is provided. For the wave approach, the phenomena of propagation, group speed, and energy transport are extensively discussed. Particular emphasis is given to the emergence of diffuse field, the central concept of the theory.

  9. Nonreductive chemical release of intact N-glycans for subsequent labeling and analysis by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangbei; Wang, Chengjian; Sun, Yujiao; Huang, Linjuan; Wang, Zhongfu

    2014-10-01

    A novel strategy is proposed, using cost-saving chemical reactions to generate intact free reducing N-glycans and their fluorescent derivatives from glycoproteins for subsequent analysis. N-Glycans without core α-1,3-linked fucose are released in reducing form by selective hydrolysis of the N-type carbohydrate-peptide bond of glycoproteins under a set of optimized mild alkaline conditions and are comparable to those released by commonly used peptide-N-glycosidase (PNGase) F in terms of yield without any detectable side reaction (peeling or deacetylation). The obtained reducing glycans can be routinely derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA), 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and potentially some other fluorescent reagents for comprehensive analysis. Alternatively, the core α-1,3-fucosylated N-glycans are released in mild alkaline medium and derivatized with PMP in situ, and their yields are comparable to those obtained using commonly used PNGase A without conspicuous peeling reaction or any detectable deacetylation. Using this new technique, the N-glycans of a series of purified glycoproteins and complex biological samples were successfully released and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), demonstrating its general applicability to glycomic studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of fuel centre temperatures and fission gas release data from the IFPE Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, A.; Lassmann, K.; Van Uffelen, P.; Van de Laar, J.; Elenkov, D.; Asenov, S.; Boneva, S.; Djourelov, N.; Georgieva, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present work has continued the analysis of fuel centre temperatures and fission gas release, calculated with standard options of the TRANSURANUS code. The calculations are compared to experimental data from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database. It is reported an analysis regarding UO 2 fuel for Western-type reactors: Fuel centre temperatures measured in the experiments Contact 1 and Contact 2 (in-pile tests of 2 rods performed at the Siloe reactor in Grenoble, France, closely simulating commercial PWR conditions); Fission gas release data derived from post-irradiation examinations of 9 fuel rods belonging to the High-Burnup Effects Programme, task 3 (HBEP3). The results allow for a comparison of predictions by TRANSURANUS for the mentioned Western-type fuels with those done previously for Russian-type WWER fuel. The comparison has been extended to include fuel centre temperatures as well as fission gas release. The present version of TRANSURANUS includes a model that calculates the production of Helium. The amount of produced Helium is compared to the measured and to the calculated release of the fission gases Xenon and Krypton

  11. On the phenomenon of the fast release of energy in irradiated solid methane: discussion of models considering the local space distribution of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    A general idea of the phenomenon, so-called 'a burp', is provided. It is concluded that no justified and consistent theory of the burp phenomenon is proposed. The paper expresses criticism on the application of the classic theory of homogeneous chemical reactions and of thermal explosion to analyze burps as it was in common usage up to now. Two hypotheses to explain features burps display are presented instead. Both of them have to do with mechanism of storing and releasing energy accounting for local non-uniformity of temperature end energy deposition. 11 refs., 4 figs

  12. Urban energy consumption: Different insights from energy flow analysis, input–output analysis and ecological network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Urban energy consumption was assessed from three different perspectives. • A new concept called controlled energy was developed from network analysis. • Embodied energy and controlled energy consumption of Beijing were compared. • The integration of all three perspectives will elucidate sustainable energy use. - Abstract: Energy consumption has always been a central issue for sustainable urban assessment and planning. Different forms of energy analysis can provide various insights for energy policy making. This paper brought together three approaches for energy consumption accounting, i.e., energy flow analysis (EFA), input–output analysis (IOA) and ecological network analysis (ENA), and compared their different perspectives and the policy implications for urban energy use. Beijing was used to exemplify the different energy analysis processes, and the 42 economic sectors of the city were aggregated into seven components. It was determined that EFA quantifies both the primary and final energy consumption of the urban components by tracking the different types of fuel used by the urban economy. IOA accounts for the embodied energy consumption (direct and indirect) used to produce goods and services in the city, whereas the control analysis of ENA quantifies the specific embodied energy that is regulated by the activities within the city’s boundary. The network control analysis can also be applied to determining which economic sectors drive the energy consumption and to what extent these sectors are dependent on each other for energy. So-called “controlled energy” is a new concept that adds to the analysis of urban energy consumption, indicating the adjustable energy consumed by sectors. The integration of insights from all three accounting perspectives further our understanding of sustainable energy use in cities

  13. Analysis of Marine Corps renewable energy planning to meet installation energy security requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Chisom, Christopher M.; Templenton, Jack C., II

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze Marine Corps installation energy consumption and the pursuit of increased renewable energy generation goals across Marine Corps installations. The main objective of this report is to determine the cost of interruption and the net present value (NPV) of renewable energy generation needed to meet the Marine Corps energy security objectives. First, we determine installation-specific energy consump...

  14. Fission Fragment Mass Distributions and Total Kinetic Energy Release of 235-Uranium and 238-Uranium in Neutron-Induced Fission at Intermediate and Fast Neutron Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, Dana Lynn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This Ph.D. dissertation describes a measurement of the change in mass distributions and average total kinetic energy (TKE) release with increasing incident neutron energy for fission of 235U and 238U. Although fission was discovered over seventy-five years ago, open questions remain about the physics of the fission process. The energy of the incident neutron, En, changes the division of energy release in the resulting fission fragments, however, the details of energy partitioning remain ambiguous because the nucleus is a many-body quantum system. Creating a full theoretical model is difficult and experimental data to validate existing models are lacking. Additional fission measurements will lead to higher-quality models of the fission process, therefore improving applications such as the development of next-generation nuclear reactors and defense. This work also paves the way for precision experiments such as the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for fission cross section measurements and the Spectrometer for Ion Determination in Fission (SPIDER) for precision mass yields.

  15. The relationship between energy metabolism and the action of inhibitors of histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garland, L G; Johansen, Torben

    1977-01-01

    1 Dextran-induced release of histamine from rat mast cells was inhibited equally in complete and glucose-free Tyrode solution by doxantrazole (0.03-3 micronmol/l), theophylline (0.1-3 mmol/l) and dicumarol (0.01-10 micronmol/litre). 2 Doxantrazole (3 micronmol/l), theophylline (3 mmol/l) and dicu......1 Dextran-induced release of histamine from rat mast cells was inhibited equally in complete and glucose-free Tyrode solution by doxantrazole (0.03-3 micronmol/l), theophylline (0.1-3 mmol/l) and dicumarol (0.01-10 micronmol/litre). 2 Doxantrazole (3 micronmol/l), theophylline (3 mmol...

  16. Optically-controlled long-term storage and release of thermal energy in phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Grace G D; Li, Huashan; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-11-13

    Thermal energy storage offers enormous potential for a wide range of energy technologies. Phase-change materials offer state-of-the-art thermal storage due to high latent heat. However, spontaneous heat loss from thermally charged phase-change materials to cooler surroundings occurs due to the absence of a significant energy barrier for the liquid-solid transition. This prevents control over the thermal storage, and developing effective methods to address this problem has remained an elusive goal. Herein, we report a combination of photo-switching dopants and organic phase-change materials as a way to introduce an activation energy barrier for phase-change materials solidification and to conserve thermal energy in the materials, allowing them to be triggered optically to release their stored latent heat. This approach enables the retention of thermal energy (about 200 J g -1 ) in the materials for at least 10 h at temperatures lower than the original crystallization point, unlocking opportunities for portable thermal energy storage systems.

  17. THE ROLE OF FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES IN THE RELEASE AND CONVERSION VIA RECONNECTION OF ENERGY STORED BY A CURRENT SHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longcope, D. W.; Tarr, L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2012-09-10

    Using a simple two-dimensional, zero-{beta} model, we explore the manner by which reconnection at a current sheet releases and dissipates free magnetic energy. We find that only a small fraction (3%-11% depending on current-sheet size) of the energy is stored close enough to the current sheet to be dissipated abruptly by the reconnection process. The remaining energy, stored in the larger-scale field, is converted to kinetic energy in a fast magnetosonic disturbance propagating away from the reconnection site, carrying the initial current and generating reconnection-associated flows (inflow and outflow). Some of this reflects from the lower boundary (the photosphere) and refracts back to the X-point reconnection site. Most of this inward wave energy is reflected back again and continues to bounce between X-point and photosphere until it is gradually dissipated, over many transits. This phase of the energy dissipation process is thus global and lasts far longer than the initial purely local phase. In the process, a significant fraction of the energy (25%-60%) remains as undissipated fast magnetosonic waves propagating away from the reconnection site, primarily upward. This flare-generated wave is initiated by unbalanced Lorentz forces in the reconnection-disrupted current sheet, rather than by dissipation-generated pressure, as some previous models have assumed. Depending on the orientation of the initial current sheet, the wave front is either a rarefaction, with backward-directed flow, or a compression, with forward-directed flow.

  18. Portfolio Analysis of Renewable Energy Opportunities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Allison; Deprizio, Jodi; Anderson, Kate; DiOrio, Nick; Elgqvist, Emma; Simpkins, Travis

    2016-11-01

    Time Warner Cable (TWC), now Charter Communications (CC), partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the technical and economic potential for solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and ground-source heat-pump systems at 696 TWC facilities. NREL identified 306 sites where adding a renewable energy system would provide cost savings over the project life-cycle. In general, the top sites have some combination of high electricity rates ($0.16-$0.29/kWh), significant state incentives, and favorable net-metering policies. If all projects were implemented via third-party power purchase agreements, TWC/CC would save $37 million over 25 years and meet 10.5% of their energy consumption with renewable energy. This paper describes the portfolio screening methodology used to identify and prioritize renewable energy opportunities across the TWC sites, as well as a summary of the potential cost savings that may be realized by implementing these projects. This may provide a template for other companies interested in identifying and prioritizing renewable energy opportunities across a large number of geographically dispersed sites. Following this initial portfolio analysis, NREL will be conducting in-depth analysis of project development opportunities at ten sites and evaluating off-grid solutions that may enable carbon emission reduction and grid independence at select facilities.

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic and thermal processes in solar flare energy build-up and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tend, W. van.

    1979-01-01

    A solar flare can be described as an instability in the upper solar atmosphere that converts 10 28 ergs to 10 32 ergs of magnetic energy into other forms of energy, mainly kinetic energy. The solar flare gives rise to a wealth of observable phenomena. The author develops a fairly simple model to explain many of these apparently very diverse features of solar flares. (Auth.)

  20. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  1. Finite element analysis of lordosis restoration with anterior longitudinal ligament release and lateral hyperlordotic cage placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Juan S; Harris, Jeffrey E; Beckman, J M; Turner, Alexander W L; Mundis, Gregory M; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2015-04-01

    Restoring sagittal alignment is an important factor in the treatment of spinal deformities. Recent investigations have determined that releasing the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) and placing hyperlordotic cages can increase lordosis, while minimizing need for 3 column osteotomies. The influences of parameters such as cage height and angle have not been determined. Finite element analysis was employed to assess the extent of lordosis achievable after placement of different sized lordotic cages. A 3-dimensional model of a L3-4 segment was used. Disc distraction was simulated by inserting interbody cages mid-body in the disc space. Analyses were performed in the following conditions: (1) intact, (2) ALL release, (3) ALL release + facetectomy, and (4) ALL release + posterior column osteotomy. Changes in segmental lordosis, disc height, foraminal height, and foraminal area were measured. After ALL resection and insertion of hyperlordotic cages, lordosis was increased in all cases. The lordosis achieved by the shorter cages was less due to posterior disc height maintained by the facet joints. A facetectomy increased segmental lordosis, but led to contact between the spinous processes. For some configurations, a posterior column osteotomy was required if the end goal was to match cage angle to intradiscal angle. Increased segmental lumbar lordosis is achievable with hyperlordotic cages after ALL resection. Increased cage height tended to increase the amount of lordosis achieved, although in some cases additional posterior bone resection was required to maximize lordosis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the impact on regional lumbar lordosis.

  2. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis was carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to the atmosphere. Doses to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child were calculated, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was analysed for its contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The ingestion pathway was found to dominate if the release occurs towards the end of the growing season but to be less significant relative to other exposure pathways at all other times. The calculations enabled a set of release-specific emergency action guidance levels of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods to be produced, which comply with NRPB's ingestion Emergency Reference Level guidelines. (author)

  3. Analysis of pilgrim dark energy models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Jawad, Abdul [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-04-15

    The proposal of pilgrim dark energy is based on the idea that phantom dark energy possesses enough resistive force to preclude black hole formation. We work on this proposal by choosing an interacting framework with cold dark matter and three cutoffs such as Hubble as well as event horizon and conformal age of the universe. We present a graphical analysis and focus our study on the pilgrim dark energy as well as interacting parameters. It is found that these parameters play an effective role on the equation of state parameter for exploring the phantom region of the universe. We also make the analysis of {omega}-{omega}' and point out freezing region in the {omega}-{omega}' plane. Finally, it turns out that the {Lambda}CDM is achieved in the statefinders plane for all models. (orig.)

  4. Least cost analysis of renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Cabraal, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology for evaluating dispersed and centralized rural energy options on a least cost basis. In defining the load to be served, each supply alternative must provide equivalent levels of service. The village to be served is defined by the number of loads, load density, distance from the nearest power distribution line, and load growth. Appropriate rural energy alternatives are identified and sized to satisfy the defined load. Lastly, a net present value analysis (including capital, installation, O and M, fuel, and replacement costs, etc.) is performed to identify the least cost option. A spreadsheet-based analytical tool developed by the World Bank's Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) incorporates this approach and has been applied to compare photovoltaic solar home systems with other rural energy supply options in Indonesia. Load size and load density are found to be the critical factors in choosing between a grid and off-grid solution

  5. The Rhone-Alpes Observatory of Energy and Greenhouse Gases. Key data for 2012, February 2014 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    Maps, graphs and tables related to greenhouse gas emissions are presented and briefly commented. They illustrate a comparison between the Rhone-Alpes region and France, the European objectives in this region, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy production. They also illustrate an analysis of final energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions per sector (housing, office building, industry, transports, agriculture, and uses of energy). They present the renewable energy production in Rhone-Alpes: production of electricity from renewable sources, production of renewable heat, carbon sinks

  6. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of ...

  7. Energy Analysis of Offshore Systems | Wind | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    markets enables the compilation of a database of installed and proposed project costs. These are used to offshore wind projects Discounted cash-flow analysis (with the University of Delaware) to identify the level costs based on wind turbine size, annual energy production, and operation costs. The model

  8. LEAP2000: tools for sustainable energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaps, C.; Lazarus, M.; Raskin, P. [SEU-Boston, Boston, MA (USA)

    2000-09-01

    LEAP2000 is a collaborative initiative, led by the Boston Center for the Stockholm Environment Institute, to create a new suite of analytical software and databases for integrated energy-environment analysis. The LEAP2000 software and the Technology and Environmental Database (TED) are described. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Energy spread in ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, E.

    2000-01-01

    In ion beam analysis (IBA) the depth profiles are extracted from the experimentally determined energy profiles. The spectra, however, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. Calculation of those effects such as instrumental beam, geometry and detection-related energy and angular spreads as well as energy straggling, multiple scattering and Doppler effects in the sample itself is not trivial, especially since it involves treatment of non-independent random processes. A proper account for energy spread is vital in IBA not only for correct extraction of elemental and isotopic depth profiles from the measured spectra, but already prior to data acquisition, in optimising experimental conditions to reach the required depth resolution at a certain depth. After a short review of the literature on the different energy spread contributions experimental examples are given from resonance, RBS, elastic BS and ERDA practice in which an account for energy spread contributions is essential. Some further examples illustrate extraction of structural information (roughness, pore size, etc.) from elaborated depth resolution calculation for such layer structures

  10. Energy spread in ion beam analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, E. E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kkfki.hu

    2000-03-01

    In ion beam analysis (IBA) the depth profiles are extracted from the experimentally determined energy profiles. The spectra, however, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. Calculation of those effects such as instrumental beam, geometry and detection-related energy and angular spreads as well as energy straggling, multiple scattering and Doppler effects in the sample itself is not trivial, especially since it involves treatment of non-independent random processes. A proper account for energy spread is vital in IBA not only for correct extraction of elemental and isotopic depth profiles from the measured spectra, but already prior to data acquisition, in optimising experimental conditions to reach the required depth resolution at a certain depth. After a short review of the literature on the different energy spread contributions experimental examples are given from resonance, RBS, elastic BS and ERDA practice in which an account for energy spread contributions is essential. Some further examples illustrate extraction of structural information (roughness, pore size, etc.) from elaborated depth resolution calculation for such layer structures.

  11. Performance and heat release analysis of a pilot-ignited natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, S.R.; Biruduganti, M.; Mo, Y.; Bell, S.R.; Midkiff, K.C. [Alabama Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The influence of engine operating variables on the performance, emissions and heat release in a compression ignition engine operating in normal diesel and dual-fuel modes (with natural gas fuelling) was investigated. Substantial reductions in NO{sub x} emissions were obtained with dual-fuel engine operation. There was a corresponding increase in unburned hydrocarbon emissions as the substitution of natural gas was increased. Brake specific energy consumption decreased with natural gas substitution at high loads but increased at low loads. Experimental results at fixed pilot injection timing have also established the importance of intake manifold pressure and temperature in improving dual-fuel performance and emissions at part load. (Author)

  12. Energy storage: feasibility study to collect, store and release energy from solar origin, using a kinetic battery stockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatry, B

    1976-02-01

    The feasibility of using solar energy to feed an autonomous station providing electric current continuously was studied. As an energy storage device a 'superflywheel' (rotor with composite fibers - magnetic bearings) would be used. Results show that such an experiment can be reasonably envisaged only in highly sunny countries and that it becomes non profitable at our latitudes, despite the very good performance of the flywheel storage device.

  13. Micromagnetic Cancer Cell Immobilization and Release for Real-Time Single Cell Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Devina; Rad, Armin Tahmasbi [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269 (United States); Nieh, Mu-Ping [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Polymer Program, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Claffey, Kevin P. [Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030 (United States); Hoshino, Kazunori, E-mail: hoshino@engr.uconn.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, 06269 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the interaction of live cells with macromolecules is crucial for designing efficient therapies. Considering the functional heterogeneity found in cancer cells, real-time single cell analysis is necessary to characterize responses. In this study, we have designed and fabricated a microfluidic channel with patterned micromagnets which can temporarily immobilize the cells during analysis and release them after measurements. The microchannel is composed of plain coverslip top and bottom panels to facilitate easy microscopic observation and undisturbed application of analytes to the cells. Cells labeled with functionalized magnetic beads were immobilized in the device with an efficiency of 90.8±3.6%. Since the micromagnets are made of soft magnetic material (Ni), they released cells when external magnetic field was turned off from the channel. This allows the reuse of the channel for a new sample. As a model drug analysis, the immobilized breast cancer cells (MCF7) were exposed to fluorescent lipid nanoparticles and association and dissociation were measured through fluorescence analysis. Two concentrations of nanoparticles, 0.06 µg/ml and 0.08 µg/ml were tested and time lapse images were recorded and analyzed. The microfluidic device was able to provide a microenvironment for sample analysis, making it an efficient platform for real-time analysis.

  14. Excitation methods for energy dispersive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaklevic, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The rapid development in recent years of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis has been based primarily on improvements in semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometers. However, the whole analysis system performance is critically dependent on the availability of optimum methods of excitation for the characteristic x rays in specimens. A number of analysis facilities based on various methods of excitation have been developed over the past few years. A discussion is given of the features of various excitation methods including charged particles, monochromatic photons, and broad-energy band photons. The effects of the excitation method on background and sensitivity are discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Recent developments such as pulsed excitation and polarized photons are also discussed

  15. Energy Analysis in Combined Reforming of Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined (steam and CO2 reforming is one of the methods to produce syngas for different applications. An energy requirement analysis of steam reforming to dry reforming with intermediate steps of steam reduction and equivalent CO2 addition to the feed fuel for syngas generation has been done to identify condition for optimum process operation. Thermodynamic equilibrium data for combined reforming was generated for temperature range of 400–1000°C at 1 bar pressure and combined oxidant (CO2 + H2O stream to propane (fuel ratio of 3, 6, and 9 by employing the Gibbs free energy minimization algorithm of HSC Chemistry software 5.1. Total energy requirement including preheating and reaction enthalpy calculations were done using the equilibrium product composition. Carbon and methane formation was significantly reduced in combined reforming than pure dry reforming, while the energy requirements were lower than pure steam reforming. Temperatures of minimum energy requirement were found in the data analysis of combined reforming which were optimum for the process.

  16. Effects of geometric non-linearity on energy release rates in a realistic wind turbine blade cross section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Bitsche, Robert; Belloni, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Most wind turbine rotor blades comprise several adhesively connected sub-components typically made from glass fibre reinforced polymer composite materials. It is a well-known fact that wind turbine blades are prone to fail in their adhesive joints. However, owing to the complexity...... of their structural behaviour, little is known about the root causes of adhesive joint failure. This paper investigates the effects of geometrical non-linearity on energy release rates (ERRs) of transversely oriented cracks present in the adhesive joints of a wind turbine rotor blade. Utilising a computationally...

  17. Behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 released into the pond of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milintawisamai, Mesak; Panyathipsakul, Yureeporn

    1989-01-01

    Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in liquid waste released from the waste disposal plant of Office of Atomic Energy for Peace(OAEP) have been followed since 1984. The concentration of both nuclides in surface water outside OAEP boundary is 2 to 30 times less than in the OAEP pond, the reservoir of liquid waste. This indicates that most of the nuclides are effectively absorbed by clay in the bottom of the pond. The nuclide concentration in fresh-water organisms in the pond such as fish, prawn and snail is also investigated to elucidate the behavior of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in a static fresh-water ecological system

  18. Analysis of active piezoelectric energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang CUI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing piezoelectric traps are designed for a narrow frequency range of vibration, but the surrounding environment has a very wide frequency range, and the frequency may also be subject to change, causing the problem of difficult to achieve energy capture or capture inefficiency. In order to solve problem, a new T-type piezoelectric cantilever is proposed as a capture energy structure in the paper. To begin with the aspects of structural design and circuit design, the static analysis, modal analysis and resonance analysis of the structure are carried out and the natural frequency and excitation frequency of the device are analyzed. The design and calculation of the power consumption and the loss of the components of the circuit are analyzed by the simulation and verification of the active capture energy circuit, and the active and passive techniques are compared and analyzed, the simulation of the active capture circuit is verified by analyzing the power consumption of the circuit and the maximum power obtained by the active technology is 5 times of that of the passive technology. And then the voltage-controlled active boundary control method can be used for interface circuit design, taking the initiative to use each piezoelectric transduction cycle triggered by the electrical boundary conditions to effectively increase the input piezoelectric pump energy, and then increase output power. The way of utilizing the active trapping of piezoelectric materials is innovated, which has a positive effect on the development of piezoelectric traps.

