WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy recovery drives

  1. Stability Analysis of Static Slip-Energy Recovery Drive via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set of nonlinear differential equations which describe the system dynamics are derived and linearized about an operating point using perturbation technique. The Eigenvalue analysis of the linearized model shows that the drive system is almost completely stable in the entire operating range Routh stability criterion is used ...

  2. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  3. Energy Recovery Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Merminga, L

    2005-01-01

    Successfully operating, pioneering Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) – based Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have paved the way towards powerful and highly efficient accelerators based on the principle of energy recovery. Pursued and envisioned ERL applications worldwide include high brilliance light sources for the production of both spontaneous and FEL radiation, high-energy electron cooling devices, and electron-ion colliders. The required electron source parameters, average beam current and beam energy of the proposed applications are a significant extrapolation from demonstrated performance. We present an overview of the accelerator physics and technology challenges encountered in the design of the various ERL projects around the world, as well as progress and development plans to achieving the required performance.

  4. Energy Recovery Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  5. Linac Optics for Energy Recovery Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivan Bazarov; Geoffrey Krafft; Lia Merminga

    2001-01-01

    Several possible scenarios of Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) beam optics design are investigated to support the low emittance high current CW electron beam needed to drive a new ERL based X-ray Source. It is shown by numerical simulations that sufficiently high multipass beam break-up (BBU) threshold current can be achieved in a straightforward one-pass one-linac ERL scenario. A simple guideline for choosing optimal linac and recirculating transport line optics is suggested to realize best possible BBU threshold current

  6. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic purpose is demonstrate how this can be done for low-cost PWM-VSI drives without bringing the robustness of the drive below an acceptable level.Four drives are investigated with respect to energy optimal c...

  7. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization. In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and phosphorus).

  8. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  9. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...

  10. What drives renewable energy development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappan, L.; Orans, R.; Woo, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint reviews renewable energy development in 14 markets that differ in market structure (restructured vs. not restructured), use of feed-in-tariff (FIT) (yes vs. no), transmission planning (anticipatory vs. reactive), and transmission interconnection cost allocated to a renewable generator (high vs. low). We find that market restructuring is not a primary driver of renewable energy development. Renewable generation has the highest percent of total installed capacity in markets that use a FIT, employ anticipatory transmission planning, and have loads or end-users paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. In contrast, renewable developers have been less successful in markets that do not use a FIT, employ reactive transmission planning, and have generators paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. While these policies can lead to higher penetration of renewable energy in the short run, their high cost to ratepayers can threaten the economic sustainability of renewable energy in the long-run. - Highlights: → Market structure seems to have little effect on renewable energy development. → Renewable energy development is more successful in markets that use a FIT. → Anticipatory transmission planning aids renewable energy development. → Low interconnection costs for developers also aids renewable energy development.

  11. Do night naps impact driving performance and daytime recovery sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofanti, Stephanie A; Dorrian, Jillian; Hilditch, Cassie J; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-02-01

    Short, nighttime naps are used as a fatigue countermeasure in night shift work, and may offer protective benefits on the morning commute. However, there is a concern that nighttime napping may impact upon the quality of daytime sleep. The aim of the current project was to investigate the influence of short nighttime naps (sleep periods were recorded polysomnographically. Compared to control, the napping conditions did not significantly impact upon simulated driving lane variability, percentage of time in a safe zone, or time to first crash on morning or evening drives (p>0.05). Short nighttime naps did not significantly affect daytime recovery total sleep time (p>0.05). Slow wave sleep (SWS) obtained during the 30-min nighttime nap resulted in a significant reduction in SWS during subsequent daytime recovery sleep (p<0.05), such that the total amount of SWS in 24-h was preserved. Therefore, short naps did not protect against performance decrements during a simulated morning commute, but they also did not adversely affect daytime recovery sleep following a night shift. Further investigation is needed to examine the optimal timing, length or combination of naps for reducing performance decrements on the morning commute, whilst still preserving daytime sleep quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The drive to cleaner energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A.; McDonald, A.

    1995-12-31

    The world is not running out of energy, even with the global population expected to double by 2050 and to reach 12 billion by 2100. Indeed, there are enough potential resources, from oil and gas to coal and renewables, that the world will have choices. We will not need to push every resource to the limit just to keep up with population and economic growth. Which energy resources will predominate in the future will depend not on resource limits, but on which fuels can be most successfully tailored to match what consumers want. And what they want is clear: there is a continuing, pervasive and persistent trend in energy demand toward ever cleaner, more flexible, and more convenient energy end uses. 6 figs.

  13. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lamb, Bradford [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Prudell, Joseph [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hammagren, Erik [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  14. Magnetic driving energy of the tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, E.A.; Kulsrud, R.M.; White, R.B.

    1979-10-01

    The change in the magnetic energy density produced by a tearing mode is calculated exactly. The driving energy for the mode is found to come entirely from the region inside the tearing layer, although there is also a displacement of energy in the outer region which integrates to zero. The total change in magnetic energy is exactly equal to the change in a quadratic form related to a variational principle for the full resistive equations

  15. Energy Considerations of Hypothetical Space Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.

    2007-01-01

    The energy requirements of hypothetical, propellant-less space drives are compared to rockets. This serves to provide introductory estimates for potential benefits and to suggest analytical approaches for further study. A "space drive" is defined as an idealized form of propulsion that converts stored potential energy directly into kinetic energy using only the interactions between the spacecraft and its surrounding space. For Earth-to-orbit, the space drive uses 3.7 times less energy. For deep space travel, energy is proportional to the square of delta-v, whereas rocket energy scales exponentially. This has the effect of rendering a space drive 150-orders-of-magnitude better than a 17,000-s Specific Impulse rocket for sending a modest 5000 kg probe to traverse 5 ly in 50 years. Indefinite levitation, which is impossible for a rocket, could conceivably require 62 MJ/kg for a space drive. Assumption sensitivities and further analysis options are offered to guide further inquires.

  16. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Ken [Columbia Power Technologies, Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress and results for this project which will be used to inform the utility-scale design process, improve cost estimates, accurately forecast energy production and to observe system operation and survivability.

  17. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Hammagren, Erik J. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.

  18. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  19. Superconducting RF for energy-recovery linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepe, M.; Knobloch, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since superconducting RF for particle accelerators made its first appearance in the 1970s, it has found highly successful application in a variety of machines. Recent progress in this technology has made so-called Energy-Recovery Linacs (ERLs)-originally proposed in 1965-feasible, and interest in this type of machine has increased enormously. A superconducting linac is the driving heart of ERLs, and emittance preservation and cost efficiency is of utmost importance. The resulting challenges for the superconducting cavity technology and RF field control are manifold. In March 2005 the first international workshop on ERLs was held at Newport News, VA, to explore the potential of ERLs and to discuss machine-physics and technology challenges and their solutions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in superconducting RF and RF control for ERLs, and summarizes the discussions of the SRF working group on this technology during the ERL2005 workshop

  20. Wormholes, warp drives and energy conditions

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Top researchers in the field of gravitation present the state-of-the-art topics outlined in this book, ranging from the stability of rotating wormholes solutions supported by ghost scalar fields, modified gravity applied to wormholes, the study of novel semi-classical and nonlinear energy conditions, to the applications of quantum effects and the superluminal version of the warp drive in modified spacetime. Based on Einstein's field equations, this cutting-edge research area explores the more far-fetched theoretical outcomes of General Relativity and relates them to quantum field theory. This includes quantum energy inequalities, flux energy conditions, and wormhole curvature, and sheds light on not just the theoretical physics but also on the possible applications to warp drives and time travel. This book extensively explores the physical properties and characteristics of these 'exotic spacetimes,' describing in detail the general relativistic geometries that generate closed timelike curves.

  1. Stand age and climate drive forest carbon balance recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Simon; Carvalhais, Nuno; Clevers, Jan; Herold, Martin; Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Forests play an essential role in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, especially in the C exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Ecological disturbances and forest management are drivers of forest dynamics and strongly impact the forest C budget. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the exogenous and endogenous factors driving forest C recovery. Our analysis includes 68 forest sites in different climate zones to determine the relative influence of stand age and climate conditions on the forest carbon balance recovery. In this study, we only included forest regrowth after clear-cut stand replacement (e.g. harvest, fire), and afforestation/reforestation processes. We synthesized net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), the photosynthetic respiratory ratio (GPP to Re ratio), the ecosystem carbon use efficiency (CUE), that is NEP to GPP ratio, and CUEclimax, where GPP is derived from the climate conditions. We implemented a non-linear regression analysis in order to identify the best model representing the C flux patterns with stand age. Furthermore, we showed that each C flux have a non-linear relationship with stand age, annual precipitation (P) and mean annual temperature (MAT), therefore, we proposed to use non-linear transformations of the covariates for C fluxes'estimates. Non-linear stand age and climate models were, therefore, used to establish multiple linear regressions for C flux predictions and for determining the contribution of stand age and climate in forest carbon recovery. Our findings depicted that a coupled stand age-climate model explained 33% (44%, average site), 62% (76%, average site), 56% (71%, average site), 41% (59%, average site), 50% (65%, average site) and 36% (50%, average site) of the variance of annual NEP, GPP, Re, photosynthetic respiratory ratio, CUE and CUEclimax across sites, respectively. In addition, we showed that gross fluxes (e.g. GPP and Re) are

  2. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  3. Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.S.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat,

  4. Diesel yield improvement and FCC energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Heat recovery modifications affect FCC LCO yields both directly and indirectly. Direct changes improve LCO recovery by improved fractionation of LCO from both slurry and naphtha. Indirect changes increase LCO yields by increasing FCC reactor feed temperature. Improved diesel yields by direct changes (or higher recovery of the existing diesel) impose changes in internal liquid rates and column temperature profiles. Mechanical and reliability limits must be respected to maintain unit reliability. High diesel recovery from slurry oil increase the slurry oil temperatures. Reliable operation requires keeping the slurry oil operating temperature below roughly 382 deg C (720 deg F). Higher slurry temperatures create a high probability of coke formation in the main fractionators. Close attention to mechanical details is required for reliable operation at 382 deg C (720 deg F). High diesel recovery from naphtha product reduces tower top temperatures. This reduces the available driving force for heat integration. Reduced top temperatures also create the potential for chloride-related and water related corrosion problems. Proper design of equipment can circumvent both these problems. Improved diesel yields by indirect changes creates more shifts heat to feed preheat. This reduces the available heat to other services. The changing yield structure also modifies the required internal liquid rates inside the main fractionators. Again, careful attention to design for heat recovery at low temperature differences is required to maintain the duty to the FCC gas plant. A series of modifications to improve control, increase heat recovery at low temperatures, and circumvent some of the more serious maintenance problems is required. (author)

  5. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  6. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  7. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed.......This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  8. Potential for energy recovery from humid air streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard H. Rosen

    1979-01-01

    The potential for energy recovery from the vent stream of dryers is examined by assuming the vent stream transfers its energy in a regenerative heat exchanger. Tables present energy recovery over a range of conditions. Example problems demonstrate the use of the energy recovery tables.

  9. High Current Energy Recovery Linac at BNL

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinenko, Vladimir N; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Bluem, Hans; Brennan, Joseph M; Burger, Al; Burrill, Andrew; Calaga, Rama; Cameron, Peter; Chang, Xiangyun; Cole, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Delayen, Jean R; Favale, Anthony; Gassner, David M; Hahn, Harald; Hershcovitch, Ady; Holmes, Douglas; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Johnson, Peter; Kayran, Dmitry; Kewisch, Jorg; Lambiase, Robert; Mahler, George; McIntyre, Gary; Meng, Wuzheng; Nehring, Thomas; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Pate, David; Phillips, Larry; Preble, Joseph P; Rank, Jim; Rao, Triveni; Rathke, John; Roser, Thomas; Russo, Thomas; Scaduto, Joseph; Schultheiss, Tom; Smith, Kevin T; Todd, Alan M M; Warren Funk, L; Williams, Neville; Wu, Kuo-Chen; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Yip, Kin; Zaltsman, Alex; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2004-01-01

    We present the design and the parameters of a small Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) facility, which is under construction at BNL. This R&D facility has goals to demonstrate CW operation of ERL with average beam current in the range of 0.1 - 1 ampere, combined with very high efficiency of energy recovery. The possibility for future up-grade to a two-pass ERL is being considered. The heart of the facility is a 5-cell 703.75 MHz super-conducting RF linac with HOM damping. Flexible lattice of ERL provides a test-bed for testing issues of transverse and longitudinal instabilities and diagnostics of intense CW e-beam. We present the status and plans for this facility.

  10. The best energy recovery project in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaasen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Norway is one of the world's leading producers of ferro-alloys and silicon metals. The high temperature required in the production process is obtained by using electric energy. The temperature of the waste gases varies between 200 and 900 o C. To recover the energy of hot dust-holding gases from ferro-alloy plants the waste gases are cooled by means of steam production. The ferro-alloy plant Globe Norge AS Hafslund Metall and the energy supply company Birka Energi have signed an agreement to build Norway's largest energy recovery plant. The plant will recover 260 GWh per year. The oil consumption will be reduced by 26000 tonne per year and the annual emission of carbon dioxide by 80000 tonne. Steam from the plant will be supplied to the two companies Borregaard and Glomma Papp. The article describes the plant in some detail

  11. Development of portable measuring system for testing of electrical vehicle's heat energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvajcz, K.; Váradiné Szarka, A.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays the consumer society applies a huge amount of energy in many fields including transportation sector. Internal combustion vehicles contribute substantially to the air pollution. An alternative solution for reducing energy consumption is replacing the internal combustion vehicles by electrical or hybrid vehicles. Today one of the biggest disadvantages of the electrical vehicles is the finite capacity of batteries. The research topic presented in this paper is the „Energy Harvesting”, and development of energy recovery system for electrical vehicles which largely contributes in increasing the driving range. At the current phase of the research efficiency analysis of the heat energy recovery devices are investigated in real driving circumstances. Computer based mobile and wireless measurement system for the analysis was developed, tested and installed in a real vehicle. Driving tests were performed and analysed in different circumstances.

  12. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S.; Cui, Yi

    2013-01-01

    This work introduces a microbial battery for recovery of energy from reservoirs of organic matter, such as wastewater. Microorganisms at an anode oxidize dissolved organic substances, releasing electrons to an external circuit, where power can be extracted. The electrons then enter a solid-state electrode that remains solid as electrons accumulate within it. The solid-state electrode is periodically removed from the battery, oxidized, and reinstalled for sustained power production. Molecular ...

  13. Multiaspect measurement analysis of breaking energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartłomiejczyk, Mikołaj; Połom, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of implementation of eco energy technologies in municipal transport. • The “ready to use” methods are presented. • The “niche” ways of increasing efficiency, e.g. “intelligent heating”. • Novel multi way measurement method using GPS localization system. • Confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement. - Abstract: Nowadays the issue of electric energy saving in public transport is becoming a key area of interest, which is connected both with a growth of environmental awareness in the society and an increase in the prices of fuel and electricity. That is why the reduction of energy consumption by increasing electrified urban transport, such as trams, trolleybuses, light rail and underground is becoming an increasingly important issue. Energy recovery during braking is possible in all modern electric vehicles, but in many cases this possibility is not fully taken advantage of, inter alia, because of an inadequate power supply structure. The aim of this article is to present practical examples of implementation of eco-friendly solutions in urban municipal transport. The article shows a thorough analysis of braking energy dispatch in the urban traction power supply system, which was based on extensive measurement research conducted in Gdynia trolleybus network. The authors applied multi way measurement method using Global Positioning System. The optimal conditions for implementation of several methods of energy recovery (storage energy systems, reconfiguration of supply system, using auxiliaries) have been shown. Great emphasis has been put on the confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement.

  14. Energy recovery in high energy neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffite, S.

    1991-07-01

    One way to heat the plasma of thermonuclear fusion experiments, is to inject high energy (50 to 100 KeV per nucleon), neutral particles (hydrogen or deuterium). Neutral beam elaboration consists in ion production and acceleration, neutralisation by charge exchange on gas target, disposal of unneutralized ions. But, in the case of positive ion based neutral beam injection, the neutralisation efficiency is limited to 50% at 100 KeV, and decreases rapidly with energy. The energy recovery is a new method for disposing of the unneutralized ions: these are electrostatically decelerated and collected on electrodes which are polarized at low voltage, close to the ion source potential. An energy recovery system was studied and experimented with positive ion beams of 50 and 100 KeV. In the framework of a french-japanese collaboration, we measured a relative power reduction of about 20%, with 100 KeV, 1,5 MW deuterium beams. We have also studied theoretically an energy recovery system for negative ion beams, which will be utilized at high energy (1 MeV). A relative power reduction of 20% can be expected in the best conditions [fr

  15. A novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  16. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: the potential for energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Stefano; Viganò, Federico

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a set of six coordinated papers reporting the main findings of a research project carried out by five Italian universities on "Material and energy recovery in Integrated Waste Management Systems (IWMS)". An overview of the project and a summary of the most relevant results can be found in the introductory article of the series. This paper describes the work related to the evaluation of mass and energy balances, which has consisted of three major efforts (i) development of a model for quantifying the energy content and the elemental compositions of the waste streams appearing in a IWMS; (ii) upgrade of an earlier model to predict the performances of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants; (iii) evaluation of mass and energy balances of all the scenarios and the recovery paths considered in the project. Results show that not only the amount of material available for energy recovery is significantly higher than the Unsorted Residual Waste (URW) left after Separate Collection (SC), because selection and recycling generate significant amounts of residues, but its heating value is higher than that of the original, gross waste. Therefore, the energy potential of what is left after recycling is always higher than the complement to 100% of the Source Separation Level (SSL). Also, increasing SSL has marginal effects on the potential for energy recovery: nearly doubling SSL (from 35% to 65%) reduces the energy potential only by one fourth. Consequently, even at high SSL energy recovery is a fundamental step of a sustainable waste management system. Variations of SSL do bring about variations of the composition, heating value and moisture content of the material fed to WtE plants, but these variations (i) are smaller than one can expect; (ii) have marginal effects on the performances of the WtE plant. These considerations suggest that the mere value of SSL is not a good indicator of the quality of the waste management system, nor of its energy and environmental

  17. Fast ferroelectric phase shifters for energy recovery linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu Kazakov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast phase shifters are described that use a novel barium strontium titanate ceramic that can rapidly change its dielectric constant as an external bias voltage is changed. These phase shifters promise to reduce by ∼10 times the power requirements for the rf source needed to drive an energy recovery linac (ERL. Such phase shifters will be coupled with superconducting radiofrequency cavities so as to tune them to compensate for phase instabilities, whether beam-driven or those caused by microphonics. The most promising design is presented, which was successfully cold tested and demonstrated a switching speed of ∼30  ns for 77 deg, corresponding to <0.5  ns per deg of rf phase. Other crucial issues (losses, phase shift values, etc. are discussed.

  18. ON BOARD OF SHIPS THERMAL ENERGY RECOVERY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beazit ALI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented at first the energy recovery conditions used at the moment on board of ships and the restrictions which do not allow the achievement of higher recovery ratios. The authors suggest a new type of recovery plant by vaporization of water by means of expansion and they show its advantages in the considerably increase of energy recovery ratio from burnt gases from the cooling water of marine engine

  19. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rampini, E.; Vatrano, F.; Techint SpA, Milan; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  20. Disposition Choices Based on Energy Footprints instead of Recovery Quota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikke, H.R.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the impact of disposition choices on the energy use of closed-loop supply chains. In a life cycle perspective, energy used in the forward chain which is locked up in the product is recaptured in recovery. High quality recovery replaces virgin production and thereby saves energy.

  1. Energy Efficient Waste Heat Recovery from an Engine Exhaust System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...release. Distribution is unlimited. ENERGY EFFICIENT WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM AN ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM Aaron R. VanDenBerg Lieutenant, United...HEAT RECOVERY DEVICES Ships mainly extract heat and energy from exhaust gases by using a waste heat boiler located in the actual exhaust duct. The

  2. Hohlraums energy balance and x-ray drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    For many years there has been an active ICF program in the US concentrating on x-ray drive. X-ray drive is produced by focusing laser beams into a high Z hohlraum. Conceptually, the radiation field comes close to thermodynamic equilibrium, that is it becomes isotropic and Planckian. These properties lead to the benefits of x-ray drive--it is relatively easy to obtain drive symmetry on a capsule with no small scalelengths drive perturbations. Other advantages of x-ray drive is the higher mass ablation rate, leading to lower growth rates for hydrodynamic instabilities. X-ray drive has disadvantages, principally the loss of energy to the walls of the hohlraum. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) review of blackbody radiation; (2) laser absorption and conversion to x-rays; (3) x-ray absorption coefficient in matter and Rosseland mean free path; (4) Marshak waves in high Z material; (5) x-ray albedo; and (6) power balance and hohlraum temperature

  3. Delta undulator for Cornell energy recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Temnykh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In anticipation of a new era of synchrotron radiation sources based on energy recovery linac techniques, we designed, built, and tested a short undulator magnet prototype whose features make optimum use of the unique conditions expected in these facilities. The prototype has pure permanent magnet (PPM structure with 24 mm period, 5 mm diameter round gap, and is 30 cm long. In comparison with conventional undulator magnets it has the following: (i full x-ray polarization control.—It may generate varying linear polarized as well as left and right circular polarized x rays with photon flux much higher than existing Apple-II–type devices. (ii 40% stronger magnetic field in linear and approximately 2 times stronger in circular polarization modes. This advantage translates into higher x-ray flux. (iii Compactness.—The prototype can be enclosed in a ∼20  cm diameter cylindrical vacuum vessel. These advantages were achieved through a number of unconventional approaches. Among them is control of the magnetic field strength via longitudinal motion of the magnet arrays. The moving mechanism is also used for x-ray polarization control. The compactness is achieved using a recently developed permanent magnet soldering technique for fastening PM blocks. We call this device a “Delta” undulator after the shape of its PM blocks. The presented article describes the design study, various aspects of the construction, and presents some test results.

  4. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  5. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovation in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-04

    Under the Recovery Act, AMO provided cost-shared funding for early-stage, low-cost, "concept definition studies" of 47 promising innovations for next-generation manufacturing, energy-intensive processes, advanced materials, and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. The brochure provides information on each of these projects.

  6. Fully Automated Driving: Impact of Trust and Practice on Manual Control Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payre, William; Cestac, Julien; Delhomme, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was performed in a driving simulator to investigate the impacts of practice, trust, and interaction on manual control recovery (MCR) when employing fully automated driving (FAD). To increase the use of partially or highly automated driving efficiency and to improve safety, some studies have addressed trust in driving automation and training, but few studies have focused on FAD. FAD is an autonomous system that has full control of a vehicle without any need for intervention by the driver. A total of 69 drivers with a valid license practiced with FAD. They were distributed evenly across two conditions: simple practice and elaborate practice. When examining emergency MCR, a correlation was found between trust and reaction time in the simple practice group (i.e., higher trust meant a longer reaction time), but not in the elaborate practice group. This result indicated that to mitigate the negative impact of overtrust on reaction time, more appropriate practice may be needed. Drivers should be trained in how the automated device works so as to improve MCR performance in case of an emergency. The practice format used in this study could be used for the first interaction with an FAD car when acquiring such a vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  8. Variable speed drives principles and applications for energy cost savings

    CERN Document Server

    Spitzer, David William

    2014-01-01

    Simply put, a variable speed drive is a controller that allows a motor and its associated equipment to run at different speeds depending upon automated input from an industrial process. That in turn provides the ability to provide smoother operations, and most importantly, energy savings by slowing down machinery when a process does not have to run at full speed. Long a leading book on this technology, this new edition by industry authority David William Spitzer provides insights to improving the applications of variable speed drives. Whether you have basic knowledge or advanced knowledge, you will find this book to be an extremely useful introduction to how variable speed drivers work, how they are best applied, and what to do and what to avoid when employing them as part of an overall automated industrial enterprise, all with an eye on energy savings. Inside, you will find: A basic overview of electrical, hydraulic, and instrumentation principles of variable speed drives. Coverage of the role that variabl...

  9. Centrifugal Compressor Unit-based Heat Energy Recovery at Compressor Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shadrin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 95% of the electricity consumed by air compressor stations around the world, is transformed into thermal energy, which is making its considerable contribution to global warming. The present article dwells on the re-use (recovery of energy expended for air compression.The article presents the energy analysis of the process of compressing air from the point of view of compressor drive energy conversion into heat energy. The temperature level of excess heat energy has been estimated in terms of a potential to find the ways of recovery of generated heat. It is shown that the temperature level formed by thermal energy depends on the degree of air compression and the number of stages of the compressor.Analysis of technical characteristics of modern equipment from leading manufacturers, as well as projects of the latest air compressor stations have shown that there are two directions for the recovery of heat energy arising from the air compression: Resolving technological problems of compressor units. The use of the excess heat generation to meet the technology objectives of the enterprise. This article examines the schematic diagrams of compressor units to implement the idea of heat recovery compression to solve technological problems: Heating of the air in the suction line during operation of the compressor station in winter conditions. Using compression heat to regenerate the adsorbent in the dryer of compressed air.The article gives an equity assessment of considered solutions in the total amount of heat energy of compressor station. Presented in the present work, the analysis aims to outline the main vectors of technological solutions that reduce negative impacts of heat generation of compressor stations on the environment and creating the potential for reuse of energy, i.e. its recovery.

  10. A Novel Energy Recovery System for Parallel Hybrid Hydraulic Excavator

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the pro...