  19. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1985-06-01

    An analysis has been carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to atmosphere. Calculations were made of the dose to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was also analysed in terms of the contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The results of the analysis were used to derive a set of release-specific Emergency Action Guidance Levels (EAGLs) of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods, which comply with NRPB's ingestion ERL recommendations. The EAGLs were supplemented with a corresponding set of EAGLs for grass, for use in situations where crop samples were not readily available. (author)

  20. Energy Analysis Program. 1992 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Program became deeply involved in establishing 4 Washington, D.C., project office diving the last few months of fiscal year 1942. This project office, which reports to the Energy & Environment Division, will receive the majority of its support from the Energy Analysis Program. We anticipate having two staff scientists and support personnel in offices within a few blocks of DOE. Our expectation is that this office will carry out a series of projects that are better managed closer to DOE. We also anticipate that our representation in Washington will improve and we hope to expand the Program, its activities, and impact, in police-relevant analyses. In spite of the growth that we have achieved, the Program continues to emphasize (1) energy efficiency of buildings, (2) appliance energy efficiency standards, (3) energy demand forecasting, (4) utility policy studies, especially integrated resource planning issues, and (5) international energy studies, with considerate emphasis on developing countries and economies in transition. These continuing interests are reflected in the articles that appear in this report.

  1. Risk analysis of releases from accidents during mid-loop operation at Surry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Nimnual, S.; Mubayi, V.; Neymotin, L.

    1992-11-01

    Studies and operating experience suggest that the risk of severe accidents during low power operation and/or shutdown (LP/S) conditions could be a significant fraction of the risk at full power operation. Two studies have begun at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to evaluate the severe accident progression from a risk perspective during these conditions: One at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Surry plant, a pressurized water reactor (PWR), and the other at the Sandia National Laboratories for the Grand Gulf plant, a boiling water reactor (BWR). Each of the studies consists of three linked, but distinct, components: a Level I probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) of the initiating events, systems analysis, and accident sequences leading to core damage; a Level 2/3 analysis of accident progression, fuel damage, releases, containment performance, source term and consequences-off-site and on-site; and a detailed Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) of actions relevant to plant conditions during LP/S operations. This paper summarizes the approach taken for the Level 2/3 analysis at Surry and provides preliminary results on the risk of releases and consequences for one plant operating state, mid-loop operation, during shutdown

  2. Performance analysis of an integrated energy storage and energy upgrade thermochemical solid–gas sorption system for seasonal storage of solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingxian; Wang, Ruzhu; Kiplagat, Jeremiah K.; Kang, YongTae

    2013-01-01

    An innovative dual-mode thermochemical sorption energy storage method is proposed for seasonal storage of solar thermal energy with little heat losses. During the charging phase in summer, solar thermal energy is stored in form of chemical bonds resulting from thermochemical decomposition process, which enables the stored energy to be kept several months at ambient temperature. During the discharging phase in winter, the stored thermal energy is released in the form of chemical reaction heat resulting from thermochemical synthesis process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the advanced dual-mode thermochemical sorption energy storage is an effective method for the long-term seasonal storage of solar energy. A coefficient of performance (COP h ) of 0.6 and energy density higher than 1000 kJ/kg of salt can be attained from the proposed system. During the discharging phase at low ambient temperatures, the stored thermal energy can be upgraded by use of a solid–gas thermochemical sorption heat transformer cycle. The proposed thermochemical sorption energy storage has distinct advantages over the conventional sensible heat and latent heat storage, such as higher energy storage density, little heat losses, integrated energy storage and energy upgrade, and thus it can contribute to improve the seasonal utilization of solar thermal energy. - Highlights: ► A dual-mode solid thermochemical sorption is proposed for seasonal solar thermal energy storage. ► Energy upgrade techniques into the energy storage system are integrated. ► Performance of the proposed seasonal energy storage system is evaluated. ► Energy density and COP h from the proposed system are as high as 1043 kJ/kg of salt and 0.60, respectively

  3. Energy analysis applied to uranium resource estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is pointed out that fuel prices and ore costs are interdependent, and that in estimating ore costs (involving the cost of fuels used to mine and process the uranium) it is necessary to take into account the total use of energy by the entire fuel system, through the technique of energy analysis. The subject is discussed, and illustrated with diagrams, under the following heads: estimate of how total workable resources would depend on production costs; sensitivity of nuclear electricity prices to ore costs; variation of net energy requirement with ore grade for a typical PWR reactor design; variation of average fundamental cost of nuclear electricity with ore grade; variation of cumulative uranium resources with current maximum ore costs. (U.K.)

  4. Nuclear, thermo-mechanical and tritium release analysis of ITER breeding blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaku, Yasuo; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Enoeda, Mikio; Hatano, Toshihisa; Sato, Satoshi; Miki, Nobuharu; Akiba, Masato

    2003-06-01

    The design of the breeding blanket in ITER applies pebble bed breeder in tube (BIT) surrounded by multiplier pebble bed. It is assumed to use the same module support mechanism and coolant manifolds and coolant system as the shielding blankets. This work focuses on the verification of the design of the breeding blanket, from the viewpoints which is especially unique to the pebble bed type breeding blanket, such as, tritium breeding performance, tritium inventory and release behavior and thermo-mechanical performance of the ITER breeding blanket. With respect to the neutronics analysis, the detailed analyses of the distribution of the nuclear heating rate and TBR have been performed in 2D model using MCNP to clarify the input data for the tritium inventory and release rate analyses and thermo-mechanical analyses. With respect to the tritium inventory and release behavior analysis, the parametric analyses for selection of purge gas flow rate were carried out from the view point of pressure drop and the tritium inventory/release performance for Li 2 TiO 3 breeder. The analysis result concluded that purge gas flow rate can be set to conventional flow rate setting (88 l/min per module) to 1/10 of that to save the purge gas flow and minimize the size of purge gas pipe. However, it is necessary to note that more tritium is transformed to HTO (chemical form of water) in case of Li 2 TiO 3 compared to other breeder materials. With respect to the thermo-mechanical analyses of the pebble bed blanket structure, the analyses have been performed by ABAQUS with 2D model derived from one of eight facets of a blanket module, based on the reference design. Analyses were performed to identify the temperature distribution incorporating the pebble bed mechanical simulation and influence of mechanical behavior to the thermal behavior. The result showed that the maximum temperature in the breeding material was 617degC in the first row of breeding rods and the minimum temperature was 328

  5. Reaction dynamics of the four-centered elimination CH2OH + --> CHO + +H2: Measurement of kinetic energy release distribution and classical trajectory calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Park, Seung C.; Kim, Myung Soo

    1996-03-01

    Mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy (MIKE) spectrum of CHO+ generated in the unimolecular dissociation of CH2OH+ was measured. Kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) was evaluated by analyzing the spectrum according to the algorithm developed previously. The average kinetic energy release evaluated from the distribution was extraordinarily large, 1.63 eV, corresponding to 75% of the reverse barrier of the reaction. A global analytical potential energy surface was constructed such that the experimental energetics was represented and that various features in the ab initio potential energy surface were closely reproduced. Classical trajectory calculation was carried out with the global analytical potential energy surface to investigate the causes for the extraordinarily large kinetic energy release. Based on the detailed dynamical calculations, it was found that the strained bending forces at the transition state and strengthening of the CO bond from double to triple bond character were mainly responsible for such a significant kinetic energy release. In addition, the dissociation products H2 and CHO+ ion were found to be rotationally excited in the trajectory calculations. This was attributed to the asymmetry of the transition state and the release of asymmetric bending forces. Also, the bending vibrational modes of CHO+ and the H2 stretching mode, which are coupled with the bending coordinates, were found to be moderately excited.

  6. Performance Analysis: Control of Hazardous Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grange, Connie E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Freeman, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kerr, Christine E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-10-06

    LLNL experienced 26 occurrences related to the control of hazardous energy from January 1, 2008 through August 2010. These occurrences were 17% of the total number of reported occurrences during this 32-month period. The Performance Analysis and Reporting Section of the Contractor Assurance Office (CAO) routinely analyzes reported occurrences and issues looking for patterns that may indicate changes in LLNL’s performance and early indications of performance trends. It became apparent through these analyses that LLNL might have experienced a change in the control of hazardous energy and that these occurrences should be analyzed in more detail to determine if the perceived change in performance was real, whether that change is significant and if the causes of the occurrences are similar. This report documents the results of this more detailed analysis.

  7. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  8. Final Report: Safety of Plasma Components and Aerosol Transport During Hard Disruptions and Accidental Energy Release in Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourham, Mohamed A.; Gilligan, John G.

    1999-08-14

    Safety considerations in large future fusion reactors like ITER are important before licensing the reactor. Several scenarios are considered hazardous, which include safety of plasma-facing components during hard disruptions, high heat fluxes and thermal stresses during normal operation, accidental energy release, and aerosol formation and transport. Disruption events, in large tokamaks like ITER, are expected to produce local heat fluxes on plasma-facing components, which may exceed 100 GW/m{sup 2} over a period of about 0.1 ms. As a result, the surface temperature dramatically increases, which results in surface melting and vaporization, and produces thermal stresses and surface erosion. Plasma-facing components safety issues extends to cover a wide range of possible scenarios, including disruption severity and the impact of plasma-facing components on disruption parameters, accidental energy release and short/long term LOCA's, and formation of airborne particles by convective current transport during a LOVA (water/air ingress disruption) accident scenario. Study, and evaluation of, disruption-induced aerosol generation and mobilization is essential to characterize database on particulate formation and distribution for large future fusion tokamak reactor like ITER. In order to provide database relevant to ITER, the SIRENS electrothermal plasma facility at NCSU has been modified to closely simulate heat fluxes expected in ITER.

  9. Surface displacements and energy release rates for constant stress drop slip zones in joined elastic quarter spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.

    2000-08-01

    A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.

  10. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O' Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  11. Multiaspect measurement analysis of breaking energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartłomiejczyk, Mikołaj; Połom, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of implementation of eco energy technologies in municipal transport. • The “ready to use” methods are presented. • The “niche” ways of increasing efficiency, e.g. “intelligent heating”. • Novel multi way measurement method using GPS localization system. • Confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement. - Abstract: Nowadays the issue of electric energy saving in public transport is becoming a key area of interest, which is connected both with a growth of environmental awareness in the society and an increase in the prices of fuel and electricity. That is why the reduction of energy consumption by increasing electrified urban transport, such as trams, trolleybuses, light rail and underground is becoming an increasingly important issue. Energy recovery during braking is possible in all modern electric vehicles, but in many cases this possibility is not fully taken advantage of, inter alia, because of an inadequate power supply structure. The aim of this article is to present practical examples of implementation of eco-friendly solutions in urban municipal transport. The article shows a thorough analysis of braking energy dispatch in the urban traction power supply system, which was based on extensive measurement research conducted in Gdynia trolleybus network. The authors applied multi way measurement method using Global Positioning System. The optimal conditions for implementation of several methods of energy recovery (storage energy systems, reconfiguration of supply system, using auxiliaries) have been shown. Great emphasis has been put on the confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement.

  12. Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pushpalatha C. Bhat

    2001-10-03

    During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.

  13. Pareto optimality in organelle energy metabolism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angione, Claudio; Carapezza, Giovanni; Costanza, Jole; Lió, Pietro; Nicosia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In low and high eukaryotes, energy is collected or transformed in compartments, the organelles. The rich variety of size, characteristics, and density of the organelles makes it difficult to build a general picture. In this paper, we make use of the Pareto-front analysis to investigate the optimization of energy metabolism in mitochondria and chloroplasts. Using the Pareto optimality principle, we compare models of organelle metabolism on the basis of single- and multiobjective optimization, approximation techniques (the Bayesian Automatic Relevance Determination), robustness, and pathway sensitivity analysis. Finally, we report the first analysis of the metabolic model for the hydrogenosome of Trichomonas vaginalis, which is found in several protozoan parasites. Our analysis has shown the importance of the Pareto optimality for such comparison and for insights into the evolution of the metabolism from cytoplasmic to organelle bound, involving a model order reduction. We report that Pareto fronts represent an asymptotic analysis useful to describe the metabolism of an organism aimed at maximizing concurrently two or more metabolite concentrations.

  14. Analysis and design of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajura, R.A.; Marston, C.H.; Tstsaronis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The 1980s saw growing public awareness of environmental issues. Events such as an unusually hot and dry summer in parts of the world, contamination of community drinking water supplies by leakage from abandoned waste disposal sites, and the discovery of a hole in the ozone layer in the upper stratosphere over Antarctica made headlines in the popular press. The long-range impact of these events on the environment or on human health is still being debated by the scientific and technical communities. In the interim, however, it is prudent to mitigate any possible environmental problems by continuing to develop high-efficiency energy utilization systems that are also cost effective and environmentally sound. High-efficiency fossil energy systems have a number of environmental benefits: carbon dioxide production is reduced and this, in turn, reduces the potential environmental insult which may occur during resource extraction or shipping. Thermodynamic analysis coupled with economic analysis is a useful tool to identify practical, high-efficiency systems. The Symposium on the Analysis and Design of Energy Systems is intended to provide a forum to present both advances in analytical techniques for this type of system and case studies applying these techniques

  15. Passivhaus: indoor comfort and energy dynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Antonella; Pagliuca, Antonello; Cardinale, Nicola; Rospi, Gianluca

    2013-04-01

    The research aims to verify the energy performance as well as the indoor comfort of an energy class A+ building, built so that the sum of the heat passive contributions of solar radiation, transmitted through the windows, and the heat generated inside the building, are adeguate to compensate for the envelope loss during the cold season. The building, located in Emilia Romagna (Italy), was built using a wooden structure, an envelope realized using a pinewood sandwich panels (transmittance U = 0.250 W/m2K) and, inside, a wool flax insulation layer and thermal window frame with low-emissivity glass (U = 0524 W/m2K). The building design and construction process has followed the guidelines set by "CasaClima". The building has been modeled in the code of dynamic calculation "Energy Plus" by the Design Builder application and divided it into homogenous thermal zones, characterized by winter indoor temperature set at 20 ° (+ / - 1 °) and summer indoor temperature set at 26 ° (+ / - 1 °). It has modeled: the envelope, as described above, the "free" heat contributions, the air conditioning system, the Mechanical Ventilation system as well as home automation solutions. The air conditioning system is an heat pump, able to guarantee an optimization of energy consumption (in fact, it uses the "free" heat offered by the external environment for conditioning indoor environment). As regards the air recirculation system, it has been used a mechanical ventilation system with internal heat cross-flow exchanger, with an efficiency equal to 50%. The domotic solutions, instead, regard a system for the control of windows external screening using reeds, adjustable as a function of incident solar radiation and a lighting management system adjusted automatically using a dimmer. A so realized building meets the requirement imposed from Italian standard UNI/TS 11300 1, UNI/TS 11300 2 and UNI/TS 11300 3. The analysis was performed according to two different configurations: in "spontaneous

  16. Analysis of fission gas release-to-birth ratio data from the AGR irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einerson, Jeffrey J.; Pham, Binh T.; Scates, Dawn M.; Maki, John T.; Petti, David A.

    2016-01-01

    A series of advanced gas reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the advanced test reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel used in the High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independent capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. For AGR-1, the first US irradiation of modern TRISO fuel completed in 2009, there were no particle failures detected. For AGR-2, a few exposed kernels existed in the fuel compacts based upon quality control data. For the AGR-3/4 experiment, particle failures in all capsules were expected because of the use of designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles whose kernels are identical to the driver fuel kernels and whose coatings are designed to fail under irradiation. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of krypton and xenon isotopes is calculated from release rates measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR fission product monitoring (FPM) system installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel particle coating layers and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow. The major factors that govern gaseous diffusion and release processes are found to be fuel material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. To compare the release behavior among the AGR capsules and historic experiments, the R/B per failed particle is used. HTGR designers use this parameter in their fission product behavior models. For the U.S. TRISO fuel, a regression analysis is performed to establish functional relationships

  17. Analysis of Fission Gas Release-to-Birth Ratio Data from the AGR Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einerson, Jeffrey J.; Pham, Binh T.; Scates, Dawn M.; Maki, John T.; Petti, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A series of Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel used in the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independent capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. For AGR-1, the first US irradiation of modern TRISO fuel completed in 2009, there were no particle failures detected. For AGR-2, a few exposed kernels existed in the fuel compacts based upon quality control data. For the AGR-3/4 experiment, particle failures in all capsules were expected because of the use of designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles whose kernels are identical to the driver fuel kernels and whose coatings are designed to fail under irradiation. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of krypton and xenon isotopes is calculated from release rates measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR Fission Product Monitoring (FPM) System installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel particle coating layers and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow. The major factors that govern gaseous diffusion and release processes are found to be fuel material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. To compare the release behavior among the AGR capsules and historic experiments, the R/B per failed particle is used. HTGR designers use this parameter in their fission product behavior models. For the U.S. TRISO fuel, a regression analysis is performed to establish functional relationships

  18. Analysis of fission gas release-to-birth ratio data from the AGR irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einerson, Jeffrey J., E-mail: jeffrey.einerson@inl.gov; Pham, Binh T.; Scates, Dawn M.; Maki, John T.; Petti, David A.

    2016-09-15

    A series of advanced gas reactor (AGR) irradiation tests is being conducted in the advanced test reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in support of development and qualification of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel used in the High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). Each AGR test consists of multiple independent capsules containing fuel compacts placed in a graphite cylinder shrouded by a steel shell. These capsules are instrumented with thermocouples (TC) embedded in the graphite enabling temperature control. For AGR-1, the first US irradiation of modern TRISO fuel completed in 2009, there were no particle failures detected. For AGR-2, a few exposed kernels existed in the fuel compacts based upon quality control data. For the AGR-3/4 experiment, particle failures in all capsules were expected because of the use of designed-to-fail (DTF) fuel particles whose kernels are identical to the driver fuel kernels and whose coatings are designed to fail under irradiation. The release-rate-to-birth-rate ratio (R/B) for each of krypton and xenon isotopes is calculated from release rates measured by the germanium detectors used in the AGR fission product monitoring (FPM) system installed downstream from each irradiated capsule. Birth rates are calculated based on the fission power in the experiment and fission product generation models. Thus, this R/B is a measure of the ability of fuel particle coating layers and compact matrix to retain fission gas atoms preventing their release into the sweep gas flow. The major factors that govern gaseous diffusion and release processes are found to be fuel material diffusion coefficient, temperature, and isotopic decay constant. To compare the release behavior among the AGR capsules and historic experiments, the R/B per failed particle is used. HTGR designers use this parameter in their fission product behavior models. For the U.S. TRISO fuel, a regression analysis is performed to establish functional relationships

  19. Energy-Water System Solutions | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    System Solutions Energy-Water System Solutions NREL has been a pioneer in the development of energy -water system solutions that explicitly address and optimize energy-water tradeoffs. NREL has evaluated energy-water system solutions for Department of Defense bases, islands, communities recovering from

  20. 76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...-0046] Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... reopening of the time period for submitting comments on the request for information on Building Energy Codes... the request for information on Building Energy Code Cost Analysis and provide docket number EERE-2011...

  1. Qualitative analysis of controlled release ciprofloxacin/carbopol 934 mucoadhesive suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashree Sahoo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesive polymeric (carbopol 934 suspension of ciprofloxacin was prepared by ultrasonication and optimized with the aim of developing an oral controlled release gastro-retentive dosage form. The qualitative analysis of the formulation was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. FTIR (400 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 region and Raman (140 to 2400 cm-1 region Spectroscopic studies were carried out and the spectra were used for interpretation. XRD data of pure drug, polymer and the formulation were obtained using a powder diffractometer scanned from a Bragg′s angle (2q of 10° to 70°. The dispersion of the particle was observed using SEM techniques. The particle size distribution and aspect ratio of particles in the polymeric suspension were obtained from SEM image analysis. The results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic analyses suggested that, in formulation, the carboxylic groups of ciprofloxacin and hydroxyl groups of C934 undergo a chemical interaction leading to esterification and hydrogen bonding. The XRD data suggested that the retention of crystalline nature of ciprofloxacin in the formulation would lead to increase in stability and drug loading; decrease in solubility; and delay in release of the drug from polymeric suspension with better bioavailability and penetration capacity. The SEM image analysis indicated that, in the formulation maximum particles were having aspect ratio from 2 to 4 and standard deviation was very less which provided supporting evidences for homogeneous, uniformly dispersed, stable controlled release ciprofloxacin suspension which would be pharmaceutically acceptable.

  2. LC for analysis of two sustained-release mixtures containing cough cold suppressant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gindy, Alaa; Sallam, Shehab; Abdel-Salam, Randa A

    2010-07-01

    A liquid chromatographic method was applied for the analysis of two sustained-release mixtures containing dextromethorphane hydrobromide, carbinoxamine maleate with either phenylephrine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical capsules (Mix 1) or phenyl-propanolamine, methylparaben, and propylparaben, which bonds as a drug base to ion exchange resin in pharmaceutical syrup (Mix 2). The method was used for their simultaneous determination using a CN column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-12 mM ammonium acetate in the ratio of 60:40 (v/v, pH 6.0) for Mix 1 and 45:55 (v/v, pH 6.0) for Mix 2.

  3. Consequence Analysis of Release from KN-18 Cask during a Severe Transportation Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Bhang, Giin; Na, Janghwan; Ban, Jaeha; Kim, Myungsu

    2015-01-01

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) has launched a project entitled 'Development of APR1400 Physical Protection System Design' and conducting a new conceptual physical protection system(PPS) design. One of mayor contents is consequence analysis for spent nuclear fuel cask. Proper design of physical protection system for facilities and storage and transformation involving nuclear and radioactive material requires the quantification of potential consequence from prescribed sabotage and theft scenarios in order to properly understand the level of PPS needed for specific facilities and materials. An important aspect of the regulation of the nuclear industry is assessing the risk to the public and the environment from a release of radioactive material produced by accidental or intentional scenarios. This paper describes the consequence analysis methodology, structural analysis for KN-18 cask and results of release from the cask during a severe transportation accident. Accident during spent fuel cask transportation was numerically calculated for KN-18, and showed the integrity of the fuel assemblies and cask itself was unharmed on a scenario that is comparable to state of art NRC research. Even assumption of leakage as a size of 1 x 10''2 mm''2 does not exceed for a certain criteria at any distance

  4. Consequence Analysis of Release from KN-18 Cask during a Severe Transportation Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Bhang, Giin; Na, Janghwan; Ban, Jaeha; Kim, Myungsu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) has launched a project entitled 'Development of APR1400 Physical Protection System Design' and conducting a new conceptual physical protection system(PPS) design. One of mayor contents is consequence analysis for spent nuclear fuel cask. Proper design of physical protection system for facilities and storage and transformation involving nuclear and radioactive material requires the quantification of potential consequence from prescribed sabotage and theft scenarios in order to properly understand the level of PPS needed for specific facilities and materials. An important aspect of the regulation of the nuclear industry is assessing the risk to the public and the environment from a release of radioactive material produced by accidental or intentional scenarios. This paper describes the consequence analysis methodology, structural analysis for KN-18 cask and results of release from the cask during a severe transportation accident. Accident during spent fuel cask transportation was numerically calculated for KN-18, and showed the integrity of the fuel assemblies and cask itself was unharmed on a scenario that is comparable to state of art NRC research. Even assumption of leakage as a size of 1 x 10''2 mm''2 does not exceed for a certain criteria at any distance.

  5. Dynamic response of cylindrical ACS support structures to core energy release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.M.; Belytschko, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    The code SAFE/RAS is applied to the analysis of a new design concept for the above-core structures when subjected to the loads of a core disruptive accident. The analysis involves the determination of the postbuckling response of a thin cylinder loaded both axially and vertically. The effects of variation of cylinder thickness and fluid-structure interaction are investigated

  6. Global sensitivity analysis in wind energy assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetkova, O.; Ouarda, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, it is not yet a common source of energy, although there is enough wind potential to supply world's energy demand. One of the most prominent obstacles on the way of employing wind energy is the uncertainty associated with wind energy assessment. Global sensitivity analysis (SA) studies how the variation of input parameters in an abstract model effects the variation of the variable of interest or the output variable. It also provides ways to calculate explicit measures of importance of input variables (first order and total effect sensitivity indices) in regard to influence on the variation of the output variable. Two methods of determining the above mentioned indices were applied and compared: the brute force method and the best practice estimation procedure In this study a methodology for conducting global SA of wind energy assessment at a planning stage is proposed. Three sampling strategies which are a part of SA procedure were compared: sampling based on Sobol' sequences (SBSS), Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) and pseudo-random sampling (PRS). A case study of Masdar City, a showcase of sustainable living in the UAE, is used to exemplify application of the proposed methodology. Sources of uncertainty in wind energy assessment are very diverse. In the case study the following were identified as uncertain input parameters: the Weibull shape parameter, the Weibull scale parameter, availability of a wind turbine, lifetime of a turbine, air density, electrical losses, blade losses, ineffective time losses. Ineffective time losses are defined as losses during the time when the actual wind speed is lower than the cut-in speed or higher than the cut-out speed. The output variable in the case study is the lifetime energy production. Most influential factors for lifetime energy production are identified with the ranking of the total effect sensitivity indices. The results of the present

  7. Evaluating impacts of energy prices release on urban planning of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei Aghdam, Feridoun [Mohaghegh Ardabili University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: Fbabei@uma.ac.ir, email: freydoun2001@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    The Parliament of Iran adopted a subsidy reform plan in January, 2010. This reform constitutes one of the most significant changes to Iran's economy in the last 50 years, as it aims to replace subsidies on food and energy with social assistance. This will have important effects on the sectors consuming the most energy such as transport, buildings, industry and agriculture. The aim of this paper is to determine both the positive and negative impacts of this reform. A review of the available information was carried out using library resources, the press and the Internet; interviews with experts were also conducted. Then field investigations were conducted and a comparative survey was done. Results of this research showed that the subsidy reform plan will result in economic, social, political and traffic benefits but will also raise socio-economic issues in urban areas. This study pointed out that the subsidy reform will have more positive than negative impacts.

  8. Recuperation of the energy released in the G-1, an air-cooled graphite reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambadal, P.; Pascal, M.

    1955-01-01

    The CEA (in his five-year setting plan) has objective among others, the realization of the two first french reactors moderated with graphite. The construction of the G-1 reactor in Marcoule, first french plutonic core, is achieved so that it will diverge in the beginning of 1956 and reach its full power in the beginning of the second semester of the same year. In this report we will detail the specificities of the reactor and in particular its cooling and energy recuperation system. The G-1 reactor being essentially intended to allow the french technicians to study the behavior of an energy installation supply taking its heat in a nuclear source as early as possible. (M.B.) [fr

  9. Multiple Energy System Analysis of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    2015-01-01

    thermal grids and smart gas grids, Smart Energy Systems moves the flexibility away from the fuel as is the case in current energy systems and into the system itself. However, most studies applying a Smart Energy System approach deals with analyses for either single countries or whole continents......To eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector it is necessary to transition to future 100% renewable energy systems. One approach for this radical change in our energy systems is Smart Energy Systems. With a focus on development and interaction between smart electricity grids, smart......, but it is unclear how regions, municipalities, and communities should deal with these national targets. It is necessary to be able to provide this information since Smart Energy Systems utilize energy resources and initiatives that have strong relations to local authorities and communities, such as onshore wind...

  10. Applications of energy-release-rate techniques to part-through cracks in plates and cylinders. Volume 2. ORVIRT: a finite element program for energy release rate calculations for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional crack models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    Certain studies of fracture phenomena, such as pressurized-thermal-shock of cracked structures, require that crack tip parameters be determined for combined thermal and mechanical loads. A method is proposed here that modifies the isothermal formulation of deLorenzi to account for thermal strains in cracked bodies. The formulation has been implemented in the virtual-crack-extension program ORVIRT (Oak Ridge VIRTual-Crack-Extension). Program ORVIRT performs energy release rate calculations for both 2- and 3-dimensional nonlinear models of crack configurations in engineering structures. Two applications of the ORVIRT program are described. In the first, semielliptical surface cracks in an experimental test vessel are analyzed under elastic-plastic conditions using the finite element method. The second application is a thick-walled test vessel subjected to combined pressure and thermal shock loading

  11. Uncertainty analysis for secondary energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1978-01-01

    In many transport calculations the integral design parameter of interest (response) is determined mainly by secondary particles such as gamma rays from (n,γ) reactions or secondary neutrons from inelastic scattering events or (n,2n) reactions. Standard sensitivity analysis usually allows to calculate the sensitivities to the production cross sections of such secondaries, but an extended formalism is needed to also obtain the sensitivities to the energy distribution of the generated secondary particles. For a 30-group standard cross-section set 84% of all non-zero table positions pertain to the description of secondary energy distributions (SED's) and only 16% to the actual reaction cross sections. Therefore, any sensitivity/uncertainty analysis which does not consider the effects of SED's is incomplete and neglects most of the input data. This paper describes the methods of how sensitivity profiles for SED's are obtained and used to estimate the uncertainty of an integral response due to uncertainties in these SED's. The detailed theory is documented elsewhere and implemented in the LASL sensitivity code SENSIT. SED sensitivity profiles have proven particularly valuable in cross-section uncertainty analyses for fusion reactors. Even when the production cross sections for secondary neutrons were assumed to be without error, the uncertainties in the energy distribution of these secondaries produced appreciable uncertainties in the calculated tritium breeding rate. However, complete error files for SED's are presently nonexistent. Therefore, methods will be described that allow rough error estimates due to estimated SED uncertainties based on integral SED sensitivities

  12. Free energy analysis of cell spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Eóin; Deshpande, Vikram S; McGarry, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    In this study we present a steady-state adaptation of the thermodynamically motivated stress fiber (SF) model of Vigliotti et al. (2015). We implement this steady-state formulation in a non-local finite element setting where we also consider global conservation of the total number of cytoskeletal proteins within the cell, global conservation of the number of binding integrins on the cell membrane, and adhesion limiting ligand density on the substrate surface. We present a number of simulations of cell spreading in which we consider a limited subset of the possible deformed spread-states assumed by the cell in order to examine the hypothesis that free energy minimization drives the process of cell spreading. Simulations suggest that cell spreading can be viewed as a competition between (i) decreasing cytoskeletal free energy due to strain induced assembly of cytoskeletal proteins into contractile SFs, and (ii) increasing elastic free energy due to stretching of the mechanically passive components of the cell. The computed minimum free energy spread area is shown to be lower for a cell on a compliant substrate than on a rigid substrate. Furthermore, a low substrate ligand density is found to limit cell spreading. The predicted dependence of cell spread area on substrate stiffness and ligand density is in agreement with the experiments of Engler et al. (2003). We also simulate the experiments of Théry et al. (2006), whereby initially circular cells deform and adhere to "V-shaped" and "Y-shaped" ligand patches. Analysis of a number of different spread states reveals that deformed configurations with the lowest free energy exhibit a SF distribution that corresponds to experimental observations, i.e. a high concentration of highly aligned SFs occurs along free edges, with lower SF concentrations in the interior of the cell. In summary, the results of this study suggest that cell spreading is driven by free energy minimization based on a competition between decreasing

  13. Energy transport by energetic electrons released during solar flares. I - Thermal versus nonthermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Pritchett, P. L.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of energetic electrons through a flaring flux tube is studied in an attempt to determine how the energy of the electrons is deposited in the flux tube. One-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations are used in the present investigation. As the energetic electrons propagate into the system, a return current of ambient plasma electrons and some of the energetic electrons is drawn into the energetic electron source. It is found that, as the ambient temperature relative to the ion temperature increases above about 3, the heated return-current electrons can excite ion-sound waves.

  14. Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    energy and environmental analysis tools as well as analyses of the design and implementation of future renewable energy systems. For practical reasons, the work has been carried out as an interaction between five work packages, and a number of reports, papers and tools have been reported separately from...... each part of the project. A list of the separate work package reports is given at the end of this foreword while a complete list of all papers and reports can be found at the end of the report as well as at the following website: www.ceesa.dk. This report provides a summary of the results...... as indirectly via the work of the different work packages. By nature this means that each individual author cannot be responsible for every detail of the different reports and papers of work packages conducted by others. Such responsibility relies on the specific authors of the sub-reports and papers. Moreover...

  15. Stored energy analysis in scale-down test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Chengcheng; Qin Benke; Fang Fangfang; Chang Huajian; Ye Zishen

    2013-01-01

    In the integral test facilities that simulate the accident transient process of the prototype nuclear power plant, the stored energy in the metal components has a direct influence on the simulation range and the test results of the facilities. Based on the heat transfer theory, three methods analyzing the stored energy were developed, and a thorough study on the stored energy problem in the scale-down test facilities was further carried out. The lumped parameter method and power integration method were applied to analyze the transient process of energy releasing and to evaluate the average total energy stored in the reactor pressure vessel of the ACME (advanced core-cooling mechanism experiment) facility, which is now being built in China. The results show that the similarity requirements for such three methods to analyze the stored energy in the test facilities are reduced gradually. Under the condition of satisfying the integral similarity of natural circulation, the stored energy releasing process in the scale-down test facilities can't maintain exact similarity. The stored energy in the reactor pressure vessel wall of ACME, which is released quickly during the early stage of rapid depressurization of system, will not make a major impact on the long-term behavior of system. And the scaling distortion of integral average total energy of the stored heat is acceptable. (authors)

  16. Analysis of Silicones Released from Household Items and Baby Articles by Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Jürgen H.

    2015-03-01

    Direct analysis in real time-mass spectrometry (DART-MS) enables screening of articles of daily use made of polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), commonly known as silicone rubber, to assess their tendency to release low molecular weight silicone oligomers. DART-MS analyses were performed on a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Flexible silicone baking molds, a watch band, and a dough scraper, as baby articles different brands of pacifiers, nipples, and a teething ring have been examined. While somewhat arbitrarily chosen, the set can be regarded as representative of household items, baby articles, and other objects made of silicone rubber. For comparison, two brands of silicone septa and as blanks a glass slide and a latex pacifier were included. Differences between the objects were mainly observed in terms of molecular weight distribution and occasional release of other compounds in addition to PDMS. Other than that, all objects made of silicone rubber released significant amounts of PDMS during DART analysis. To provide a coarse quantification, a calibration based on silicone oil was established, which delivered PDMS losses from 20 μg to >100 μg during the 16-s period per measurement. Also, the extraction of baking molds in rapeseed oil demonstrated a PDMS release at the level of 1 μg mg-1. These findings indicate a potential health hazard from frequent or long-term use of such items. This work does not intend to blame certain brands of such articles. Nonetheless, a higher level of awareness of this source of daily silicone intake is suggested.

  17. Multifunctional glass fiber/polyamide composites with thermal energy storage/release capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fredi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastic composite laminates with thermal energy storage (TES capability were prepared by combining a glass fabric, a polyamide 12 (PA12 matrix and two different phase change materials (PCMs, i.e. a paraffinic wax microencapsulated in melamine-formaldehyde shells and a paraffin shape stabilized with carbon nanotubes. The melt flow index of the PA12/PCM blends decreased with the PCM concentration, especially in the systems with shape stabilized wax. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that, for the matrices with microcapsules, the values of enthalpy were approximately the 70% of the theoretical values, which was attributed to the fracture of some microcapsules. Nevertheless, most of the energy storage capability was preserved. On the other hand, much lower relative enthalpy values were measured on the composites with shape stabilized wax, due to a considerable paraffin leakage or degradation. The subsequent characterization of the glass fabric laminates highlighted that the fiber and void volume fractions were comparable for all the laminates except for that with the higher amount of shape stabilized wax, where the high viscosity of the matrix led to a low fiber volume fraction and higher void content. The mechanical properties of the laminates were only slightly impaired by PCM addition, while a more sensible drop of the elastic modulus, of the stress at break and of the interlaminar shear strength could be observed in the shape stabilized wax systems.

  18. Mechanical energy release and fuel fragmentation in high energy deposition into fuel under a reactivity initiated accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takaharu; Saito, Shinzo; Ochiai, Masaaki

    1985-01-01

    The fuel fragmentation is one of important subjects to be studied, since it is one of basic processes of molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) and it has not yet been made clear enough. Accordingly, UO 2 fuel fragmentation was studied in the NSRR experiments simulating a reactivity initiated accident (RIA). As results of the experiments, the distribution of the size of fuel fragments was obtained and the mechanism of fuel fragmentation was discussed as described below. It was revealed that the distribution was well displayed in the form of logarithmic Rosin-Rammler's distribution law. It was shown that the conversion ratio from thermal energy to mechanical in the experiment was in inverse propotion to the volume-surface mean diameter defined as a ratio of the total volume of fragments to the total surface. Consequently, it was confirmed that the mean diameter was proper as an index for the degree of the fuel fragmentation. It was also pointed out that the Weber-type hydraulic instability model for fragmentation was consistent with the experimental results. The mechanism of the fuel fragmentation is understood as follows. Cladding tube is ruptured due to the increase in rod pressure when fuel is molten, and then molten fuel spouts through the openings in the form of jet. As a result of molten fuel spouting, fuel is fragmented by the Weber-type of hydraulic instability. The model well explains the effects of experimental parameters as heat deposition, subcooling of cooling water and capsule diameter, on the fuel fragmentation. According to the model, fuel fragments have to be spherical. There were many spherical particles which had hollow and burst crack. This may be due to internal burst during solidification process. The items which should be studied further are also described in the end of this report. (author)

  19. Experimental and calculating substantiation of reactivity balance and energy-release distribution in BN-600 core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseev, A.V.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.; Surov, S.V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical work done in 2003-2010 years on substantiation of neutron-physical characteristics of the BN-600 core. 1. Transition to the new core 01M2 with high burnup 11.2% h.a. (the 4-th upgrade of the BN-600 core). Transfer was made without changing the constructive of the core almost by reducing conservatism of design decisions. 2. The end of BN-600 design life cycle and extending it to 10-15 years. Need for analysis and comprehension of the BN-600 experience. 3. Development and introduction of new methods of analysis (precision method of Monte Carlo). 4. In the experiments was a change of equipment and measurement techniques

  20. Recent advances in statistical energy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) has traditionally been developed using modal summation and averaging approach, and has led to the need for many restrictive SEA assumptions. The assumption of 'weak coupling' is particularly unacceptable when attempts are made to apply SEA to structural coupling. It is now believed that this assumption is more a function of the modal formulation rather than a necessary formulation of SEA. The present analysis ignores this restriction and describes a wave approach to the calculation of plate-plate coupling loss factors. Predictions based on this method are compared with results obtained from experiments using point excitation on one side of an irregular six-sided box structure. Conclusions show that the use and calculation of infinite transmission coefficients is the way forward for the development of a purely predictive SEA code.

  1. High energy backscattering analysis using RUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doolittle, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    A backscattering analysis program such as RUMP fundamentally requires two reference sets of data in order to accomplish anything useful: stopping powers and scattering cross sections. Users of original versions of RUMP had to be satisfied with polynomial stopping powers geared for 1 to 3 MeV, and purely Rutherford scattering cross sections. As people increasingly turn to high beam energies to solve difficult materials analysis problems, RUMP has evolved greater flexibility for its reference data. It now allows data files to be loaded describing different stopping powers and arbitrary scattering cross sections. Auxiliary programs have been written to generate the reference data files, either from a theory or from measured reference data. Descriptions are given of both the underlying physics and the operational details of the software

  2. Analysis of energy and utility service demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    The collection, analysis, and review of existing data on a community's service requirements are documented. The research focused on the analysis of energy-using activities including both micro activities such as space heating, cooking, lighting, and transportation; and macro activities such as providing shelter, health care, education, etc. The technical report describes the analytical framework developed for community description; describes an indexing system by which a catalog of services can be accessed; illustrates the application of the data to an existing community; and provides ancillary information on data availability. A catalog of data is presented which includes several sets of indices which facilitate access of data using various keys. Abstracts of 48 data sources are analyzed. Each abstract includes a description and evaluation of the data, a sampling of that data, an assessment as to how that data may be applied to other analyses, and a reference where the user can secure additional data. (MCW)

  3. Capital-energy complementarity in aggregate energy-economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1979-10-01

    The interplay between capital and energy will affect the outcome of energy-policy initiatives. A static model clarifies the interpretation of the conflicting empirical evidence on the nature of this interplay. This resolves an apparent conflict between engineering and economc interpretations and points to an additional ambiguity that can be resolved by distinguishing between policy issues at aggregated and disaggregated levels. Restrictions on aggregate energy use should induce reductions in the demand for capital and exacerbate the economic impacts of the energy policy. 32 references.

  4. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry on offsite release of hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials from Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, C.; Garcia, K.M.; McMurtrey, C.D.; Williams, K.L.; Jordan, P.J.

    1992-05-01

    This report is a response to the December 13, 1991, Congressional inquiry that requested information on all hazardous and solid waste containing radioactive materials sent from Department of Energy facilities to offsite facilities for treatment or disposal since January 1, 1981. This response is for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Other Department of Energy laboratories are preparing responses for their respective operations. The request includes ten questions, which the report divides into three parts, each responding to a related group of questions. Part 1 answers Questions 5, 6, and 7, which call for a description of Department of Energy and contractor documentation governing the release of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities. ''Offsite'' is defined as non-Department of Energy and non-Department of Defense facilities, such as commercial facilities. Also requested is a description of the review process for relevant release criteria and a list of afl Department of Energy and contractor documents concerning release criteria as of January 1, 1981. Part 2 answers Questions 4, 8, and 9, which call for information about actual releases of waste containing radioactive materials to offsite facilities from 1981 to the present, including radiation levels and pertinent documentation. Part 3 answers Question 10, which requests a description of the process for selecting offsite facilities for treatment or disposal of waste from Department of Energy facilities. In accordance with instructions from the Department of Energy, the report does not address Questions 1, 2, and 3

  5. Analysis of the methods and reconstruction of iodine doses from the Chernobyl release in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutsko, A.; Krivoruchko, K.; Gribov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper considers the method of reconstructing the iodine-131 fallout based on the systematic exposure measurements. The measurements used were taken with standard DP-5 dosimeters at the monitoring sites of the State Hydrometeorological Service network. These data have been collected since the Chernobyl NPP accident. A short-living exponent has been deduced from the exposure dose dying away. Maps of the iodine-131 release in the period of May 1 - 31, 1996 have been constructed in the attempt to estimate the doses for the initial period of the accident. The paper also dwells on the intricacy of the problem and the refinements to be made for the dose commitments with allowance for a continuing release and meteorological changes that are comparable in time with the half-life events of iodine 131 decay. A comparative analysis has been made of various methods of the dose reconstruction. The results obtained are compared with the maps of the increased incidence of the thyroid gland cancer in adults and children in Belarus. (authors) 14 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  6. Tunable thermo-responsive hydrogels: synthesis, structural analysis and drug release studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, Giuseppe; Spataro, Tania; Curcio, Manuela; Spizzirri, U Gianfranco; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca

    2015-03-01

    Thermo-responsive hydrogel films, synthesized by UV-initiated radical polymerization, are proposed as delivery devices for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Diclofenac sodium and Naproxen). N-isopropylacrylamide and N,N'-ethylenebisacrylamide were chosen as thermo-sensitive monomer and crosslinker, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy was used to assess the incorporation of monomers into the network, and the network density of hydrogel films was found to strictly depend on both feed composition and film thickness. Calorimetric analyses showed negative thermo-responsive behaviour with shrinking/swelling transition values in the range 32.8-36.1°C. Equilibrium swelling studies around the LCST allowed the correlation between the structural changes and the temperature variations. The mesh size, indeed, rapidly changed from a collapsed to a swollen state, with beneficial effects in applications such as size-selective permeation or controlled drug delivery, while the crosslinking degree, the film thickness, and the loading method deeply influenced the drug release profiles at 25 and 40°C. The analysis of both 3D-network structure, release kinetics and diffusional constraints at different temperatures was evaluated by mathematical modelling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of explosion-induced releases of toxic materials at an environmental restoration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, S.G.; Moon, W.H. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Prior to 1988, a variety of materials were buried on the US DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Records of the disposal operations are incomplete and toxic materials may have been placed adjacent to potential explosives. One of the safety concerns in conducting an environmental restoration project at the burial sites, is the possibility of an explosion which could release toxic materials to the atmosphere. A safety analysis examined the consequences of such releases by first postulating an upper bound for the strength of an explosive. A correlation, developed by Steindler and Seefeldt of Argonne National Laboratory, was then used to estimate the amount and particle-size distribution of the material that could become airborne from the explosion. The estimated amount of airborne material was the source term in an atmospheric dispersion model which was used to calculate infinite-time, concentration-time integrals and 5-minute, time- weighted average concentrations at locations down-wind from the explosion. The dispersion model includes particle deposition as a function of particle-size distribution class. The concentration-time integrals and average concentrations were compared to published guidelines to assess the consequences of an accidental explosion

  8. Molecular analysis of volatile metabolites released specifically by staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipiak Wojciech

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The routinely used microbiological diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is time consuming and often requires invasive methods for collection of human specimens (e.g. bronchoscopy. Therefore, it is of utmost interest to develop a non-invasive method for the early detection of bacterial infection in ventilated patients, preferably allowing the identification of the specific pathogens. The present work is an attempt to identify pathogen-derived volatile biomarkers in breath that can be used for early and non- invasive diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP. For this purpose, in vitro experiments with bacteria most frequently found in VAP patients, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were performed to investigate the release or consumption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Results Headspace samples were collected and preconcentrated on multibed sorption tubes at different time points and subsequently analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS. As many as 32 and 37 volatile metabolites were released by S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Distinct differences in the bacteria-specific VOC profiles were found, especially with regard to aldehydes (e.g. acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, which were taken up only by P. aeruginosa but released by S. aureus. Differences in concentration profiles were also found for acids (e.g. isovaleric acid, ketones (e.g. acetoin, 2-nonanone, hydrocarbons (e.g. 2-butene, 1,10-undecadiene, alcohols (e.g. 2-methyl-1-propanol, 2-butanol, esters (e.g. ethyl formate, methyl 2-methylbutyrate, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs, e.g. dimethylsulfide and volatile nitrogen compounds (VNCs, e.g. 3-methylpyrrole. Importantly, a significant VOC release was found already 1.5 hours after culture start, corresponding to cell numbers of ~8*106 [CFUs/ml]. Conclusions The results obtained provide strong evidence that the detection and perhaps even

  9. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  10. Meteorological effects of thermal energy releases (METER) program. Progress report, October 1980-September 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrinos, A.A.N.; Hoffman, H.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report examines the inadvertent weather modification effects of large cooling towers and cooling ponds. Emphasis was placed on field studies, and the focus of the program was on a precipitation modification study around the Bowen Electric Generating Plant in northwestern Georgia. The field effort includes the study of wetfall chemistry in the plant's vicinity. The analysis of three years of precipitation data have failed to show a significant effect of the plant on rainfall volume; the investigation of rainfall pattern variability has been inconclusive. The studies of wetfall chemistry have provided valuable information on the mechanisms of plume washout from large point sources and on the general characteristics of precipitation chemistry in the southeastern US

  11. Neural Network Analysis of LEAP Energy Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Robert E

    2002-09-10

    The Laser Electron Acceleration Project (LEAP) group has been conducting a proof of principle experiment on the acceleration of electrons with a pair of crossed laser beams. To date there has been no experimental verification of electron acceleration with crossed laser beams in a dielectric loaded vacuum, although the energy profile of an accelerated electron bunch has been well described by theory. The experiment is subject to unavoidable time dependent fluctuations in the independent variables. Changes in the experimental parameters can dramatically alter the beam profile incident near the focal plane of a high-resolution spectrometer located downstream from the accelerator cell. Neural networks (NNs) appear to provide an ideal tool for the positive determination of an acceleration event, being adaptable and able to handle highly complex nonlinear problems. Typical NNs under such conditions require a training set consisting of a representative data set along with ''answers'' which have been determined to be consistent with the variable state of the experimental parameters. A strategy of pattern recognition with respect to the status of independent variables can be employed to determine the signature characteristics of a laser perturbed electron bunch. Data cuts representing characteristics that were thought to be distinctive to accelerated beam profile images were implemented in the algorithm employed. Statistical analysis of the results of data cuts made on the energy profile images from the experiment is presented, as well as conclusions drawn from the results of this analysis. Finally, a discussion of future directions to be taken in this work is given including the orientation towards on-line, real-time analysis.