  11. Factors Affecting the Ability of the Stroke Survivor to Drive Their Own Recovery outside of Therapy during Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Sandra G.; Kuys, Suzanne S.; Lord, Matthew; Hayward, Kathryn S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To explore factors affecting the ability of the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy during inpatient rehabilitation. Method. One-on-one, in-depth interviews with stroke survivors (n = 7) and their main carer (n = 6), along with two focus groups with clinical staff (n = 20). Data was thematically analysed according to group. Results. Stroke survivors perceived “dealing with loss,” whilst concurrently “building motivation and hope” for recovery affected their ability to drive their own recovery outside of therapy. In addition, they reported a “lack of opportunities” outside of therapy, with subsequent time described as “dead and wasted.” Main carers perceived stroke survivors felt “out of control … at everyone's mercy” and lacked knowledge of “what to do and why” outside of therapy. Clinical staff perceived the stroke survivor's ability to drive their own recovery was limited by the lack of “another place to go” and the “passive rehab culture and environment.” Discussion. To enable the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy, there is a need to increase opportunities for practice and promote active engagement. Suggested strategies include building the stroke survivor's motivation and knowledge, creating an enriched environment, and developing daily routines to provide structure outside of therapy time. PMID:24800104

  12. Factors Affecting the Ability of the Stroke Survivor to Drive Their Own Recovery outside of Therapy during Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wen Eng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore factors affecting the ability of the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy during inpatient rehabilitation. Method. One-on-one, in-depth interviews with stroke survivors (n=7 and their main carer (n=6, along with two focus groups with clinical staff (n=20. Data was thematically analysed according to group. Results. Stroke survivors perceived “dealing with loss,” whilst concurrently “building motivation and hope” for recovery affected their ability to drive their own recovery outside of therapy. In addition, they reported a “lack of opportunities” outside of therapy, with subsequent time described as “dead and wasted.” Main carers perceived stroke survivors felt “out of control … at everyone’s mercy” and lacked knowledge of “what to do and why” outside of therapy. Clinical staff perceived the stroke survivor’s ability to drive their own recovery was limited by the lack of “another place to go” and the “passive rehab culture and environment.” Discussion. To enable the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy, there is a need to increase opportunities for practice and promote active engagement. Suggested strategies include building the stroke survivor’s motivation and knowledge, creating an enriched environment, and developing daily routines to provide structure outside of therapy time.

  13. Economic Assessment for Recycling Critical Metals From Hard Disk Drives Using a Comprehensive Recovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin; Lister, Tedd E.

    2017-09-01

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally in an attempt to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. Nevertheless, current processes for recycling electronic waste only focus on certain metals as a result of feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, there is a perception that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from U.S. HDDs, this article combines techno-economic information of an electro-hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model. The results showed that adding REE recovery to an HDD base and precious metal recovery process was profitable given current prices. Recovered REEs from U.S. HDDs could meet up to 5.2% rest-of-world (excluding China) neodymium magnet demand. Feedstock, aluminum, and gold prices are key factors to recycling profitability. REEs contributed 13% to the co-recycling profit.

  14. Complex processing of rubber waste through energy recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Smelík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the applied energy recovery solutions for complex processing of rubber waste for energy recovery. It deals specifically with the solution that could maximize possible use of all rubber waste and does not create no additional waste that disposal would be expensive and dangerous for the environment. The project is economically viable and energy self-sufficient. The outputs of the process could replace natural gas and crude oil products. The other part of the process is also the separation of metals, which can be returned to the metallurgical secondary production.

  15. Energy recovery from solid waste. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A systems analysis of energy recovery from solid waste which demonstrates the feasibility of several processes for converting solid waste to an energy form is presented. The social, legal, environmental, and political factors are considered and recommendations made in regard to legislation and policy. A technical and economic evaluation of available and developing energy-recovery processes is given with emphasis on thermal decomposition and biodegradation. A pyrolysis process is suggested. The use of prepared solid waste as a fuel supplemental to coal is considered to be the most economic process for recovery of energy from solid waste. Markets are discussed with suggestions for improving market conditions and for developing market stability. A decision procedure is given to aid a community in deciding on its options in dealing with solid waste.

  16. Energy efficient approach for transient fault recovery in real time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DVS (Dynamic Voltage Scaling) is responsible for energy minimization in a system by adjusting the voltage level and clock speed dynamically. Efficiency of DVS depends upon available slack time. Experimental result shows that proposed algorithm is more suitable for transient fault recovery with energy minimization.

  17. Nematomorph parasites drive energy flow through a riparian ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takuya; Wtanabe, Katsutoshi; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Niizuma, Yasuaki; Harada, Yasushi; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Parasites are ubiquitous in natural systems and ecosystem-level effects should be proportional to the amount of biomass or energy flow altered by the parasites. Here we quantified the extent to which a manipulative parasite altered the flow of energy through a forest-stream ecosystem. In a Japanese headwater stream, camel crickets and grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were 20 times more likely to enter a stream if infected by a nematomorph parasite (Gordionus spp.), corroborating evidence that nematomorphs manipulate their hosts to seek water where the parasites emerge as free-living adults. Endangered Japanese trout (Salvelinus leucomaenis japonicus) readily ate these infected orthopterans, which due to their abundance, accounted for 60% of the annual energy intake of the trout population. Trout grew fastest in the fall, when nematomorphs were driving energy-rich orthopterans into the stream. When infected orthopterans were available, trout did not eat benthic invertebrates in proportion to their abundance, leading to the potential for cascading, indirect effects through the forest-stream ecosystem. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that a manipulative parasite can dramatically alter the flow of energy through and across ecosystems.

  18. Energy and exergy recovery in a natural gas compressor station – A technical and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Kalina, Jacek; Bargiel, Paweł; Szufleński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy flow in a natural gas compressor station. • Operational efficiency only 18.3% vs. 35.1% nominal. • 3 energy/exergy recovery systems proposed. • Up to 168.9 GW h/y electricity and 6.5 GW h/y heat recoverable. • Legal obstacles: operators not allowed to produce electricity. - Abstract: The paper presents possible solutions to improve the thermodynamic performance of a natural gas compressor station equipped with various type of compressor units and operated at part-load conditions. A method for setting a simplified energy and exergy balance based on the available metering information has been presented. For a case study plant, it has been demonstrated that the current part-load operation leads to a significant decrease in energy and exergy efficiency compared to the nominal state of machinery. Three alternative improvement strategies have been proposed: (1) installation of a heat recovery hot water generator for covering the existing heat demand of the plant; (2) installation of a heat recovery thermal oil heater for covering the existing heat demand and driving an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for electricity generation; (3) installation of a heat recovery thermal oil heater with and ORC and gas expanders for switching into full-load operation of the gas turbine unit. Energy and exergy performance of the proposed strategies as well as their economic feasibility have been analyzed. The second scenario involving an ORC unit provides the highest local energy savings, however, its economic feasibility is not achieved under the current part-load operating conditions. A hypothetic scenario of the same station operated at full-load due to an increased gas transmission capacity demonstrate the economic feasibility (possible under optimistic price conditions). Finally, it has been shown that the possibility of waste energy recovery from natural gas transmission systems (in particular, from compressor stations) depends on legal

  19. Recovery of energy in a gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergalant, Jacques; Guais, J.-C.; Perrault, Michel; Vignet, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Any energy recovery, even partial, goes in the direction of savings in energy and should be sought for. The Tricastin plant, now in the course of being built, will be able to deliver several hundreds of MW for the purpose of urban and agricultural heating. The new Coredif project will more completely integrate the valorization of calories in its definition (choice of temperatures, design of the heat exchangers, recovery cycles). In fact the recent evolution in energy costs renders the otpimization of a plant equipped with a heat recovery system (1 to 2% on the cost of the uranium produced) now economically worth-while. In the same way, the choice of the site of the future plant may be conditioned by the possible uses of calories in its vicinity [fr

  20. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  1. Computer program for sizing residential energy recovery ventilator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Lee, S.M.; Spears, J.W.; Kesselring, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Energy recovery ventilators offer the prospect of tighter control over residential ventilation rates than manual methods, such as opening windows, with a lesser energy penalty. However, the appropriate size of such a ventilator is not readily apparent in most situations. Sizing of energy recovery ventilation software was developed to calculate the size of ventilator necessary to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, or a user-specified air exchange rate. Inputs to the software include house location, structural characteristics, house operations and energy costs, ventilation characteristics, and HVAC system COP/efficiency. Based on these inputs, the program estimates the existing air exchange rate for the house, the ventilation rate required to meet the ASHRAE standard or user-specified air exchange rate, the size of the ventilator needed to meet the requirement, and the expected changes in indoor air quality and energy consumption. In this paper an illustrative application of the software is provided

  2. Electric or pneumatic? Comparing electric and pneumatic linear drives with regard to energy efficiency and costs

    OpenAIRE

    Hirzel, Simon; Hettesheimer, Tim; Schröter, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Linear drives are broadly used in industrial automation, e.g. for material handling systems, assembly lines or machine tools. In many applications, both compressed-air powered pneumatic drives as well as linear electric drives can be used. The use of compressed air is generally associated with comparatively low energy efficiency. This has triggered a debate about the energy-related performance of alternative drive systems. In this paper, we contribute to this debate by providing insights into...

  3. Ion energy recovery experiment based on magnetic electro suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment on direct recovery of residual hydrogen ions based on a magnetic electron suppression scheme is described. Ions extracted from a source plasma a few kilovolts above the ground potential (approx. 20 A) are accelerated to 40 keV by a negative potential maintained on a neutralizer gas cell. As the residual ions exit the gas cell, they are deflected from the neutral beam by a magnetic field that also suppresses gas cell electrons and then recovered on a ground-potential surface. Under optimum conditions, a recovery efficiency (the ratio of the net recovered current to the available full-energy ion current) of 80% +- 20% has been obtained. Magnetic suppression of the beam plasma electrons was rather easily achieved; however, handling the fractional-energy ions originating from molecular species (H 2 + and H 3 + ) proved to be extremely important to recovery efficiency

  4. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  5. Development of a driving cycle to evaluate the energy economy of electric vehicles in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, John; O’Mahony, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a driving cycle to evaluate energy economy of electric vehicles. • Improves on existing driving cycles by using real world data from electric vehicles. • Driving data from different road types and traffic conditions included. - Abstract: Understanding real-world driving conditions in the form of driving cycles is instrumental in the design of efficient powertrains and energy storage systems for electric vehicles. In addition, driving cycles serve as a standardised measurement procedure for the certification of a vehicle’s fuel economy and driving range. They also facilitate the evaluation of the economic and lifecycle costs of emerging vehicular technologies. However, discrepancies between existing driving cycles and real-world driving conditions exist due to a number of factors such as insufficient data, inadequate driving cycle development methodologies and methods to assess the representativeness of developed driving cycles. The novel aspect of the work presented here is the use of real-world data from electric vehicles, over a six month period, to derive a driving cycle appropriate for their assessment. A stochastic and statistical methodology is used to develop and assess the representativeness of the driving cycle against a separate set of real world electric vehicle driving data and the developed cycle performs well in that comparison. Although direct comparisons with internal combustion engine driving cycles are not that informative or relevant due to the marked differences between how they and electric vehicles operate, some discussion around how the developed electric vehicle cycle relates to them is also included.

  6. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-Power Adiabatic Computing with Improved Quasistatic Energy Recovery Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of adiabatic logic circuits is determined by the adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses incurred by them during the charging and recovery operations. The lesser will be these losses circuit will be more energy efficient. In this paper, a new approach is presented for minimizing power consumption in quasistatic energy recovery logic (QSERL circuit which involves optimization by removing the nonadiabatic losses completely by replacing the diodes with MOSFETs whose gates are controlled by power clocks. Proposed circuit inherits the advantages of quasistatic ERL (QSERL family but is with improved power efficiency and driving ability. In order to demonstrate workability of the newly developed circuit, a 4 × 4 bit array multiplier circuit has been designed. A mathematical expression to calculate energy dissipation in proposed inverter is developed. Performance of the proposed logic (improved quasistatic energy recovery logic (IQSERL is analyzed and compared with CMOS and reported QSERL in their representative inverters and multipliers in VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of Cadence in 0.18 μm UMC technology. In our proposed (IQSERL inverter the power efficiency has been improved to almost 20% up to 50 MHz and 300 fF external load capacitance in comparison to CMOS and QSERL circuits.

  8. Relative Recovery of Thermal Energy and Fresh Water in Aquifer Storage and Recovery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotliński, K; Dillon, P J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between thermal energy and fresh water recoveries from an aquifer storage recovery (ASR) well in a brackish confined aquifer. It reveals the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature and conservative solutes between injected and recovered water. The evaluation is based on a review of processes affecting heat and solute transport in a homogeneous aquifer. In this simplified analysis, it is assumed that the aquifer is sufficiently anisotropic to inhibit density-affected flow, flow is axisymmetric, and the analysis is limited to a single ASR cycle. Results show that the radial extent of fresh water at the end of injection is greater than that of the temperature change due to the heating or cooling of the geological matrix as well as the interstitial water. While solutes progress only marginally into low permeability aquitards by diffusion, conduction of heat into aquitards above and below is more substantial. Consequently, the heat recovery is less than the solute recovery when the volume of the recovered water is lower than the injection volume. When the full volume of injected water is recovered the temperature mixing ratio divided by the solute mixing ratio for recovered water ranges from 0.95 to 0.6 for ratios of maximum plume radius to aquifer thickness of 0.6 to 4.6. This work is intended to assist conceptual design for dual use of ASR for conjunctive storage of water and thermal energy to maximize the potential benefits. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  9. Possibilities of heat energy recovery from greywater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecka, Kaja

    2018-02-01

    Waste water contains a large amount of heat energy which is irretrievably lost, so it is worth thinking about the possibilities of its recovery. It is estimated that in a residential building with full sanitary fittings, about 70% of the total tap water supplied is discharged as greywater and could be reused. The subject of the work is the opportunity to reuse waste water as an alternative source of heat for buildings. For this purpose, the design of heat exchangers used in the process of greywater heat recovery in indoor sewage systems, public buildings as well as in industrial plants has been reviewed. The possibility of recovering heat from waste water transported in outdoor sewage systems was also taken into consideration. An exemplary waste water heat recovery system was proposed, and the amount of heat that could be obtained using a greywater heat recovery system in a residential building was presented. The work shows that greywater heat recovery systems allow for significant savings in preheating hot tap water, and the rate of cost reimbursement depends on the purpose of the building and the type of installation. At the same time, the work shows that one should adjust the construction solutions of heat exchangers and indoor installations in buildings to the quality of the medium flowing, which is greywater.

  10. Possibilities of heat energy recovery from greywater systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niewitecka Kaja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste water contains a large amount of heat energy which is irretrievably lost, so it is worth thinking about the possibilities of its recovery. It is estimated that in a residential building with full sanitary fittings, about 70% of the total tap water supplied is discharged as greywater and could be reused. The subject of the work is the opportunity to reuse waste water as an alternative source of heat for buildings. For this purpose, the design of heat exchangers used in the process of greywater heat recovery in indoor sewage systems, public buildings as well as in industrial plants has been reviewed. The possibility of recovering heat from waste water transported in outdoor sewage systems was also taken into consideration. An exemplary waste water heat recovery system was proposed, and the amount of heat that could be obtained using a greywater heat recovery system in a residential building was presented. The work shows that greywater heat recovery systems allow for significant savings in preheating hot tap water, and the rate of cost reimbursement depends on the purpose of the building and the type of installation. At the same time, the work shows that one should adjust the construction solutions of heat exchangers and indoor installations in buildings to the quality of the medium flowing, which is greywater.

  11. Plasticity in central neural drive with short-term disuse and recovery - effects on muscle strength and influence of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, L G; Aagaard, P; Ørtenblad, N; Kjaer, M; Suetta, C

    2018-02-21

    While short-term disuse negatively affects mechanical muscle function (e.g. isometric muscle strength) little is known of the relative contribution of adaptions in central neural drive and peripheral muscle contractility. The present study investigated the relative contribution of adaptations in central neural drive and peripheral muscle contractility on changes in isometric muscle strength following short-term unilateral disuse (4 days, knee brace) and subsequent active recovery (7 days, one session of resistance training) in young (n = 11, 24 yrs) and old healthy men (n = 11, 67 yrs). Maximal isometric knee extensor strength (MVC) (isokinetic dynamometer), voluntary muscle activation (superimposed twitch technique), and electrically evoked muscle twitch force (single and doublet twitch stimulation) were assessed prior to and after disuse, and after recovery. Following disuse, relative decreases in MVC did not differ statistically between old (16.4 ± 3.7%, p plasticity in voluntary muscle activation (~central neural drive) is a dominant mechanism affecting short-term disuse- and recovery-induced changes in muscle strength in older adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge. State of Science Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogo, Y.; Monteith, H. [Hydromantis Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    There is general consensus among sanitary engineering professionals that municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge is not a 'waste', but a potential source of valuable resources. The subject is a major interest to the members of the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC). The GWRC is therefore preparing a strategic research plan related to energy and resource recovery from wastewater sludge. The initial focus of the strategy will be on sewage sludge as water reuse aspects have been part of earlier studies. The plan will define new research orientations for deeper investigation. The current state of science (SoS) Report was prepared as the preliminary phase of GWRC's future strategic research plan on energy and resource recovery from sludge.

  13. Waste energy recovery in the industry in the ECE region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In the ECE region industry accounts for about 44 per cent of total final energy consumption, 50-55 per cent of which is ''lost''. Since the early 1970s the efficiency of energy use has improved by 5 or 6 percentage points. The potential for further cost-effective savings is estimated at 10 to 20 percentage points, depending on the type of industrial activity, kind of waste energy, availability of outlets, investment strategies, awareness of the significantly improved technical possibilities and degree of co-operation between energy specialists and production engineers, equipment manufacturers, and industrial sectors at the national and international levels. The present publication argues the case for secondary energy recovery (SER) by end-users and international co-operation in technical, economic, environmental and methodological fields. It is based on data compiled by the secretariat of the Economic Commission for Europe on 1 June 1984 and given general distribution. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Why recovery will demand efficiency in energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlan, T.

    1983-02-07

    Efficient energy use requires a long-range view of energy markets and economic policies different from the current demand-led recovery if new energy supplies are to meet projected demand growth. A substantial drop in oil prices to $13 per barrel will not support non-oil development. Focusing on the short term could neglect US domestic reserves and reverse the decline in oil imports. Europe's markets do not have the same structural opportunities to conserve, and must blame import declines on the recession. An alternative to market deification and fatalism would recycle oil and alternative-fuel investment in phase with commodities. Sustained energy prices are necessary to both efficient use and energy efficiency. (DCK)

  15. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, Allen [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Darlow, Rick [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sanchez, Angel [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Pierce, Michael [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States); Sellers, Blake [GeoTek Energy, LLC, Frisco, TX (United States)

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  16. Tracking studies in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Beam and polarization tracking studies in eRHIC energy recovery electron recirculator are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the FFAG lattice. These simulations provide examples of some of the beam and spin optics aspects of the linear FFAG lattice concept and its application in eRHIC, they provide code benchmarking for synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion in addition, and pave the way towards end-to-end 6-D(phasespace)+3D(spin) tracking simulations.

  17. Energy recovery system using an organic rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    A thermodynamic system for waste heat recovery, using an organic rankine cycle is provided which employs a single organic heat transferring fluid to recover heat energy from two waste heat streams having differing waste heat temperatures. Separate high and low temperature boilers provide high and low pressure vapor streams that are routed into an integrated turbine assembly having dual turbines mounted on a common shaft. Each turbine is appropriately sized for the pressure ratio of each stream.

  18. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  19. Solar power satellite—Life-cycle energy recovery considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    1995-05-01

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for a cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead of monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power plant components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on Earth (rectenna) requires in the order of 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production, installation and operation, is in the order of two years.

  20. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Muplus, Inc., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  1. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  2. An Energy Efficient Hydraulic Winch Drive Concept Based on a Speed-variable Switched Differential Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2017-01-01

    The application of valve driven hydraulic winch drives is related to substantial power losses, primarily due to throttle generated valve flows. More energy efficient solutions are also commonly applied in terms of conventional hydrostatic closed circuit drives as well as so-called secondary......, originally designed for direct drive of hydraulic differential cylinders. This concept utilizes three pumps, driven by a single electric servo drive. The concept is redesigned for usage in winch drives, driven by flow symmetric hydraulic motors and single directional loads as commonly seen in e.g. active...

  3. Driving factors for the regional implementation of renewable energy ‐ A multiple case study on the German energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Lotte Marie; Fischer, Lisa-Britt; Newig, Jens; Lang, Daniel Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Understanding what drives the regional implementation of renewable energy is a prerequisite for energy transitions toward a post-fossil-based energy economy. This paper presents an empirical analysis of driving factors for the regional implementation and use of renewable energy. We tested literature-derived driving factors in a comparative analysis of 18 selected study regions using Rough Set Analysis and performance analysis. We paid special attention to common combinations of driving factors, which we understand as established practices concerning the use and implementation of renewable energy. Our findings confirm most of the driving factors identified in the literature, for example the existence of key actors, knowledge exchange, or the use of goals and milestones. We also observe differences in key driving factors between highly successful and less successful regions, especially regarding funding opportunities. The results may support policy makers who aim to successfully implement renewable energy at a regional level. - Highlights: • We analyzed driving factors for RE implementation in 18 best-practice regions. • Most driving factors from transition and governance literature were confirmed. • We identified common successful practices concerning RE implementation.

  4. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. [Geothermally heated]. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.; Singh, D.P.

    1977-05-01

    An engineering and economic study was made to determine a practical balance of selected agribusiness subsystems resulting in realistic estimated produce yields for a geothermally heated system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness. The subsystem cycles for an average application at an unspecified hydrothermal resources site in the western United States utilize waste and by-products from their companion cycles insofar as practicable. Based on conservative estimates of current controlled environment yields, produce wholesale market prices, production costs, and capital investment required, it appears that the family-operation-sized TERSA module presents the potential for marginal recovery of all capital investment costs. In addition to family- or small-cooperative-farming groups, TERSA has potential users in food-oriented corporations and large-cooperative-agribusiness operations. The following topics are considered in detail: greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers; fish farming; mushroom culture; biogas generation; integration methodology; hydrothermal fluids and heat exchanger selection; and the system. 133 references. (MHR)

  5. Beam Diagnostics for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Dawson, William; Degen, Chris; DellaPenna, Al; Gassner, David; Kesselman, Martin; Kewish, Jorg; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Mead, Joseph; Oerter, Brian; Russo, Tom; Vetter, Kurt; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2004-01-01

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL. The goals of this test facility are first to demonstrate stable intense CW electron beam with parameters typical for the RHIC e-cooling project (and potentially for eRHIC), second to test novel elements of the ERL (high current CW photo-cathode, superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers, and feedback systems), and finally to test lattice dependence of stability criteria. Planned diagnostics include position monitors, loss monitors, transverse profile monitors (both optical and wires), scrapers/halo monitors, a high resolution differential current monitor, phase monitors, an energy spread monitor, and a fast transverse monitor (for beam break-up studies and the energy feedback system). We discuss diagnostics challenges that are unique to this project, and present preliminary system specifications. In addition, we include a brief discussion of the timing system

  6. Energy recovery from garden waste in a LCA perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    According to the common strategies regarding waste management and energy supply in EU countries, more efficient utilization of organic waste resources (including garden waste) with both nutrient and energy recovery is desired. Each of the most common treatments applied today – composting, direct...... treatment alternatives (AD, composting, direct use on land and incineration) was conducted. The results showed that none of the scenarios assessed was best in all impact categories simultaneously, i.e. an overall ranking of the technologies was not possible. Moreover, many trade-offs between nutrient...... use on land and incineration – only provides one of the two services. A technology ensuring both nutrient and energy utilization is anaerobic digestion (AD) that has become applicable for treatment of garden waste recently. In this study, life cycle assessment aimed to compare four garden waste...

  7. Energy researchers - 1. Energy efficiency: Energy efficiency is driving innovation; No economic crisis for energy efficiency; How can we change our energy habits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisan, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel; Viterbo, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    A first article comments how the race to achieve energy efficiency is driving the emergence of new technologies in transportation and construction (hybrid cars, phase change material, digital mock-ups, and so on). The example of the AGV is evoked, a new version of the TGV developed by Alstom which will run faster and consume less energy. A second article outlines that, due to the support from public authorities and to an increased awareness of energy costs and environmental challenges, the energy savings market is booming. Then, in an interview, a sociologist of the ADEME comments the difficulty of changing habits in terms of energy savings

  8. Mechanical Energy Recovery during Walking in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Dipaola

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of mechanical energy recovery during gait have been thoroughly investigated in healthy subjects, but never described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such mechanisms are preserved in PD patients despite an altered pattern of locomotion. We consecutively enrolled 23 PD patients (mean age 64±9 years with bilateral symptoms (H&Y ≥II if able to walk unassisted in medication-off condition (overnight suspension of all dopaminergic drugs. Ten healthy subjects (mean age 62±3 years walked both at their 'preferred' and 'slow' speeds, to match the whole range of PD velocities. Kinematic data were recorded by means of an optoelectronic motion analyzer. For each stride we computed spatio-temporal parameters, time-course and range of motion (ROM of hip, knee and ankle joint angles. We also measured kinetic (Wk, potential (Wp, total (WtotCM energy variations and the energy recovery index (ER. Along with PD progression, we found a significant correlation of WtotCM and Wp with knee ROM and in particular with knee extension in terminal stance phase. Wk and ER were instead mainly related to gait velocity. In PD subjects, the reduction of knee ROM significantly diminished both Wp and WtotCM. Rehabilitation treatments should possibly integrate passive and active mobilization of knee to prevent a reduction of gait-related energetic components.