  12. Long term energy system analysis of Japan based on 'options for energy and environment' by the energy and environmental council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Naoto; Kurosawa, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Implications to Japanese energy system are discussed especially in terms of primary energy supply and power generation portfolio, using sensitivity analysis results by an optimization type energy model based on TIMES modeling framework. We updated energy service demand, efficiency in energy conversion and consumption, and power generation costs based on the recent energy policy document called 'Options for Energy and Environment'. The time horizon of the model is 2050. The sensitivity analysis results are presented for 'Three scenarios for 2030' including nuclear phase out scenarios with/without CO 2 emission constraint. The results are compared with 'Options for Energy and Environment'. (author)

  13. Releasing Content to Deter Cheating: An Analysis of the Impact on Candidate Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkowitz, Amanda A.; Davis-Becker, Susan L.; Gerrow, Jack D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a cheating prevention strategy employed for a professional credentialing exam that involved releasing over 7,000 active and retired exam items. This study evaluated: 1) If any significant differences existed between examinee performance on released versus non-released items; 2) If item…

  14. Fission-product energy release for times following thermal-neutron fission of 235U between 2 and 14000 seconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; Emery, J.F.; Love, T.A.; McConnell, J.W.; Northcutt, K.J.; Peelle, R.W.; Weaver, H.

    1977-10-01

    Fission-product decay energy-releases rates were measured for thermal-neutron fission of 235 U. Samples of mass 1 to 10 μg were irradiated for 1 to 100 sec by use of the fast pneumatic-tube facility at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The resulting beta- and gamma-ray emissions were counted for times-after-fission between 2 and 14,000 seconds. The data were obtained for beta and gamma rays separately as spectral distributions, N(E/sub γ/) vs E/sub γ/ and N(E/sub beta/) vs E/sub β/. For the gamma-ray data the spectra were obtained by using a NaI detector, while for the beta-ray data the spectra were obtained by using an NE-110 detector with an anticoincidence mantle. The raw data were unfolded to provide spectral distributions of modest resolution. These were integrated over E/sub γ/ and E/sub β/ to provide total yield and energy integrals as a function of time after fission. Results are low compared to the present 1973 ANS Decay-heat standard. A complete description of the experimental apparatus and data-reduction techniques is presented. The final integral data are given in tabular and graphical form and are compared with published data. 41 figures, 13 tables

  15. Functional data analysis of sleeping energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Soo; Zakeri, Issa F; Butte, Nancy F

    2017-01-01

    Adequate sleep is crucial during childhood for metabolic health, and physical and cognitive development. Inadequate sleep can disrupt metabolic homeostasis and alter sleeping energy expenditure (SEE). Functional data analysis methods were applied to SEE data to elucidate the population structure of SEE and to discriminate SEE between obese and non-obese children. Minute-by-minute SEE in 109 children, ages 5-18, was measured in room respiration calorimeters. A smoothing spline method was applied to the calorimetric data to extract the true smoothing function for each subject. Functional principal component analysis was used to capture the important modes of variation of the functional data and to identify differences in SEE patterns. Combinations of functional principal component analysis and classifier algorithm were used to classify SEE. Smoothing effectively removed instrumentation noise inherent in the room calorimeter data, providing more accurate data for analysis of the dynamics of SEE. SEE exhibited declining but subtly undulating patterns throughout the night. Mean SEE was markedly higher in obese than non-obese children, as expected due to their greater body mass. SEE was higher among the obese than non-obese children (p0.1, after post hoc testing). Functional principal component scores for the first two components explained 77.8% of the variance in SEE and also differed between groups (p = 0.037). Logistic regression, support vector machine or random forest classification methods were able to distinguish weight-adjusted SEE between obese and non-obese participants with good classification rates (62-64%). Our results implicate other factors, yet to be uncovered, that affect the weight-adjusted SEE of obese and non-obese children. Functional data analysis revealed differences in the structure of SEE between obese and non-obese children that may contribute to disruption of metabolic homeostasis.

  16. Research into releasing inorganic phosphate and base from 5'-dTMP irradiated by a low energy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Chunlin; Yu Zengliang

    1994-01-01

    Research into radiation damage of nucleotide is an important area in radiation biology. In this paper, the yield of inorganic phosphate and base released from 5'-dTMP irradiated by a 30 keV N + ion beam was investigated in several aspects. The effect of particle fluence on yield and the influence of treatment with 0.1 N NaOH was deduced. By analysis, it is known that the alkali treatment not only increases the yield of inorganic phosphate, but also damages and splits the base released from irradiated 5'-dTMP. When the irradiated samples are treated by 0.1 N NaOH immediately, the yield of inorganic phosphate is increased by a factor of 1.7 and the concentration of base decreased to half of the original value. But the yield of inorganic phosphate could be increased by a factor of 2.8 after 40 min of alkali treatment. On the other hand, when 5'dTMP was irradiated by the ion beam, the G(Pi) obtained was above 0.44, higher than with γ-radiation. (Author)

  17. Residual energy applications program systems analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yngve, P.W.

    1980-10-01

    Current DOE plans call for building an Energy Applied Systems Test (EAST) Facility at the Savannah River Plant in close proximity to the 140 to 150/sup 0/F waste heat from one of several operating nuclear reactors. The waste water flow from each reactor, approximately 165,000 gpm, provides a unique opportunity to test the performance and operating characteristics of large-scale waste heat power generation and heat pump system concepts. This report provides a preliminary description of the potential end-use market, parametric data on heat pump and the power generation system technology, a preliminary listing of EAST Facility requirements, and an example of an integrated industrial park utilizing the technology to maximize economic pay back. The parametric heat pump analysis concluded that dual-fluid Rankine cycle heat pumps with capacities as high as 400 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/h, can utilize large sources of low temperature residual heat to provide 300/sup 0/F saturatd steam for an industrial park. The before tax return on investment for this concept is 36.2%. The analysis also concluded that smaller modular heat pumps could fulfill the same objective while sacrificing only a moderate rate of return. The parametric power generation analysis concluded that multi-pressure Rankine cycle systems not only are superior to single pressure systems, but can also be developed for large systems (approx. = 17 MW/sub e/). This same technology is applicable to smaller systems at the sacrifice of higher investment per unit output.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of a modified energy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganthi, L.; Jagadeesan, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is carried out to validate model formulation. A modified model has been developed to predict the future energy requirement of coal, oil and electricity, considering price, income, technological and environmental factors. The impact and sensitivity of the independent variables on the dependent variable are analysed. The error distribution pattern in the modified model as compared to a conventional time series model indicated the absence of clusters. The residual plot of the modified model showed no distinct pattern of variation. The percentage variation of error in the conventional time series model for coal and oil ranges from -20% to +20%, while for electricity it ranges from -80% to +20%. However, in the case of the modified model the percentage variation in error is greatly reduced - for coal it ranges from -0.25% to +0.15%, for oil -0.6% to +0.6% and for electricity it ranges from -10% to +10%. The upper and lower limit consumption levels at 95% confidence is determined. The consumption at varying percentage changes in price and population are analysed. The gap between the modified model predictions at varying percentage changes in price and population over the years from 1990 to 2001 is found to be increasing. This is because of the increasing rate of energy consumption over the years and also the confidence level decreases as the projection is made far into the future. (author)

  19. Risk analysis of alternative energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazmer, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    The author explores two points raised by Miller Spangler in a January 1981 issue: public perception of risks involving nuclear power plants relative to those of conventional plants and criteria for evaluating the way risk analyses are made. On the first point, he concludes that translating public attitudes into the experts' language of probability and risk could provide better information and understanding of both the attitudes and the risks. Viewing risk analysis methodologies as filters which help to test historical change, he suggests that the lack of information favors a lay jury approach for energy decisions. Spangler responds that Congress is an example of lay decision making, but that a lay jury, given public disinterest and polarization, would probably not improve social justice on the nuclear issue. 5 references, 4 figures

  20. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) Predictions for a Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    Comet Enflow is a commercially available, high frequency vibroacoustic analysis software founded on Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) and Energy Boundary Element Analysis (EBEA). Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) was validated on a floor-equipped composite cylinder by comparing EFEA vibroacoustic response predictions with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and experimental results. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions were made using the commercial software program VA One 2009 from ESI Group. The frequency region of interest for this study covers the one-third octave bands with center frequencies from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz.

  1. Binding free energy and counterion release for adsorption of the antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin B on a POPG membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Igor S.; Vivcharuk, Victor; Tomberli, Bruno; Gray, C. G.

    2009-09-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the interaction of an anionic palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) bilayer with the cationic antimicrobial peptide bovine lactoferricin (LFCinB) in a 100 mM NaCl solution at 310 K. The interaction of LFCinB with a POPG bilayer is employed as a model system for studying the details of membrane adsorption selectivity of cationic antimicrobial peptides. Seventy eight 4 ns MD production run trajectories of the equilibrated system, with six restrained orientations of LFCinB at 13 different separations from the POPG membrane, are generated to determine the free energy profile for the peptide as a function of the distance between LFCinB and the membrane surface. To calculate the profile for this relatively large system, a variant of constrained MD and thermodynamic integration is used. A simplified method for relating the free energy profile to the LFCinB-POPG membrane binding constant is employed to predict a free energy of adsorption of -5.4±1.3kcal/mol and a corresponding maximum adsorption binding force of about 58 pN. We analyze the results using Poisson-Boltzmann theory. We find the peptide-membrane attraction to be dominated by the entropy increase due to the release of counterions and polarized water from the region between the charged membrane and peptide, as the two approach each other. We contrast these results with those found earlier for adsorption of LFCinB on the mammalianlike palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine membrane.

  2. DOE's energy data base (EDB) versus other energy-related data bases: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.; Hu, M.

    1981-02-01

    The release of the DOE Energy Data Base to commercial services in 1980 raised an immediate question in the minds of some searchers: how does this new data base fit into the spectrum of already-available data bases. Because the authors have been closely associated with the Department of Energy's RECON system and its data bases for several years, as trainers and as editor of the DOE/RECON Newsletter, the question was of great interest and we decided to investigate it

  3. Analysis of China's energy utilization for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Wang Wenwen

    2011-01-01

    China is the world's second-largest energy producer and consumer, so that it is very necessary to analyze China's energy situation for saving energy consumption and reducing GHG emission. Energy flow chart is taken as a useful tool for sorting out and displaying energy statistics data. Energy statistics data is the premise and foundation for analyzing energy situation. However, there exit many differences between China and foreign energy balance. Based on the international criterion of energy balance and some advices given by related experts, the author properly adjusts China's energy balance. And the purpose of this paper is to draft China's energy flow chart for 2007, which is used to study the characteristics of energy production and consumption in China. We find that: (1) coal is the main energy in China, which accounted for 73.2% of total energy supply in 2007; (2) thermal power accounted for 83.2% of the total electricity supply, and 78.43% thermal power was based on coal; (3) in 2007, the secondary industrial sector consumed about 69.93% of energy; (4) China's energy utilization efficiency was about 33.23% in 2007. - Research highlights: → Based on the international criterion of energy balance and some advices given by related experts, the author properly adjusts China's energy balance. → The purpose of this paper is to draft China's energy flow chart for 2007, which is used to study the characteristics of energy production and consumption in China. → We find that China's energy utilization efficiency was about 33.23% in 2007.

  4. Energy analysis of thermal energy storages with grid configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid configurations of TESs are developed and assessed. • Characteristics of various configurations of TESs are developed as functions of properties. • Functions for the discharge temperature and the discharge energy of the TES are developed. - Abstract: In some thermal networks like district energy systems, there can exist conditions, depending on space availability, economics, project requirements, insulation, storing media type and other issues, for which it may be advantageous to utilize several thermal energy storages (TESs) instead of one. Here, various configurations for multiple TESs are proposed and investigated. Significant parameters for a TES, or a set of TESs, include discharging temperature and recovered energy. First, one TES is modeled to determine the final temperature, energy recovery, and energy efficiency. Next, characteristics for various grid configurations of multiple TESs are developed as functions of TES characteristics (e.g., charging and discharging temperatures and energy quantities). Series, parallel and comprehensive grid TES configurations are considered. In the parallel configuration, the TESs behave independently. This suggests that the TES can consist of different storage media types and sizes, and that there is no restriction on initial temperature of the TES. In the series configuration, the situation is different because the TESs are connected directly or indirectly through a heat exchanger. If there is no heat exchanger between the TESs, the TES storage media should be the same, because the outlet of one TES in the series is the inlet to the next. The initial temperature of the second TES must be smaller than the discharge temperature of the first. There is no restriction on the TES size for series configurations. The general grid configuration is observed to exhibit characteristics of both series and parallel configurations

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Kr-85 Fission Gas Release from Dry Process for the Treatment of Spent PWR Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Geun Il; Cho, Kwang Hun; Lee, Dou Youn; Lee, Jung Won; Park, Jang Jin; Song, Kee Chan

    2007-01-01

    As spent UO 2 fuel oxidizes to U 3 O 8 by air oxidation, a corresponding volume expansion separate grains, releasing the grain-boundary inventory of fission gases. Fission products in spent UO 2 fuel can be distributed in three major regions : the inventory in fuel-sheath gap, the inventory on grain boundaries and the inventory in UO 2 matrix. Release characteristic of fission gases depends on its distribution amount in three regions as well as spent fuel burn-up. Oxidation experiments of spent fuel at 500 .deg. C gives the information of fission gases inventory in spent fuel, and further annealing experiments at higher temperature produces matrix inventory of fission gases on segregated grain. In previous study, fractional release characteristics of Kr- 85 during OREOX (Oxidation and REduction of Oxide fuel) treatment as principal key process for recycling spent PWR fuel via DUPIC cycle have already evaluated as a function of fuel burn-up with 27.3, 35 and 65 MWd/tU. In this paper, new release experiment results of Kr-85 using spent fuel with burn- up of 58 GWd/tU are included to evaluate the fission gas release behavior. As a point of summary in fission gases release behavior, the quantitative analysis of Kr- 85 release characteristics from various spent fuels with different burn-up during voloxidation and OREOX process were reviewed

  6. Current Work in Energy Analysis (Energy Analysis Program -1996 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Analysis Program

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the work that Environmental Energy Technologies Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been doing most recently. One of our proudest accomplishments is the publication of Scenarios of U.S. Carbon Reductions, an analysis of the potential of energy technologies to reduce carbon emissions in the U.S. This analysis played a key role in shaping the U.S. position on climate change in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations. Our participation in the fundamental characterization of the climate change issue by the IPCC is described. We are also especially proud of our study of ''leaking electricity,'' which is stimulating an international campaign for a one-watt ceiling for standby electricity losses from appliances. This ceiling has the potential to save two-thirds of the 5% of U.S. residential electricity currently expended on standby losses. The 54 vignettes contained in the following pages summarize results of research. activities ranging in scale from calculating the efficacy of individual lamp ballasts to estimating the cost-effectiveness of the national ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} labeling program, and ranging in location from a scoping study of energy-efficiency market transformation in California to development of an energy-efficiency project in the auto parts industry in Shandong Province, China. These are the intellectual endeavors of a talented team of researchers dedicated to public service.

  7. Survey on econometric analysis of oil substitute energy; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the econometric analysis of petroleum substitution energy, a domestic econometric model was developed which can concretely and econometrically grasp and analyze effects of measures taken for environmental policies, energy conservation, promotion of new energy, etc. The model was made so synthetic as to catch a relationship between energy supply/demand and changes of econosocial structures in economic growth, industrial structure, life style, etc. which are extremely important elements for catching future energy demand. The model is composed of a secondary energy price model, a new energy introduction model, and an energy supply/demand model. As case parameters, selected were the price of crude oil, introduction of new energy, GDP and energy conservation, and the following cases were assumed: standard case, high price energy case, new energy introduction promotion case, low economic growth case, energy conservation case, and low energy demand case. The results of simulating each of these cases were indicated. 91 figs., 110 tabs.

  8. Analysis and evaluation of the ASTEC model basis on fission product and aerosol release phenomena from melts. 3. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agethen, K.; Koch, M.K.

    2016-04-01

    The present report is the 3 rd Technical Report within the research project ''ASMO'' founded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi 1501433) and projected at the Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics (LEE) within the workgroup Reactor Simulation and Safety at the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB). The focus in this report is set on the release of fission products and the contribution to the source term, which is formed in the late phase after failure of the reactor pressure vessel during MCCI. By comparing the RUB simulation results including the fission product release rates with further simulations of GRS and VEIKI it can be indicated that the simulations have a high sensitivity in respect to the melting point temperature. It can be noted that the release rates are underestimated for most fission product species with the current model. Especially semi-volatile fission products and the lanthanum release is underestimated by several orders of magnitude. Based on the ACE experiment L2, advanced considerations are presented concerning the melt temperature, the gas temperature, the segregation and a varied melt configuration. Furthermore, the influence of the gas velocity is investigated. This variation of the gas velocity causes an underestimation of the release rates compared to the RUB base calculation. A model extension to oxidic species for lanthanum and ruthenium shows a significant improvement of the simulation results. In addition, the MEDICIS module has been enhanced to document the currently existing species, are displayed in a *.ist-file. This expansion shows inconsistencies between the melt composition and the fission product composition. Based on these results, there are still some difficulties regarding the release of fission products in the MEDICIS module and the interaction with the material data base (MOB) which needs further investigation.

  9. EnerFuture: Long Term Energy Scenarios 'Understanding our energy future'. Key graphs and analysis, Enerdata - Global Energy Forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Enerdata analyses 4 future energy scenarios accounting for 2 economic growth assumptions combined with 2 alternative carbon emission mitigation policies. In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the energy consumption and intensity forecasts in emerging and developed markets. In particular, one analysis is dedicated to energies competition, including gas, coal and renewable energies. (authors)

  10. Forecast and analysis of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption for global energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Cheng, Ling; Jin, Lu; Shen, Si

    2018-02-01

    In the background of building global energy internet, it has both theoretical and realistic significance for forecasting and analysing the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy consumption. This paper firstly analysed the influencing factors of the ratio of electric energy to terminal energy and then used combination method to forecast and analyse the global proportion of electric energy. And then, construct the cointegration model for the proportion of electric energy by using influence factor such as electricity price index, GDP, economic structure, energy use efficiency and total population level. At last, this paper got prediction map of the proportion of electric energy by using the combination-forecasting model based on multiple linear regression method, trend analysis method, and variance-covariance method. This map describes the development trend of the proportion of electric energy in 2017-2050 and the proportion of electric energy in 2050 was analysed in detail using scenario analysis.

  11. Energy Demand and Supply Analysis and Outlook - Energy Forecast for 2001 and Policy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang; Ryu, Ji Chul [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has grown at impressive rates during the last 3 decades, along with the economic growth. The global concern about the environment issue and the restructuring in Korea energy industry has an effect on the pattern and trend of energy demand in Korea. Under the situation, this research are focusing on the analysis of energy consumption and forecast of energy demand. First of all, we analyze the trends and major characteristics of energy consumption, beginning with 1970s and up to the third quarter of 2000. In the analysis of energy consumption by energy types, we also perform qualitative analysis on the trends and characteristics of each energy types, including institutional analysis. In model section, we start with the brief description of synopsis and outline the survey on empirical models for energy demand. The econometric model used in KEEI's short-term energy forecast is outlined, followed by the result of estimations. The 2001 energy demand forecast is predicted in detail by sectors and energy types. In the year 2001, weak demand is projected to continue through the First Half, and pick up its pace of growth only in the Second Half. Projected total demand is 201.3 million TOE or 4.4% growth. In the last section, the major policy issues are summarized in three sub-sections: the restructuring in energy industry, the security of energy demand and supply, international energy cooperation including south-north energy cooperation. (author). 86 refs., 43 figs., 73 tabs.

  12. Energy and emission analysis for industrial motors in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Rahim, N.A.; Ping, H.W.; Jahirul, M.I.; Mekhilef, S.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    The industrial sector is the largest user of energy in Malaysia. Industrial motors account for a major segment of total industrial energy use. Since motors are the principle energy users, different energy savings strategies have been applied to reduce their energy consumption and associated emissions released into the atmosphere. These strategies include using highly efficient motors, variable speed drive (VSD), and capacitor banks to improve the power factor. It has been estimated that there can be a total energy savings of 1765, 2703 and 3605 MWh by utilizing energy-efficient motors for 50%, 75% and 100% loads, respectively. It was also found that for different motor loads, an estimated US$115,936 US$173,019 and US$230,693 can be saved in anticipated energy costs. Similarly, it is hypothesized that a significant amount of energy can be saved using VSD and capacitor banks to reduce speed and improve the power factor, thus cutting energy costs. Moreover, a substantial reduction in the amount of emissions can be effected together with the associated energy savings for different energy savings strategies. In addition, the payback period for different energy savings strategies has been found to be reasonable in some cases.

  13. Solar applications analysis for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, T.

    1980-01-01

    The role of energy storage as it relates to solar energy systems is considered. Storage technologies to support solar energy applications, the status of storage technologies, requirements and specifications for storage technologies, and the adequacy of the current storage research and development program to meet these requirements are among the factors discussed. Emphasis is placed on identification of where the greatest potential exists for energy storage in support of those solar energy systems which could have a significant impact on the U.S. energy mix.

  14. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...