  9. Use of Multipass Recirculation and Energy Recovery In CW SRF X-FEL Driver Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David; Akers, Walt; Benson, Stephen V.; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisk, Sally; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hannon, Fay; Hardy, David; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; Kortze, J.; Legg, Robert; Li, Rui; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven W.; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shin, Ilkyoung; Shinn, Michelle D.; Tennant, Christopher; Terzic, Balsa; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn P.; Wilson, G.; Zhang, Shukui

    2010-08-01

    We discuss the use of multipass recirculation and energy recovery in CW SRF drivers for short wavelength FELs. Benefits include cost management (through reduced system footprint, required RF and SRF hardware, and associated infrastructure - including high power beam dumps and cryogenic systems), ease in radiation control (low drive beam exhaust energy), ability to accelerate and deliver multiple beams of differing energy to multiple FELs, and opportunity for seamless integration of multistage bunch length compression into the longitudinal matching scenario. Issues include all those associated with ERLs compounded by the challenge of generating and preserving the CW electron drive beam brightness required by short wavelength FELs. We thus consider the impact of space charge, BBU and other environmental wakes and impedances, ISR and CSR, potential for microbunching, intra-beam and beam-residual gas scattering, ion effects, RF transients, and halo, as well as the effect of traditional design, fabrication, installation and operational errors (lattice aberrations, alignment, powering, field quality). Context for the discussion is provided by JLAMP, the proposed VUV/X-ray upgrade to the existing Jefferson Lab FEL.

  10. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    -effects econometrics model used in this paper predicts that the energy saving speed of driving is between 45 and 56 km/h. In addition to the contribution to the literature about energy efficiency of electric vehicles, the findings from this study enlightens consumers to choose appropriate cars that suit their travel......This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up...

  11. Harnessing big data for estimating the energy consumption and driving range of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    to conventional ones. Moreover, the results of the analysis show that driving speed, acceleration and temperature have non-linear effects on the ECR, while season and precipitation level have a strong linear effect. The econometric model of the ECR of BEVs suggests that the optimal driving speed is between 45......Analyzing the factors that affect the energy efficiency of vehicles is crucial to the overall improvement of the environmental efficiency of the transport sector, one of the top polluting sectors at the global level. This study analyses the energy consumption rate (ECR) and driving range of battery...... electric vehicles (BEVs) and provides insight into the factors that affect their energy consumption by harnessing big data from real-world driving. The analysis relied on four data sources: (i) driving patterns collected from 741 drivers over a two-year period; (ii) drivers’ characteristics; (iii) road...

  12. Energy recovery from solid waste. [production engineering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, C.; Huang, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A recent group study on the problem of solid waste disposal provided a decision making model for a community to use in determining the future for its solid waste. The model is a combination of the following factors: technology, legal, social, political, economic and environmental. An assessment of local or community needs determines what form of energy recovery is desirable. A market for low pressure steam or hot water would direct a community to recover energy from solid waste by incineration to generate steam. A fuel gas could be produced by a process known as pyrolysis if there is a local market for a low heating value gaseous fuel. Solid waste can also be used directly as a fuel supplemental to coal in a steam generator. An evaluation of these various processes is made.

  13. Development of an algorithm for energy efficient automated train driving

    OpenAIRE

    Ozhigin, Artem; Prunev, Pavel; Sverdlin, Victor; Vikulina, Yulia

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Automated train driving function is greatly demanded in high-speed and commuter trains operated by Russian railways. Siemens Corporate Technology is involved in the development of such real-time function within a "robotised" train control system. The main intention of the system is not only to relieve the human driver from routine control over traction and brakes (allowing him to pay more attention to assurance of safety) but also to increase train efficiency by reduci...

  14. How the IRR drives bias in energy investment decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Tanja

    The project evaluation tool known as the IRR will often provide misleading or meaningless estimations of renewable energy investments......The project evaluation tool known as the IRR will often provide misleading or meaningless estimations of renewable energy investments...

  15. An adaptive and rule based driving system for energy-e cient and safe driving behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Yay, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Falta palabras clave Saving energy and protecting the environment became fundamental for society and politics, why several laws were enacted to increase the energye ciency. Furthermore, the growing number of vehicles and drivers leaded to more accidents and fatalities on the roads, why road safety became an important factor as well. Due to the increasing importance of energye ciency and safety, car manufacturers started to optimise the vehicle in terms of energy-e ciency ...

  16. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  17. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  18. Methanation and energy recovery from biogas: mutually beneficial?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Biogas is credited with a development potential of 18 million tons of oil equivalent by 2020 for the European Union. In terms of scale, this corresponds to the quantity of natural gas consumed today in France. Ten per cent of these resources are today being used, with wide variations from one country to another. If we compare this production to the population levels, it is the Northern European countries of Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands which emerge at the top of the list. Recovery of biogas is proportionally three times higher in these states than in France or in Belgium and six times that of Southern Europe. At a time when biogas appears in the European 'campaign for takeoff' as a sector likely to produce 'MW' in the short term, the identification of factors (including subsidies, purchase prices for energy and tax incentives) that have influenced the growth of methanation and recovery of biogas in certain countries hold valuable lessons for us all. (authors)

  19. China's ongoing energy efficiency drive: Origins, progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews-Speed, Philip

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 China's government launched a vigorous programme to reverse the trend of rising national energy intensity and to reduce intensity by 20% over the period 2006-2010. The aim of this paper is to examine this programme in the context of nearly 30 years of measures to enhance energy efficiency in China, and thus to evaluate the likelihood that today's policies will yield improvements over a longer period. The country achieved a sustained decline of energy intensity in the period 1980-2001 but this trend was reversed in 2002. This reversal arose from a shift in the structure of the economy to more energy-intensive industries and from a decline in the rate of technical innovation. The measures taken since 2003 have been directed principally at energy-intensive industries, but have also addressed other sectors of the economy. Though the energy intensity target for the year 2010 may be achieved, greater efforts will be needed to address a number of constraints which include: the reluctance to use economic and financial instruments; the dependency of energy policy on industrial and social policies; the nature of political decision-making and of public administration; a shortage of skills; and social attitudes to energy

  20. Sieving wastewater--cellulose recovery, economic and energy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiken, C J; Breuer, G; Klaversma, E; Santiago, T; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2013-01-01

    Application of fine-mesh sieves (wastewater treatment gives an opportunity to recover resources and increase sustainability of wastewater treatment processes. Sieves are traditionally used for single stage mechanical treatment (typical mesh of 0.35 mm) or in combination with an MBR (typical mesh >0.7 mm). When sieves with a mesh of 0.35 mm are used on raw sewage we observed that cellulose fibres mainly originating from toilet paper are removed efficiently from the influent with a high recovery and purity. The application of sieves as pretreatment for conventional activated sludge processes has been evaluated based on pilot plant research at three WWTPs in the Netherlands. With sieving applied to the dry weather flow only the overall energy usage of the WWTP including sludge treatment can be decreased by at least 40% with a payback time of 7 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation to drive neural plasticity and functional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C; Gallego, J A; Miller, L E

    2015-08-01

    There is mounting evidence that appropriately timed neuromuscular stimulation can induce neural plasticity and generate functional recovery from motor disorders. This review addresses the idea that coordinating stimulation with a patient's voluntary effort might further enhance neurorehabilitation. Studies in cell cultures and behaving animals have delineated the rules underlying neural plasticity when single neurons are used as triggers. However, the rules governing more complex stimuli and larger networks are less well understood. We argue that functional recovery might be optimized if stimulation were modulated by a brain machine interface, to match the details of the patient's voluntary intent. The potential of this novel approach highlights the need for a better understanding of the complex rules underlying this form of plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. What's driving energy efficient appliance label awareness and purchase propensity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The EU appliance energy consumption labeling scheme is a key component of efforts to increase the diffusion of energy-efficient household appliances. In this paper, the determinants of consumer knowledge of the energy label for household appliances and the choice of class-A energy-efficient appliances are jointly estimated using data from a large survey of more than 20,000 German households. The results for five major appliances suggest that lack of knowledge of the energy label can generate considerable bias in both estimates of rates of uptake of class-A appliances and in estimates of the underlying determinants of choice of class-A appliance. Simulations of the choice to purchase a class-A appliance, given knowledge of the labeling framework, reveal that residence characteristics and, in several cases, regional electricity prices strongly increase the propensity to purchase a class-A appliance, but socio-economic characteristics have surprisingly little impact on appliance energy-class choice.

  3. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  4. Status report on energy recovery from municipal solid waste: technologies, lessons and issues. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the lessons learned and issues raised regarding the recovery of energy from solid wastes. The review focuses on technologies and issues significant to currently operating energy recovery systems in the US - waterwall incineration, modular incineration, refuse derived fuels systems, landfill gas recovery systems. Chapters are: Energy Recovery and Solid Waste Disposal; Energy Recovery Systems; Lessons in Energy Recovery; Issues in Energy Recovery. Some basic conclusions are presented concerning the state of the art of energy from waste. Plants in shakedown or under construction, along with technologies in the development stages, are briefly described. Sources of additional information and a bibliography are included. (MCW)

  5. Comparative management of offshore posidonia residues: composting vs. energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudio; Parente, Angelo; Zaccone, Claudio; Mininni, Carlo; Santamaria, Pietro; Miano, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Residues of the marine plant posidonia (Posidonia oceanica, PO) beached in tourist zones represent a great environmental, economical, social and hygienic problem in the Mediterranean Basin, in general, and in the Apulia Region in particular, because of the great disturb to the bathers and population, and the high costs that the administrations have to bear for their removal and disposal. In the present paper, Authors determined the heating values of leaves and fibres of PO, the main offshore residues found on beaches, and, meantime, composted those residues with mowing and olive pruning wood. The final composts were characterized for pH, electrical conductivity, elemental composition, dynamic respiration index, phytotoxicity, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopic fingerprints. The aim of the paper was to investigate the composting and energy recovery of PO leaves and fibres in order to suggest alternative solutions to the landfill when offshore residues have to be removed from recreational beaches. The fibrous portion of PO residues showed heating values close to those of other biofuels, thus suggesting a possible utilization as source of energy. At the same time, compost obtained from both PO wastes showed high quality features on condition that the electrical conductivity and Na content are lowered by a correct management of wetting during the composting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The FFAG return loop for the CBETA Energy Recovery Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The CBETA energy recovery linac uses a single xed eld alternating gradient (FFAG) beam line to return the beam for electron beams with four energies, ranging from 42 MeV to 150 MeV. To keep the beam line compact, the ends of the return line have a small radius of curvature, but the central part of the return line is straight. These are connected by transition lines that adiabatically change from one to the other. We rst describe the design or the arc cell. We then describe how a straight cell is created to be a good match to this arc cell. We then describe the design of the transition line between them. The design process makes use of eld maps for the desired magnets. Because we switch magnet types as we move from the arc, through the transition, and into the straight, there are discrete jumps in the elds that degrade the adiabaticity of the transition, and we describe corrections to manage that.

  7. Exploring driving forces and liquid properties for electrokinetic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an effort to understand electrokinetic energy conversion systems which are based on motion of ionic charges in micro- and nano-confinements. In particular, both experimentally and theoretically the utilization of different kind of liquids was investigated to convert mechanical

  8. Indirect evidence for elastic energy playing a role in limb recovery during toad hopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyer, Ariela; Gallardo, Mirialys; Cox, Suzanne; Gillis, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Elastic energy is critical for amplifying muscle power during the propulsive phase of anuran jumping. In this study, we use toads (Bufo marinus) to address whether elastic recoil is also involved after take-off to help flex the limbs before landing. The potential for such spring-like behaviour stems from the unusually flexed configuration of a toad's hindlimbs in a relaxed state. Manual extension of the knee beyond approximately 90° leads to the rapid development of passive tension in the limb as underlying elastic tissues become stretched. We hypothesized that during take-off, the knee regularly extends beyond this, allowing passive recoil to help drive limb flexion in mid-air. To test this, we used high-speed video and electromyography to record hindlimb kinematics and electrical activity in a hindlimb extensor (semimembranosus) and flexor (iliofibularis). We predicted that hops in which the knees extended further during take-off would require less knee flexor recruitment during recovery. Knees extended beyond 90° in over 80% of hops, and longer hops involved greater degrees of knee extension during take-off and more intense semimembranosus activity. However, knee flexion velocities during recovery were maintained despite a significant decrease in iliofibularis intensity in longer hops, results consistent with elastic recoil playing a role. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  10. Energy Barriers and Driving Forces Associated with the Dynamic Transformation of Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0516 ENERGY BARRIERS AND DRIVING FORCES ASSOCIATED WITH THE DYNAMIC TRANSFORMATION OF TI-6AL-4V (PREPRINT) S.L...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 11 December 2017 Interim 19 March 2014 – 11 November 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY BARRIERS AND DRIVING FORCES...The energy barriers and driving forces associated with dynamic transformation in Ti-6Al-4V are evaluated. It is shown that the stored energy is less

  11. Demonstration of low emittance in the Cornell energy recovery linac injector prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Colwyn; Bartnik, Adam; Bazarov, Ivan; Cultrera, Luca; Dobbins, John; Dunham, Bruce; Gonzalez, Francisco; Karkare, Siddharth; Lee, Hyeri; Li, Heng; Li, Yulin; Liu, Xianghong; Maxson, Jared; Nguyen, Christian; Smolenski, Karl; Zhao, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    We present a detailed study of the six-dimensional phase space of the electron beam produced by the Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Photoinjector, a high-brightness, high repetition rate (1.3 GHz) DC photoemission source designed to drive a hard x-ray energy recovery linac (ERL). A complete simulation model of the injector has been constructed, verified by measurement, and optimized. Both the horizontal and vertical 2D transverse phase spaces, as well as the time-resolved (sliced) horizontal phase space, were simulated and directly measured at the end of the injector for 19 and 77 pC bunches at roughly 8 MeV. These bunch charges were chosen because they correspond to 25 and 100 mA average current if operating at the full 1.3 GHz repetition rate. The resulting 90% normalized transverse emittances for 19(77)pC/bunch were 0.23±0.02 (0.51±0.04)μm in the horizontal plane, and 0.14±0.01 (0.29±0.02)μm in the vertical plane, respectively. These emittances were measured with a corresponding bunch length of 2.1±0.1 (3.0±0.2)ps, respectively. In each case the rms momentum spread was determined to be on the order of 10-3. Excellent overall agreement between measurement and simulation has been demonstrated. Using the emittances and bunch length measured at 19pC/bunch, we estimate the electron beam quality in a 1.3 GHz, 5 GeV hard x-ray ERL to be at least a factor of 20 times better than that of existing storage rings when the rms energy spread of each device is considered. These results represent a milestone for the field of high-brightness, high-current photoinjectors.

  12. Energy Efficiency and Its Driving Factors in China’s Three Economic Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-An Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency improvement is essential for China’s sustainable development of its social economy. Based on the provincial panel data of China’s three economic regions from 1990 to 2013, this research uses the data envelopment analysis (DEA model to measure the total-factor energy efficiency, and the Tobit regression model to explore the driving factors of efficiency changes. Empirical results show: (1 Energy efficiency, energy consumption structure, and government fiscal scale are significantly positively correlated. (2 Industrial structure and per capita income level have negative correlation to energy efficiency; the impact of industrial structure on energy efficiency is relatively small. (3 The increase of carbon dioxide emissions will decrease the energy efficiency. Furthermore, with people becoming less conscious of energy conservation and emission reduction, energy efficiency will also decrease. (4 Specific energy policies will improve energy efficiency, and greater openness in coastal areas will also have the similar effect.

  13. Flywheel Energy Storage Drive System for Wind Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin Georgescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wind small power plant with a Smart Storage Modular Structure (SSMS, as follows: a Short Time Storage Module (STSM based on a flywheel with Induction Motor (IM and a Medium/Long Time Storage Module (MLTSM based on a Vanadium Redox flow Battery (VRB. To control the speed and torque of the IM are used a nonlinear sensorless solution and a direct torque solution which have been compared. Now, the author proposes to replace the IM by a dc motor with permanent magnet energy injection. In this aim, are accomplished some laboratory tests.

  14. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, Pentti

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration cuttings. The production goal of forest chips is 5 million m 3 solid (10TWh) in 2010. The use of forest chips is promoted by means of environmental taxes, financial aid for investments, and financial support for research, development and commercialization of technology. In 2002, altogether 365 heating and power plants larger than 0.4MW used forest chips. The total consumption was 1.7 million m 3 , the use of small houses and farms included. The growth of use is presently about 350000 m 3 per annum, but reaching the official goal will require an annual growth of 400000 m 3 during this decade. The consumption of roundwood per capita, 15m 3 per annum, is in Finland 20 times as high as the average consumption of the EU countries, respectively. Consequently, residual forest biomass is abundantly available. The capacity of heating and power plants to use forest chips is large enough to meet the goal. However, users require competitive chip prices, good quality control of fuel and reliable supply chains, and new efficient procurement systems are being developed. The paper deals with the drivers of this development: support measures of the Government; strong support to research, development and commercialization of forest chip production from the National Technology Agency Tekes; advanced infrastructure for the procurement of timber for the forest industries; positive attitude and active participation of the forest industries; the active role of leading forest machine and boiler manufacturers, and the possibility to cofire wood and peat fuels in large fluidized bed boilers so as to

  15. Example for electrical energy savings with the pump adjustable electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchevski, Slobodan; Andonov, Zdravko; Saracevic, Fahrudin; Micevski, Darko; Buchkoski, Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Most used method of flow regulation is by throttling the pipeline. Development of power electronic gives opportunity for induction motor pump drives speed control. The common ways of pump flow control are throttling, reducing the working circle, usage of fore circle shovels rotating, by pass and pump speed control Only pump speed control is the most suitable for the energy possibilities. Intensive development of power electronic gives. opportunity to create devices - power converters, which can change the speed of induction motor. For that improvement the energy savings the measurements of power consumption with throttling and speed control have been made. Also, the MATLAB-SIMULINK model of the measured system has been made. The economic effects of saving energy using adjustable speed drives are analyzed for the measured values. The analysis shows that the money payback period of speed controller investment is short compared with the drive lifetime (20 years). (Author)

  16. How carbon credits could drive the emergence of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A. [Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    The shift to renewable energy options and low-carbon technologies, in response to the concerns over energy security and climate change, is proceeding more slowly than many would like. The usual argument against rapid deployment of new technologies is the costs imposed on the economy, commonly interpreted in terms of upfront costs to be borne or involving large cash transfers to fund, for example, efforts to preserve rainforests. In this contribution I argue that such a perspective provides a continuing barrier to taking effective action, whereas a perspective based on creation and use of carbon credits provides a means of avoiding the shock of abrupt industrial change. Carbon credits granted for bona fide carbon load reductions could be created through private initiative, for example by merchant banks, to constitute a market that will complement regulatory-based initiatives such as national emissions trading systems. This is not a novel idea; indeed it is the way that capitalism has funded every major change, including the Industrial Revolution, through the creation of credit. The emergence of a global carbon credit economy is likely to precede a global regulatory system governing climate change and will doubtless help to stimulate the emergence of such a global system. (author)

  17. Processes of energy recovery / energy valorization at low temperature levels. State of the art. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manificat, A.; Megret, O.

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to realize a state of art of the processes of energy recovery at low level of temperature and their valorizations. The information provided will target particularly the thermal systems of waste and biomass treatment. After reminding the adequate context of development with these solutions and define the scope of the current work, the study begins with the definition of different concepts such as low-grade heat (fatal energy) and exergy, and also the presentation of the fiscal environment as well as the economic and regulatory situation, with information about the TGAP, prices of energy and energy efficiency. The second chapter focuses on the different sources of energy at low temperature level that can be recoverable in order to assess their potentials and their characteristics. The Determination of the temperature range of these energy sources will be put in relation with the needs and demands of users from different industrial sectors. The third part of the study is a review of various technologies for energy recovery and valorization at low temperature. It is useful to distinguish different types of heat exchangers interesting to implement. Moreover, innovative processes allow us to consider new perspectives other than a direct use of heat recovered. For example, we can take into account systems for producing electricity (ORC cycle, hot air engines, thermoelectric conversion), or cold generation (sorption refrigeration machine, Thermo-ejector refrigeration machine) or techniques for energy storage with PCM (Phase Change Material). The last chapter deals to the achievement of four study cases written in the form of sheet and aimed at assess the applicability of the processes previously considered, concerning the field of waste. (authors)

  18. Technical feasibility assessment of horizontal alterning steam drive (HASD) implementation as a thermal recovery option for the Junin 8 block in Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasquez, R.G.; Figueroa, Y.; Pinto, L.R. [PDVSA CVP (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    The Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco, Venezuela, is the largest accumulation field in the world, extraction is mainly achieved with cold production and recovery factors are around 10%. Thus the implementation of new technologies such as thermal recovery methods is needed to increase oil production through better recovery factors. This study aimed at assessing the technical feasibility of applying the horizontal alternate steam drive (HASD) method which consists of 3 or more parallel horizontal wells acting alternately as injectors and producers. Simulations, sensitivity analyses, uncertainty assessments and optimizations were conducted on a base case of 4 well pad in the Junin 8 block. Parameters influencing the oil recovery factor and the steam oil ratio were found as well as the optimal operational conditions; under those conditions, a recovery factor of more than 30% was observed. This study suggested that HASD could be technically feasible but an economical assessment should be undertaken.

  19. Energy-efficient electrical drives in the education of professionals; Energieeffiziente elektrische Antriebe in der Ausbildung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, R.

    2007-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses how the electricity consumption of drive systems can be reduced. Such electrical drive systems are responsible for approximately 45% of Switzerland's electricity consumption. The paper discusses how this amount could be reduced by 10-20% by employing more energy-efficient drive systems. The authors are of the opinion that, in future, this fact should be taken into account by professors and teachers in their courses at all levels of education for technicians and electrical engineers. The results of a survey made on the present situation are discussed. Teaching modules that are to help facilitate the integration of this subject in the educational curricula at various levels are looked at. The report is completed with a comprehensive appendix on teaching modules, documentation and check-lists from the University of Applied Sciences of North-western Switzerland.

  20. Design considerations for permanent magnet direct drive generators for wind energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jassal, A.K.; Polinder, H.; Damen, M.E.C.; Versteegh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Permanent Magnet Direct Drive (PMDD) generators offer very high force density, high efficiency and low number of components. Due to these advantages, PMDD generators are getting popular in the wind energy industry especially for offshore application. Presence of permanent magnets gives magnetic

  1. A new energy-efficient control approach for astronomical telescope drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Drive control makes the astronomical telescope accurately tracking celestial bodies in spite of external and internal disturbances, which is a key technique to the performance of telescopes. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear ad, aptive observer based on power reversible approach for high precision telescope position tracking. The nonlinear adaptive observer automatically estimates the disturbances in drive system, and the observed value is applied to compensate for the real disturbances. With greatly reduced disturbances, the control precision can be evidently improved. In conventional drive control, the brake device is often used to slow down the reaction wheel and may waste enormous energy. To avoid those disadvantages, an H-bridge is put forward for wheel speed regulation. Such H-bridge has four independent sections, and each section mainly consists of a power electronic switch and an anti-parallel diode. During the period of the mount slowing down, the armature current of drive motor goes through the two path-wise diodes to charge the battery. Thus, energy waste is avoided. Based on the disturbance compensation, an optimal controller is designed to minimize an evaluation function which is made up of a weighted sum of position errors and energy consumption.The outputs of the controller are applied to control the H-bridge. Simulations are performed in MATLAB language. The results show that high precision control can be obtained by the proposed approach. And the energy consumption will be remarkably reduced.

  2. Reducing Energy Demand Using Wheel-Individual Electric Drives to Substitute EPS-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Römer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand of vehicles is influenced, not only by the drive systems, but also by a number of add-on systems. Electric vehicles must satisfy this energy demand completely from the battery. Hence, the use of power steering systems directly result in a range reduction. The “e2-Lenk” joint project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF involves a novel steering concept for electric vehicles to integrate the function of steering assistance into the drive-train. Specific distribution of driving torque at the steered axle allows the steering wheel torque to be influenced to support the steering force. This provides a potential for complete substitution of conventional power steering systems and reduces the vehicle’s energy demand. This paper shows the potential of wheel-individual drives influencing the driver’s steering torque using a control technique based on classical EPS control plans. Compared to conventional power-assisted steering systems, a reduced energy demand becomes evident over a wide range of operating conditions.

  3. Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kravcik, Milos; Bohuschke, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kravčík, M., & Bohuschke, F. (2013, 23-25 October). Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics. Presentation at the Games and Learning Alliance Conference (GALAConf 2013), Paris, France. http://www.galaconf.org/

  4. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicle driving schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, G.; Stadler, M.; Bozchalui, M.C.; Sharma, R.; Marnay, C.; Barbosa-Póvoa, A.; Ferrão, P.