  15. Compositional analysis of sulfated polysaccharides from sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicus) released by autolysis reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuang; Wu, Sufeng; Ai, Chunqing; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Zhenjun; Cao, Chunyang; Yang, Jingfeng; Wen, Chengrong

    2018-07-15

    Autolysis is not only a major reason for postharvest quality deterioration of sea cucumber, but also a promising alternative for exogenous protease to produce peptides or polysaccharides. However, little has been known about the effects of autolysis on bioactive polysaccharides of sea cucumber. Concerning the quality and safety of sea cucumber products involved autolysis reaction, the present study focused on the chemical composition of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) released by autolysis reaction. Chemical analysis indicated that after 3-day autolysis 63% of sulfated polysaccharides were liberated but with protein chains at their reducing ends. Then the composition of SP obtained by autolysis (A-SP) was compared with that of total SPs (T-SP) via a series of analysis techniques, including FTIR, 1 H NMR, HPLC and mass spectroscopy. As indicated by the results, fucan to fucosylated chondroitin sulfate ratio was found high in A-SP compared to T-SP, fucan with a lower molecular weight was the major fraction in A-SP, and the di-sulfated Fuc residue observed in T-SP was absent in A-SP. To conclude, A-SP differed greatly from T-SP in the chemical composition, suggesting possible changes on their bioactivities. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Determination of radioactivity released from fuel to be considered in accident safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to define a margin of conservatism on activity values used in the following safety analysis - determination of instrumentation ranges - definition of equipment accessibility to personnel - qualification of equipment to post-accident conditions - determination of waste release to the environment

  17. Analysis of fission gas release in LWR fuel using the BISON code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Pastore; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; D.M. Perez; B.W. Spencer; R.L. Williamson

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in the development of the finite-element based, multidimensional fuel performance code BISON of Idaho National Laboratory are presented. Specifically, the development, implementation and testing of a new model for the analysis of fission gas behavior in LWR-UO2 fuel during irradiation are summarized. While retaining a physics-based description of the relevant mechanisms, the model is characterized by a level of complexity suitable for application to engineering-scale nuclear fuel analysis and consistent with the uncertainties pertaining to some parameters. The treatment includes the fundamental features of fission gas behavior, among which are gas diffusion and precipitation in fuel grains, growth and coalescence of gas bubbles at grain faces, grain growth and grain boundary sweeping effects, thermal, athermal, and transient gas release. The BISON code incorporating the new model is applied to the simulation of irradiation experiments from the OECD/NEA International Fuel Performance Experiments database, also included in the IAEA coordinated research projects FUMEX-II and FUMEX-III. The comparison of the results with the available experimental data at moderate burn-up is presented, pointing out an encouraging predictive accuracy, without any fitting applied to the model parameters.

  18. A component analysis of the generation and release of isometric force in Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, N; Sagar, H J; Cooper, J A

    1992-01-01

    Paradigms of isometric force control allow study of the generation and release of movement in the absence of complications due to disordered visuomotor coordination. The onset and release of isometric force in Parkinson's disease (PD) was studied, using computerised determinants of latency of response and rate of force generation and release. Components of isometric force control were related to measures of cognitive, affective and clinical motor disability. The effects of treatment were dete...

  19. 76 FR 57982 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket No. EERE-2011-BT-BC-0046] Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis Correction In notice document 2011-23236 beginning on page...-23236 Filed 9-16-11; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 1505-01-P ...

  20. Energy analysis handbook. CAC document 214. [Combining process analysis with input-output analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, C. W.; Penner, P. S.; Pilati, D. A.

    1976-10-01

    Methods are presented for calculating the energy required, directly and indirectly, to produce all types of goods and services. Procedures for combining process analysis with input-output analysis are described. This enables the analyst to focus data acquisition cost-effectively, and to achieve a specified degree of accuracy in the results. The report presents sample calculations and provides the tables and charts needed to perform most energy cost calculations, including the cost of systems for producing or conserving energy.

  1. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Salah, Wael [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mujeebu, M. Abdul [School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors. (author)

  2. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Mujeebu, M. Abdul; Salah, Wael

    2009-01-01

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors.

  3. Use of leaching tests to quantify trace element release from waste to energy bottom ash amended pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Justin G; Townsend, Timothy G; Ferraro, Christopher C

    2015-12-30

    A series of roadway tests strips were paved on-site at a landfill in Florida, U.S. Waste to energy (WTE) bottom ash was used as a partial course aggregate replacement in a hot mix asphalt (HMA) and a Portland cement concrete (PCC) pavement, along with control HMA and PCC sections. This allowed for a comparison of the relative degree of leaching between both materials (HMA and PCC) as well as between the ash-amended and control pavements. Batch and monolithic tank leaching tests were conducted on the pavements. Testing of the PCC samples demonstrated that Mo and Al were elevated above regulatory thresholds for both the control and ash amended samples. Further leach testing demonstrated that the release of Mo was likely from the PCC and not a result of the inclusion of the BA into pavement. Batch leach testing of ash-amended HMA samples revealed Sb as a constituent of potential concern. The results of the monolith leaching test displayed leaching of Sb within the same order of magnitude as the regulatory threshold. Calculation of the leachability index (LI) for Sb found that it would have limited mobility when incorporated in the HMA matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Load-Unload Response Ratio and Accelerating Moment/Energy Release Critical Region Scaling and Earthquake Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, X. C.; Mora, P.; Peng, K.; Wang, Y. C.; Weatherley, D.

    The main idea of the Load-Unload Response Ratio (LURR) is that when a system is stable, its response to loading corresponds to its response to unloading, whereas when the system is approaching an unstable state, the response to loading and unloading becomes quite different. High LURR values and observations of Accelerating Moment/Energy Release (AMR/AER) prior to large earthquakes have led different research groups to suggest intermediate-term earthquake prediction is possible and imply that the LURR and AMR/AER observations may have a similar physical origin. To study this possibility, we conducted a retrospective examination of several Australian and Chinese earthquakes with magnitudes ranging from 5.0 to 7.9, including Australia's deadly Newcastle earthquake and the devastating Tangshan earthquake. Both LURR values and best-fit power-law time-to-failure functions were computed using data within a range of distances from the epicenter. Like the best-fit power-law fits in AMR/AER, the LURR value was optimal using data within a certain epicentral distance implying a critical region for LURR. Furthermore, LURR critical region size scales with mainshock magnitude and is similar to the AMR/AER critical region size. These results suggest a common physical origin for both the AMR/AER and LURR observations. Further research may provide clues that yield an understanding of this mechanism and help lead to a solid foundation for intermediate-term earthquake prediction.

  5. Assessment of chemicals released in the marine environment by dielectric elastomers useful as active elements in wave energy harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaltariov, Mirela-Fernanda; Bele, Adrian; Vasiliu, Lavinia; Gradinaru, Luiza; Vornicu, Nicoleta; Racles, Carmen; Cazacu, Maria

    2018-01-05

    A series of elastomers, either natural or synthetic (some of them commercial, while others prepared in the laboratory), suitable for use as active elements in devices for wave energy harvesting, were evaluated concerning their behavior and effects on the marine environment. In this aim, the elastomer films, initially evaluated regarding their aspect, structure, surface wettability, and tolerance of microorganisms growth, were immersed in synthetic seawater (SSW) within six months for assessing compounds released. There were analyzed the changes occurred both in the elastomers and salt water in which they were immersed. For this, water samples taken at set time intervals were analyzed by using a sequence of sensitive spectral techniques: UV-vis, IR, and in relevant cases 1 H NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), able to detect and identify organic compounds, while after six months, they were also investigated from the point of view of aspect, presence of metal traces, pH, and biological activity. The changes in aspect, structure and morphology of the dielectric films at the end of the dipping period were also evaluated by visual inspection, IR spectroscopy by using spectral subtraction method, and SEM-EDX technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative analysis of energy efficiency in water users associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadia, R.; Rocamora, M. C.; Corcoles, J. I.; Ruiz-Canales, A.; Martinez-Romero, A.; Moreno, M. A.

    2010-07-01

    The government of Spain has developed an energy strategy that includes a campaign of energy audits in water users associations (WUAs) in order to improve energy efficiency in irrigation. A guideline for energy audits has been developed, standardizing the audit process in WUAs. This guideline has been implemented in 22 WUAs in the Castilla-La Mancha, Valencia, and Murcia Regions. In this paper, an analysis of the indicators proposed in the guideline is performed, and the indicators that most represent energy efficiency of WUAs are identified. Also, the suitability of the proposed indicators and classifications under different conditions are discussed. In addition, a cluster analysis is performed on WUAs to classify them according to their energetic aspects. Results show that indicators global energy efficiency (GEE) and active energy consumed per hectare (EacSr) are not adequate for analysing the evolution of energy consumption in a WUA. The most representative energy indicators are those expressing ratios between energy consumption and water volume supplied to the users as the indicators active energy consumed per volume unit (EacVs) and energy cost per volume unit (CENVs). It is conclude that using the current methodology for calculate the supply energy efficiency indicator (SEE), GEE is not an adequate indicator for energy classification of WUAs, and also that the results of the energy analysis must be used to propose measures for energy conservation and energy cost reduction. (Author) 14 refs.

  7. Energy demand : analysis, management and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasinghe, Mohan

    1990-01-01

    The papers in this book are expected make useful contributions to energy research and policy whether they are driven with the objective of augmenting supplies to reduce oil dependence, to increase the economic benefit per unit of energy consumed, or to reduce the impact of energy use on the environment. Papers relevant to INIS subject scopes are indexed separately. (original)

  8. Experiments to determine the rate of beta energy release following fission of Pu239 andU235 in a fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.F.; Taylor, W.H.; Sweet, D.W.; March, M.R.

    1979-02-01

    Measurements have been made of the rate of beta energy release from Pu239 and U235 fission fragments over a period of 107 seconds following a 105 second irradiation in the zero-power fast reactor Zebra. Results are compared with predictions using the UKFPDD-1 decay data file and two different sets of fission product yield data. (author)

  9. Energy Analysis of the Ductless Personalized Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lelong, Cyril; Dalewski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2013-01-01

    energy efficient strategies for implantation of DPV in practice. The impact of using DPV on annual energy use has been studied for different occupancy profiles in cold climates. The results suggest that using DPV combined with displacement ventilation may significantly reduce building energy use while......This study explores the impact of different occupancy profiles on the potential energy savings due to using ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) combined with displacement ventilation. Energy simulations were performed with the dynamic simulation software IDA-ICE in order to investigate optimal...

  10. Investigation of Energy Release in Microflares Observed by the Second Sounding Rocket Flight of the Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI-2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vievering, J. T.; Glesener, L.; Panchapakesan, S. A.; Ryan, D.; Krucker, S.; Christe, S.; Buitrago-Casas, J. C.; Inglis, A. R.; Musset, S.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of the Sun in hard x-rays can provide insight into many solar phenomena which are not currently well-understood, including the mechanisms behind particle acceleration in flares. RHESSI is the only solar-dedicated imager currently operating in the hard x-ray regime. Though RHESSI has greatly added to our knowledge of flare particle acceleration, the indirect imaging method of rotating collimating optics is fundamentally limited in sensitivity and dynamic range. By instead using a direct imaging technique, the structure and evolution of even small flares and active regions can be investigated in greater depth. FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager), a hard x-ray instrument flown on two sounding rocket campaigns, seeks to achieve these improved capabilities by using focusing optics for solar observations in the 4-20 keV range. During the second of the FOXSI flights, flown on December 11, 2014, two microflares were observed, estimated as GOES class A0.5 and A2.5 (upper limits). Here we present current imaging and spectral analyses of these microflares, exploring the nature of energy release and comparing to observations from other instruments. Additionally, we feature the first analysis of data from the FOXSI-2 CdTe strip detectors, which provide improved efficiency above 10 keV. Through this analysis, we investigate the capabilities of FOXSI in enhancing our knowledge of smaller-scale solar events.

  11. Energy analysis in sterilization process of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Sun; Pyun, Yu Ryang

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed for predicting energy consumption of batch type thermal processing of food. From mass and energy balance equations various energy usages or losses were estimated for steam sterilization of model food system in No.301-7 can (Φ74.1 x 113.0mm) at three different temperatures. Selected models were 5 % bentonite solution for conductive food and tap water for convective food. Total steam or energy consumption was higher at 110 deg C than at two other higher temperatures (121 deg C and 130 deg C). High energy consumption at low sterilization temperature was mainly due to high bleeding steam energy and convective and radiative heat losses. Thermal energy efficiency was also disscussed. (Author)

  12. 40 CFR 68.25 - Worst-case release scenario analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.25 Worst-case release... processes, one worst-case release scenario for each Program 1 process; (2) For Program 2 and 3 processes: (i... toxic substances from covered processes under worst-case conditions defined in § 68.22; (ii) One worst...

  13. Sensitivity analysis for CORSOR models simulating fission product release in LOFT-LP-FP-2 severe accident experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoseyni, Seyed Mohsen [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Basic Sciences; Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Young Researchers and Elite Club; Pourgol-Mohammad, Mohammad [Sahand Univ. of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yousefpour, Faramarz [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    This paper deals with simulation, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of LP-FP-2 experiment of LOFT test facility. The test facility simulates the major components and system response of a pressurized water reactor during a LOCA. MELCOR code is used for predicting the fission product release from the core fuel elements in LOFT LP-FP-2 experiment. Moreover, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is performed for different CORSOR models simulating release of fission products in severe accident calculations for nuclear power plants. The calculated values for the fission product release are compared under different modeling options to the experimental data available from the experiment. In conclusion, the performance of 8 CORSOR modeling options is assessed for available modeling alternatives in the code structure.

  14. Life-cycle analysis of renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    1994-01-01

    An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants......An imlementation of life-cycle analysis (LCA) for energy systems is presented and applied to two renewable energy systems (wind turbines and building-integrated photovoltaic modules) and compared with coal plants...

  15. Pressure loadings of Soviet-designed VVER [Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor] reactor release mitigation structures from large-break LOCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Horak, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses have been carried out of the pressurization of the accident release mitigation structures of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) pressurized water reactors following large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Specific VVER systems for which calculations were performed are the VVER-440 model V230, VVER-440 model V213, and VVER-1000 model V320. Descriptions of the designs of these and other VVER models are contained in the report DOE/NE-0084. The principal objective of the current analyses is to calculate the time dependent pressure loadings inside the accident localization or containment structures immediately following the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary coolant pipe. In addition, the pressures are compared with the results of calculations of the response of the structures to overpressure. Primary coolant system thermal hydraulic conditions and the fluid conditions at the break location were calculated with the RETRAN-02 Mod2 computer code (Agee, 1984). Pressures and temperatures inside the building accident release mitigation structures were obtained from the PACER (Pressurization Accompanying Coolant Escape from Ruptures) multicompartment containment analysis code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The analyses were carried out using best estimate models and conditions rather than conservative, bounding-type assumptions. In particular, condensation upon structure and equipment was calculated using correlations based upon analyses of the HDR, Marviken, and Battelle Frankfurt containment loading experiments. The intercompartment flow rates incorporate an effective discharge coefficient and liquid droplet carryover fraction given by expressions of Schwan determined from analyses of the Battelle Frankfurt and Marviken tests. 5 refs., 4 figs

  16. Modelling and analysis of a novel compressed air energy storage system for trigeneration based on electrical energy peak load shifting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Song; He, Wei; Zhang, Aifeng; Li, Guiqiang; Luo, Bingqing; Liu, Xianghua

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new CAES system for trigeneration based on electrical peak load shifting is proposed. • The theoretical models and the thermodynamics process are established and analyzed. • The relevant parameters influencing its performance have been discussed and optimized. • A novel energy and economic evaluation methods is proposed to evaluate the performance of the system. - Abstract: The compressed air energy storage (CAES) has made great contribution to both electricity and renewable energy. In the pursuit of reduced energy consumption and relieving power utility pressure effectively, a novel trigeneration system based on CAES for cooling, heating and electricity generation by electrical energy peak load shifting is proposed in this paper. The cooling power is generated by the direct expansion of compressed air, and the heating power is recovered in the process of compression and storage. Based on the working principle of the typical CAES, the theoretical analysis of the thermodynamic system models are established and the characteristics of the system are analyzed. A novel method used to evaluate energy and economic performance is proposed. A case study is conducted, and the economic-social and technical feasibility of the proposed system are discussed. The results show that the trigeneration system works efficiently at relatively low pressure, and the efficiency is expected to reach about 76.3% when air is compressed and released by 15 bar. The annual monetary cost saving annually is about 53.9%. Moreover, general considerations about the proposed system are also presented.

  17. 3D motion analysis via energy minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedel, Andreas

    2009-10-16

    This work deals with 3D motion analysis from stereo image sequences for driver assistance systems. It consists of two parts: the estimation of motion from the image data and the segmentation of moving objects in the input images. The content can be summarized with the technical term machine visual kinesthesia, the sensation or perception and cognition of motion. In the first three chapters, the importance of motion information is discussed for driver assistance systems, for machine vision in general, and for the estimation of ego motion. The next two chapters delineate on motion perception, analyzing the apparent movement of pixels in image sequences for both a monocular and binocular camera setup. Then, the obtained motion information is used to segment moving objects in the input video. Thus, one can clearly identify the thread from analyzing the input images to describing the input images by means of stationary and moving objects. Finally, I present possibilities for future applications based on the contents of this thesis. Previous work in each case is presented in the respective chapters. Although the overarching issue of motion estimation from image sequences is related to practice, there is nothing as practical as a good theory (Kurt Lewin). Several problems in computer vision are formulated as intricate energy minimization problems. In this thesis, motion analysis in image sequences is thoroughly investigated, showing that splitting an original complex problem into simplified sub-problems yields improved accuracy, increased robustness, and a clear and accessible approach to state-of-the-art motion estimation techniques. In Chapter 4, optical flow is considered. Optical flow is commonly estimated by minimizing the combined energy, consisting of a data term and a smoothness term. These two parts are decoupled, yielding a novel and iterative approach to optical flow. The derived Refinement Optical Flow framework is a clear and straight-forward approach to

  18. EnergyPlus Run Time Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Buhl, Fred; Haves, Philip

    2008-09-20

    EnergyPlus is a new generation building performance simulation program offering many new modeling capabilities and more accurate performance calculations integrating building components in sub-hourly time steps. However, EnergyPlus runs much slower than the current generation simulation programs. This has become a major barrier to its widespread adoption by the industry. This paper analyzed EnergyPlus run time from comprehensive perspectives to identify key issues and challenges of speeding up EnergyPlus: studying the historical trends of EnergyPlus run time based on the advancement of computers and code improvements to EnergyPlus, comparing EnergyPlus with DOE-2 to understand and quantify the run time differences, identifying key simulation settings and model features that have significant impacts on run time, and performing code profiling to identify which EnergyPlus subroutines consume the most amount of run time. This paper provides recommendations to improve EnergyPlus run time from the modeler?s perspective and adequate computing platforms. Suggestions of software code and architecture changes to improve EnergyPlus run time based on the code profiling results are also discussed.

  19. Revised financial analysis of experimental releases conducted at Glen Canyon Dam during water years 1997 through 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veselka, T. D.; Poch, L. A.; Palmer, C. S.; Loftin, S.; Osiek, B.; Decision and Information Sciences; Western Area Power Administration, Colorado River Storage Project Management Center

    2011-01-11

    Because of concerns about the impact that Glen Canyon Dam (GCD) operations were having on downstream ecosystems and endangered species, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) conducted an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on dam operations (DOE 1996). New operating rules and management goals for GCD that had been specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) (Reclamation 1996) were adopted in February 1997. In addition to issuing new operating criteria, the ROD mandated experimental releases for the purpose of conducting scientific studies. This paper examines the financial implications of the experimental flows that were conducted at the GCD from 1997 to 2005. An experimental release may have either a positive or negative impact on the financial value of energy production. This study estimates the financial costs of experimental releases, identifies the main factors that contribute to these costs, and compares the interdependencies among these factors. An integrated set of tools was used to compute the financial impacts of the experimental releases by simulating the operation of the GCD under two scenarios, namely, (1) a baseline scenario that assumes operations comply with the ROD operating criteria and experimental releases that actually took place during the study period, and (2) a 'without experiments' scenario that is identical to the baseline scenario of operations that comply with the GCD ROD, except it assumes that experimental releases did not occur. The Generation and Transmission Maximization (GTMax) model was the main simulation tool used to dispatch GCD and other hydropower plants that comprise the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP). Extensive data sets and historical information on SLCA/IP power plant characteristics, hydrologic conditions, and Western Area Power Administration's (Western's) power purchase prices were used for the simulation. In addition to estimating the financial impact of experimental releases

  20. Analysis of exergy efficiency of a super-critical compressed carbon dioxide energy-storage system based on the orthogonal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Hao, Yinping; Liu, Hui; Liu, Wenyi

    2018-01-01

    Super-critical carbon dioxide energy-storage (SC-CCES) technology is a new type of gas energy-storage technology. This paper used orthogonal method and variance analysis to make significant analysis on the factors which would affect the thermodynamics characteristics of the SC-CCES system and obtained the significant factors and interactions in the energy-storage process, the energy-release process and the whole energy-storage system. Results have shown that the interactions in the components have little influence on the energy-storage process, the energy-release process and the whole energy-storage process of the SC-CCES system, the significant factors are mainly on the characteristics of the system component itself, which will provide reference for the optimization of the thermal properties of the energy-storage system.

  1. Analysis of exergy efficiency of a super-critical compressed carbon dioxide energy-storage system based on the orthogonal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Wenyi

    2018-01-01

    Super-critical carbon dioxide energy-storage (SC-CCES) technology is a new type of gas energy-storage technology. This paper used orthogonal method and variance analysis to make significant analysis on the factors which would affect the thermodynamics characteristics of the SC-CCES system and obtained the significant factors and interactions in the energy-storage process, the energy-release process and the whole energy-storage system. Results have shown that the interactions in the components have little influence on the energy-storage process, the energy-release process and the whole energy-storage process of the SC-CCES system, the significant factors are mainly on the characteristics of the system component itself, which will provide reference for the optimization of the thermal properties of the energy-storage system. PMID:29634742

  2. Realizing a Clean Energy Future: Highlights of NREL Analysis (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-12-01

    Profound energy system transformation is underway. In Hawaiian mythology, Maui set out to lasso the sun in order to capture its energy. He succeeded. That may have been the most dramatic leap forward in clean energy systems that the world has known. Until now. Today, another profound transformation is underway. A combination of forces is taking us from a carbon-centric, inefficient energy system to one that draws from diverse energy sources - including the sun. NREL analysis is helping guide energy systems policy and investment decisions through this transformation. This brochure highlights NREL analysis accomplishments in the context of four thematic storylines.

  3. Energy consumption and income. A semiparametric panel data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Van, Phu [BETA, CNRS and Universite de Strasbourg, 61 avenue de la Foret Noire, F-67085 Strasbourg (France)

    2010-05-15

    This paper proposes a semiparametric analysis for the study of the relationship between energy consumption per capita and income per capita for an international panel dataset. It shows little evidence for the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for energy consumption. Energy consumption increases with income for a majority of countries and then stabilizes for very high income countries. Neither changes in energy structure nor macroeconomic cycle/technological change have significant effect on energy consumption. (author)

  4. Single-Family Energy Auditor Job Task Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, Heather R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-02

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is contracted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) to develop and maintain the resources under the Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals (GHEP) project. As part of the GHEP strategy to increase the quality of work conducted for single-family, residential energy-efficiency retrofits, the Home Energy Professionals Job Task Analysis are used as the foundation for quality training programs and trainers.

  5. Solar energy options: Technical economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visentin, R

    1982-01-01

    A general system approach on the earth suggests the conversion and distribution of solar energy as electricity, gas, solid and liquid fuels; the historical trend in energy management techniques is in favour of this hard technical proposal, because experience there exists on methods of transmission or transportation of previous kinds of energy vectors mentioned, and small changes in lifestyles toward energy conservation have to be considered in the final uses of the energy. Less hard system technologies will permit direct heat and electricity production close to the channels of energy consumptions; these systems will function as energy savers and their full exploitation implies greater impacts on energy use and lifestyles. As a general trend for government policies as well as for public decision impact on the social decision process, the proliferation of solar systems would permit to produce energy for the 'flowing energetic consumptions' (civil, transportation, agriculture, telecommunications, lighting, etc.) while the not renewable fuels could be properly invested in the production of strategic or durable materials; in this scheme the role of renewable resources is well defined to stabilize the whole civil system in which we are at present organized.

  6. Introduction to SURPH.1 analysis of release-recapture data for survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.G.; Skalski, J.R.; Schlechte, J.W.; Hoffmann, A.; Cassen, V.