    2014-01-01

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem. - Highlights: • This paper introduces a new EV aggregator model in the DER-CAM model and expands it with a stochastic formulation. • The model is used to analyze the impact of EVs in DER investment decisions in a large office building. • The uncertainty in EV driving patterns is considered through scenarios based on data from a daily commute driving survey. • Results indicate that EVs have a significant impact in optimal DER decisions, particularly when looking at short payback periods. • Furthermore, results indicate that uncertainty in EV driving schedules has little impact on DER investment decisions

  5. Renewable energy technology (RET) options for supplying energy in a post disaster recovery situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigim, K.; Uddin Amed, F.; Reiser, H. [Lambton College, Sarnia, ON (Canada). School of Technology, Applied Science, Fire Science and Apprenticeship

    2010-07-01

    In most places, electricity is produced in a centralized power generating plant and distributed to consumer load centers by transmission lines. In a wide scale devastation of the electrical supply and delivery system, a complete rebuilding is inevitable. This paper discussed how post disaster electricity demand can be met and how electricity can be supplied when all conventional options are out of consideration. Medical, water purification and communication facilities require a source of energy for their operation and must be powered immediately following a disaster. Small dispersed conventional fuel generating units offer an intermediate solution. However, if the fuel transportation infrastructure is not restored, then many of the generating units will be idle. This paper focused on how renewable energy technologies (RETs) can be used to supply power to meet basic rescue equipment demand during the recovery phase of a completely devastated electricity supply infrastructure. Different RETs that can be used to supply the demand were also examined and compared with conventional emergency generating units. The challenges and constraints of using RET were also discussed along with some RET systems that can be adopted for successful and effective use of RET in a post disaster situation. It was concluded that investment in RET systems will contribute to the long-term economic recovery, environment and energy use because RET systems reduce dependency on fossil fuels and contribute to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. New concept of electrical drives for paper and board machines based on energy efficiency principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeftenić Borislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is described how the reconstruction of the facility of paper machine has been conducted, at the press and drying part of the machine in June 2001, as well as the expansion of the Paper Machine with the "third coating" introducing, that has been done in July 2002, in the board factory "Umka". The existing old drive of the press and the drive of drying groups were established as a Line Shaft Drive, 76 m long. The novel drive is developed on the basis of conventional squirrel cage induction motor application, with frequency converter. The system control is carried out with the programmable controller, and the communication between controllers, converters, and control boards is accomplished trough profibus. Reconstruction of the coating part of the machine, during technological reconstruction of this part of the machine, was being conducted with a purpose to improve performance of the machine by adding device for spreading "third coating". The demands for the power facility were to replace existing facility with the new one, based on energy efficiency principles and to provide adequate facility for new technological sections. Also, new part of the facility had to be connected with the remaining part of the machine, i.e. with the press and drying part, which have been reconstructed in 2001. It has to be stressed that energy efficiency principles means to realize new, modernized drive with better performances and greater capacity for the as small as possible amount of increased installed power of separate drives. In the paper are also, graphically presented achieved energy savings results, based on measurements performed on separate parts of paper machine, before and after reconstruction. .

  7. Driving under the influence behaviours among high school students who mix alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark

    2017-11-29

    Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy-Saving Control of a Novel Hydraulic Drive System for Field Walking Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Delei; Shang, Jianzhong; Xue, Yong; Yang, Junhong; Wang, Zhuo

    2018-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of the hydraulic drive system in field walking robot, this paper proposed a novel hydraulic system based on two-stage pressure source. Based on the analysis of low efficiency of robot single-stage hydraulic system, the paper firstly introduces the concept and design of two-stage pressure source drive system. Then, the new hydraulic system energy-saving control is planned according to the characteristics of walking robot. The feasibility of the new hydraulic system is proved by the simulation of the walking robot squatting. Finally, the efficiencies of two types hydraulic system are calculated, indicating that the novel hydraulic system can increase the efficiency by 41.5%, which can contribute to enhance knowledge about hydraulic drive system for field walking robot.

  9. Possibilities of using energy recovery in underground mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obracaj, Dariusz; Sas, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    In underground mines, there are many sources of energy that are often irrecoverably lost and which could be used in the energy structure of a mine. Methane contained in the ventilation air, the water from the dewatering of the mines and the exhaust air from the mine shafts are the most important sources of energy available to a mine. Among other sources of energy available in a mine, you can also distinguish waste energy from the process of the desalination of water or energy from the waste. The report reviewed the sources of energy available in a mine, assessed the amount of recoverable energy and indicated the potential for its use.

  10. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  11. Stochastic optimal charging of electric-drive vehicles with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoš, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the stochastic optimization algorithm that may eventually be used by electric energy suppliers to coordinate charging of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) in order to maximize the use of renewable energy in transportation. Due to the stochastic nature of transportation patterns, the Monte Carlo simulation is applied to model uncertainties presented by numerous scenarios. To reduce the problem complexity, the simulated driving patterns are not individually considered in the optimization but clustered into fleets using the GAMS/SCENRED tool. Uncertainties of production of renewable energy sources (RESs) are presented by statistical central moments that are further considered in Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method in order to define estimate points considered in the optimization. Case studies illustrate the application of the proposed optimization in achieving maximal exploitation of RESs in transportation by EDVs. -- Highlights: ► Optimization model for EDV charging applying linear programming. ► Formation of EDV fleets based on the driving patterns assessment applying the GAMS/SCENRED. ► Consideration of uncertainties of RES production and energy prices in the market. ► Stochastic optimization. ► Application of Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method.

  12. Road transport-related energy consumption: Analysis of driving factors in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraihi, Rafaa; Abdallah, Khaled ben; Abid, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of urban population and the development of road infrastructures in Tunisian cities have brought about many environmental and economic problems, including the rise scored in energy consumption and the increase in the quantity of gas emissions arising from road transport. Despite the critical nature of such problems, no policies have yet been adopted to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector. This paper aims to determine driving factors of energy consumption change for the road mode. It uses decomposition analysis to discuss the effects of economic, demographic and urban factors on the evolution of transport energy consumption. The main result highlighted in the present work is that vehicle fuel intensity, vehicle intensity, GDP per capita, urbanized kilometers and national road network are found to be the main drivers of energy consumption change in the road transport sector during 1990–2006 period. Consequently, several strategies can be elaborated to reduce road transport energy. Economic, fiscal and regulatory instruments can be applied in order to make road transport more sustainable. -- Highlights: •We are interested in determining driving factors of transport energy consumption growth in Tunisia. •We use decomposition analysis approach. •Vehicle fuel and road vehicle intensities are found to be principal factors. •Motorization and urbanization are also found to be responsible

  13. Demonstration of low emittance in the Cornell energy recovery linac injector prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colwyn Gulliford

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of the six-dimensional phase space of the electron beam produced by the Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Photoinjector, a high-brightness, high repetition rate (1.3 GHz DC photoemission source designed to drive a hard x-ray energy recovery linac (ERL. A complete simulation model of the injector has been constructed, verified by measurement, and optimized. Both the horizontal and vertical 2D transverse phase spaces, as well as the time-resolved (sliced horizontal phase space, were simulated and directly measured at the end of the injector for 19 and 77 pC bunches at roughly 8 MeV. These bunch charges were chosen because they correspond to 25 and 100 mA average current if operating at the full 1.3 GHz repetition rate. The resulting 90% normalized transverse emittances for 19   (77  pC/bunch were 0.23±0.02 (0.51±0.04  μm in the horizontal plane, and 0.14±0.01 (0.29±0.02  μm in the vertical plane, respectively. These emittances were measured with a corresponding bunch length of 2.1±0.1 (3.0±0.2  ps, respectively. In each case the rms momentum spread was determined to be on the order of 10^{-3}. Excellent overall agreement between measurement and simulation has been demonstrated. Using the emittances and bunch length measured at 19  pC/bunch, we estimate the electron beam quality in a 1.3 GHz, 5 GeV hard x-ray ERL to be at least a factor of 20 times better than that of existing storage rings when the rms energy spread of each device is considered. These results represent a milestone for the field of high-brightness, high-current photoinjectors.

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  15. Effects of introducing energy recovery processes to the municipal solid waste management system in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshiki, Kosuke; Giang, Pham Quy; Serrona, Kevin Roy B; Sekikawa, Takahiro; Yu, Jeoung-soo; Choijil, Baasandash; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, most developing countries have not set up municipal solid waste management systems with a view of recovering energy from waste or reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we have studied the possible effects of introducing three energy recovery processes either as a single or combination approach, refuse derived fuel production, incineration and waste power generation, and methane gas recovery from landfill and power generation in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, as a case study. We concluded that incineration process is the most suitable as first introduction of energy recovery. To operate it efficiently, 3Rs strategies need to be promoted. And then, RDF production which is made of waste papers and plastics in high level of sorting may be considered as the second step of energy recovery. However, safety control and marketability of RDF will be required at that moment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Energy Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaics by Phase Change Materials through Thermal Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels convert a certain amount of incident solar radiation into electricity, while the rest is converted to heat, leading to a temperature rise in the PV. This elevated temperature deteriorates the power output and induces structural degradation, resulting in reduced PV lifespan. One potential solution entails PV thermal management employing active and passive means. The traditional passive means are found to be largely ineffective, while active means are considered to be energy intensive. A passive thermal management system using phase change materials (PCMs can effectively limit PV temperature rises. The PCM-based approach however is cost inefficient unless the stored thermal energy is recovered effectively. The current article investigates a way to utilize the thermal energy stored in the PCM behind the PV for domestic water heating applications. The system is evaluated in the winter conditions of UAE to deliver heat during water heating demand periods. The proposed system achieved a ~1.3% increase in PV electrical conversion efficiency, along with the recovery of ~41% of the thermal energy compared to the incident solar radiation.

  17. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Goncalo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Bozchalui, Mohammed C. [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Sharma, Ratnesh [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbosa-Povoa, Ana [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferrao, Paulo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-12-06

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  18. A new energy-efficient control approach for space telescope drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wangping; Wang, Yong

    Drive control makes the telescope accurately track celestial bodies in spite of external and in-ternal disturbances, and is a key technique to the performance of telescopes. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear adaptive observer based on power reversible approach for high preci-sion position tracking, i.e., space telescopes. The nonlinear adaptive observer automatically estimates the disturbances in drive system, and the observed value is applied to compensate for the real disturbances. With greatly reduced disturbances, the control precision can be ev-idently improved. In conventional drive control, the brake device is often used to slow down the reaction wheel and may waste enormous energy. To avoid those disadvantages, an H-bridge is put forward for wheel speed regulation. Such H-bridge has four independent sections, and each section mainly consists of a power electronic switch and an anti-parallel diode. A pair of diagonal sections is switched on for speeding up the reaction wheel and the other pair act in reverse. During the period of the wheel slowing down, the armature current of drive motor goes through the two path-wise diodes to discharge the battery. Thusly, energy waste is avoided. Based on the disturbance compensation, an optimal controller is designed to minimize an eval-uation function which is made up of a weighted sum of position errors and energy consumption. The outputs of the controller are amplified to control the H-bridge. Simulations are performed in MATLAB language. The results show that high precision control can be obtained by the proposed approach. And the energy consumption will be remarkably reduced.

  19. Negotiating EU CO2/energy taxation. Political economic driving forces and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob

    2001-11-01

    The primary objective of this project is to identify the main political economic driving forces behind and barriers against the creation of an EU agreement on CO 2 /energy taxation. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework for understanding European integration and on detailed historical investigations into a process of EU negotiations concerning CO 2 /energy taxation that took place from the 1980s to 1994. Following the historical analysis of political economic driving forces and barriers, some overall perspectives on possible future developments within the field of EU CO 2 /energy taxation are finally advanced. The secondary objective of the project is to consider the possible effects on the EU negotiation process of Danish efforts to push the CO 2 /energy tax proposal from the late 1980s to 994. This analysis is based on the preceding historical analysis of the EU negotiation process, as well as further investigations into the national Danish development within the field of CO 2 /energy taxation, including accounts of Denmark's particular relations with the EU during the period in question. Finally, based on the likely future developments in the field EU CO 2 /energy taxation. Denmark's strategic opportunities are outlined. (BA)

  20. Energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in Italy: Actual study and perspective for future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, N.; Ciampa, F.; De Cecco, C.

    1992-01-01

    Materials and energy recovery from municipal solid wastes (MSW) and assimilable waste, and their re-use is one of strong points of current regulations and tendencies, both at the national and at community level in Europe. In Italy, the interest in energy recovery from renewable sources has been encouraged by energy-savings law which included financial incentives for thermal plant building if low grade fuels such as MSW were employed. New electric power prices imposed by Italian Electric Power Authority, ENEL, encourage energy recovery from waste burners. This paper aims to point out the present state of energy recovery from wastes in Italy, trends and prospects to satisfy, with new plants, the need for waste thermal destruction and part of the demand for energy in the different Italian regions: only about 10% of MSW are burned and just a small percentage of the estimated amount of recoverable energy (2 MTOE/y) is recuperated. Different technological cycles are discussed: incineration of untreated wastes and energy recovery; incineration (or gasification) of RDF (refuse derived fuels) and heat-electricity co-generation; burning of RDF in industrial plants, in addition to other fuels

  1. Heavy Duty Roots Expander Heat Energy Recovery (HD-REHER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Eaton Corporation proposed a comprehensive project to develop and demonstrate advanced component technology that will reduce the cost of implementing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems to Heavy-Duty Diesel engines, making adaptation of this fuel efficiency improving technology more commercially attractive to end-users in the next 5 to 10 year time period. Accelerated adaptation and implementation of new fuel efficiency technology into service is critical for reduction of fuel used in the commercial vehicle segment.

  2. CO2 recovery system using solar energy; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita CO2 bunri kaishu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosho, F.; Naito, H.; Yugami, H.; Arashi, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As a part of studies on chemical absorption process with MEA (monoethanolamine) for CO2 recovery from boiler waste gas in thermal power plants, use of solar heat as MEA regenerating energy was studied. An integrated stationary evacuated concentrator (ISEC) effective as collector in a medium temperature range was used to realize a regenerating temperature range of 100-120degC. ISEC is featured by vacuum insulation, use of selective absorbing membranes for an absorber, a CPC (compound parabolic concentrator)-shaped reflection mirror, and high-efficiency. An MEA regenerator is composed of an ISEC and PG(propylene glycol)-MEA heat exchanger, and circulates PG as heat medium. Heat collection experiment was also made using water instead of MEA. Both batch and continuous systems could supply a heat quantity necessary for MEA regeneration. CO2 concentration in the top of the regenerator rapidly decreased with PG circulation regenerating MEA. As mol ratios of CO2/MEA were compared between before and after regeneration, a recovery rate was estimated to be 59.4% for the batch system. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Method for energy recovery of spent ERL beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhauser, Frank; Hannon, Fay; Rimmer, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy

    2018-01-16

    A method for recovering energy from spent energy recovered linac (ERL) beams. The method includes adding a plurality of passive decelerating cavities at the beam dump of the ERL, adding one or more coupling waveguides between the passive decelerating cavities, setting an adequate external Q (Qext) to adjust to the beam loading situation, and extracting the RF energy through the coupling waveguides.

  4. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  5. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  6. Thermal energy recovery of air conditioning system--heat recovery system calculation and phase change materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu Zhaolin; Liu Hongjuan; Li Yun

    2004-12-01

    Latent heat thermal energy storage systems can be used to recover the rejected heat from air conditioning systems, which can be used to generate low-temperature hot water. It decreases not only the consumption of primary energy for heating domestic hot water but also the calefaction to the surroundings due to the rejection of heat from air conditioning systems. A recovery system using phase change materials (PCMs) to store the rejected (sensible and condensation) heat from air conditioning system has been developed and studied, making up the shortage of other sensible heat storage system. Also, PCMs compliant for heat recovery of air conditioning system should be developed. Technical grade paraffin wax has been discussed in this paper in order to develop a paraffin wax based PCM for the recovery of rejected heat from air conditioning systems. The thermal properties of technical grade paraffin wax and the mixtures of paraffin wax with lauric acid and with liquid paraffin (paraffin oil) are investigated and discussed, including volume expansion during the phase change process, the freezing point and the heat of fusion.

  7. Thermal energy recovery of air conditioning system--heat recovery system calculation and phase change materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhaolin; Liu Hongjuan; Li Yun

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat thermal energy storage systems can be used to recover the rejected heat from air conditioning systems, which can be used to generate low-temperature hot water. It decreases not only the consumption of primary energy for heating domestic hot water but also the calefaction to the surroundings due to the rejection of heat from air conditioning systems. A recovery system using phase change materials (PCMs) to store the rejected (sensible and condensation) heat from air conditioning system has been developed and studied, making up the shortage of other sensible heat storage system. Also, PCMs compliant for heat recovery of air conditioning system should be developed. Technical grade paraffin wax has been discussed in this paper in order to develop a paraffin wax based PCM for the recovery of rejected heat from air conditioning systems. The thermal properties of technical grade paraffin wax and the mixtures of paraffin wax with lauric acid and with liquid paraffin (paraffin oil) are investigated and discussed, including volume expansion during the phase change process, the freezing point and the heat of fusion

  8. What drives energy consumers? : Engaging people in a sustainable energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda; Shwom, Rachel; Dietz, Thomas

    Providing clean, safe, reliable, and affordable energy for people everywhere will require converting to an energy system in which the use of fossil fuels is minimal. A sustainable energy transition means substantial changes in technology and the engagement of the engineering community. But it will

  9. Intramolecular energy transfer and the driving mechanisms for large-amplitude collective motions of clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanao, Tomohiro; Koon, Wang Sang; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2009-04-01

    This paper uncovers novel and specific dynamical mechanisms that initiate large-amplitude collective motions in polyatomic molecules. These mechanisms are understood in terms of intramolecular energy transfer between modes and driving forces. Structural transition dynamics of a six-atom cluster between a symmetric and an elongated isomer is highlighted as an illustrative example of what is a general message. First, we introduce a general method of hyperspherical mode analysis to analyze the energy transfer among internal modes of polyatomic molecules. In this method, the (3n-6) internal modes of an n-atom molecule are classified generally into three coarse level gyration-radius modes, three fine level twisting modes, and (3n-12) fine level shearing modes. We show that a large amount of kinetic energy flows into the gyration-radius modes when the cluster undergoes structural transitions by changing its mass distribution. Based on this fact, we construct a reactive mode as a linear combination of the three gyration-radius modes. It is shown that before the reactive mode acquires a large amount of kinetic energy, activation or inactivation of the twisting modes, depending on the geometry of the isomer, plays crucial roles for the onset of a structural transition. Specifically, in a symmetric isomer with a spherical mass distribution, activation of specific twisting modes drives the structural transition into an elongated isomer by inducing a strong internal centrifugal force, which has the effect of elongating the mass distribution of the system. On the other hand, in an elongated isomer, inactivation of specific twisting modes initiates the structural transition into a symmetric isomer with lower potential energy by suppressing the elongation effect of the internal centrifugal force and making the effects of the potential force dominant. This driving mechanism for reactions as well as the present method of hyperspherical mode analysis should be widely applicable to

  10. Energy efficiency of acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) recovery by heat-integrated distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisales Diaz, Victor Hugo; Olivar Tost, Gerard

    2018-03-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) is an alternative biofuel. However, the energy requirement of ABE recovery by distillation is considered elevated (> 15.2 MJ fuel/Kg-ABE), due to the low concentration of ABE from fermentation broths (between 15 and 30 g/l). In this work, to reduce the energy requirements of ABE recovery, four processes of heat-integrated distillation were proposed. The energy requirements and economic evaluations were performed using the fermentation broths of several biocatalysts. Energy requirements of the processes with four distillation columns and three distillation columns were similar (between 7.7 and 11.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Double-effect system (DED) with four columns was the most economical process (0.12-0.16 $/kg-ABE). ABE recovery from dilute solutions by DED achieved energy requirements between 6.1 and 8.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE. Vapor compression distillation (VCD) reached the lowest energy consumptions (between 4.7 and 7.3 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Energy requirements for ABE recovery DED and VCD were lower than that for integrated reactors. The energy requirements of ABE production were between 1.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that for alternative biofuels (ethanol or isobutanol). However, the energy efficiency of ABE production was equivalent than that for ethanol and isobutanol (between 0.71 and 0.76) because of hydrogen production in ABE fermentation.

  11. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  12. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: project overview and main results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Massarutto, Antonio; Ragazzi, Marco; Saccani, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the context, the basic assumptions and the main findings of a joint research project aimed at identifying the optimal breakdown between material recovery and energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) in the framework of integrated waste management systems (IWMS). The project was carried out from 2007 to 2009 by five research groups at Politecnico di Milano, the Universities of Bologna and Trento, and the Bocconi University (Milan), with funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR). Since the optimization of IWMSs by analytical methods is practically impossible, the search for the most attractive strategy was carried out by comparing a number of relevant recovery paths from the point of view of mass and energy flows, technological features, environmental impact and economics. The main focus has been on mature processes applicable to MSW in Italy and Europe. Results show that, contrary to a rather widespread opinion, increasing the source separation level (SSL) has a very marginal effects on energy efficiency. What does generate very significant variations in energy efficiency is scale, i.e. the size of the waste-to-energy (WTE) plant. The mere value of SSL is inadequate to qualify the recovery system. The energy and environmental outcome of recovery depends not only on "how much" source separation is carried out, but rather on "how" a given SSL is reached. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. What drives innovation in renewable energy technology? Evidence based on patent counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jesse

    America's future economic growth and international competitiveness depend on our capacity to innovate, particularly in emerging global markets. This paper analyzes the forces that drive innovation in one such market, renewable energy technologies, utilizing the theory of induced technological innovation. Specifically, this paper operationalizes the determinants of innovation to consist of: 1) private market forces, 2) public policy that influences price and market size, and 3) public policy that catalyzes R&D investment. Analysis is conducted using a negative binomial regression to determine which of the three foundational determinants has the greatest impact on renewable energy innovation. In so doing this paper builds off of work conducted by Johnstone et al. (2010). Innovation is measured using European Patent Office data on a panel of 24 countries spanning the period from 1978-2005. The implications of this study are straightforward; policies, not market forces, are responsible for driving innovation in renewable energy technologies. Market-oriented policies are effective for mature technologies, particularly hydro, and to a lesser extent wind and solar power. R&D-oriented policy is effective for a broader technology set. In short, the United States needs a comprehensive policy environment to support renewable energy innovation; market forces alone will not provide the pace and breadth of innovations needed. That environment can and should be strategically targeted, however, to effectively allocate scare resources.

  14. Ammonium recovery and energy production from urine by a microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.; Smiech, K.M.; Bruning, H.; Zeeman, G.; Saakes, M.; Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen recovery through NH3 stripping is energy intensive and requires large amounts of chemicals. Therefore, a microbial fuel cell was developed to simultaneously produce energy and recover ammonium. The applied microbial fuel cell used a gas diffusion cathode. The ammonium transport to the

  15. Bioelectrochemical systems-driven directional ion transport enables low-energy water desalination, pollutant removal, and resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are integrated water treatment technologies that generate electricity using organic matter in wastewater. In situ use of bioelectricity can direct the migration of ionic substances in a BES, thereby enabling water desalination, resource recovery, and valuable substance production. Recently, much attention has been placed on the microbial desalination cells in BESs to drive water desalination, and various configurations have optimized electricity generation and desalination performance and also coupled hydrogen production, heavy metal reduction, and other reactions. In addition, directional transport of other types of charged ions can remediate polluted groundwater, recover nutrient, and produce valuable substances. To better promote the practical application, the use of BESs as directional drivers of ionic substances requires further optimization to improve energy use efficiency and treatment efficacy. This article reviews existing researches on BES-driven directional ion transport to treat wastewater and identifies a few key factors involved in efficiency optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A regional synergy approach to energy recovery: The case of the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, D. van; Biswas, W.K.

    2008-01-01

    Energy is a key issue in the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia's major heavy industrial region, where the major energy consuming industries consume upto 80 PJ/yr of energy in their processes. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made towards the reduction of energy consumption and reduction of greenhouse gases in Kwinana. One way to further advance sustainable energy use is through the realisation of regional synergies. These concern the capture, recovery and reuse of by-products, water and energy between industries in close proximity. Kwinana is recognised as a leading edge example in regional synergy development, but more synergy opportunities appear to exist. The centre for sustainable resource processing (CSRP) is undertaking research to develop new synergies in Kwinana, including energy utility synergies. As part of the research, a methodology was developed and applied to identify and evaluate the economic, technical, and environmental feasibility of collaborative energy recovery opportunities from industry flue gases in Kwinana. The trial application demonstrated the significant potential to mitigate CO 2 emissions through energy recovery from flue gases by applying technologies to convert the embedded energy into useful thermal and electric applications. This article discusses the methodology and outcomes from the trial applications, including the impact of carbon taxes, reducing costs of emerging technologies, and increasing energy prices

  17. Optimizing resource and energy recovery for materials and waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decisions affecting materials management today are generally based on cost and a presumption of favorable outcomes without an understanding of the environmental tradeoffs. However, there is a growing demand to better understand and quantify the net environmental and energy trade-...

  18. Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, J.J.; Walsh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

  19. Direct drive implosion experiments on SGIII prototype laser facility: Assessing energy coupling efficiency and implosion symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-dong, Pu; Tian-Xuan, Huang; Huang, Li; Xia-Yu, Zhan; Xiao-Shi, Peng; Tang-Qi, Zi-Feng, Song; Jia-Bin, Chen; Tian-Ming, Song; Ming, Chen; Rui-Zhen, Yu; Xiao-An, He; Chao-Guang, Li; Lu, Zhang; Jia-Hua, Zheng; Long-Fei, Jing; Bo-Lun, Chen; Ming, Su; Wei, Jiang; Bo, Yu; Ji, Yan; Ping, Li; Hai-Le, Lei; Shao-En, Jiang; Yong-Kun, Ding

    2012-07-01

    Direct drive implosion experiments were conducted on SGIII prototype laser facility. From the time resolved x-ray images, the bright ring and the central bright spot are observed. The radial velocity of the convergent bright ring indicates the shell velocity, and the times when the central bright spot is first seen and becomes most intensive indicate the times of shock convergence and later stagnation, respectively. Radiation hydrodynamic simulations were carried out by changing laser energy deposition factors. When the simulated results are brought close to the measured ones, it is found that the energy coupling efficiency is around 70%. The implosion symmetry is indicated by the core x-ray emission pattern which is pancake when viewing from the equator, and splits into several bright spots when viewing close to the pole. A simple model is developed to understand this asymmetry. It is speculated that the observed implosion asymmetry can be attributed to the laser arrangement which is originally designed for indirect drive experiments. Further improvements of energy coupling efficiency and implosion symmetry in future experiments can be achieved by optimizing target design and laser arrangement.

  20. New and renewable energies. Stakes, driving forces and perspectives of the renewable energies market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    New and renewable energies (hydro-power, wind-power, solar, biomass, biogas, geothermal and fuel cells) are progressively entering the industrialization phase (except for hydro-power which is already largely developed). Thus they are no more considered as solutions for utopian ecologists but have reached the status of alternative technologies. This study takes stock of the following questions: what are the applications of renewable energies, what is their stage of development and their potential with respect to fossil fuels, what are their perspectives of development, and what are the strategies developed by the actors of the sector? The main stakes of the renewable energy sector are: fulfilling the increasing power needs (in particular with the wind and solar power in isolated areas), improving the competitiveness (reduction of the investment costs), developing financial incentives (tax relief, financial helps, eco-taxes..), participating to the reduction of pollutant emissions. The renewable energy sector is progressively structuring and profits by the increasing implication of major energy actors, such as the oil companies. The behaviour and strategy of 14 major actors of the renewable energy sector is also analyzed. (J.S.)

  1. BOOK REVIEW: Inertial confinement fusion: The quest for ignition and energy gain using indirect drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1999-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative way to control fusion which is based on scaling down a thermonuclear explosion to a small size, applicable for power production, a kind of thermonuclear internal combustion engine. This book extends many interesting topics concerning the research and development on ICF of the last 25 years. It provides a systematic development of the physics basis and also various experimental data on radiation driven implosion. This is a landmark treatise presented at the right time. It is based on the article ``Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain'' by J.D. Lindl, published in Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, November 1995, pp. 3933-4024. As is well known, in the United States of America research on the target physics basis for indirect drive remained largely classified until 1994. The indirect drive approaches were closely related to nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories. In Japan and other countries, inertial confinement fusion research for civil energy has been successfully performed to achieve DT fuel pellet compression up to 1000 times normal density, and indirect drive concepts, such as the `Cannon Ball' scheme, also prevailed at several international conferences. In these circumstances the international fusion community proposed the Madrid Manifesto in 1988, which urged openness of ICF information to promote international collaboration on civil energy research for the future resources of the human race. This proposal was also supported by some of the US scientists. The United States Department of Energy revised its classification guidelines for ICF six years after the Madrid Manifesto. This first book from the USA treating target physics issues, covering topics from implosion dynamics to hydrodynamic stability, ignition physics, high-gain target design and the scope for energy applications is

  2. Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and Grid Power Limitation For Inductive Load Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rossini, Stefano; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Le Godec, Gilles; Retegui, Rogelio Garcia; Maestri, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates a grid interface for power supplies used in particle accelerators for cycling loads such as large electromagnets. Two topologies are discussed integrating magnetic energy recovery. For each topology, the associated energy management strategies are examined with the objective to control the grid current profile. A model is established for each of the proposed solutions and the simulation results are presented. A critical review of the investigated energy management solutions is attempted.

  3. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  4. Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy from biological organic waste as an aspect of sustainable waste management is probably the most contentious. Solid and liquid wastes are a rapidly growing problem worldwide. Among the clean sources of fuels for power generation, natural gas has been exploited largely due to significant availability in the specific ...

  5. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  6. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  7. A performance study on a direct drive hydro turbine for wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Do [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Goo; Kim, You Taek; Lee, Young Ho [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jung Il [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Clean and renewable energy technologies using ocean energy give us non-polluting alternatives to fossil-fueled power plants as a countermeasure against global warming and growing demand for electrical energy. Among the ocean energy resources, wave power takes a growing interest because of its enormous amount of potential energy in the world. Therefore, various types of wave power systems to capture the energy of ocean waves have been developed. However, a suitable turbine type is not yet normalized because of relatively low efficiency of the turbine systems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a newly developed direct drive hydro turbine (DDT), which will be built in a caisson for a wave power plant. Experiment and CFD analysis are conducted to clarify the turbine performance and internal flow characteristics. The results show that the DDT obtains fairly good turbine efficiency in cases with and without wave conditions. Most of the output power is generated at the runner passage of Stage 2. Relatively larger amount of the decreased tangential velocity at Stage 2 produces more angular momentum than that at Stage 1 and thus, the larger angular momentum at the Stage 2 makes a greater contribution to the generation of total output power in comparison with that at Stage 1. Large vortex existing in the upper-left region of the runner passage forms a large recirculation region in the runner passage, and the recirculating flow consumes the output power at Region 2

  8. Impact of Generator Stroke Length on Energy Production for a Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC, developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have been based on a combination of theory, know-how from previous experiments, and educated guesses. One key parameter in the design of the WECs linear generator is the stroke length. A long stroke requires a taller WEC with associated economical and mechanical challenges, but a short stroke limits the power production. The 2-m stroke of the current WECs has been an educated guess for the Swedish wave climate, though the consequences of this choice on energy absorption have not been studied. When the WEC technology is considered for international waters, with larger waves and challenges of energy absorption and survivability, the subject of stroke length becomes even more relevant. This paper studies the impact of generator stroke length on energy absorption for three sites off the coasts of Sweden, Chile and Scotland. 2-m, 4-m, and unlimited stroke are considered. Power matrices for the studied WEC prototype are presented for each of the studied stroke lengths. Presented results quantify the losses incurred by a limited stroke. The results indicate that a 2-m stroke length is likely to be a good choice for Sweden, but 4-m is likely to be necessary in more energetic international waters.

  9. Ammonium recovery and energy production from urine by a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntke, P; Smiech, K M; Bruning, H; Zeeman, G; Saakes, M; Sleutels, T H J A; Hamelers, H V M; Buisman, C J N

    2012-05-15

    Nitrogen recovery through NH(3) stripping is energy intensive and requires large amounts of chemicals. Therefore, a microbial fuel cell was developed to simultaneously produce energy and recover ammonium. The applied microbial fuel cell used a gas diffusion cathode. The ammonium transport to the cathode occurred due to migration of ammonium and diffusion of ammonia. In the cathode chamber ionic ammonium was converted to volatile ammonia due to the high pH. Ammonia was recovered from the liquid-gas boundary via volatilization and subsequent absorption into an acid solution. An ammonium recovery rate of 3.29 g(N) d(-1) m(-2) (vs. membrane surface area) was achieved at a current density of 0.50 A m(-2) (vs. membrane surface area). The energy balance showed a surplus of energy 3.46 kJ g(N)(-1), which means more energy was produced than needed for the ammonium recovery. Hence, ammonium recovery and simultaneous energy production from urine was proven possible by this novel approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FLYWHEEL BASED KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS (KERS) INTEGRATED IN VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS MATHEWS; NISHANTH D

    2013-01-01

    Today, many hybrid electric vehicles have been developed in order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels; unfortunately these vehicles require electrochemical batteries to store energy, with high costs as well as poor conversion efficiencies. By integrating flywheel hybrid systems, these drawbacks can be overcome and can potentially replace battery powered hybrid vehicles cost effectively. The paper will explain the engineering, mechanics of the flywheel system and it’s working in detail. ...

  11. Pumps used as turbines power recovery, energy efficiency, CFD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the global demand for energy grows, numerous studies in the field of energy efficiency are stimulated, and one of them is certainly the use of pumps in turbine operating mode. In order to reduce time necessary to determine pump characteristic in turbine operating mode problem was studied by computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper describes various problems faced during modeling (pump and turbine mode and the approaches used to resolve the problems. Since in the majority of applications, the turbine is a pump running in reverse, many attempts have been made to predict the turbine performance from the known pump performance, but only for best efficiency point. This approach does not provide reliable data for the design of the system with maximum energy efficiency and does not allow the determination of the head for a wide range of flow rates. This paper presents an example of centrifugal norm pump operating in both (pump and turbine regime and comparison of experimentally obtained results and computational fluid dynamics simulations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia

  12. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1976-06-01

    The environmental and safety aspects of processing municipal solid wastes to recover energy and materials are reviewed in some detail. The state of the art in energy recovery, energy potential for the near and long-term, and constraints to commercialization are discussed. Under the environmental and safety aspects the state of the art, need for research and development, and need for coordination among federal agencies and private industry are considered. Eleven principal types of refuse-to-energy processes are described and a projected energy balance is derived for each process. (JSR)

  13. Energy-Based Adaptive Sliding Mode Speed Control for Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Namazi Isfahani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motor drives is a major subject based on these drives’ extensive use in the industry. In this paper, by using a well-known cascaded torque control structure and taking the machine physical structure characteristics into account, the proposed energy-based (passivity-based adaptive sliding algorithm derived from the view point of energy dissipation, control stability and algorithm robustness. First, a nonlinear dynamic model is developed and decomposed into separate slow and fast passive subsystems which are interconnected by negative feedbacks. Then, an outer loop speed control is employed by adaptive sliding controller to determine the appropriate torque command. Finally, to reduce torque ripple in switched reluctance motor a high-performance passivity-based current controller is proposed. It can overcome the inherent nonlinear characteristics of the system and make the whole system robust to uncertainties and bounded disturbances. The performance of the proposed controller algorithm has been demonstrated in simulation, and experimental using a 4KW, four-phase, 8/6 pole SRM DSP-based drive system.

  14. Modelling the Effect of Driving Events on Electrical Vehicle Energy Consumption Using Inertial Sensors in Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jiménez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and climate change are some of the main problems that humankind is currently facing. The electrification of the transport sector will help to reduce these problems, but one of the major barriers for the massive adoption of electric vehicles is their limited range. The energy consumption in these vehicles is affected, among other variables, by the driving behavior, making range a value that must be personalized to each driver and each type of electric vehicle. In this paper we offer a way to estimate a personalized energy consumption model by the use of the vehicle dynamics and the driving events detected by the use of the smartphone inertial sensors, allowing an easy and non-intrusive manner to predict the correct range for each user. This paper proposes, for the classification of events, a deep neural network (Long-Short Time Memory which has been trained with more than 22,000 car trips, and the application to improve the consumption model taking into account the driver behavior captured across different trips, allowing a personalized prediction. Results and validation in real cases show that errors in the predicted consumption values are halved when abrupt events are considered in the model.

  15. Development of a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm associated with the evaluation of power management in different driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Masih Tehrani; Mohammad Reza, Ha'iri Yazdi; Esfahanian, Vahid; Sagha, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm for electric vehicles is developed to achieve a semi optimum cost effective design. Using the developed algorithm, a driving cycle is divided into its micro-trips and the power and energy demands in each micro trip are determined. The battery size is estimated because the battery fulfills the power demands. Moreover, the ultra capacitor (UC) energy (or the number of UC modules) is assessed because the UC delivers the maximum energy demands of the different micro trips of a driving cycle. Finally, a design factor, which shows the power of the hybrid energy storage control strategy, is utilized to evaluate the newly designed control strategies. Using the developed algorithm, energy saving loss, driver satisfaction criteria, and battery life criteria are calculated using a feed forward dynamic modeling software program and are utilized for comparison among different energy storage candidates. This procedure is applied to the hybrid energy storage sizing of a series hybrid electric city bus in Manhattan and to the Tehran driving cycle. Results show that a higher aggressive driving cycle (Manhattan) requires more expensive energy storage system and more sophisticated energy management strategy

  16. stability analysis of static slip-energy recovery drive via eigenvalue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    the speed control of slip-ring induction motor is presented. A set of nonlinear ... load torque. Xf filter reactance at base frequency referred to stator. Rf filter resistance at base frequency referred to stator. Lf filter inductance. S. Motor slip. Vs stator phase voltage ... system is supplied via a D.C reactor and a chopper which are ...

  17. Reduction efficiency prediction of CENIBRA's recovery boiler by direct minimization of gibbs free energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction efficiency is an important variable during the black liquor burning process in the Kraft recovery boiler. This variable value is obtained by slow experimental routines and the delay of this measure disturbs the pulp and paper industry customary control. This paper describes an optimization approach for the reduction efficiency determination in the furnace bottom of the recovery boiler based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The industrial data used in this study were directly obtained from CENIBRA's data acquisition system. The resulting approach is able to predict the steady state behavior of the chemical composition of the furnace recovery boiler, - especially the reduction efficiency when different operational conditions are used. This result confirms the potential of this approach in the analysis of the daily operation of the recovery boiler.

  18. Special Report "The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and the Department of Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was signed into law on February 17, 2009, as a way to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in science and health, and invest in the Nation's energy future. This national effort will require an unprecedented level of transparency and accountability to ensure that U.S. citizens know where their tax dollars are going and how they are being spent. As part of the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy will receive more than $38 billion to support a number of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. Additionally, the Department's authority to make or guarantee energy-related loans has increased to about $127 billion. The Department plans to disburse the vast majority of the funds it receives through grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, and other financial instruments. The supplemental funding provided to the Department of Energy under the Recovery Act dwarfs the Department's annual budget of about $27 billion. The infusion of these funds and the corresponding increase in effort required to ensure that they are properly controlled and disbursed in a timely manner will, without doubt, strain existing resources. It will also have an equally challenging impact on the inherent risks associated with operating the Department's sizable portfolio of missions and activities and, this is complicated by the fact that, in many respects, the Recovery Act requirements represent a fundamental transformation of the Department's mission. If these challenges are to be met successfully, all levels of the Department's structure and its many constituents, including the existing contractor community; the national laboratory system; state and local governments; community action groups and literally thousands of other contract, grant, loan and cooperative agreement recipients throughout the Nation will have to strengthen existing or

  19. Ending America’s Energy Insecurity: How Electric Vehicles Can Drive the Solution to Energy Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Missile CBO Congressional Budget Office CAFE Corporate Average Fuel Economy DOE United States Department of Energy EV Electric Vehicle EIA...friendly nations like Canada and Mexico (EIA, 2011a), the entire world supply would be impacted by a significant disruption anywhere in the oil market...produced by Gulf of Mexico federal offshore sites before the hurricanes struck (Leotta, 2006). Production was virtually halted in the wake of both storms

  20. Thermoelectric energy recovery at ionic-liquid/electrode interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Marco; Nakamae, Sawako; Huang, Bo Tao; Salez, Thomas J; Wiertel-Gasquet, Cécile; Roger, Michel

    2015-06-28

    A thermally chargeable capacitor containing a binary solution of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide in acetonitrile is electrically charged by applying a temperature gradient to two ideally polarisable electrodes. The corresponding thermoelectric coefficient is -1.7 mV/K for platinum foil electrodes and -0.3 mV/K for nanoporous carbon electrodes. Stored electrical energy is extracted by discharging the capacitor through a resistor. The measured capacitance of the electrode/ionic-liquid interface is 5 μF for each platinum electrode while it becomes four orders of magnitude larger, ≈36 mF, for a single nanoporous carbon electrode. Reproducibility of the effect through repeated charging-discharging cycles under a steady-state temperature gradient demonstrates the robustness of the electrical charging process at the liquid/electrode interface. The acceleration of the charging by convective flows is also observed. This offers the possibility to convert waste-heat into electric energy without exchanging electrons between ions and electrodes, in contrast to what occurs in most thermogalvanic cells.

  1. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Carnevale, Ennio; Corti, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes - Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) - were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities--incineration or gasification--co-generation is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net electric efficiency may reach values up to 30-31%. In small-medium plants, net electric efficiency is constrained by scale effect and remains at values around 20-24%. Other types of technical solutions--gasification with syngas use in internally fired devices, pyrolysis and plasma gasification--are less common or studied at pilot or demonstrative scale and, in any case, offer at present similar or lower levels

  2. Pressurized Oxidative Recovery of Energy from Biomass Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Misra

    2007-06-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility of using pressurized oxyfuel, the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS), to recover energy from biomass. The study was focused on two fronts—computer simulation of the TIPS plant and corrosion testing to determine the best materials of construction for the critical heat exchanger components of the process. The goals were to demonstrate that a successful strategy of applying the TIPS process to wood waste could be achieved. To fully investigate the technical and economic benefits of using TIPS, it was necessary to model a conventional air-fired biomass power plant for comparison purposes. The TIPS process recovers and utilizes the latent heat of vaporization of water entrained in the fuel or produced during combustion. This latent heat energy is unavailable in the ambient processes. An average composition of wood waste based on data from the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, and the South was used for the study. The high moisture content of wood waste is a major advantage of the TIPS process. The process can utilize the higher heating value of the fuel by condensing most of the water vapor in the flue gas and making the flue gas a useful source of heat. This is a considerable thermal efficiency gain over conventional power plants which use the lower heating value of the fuel. The elevated pressure also allows TIPS the option of recovering CO2 at near ambient temperatures with high purity oxygen used in combustion. Unlike ambient pressure processes which need high energy multi-stage CO2 compression to supply pipeline quality product, TIPS is able to simply pump the CO2 liquid using very little auxiliary power. In this study, a 15.0 MWe net biomass power plant was modeled, and when a CO2 pump was included it only used 0.1 MWe auxiliary power. The need for refrigeration is eliminated at such pressures resulting in significant energy, capital, and operating and maintenance savings. Since wood

  3. Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -- Florida State Energy Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides grants to states, territories, and the District of Columbia to support their energy priorities through the State Energy Program (SEP). The SEP provides Federal financial assistance to carry out energy efficiency and renewable energy projects that meet each state's unique energy needs while also addressing national goals such as energy security. Federal funding is based on a grant formula that takes into account population and energy consumption. The SEP emphasizes the state's role as the decision maker and administrator for the program. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) expanded the SEP, authorizing $3.1 billion in grants. Based on existing grant formulas and after reviewing state-level plans, EERE made awards to states. The State of Florida's Energy Office (Florida) was allocated $126 million - a 90-fold increase over Florida's average annual SEP grant of $1.4 million. Per the Recovery Act, this funding must be obligated by September 30, 2010, and spent by April 30, 2012. As of March 10, 2010, Florida had expended $13.2 million of the SEP Recovery Act funds. Florida planned to use its grant funds to undertake activities that would preserve and create jobs; save energy; increase renewable energy sources; and, reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To accomplish Recovery Act objectives, states could either fund new or expand existing projects. As a condition of the awards, EERE required states to develop and implement sound internal controls over the use of Recovery Act funds. Based on the significant increase in funding from the Recovery Act, we initiated this review to determine whether Florida had internal controls in place to provide assurance that the goals of the SEP and Recovery Act will be met and accomplished efficiently and effectively. We identified weaknesses in the implementation of SEP Recovery Act projects that

  4. Compression stripping of flue gas with energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SO.sub.X and NO.sub.X and CO.sub.2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  5. Enhancing low-grade thermal energy recovery in a thermally regenerative ammonia battery using elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; LaBarge, Nicole; Yang, Wulin; Liu, Jia; Logan, Bruce E

    2015-03-01

    A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72 °C produced a power density of 236 ± 8 Wm(-2), with a linear decrease in power to 95 ± 5 Wm(-2) at 23 °C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Wh m(-3) at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37 °C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Dimensionless Analysis on the Characteristics of Pneumatic Booster Valve with Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factories are increasingly reducing their air supply pressures in order to save energy. Hence, there is a growing demand for pneumatic booster valves to overcome the local pressure deficits in modern pneumatic systems. To further improve energy efficiency, a new type of booster valve with energy recovery (BVER is proposed. The BVER principle is presented in detail, and a dimensionless mathematical model is established based on flow rate, gas state, and energy conservation. The mathematics model was transformed into a dimensionless model by accurately selecting the reference values. Subsequently the dimensionless characteristics of BVER were found. BVER energy efficiency is calculated based on air power. The boost ratio is found to be mainly affected by the operational parameters. Among the structural ones, the recovery/boost chamber area ratio and the sonic conductance of the chambers are the most influential. The boost ratio improves by 15%–25% compared to that of a booster valve without an energy recovery chamber. The efficiency increases by 5%–10% depending on the supply pressure. A mathematical model is validated by experiment, and this research provides a reference for booster valve optimisation and energy saving.

  7. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-02-13

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72°C produced a power density of 236±8 Wm-2, with a linear decrease in power to 95±5 Wm-2 at 23°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  8. Platforms for energy and nutrient recovery from domestic wastewater: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, D J; Hülsen, T; Mehta, C M; Keller, J

    2015-12-01

    Alternative domestic wastewater treatment processes that recover energy and nutrients while achieving acceptable nutrient limits (650mgCODL(-1). PRR offers the possibility for recovery of nitrogen and other nutrients (including potassium) through assimilative recovery. However, the energetic overhead of this is substantial, requiring 5kWhkgN(-1) as electricity, which compares to ammonia fixation costs. The lower energy costs, and near to market status of LEM treatment make it likely as a recovery platform in the shorter term, while ability to recover other elements such as nitrogen and potassium, as well as enhance favourability on concentrated wastewaters may enhance the desirability of partitioning in the longer term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy recovery efficiency and cost analysis of VOC thermal oxidation pollution control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warahena, Aruna S K; Chuah, Yew Khoy

    2009-08-01

    Thermal oxidation of VOC is extremely energy intensive, and necessitates high efficiency heat recovery from the exhaust heat. In this paper, two independent parameters heat recovery factor (HRF) and equipment cost factor (ECF) are introduced. HRF and ECF can be used to evaluate separately the merits of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of VOC oxidation systems. Another parameter equipment cost against heat recovery (ECHR) which is a function of HRF and ECF is introduced to evaluate the merit of different systems for the thermal oxidation of VOC. Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). Application examples are presented to show the use and the importance of these parameters. An application examples show that TO has a lower ECF while RTO has a higher HRF. However when analyzed using ECHR, RTO would be of advantage economically in longer periods of use. The analytical models presented can be applied in similar environmental protection systems.

  10. Role of primary sedimentation on plant-wide energy recovery and carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Riccardo; Giaccherini, Francesca; Jiang, Lu-Man; Sobhani, Reza; Rosso, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to show the effect of primary sedimentation on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and solids fractionation and consequently on the carbonaceous and energy footprints of wastewater treatment processes. Using a simple rational procedure for COD and solids fraction quantification, we quantify the effects of varying fractions on CO2 and CO2-equivalent mass flows, process energy demand and energy recovery. Then we analysed two treatment plants with similar biological nutrient removal processes in two different climatic regions and quantified the net benefit of gravity separation before biological treatment. In the cases analysed, primary settling increases the solid fraction of COD that is processed in anaerobic digestion, with an associated increase in biogas production and energy recovery, and a reduction in overall emissions of CO2 and CO2-equivalent from power importation.

  11. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  12. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  13. How energy conversion drives economic growth far from the equilibrium of neoclassical economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Energy conversion in the machines and information processors of the capital stock drives the growth of modern economies. This is exemplified for Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of the 20th century: econometric analyses reveal that the output elasticity, i.e. the economic weight, of energy is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor just the opposite is true. This is at variance with mainstream economic theory according to which an economy should operate in the neoclassical equilibrium, where output elasticities equal factor cost shares. The standard derivation of the neoclassical equilibrium from the maximization of profit or of time-integrated utility disregards technological constraints. We show that the inclusion of these constraints in our nonlinear-optimization calculus results in equilibrium conditions, where generalized shadow prices destroy the equality of output elasticities and cost shares. Consequently, at the prices of capital, labor, and energy we have known so far, industrial economies have evolved far from the neoclassical equilibrium. This is illustrated by the example of the German industrial sector evolving on the mountain of factor costs before and during the first and the second oil price explosion. It indicates the influence of the ‘virtually binding’ technological constraints on entrepreneurial decisions, and the existence of ‘soft constraints’ as well. Implications for employment and future economic growth are discussed. (paper)

  14. How energy conversion drives economic growth far from the equilibrium of neoclassical economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2014-12-01

    Energy conversion in the machines and information processors of the capital stock drives the growth of modern economies. This is exemplified for Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of the 20th century: econometric analyses reveal that the output elasticity, i.e. the economic weight, of energy is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor just the opposite is true. This is at variance with mainstream economic theory according to which an economy should operate in the neoclassical equilibrium, where output elasticities equal factor cost shares. The standard derivation of the neoclassical equilibrium from the maximization of profit or of time-integrated utility disregards technological constraints. We show that the inclusion of these constraints in our nonlinear-optimization calculus results in equilibrium conditions, where generalized shadow prices destroy the equality of output elasticities and cost shares. Consequently, at the prices of capital, labor, and energy we have known so far, industrial economies have evolved far from the neoclassical equilibrium. This is illustrated by the example of the German industrial sector evolving on the mountain of factor costs before and during the first and the second oil price explosion. It indicates the influence of the ‘virtually binding’ technological constraints on entrepreneurial decisions, and the existence of ‘soft constraints’ as well. Implications for employment and future economic growth are discussed.