    1994-12-01

    Program SURPH is the culmination of several years of research to develop a comprehensive computer program to analyze survival studies of fish and wildlife populations. Development of this software was motivated by the advent of the PIT-tag (Passive Integrated Transponder) technology that permits the detection of salmonid smolt as they pass through hydroelectric facilities on the Snake and Columbia Rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Repeated detections of individually tagged smolt and analysis of their capture-histories permits estimates of downriver survival probabilities. Eventual installation of detection facilities at adult fish ladders will also permit estimation of ocean survival and upstream survival of returning salmon using the statistical methods incorporated in SURPH.1. However, the utility of SURPH.1 far exceeds solely the analysis of salmonid tagging studies. Release-recapture and radiotelemetry studies from a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic species have been analyzed using SURPH.1 to estimate discrete time survival probabilities and investigate survival relationships. The interactive computing environment of SURPH.1 was specifically developed to allow researchers to investigate the relationship between survival and capture processes and environmental, experimental and individual-based covariates. Program SURPH.1 represents a significant advancement in the ability of ecologists to investigate the interplay between morphologic, genetic, environmental and anthropogenic factors on the survival of wild species. It is hoped that this better understanding of risk factors affecting survival will lead to greater appreciation of the intricacies of nature and to improvements in the management of wild resources. This technical report is an introduction to SURPH.1 and provides a user guide for both the UNIX and MS-Windows reg-sign applications of the SURPH software

  7. Decision analysis of countermeasures for the milk pathway after an accidental release of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammann, M.; Sinkko, K.; Kostiainen, E.; Salo, E.; Liskola, K.; Haemaelaeinen, R.P.; Mustajoki, J

    2001-12-01

    A facilitated workshop was arranged to plan countermeasures that could reduce the dose arising from the consumption of radionuclide-contaminated milk products. It was assumed that a hypothetical accident in a nuclear facility had led to the release of considerable amounts of radionuclides, which subsequently spread across one of Finland's most important agricultural regions and contaminated the milk produced there. The participants in the workshop, interest groups on food issues, considered all the factors influencing the countermeasure decision, not only radiological or monetary ones but less tangible psychosocial effects as well. The participants preferred the countermeasures provision of uncontaminated fodder and production control to banning and disposal. The analysis showed that these countermeasures could be implemented even if the radionuclide concentrations in foodstuffs were below internationally recommended intervention levels. Banning and withdrawal of milk products from sale was not a favourable option, because of the high costs and disadvantages to producers and the industry, and because the disposal of enormous amounts of milk causes a considerable environmental problem. The study revealed the need to further develop methods to realistically assess the radiological and cost implications of food countermeasures. The feasibility and constraints of actions also need further investigation. The experience gained strongly supports the format of a facilitated workshop to tackle a decision problem that concerns different stakeholders. The participants considered the workshop and the decision analysis very useful in exercises. They also expected a similar approach to be applicable in a real situation, although the suitability was not rated as high as for exercises. It is concluded that a facilitated workshop is a valuable instrument for emergency management and in exercises, when revising emergency plans or in order to identify issues that need to be

  8. Temporal trend of carpal tunnel release surgery: a population-based time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Fnais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel release (CTR is among the most common hand surgeries, although little is known about its pattern. In this study, we aimed to investigate temporal trends, age and gender variation and current practice patterns in CTR surgeries. METHODS: We conducted a population-based time series analysis among over 13 million residents of Ontario, who underwent operative management for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS from April 1, 1992 to March 31, 2010 using administrative claims data. RESULTS: The primary analysis revealed a fairly stable procedure rate of approximately 10 patients per 10,000 population per year receiving CTRs without any significant, consistent temporal trend (p = 0.94. Secondary analyses revealed different trends in procedure rates according to age. The annual procedure rate among those age >75 years increased from 22 per 10,000 population at the beginning of the study period to over 26 patients per 10,000 population (p<0.01 by the end of the study period. CTR surgical procedures were approximately two-fold more common among females relative to males (64.9% vs. 35.1 respectively; p<0.01. Lastly, CTR procedures are increasingly being conducted in the outpatient setting while procedures in the inpatient setting have been declining steadily - the proportion of procedures performed in the outpatient setting increased from 13% to over 30% by 2010 (p<0.01. CONCLUSION: Overall, CTR surgical-procedures are conducted at a rate of approximately 10 patients per 10,000 population annually with significant variation with respect to age and gender. CTR surgical procedures in ambulatory-care facilities may soon outpace procedure rates in the in-hospital setting.

  9. Atomic force microscopy analysis of synthetic membranes applied in release studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olejnik, Anna, E-mail: annamar@amu.edu.pl; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We compare eight synthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy. • We predict the behavior of membranes in the release experiments. • The polymeric synthetic membranes varied in shape and size. • We detect substructures in pores of cellulose esters and nylon membranes. • Substructures limit the release rate of active compound. - Abstract: Synthetic membranes are commonly used in drug release studies and are applied mostly in quality control. They contain pores through which the drug can be diffused directly into the receptor fluid. Investigation of synthetic membranes permits determination of their structure and characterization of their properties. We suggest that the preliminary characterization of the membranes can be relevant to the interpretation of the release results. The aim of this study was to compare eight synthetic membranes by using atomic force microscopy in order to predict and understand their behavior in the release experiments. The results proved that polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was not suitable for the release study of tetrapeptide due to its hydrophobic nature, thickness and the specific structure with high trapezoid shaped blocks. The additional substructures in pores of mixed cellulose esters and nylon membranes detected by AFM influenced the diffusion rate of the active compound. These findings indicate that the selection of the membrane for the release studies should be performed cautiously by taking into consideration the membrane properties and by analyzing them prior the experiment.

  10. Atomic force microscopy analysis of synthetic membranes applied in release studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olejnik, Anna; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We compare eight synthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy. • We predict the behavior of membranes in the release experiments. • The polymeric synthetic membranes varied in shape and size. • We detect substructures in pores of cellulose esters and nylon membranes. • Substructures limit the release rate of active compound. - Abstract: Synthetic membranes are commonly used in drug release studies and are applied mostly in quality control. They contain pores through which the drug can be diffused directly into the receptor fluid. Investigation of synthetic membranes permits determination of their structure and characterization of their properties. We suggest that the preliminary characterization of the membranes can be relevant to the interpretation of the release results. The aim of this study was to compare eight synthetic membranes by using atomic force microscopy in order to predict and understand their behavior in the release experiments. The results proved that polytetrafluoroethylene membrane was not suitable for the release study of tetrapeptide due to its hydrophobic nature, thickness and the specific structure with high trapezoid shaped blocks. The additional substructures in pores of mixed cellulose esters and nylon membranes detected by AFM influenced the diffusion rate of the active compound. These findings indicate that the selection of the membrane for the release studies should be performed cautiously by taking into consideration the membrane properties and by analyzing them prior the experiment.

  11. A generic framework for the description and analysis of energy security in an energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2012-01-01

    While many energy security indicators and models have been developed for specific jurisdictions or types of energy, few can be considered sufficiently generic to be applicable to any energy system. This paper presents a framework that attempts to meet this objective by combining the International Energy Agency's definition of energy security with structured systems analysis techniques to create three energy security indicators and a process-flow energy systems model. The framework is applicable to those energy systems which can be described in terms of processes converting or transporting flows of energy to meet the energy–demand flows from downstream processes. Each process affects the environment and is subject to jurisdictional policies. The framework can be employed to capture the evolution of energy security in an energy system by analyzing the results of indicator-specific metrics applied to the energy, demand, and environment flows associated with the system's constituent processes. Energy security policies are treated as flows to processes and classified into one of three actions affecting the process's energy demand or the process or its energy input, or both; the outcome is determined by monitoring changes to the indicators. The paper includes a detailed example of an application of the framework. - Highlights: ► The IEA's definition of energy security is parsed into three energy security indicators: availability, affordability, and acceptability. ► Data flow diagrams and other systems analysis tools can represent an energy system and its processes, flows, and chains. ► Indicator-specific metrics applied to a process's flow determine the state of energy security in an energy system, an energy chain, or process. ► Energy policy is considered as a flow and policy outcomes are obtained by measuring flows with indicator-specific metrics. ► The framework is applicable to most jurisdictions and energy types.

  12. Straw and energy crops- analysis of economy, energy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsby, M.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the biomass agreement of 14 June 1993 was to increase the use of biomass fuels in the Danish power plants to 1.2 million tons straw and 200 000 wood chips. Contribution from straw combustion should reach 25 PJ in year 2000. However biomass cultivation can endanger the governmental policy of pesticide and nitrogen reduction in agriculture. In the worst harvest years straw quantity can be reduced to 70 % of the normal level, while in good years there would occur a 3-4 fold excess of straw. Supply depends in a decisive degree on the offered price as the indirect cost can vary much (wet straw, delayed sawing, lost fertilizer value etc.). Potential for energy crops can be based on ca 300 000 ha present fallow agricultural areas. Cost is higher than that for straw, the most probable plants are elephant grass, willow, rape, sugar beets, winter cereals. Cost is lower for perennial plants, but at least 10-12 years are necessary for such crops to become profitable. Generally the biofuel crops are more expensive than crops for immediate combustion. Expenses for energy crops will decrease with time per ton dry matter, but ground rent for soils previously fallow has to be taken into account. A reduced nitrogen fertilization will reduce the economic profits quite essentially due to smaller harvests. Pesticide consumption will not have to grow as straw and elephant grass do not require any larger quantities (unless very large areas of one crop are cultivated).(EG) 92 refs

  13. Analysis of results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Haoming; Fu Qiang; Tian Xiaoping; Su Cainu

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical values of OGTT and insulin releasing test in hepatogenic diabetics. Method: OGTT was performed by enzymes method and insulin releasing test by RIA in 30 patients with hepatogenic diabetes, 31 cases with II diabetes and 35 controls. Results: During OGTT, blood glucose levels at various time were about the same in hepatogenic diabetics and II diabetics (P < 0.05), except at 180 min (P < 0.01). Basal hyperinsulinemia was present is hepatogenic diabetics. Conclusion: OGTT and insulin releasing test had a definite clinical value in the differential diagnosis of hepatogenic diabetics

  14. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  15. Green Power Procurement Library | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ., and E.S. Brown. 2006. Utility-Marketer Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power Reduction Programs. Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series. EPA 430-R-09-045. Green Power Developing New Renewable Energy Projects. NREL/TP-6A20-51904. July. Natural Marketing Institute. 2011

  16. monthly energy consumption forecasting using wavelet analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Monthly energy forecasts help heavy consumers of electric power to prepare adequate budget to pay their electricity bills and also draw the attention of management and stakeholders to electric- ity consumption levels so that energy efficiency measures are put in place to reduce cost. In this paper, a wavelet ...

  17. Uncertainty analysis of energy consumption in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Trine Dyrstad

    1997-12-31

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study of an energy estimation model that can be used to examine the uncertainty of predicted energy consumption in a dwelling. The variation and uncertainty of input parameters due to the outdoor climate, the building construction and the inhabitants are studied as a basis for further energy evaluations. The occurring variations of energy consumption in nominal similar dwellings are also investigated due to verification of the simulated energy consumption. The main topics are (1) a study of expected variations and uncertainties in both input parameters used in energy consumption calculations and the energy consumption in the dwelling, (2) the development and evaluation of a simplified energy calculation model that considers uncertainties due to the input parameters, (3) an evaluation of the influence of the uncertain parameters on the total variation so that the most important parameters can be identified, and (4) the recommendation of a simplified procedure for treating uncertainties or possible deviations from average conditions. 90 refs., 182 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Multi-Criteria Analysis of Alternative Energy Supply Solutions to Public Nearly Zero Energy Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedrius Šiupšinskas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes energy supply alternatives for modernised public nearly zero energy buildings. The paper examines alternative energy production systems such as heat pumps (air-water and ground-water, solar collectors, adsorption cooling, biomass boiler, solar photovoltaic, wind turbines and combinations of these systems. The simulation of the analysed building energy demand for different energy production alternatives has been performed using TRNSYS modelling software. In order to determine an optimal energy supply variant, the estimated results of energy, environmental, and economic evaluation have been converted into non-dimensional variables (3E using multi-criteria analysis.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Wind energy mission analysis. Executive summary. [USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-18

    The principal objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for wind energy conversion systems on a national scale, (2) identify high-potential applications for WECS, (3) define functional, performance, operational, and cost goals for WECS, (4) evaluate the impact of the wide-scale deployment of WECS on energy users, and (5) identify the institutional and non-technical problems associated with the acceptance of wind energy systems. The study concentrated on broad applications of WECS over large geographic areas encompassing the entire United States. Emphasis was placed on identifying and exploring high-aggregate energy users who have significant potential to utilize wind energy in place of other alternatives.

  20. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  1. Methods and data for HTGR fuel performance and radionuclide release modeling during normal operation and accidents for safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.; Martin, R.C.; Moormann, R.

    1993-01-01

    The previous status report released in 1987 on reference data and calculation models for fission product transport in High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) safety analyses has been updated to reflect the current state of knowledge in the German HTGR program. The content of the status report has been expanded to include information from other national programs in HTGRs to provide comparative information on methods of analysis and the underlying database for fuel performance and fission product transport. The release and transport of fission products during normal operating conditions and during the accident scenarios of core heatup, water and air ingress, and depressurization are discussed. (orig.) [de

  2. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  3. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Quotient/Hazard Index (HQ/HI) formulation to determine the toxic concentration threshold for mixtures of... cloud center of mass altitude. (vi) Worst case initial source term assuming instantaneous release of...

  4. Theoretical analysis of knock-out release of fission products from nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The knock-out release of fission products is studied theoretically. The general equations of knock-out release are derived, assuming that a fission fragment passing through the surface of nuclear fuels knocks out a local region of the surface with an effective thickness and an effective cross-sectional area. Using these equations, the knock-out release of fission gases is calculated for various cases. The conditions under which the knock-out coefficients (the average number of uranium atoms knocked out by one fission fragment) is obtainable are clarified by experiments on the knock-out release of fission gases. A method of determining the effective thickness and the effective cross-sectional area of a knock-out region is proposed. (Auth.)

  5. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. The distributed energy store railgun used multiple current sources connected to the rails of a railgun at points distributed along the bore. These current sources (energy stores) are turned on in sequence as the projectile moves down the bore so that current is fed to the railgun from behind the armature. In this system the length of the rails that carry the full armature current is less than the total length of the railgun. If a sufficient number of energy stores is used, this removes the limitation on the length of a railgun. An additional feature of distributed energy store type railguns is that they can be designed to maintain a constant pressure on the projectile being accelerated. A distributed energy store railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this first demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed

  6. Analysis of railroad tank car releases using a generalized binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Hong, Yili

    2015-11-01

    The United States is experiencing an unprecedented boom in shale oil production, leading to a dramatic growth in petroleum crude oil traffic by rail. In 2014, U.S. railroads carried over 500,000 tank carloads of petroleum crude oil, up from 9500 in 2008 (a 5300% increase). In light of continual growth in crude oil by rail, there is an urgent national need to manage this emerging risk. This need has been underscored in the wake of several recent crude oil release incidents. In contrast to highway transport, which usually involves a tank trailer, a crude oil train can carry a large number of tank cars, having the potential for a large, multiple-tank-car release incident. Previous studies exclusively assumed that railroad tank car releases in the same train accident are mutually independent, thereby estimating the number of tank cars releasing given the total number of tank cars derailed based on a binomial model. This paper specifically accounts for dependent tank car releases within a train accident. We estimate the number of tank cars releasing given the number of tank cars derailed based on a generalized binomial model. The generalized binomial model provides a significantly better description for the empirical tank car accident data through our numerical case study. This research aims to provide a new methodology and new insights regarding the further development of risk management strategies for improving railroad crude oil transportation safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the calcium release channel of cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum by target inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrew, S.G.; Inui, Makoto; Chadwick, C.C.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Jung, C.Y.; Fleischer, S.

    1989-01-01

    The calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum which triggers muscle contraction in excitation-contraction coupling has recently been isolated. The channel has been found to be morphologically identical with the feet structures of the junctional face membrane of terminal cisternae and consists of an oligomer of a unique high molecular weight polypeptide. In this study, the authors compare the target size of the calcium release channel from heart and skeletal muscle using target inactivation analysis. The target molecular weights of the calcium release channel estimated by measuring ryanodine binding after irradiation are similar for heart (139,000) and skeletal muscle (143,000) and are smaller than the monomeric unit (estimated to be about 360,000). The target size, estimated by measuring polypeptide remaining after irradiation, was essentially the same for heart and skeletal muscle, 1,061,000 and 1,070,000, respectively, indicating an oligomeric association of protomers. Thus, the calcium release channel of both cardiac and skeletal muscle reacts uniquely with regard to target inactivation analysis in that (1) the size by ryanodine binding is smaller than the monomeric unit and (2) a single hit leads to destruction of more than one polypeptide, by measuring polypeptide remaining. The target inactivation analysis studies indicate that heart and skeletal muscle receptors are structurally very similar

  8. ENERGY USE ANALYSIS FOR RICE PRODUCTION IN NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to analyze energy use for in rice production in Nasarawa state Nigeria using a sample of 120 randomly selected rice farmers. Energy productivity, energy efficiency and specific energy were computed and simple descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. The energy use pattern shows that, rice production consumed an average total energy of 12906.8 MJha-1, with herbicide energy input contributing the largest share (53.55 %. Human labour had the least share (0.74 % of the total energy input used. The energy productivity, Specific energy and energy efficiency were 0.3 MJ-1, 3.6 MJ-1 and 4.1 respectively. A total of 10925.0 MJ of energy was used in the form of indirect energy and 1981.8MJ was in the direct form of energy. Non-renewable energy forms contributed the largest share (80.63 % of the total energy input used for rice production in the study area. Rice production in the study area was observed to be mainly dependent on non-renewable and indirect energy input especially herbicide. Thus, the study recommends the introduction of integrated weed management system in order to reduce cost and dependence on a non-renewable input for weed control.

  9. Energy flow modeling and optimal operation analysis of the micro energy grid based on energy hub

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Tengfei; Wu, Junyong; Hao, Liangliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Design a novel architecture for energy hub integrating power hub, cooling hub and heating hub. • The micro energy grid based on energy hub is introduced and its advantages are discussed. • Propose a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid. • Propose an optimal operation model for micro energy grid with considering demand response. • The roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. - Abstract: The energy security and environmental problems impel people to explore a more efficient, environment friendly and economical energy utilization pattern. In this paper, the coordinated operation and optimal dispatch strategies for multiple energy system are studied at the whole Micro Energy Grid level. To augment the operation flexibility of energy hub, the innovation sub-energy hub structure including power hub, heating hub and cooling hub is put forward. Basing on it, a generic energy hub architecture integrating renewable energy, combined cooling heating and power, and energy storage devices is developed. Moreover, a generic modeling method for the energy flow of micro energy grid is proposed. To minimize the daily operation cost, a day-ahead dynamic optimal operation model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming optimization problem with considering the demand response. Case studies are undertaken on a community Micro Energy Grid in four different scenarios on a typical summer day and the roles of renewable energy, energy storage devices and demand response are discussed separately. Numerical simulation results indicate that the proposed energy flow modeling and optimal operation method are universal and effective over the entire energy dispatching horizon.

  10. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center Benchmark Report: Framework and Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engel-Cox, Jill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-23

    This report documents the CEMAC methodologies for developing and reporting annual global clean energy manufacturing benchmarks. The report reviews previously published manufacturing benchmark reports and foundational data, establishes a framework for benchmarking clean energy technologies, describes the CEMAC benchmark analysis methodologies, and describes the application of the methodologies to the manufacturing of four specific clean energy technologies.

  11. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  12. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  13. Optimal selection among different domestic energy consumption patterns based on energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Wu, J.Y.

    2010-01-01

    In China market, people have many choices for air conditioning of their apartments, including heat-pump systems or gas-fired boilers for heating and air conditioners for cooling. Domestic hot water is usually provided by domestic water heaters making use of electricity or natural gas, which are known for their great energy costs. These systems consume much energy and increase the total cost of required domestic energy. A novel system combining heat pump with water heater is proposed in this paper, and it is named domestic energy system. The system can realize the provision of space heating, cooling and domestic hot water throughout a year. Based on different types of air conditioners, space heating equipments and water heaters, domestic energy consumption patterns are concluded to be eight categories. This study describes and compares the eight domestic energy consumption patterns by economic analysis and prime energy analysis method. Results show that the domestic energy system can provide good economy and save energy significantly. Furthermore, exergy analysis method is employed to compare the exergy efficiencies of different energy consumption systems. The results show that the domestic energy system has the highest energy conversion efficiency and can make remarkable contribution to social energy saving.

  14. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  15. Net energy analysis - powerful tool for selecting elective power options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A number of net energy analysis studies have been conducted in recent years for electric power production from coal, oil and uranium fuels; synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale; and heat and electric power from solar energy. This technique is an excellent indicator of investment costs, environmental impact and potential economic competitiveness of alternative electric power systems for energy planners from the Eastern European countries considering future options. Energy conservation is also important to energy planners and the net energy analysis technique is an excellent accounting system on the extent of energy resource conservation. The author proposes to discuss the technique and to present the results of his studies and others in the field. The information supplied to the attendees will serve as a powerful tool to the energy planners considering their electric power options in the future.

  16. Energy system analysis of fuel cells and distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces Energy System Analysis methodologies and tools, which can be used for identifying the best application of different Fuel Cell (FC) technologies to different regional or national energy systems. The main point is that the benefits of using FC technologies indeed depend...... on the energy system in which they are used. Consequently, coherent energy systems analyses of specific and complete energy systems must be conducted in order to evaluate the benefits of FC technologies and in order to be able to compare alternative solutions. In relation to distributed generation, FC...... technologies are very often connected to the use of hydrogen, which has to be provided e.g. from electrolysers. Decentralised and distributed generation has the possibility of improving the overall energy efficiency and flexibility of energy systems. Therefore, energy system analysis tools and methodologies...

  17. Global analysis and parametric dependencies for potential unintended hydrogen-fuel releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harstad, Kenneth; Bellan, Josette [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, M/S 125-109, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Global, simplified analyses of gaseous-hydrogen releases from a high-pressure vessel and liquid-hydrogen pools are conducted for two purposes: (1) establishing order-of-magnitude values of characteristic times and (2) determining parametric dependencies of these characteristic times on the physical properties of the configuration and on the thermophysical properties of hydrogen. According to the ratio of the characteristic release time to the characteristic mixing time, two limiting configurations are identified: (1) a rich cloud exists when this ratio is much smaller than unity, and (2) a jet exists when this ratio is much larger than unity. In all cases, it is found that the characteristic release time is proportional to the total released mass and inversely proportional to a characteristic area. The approximate size, convection velocity, and circulation time of unconfined burning-cloud releases scale with the cloud mass at powers 1/3, 1/6, and 1/6, respectively, multiplied by an appropriately dimensional constant; the influence of cross flow can only be important if its velocity exceeds that of internal convection. It is found that the fireball lifetime is approximately the maximum of the release time and thrice the convection-associated characteristic time. Transition from deflagration to detonation can occur only if the size of unconfined clouds exceeds by a factor of O(10) that of a characteristic detonation cell, which ranges from 0.015 m under stoichiometric conditions to approximately 1 m under extreme rich/lean conditions. For confined vapor pockets, transition occurs only for pocket sizes larger than the cell size. In jets, the release time is inversely proportional to the initial vessel pressure and has a square root dependence on the vessel temperature. Jet velocities are a factor of 10 larger than convective velocities in fireballs and combustion is possible only in the subsonic, downstream region where entrainment may occur.