  15. City of Camden, New Jersey Program offering widespread energy recovery (power): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, Stanley [City of Camden, NJ (United States). Dept. of Development and Planning Bureau of Housing Services

    2013-12-31

    The Camden Residential POWER Program, Program Offering Widespread Energy Recovery, is a program designed to benefit Camden homeowners, stabilize neighborhoods and put local contractors to work. Camden POWER granted up to $18,600 to fund energy efficient home improvements and necessary life/safety rehabilitation repairs. The program was designed as a self-sustaining, neighborhood approach to bringing long-term energy and financial savings to the community. Valuable home upgrades were completed, including high-efficiency furnaces, hot water heaters, insulation, insulated roofs and blower door guided air-sealing. The goal of all improvements were to reduce energy consumption, lower utility bills, improve property values and promote neighborhood stabilization.

  16. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  17. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  18. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  19. 76 FR 71082 - Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-9091; NRC-2011-0148] Strata Energy, Inc., Ross...) submitted an application for a new source material license for the Ross Uranium Recovery Project to be... Leach Uranium Milling Facilities (ISR GEIS) for a new source material license for the Ross Uranium...

  20. Energy management in vehicles with alternative drives; Energiemanagement in Fahrzeugen mit alternativen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S.; Schimanski, M.

    2007-11-21

    Within the next few years, the automotive industry will be confronted with many challenges, as for example stricter emission standards and increasing oil prices. To meet the challenges, alternative drive concepts are currently being developed and placed in the market. To ensure a secure and efficient operation of the electric components, the introduction of an integrated energy management is required. It comprises all planning, controlling and predictive measures. The first part of this dissertation presents a new system concept, which can make an online prognosis of expected driving situations, such as speed and altitude profiles by means of internal vehicle information during an operating cycle. Based on this the control strategy can calculate the future power requirement of the vehicle and initiate control commands to enable a more efficient driving. The basis of this system concept is the recognition of routes with characteristic steering angle information and the creation of a history database for the routes driven with the respective vehicle speeds and altitudes. On the basis of an extensive analysis of the vehicle's electrical system in the second part of the dissertation, different effects on the development process for dimensioning the electrical system power supply are discussed. From this follows the necessity to develop a tool chain based on simulations. The tool chain consists of commercial simulation tools and the software Avanti (Advanced Analysis Tool and Simulation Interface) which is developed within the scope of the dissertation. Avanti enables an automated and optimal procedure when dimensioning the vehicle's electrical system in consideration of different control algorithms. A substantial part of this tool chain is the integration of a verified VHDL-AMS model library for the electrical system components. (orig.)

  1. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  2. Anaerobic Digestion Performance in the Energy Recovery of Kiwi Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui; Paulista, Larissa

    2017-12-01

    World production and trade of fruits generate losses in the harvest, post-harvest, handling, distribution and consumption phases, corresponding to 6.8% of total production. These residues present high potential as a substrate for the anaerobic digestion process and biogas generation. Thus, the energy valuation of the agro-industrial residues of kiwi production was evaluated by anaerobic digestion, aiming at optimizing the biogas production and its quality. Ten assays were carried out in a batch reactor (500 mL) under mesophilic conditions and varying a number of operational factors: different substrate/inoculum ratios; four distinct values for C: N ratio; inoculum from different digesters; and inoculum collected at different times of the year. The following parameters were used to control and monitor the process: pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFA), volatile solids (VS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Among the tests performed, the best result obtained for the biogas production corresponded to the use of 2 g of substrate and 98 mL of inoculum of the anaerobic digester of the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Bragança, with addition of 150 mg of bicarbonate leading to a production of 1628 L biogas.kg-1 VS (57% methane). In relation to the biogas quality, the best result was obtained with 20 g of substrate and 380 mL of inoculum from the anaerobic digester sludge of WWTP of Ave (with addition 600 mg of sodium bicarbonate), presenting a value of 85% of CH4, with a production of 464 L biogas.kg-1 VS.

  3. Energy analysis of electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells through well-to-wheel driving cycle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanari, Stefano; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Garcia de la Iglesia, Fernando

    This work presents a study of the energy and environmental balances for electric vehicles using batteries or fuel cells, through the methodology of the well to wheel (WTW) analysis, applied to ECE-EUDC driving cycle simulations. Well to wheel balances are carried out considering different scenarios for the primary energy supply. The fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) are based on the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) technology, and it is discussed the possibility to feed the fuel cell with (i) hydrogen directly stored onboard and generated separately by water hydrolysis (using renewable energy sources) or by conversion processes using coal or natural gas as primary energy source (through gasification or reforming), (ii) hydrogen generated onboard with a fuel processor fed by natural gas, ethanol, methanol or gasoline. The battery electric vehicles (BEV) are based on Li-ion batteries charged with electricity generated by central power stations, either based on renewable energy, coal, natural gas or reflecting the average EU power generation feedstock. A further alternative is considered: the integration of a small battery to FCEV, exploiting a hybrid solution that allows recovering energy during decelerations and substantially improves the system energy efficiency. After a preliminary WTW analysis carried out under nominal operating conditions, the work discusses the simulation of the vehicles energy consumption when following standardized ECE-EUDC driving cycle. The analysis is carried out considering different hypothesis about the vehicle driving range, the maximum speed requirements and the possibility to sustain more aggressive driving cycles. The analysis shows interesting conclusions, with best results achieved by BEVs only for very limited driving range requirements, while the fuel cell solutions yield best performances for more extended driving ranges where the battery weight becomes too high. Results are finally compared to those of conventional internal

  4. [Alcohol and energy drink--can combined consumption of both beverages modify automobile driving fitness?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesselmann, B; Rosenbaum, F; Schneider, V

    1996-07-01

    Various fitness drinks under the designation of "energy or power drinks" or "brain or athletic food" are very popular among young people. For those entrusted with rendering expert opinions that poses the question of whether consumption of these beverages is of any importance when a person's ability to drive or mental capacity has to be assessed, especially in combination with alcoholic beverages imbibed at the same time. In the case discussed here-both the 20-year-old car driver and his passenger suffered not inconsiderable injuries-an alcohol concentration of 1.2 per mille was found at the time a blood sample was taken. Furthermore, a caffeine content of 1.5 micrograms/ml was noted. A value also reached after drinking a cup of filter coffee. In contrast, values of 2 to 10 micrograms/ml are reached when caffeine is used for therapeutic purposes. Values of more than 15 micrograms/ml are considered toxic. The measured caffeine content was thus fully insignificant. The same also applies to the "active ingredients" (taurine, glucuronolactone) contained in the beverage "Red Bull". Another assumption that, namely, the effect of alcohol can be offset by such beverages could lead to a situation in which young people incorrectly assess their ability to drive after imbibing alcohol and fitness drinks. That is naturally given support by corresponding tributes by the manufacturers ("improves performance", "invigorates the mind and body").

  5. Maximization of energy recovery inside supersonic separator in the presence of condensation and normal shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shooshtari, S.H. Rajaee; Shahsavand, A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural gases provide around a quarter of energy consumptions around the globe. Supersonic separators (3S) play multifaceted role in natural gas industry processing, especially for water and hydrocarbon dew point corrections. These states of the art devices have minimum energy requirement and favorable process economy compared to conventional facilities. Their relatively large pressure drops may limit their application in some situations. To maximize the energy recovery of the dew point correction facility, the pressure loss across the 3S unit should be minimized. The optimal structure of 3s unit (including shock wave location and diffuser angle) is selected using simultaneous combination of normal shock occurrence and condensation in the presence of nucleation and growth processes. The condense-free gas enters the non-isentropic normal shock wave. The simulation results indicate that the normal shock location, pressure recovery coefficient and onset position strongly vary up to a certain diffuser angle (β = 8°) with the maximum pressure recovery of 0.88 which leads to minimum potential energy loss. Computational fluid dynamic simulations show that separation of boundary layer does not happen for the computed optimal value of β and it is essentially constant when the inlet gas temperatures and pressures vary over a relatively broad range. - Highlights: • Supersonic separators have found numerous applications in oil and gas industries. • Maximum pressure recovery is crucial for such units to maximize energy efficiency. • Simultaneous condensation and shock wave occurrence are studied for the first time. • Diverging nozzle angle of 8° can provide maximum pressure recovery of 0.88. • The optimal diffuser angle remains constant over a broad range of inlet conditions.

  6. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices; Energy Recovery in Laboratory Facilities (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    This guide regarding energy recovery is one in a series on best practices for laboratories. It was produced by Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs 21'), a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. Laboratories typically require 100% outside air for ventilation at higher rates than other commercial buildings. Minimum ventilation is typically provided at air change per hour (ACH) rates in accordance with codes and adopted design standards including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Standard 1910.1450 (4 to 12 ACH - non-mandatory) or the 2011 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Applications Handbook, Chapter 16 - Laboratories (6 to 12 ACH). While OSHA states this minimum ventilation rate 'should not be relied on for protection from toxic substances released into the laboratory' it specifically indicates that it is intended to 'provide a source of air for breathing and for input to local ventilation devices (e.g., chemical fume hoods or exhausted bio-safety cabinets), to ensure that laboratory air is continually replaced preventing the increase of air concentrations of toxic substances during the working day, direct air flow into the laboratory from non-laboratory areas and out to the exterior of the building.' The heating and cooling energy needed to condition and move this outside air can be 5 to 10 times greater than the amount of energy used in most office buildings. In addition, when the required ventilation rate exceeds the airflow needed to meet the cooling load in low-load laboratories, additional heating energy may be expended to reheat dehumidified supply air from the supply air condition to prevent over cooling. In addition to these low-load laboratories, reheat may also be required in adjacent spaces such as corridors that provide makeup air to replace air being pulled into negative-pressure laboratories

  7. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  8. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); DeFlorio, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); McKenzie, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Tao, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  9. Simulation of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Girts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.

  10. Effect on energy use and greenhouse micro climate through fan motor control by variable frequency drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitel, Meir; Zhao Yun; Barak, Moti; Bar-lev, Eli; Shmuel, David

    2004-01-01

    A comparison was conducted between ON-OFF and variable frequency drive (VFD) systems to control greenhouse ventilation fans. The study aimed to determine the effect of each system on the energy consumption and resulting greenhouse micro climate. The experiments were conducted in a commercial size greenhouse in which pepper was grown. To check the performance of the fan that was controlled by a VFD system, it was installed in a test facility and operated under several rotation speeds. At each speed of rotation, the static pressure on the fan was changed and parameters, such as electricity consumption and air flow rate, were measured. Reducing the fan speed with the VFD system resulted in reductions in the air flow rate through the greenhouse and energy consumption, the latter being much more significant. The study showed that VFD control can reduce electricity consumption compared with ON-OFF operation by an amount that depends on the weather. In the present study, the average energy consumption with the VFD control system over a period of one month, was about 0.64 of that with an ON-OFF system. The average greenhouse daily air temperatures and humidity ratios obtained with each control system between 0700 and 1800 were nearly equal during that month. The results obtained in the greenhouse further show that the VFD system has a greater potential than the ON-OFF to reduce the range of amplitude variations in the air temperature and humidity ratio within the greenhouse

  11. Moisture transfer through the membrane of a cross-flow energy recovery ventilator: Measurement and simple data-driven modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    CR Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    The moisture transfer effectiveness (or latent effectiveness) of a cross-flow, membrane based energy recovery ventilator is measured and modeled. Analysis of in situ measurements for a full year shows that energy recovery ventilator latent effectiveness increases with increasing average relative humidity and surprisingly increases with decreasing average temperature. A...

  12. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2018-01-23

    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. The proppant stabilizes fracture openings in the bedrock to enhance recovery of energy-producing materials.

  13. Thermo economic life cycle energy recovery system optimization for central air-conditioning system using evolutionary technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.A.; Khalil, M.S.; Mahfouz, F.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficient systems are the most desirable systems. Due to huge rise in energy prices and lack of availability of energy, the effective use of energy has become the need of time. Energy recovery both in heating systems as well as in air-conditioning systems saves a lot of energy. In this paper energy recovery system has been designed and optimized for central air-conditioning systems for various ranges. Cost function includes capital cost along with pumping and exergy destruction cost. This shows that installation of energy recovery system with a central air-conditioning has a significant amount of saved energy and payback period is within a year. PFHE (Plate Fin Heat Exchanger) is designed and optimized using evolutionary optimization. In order to verify the capabilities of the proposed method, a case study is also presented showing that significant amount of energy is recovered at a reasonable payback period. Sensitivity analysis is also done with the energy prices. (author)

  14. Hydrogen Gas Recycling for Energy Efficient Ammonia Recovery in Electrochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntke, Philipp; Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana; Widyakristi, Laksminarastri; Ter Heijne, Annemiek; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2017-03-07

    Recycling of hydrogen gas (H 2 ) produced at the cathode to the anode in an electrochemical system allows for energy efficient TAN (Total Ammonia Nitrogen) recovery. Using a H 2 recycling electrochemical system (HRES) we achieved high TAN transport rates at low energy input. At a current density of 20 A m -2 , TAN removal rate from the influent was 151 g N m -2 d -1 at an energy demand of 26.1 kJ g N -1 . The maximum TAN transport rate of 335 g N m -2 d -1 was achieved at a current density of 50 A m -2 and an energy demand of 56.3 kJ g N -1 . High TAN removal efficiency (73-82%) and recovery (60-73%) were reached in all experiments. Therefore, our HRES is a promising alternative for electrochemical and bioelectrochemical TAN recovery. Advantages are the lower energy input and lower risk of chloride oxidation compared to electrochemical technologies and high rates and independence of organic matter compared to bioelectrochemical systems.

  15. Assessment of infiltration heat recovery and its impact on energy consumption for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solupe, Mikel; Krarti, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five steady-state air infiltration heat recovery or IHR models are described and compared. • IHR models are incorporated within whole-building simulation analysis tool. • IHR can reduce the thermal loads of residential buildings by 5–30%. - Abstract: Infiltration is a major contributor to the energy consumption of buildings, particularly in homes where it accounts for one-third of the heating and cooling loads. Traditionally, infiltration is calculated independent of the building envelope performance, however, it has been established that a thermal coupling exists between the infiltration and conduction heat transfer of the building envelope. This effect is known as infiltration heat recovery (IHR). Experiments have shown that infiltration heat recovery can typically reduce the infiltration thermal load by 10–20%. Currently, whole-building energy simulation tools do not account for the effect of infiltration heat recovery on heating and cooling loads. In this paper, five steady-state IHR models are described to account for the thermal interaction between infiltration air and building envelope components. In particular, inter-model and experimental comparisons are carried out to assess the prediction accuracy of five IHR models. In addition, the results from a series of sensitivity analyses are presented, including an evaluation of the predictions for heating energy use associated with four audited homes obtained from whole-building energy simulation analysis with implemented infiltration heat recovery models. Experimental comparison of the IHR models reveal that the predictions from all the five models are consistent and are within 2% when 1-D flow and heat transfer conditions are considered. When implementing IHR models to a whole-building simulation environment, a reduction of 5–30% in heating consumption is found for four audited residential homes

  16. Solar Energy for a Solvent Recovery Stage in a Biodiesel Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development of clean energy have become essential due to the global climate change problem, which is caused largely by fossil fuels burning. Therefore, biodiesel, a renewable and ecofriendly biofuel with less environmental impact than diesel, continues expanding worldwide. The process for biodiesel production involves a significant energy demand, specifically in the methanol recovery stage through a flash separator and a distillation column. Traditionally, the energy required for this process is supplied by fossil fuels. It represents an opportunity for the application of renewable energy. Hence, the current study presents a system of thermal energy storage modeled in TRNSYS® and supported by simulations performed in ASPEN PLUS®. The aim of this research was to supply solar energy for a methanol recovery stage in a biodiesel production process. The results highlighted that it is feasible to meet 91% of the energy demand with an array of 9 parabolic trough collectors. The array obtained from the simulation was 3 in series and 3 in parallel, with a total area of 118.8 m2. It represents an energy saving of 70 MWh per year.

  17. Energetic recovery from LNG gasification plant : cold energy utilization in agro-alimentary industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.

    2009-01-01

    It is known how the complete gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can return about 230 kWh/t of energy. Nevertheless out of 51 gasification plants in the world, only 31 of them are equipped with systems for the partial recovery of the available energy. At the moment most of these plants mainly produce electric energy; however the employment of the cold energy results very interesting, in fact, it can be recovered for agrofood transformation and conservation as well as for some loops in the cold chain. Cold energy at low temperatures requires high amounts of mechanical energy and it unavoidably increases as the required temperature diminishes. Cold energy recovery from LNG gasification would allow considerable energy and economic savings to these applications, as well as environmental benefits due to the reduction of climate-changing gas emissions. The task of this work is to assess the possibility to create around a gasification plant an industrial site for firms working on the transformation and conservation of agrofood products locally grown. The cold recovered from gasification would be distributed to those firms through an opportune liquid Co 2 network distribution capable of supplying the cold to the different facilities. A LNG gasification plant in a highly agricultural zone in Sicily would increase the worth of the agrofood production, lower transformation and conservation costs when compared to the traditional systems and bring economic and environmental benefits to the interested areas. [it

  18. Modelling energy costs for different operational strategies of a large water resource recovery facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póvoa, P; Oehmen, A; Inocêncio, P; Matos, J S; Frazão, A

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of applying dynamic modelling and real energy prices on a full scale water resource recovery facility (WRRF) for the evaluation of control strategies in terms of energy costs with aeration. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) was coupled with real energy pricing and a power consumption model and applied as a dynamic simulation case study. The model calibration is based on the STOWA protocol. The case study investigates the importance of providing real energy pricing comparing (i) real energy pricing, (ii) weighted arithmetic mean energy pricing and (iii) arithmetic mean energy pricing. The operational strategies evaluated were (i) old versus new air diffusers, (ii) different DO set-points and (iii) implementation of a carbon removal controller based on nitrate sensor readings. The application in a full scale WRRF of the ASM1 model coupled with real energy costs was successful. Dynamic modelling with real energy pricing instead of constant energy pricing enables the wastewater utility to optimize energy consumption according to the real energy price structure. Specific energy cost allows the identification of time periods with potential for linking WRRF with the electric grid to optimize the treatment costs, satisfying operational goals.

  19. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  20. Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC-DC Cuk converter to charge a battery using maximum power point tracking. Hence, the electrical power stored in the battery can be maximized. Both analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can work well under different working conditions, and is promising for automotive industry.

  1. A simplified method of preventing implant hex drive from aspiration or accidental swallowing during stage two implant recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnaditya, Akurati; Ravuri, Srinivas; Tadi, Durga Prasad; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Kopuri, Rajkumar Chowdary; Pentakota, Venkata Girish

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To prevent accidental ingestion of implant hex dive. Materials and Methods: Dental floss which is used to stabilize the hex drive is tied to the operator's finger ring to overcome sudden aspiration of fallen instrument. Results: It showed excellent grip of the instrument during stage two uncover time and also saved operators time. Conclusions: Accidental aspiration or swallowing of the dental instruments during routine implant surgeries can be prevented by tying the implant instru...

  2. Energy conservation strategy in Hydraulic Power Packs using Variable Frequency Drive IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S.; Ashok, S. Denis; Nagaraj, Shanmukha; Reddy, M. Lohith Kumar; Naulakha, Niranjan Kumar; Adithyakumar, C. R.

    2018-02-01

    At present, energy consumption is to such an extent that if the same trend goes on then in the future at some point of time, the energy sources will all be exploited. Energy conservation in a hydraulic power pack refers to the reduction in the energy consumed by the power pack. Many experiments have been conducted to reduce the energy consumption and one of those methods is by introducing a variable frequency drive. The main objective of the present work is to reduce the energy consumed by the hydraulic power pack using variable frequency drive. Variable Frequency drive is used to vary the speed of the motor by receiving electrical signals from the pressure switch which acts as the feedback system. Using this concept, the speed of the motor can be varied between the specified limits. In the present work, a basic hydraulic power pack and a variable frequency drive based hydraulic power pack were designed and compared both of them with the results obtained. The comparison was based on the power consumed, rise in temperature, noise levels, and flow of oil through pressure relief valve, total oil flow during loading cycle. By comparing both the circuits, it is found that for the proposed system, consumption of power reduces by 78.4% and is as powerful as the present system.

  3. Harvesting the decay energy of 26Al to drive lightning discharge in protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    Chondrules in primitive meteorites likely formed by recrystallisation of dust aggregates that were flash-heated to nearly complete melting. Chondrules may represent the building blocks of rocky planetesimals and protoplanets in the inner regions of protoplanetary discs, but the source of ubiquitous thermal processing of their dust aggregate precursors remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that escape of positrons released in the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al leads to a large-scale charging of dense pebble structures, resulting in neutralisation by lightning discharge and flash-heating of dust and pebbles. This charging mechanism is similar to a nuclear battery where a radioactive source charges a capacitor. We show that the nuclear battery effect operates in circumplanetesimal pebble discs. The extremely high pebble densities in such discs are consistent with conditions during chondrule heating inferred from the high abundance of sodium within chondrules. The sedimented mid-plane layer of the protoplanetary disc may also be prone to charging by the emission of positrons, if the mass density of small dust there is at least an order of magnitude above the gas density. Our results imply that the decay energy of 26Al can be harvested to drive intense lightning activity in protoplanetary discs. The total energy stored in positron emission is comparable to the energy needed to melt all solids in the protoplanetary disc. The efficiency of transferring the positron energy to the electric field nevertheless depends on the relatively unknown distribution and scale-dependence of pebble density gradients in circumplanetesimal pebble discs and in the protoplanetary disc mid-plane layer.

  4. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  5. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  6. Ion collector design for an energy recovery test proposal with the negative ion source NIO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variale, V.; Cavenago, M.; Agostinetti, P.; Sonato, P.; Zanotto, L.

    2016-02-01

    Commercial viability of thermonuclear fusion power plants depends also on minimizing the recirculation power used to operate the reactor. The neutral beam injector (NBI) remains one of the most important method for plasma heating and control. For the future fusion power plant project DEMO, a NBI wall plug efficiency at least of 0.45 is required, while efficiency of present NBI project is about 0.25. The D- beam from a negative ion source is partially neutralized by a gas cell, which leaves more than 40% of energy in residual beams (D- and D+), so that an ion beam energy recovery system can significantly contribute to optimize efficiency. Recently, the test negative ion source NIO1 (60 keV, 9 beamlets with 15 mA H- each) has been designed and built at RFX (Padua) for negative ion production efficiency and the beam quality optimization. In this paper, a study proposal to use the NIO1 source also for a beam energy recovery test experiment is presented and a preliminary design of a negative ion beam collector with simulations of beam energy recovery is discussed.

  7. Wastewater Treatment Energy Recovery Potential For Adaptation To Global Change: An Integrated Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Patrick A; Simonovic, Slobodan P

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of wastewaters globally do not receive treatment, whereas wastewater discharges are projected to increase, thereby leading to excessive water quality degradation of surface waters on a global scale. Increased treatment could help alleviate water quality issues by constructing more treatment plants; however, in many areas there exist economic constraints. Energy recovery methods including the utilization of biogas and incineration of biosolids generated during the treatment process may help to alleviate treatment costs. This study explores the potential for investments in energy recovery from wastewater to increase treatment levels and thus improve surface water quality. This was done by examining the relationships between nutrient over-enrichment, wastewater treatment, and energy recovery at a global scale using system dynamics simulation as part of the ANEMI integrated assessment model. The results show that a significant amount of energy can be recovered from wastewater, which helps to alleviate some of the costs of treatment. It was found that wastewater treatment levels could be increased by 34%, helping to offset the higher nutrient loading from a growing population with access to improved sanitation. The production of renewable natural gas from biogas was found to have the potential to prolong the depletion of natural gas resources used to produce electricity and heat. It is recommended that agricultural nutrient discharges be better managed to help reduce nutrient over-enrichment on global scale. To increase the utility of the simulation, a finer spatial scale should be used to consider regional treatment, economic, and water quality characteristics.

  8. Factors influencing the life cycle burdens of the recovery of energy from residual municipal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Stephen; Coleman, Terry; Peirce, Adam

    2015-05-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to assess a selection of the factors influencing the environmental impacts and benefits of incinerating the fraction of municipal waste remaining after source-separation for reuse, recycling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The factors investigated were the extent of any metal and aggregate recovery from the bottom ash, the thermal efficiency of the process, and the conventional fuel for electricity generation displaced by the power generated. The results demonstrate that incineration has significant advantages over landfill with lower impacts from climate change, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication human toxicity and aquatic ecotoxicity. To maximise the benefits of energy recovery, metals, particularly aluminium, should be reclaimed from the residual bottom ash and the energy recovery stage of the process should be as efficient as possible. The overall environmental benefits/burdens of energy from waste also strongly depend on the source of the power displaced by the energy from waste, with coal giving the greatest benefits and combined cycle turbines fuelled by natural gas the lowest of those considered. Regardless of the conventional power displaced incineration presents a lower environmental burden than landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Wastewater Treatment Energy Recovery Potential For Adaptation To Global Change: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Patrick A.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of wastewaters globally do not receive treatment, whereas wastewater discharges are projected to increase, thereby leading to excessive water quality degradation of surface waters on a global scale. Increased treatment could help alleviate water quality issues by constructing more treatment plants; however, in many areas there exist economic constraints. Energy recovery methods including the utilization of biogas and incineration of biosolids generated during the treatment process may help to alleviate treatment costs. This study explores the potential for investments in energy recovery from wastewater to increase treatment levels and thus improve surface water quality. This was done by examining the relationships between nutrient over-enrichment, wastewater treatment, and energy recovery at a global scale using system dynamics simulation as part of the ANEMI integrated assessment model. The results show that a significant amount of energy can be recovered from wastewater, which helps to alleviate some of the costs of treatment. It was found that wastewater treatment levels could be increased by 34%, helping to offset the higher nutrient loading from a growing population with access to improved sanitation. The production of renewable natural gas from biogas was found to have the potential to prolong the depletion of natural gas resources used to produce electricity and heat. It is recommended that agricultural nutrient discharges be better managed to help reduce nutrient over-enrichment on global scale. To increase the utility of the simulation, a finer spatial scale should be used to consider regional treatment, economic, and water quality characteristics.

  10. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-01-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

  11. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  12. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasser, T.R.; Harris, R.B.; Martin, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake)

  13. Application of exergy analysis for improving energy efficiency of natural gas liquids recovery processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jihoon; Yoon, Sekwang; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis and optimization method is applied to provide design guidelines for improving energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness of natural gas liquids recovery processes. Exergy analysis is adopted in this study as a thermodynamic tool to evaluate the loss of exergy associated with irreversibility in natural gas liquids recovery processes, with which conceptual understanding on inefficient design feature or equipment can be obtained. Natural gas liquids processes are modeled and simulated within UniSim ® simulator, with which detailed thermodynamic information are obtained for calculating exergy loss. The optimization framework is developed by minimizing overall exergy loss, as an objective function, subject to product specifications and engineering constraints. The optimization is carried out within MATLAB ® with the aid of a stochastic solver based on genetic algorithms. The process simulator is linked and interacted with the optimization solver, in which optimal operating conditions can be determined. A case study is presented to illustrate the benefit of using exergy analysis for the design and optimization of natural gas liquids processes and to demonstrate the applicability of design method proposed in this paper. - Highlights: • Application of exergy analysis for natural gas liquids (NGL) recovery processes. • Minimization of exergy loss for improving energy efficiency. • A systematic optimization framework for the design of NGL recovery processes

  14. Conceptual energy and water recovery system for self-sustained nano membrane toilet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, Dawid P; Kolios, Athanasios J; Onabanjo, Tosin; Wagland, Stuart T; Patchigolla, Kumar; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Manovic, Vasilije; McAdam, Ewan; Parker, Alison; Williams, Leon; Tyrrel, Sean; Cartmell, Elise

    2016-10-15

    With about 2.4 billion people worldwide without access to improved sanitation facilities, there is a strong incentive for development of novel sanitation systems to improve the quality of life and reduce mortality. The Nano Membrane Toilet is expected to provide a unique household-scale system that would produce electricity and recover water from human excrement and urine. This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of the conceptual energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet designed for a household of ten people and to assess its self-sustainability. A process model of the entire system, including the thermochemical conversion island, a Stirling engine and a water recovery system was developed in Aspen Plus®. The energy and water recovery system for the Nano Membrane Toilet was characterised with the specific net power output of 23.1 Wh/kg settledsolids and water recovery rate of 13.4 dm 3 /day in the nominal operating mode. Additionally, if no supernatant was processed, the specific net power output was increased to 69.2 Wh/kg settledsolids . Such household-scale system would deliver the net power output (1.9-5.8 W). This was found to be enough to charge mobile phones or power clock radios, or provide light for the household using low-voltage LED bulbs.

  15. Development of a Trip Energy Estimation Model Using Real-World Global Positioning System Driving Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Ye [Metropia, Inc.

    2017-09-15

    A data-driven technique for estimation of energy requirements for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed. Based on over 700,000 miles of driving data, the technique has been applied to generate a model that estimates trip energy requirements. The model uses a novel binning approach to categorize driving by road type, traffic conditions, and driving profile. The trip-level energy estimations can easily be aggregated to any higher-level transportation system network desired. The model has been tested and validated on the Austin, Texas, data set used to build this model. Ground-truth energy consumption for the data set was obtained from Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) vehicle simulation results. The energy estimation model has demonstrated 12.1 percent normalized total absolute error. The energy estimation from the model can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations, to reduce energy consumption. The model can also be used to determine more accurate energy consumption of regional or national transportation networks if trip origin and destinations are known. Additionally, this method allows the estimation tool to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  16. Heat Recovery from Exhaust Air as a Thermal Storage Energy Source for Geothermal Energy Piles

    OpenAIRE

    Fadejev, Jevgeni; Simson, Raimo; Kurnitski, Jarek; Kesti, Jyrki

    2016-01-01

    In pursuit of EU directive 2010/31/EU energy performance targets towards design of nearly zero-energy buildings consideration of renewable energy sources in the design is expected. Application of ground-source heat pump (GSHP) and energy piles in cold climate conditions for utilization of renewable geothermal energy may results in GSHP plant high seasonal coefficient of performance (SCOP) as long as source of thermal storage is considered in plant design. This numerical study investigates exh...

  17. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreault, Caroline; Malmberg, Barry; Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO 2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO 2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ► Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ► The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ► The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ► The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit.

  18. Energy recovery from industrial waste of a confectionery plant by means of BIGFC plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunghi, P.; Burzacca, R

    2004-12-01

    The search of environment friendly solutions for waste management, along with increasing costs and recent regulations on waste disposal, leads toward the recovery of energy and requires research activities related to plant definition and thermo-economic comparison. On the other hand, energy recovery from waste has never been an easy task. The high pollutant level in waste combustion gases requires low maximum temperatures in thermodynamic cycles thus affecting the efficiency of the 'heat to electricity' conversion process. The recent progress of high temperature fuel cells seems to bring a significant change in this scenario, thanks to the feasible combination with advanced gasification systems. A thermo-economic comparison of different solutions for energy recovery from industrial waste is reported, considering an advanced dual bed gasification-MCFC integrated plant. The solution has been applied to a confectionery plant. Even if this system seems to promise high thermodynamic efficiency, a lot of effort in research is necessary for technical analysis of the advanced plant open issues and for the thermo-economic evaluation of potential advantage over consolidated systems. The thermodynamic analysis has been conducted interfacing Aspen{sup +} flowsheets developed with the integration of a proprietary numerical code. The definition of a complex plan of costs would have been presumptuous at this stage of the development; therefore, a reverse economic approach has been used and is suggested by the authors; a specific solver has been implemented for this purpose. An extensive survey of the confectionary plant has been conducted considering the present energy system, the current supplies, and the trends of the required energy needs. The results show that the proposed advanced energy system can represent a valid solution for both industrial waste management and for integration in energy supply.

  19. Energy recovery from industrial waste of a confectionery plant by means of BIGFC plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunghi, P.; Burzacca, R. [University of Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Industrial Engineering

    2002-12-01

    The search of environment friendly solutions for waste management, along with increasing costs and recent regulations on waste disposal, leads toward the recovery of energy and requires research activities related to plant definition and thermo-economic comparison. On the other hand, energy recovery from waste has never been an easy task. The high pollutant level in waste combustion gases requires low maximum temperatures in thermodynamic cycles thus affecting the efficiency of the ''heat to electricity'' conversion process. The recent progress of high temperature fuel cells seems to bring a significant change in this scenario, thanks to the feasible combination with advanced gasification systems. A thermo-economic comparison of different solutions for energy recovery from industrial waste is reported, considering an advanced dual bed gasification-MCFC integrated plant. The solution has been applied to a confectionery plant. Even if this system seems to promise high thermodynamic efficiency, a lot of effort in research is necessary for technical analysis of the advanced plant open issues and for the thermo-economic evaluation of potential advantage over consolidated systems. The thermodynamic analysis has been conducted interfacing Aspen+ flowsheets developed with the integration of a proprietary numerical code. The definition of a complex plan of costs would have been presumptuous at this stage of the development; therefore, a reverse economic approach has been used and is suggested by the authors; a specific solver has been implemented for this purpose. An extensive survey of the confectionary plant has been conducted considering the present energy system, the current supplies, and the trends of the required energy needs. The results show that the proposed advanced energy system can represent a valid solution for both industrial waste management and for integration in energy supply. (author)

  20. CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING FOR ZONE OF RECOVERY ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF DC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to develop the means and methods of forming a plurality of real and potential structural diagrams for zones of energy recovery and different locations of trains for further training neuro-fuzzy networks on the basis of expert solutions and also for the formation of good control. Methodology. Methodology of mathematical and algorithmic constructivism for modeling the structural diagrams of the electric supply system and modes of traction power consumption and the train’s locations in zones of energy recovery was applied. This approach involves the development of constructive-synthesizing structures (CSS with transformation by specialization, interpretation, specification and implementation. Development CSS provides an extensible definition media, relations and the signature of operations and constructive axiomatic. The most complex and essential part of the axioms is the set formed by the substitution rules defining the process of withdrawal of the corresponding structures. Findings. A specialized and specified CSS, which allows considering all the possibilities and features, that supply power traction systems with modern equipment, stations and trains location was designed. Its feature: the semantic content of the terminal alphabet images of electrical traction network and power consumers with relevant attributes. A special case of the formation of the structural diagram shows the possibilities CSS in relation to this problem. Originality. A new approach to solving the problem of rational use of energy recovery, which consists in application of the methods and means of artificial neural networks, expert systems, fuzzy logic and mathematical and algorithmic constructivism. This paper presents the methods of constructive simulation of a production-distribution of energy recovery zone structure in the system of the DC traction. Practical value. The tasks decision of the rational use of energy recovery can

  1. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

  2. Energy recovery from one- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gioannis, Giorgia; Muntoni, Aldo; Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella; Spiga, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    One- and two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste aimed at recovering methane (CH 4 ) and hydrogen and methane (H 2 +CH 4 ), respectively, were compared in order to assess the potential benefits from the two-stage process in terms of overall energy recovery. Results suggest that a two-stage process where the first reactor is properly operated in order to achieve a significant net hydrogen production, may display a 20% comparatively higher energy recovery yield as a result, mainly, of enhanced methane production as well as of the associated hydrogen production. The highest methane production of the two-stage process was due to improved hydrolysis and fermentation of food waste, with increased amounts of volatile fatty acids being readily available to methanogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-06-17

    Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  4. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  5. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  6. Status of RF system for the JAERI energy-recovery linac FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawamura, Masaru; Nagai, Ryoji

    2006-01-01

    The two types of the RF sources are used for the JAERI ERL-FEL. One is an all-solid state amplifier and the other is an inductive output tube (IOT). There are advantages of little failure and wide bandwidth for the all-solid state amplifier, low cost and high efficiency for IOT. The property of low cost with the IOT is suitable for a large machine like an energy recovery linac (ERL)

  7. Optimally efficient swimming in hyper-redundant mechanisms: control, design, and energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, A J; Nahon, M

    2012-01-01

    Hyper-redundant mechanisms (HRMs), also known as snake-like robots, are highly adaptable during locomotion on land. Researchers are currently working to extend their capabilities to aquatic environments through biomimetic undulatory propulsion. In addition to increasing the versatility of the system, truly biomimetic swimming could also provide excellent locomotion efficiency. Unfortunately, the complexity of the system precludes the development of a functional solution to achieve this. To explore this problem, a rapid optimization process is used to generate efficient HRM swimming gaits. The low computational cost of the approach allows for multiple optimizations over a broad range of system conditions. By observing how these conditions affect optimal kinematics, a number of new insights are developed regarding undulatory swimming in robotic systems. Two key conditions are varied within the study, swimming speed and energy recovery. It is found that the swimmer mimics the speed control behaviour of natural fish and that energy recovery drastically increases the system's efficiency. Remarkably, this efficiency increase is accompanied by a distinct change in swimming kinematics. With energy recovery, the swimmer converges to a clearly anguilliform gait, without, it tends towards the carangiform mode. (paper)

  8. RECOVERY AND ENERGY SAVINGS OF ALUMINUM CAN BEVERAGE CONSUMED IN GENERAL AND VOCATIONAL TECHNICAL HIGH SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert ZORAĞA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In commitments of Kyoto protocol principles, 100% recyclable features aluminum is one of most current metal. In this protocol, Turkey is not contractor to develop policies to prevent climate change to apply, to take measures to increase energy efficiency and savings, to limit greenhouse gas emissions. Aluminum production from used aluminum requires 95% less energy than production from raw material and recycled aluminum put in the production reduces flue gases pollutant emissions at rate of 99%. Between 2004-2005 and 2009-2010 academic year education is estimated that every one of 5 and 10 students were consumed average 1 aluminum can beverage each day to take into account habits of general and vocational high school students. In case of recovery of 50% this cans will save approximately 4.7 and 13.1 million kWh electrical energy, in the case of 75% recovery will save between 7.2 and 19.9 million kWh electrical energy, in the case of 100% will save the 9.4 and 25 million kWh electrical energy than the same amount of aluminum in the primary method (from ore in our country. In the same conditions is estimated that realization of an efficient recycling project will provide between 5.2 and 20 million kWh of electrical energy savings in the 2010 -2011 academic year education. In this study, anymore it turned into a habit of recovery of packaging waste application in most countries as the name “Blue Angels Project” to place in our country has been trying to bring clarity to issues.

  9. Differential current measurement in the BNL energy recovery linac test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2006-01-01

    An energy recovery linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL [V.N. Litvinenko, et al., High current energy recovery linac at BNL, PAC, 2005; I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Extremely high current, high brightness energy recovery linac, PAC, 2005]. The goal of this test facility is to demonstrate CW operation with an average beam current greater than 100mA, and with greater than 99.95% efficiency of current recovery. This facility will serve as a test bed for the novel high current CW photo-cathode [A. Burrill, et al., Multi-alkali photocathode development at BNL, PAC, 2005; A. Murray, et al., State-of-the-art electron guns and injector designs for energy recovery linacs, PAC, 2005], the superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers [R. Calaga, et al., High current superconducting cavities at RHIC, EPAC, 2004; R. Calaga, et al., in: Proceedings of the 11th workshop on RF superconductivity, Lubeck, Germany, 2003], and the lattice [D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, Novel method of emittance preservation in ERL merging system in presence of strong space charge forces, PAC, 2005; D. Kayran, et al., Optics for high brightness and high current ERL project at BNL, PAC, 2005] and feedback systems needed to insure the specified beam parameters. It is an important stepping stone for electron cooling in RHIC [I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Electron cooling of RHIC, PAC, 2005], and essential to meet the luminosity specifications of RHICII [T. Hallman, et al., RHICII/eRHIC white paper, available at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/NSAC_RHICII-eRHIC_2-15-03.pdf]. The expertise and experience gained in this effort might also extend forward into a 10-20GeV ERL for the electron-ion collider eRHIC [http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A, The linac-ring option, 2005]. We report here on the use of a technique of differential current measurement to monitor the efficiency of current recovery in the test facility, and investigate the possibility of using such a monitor in the machine

  10. Multi-fuctional heat recovery systems. Really energy saving; Multifunktionale Waermerueckgewinnung. Wie man wirklich Energie spart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Heinz [SEW Systemtechnik fuer Energierecycling und Waermeflussbegrenzung GmbH, Kempen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    An energy saving leeds only to a correct optimized operation, if a demand-oriented total design is integrated into the building. In special for air-conditioning energy saving measures are presented and essential criteria named, to save in fact effectively, efficiently, reliably and profitably energy and enhance simultanously user quality. (orig./GL)

  11. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  12. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes -- Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Sara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rothgeb, Stacey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This document is a set of appendices presenting technical discussion and references as a companion to the 'Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes' publication.

  13. A role for nuclear energy in the recovery of oil from the tar sands of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttagunta, V.R.; Sochaski, R.O.; Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-12-01

    Techniques of oil recovery from the tar sands and the energy requirements of this operation are described. Fossil fuels, and CANDU reactors are examined as competitive sources of energy for the tar sands plants. The CANDU-OCR reactor appears to have the necessary flexibility to fit into many of the possible methods of recovering oil from the tar sands. Cost comparisons of fossil and nuclear sources show that, for the supply of process steam, the nuclear source is competitive under the criteria of debt financing or low discount rates on capital, continued escalation, and long plant capital write-off period. (author)

  14. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  16. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike S. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Detwiler, Russell L. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Lao, Kang [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Serajian, Vahid [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Elkhoury, Jean [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Diessl, Julia [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); White, Nicky [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  17. Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.

  18. Trip Energy Estimation Methodology and Model Based on Real-World Driving Data for Green Routing Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Til, Harrison J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-09

    A data-informed model to predict energy use for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed in this paper. The methodology leverages nearly 1 million miles of real-world driving data to generate the estimation model. Driving is categorized at the sub-trip level by average speed, road gradient, and road network geometry, then aggregated by category. An average energy consumption rate is determined for each category, creating an energy rates look-up table. Proposed vehicle trips are then categorized in the same manner, and estimated energy rates are appended from the look-up table. The methodology is robust and applicable to almost any type of driving data. The model has been trained on vehicle global positioning system data from the Transportation Secure Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and validated against on-road fuel consumption data from testing in Phoenix, Arizona. The estimation model has demonstrated an error range of 8.6% to 13.8%. The model results can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations to reduce energy consumption. This work provides a highly extensible framework that allows the model to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  19. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  20. Novel Speed Bumps Design and Optimization for Vehicles' Energy Recovery in Smart Cities 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo E. Zich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently the technology development and increasing amounts of investment in renewables has led to a growing interest towards design and optimization of green energy systems. In this context, advanced Computational Intelligence (CI techniques can be applied by engineers to several technical problems in order to find out the best structure and to improve efficiency in energy recovery. This research promises to give new impulse to using innovative unconventional renewable sources and to develop the so-called Energy Harvesting Devices (EHDs. In this paper, the optimization of a Tubular Permanent Magnet-Linear Generator for energy harvesting from vehicles to grid is presented. The optimization process is developed by means of hybrid evolutionary algorithms to reach the best overall system efficiency and the impact on the environment and transportation systems. Finally, an experimental validation of the designed EHD prototype is presented. 

  1. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chromaticity of the lattice and beam stability in energy-recovery linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.

    2011-12-23

    Energy recovery linacs (ERLs) are an emerging generation of accelerators promising to revolutionize the fields of high-energy physics and photon sciences. These accelerators combine the advantages of linear accelerators with that of storage rings, and hold the promise of delivering electron beams of unprecedented power and quality. Use of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities converts ERLs into nearly perfect 'perpetuum mobile' accelerators, wherein the beam is accelerated to a desirable energy, used, and then gives the energy back to the RF field. One potential weakness of these devices is transverse beam break-up instability that could severely limit the available beam current. In this paper, I present a method of suppressing these dangerous effects using a natural phenomenon in the accelerators, viz., the chromaticity of the transverse motion.

  3. Establishing the content validity of the Sexual Arousal, Interest, and Drive Scale and the Hypogonadism Energy Diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, R P; Henne, J; Kinchen, K S

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative analysis was to establish the content validity of two new patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures: Sexual Arousal, Interest, and Drive Scale (SAID) and Hypogonadism Energy Diary (HED). Four separate qualitative studies were conducted with 125 men with hypogonadism (mean age: 53 years, 85% adult onset). Study 1 used focus groups/interviews to identify important and relevant concepts related to the experience of hypogonadism and its treatment in men primarily with adult-onset hypogonadism. Study 2 tested items generated for assessments of low sex drive and low energy. Study 3 used interviews to confirm in men with early-onset hypogonadism that low sex drive and low energy were also important and relevant symptoms. Study 4 tested final versions of the two PROs and determined equivalency of paper-based and electronic versions of the two PROs. Of the concepts emerging in Studies 1 and 3, low sex drive and low energy were the symptoms most often spontaneously mentioned. Coding of transcripts from Studies 1 and 3 led to the generation of items for the SAID and HED. After item testing (Studies 2 and 4), the final SAID included five items pertaining to arousal, interest in sex and sex drive with a 7-day recall period and the final HED included two items (energy, tired/exhausted) to be administered three times per day. The SAID and HED have content validity established according to regulatory guidance and, therefore, the potential to provide the patient perspective of treatments for hypogonadism. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action, and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Zhengxin Tong; Evren Unsal; Siluni Wickramathilaka; Shaochang Wo; Peigui Yin

    2008-06-30

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  5. FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  6. Fundamentals of reservoir surface energy as related to surface properties, wettability, capillary action, and oil recovery from fractured reservoirs by spontaneous imbibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman R. Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Jason Zhengxin Tong; Peigui Yin; Shaochang Wo

    2006-06-08

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  7. Energy consumption by forward osmosis treatment of landfill leachate for water recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Zou, Shiqiang; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2017-05-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative approach for treating landfill leachate with potential advantages of reducing leachate volume and recovering high quality water for direct discharge or reuse. However, energy consumption by FO treatment of leachate has not been examined before. Herein, the operational factors such as recirculation rates and draw concentrations were studied for their effects on the quantified energy consumption by an FO system treating actual leachate collected from two different landfills. It was found that the energy consumption increased with a higher recirculation rate and decreased with a higher draw concentration, and higher water recovery tended to reduce energy consumption. The highest energy consumption was 0.276±0.033kWhm -3 with the recirculation rate of 110mLmin -1 and 1-M draw concentration, while the lowest of 0.005±0.000kWhm -3 was obtained with 30mLmin -1 recirculation and 3-M draw concentration. The leachate with lower concentrations of the contaminants had a much lower requirement for energy, benefited from its higher water recovery. Osmotic backwashing appeared to be more effective for removing foulants, but precise understanding of membrane fouling and its controlling methods will need a long-term study. The results of this work have implied that FO treatment of leachate could be energy efficient, especially with the use of a suitable draw solute that can be regenerated in an energy efficient way and/or through combination with other treatment technologies that can reduce contaminant concentrations before FO treatment, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analyzing driving forces behind changes in energy vulnerability of Spanish electricity generation through a Divisia index-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We propose and develop the LMDI approach to factorize changes in electricity bill vulnerability. • Spanish vulnerability (1995–2011) markedly grew mainly by increasing gas dependence. • Fuel price increase and growing importance of electricity damage energy security. • Energy intensity advances & fuel diversification: insufficient to drive vulnerability. • Main recommendation: enhance internal energy market and common external EU strategy. - Abstract: High energy dependence on fossil raises vulnerability concerns about security of supply and energy cost. This research examines the impact of high dependence of imported fuels for power generation in Spain through the quantification and analysis of the driving forces behind the change in its electricity bill. Following logarithmic mean Divisia indexes approach, we present and perform a new method that enables a complete decomposition of changes in electricity vulnerability into contributions from several drivers. In fact, we identify five predefined factors behind the variations in vulnerability in Spain during the 1998–2011 period: fuel price, average heat rate, fuel dependence, degree of electricity importance and energy intensity. The application of this approach reveals a significant increase in Spanish vulnerability in the last two decades, promoted by increments in fuel price and importance of electricity over the primary energy consumption, but especially by increasing fuel dependence (particularly gas dependence). Therefore, findings mainly advocate for those strategies aimed at reducing Spanish energy dependence. Also those improving thermal efficiency and energy intensity are indicated

  9. Harnessing Geothermal Energy from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent geotechnical research shows that geothermal heat can be efficiently mined by circulating CO2 through naturally permeable, porous rock formations. This method, called CO2 Plume Geothermal (CPG), targets the same geologic reservoirs that are suitable for deep saline aquifer CO2 sequestration or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). While previous investigations have focused on CO2-based heat mining from saline aquifers, here we present new research that is primarily concerned with EOR reservoirs, specifically those using a CO2 flood. EOR operations provide excellent opportunities for economically-favorable geothermal energy recovery, assuming subsurface temperatures are sufficient, because the majority of costly infrastructure (i.e., wells) is in place. Moreover, the subsurface characteristics that make a site suitable for hydrocarbon recovery -- at least moderate reservoir permeability and porosity, and a low-permeability capping feature -- help ensure that fluid can be circulated for heat extraction and that CO2 will be contained. However, heat extraction from the CO2 + water/brine + hydrocarbon EOR production stream is challenging, requiring fluid separation and multiple binary and/or direct power systems (depending on site-specific fluid composition and conditions). We discuss several scenarios, encompassing multiple power system configurations, for harnessing geothermal energy from CO2 EOR operations. In addition, we present preliminary numerical modeling results for net power production from such EOR operations -- accounting for wide variation in produced fluid temperature, pressure, and composition -- and consider the economic implications of power sales for EOR sites.

  10. Sparse recovery of undersampled intensity patterns for coherent diffraction imaging at high X-ray energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddali, S; Calvo-Almazan, I; Almer, J; Kenesei, P; Park, J-S; Harder, R; Nashed, Y; Hruszkewycz, S O

    2018-03-21

    Coherent X-ray photons with energies higher than 50 keV offer new possibilities for imaging nanoscale lattice distortions in bulk crystalline materials using Bragg peak phase retrieval methods. However, the compression of reciprocal space at high energies typically results in poorly resolved fringes on an area detector, rendering the diffraction data unsuitable for the three-dimensional reconstruction of compact crystals. To address this problem, we propose a method by which to recover fine fringe detail in the scattered intensity. This recovery is achieved in two steps: multiple undersampled measurements are made by in-plane sub-pixel motion of the area detector, then this data set is passed to a sparsity-based numerical solver that recovers fringe detail suitable for standard Bragg coherent diffraction imaging (BCDI) reconstruction methods of compact single crystals. The key insight of this paper is that sparsity in a BCDI data set can be enforced by recognising that the signal in the detector, though poorly resolved, is band-limited. This requires fewer in-plane detector translations for complete signal recovery, while adhering to information theory limits. We use simulated BCDI data sets to demonstrate the approach, outline our sparse recovery strategy, and comment on future opportunities.