  18. The Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC): Providing Analysis and Insights on Clean Technology Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Nicholi S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  19. Analysis of energy end-use efficiency policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collado, Rocío Román; Díaz, María Teresa Sanz

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of saving measures and energy efficiency entails the need to evaluate achievements in terms of energy saving and spending. This paper aims at analysing the effectiveness and economic efficiency of energy saving measures implemented in the Energy Savings and Efficiency Action Plan (2008–2012) (EAP4+) in Spain for 2010. The lack of assessment related to energy savings achieved and public spending allocated by the EAP4+ justifies the need of this analysis. The results show that the transport and building sectors seem to be the most important, from the energy efficiency perspective. Although they did not reach the direct energy savings that were expected, there is scope for reduction with the appropriate energy measures. For the effectiveness indicator, the best performance are achieved by public service, agricultural and fisheries and building sectors, while in terms of energy efficiency per monetary unit, the best results are achieved by transport, industry and agriculture sectors. Authors conclude that it is necessary that central, regional and local administrations will get involved, in order to get better estimates of the energy savings achieved and thus to affect the design of future energy efficiency measures at the lowest possible cost to the citizens. - Highlights: • Energy end-use efficiency policy is analysed in terms of energy savings and spending. • The energy savings achieved by some measures are not always provided. • The total energy savings achieved by transport and building sectors are large. • Different levels of administration should get involved in estimating energy savings.

  20. Exergy analysis of the energy use in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koroneos, C.J.; Nanaki, E.A.; Xydis, George

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an analysis is being done on the concept of energy and exergy utilization and an application to the residential and industrial sector of Greece. The energy and exergy flows over the period from 1990 to 2004 were taken into consideration. This period was chosen based on the data...... of the energy use in various economy sectors. These standards could be utilized by energy policy makers....

  1. Renewable Energy Data, Analysis, and Decisions: A Guide for Practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sarah L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Watson, Andrea C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Grue, Nicholas W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leisch, Jennifer E. [United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    2018-03-16

    High-quality renewable energy resource data and other geographic information system (GIS) data are essential for the transition to a clean energy economy that prioritizes local resources, improves resiliency, creates jobs, and promotes energy independence. This guide is intended to support policymakers and planners, as well as technical experts, consultants, and academics in incorporating improved data and analysis into renewable energy decision-making.

  2. An energy analysis of ethanol from cellulosic feedstock. Corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The shift from fossil resources to renewables for energy and materials production has been the driving force for research on energy analysis and environmental impact assessment of bio-based production. This study presents a detailed energy analysis of corn stover based ethanol production using advanced cellulosic technologies. The method used differs from that in LCA and from major studies on the subject as published in Science in two respects. First, it accounts for all the co-products together and so mainly avoids the allocation problems which plague all LCA studies explicitly and other studies implicitly. Second, the system boundaries only involve the content of the energy products used in the system but not the production processes of these energy products, like refining and electricity production. We normalized the six Science studies to this unified method. The resulting values of the total energy product use in both agricultural production and biomass conversion to ethanol are lower than these literature values. LCA-type of values including energy conversion would systematically be higher, in our case study around 45%. The net energy value of cellulosic ethanol production is substantially higher than the ones of the corn-based technologies, and it is similar to incineration and gasification for electricity production. The detailed analysis of energy inputs indicates opportunities to optimize the system. This form of energy analysis helps establishing models for the analysis of more complex systems such as biorefineries. (author)

  3. Comparison and analysis of release scenarios for ground disposal of various nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Sadahiro; Nakai, Kunihiro

    1985-01-01

    This report is aimed at comparing and analyzing the concept and evaluation methods of varuous foreign countries concerning their release scenarios for ground disposal of low- and high-level radioactive wastes in order to provide helpful information to be used in developing release scenarios for Japan. The groundwater release scenario and human intrusion scenario should particularly be well examined in considering shallow ground disposal of low-level wastes. Assessment of the leaching rate is important for a groundwater release scenario. Experimental data and verification tests are required to support the simplified model to be used for safety assessment. Evaluation of the radioactive nucleide inventory is also important for ground disposal of low-level wastes. An evaluation system should be established as soon as possible. For ground disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, on the other hand, it will become increasingly important to establish performance assessment models for practical evaluation of the rate of release from the engineered barrier and to collect test and verification data for suporting them. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Exergy analysis of the energy use in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos, Christopher J.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.; Xydis, George A.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, an analysis is being done on the concept of energy and exergy utilization and an application to the residential and industrial sector of Greece. The energy and exergy flows over the period from 1990 to 2004 were taken into consideration. This period was chosen based on the data reliability. The energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated for the residential and industrial sectors and compared to the findings of a previous study concerning the exergy efficiency of the Greek transport sector. The residential energy and exergy efficiencies for the year 2003 were 22.36% and 20.92%, respectively, whereas the industrial energy and exergy efficiencies for the same year were 53.72% and 51.34%, respectively. The analysis of energy and exergy utilization determines the efficiency of the economy as a whole. The results can play an important role in the establishment of efficiency standards of the energy use in various economy sectors. These standards could be utilized by energy policy makers. - Research highlights: → This work analyzes energy and exergy utilization in the energy sector of Greece by considering the energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2004. → Energy and exergy analyses and hence efficiencies for the residential and industrial sector are then obtained and compared to transport energy and exergy efficiencies. → The industrial sector appears to be the most energy and exergy efficient one. → It should be noted that due to non-availability of data concerning the fuel energy consumption of the appliances as well as of industrial processes, a general methodology was employed in order to calculate the energy and exergy efficiencies. → It may also be concluded that the exergy analysis offers constructive suggestions for the optimization and improvement of the energy utilization effectiveness of the sectors under study.

  5. Distributed energy store railguns experiment and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, L. D.

    1984-02-01

    Electromagnetic acceleration of projectiles holds the potential for achieving higher velocities than yet achieved by any other means. A railgun is the simplest form of electromagnetic macroparticle accelerator and can generate the highest sustained accelerating force. The practical length of conventional railguns is limited by the impedance of the rails because current must be carried along the entire length of the rails. A railgun and power supply system called the distributed energy store railgun was proposed as a solution to this limitation. A distributed energy storage railgun was constructed and successfully operated. In addition to this demonstration of the distributed energy store railgun principle, a theoretical model of the system was also constructed. A simple simulation of the railgun system based on this model, but ignoring frictional drag, was compared with the experimental results. During the process of comparing results from the simulation and the experiment, the effect of significant frictional drag of the projectile on the sidewalls of the bore was observed.

  6. Economic analysis of wood energy valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Juliana.

    1988-01-01

    Companies linked to the lumber activities began to concern about the valorization of their industrial residues: either by creating new products or by utilizing them for energy generation. At the same time, companies from other sectors began investing in reforestations dedicated to energy generation (mainly eucalyptus), induced by the possibility of obtaining tax incentives and by the need of assuring their own provisions of wood, thus minimizing this raw-material, as well as its sensibility to the variation of its price in the market. However almost nothing have been researched, either about the economical feasibility of energetic valorization of the lumber in the form of industrial residues or as wood supplied by reforestation dedicated to energy generation. This dissertation propose to examine those cases analysing the concerned costs and their economical feasibility. (author). 20 refs., 19 figs., 32 tabs

  7. Long-term affected energy production of waste to energy technologies identified by use of energy system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Meibom, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Affected energy production is often decisive for the outcome of consequential life-cycle assessments when comparing the potential environmental impact of products or services. Affected energy production is however difficult to determine. In this article the future long-term affected energy...... production is identified by use of energy system analysis. The focus is on different uses of waste for energy production. The Waste-to-Energy technologies analysed include co-combustion of coal and waste, anaerobic digestion and thermal gasification. The analysis is based on optimization of both investments...... and production of electricity, district heating and bio-fuel in a future possible energy system in 2025 in the countries of the Northern European electricity market (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Germany). Scenarios with different CO2 quota costs are analysed. It is demonstrated that the waste...

  8. Analysis of chromium-51 release assay data using personal computer spreadsheet software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefor, A.T.; Steinberg, S.M.; Wiebke, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Chromium-51 release assay is a widely used technique to assess the lysis of labeled target cells in vitro. We have developed a simple technique to analyze data from Chromium-51 release assays using the widely available LOTUS 1-2-3 spreadsheet software. This package calculates percentage specific cytotoxicity and lytic units by linear regression. It uses all data points to compute the linear regression and can determine if there is a statistically significant difference between two lysis curves. The system is simple to use and easily modified, since its implementation requires neither knowledge of computer programming nor custom designed software. This package can help save considerable time when analyzing data from Chromium-51 release assays

  9. Nanodiamond-based injectable hydrogel for sustained growth factor release: Preparation, characterization and in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacelli, Settimio; Acosta, Francisca; Chakravarti, Aparna R; Samanta, Saheli G; Whitlow, Jonathan; Modaresi, Saman; Ahmed, Rafeeq P H; Rajasingh, Johnson; Paul, Arghya

    2017-08-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) represent an emerging class of carbon nanomaterials that possess favorable physical and chemical properties to be used as multifunctional carriers for a variety of bioactive molecules. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of a new injectable ND-based nanocomposite hydrogel which facilitates a controlled release of therapeutic molecules for regenerative applications. In particular, we have formulated a thermosensitive hydrogel using gelatin, chitosan and NDs that provides a sustained release of exogenous human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for wound healing applications. Addition of NDs improved the mechanical properties of the injectable hydrogels without affecting its thermosensitive gelation properties. Biocompatibility of the generated hydrogel was verified by in vitro assessment of apoptotic gene expressions and anti-inflammatory interleukin productions. NDs were complexed with VEGF and the inclusion of this complex in the hydrogel network enabled the sustained release of the angiogenic growth factor. These results suggest for the first time that NDs can be used to formulate a biocompatible, thermosensitive and multifunctional hydrogel platform that can function both as a filling agent to modulate hydrogel properties, as well as a delivery platform for the controlled release of bioactive molecules and growth factors. One of the major drawbacks associated with the use of conventional hydrogels as carriers of growth factors is their inability to control the release kinetics of the loaded molecules. In fact, in most cases, a burst release is inevitable leading to diminished therapeutic effects and unsuccessful therapies. As a potential solution to this issue, we hereby propose a strategy of incorporating ND complexes within an injectable hydrogel matrix. The functional groups on the surface of the NDs can establish interactions with the model growth factor VEGF and promote a prolonged release from the polymer network

  10. Analysis of the Bogoliubov free energy functional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuvers, Robin

    In this thesis, we analyse a variational reformulation of the Bogoliubov approximation that is used to describe weakly-interacting translationally-invariant Bose gases. For the resulting model, the `Bogoliubov free energy functional', we demonstrate existence of minimizers as well as the presence...

  11. Energy price forecast by market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongepier, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    A power trader benefits from accurate price predictions. Based on market analyses, KEMA Connect has developed - in cooperation with Essent Energy Trading - a market model, enhancing the insight into market operation and one's own actions and thus resulting in accurate price predictions

  12. EURDYN: computer programs for the nonlinear transient analysis of structures submitted to dynamic loading. EURDYN (Release 3): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halleux, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The EURDYN computer codes are mainly designed for the simulation of nonlinear dynamic response of fast-reactor compoments submitted to impulse loading due to abnormal working conditions. Two releases of the structural computer codes EURDYN 01 (2-D beams and triangles and axisymmetric conical shells and triangular tores), 02 (axisymmetric and 2-D quadratic isoparametric elements) and 03 (triangular plate elements) have already been produced. They include material (elasto-plasticity using the classical flow theory approach) and geometrical (large displacements and rotations treated by a corotational technique) nonlinearities. The new features of Release 3 roughly consist in: full large strain capability for 9-node isoparametric elements, generalized array dimensions, introduction of the radial return algorithm for elasto-plastic material modelling, extension of the energy check facility to the case of prescribed displacements, and, possible interface to a post-processing package including time plot facilities

  13. Guidelines for the analysis of free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimovich, Pavel V; Shirts, Michael R; Mobley, David L

    2015-05-01

    Free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics simulations show considerable promise for applications ranging from drug discovery to prediction of physical properties and structure-function studies. But these calculations are still difficult and tedious to analyze, and best practices for analysis are not well defined or propagated. Essentially, each group analyzing these calculations needs to decide how to conduct the analysis and, usually, develop its own analysis tools. Here, we review and recommend best practices for analysis yielding reliable free energies from molecular simulations. Additionally, we provide a Python tool, alchemical-analysis.py, freely available on GitHub as part of the pymbar package (located at http://github.com/choderalab/pymbar), that implements the analysis practices reviewed here for several reference simulation packages, which can be adapted to handle data from other packages. Both this review and the tool covers analysis of alchemical calculations generally, including free energy estimates via both thermodynamic integration and free energy perturbation-based estimators. Our Python tool also handles output from multiple types of free energy calculations, including expanded ensemble and Hamiltonian replica exchange, as well as standard fixed ensemble calculations. We also survey a range of statistical and graphical ways of assessing the quality of the data and free energy estimates, and provide prototypes of these in our tool. We hope this tool and discussion will serve as a foundation for more standardization of and agreement on best practices for analysis of free energy calculations.

  14. A multilayered analysis of energy security research and the energy supply process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiriyama, Eriko; Kajikawa, Yuya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis reveals that energy security research is highly multidisciplinary. • Diversification is important for ensuring security in the energy supply process. • A multilayered overview of the energy supply process is important for energy risk management. • Consumer lifestyle innovation will be a part of energy security in the future. - Abstract: After the Fukushima nuclear disaster, a reassessment of the energy system is needed in order to include such aspects as human security and resilience. More open and careful discussions are needed concerning the various risks and uncertainties of future energy options, both in Japan and globally. In this paper, we aim to offer a fundamental basis for discourse on energy security by analyzing the status and trends in academic publications on that issue. Our bibliometrics analysis indicates that research has shifted from promoting strategies for ensuring the self-sufficiency of the primary energy to diversification of the secondary energy supply chain by introducing energy networks consisting of an infrastructure established through international coordination. In the literature, the concept of energy security is ambiguous and allows for multiple interpretations. Our results illustrate the existence of highly multidisciplinary topics within energy security, which can be categorized into four perspectives: geopolitical, economic, policy related, and technological

  15. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  16. Net energy analysis of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document is a report on the net energy analysis of nuclear power and other electricity generation systems. The main objectives of this document are: To provide a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge on net energy analysis of nuclear and other energy systems for electricity generation; to address traditional questions such as whether nuclear power is a net energy producer or not. In addition, the work in progress on a renewed application of the net energy analysis method to environmental issues is also discussed. It is expected that this work could contribute to the overall comparative assessment of different energy systems which is an ongoing activity at the IAEA. 167 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Energy analysis of solar photovoltaic module production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Bansal, N.K.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to evaluate the energy consumption in solar photovoltaic (SPV) module production in India and examine its implications for large-scale introduction of SPV plants in the country. Data on energy used in SPV production were collected from existing manufacturing facilities in the country. The energy payback period turns out to be approximately 4 years. This is comparable to energy payback periods of similar modules produced internationally. However, if an ambitious program of introducing SPV power production is undertaken to contribute substantially to the power scenario in the country, an annual growth rate beyond 21% will render the program an energy sink rather than an energy source, as borne out by dynamic energy analysis. Policy implications are also discussed in light of this analysis

  18. Fission fragment yields and total kinetic energy release in neutron-induced fission of235,238U,and239Pu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovesson, F.; Duke, D.; Geppert-Kleinrath, V.; Manning, B.; Mayorov, D.; Mosby, S.; Schmitt, K.

    2018-03-01

    Different aspects of the nuclear fission process have been studied at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) using various instruments and experimental techniques. Properties of the fragments emitted in fission have been investigated using Frisch-grid ionization chambers, a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), and the SPIDER instrument which employs the 2v-2E method. These instruments and experimental techniques have been used to determine fission product mass yields, the energy dependent total kinetic energy (TKE) release, and anisotropy in neutron-induced fission of U-235, U-238 and Pu-239.

  19. Energy Analysis at a Near Zero Energy Building. A Case-Study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Rey-Hernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an energy analysis for an existing near Zero Energy (nZEB and Zero Carbon Emissions building called LUCIA, located at the university campus in Valladolid (Spain. It is designed to supply electricity, cooling and heating needs through solar energy (Photovoltaic Systems, PV, biomass and an Earth–Air Heat Exchanger (EAHE, besides a Combined Heat Power (CHP. It is currently among the top three buildings with the highest LEED certification in the World. The building model is simulated with DesignBuilder version 5. The results of the energy analysis illustrate the heating, cooling and lighting consumptions expected, besides other demands and energy uses. From this data, we carried out an energy balance of the nZEB, which will help to plan preventive actions when compared to the actual energy consumptions, improving the management and control of both the building and its systems. The primary energy indicator obtained is 67 kWh/m2 a year, and 121 kWh/m2 a year for renewable energy generation, with respect to 55 kWh/m2 and 45 kWh/m2 set as reference in Europe. The Renewable Energy Ratio (RER is 0.66. These indicators become a useful tool for the energy analysis of the nZEB according to the requirements in the European regulations and for its comparison with further nZEB.

  20. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  1. Gas chromatography/sniffing port analysis of aroma compounds released under mouth conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Roozen, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    The release of aroma compounds from rehydrated French beans in an artificial mouth system and in the mouths of 12 assessors was studied by gas chromatography combined with flame ionisation detection and sniffing port detection. In an artificial mouth system, volatile compounds were isolated under

  2. A Release from Proactive Interference Analysis of Gender Schema Encoding for Occupations in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D.W.; Gregory-Domingue, A.; Rice, K.; Tone, K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender schema encoding (activation of gender stereotypes) in the absence deliberate purposes relating to people (stereotype application). A release from proactive interference short-term-memory task was used. College (Experiment 1) and sixth-grade (Experiment 2) participants were asked to retain item identity and…

  3. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  4. Extracting Minerals from Seawater: An Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Bardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of recovering minerals from seawater has been proposed as a way of counteracting the gradual depletion of conventional mineral ores. Seawater contains large amounts of dissolved ions and the four most concentrated metal ones (Na, Mg, Ca, K are being commercially extracted today. However, all the other metal ions exist at much lower concentrations. This paper reports an estimate of the feasibility of the extraction of these metal ions on the basis of the energy needed. In most cases, the result is that extraction in amounts comparable to the present production from land mines would be impossible because of the very large amount of energy needed. This conclusion holds also for uranium as fuel for the present generation of nuclear fission plants. Nevertheless, in a few cases, mainly lithium, extraction from seawater could provide amounts of metals sufficient for closing the cycle of metal use in the economy, provided that an increased level of recycling can be attained.

  5. Orienting the Neighborhood: A Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2008-01-01

    In subdivisions, house orientations are largely determined by street layout. The resulting house orientations affect energy consumption (annual and on-peak) for heating and cooling, depending on window area distributions and shading from neighboring houses. House orientations also affect energy production (annual and on-peak) from solar thermal and photovoltaic systems, depending on available roof surfaces. Therefore, house orientations fundamentally influence both energy consumption and production, and an appropriate street layout is a prerequisite for taking full advantage of energy efficiency and renewable energy opportunities. The potential influence of street layout on solar performance is often acknowledged, but solar and energy issues must compete with many other criteria and constraints that influence subdivision street layout. When only general guidelines regarding energy are available, these factors may be ignored or have limited effect. Also, typical guidelines are often not site-specific and do not account for local parameters such as climate and the time value of energy. For energy to be given its due consideration in subdivision design, energy impacts need to be accurately quantified and displayed interactively to facilitate analysis of design alternatives. This paper describes a new computerized Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool being developed to allow users to interactively design subdivision street layouts while receiving feedback about energy impacts based on user-specified building design variants and availability of roof surfaces for photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.

  6. Net energy analysis in a Ramsey–Hotelling growth model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, Arturo; Matilla-García, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic growth model with energy as an input in the production function. The available stock of energy resources is ordered by a quality parameter based on energy accounting: the “Energy Return on Energy Invested” (EROI). In our knowledge this is the first paper where EROI fits in a neoclassical growth model (with individual utility maximization and market equilibrium), establishing the economic use of “net energy analysis” on a firmer theoretical ground. All necessary concepts to link neoclassical economics and EROI are discussed before their use in the model, and a comparative static analysis of the steady states of a simplified version of the model is presented. - Highlights: • A neoclassical growth model with EROI (“Energy Return on Energy Invested”) is shown • All concepts linking neoclassical economics and net energy analysis are discussed • Any EROI decline can be compensated increasing gross activity in the energy sector. • The economic impact of EROI depends on some non-energy cost in the energy sector. • Comparative steady-state statics for different EROI levels is performed and discussed. • Policy implications are suggested.

  7. Energy analysis of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhout, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    A study based on a 1000MWe light water reactor power station was carried out to determine the total energy input and output of the power station. The calculations took into account the mining and processing of the ore, enrichment of the uranium, treatment of used nuclear fuel, investment in land, buildings, machinery, and transport. 144 tons of natural uranium produce 6100 million kWh (electric) and 340 million kWh (thermal) per annum. (J.S.)

  8. Analysis of low energy beta-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, D.L.

    1979-10-01

    A survey was made of the instruments used for the determination of low energy beta radioactivity. Techniques commonly used are gas flow proportional counting, liquid scintillation counting, solid scintillation counting, and internal ionization chamber counting, solid state detector counting, and radiochemical separation followed by counting using one of the preceeding techniques. The first four techniques were examined and compared with each other. The sensitivities of the techniques were compared on the basis of the detection limits quoted for instruments described in the technical and reviewed literature. The detection limits were then related to the occupational and public individual maximum levels for air and water. Attention is focused primarily on the continuous monitoring of air for 3 H and 85 Kr, a medium energy β-emitter. It is clear that several continuous air monitoring instruments are readily available for measuring low energy β concentrations, even in presence of certain other activity, at occupational levels. However, these instruments do not typically have sensitivities comparable to the public individual levels. Moreover, their capabilities for giving results in real time and for differentiating among the radionuclides actually present is limited

  9. ENERGY AUDIT ANALYSIS BY BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Firdaus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy audit is one of the first tasks to be performed in the accomplishment of an effective energy cost control program. To obtain the best information for a successful energy audit, the auditor must make some measurements during the audit visit. One of the tools that primarily used in audit visit is the portable Power Quality Analyzers (PQA for measuring single to three-phase lines with a high degree of precision and accuracy. It is utilized for monitoring and recording power supply anomalies. For most survey applications, changing currents makes it mandatory for data to be compiled over a period of time with enormous amount of electricity data. Hence, this paper proposed a Business Intelligence approach that can facilitate the auditor to quickly analyze the PQA data. There are five Key Performance Indicators (KPI to be displayed for analyze in form of dashboard. The method that uses to construct the dashboard is classification and association rules with the help of orange dataminer tools. Classification method is utilized to display the data distributions by frequency on a bar chart. Once we got the frequent sets, they allow us to extract association rules among the item sets, where we make some statement about how likely are two sets of items to co-occur or to conditionally occur. The result of this paper is a dashboard of five scorecards, namely unbalanced voltage, unbalanced currents, voltage harmonic, currents harmonic, and power factor. 

  10. Evaluation of energy efficiency opportunities of a typical Moroccan cement plant: Part I. Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellaou, S.; Bounahmidi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We have analyzed the degree of freedom of the overall system. • We validated the redundant measurements by the Lagrange multipliers technique. • We have analyzed the mass and the energy balances by two approaches. • We identified the factors that penalize the energetic performance of the whole plant. • We assessed options to improve energy efficiency of the entire cement plant. - Abstract: The cement industry is one of Morocco’s most highly energy intensive economic sectors. It suffers from abnormally high cost of energy supplies, representing more than two thirds of the cost of cement; the first item of expenditure is electricity and fuel with 40% and 30% respectively. Herefor, much more effort is needed to make the cement sector reach energy saving targets set by the Moroccan energy efficiency strategy. The present work aims to evaluate energy performance of an existing Moroccan cement plant based on a detailed mass and energy balances analysis. Redundant measurements were validated by the Lagrange multipliers technique before being used for the calculation of unmeasured variables. The values for energy consumption and related losses through the whole production line are reported, and the results obtained have been used to assess the energy performance of the process. The evaluation was completed by both an analysis of possible energy loss sources and important solutions described in the international literature to improve the energy efficiency of the entire cement plant.

  11. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership (REMAP): An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Jenkin, T.; Milford, J.; Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Evans, D.; Lieberman, E.; Goldstein, G.; Wright, E.; Jayaraman, K. R.; Venkatesh, B.; Kleiman, G.; Namovicz, C.; Smith, B.; Palmer, K.; Wiser, R.; Wood, F.

    2009-09-01

    Energy system modeling can be intentionally or unintentionally misused by decision-makers. This report describes how both can be minimized through careful use of models and thorough understanding of their underlying approaches and assumptions. The analysis summarized here assesses the impact that model and data choices have on forecasting energy systems by comparing seven different electric-sector models. This analysis was coordinated by the Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership (REMAP), a collaboration among governmental, academic, and nongovernmental participants.

  12. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Tarah

    While global, national, and regional efforts to address climate and energy challenges remain essential, local governments and community groups are playing an increasingly stronger and vital role. As an active state in energy system policy, planning and innovation, Vermont offers a testing ground for research into energy governance at the local level. A baseline understanding of the energy planning and energy organizing activities initiated at the local level can support efforts to foster a transition to a sustainable energy system in Vermont. Following an inductive, applied and participatory approach, and grounded in the fields of sustainability transitions, energy planning, and community energy, this research project identifies conditions for change, including opportunities and challenges, within Vermont energy system decision-making and governance at the local level. The following questions are posed: What are the main opportunities and challenges for sustainable energy development at the town level? How are towns approaching energy planning? What are the triggers that will facilitate a faster transition to alternative energy systems, energy efficiency initiatives, and localized approaches? In an effort to answer these questions two studies were conducted: 1) an analysis of municipal energy plans, and 2) a survey of local energy actors. Study 1 examined Vermont energy planning at the state and local level through a review and comparison of 40 municipal plan energy chapters with the state 2011 Comprehensive Energy Plan. On average, municipal plans mentioned just over half of the 24 high-level strategies identified in the Comprehensive Energy Plan. Areas of strong and weak agreement were examined. Increased state and regional interaction with municipal energy planners would support more holistic and coordinated energy planning. The study concludes that while municipalities are keenly aware of the importance of education and partnerships, stronger policy mechanisms

  13. Proceedings of the 1991 Socioeconomic Energy Research and Analysis Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    These proceedings analyze US energy policy as it pertains to minority groups. Example topics include: Economic impacts of the National Energy Strategy on minority and majority households, Utility measures to assist payment-troubled customers, Equity impacts of controlling energy usage through market-based versus regulatory approaches, Technical and planning support for the DOE-HUD initiative for energy efficiency in housing, an analysis of residential energy consumption and expenditures by minority households by home type and housing vintage, and methodical issues in evaluating integrated least cost planning programs.

  14. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Liu, Bing

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to assess the relative energy and energy cost performance of commercial buildings designed to meet the requirements found in the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. As many states have historically adopted the IECC for both residential and commercial buildings, PNNL has evaluated the impacts of the commercial provisions of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 editions of the IECC. PNNL also compared energy performance with corresponding editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  15. Energy analysis of nuclear power plants and their fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, C.; Moraw, G.; Schneeberger, M.; Szeless, A.

    1977-01-01

    Energy analysis has become an increasingly feasible and practical additional method for evaluating the engineering, economic and environmental aspects of power producing systems. Energy analysis compares total direct and indirect energy investment into construction and operation of power plants with their lifetime energy output. Statically we have applied this method to nuclear power producing sytems and their fuel cycles. Results were adapted to countries with various levels of industrialization and resources. With dynamic energy analysis different scenarios have been investigated. For comparison purposes fossil fueled and solar power plants have also been analyzed. By static evaluation it has been shown that for all types of power plants the energy investment for construction is shortly after plant startup being repaid by energy output. Static analyses of nuclear and fossil fuels have indicated values of fuel concentrations below which more energy is required for their utilization than can be obtained from the plants they fuel. In a further step these global results were specifically modified to the economic situations of countries with various levels of industrialization. Also the influence of energy imports upon energy analysis has been discussed. By dynamic energy analyses the cumulative energy requirements for specific power plant construction programs have been compared with their total energy output. Investigations of this sort are extremely valuable not only for economic reasons but especially for their usefulness in showing the advantages and disadvantages of a specific power program with respect to its alternatives. Naturally the impact of these investigations on the fuel requirements is of importance especially because of the today so often cited ''valuable cumulated fossil fuel savings''

  16. Energy-analysis of the total nuclear energy cycle based on light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistemaker, J.

    1975-01-01

    The energy economy of the total nuclear energy cycle is investigated. Attention is paid to the importance of fossil fuel saving by using nuclear energy. The energy analysis is based on the construction and operation of power plants with an electric output of 1000MWe. Light water moderated reactors with a 2.7 - 3.2% enriched uranium core are considered. Additionally, the whole fuel cycle including ore winning and refining, enrichment and fuel element manufacturing and reprocessing has been taken into account. Neither radioactive waste storage problems nor safety problems related to the nuclear energy cycle and safeguarding have been dealt with, as exhaustive treatments can be found elswhere

  17. Analysis of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Federal incentives for the development of solar energy are examined. A Federal incentive is any action that can be taken by the government to expand residential and commercial use of solar energy. The development of solar energy policy could be enhanced by identification, quantification, and analysis of Federal incentives that have been used to simulate the development of other forms of energy. The text of this report identifies, quantifies, and analyzes such incentives and relates them to current thought about solar energy. Four viewpoints used in this discussion come from 4 types of analysis: economic, political, organizational, and legal. The next chapter identifies actions (primarily domestic) that the Federal government has taken concerning energy. This analysis uses the typology of actions described in the previous chapter to identify actions, and the four viewpoints described there to determine whether an action concerns energy. Once identified, the actions are described and then quantified by an estimate of the 1976 cost of accomplishing them. Then incentives, investments, liabilities, regulations, and other factors are analyzed in detail for nuclear energy, hydroelectric power, coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Incentives of all energy sources are then discussed with respect to solar energy policy. (MCW)

  18. A multi-criteria optimization analysis for Jordan's energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkawi, Salaheddin; Al-Nimr, Moh'd; Azizi, Danah

    2017-01-01

    In this study Jordan's energy options were evaluated and ranked with respect to several criteria clusters including financial, technical, environmental, ecological, social, and risk assessment. The Analytical Hierarchy Process; a multi-criteria decision-making analysis, was selected to evaluate the electricity generation options for Jordan. Energy options covered in the analysis include both conventional and renewable sources. Conventional sources evaluated include Oil and Natural Gas. Renewable sources covered wind, biomass, Photovoltaic and concentrated solar systems. The study also investigated generation from nuclear energy and direct combustion of oil shale as well as demand side savings from energy efficiency measures as a resource. Results indicate that to date; conventional fuels remain Jordan's most feasible options from a technical and financial perspective. Nonetheless diversification is essential to promoting energy security as well as environmental welfare. Results indicate that Jordan's best diversification options are nuclear, oil shale, biomass, and wind energy. - Highlights: • A Multi-Criteria Optimization Analysis technique was used to compare nine electricity generation options. • Options considered included Fossil Fuel sources, Nuclear Energy , Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. • Six criteria clusters were considered: financial, technical, environmental, ecological, social, and risk assessment. • Results outline potential policy implications for diversifying Jordan's energy mix. • Conventional fuels remain integral and Oil shale, Nuclear, Biomass and Wind offer the best diversification potential.Tag as highlight.

  19. Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project...... was interdisciplinary and involved more than 20 researchers from 7 different university departments or research institutions in Denmark. Moreover, the project was supported by an international advisory panel. The results include further development and integration of existing tools and methodologies into coherent...

  20. Net-energy analysis of nuclear and wind power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, G.T. Sr.

    1985-01-01

    The following question is addressed: can nuclear power and wind power (a form of solar energy) systems yield enough energy to replicate themselves out of their own energy and leave a residual of net energy in order to provide society with its needs and wants. Evidence is provided showing that there is a proportionality between the real monetary cost and energy inputs. The life-cycle, economic cost of the energy-transformation entity is the basis for calculating the amount of energy needed, as inputs, to sustain energy transformation. This study is unique as follows: others were based on preliminary cost and performance estimates. This study takes advantage of updated cost and performance data. Second, most prior studies did not include the energy cost of labor, government, and financial services, transmission and distribution, and overhead in arriving at energy inputs. This study includes all economic costs as a basis for calculating energy-input estimates. Both static (single-entity analysis) and dynamic (total systems over time) analyses were done and the procedures are shown in detail. It was found that the net-energy yield will be very small and most likely negative. System costs must be substantially lowered or efficiencies materially improved before these systems can become sources of enough net energy to drive the United States economic system at even the present level of economic output

  1. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy Savings Analysis of the Proposed NYStretch-Energy Code 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chen, Yan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edelson, Jim [New Buildings Inst. (NBI), Portland, OR (United States); Lyles, Mark [New Buildings Inst. (NBI), Portland, OR (United States)

    2018-01-20

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the stretch energy code development led by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). In 2017 NYSERDA developed its 2016 Stretch Code Supplement to the 2016 New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code (hereinafter referred to as “NYStretch-Energy”). NYStretch-Energy is intended as a model energy code for statewide voluntary adoption that anticipates other code advancements culminating in the goal of a statewide Net Zero Energy Code by 2028. Since then, NYSERDA continues to develop the NYStretch-Energy Code 2018 edition. To support the effort, PNNL conducted energy simulation analysis to quantify the energy savings of proposed commercial provisions of the NYStretch-Energy Code (2018) in New York. The focus of this project is the 20% improvement over existing commercial model energy codes. A key requirement of the proposed stretch code is that it be ‘adoptable’ as an energy code, meaning that it must align with current code scope and limitations, and primarily impact building components that are currently regulated by local building departments. It is largely limited to prescriptive measures, which are what most building departments and design projects are most familiar with. This report describes a set of energy-efficiency measures (EEMs) that demonstrate 20% energy savings over ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) across a broad range of commercial building types and all three climate zones in New York. In collaboration with New Building Institute, the EEMs were developed from national model codes and standards, high-performance building codes and standards, regional energy codes, and measures being proposed as part of the on-going code development process. PNNL analyzed these measures using whole building energy models for selected prototype commercial buildings and multifamily buildings representing buildings in New

  3. Elk Valley Rancheria Energy Efficiency and Alternatives Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ed Wait, Elk Valley Rancheria; Frank Ziano & Associates, Inc.

    2011-11-30

    Elk Valley Rancheria; Tribe; renewable energy; energy options analysis. The Elk Valley Rancheria, California ('Tribe') is a federally recognized Indian tribe located in Del Norte County, California, in the northwestern corner of California. The Tribe, its members and Tribal enterprises are challenged by increasing energy costs and undeveloped local energy resources. The Tribe currently lacks an energy program. The Tribal government lacked sufficient information to make informed decisions about potential renewable energy resources, energy alternatives and other energy management issues. To meet this challenge efficiently, the Tribe contracted with Frank Zaino and Associates, Inc. to help become more energy self-sufficient, by reducing their energy costs and promoting energy alternatives that stimulate economic development. Frank Zaino & Associates, Inc. provided a high level economic screening analysis based on anticipated electric and natural gas rates. This was in an effort to determine which alternative energy system will performed at a higher level so the Tribe could reduce their energy model by 30% from alternative fuel sources. The feasibility study will identify suitable energy alternatives and conservation methods that will benefit the Tribe and tribal community through important reductions in cost. The lessons learned from these conservation efforts will yield knowledge that will serve a wider goal of executing energy efficiency measures and practices in Tribal residences and business facilities. Pacific Power is the provider of electrical power to the four properties under review at $ 0.08 per Kilowatt-hour (KWH). This is a very low energy cost compared to alternative energy sources. The Tribe used baseline audits to assess current and historic energy usage at four Rancheria owned facilities. Past electric and gas billing statements were retained for review for the four buildings that will be audited. A comparative assessment of the various

  4. Testing IH Instrumentation: Analysis of 1996-1998 Tank Ventilation Data in Terms of Characterizing a Transient Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droppo, James G.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is conducted of the 1996-1998 Hanford tank ventilation studies of average ventilation rates to help define characteristics of shorter term releases. This effort is being conducted as part of the design of tests of Industrial Hygiene's (IH) instrumentation ability to detect transient airborne plumes from tanks using current deployment strategies for tank operations. This analysis has improved our understanding of the variability of hourly average tank ventilation processes. However, the analysis was unable to discern the relative importance of emissions due to continuous releases and short-duration bursts of material. The key findings are as follows: (1) The ventilation of relatively well-sealed, passively ventilated tanks appears to be driven by a combination of pressure, buoyancy, and wind influences. The results of a best-fit analysis conducted with a single data set provide information on the hourly emission variability that IH instrumentation will need to detect. (2) Tank ventilation rates and tank emission rates are not the same. The studies found that the measured infiltration rates for a single tank are often a complex function of air exchanges between tanks and air exchanges with outdoor air. This situation greatly limits the usefulness of the ventilation data in defining vapor emission rates. (3) There is no evidence in the data to discern if the routine tank vapor releases occur over a short time (i.e., a puff) or over an extended time (i.e., continuous releases). Based on this analysis of the tank ventilation studies, it is also noted that (1) the hourly averaged emission peaks from the relatively well-sealed passively-vented tanks (such as U-103) are not a simple function of one meteorological parameter--but the peaks often are the result of the coincidence of temporal maximums in pressure, temperature, and wind influences and (2) a mechanistic combination modeling approach and/or field studies may be necessary to understand the short

  5. Sensitivity analysis of biospheric behaviour of radionuclides released from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, R.; Savolainen, I.; Suolanen, V.

    1985-01-01

    Sensitivity studies of biospheric behaviour of radionuclides released from a planned spent nuclear fuel repository are performed. Sensitivity of radionuclide concentrations in biosphere and that of radiation doses to solubility of nuclides, to sedimentation rate and to intercompartmental water exchange are studied. Solubility has pronounced effect on the sedimentation on the local scale, and in general, sediment sinks were found to be of major importance in the biospheric behaviour of radionuclides. (author)

  6. Novel HPLC Analysis of Hydrocortisone in Conventional and Controlled-Release Pharmaceutical Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Adi-Dako, Ofosua; Oppong Bekoe, Samuel; Ofori-Kwakye, Kwabena; Appiah, Enoch; Peprah, Paul

    2017-01-01

    An isocratic sensitive and precise reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination and quantification of hydrocortisone in controlled-release and conventional (tablets and injections) pharmaceutical preparations. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an ODS (C18), 5??m, 4.6 ? 150?mm, with an isocratic elution using a freshly prepared mobile phase of composition methanol?:?water?:?acetic acid (60?:?30?:?10, v/v/v) at ...

  7. Life cycle primary energy analysis of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-02-15

    The space heating demand of residential buildings can be decreased by improved insulation, reduced air leakage and by heat recovery from ventilation air. However, these measures result in an increased use of materials. As the energy for building operation decreases, the relative importance of the energy used in the production phase increases and influences optimization aimed at minimizing the life cycle energy use. The life cycle primary energy use of buildings also depends on the energy supply systems. In this work we analyse primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission for the production and operation of conventional and low-energy residential buildings. Different types of energy supply systems are included in the analysis. We show that for a conventional and a low-energy building the primary energy use for production can be up to 45% and 60%, respectively, of the total, depending on the energy supply system, and with larger variations for conventional buildings. The primary energy used and the CO{sub 2} emission resulting from production are lower for wood-framed constructions than for concrete-framed constructions. The primary energy use and the CO{sub 2} emission depend strongly on the energy supply, for both conventional and low-energy buildings. For example, a single-family house from the 1970s heated with biomass-based district heating with cogeneration has 70% lower operational primary energy use than if heated with fuel-based electricity. The specific primary energy use with district heating was 40% lower than that of an electrically heated passive row house. (author)

  8. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  9. Does Daylight Saving Save Energy? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Havránek, Tomáš; Herman, Dominik; Irsova, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    The original rationale for adopting daylight saving time (DST) was energy savings. Modern research studies, however, question the magnitude and even direction of the effect of DST on energy consumption. Representing the first meta-analysis in this literature, we collect 162 estimates from 44 studies and find that the mean reported estimate indicates modest energy savings: 0.34% during the days when DST applies. The literature is not affected by publication bias, but the results vary systemati...

  10. Kinetic Analysis of the Uptake and Release of Fluorescein by Metal-Organic Framework Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Preiß

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic framework nanoparticles (MOF NPs are promising guest-host materials with applications in separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery. However, on- and off-loading of guest molecules by porous MOF nanostructures are still poorly understood. Here we study uptake and release of fluorescein by two representative MOF NPs, MIL-100(Fe and MIL-101(Cr. Suspensions of these MOF NPs exhibit well-defined size distributions and crystallinity, as verified by electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray diffraction. Using absorbance spectroscopy the equilibrium dissociation constants and maximum numbers of adsorbed fluorescein molecules per NP were determined. Time-resolved fluorescence studies reveal that rates of release and loading are pH dependent. The kinetics observed are compared to theoretical estimates that account for bulk diffusion into NPs, and retarded internal diffusion and adsorption rates. Our study shows that, rather than being simple volumetric carriers, MOF-NPs are dominated by internal surface properties. The findings will help to optimize payload levels and develop release strategies that exploit varying pH for drug delivery.

  11. Analysis of a Radioactive Release in a Nuclear Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppiti, James; Nelson, Roger; MacMillan, Walter J.; Cunningham, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a 655-meter deep mine near Carlsbad, New Mexico, used to dispose the nation's defense transuranic waste. Limited airborne radioactivity was released from a container of radioactive waste in WIPP on 14 February, 2014. As designed, a mine ventilation filtration system prevented the large scale release of contamination from the underground. However, isolation dampers leaked, which allowed the release of low levels of contaminants after the event until they were sealed. None of the exposed individuals received any recordable dose. While surface contamination was limited, contamination in the ventilation system and portions of the underground was substantial. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the operating ventilation system ensure continued containment during recovery and resumption of disposal operations. However, ventilation flow is restricted since the incident, with all exhaust air directed through the filters. Decontamination and natural fixation by the hygroscopic nature of the salt host rock has reduced the likelihood of further contamination spread. Contamination control and ventilation system operability are crucial for resumption of operations. This article provides an operational assessment and evaluation of these two key areas.

  12. Analysis of a Radioactive Release in a Nuclear Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppiti, James [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Nelson, Roger [Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); MacMillan, Walter J. [Nuclear Waste Partners, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Cunningham, Scott

    2017-07-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a 655-meter deep mine near Carlsbad, New Mexico, used to dispose the nation’s defense transuranic waste. Limited airborne radioactivity was released from a container of radioactive waste in WIPP on 14 February, 2014. As designed, a mine ventilation filtration system prevented the large scale release of contamination from the underground. However, isolation dampers leaked, which allowed the release of low levels of contaminants after the event until they were sealed. None of the exposed individuals received any recordable dose. While surface contamination was limited, contamination in the ventilation system and portions of the underground was substantial. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in the operating ventilation system ensure continued containment during recovery and resumption of disposal operations. However, ventilation flow is restricted since the incident, with all exhaust air directed through the filters. Decontamination and natural fixation by the hygroscopic nature of the salt host rock has reduced the likelihood of further contamination spread. Contamination control and ventilation system operability are crucial for resumption of operations. This article provides an operational assessment and evaluation of these two key areas.

  13. Novel HPLC Analysis of Hydrocortisone in Conventional and Controlled-Release Pharmaceutical Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofosua Adi-Dako

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An isocratic sensitive and precise reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination and quantification of hydrocortisone in controlled-release and conventional (tablets and injections pharmaceutical preparations. Chromatographic separation was achieved on an ODS (C18, 5 μm, 4.6 × 150 mm, with an isocratic elution using a freshly prepared mobile phase of composition methanol : water : acetic acid (60 : 30 : 10, v/v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The detection of the drug was successfully achieved at a wavelength of 254 nm. The retention time obtained for the drug was 2.26 min. The proposed method produced linear detectable responses in the concentration range of 0.02 to 0.4 mg/ml of hydrocortisone. High recoveries of 98–101% were attained at concentration levels of 80%, 100%, and 120%. The intraday and interday precision (RSD were 0.19–0.55% and 0.33–0.71%, respectively. A comparison of hydrocortisone analyses data from the developed method and the official USP method showed no significant difference (p>0.05 at a 95% confidence interval. The method was successfully applied to the determination and quantification of hydrocortisone in six controlled-release and fifteen conventional release pharmaceutical preparations.

  14. Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows...... the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also...

  15. Groundwater flow analysis and dose rate estimates from releases to wells at a coastal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-09-01

    {sup 3}/a. Due to the placing of the shallow wells in the discharge areas, the dilution calculated in the shallow well was shown to be close to that calculated in the deep well. In conservative considerations the value around 90 000 m{sup 3}/a can be regarded as a representative expectation value of the effective dilution of the well. This dilution volume value was also suggested by the most realistic modelling approach of the groundwater flow analysis. It was used as basis when calculating the nuclide specific dose conversion factors (DCF's) for the drinking water pathway. The DCF's were calculated for unit release rates (1 Bq/a) and the assumed water consumption rate was 2 litres/day. (orig.)

  16. Energy demand analysis in the household, commercial and agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapillonne, B.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter of the publication is dealing with Energy Demand Analysis in the Household, Commercial and Agricultural Sector. Per Capita total energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector is given and variation among countries are discussed. 12 figs, 1 tab

  17. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  18. Orienting the Neighborhood: A Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a new computerized Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool being developed to allow users to interactively design subdivision street layouts while receiving feedback about energy impacts based on user-specified building design variants and availability of roof surfaces for photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.

  19. A methodology for the data energy regional consumption consistency analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavarros, Otacilio Borges; Silva, Ennio Peres da

    1999-01-01

    The article introduces a methodology for data energy regional consumption consistency analysis. The work was going based on recent studies accomplished by several cited authors and boarded Brazilian matrices and Brazilian energetics regional balances. The results are compared and analyzed

  20. Market analysis Fukushima. Renewable energy, energy efficiency and energy conservation in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The use of renewable energy has experienced in Fukushima Prefecture in the years after the reactor accident in March 2011, a substantial upswing. In total 500 MW of renewable energy capacity have been installed. According to the plans of the prefecture this capacity should be increased in 2020 to a total of just over 8 gigawatts. As in the rest of the country parts also, the solar energy was primarily used; this accounted 295 MW alone. In future, the priorities but more are in the areas of wind energy and hydropower. [de