  11. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg -1 to 16.60 MJ kg -1 depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm -3 at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kW e . The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  12. Development of a High Latent Effectiveness Energy Recovery Ventilator with Integration into Rooftop Package Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory M. Dobbs; Norberto O. Lemcoff; Frederick J. Cogswell; Jeffrey T. Benolt

    2006-03-01

    This Final Report covers the Cooperative Program carried out to design and optimize an enhanced flat-plate energy recovery ventilator and integrate it into a packaged unitary (rooftop) air conditioning unit. The project objective was to optimize the design of a flat plate energy recovery ventilator (ERV) core that compares favorably to flat plate air-to-air heat exchanger cores on the market and to cost wise to small enthalpy wheel devices. The benefits of an integrated unit incorporating an enhanced ERV core and a downsized heating/cooling unit were characterized and the design of an integrated unit considering performance and cost was optimized. Phase I was to develop and optimize the design of a membrane based heat exchanger core. Phase II was the creation and observation of a system integrated demonstrator unit consisting of the Enhanced Energy Recovery Ventilator (EERV) developed in Phase I coupled to a standard Carrier 50HJ rooftop packaged unitary air conditioning unit. Phase III was the optimization of the system prior to commercialization based on the knowledge gained in Phase II. To assure that the designs chosen have the possibility of meeting cost objectives, a preliminary manufacturability and production cost study was performed by the Center for Automation Technologies at RPI. Phase I also included a preliminary design for the integrated unit to be further developed in Phase II. This was to assure that the physical design of the heat exchanger designed in Phase I would be acceptable for use in Phase II. An extensive modeling program was performed by the Center for Building Performance & Diagnostics of CMU. Using EnergyPlus as the software, a typical office building with multiple system configurations in multiple climatic zones in the US was simulated. The performance of energy recovery technologies in packaged rooftop HVAC equipment was evaluated. The experimental program carried out in Phases II and III consisted of fabricating and testing a

  13. Characteristics of MSW and heat energy recovery between residential and commercial areas in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Sora; Yoo, Kee-Young; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2011-03-01

    This paper analyzes the amount and characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) according to the inhabitant density of population and the business concentration in 25 districts in Seoul. Further, the heat energy recovery and avoided CO(2) emissions of four incineration plants located in residential and commercial areas in Seoul are examined. The amount of residential waste per capita tended to increase as the density of inhabitants decreased. The amount of commercial waste per capita tended to increase as the business concentration increased. The examination of the heat energy recovery characteristics indicated that the four incineration plants produced heat energy that depended on residential or commercial areas based on population and business. The most important result regarding avoided CO(2) emissions was that commercial areas with many office-type businesses had the most effective CO(2) emission savings by combusting 1 kg of waste. Assuming the full-scale operation of the four incineration plants, the amount of saved CO(2) emissions per year was 444 Gg CO(2) and 57,006 households in Seoul can be provided with heat energy equivalent to 542,711 Nm(3) of LNG. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy recovery from solid waste. Volume 2: Technical report. [pyrolysis and biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. J.; Dalton, C.

    1975-01-01

    A systems analysis of energy recovery from solid waste demonstrates the feasibility of several current processes for converting solid waste to an energy form. The social, legal, environmental, and political factors are considered in depth with recommendations made in regard to new legislation and policy. Biodegradation and thermal decomposition are the two areas of disposal that are considered with emphasis on thermal decomposition. A technical and economic evaluation of a number of available and developing energy-recovery processes is given. Based on present technical capabilities, use of prepared solid waste as a fuel supplemental to coal seems to be the most economic process by which to recover energy from solid waste. Markets are considered in detail with suggestions given for improving market conditions and for developing market stability. A decision procedure is given to aid a community in deciding on its options in dealing with solid waste, and a new pyrolysis process is suggested. An application of the methods of this study are applied to Houston, Texas.

  15. Efficiency of energy recovery from waste incineration, in the light of the new Waste Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Motta, Astrid; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with a key issue related to municipal waste incineration, which is the efficiency of energy recovery. A strong driver for improving the energy performances of waste-to-energy plants is the recent Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives), which allows high efficiency installations to benefit from a status of "recovery" rather than "disposal". The change in designation means a step up in the waste hierarchy, where the lowest level of priority is now restricted to landfilling and low efficiency wastes incineration. The so-called "R1 formula" reported in the Directive, which counts for both production of power and heat, is critically analyzed and correlated to the more scientific-based approach of exergy efficiency. The results obtained for waste-to-energy plants currently operating in Europe reveal some significant differences in their performance, mainly related to the average size and to the availability of a heat market (district heating). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of stillage fractions - estimation of the potential for energy recovery in bioethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosg, B; Fuchs, W; Meixner, K; Waltenberger, R; Kirchmayr, R; Braun, R; Bochmann, G

    2013-01-01

    Stillage processing can require more than one third of the thermal energy demand of a dry-grind bioethanol production plant. Therefore, for every stillage fraction occurring in stillage processing the potential of energy recovery by anaerobic digestion (AD) was estimated. In the case of whole stillage up to 128% of the thermal energy demand in the process can be provided, so even an energetically self-sufficient bioethanol production process is possible. For wet cake the recovery potential of thermal energy is 57%, for thin stillage 41%, for syrup 40% and for the evaporation condensate 2.5%. Specific issues for establishing AD of stillage fractions are evaluated in detail; these are high nitrogen concentrations, digestate treatment and trace element supply. If animal feed is co-produced at the bioethanol plant and digestate fractions are to be reused as process water, a sufficient quality is necessary. Most interesting stillage fractions as substrates for AD are whole stillage, thin stillage and the evaporation condensate. For these fractions process details are presented.

  17. Driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings: an analysis of energy performance of Swedish buildings, 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglseth, Bente Beckstroem

    2008-06-15

    The building sector is responsible for a substantial part of energy use and green house gas emissions in Europe. This report explores driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings, using the Swedish building sector as a case. The development of energy performance of buildings in Sweden from 2000 until 2006 is explored by applying a threefold understanding of energy performance of buildings: substitution from fossil fuels to renewable energy, conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. Three explanatory approaches are used to analyse driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance: the techno-economic approach stresses the physical aspects of infrastructure and technologies, the institutional approach emphasizes the role of institutional factors, while the regulative approach focuses on formal rules and laws. The study concludes that all factors have promoted substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy, while they have prevented conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. (author). 95 refs

  18. Energy recovery in SUDS towards smart water grids: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Helena M.; Teyssier, Charlotte; Samora, Irene; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a methodology for urban flood adaptation and energy recovery solutions is resting on the concept of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) as a measure to reduce risks of urban flooding while fully utilizing the available resources. Flood drainage systems are infrastructures essential in urban areas, which include retention ponds that can be used as water storage volumes to damp floods and simultaneously to produce energy, constituting innovative solutions to be integrated in future smart water grid′s designs. The consideration of urban flooding as a problem caused by excess water that can be harvested and re-used is expected to provide a comprehensive representation of a water-energy nexus for future urban areas. The study comprises an optimization of energy recovery in SUDS of a small district area of Lisbon down-town through the use of a low-head hydropower converter. The status-quo solution based on a basin catchment for the average expected runoff is analysed, with influence of the tidal backwater effect of the Atlantic Ocean which causes difficulties to the drainage of excess flow. The methodology used to reach the flow damping and the optimized solution for energy production is presented. -- Highlights: •An innovative solution for Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). •Use of retention ponds to reduce risks of urban flooding while producing energy. •Use of recently developed hydropower converters for low heads. •Solution to be integrated in future smart water networks for increasing efficiency. •Water and energy nexus for sustainable operation towards future smart cities

  19. Driving Sodium-Potassium Pumps With An Oscillating Electric Field: Effects On Muscle Recovery In The Human Biceps Brachii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovyn, Matt; Chen, Wei; Lanes, Olivia; Mast, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Dr. Chen has developed a technique called synchronization modulation, which uses an oscillating electric field to increase the rate at which the sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membrane work. Because the sodium-potassium pump is integral in the recovery of skeletal muscle fibers after an action potential, we investigated the effects of applying synchronization modulation to muscles which had already undergone fatigue due to repeated action potentials during exercise. Fatigue was induced in human subjects' biceps brachii through isometric contraction. Surface electromyography measurements of fatigue index were used to quantify how the muscle recovered over the minutes following fatigue, both when synchronization modulation was applied and when it was absent. The preliminary results were inconclusive, but it is hoped that in later work it will be shown that applying synchronization modulation is effective in increasing the rate at which the muscle recovers to its initial state. This would demonstrate not only that synchronization modulation can be successfully applied to human muscle, but also that it has many potential applications in sports medicine and novel disease treatments. Work done as part of an REU program at the University of South Florida

  20. Integrating Microbial Electrochemical Technology with Forward Osmosis and Membrane Bioreactors: Low-Energy Wastewater Treatment, Energy Recovery and Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater treatment is energy intensive, with modern wastewater treatment processes consuming 0.6 kWh/m3 of water treated, half of which is required for aeration. Considering that wastewater contains approximately 2 kWh/m3 of energy and represents a reliable alternative water resource, capturing part of this energy and reclaiming the water would offset or even eliminate energy requirements for wastewater treatment and provide a means to augment traditional water supplies. Microbial electrochemical technology is a novel technology platform that uses bacteria capable of producing an electric current outside of the cell to recover energy from wastewater. These bacteria do not require oxygen to respire but instead use an insoluble electrode as their terminal electron acceptor. Two types of microbial electrochemical technologies were investigated in this dissertation: 1) a microbial fuel cell that produces electricity; and 2) a microbial electrolysis cell that produces hydrogen with the addition of external power. On their own, microbial electrochemical technologies do not achieve sufficiently high treatment levels. Innovative approaches that integrate microbial electrochemical technologies with emerging and established membrane-based treatment processes may improve the overall extent of wastewater treatment and reclaim treated water. Forward osmosis is an emerging low-energy membrane-based technology for seawater desalination. In forward osmosis water is transported across a semipermeable membrane driven by an osmotic gradient. The microbial osmotic fuel cell described in this dissertation integrates a microbial fuel cell with forward osmosis to achieve wastewater treatment, energy recovery and partial desalination. This system required no aeration and generated more power than conventional microbial fuel cells using ion exchange membranes by minimizing electrochemical losses. Membrane bioreactors incorporate semipermeable membranes within a biological wastewater

  1. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  2. Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas; Ekvall, T.

    2009-01-01

    The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspec...

  3. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  4. Simultaneous Waste Heat and Water Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gases for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This final report presents the results of a two-year technology development project carried out by a team of participants sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project is to develop a membrane-based technology to recover both water and low grade heat from power plant flue gases. Part of the recovered high-purity water and energy can be used directly to replace plant boiler makeup water as well as improving its efficiency, and the remaining part of the recovered water can be used for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), cooling tower water makeup or other plant uses. This advanced version Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) with lower capital and operating costs can be applied to existing plants economically and can maximize waste heat and water recovery from future Advanced Energy System flue gases with CO2 capture in consideration, which will have higher moisture content that favors the TMC to achieve higher efficiency.

  5. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Future projections of the Greenland ice sheet energy balance driving the surface melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulations at 25 km resolution are performed over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, using the regional climate model MAR forced by four RCP scenarios from three CMIP5 global circulation models (GCMs, in order to investigate the projected changes of the surface energy balance (SEB components driving the surface melt. Analysis of 2000–2100 melt anomalies compared to melt results over 1980–1999 reveals an exponential relationship of the GrIS surface melt rate simulated by MAR to the near-surface air temperature (TAS anomalies, mainly due to the surface albedo positive feedback associated with the extension of bare ice areas in summer. On the GrIS margins, the future melt anomalies are preferentially driven by stronger sensible heat fluxes, induced by enhanced warm air advection over the ice sheet. Over the central dry snow zone, the surface albedo positive feedback induced by the increase in summer melt exceeds the negative feedback of heavier snowfall for TAS anomalies higher than 4 °C. In addition to the incoming longwave flux increase associated with the atmosphere warming, GCM-forced MAR simulations project an increase of the cloud cover decreasing the ratio of the incoming shortwave versus longwave radiation and dampening the albedo feedback. However, it should be noted that this trend in the cloud cover is contrary to that simulated by ERA-Interim–forced MAR for recent climate conditions, where the observed melt increase since the 1990s seems mainly to be a consequence of more anticyclonic atmospheric conditions. Finally, no significant change is projected in the length of the melt season, which highlights the importance of solar radiation absorbed by the ice sheet surface in the melt SEB.

  7. Opportunities for Fundamental University-Based Research in Energy and Resource Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hitzman, M.; Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we present, from a university perspective, a few examples of fundamental research needs related to improved energy and resource recovery. One example of such a research need is related to the fact that it is not widely recognized that meeting domestic and worldwide energy needs with renewables such as wind and solar will be materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by renewable technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. Unfortunately, there is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology in the context of securing sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Another option for transitioning away from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system to non-carbon based sources, is geothermal energy - from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in ground source heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. To this end, there is a need for research, development and demonstration in five important areas - estimating the magnitude and distribution of recoverable geothermal resources, establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs the including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co

  8. Energy loss process analysis for radiation degradation and immediate recovery of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shin-ichiro; Beernink, Kevin; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Performance degradation of a-Si/a-SiGe/a-SiGe triple-junction solar cells due to irradiation of silicon ions, electrons, and protons are investigated using an in-situ current-voltage measurement system. The performance recovery immediately after irradiation is also investigated. Significant recovery is always observed independent of radiation species and temperature. It is shown that the characteristic time, which is obtained by analyzing the short-circuit current annealing behavior, is an important parameter for practical applications in space. In addition, the radiation degradation mechanism is discussed by analyzing the energy loss process of incident particles (ionizing energy loss: IEL, and non-ionizing energy loss: NIEL) and their relative damage factors. It is determined that ionizing dose is the primarily parameter for electron degradation whereas displacement damage dose is the primarily parameter for proton degradation. This is because the ratio of NIEL to IEL in the case of electrons is small enough to be ignored the damage due to NIEL although the defect creation ratio of NIEL is much larger than that of IEL in the cases of both protons and electrons. The impact of “radiation quality effect” has to be considered to understand the degradation due to Si ion irradiation.

  9. Assessment of needs and research roadmaps for rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) onboard electric drive buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    In support of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Electric Drive Strategic Plan (EDSP), this report assesses state-of-art advances in lithium-ion batteries, ultracapacitors, and related power management and control technologies for the rechargea...

  10. Covalent bonds are created by the drive of electron waves to lower their kinetic energy through expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Michael W.; Ruedenberg, Klaus, E-mail: ruedenberg@iastate.edu [Department of Chemistry and Ames Laboratory USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Ivanic, Joseph [Advanced Biomedical Computing Center, Information Systems Program, Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc., Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, Maryland 21702 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    An analysis based on the variation principle shows that in the molecules H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 2}, B{sub 2}, C{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, F{sub 2}, covalent bonding is driven by the attenuation of the kinetic energy that results from the delocalization of the electronic wave function. For molecular geometries around the equilibrium distance, two features of the wave function contribute to this delocalization: (i) Superposition of atomic orbitals extends the electronic wave function from one atom to two or more atoms; (ii) intra-atomic contraction of the atomic orbitals further increases the inter-atomic delocalization. The inter-atomic kinetic energy lowering that (perhaps counter-intuitively) is a consequence of the intra-atomic contractions drives these contractions (which per se would increase the energy). Since the contractions necessarily encompass both, the intra-atomic kinetic and potential energy changes (which add to a positive total), the fact that the intra-atomic potential energy change renders the total potential binding energy negative does not alter the fact that it is the kinetic delocalization energy that drives the bond formation.

  11. Covalent bonds are created by the drive of electron waves to lower their kinetic energy through expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael W.; Ivanic, Joseph; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    An analysis based on the variation principle shows that in the molecules H2+, H2, B2, C2, N2, O2, F2, covalent bonding is driven by the attenuation of the kinetic energy that results from the delocalization of the electronic wave function. For molecular geometries around the equilibrium distance, two features of the wave function contribute to this delocalization: (i) Superposition of atomic orbitals extends the electronic wave function from one atom to two or more atoms; (ii) intra-atomic contraction of the atomic orbitals further increases the inter-atomic delocalization. The inter-atomic kinetic energy lowering that (perhaps counter-intuitively) is a consequence of the intra-atomic contractions drives these contractions (which per se would increase the energy). Since the contractions necessarily encompass both, the intra-atomic kinetic and potential energy changes (which add to a positive total), the fact that the intra-atomic potential energy change renders the total potential binding energy negative does not alter the fact that it is the kinetic delocalization energy that drives the bond formation.

  12. Covalent bonds are created by the drive of electron waves to lower their kinetic energy through expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Michael W; Ivanic, Joseph; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2014-05-28

    An analysis based on the variation principle shows that in the molecules H2 +, H2, B2, C2, N2, O2, F2, covalent bonding is driven by the attenuation of the kinetic energy that results from the delocalization of the electronic wave function. For molecular geometries around the equilibrium distance, two features of the wave function contribute to this delocalization: (i) Superposition of atomic orbitals extends the electronic wave function from one atom to two or more atoms; (ii) intra-atomic contraction of the atomic orbitals further increases the inter-atomic delocalization. The inter-atomic kinetic energy lowering that (perhaps counter-intuitively) is a consequence of the intra-atomic contractions drives these contractions (which per se would increase the energy). Since the contractions necessarily encompass both, the intra-atomic kinetic and potential energy changes (which add to a positive total), the fact that the intra-atomic potential energy change renders the total potential binding energy negative does not alter the fact that it is the kinetic delocalization energy that drives the bond formation.

  13. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Free Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings collate lectures given at the course on Free Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs (FELsand ERLs), organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held at the Hotel Scandic HamburgEmporio, Hamburg, Germany from 31 May to 10 June 2016, in collaboration with DESY. Following introductorylectures on radiation issues, the basic requirements on linear accelerators and ERLs are discussed. Undulators andthe process of seeding and lasing are then treated in some detail, followed by lectures on various beam dynamicsand controls issues.

  14. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system Vhutshilo Madzivhandilaa, Thokozani... temperature and the thermal efficiency of the plant. The 13th Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� 1. Introduction The IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) is one...

  15. Analysis of freeze protection methods for recuperators used in energy recovery from exhaust air

    OpenAIRE

    Pacak Anna; Jedlikowski Andrzej; Pandelidis Demis; Anisimov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    In this study theoretical analysis of the heat and mass transfer in counter-flow recuperators used for energy recovery in air handling units (AHU) under sub-zero outdoor air temperature operating conditions is presented. The most probable variants of year-round heat exchanger operation performance, which characterized by existence of three active heat and mass transfer zones (“dry”, “wet”, “frost”), and effect of the latent heat of water vapour condensation on the realization of these variant...

  16. Energy efficiency improvement of dryer section heat recovery systems in paper machines - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivill, Leena; Ahtila, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    Modern paper machines are equipped with heat recovery systems that transfer heat from the humid exhaust air of the paper machine's dryer section to different process streams. As a result of process changes, the heat recovery systems may operate in conditions far from the original design point, creating a significant potential for energy efficiency improvement. In this paper we demonstrate this potential with a case study of three operating paper machines. Both operational and structural improvement opportunities are examined. Since the existing retrofit methodologies for heat exchanger networks can not be applied to cases with condensing air, we use thermodynamic simulation models presented earlier to assess the effects of possible changes on the existing heat recovery systems. In order to reduce the required processing time of the simulation models, only a limited number of pre-screened retrofit designs are considered. The pre-screening is carried out on the basis of guidelines presented earlier. The analysis in the case mill revealed savings of 110 GWh/a in process heat with profitable investments. According to the follow-up study, the investments carried out have resulted in 12% lower fuel use and 24% lower CO 2 emissions. The results imply that all operating paper machines should be similarly examined.

  17. Suitability of Synthetic Driving Profiles from Traffic Micro-Simulation for Real-World Energy Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yunfei; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2015-10-14

    A shift towards increased levels of driving automation is generally expected to result in improved safety and traffic congestion outcomes. However, little empirical data exists to estimate the impact that automated driving could have on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In the absence of empirical data on differences between drive cycles from present day vehicles (primarily operated by humans) and future vehicles (partially or fully operated by computers) one approach is to model both situations over identical traffic conditions. Such an exercise requires traffic micro-simulation to not only accurately model vehicle operation under high levels of automation, but also (and potentially more challenging) vehicle operation under present day human drivers. This work seeks to quantify the ability of a commercial traffic micro-simulation program to accurately model real-world drive cycles in vehicles operated primarily by humans in terms of driving speed, acceleration, and simulated fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from models of freeway and arterial facilities near Atlanta, Georgia, are compared to empirical data collected from real-world drivers on the same facilities. Empirical and synthetic drive cycles are then simulated in a powertrain efficiency model to enable comparison on the basis of fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from traffic micro-simulation were found to exhibit low levels of transient behavior relative to the empirical data. Even with these differences, the synthetic and empirical data in this study agree well in terms of driving speed and simulated fuel economy. The differences in transient behavior between simulated and empirical data suggest that larger stochastic contributions in traffic micro-simulation (relative to those present in the traffic micro-simulation tool used in this study) are required to fully capture the arbitrary elements of human driving. Interestingly, the lack of stochastic contributions from models of human drivers

  18. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: preliminary feasibility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  20. Energy Balance and Performance Indices for Kraft Recovery Boilers; Standardmetod foer beraekning av energibalans oever sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders

    2007-09-15

    It has been recognized that different rules exist in calculating energy flows to and from a Recovery boiler. In this report definitions are given with the intention that the branch should adopt a common position in reporting power production for the Swedish system with charge on emission of nitrogen oxides, for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and for the electricity certificate system. Legislation and guidelines are described as also different standards for determination of boiler efficiency. The definition of the liquor heating value is discussed as also the different ways in which an energy balance could be set up. For the Emissions Trading Scheme a literature survey of interpretations made in other countries has been made. The recommendation is to define the heat input as the product of the virgin liquor flow and the net calorific value of virgin liquor. A net calorific value as defined in SS-ISO 1928 is determined in an environment with excess of oxygen and is consequently named net calorific value in oxidizing condition. In a Recovery boiler part of that heat is required for reduction of sulfur and a net calorific value in reducing condition are therefore defined in a branch specific way. The flow of liquor could be calculated using a heat balance based on steam generation. The envelope for that heat balance could be selected as to fit each individual installation; however some general recommendations are given. In reporting energy flow for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and to EPA it is recommended to use the net calorific value in oxidizing condition. This definition should also be good for reporting to Statistics Sweden, Swedish Forest Industries Federation and for internal use. For reporting to the electricity certificate system the part of the total power production with origin from biofuel should be stated. The heat of reduction is not available for power production and consequently the recommendation is to use the net calorific value in reducing

  1. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg −1 of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  2. Energy recovery by pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) in SWRO–PRO integrated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2015-11-11

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, it is projected that 25.6-40.7millionkWh/day of energy can be recovered globally, if the brines from SWRO are used as the draw solution and diluted to the seawater level in a PRO system. Detailed integrated SWRO-PRO processes are developed in this study with the option to form a closed-loop SWRO-PRO process that can substantially reduce the pretreatment cost of desalination. The governing mathematical models that describe both the transport phenomena on a module level and the energy flow on a system level are developed to evaluate the performances of the SWRO-PRO processes. The model aims to investigate the performance of the hollow fibers as dilution occurs and provides guidelines on hollow fiber module design and process operation. Determining the dilution factor and the corresponding operating pressure of PRO is the key to optimize the integrated process. The specific energy consumptions of three SWRO-involved processes; namely, (1) SWRO without a pressure exchanger, (2) SWRO with a pressure exchanger, and (3) SWRO with pressure exchangers and PRO are compared. The results show that the specific energy consumptions for the above three processes are 5.51, 1.79 and 1.08kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 25% recovery SWRO plant; and 4.13, 2.27 and 1.14kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 50% recovery SWRO plant, using either freshwater or wastewater as the feed solution in PRO.

  3. Minimizing temperature instability of heat recovery hot water system utilizing optimized thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suamir, I. N.; Sukadana, I. B. P.; Arsana, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    One energy-saving technology that starts gaining attractive for hotel industry application in Indonesia is the utilization of waste heat of a central air conditioning system to heat water for domestic hot water supply system. Implementing the technology for such application at a hotel was found that hot water capacity generated from the heat recovery system could satisfy domestic hot water demand of the hotel. The gas boilers installed in order to back up the system have never been used. The hot water supply, however, was found to be instable with hot water supply temperature fluctuated ranging from 45 °C to 62 °C. The temperature fluctuations reaches 17 °C, which is considered instable and can reduce hot water usage comfort level. This research is aimed to optimize the thermal energy storage in order to minimize the temperature instability of heat recovery hot water supply system. The research is a case study approach based on cooling and hot water demands of a hotel in Jakarta-Indonesia that has applied water cooled chillers with heat recovery systems. The hotel operation with 329 guest rooms and 8 function rooms showed that hot water production in the heat recovery system completed with 5 m3 thermal energy storage (TES) could not hold the hot water supply temperature constantly. The variations of the cooling demand and hot water demands day by day were identified. It was found that there was significant mismatched of available time (hours) between cooling demand which is directly correlated to the hot water production from the heat recovery system and hot water usage. The available TES system could not store heat rejected from the condenser of the chiller during cooling demand peak time between 14.00 and 18.00 hours. The extra heat from the heat recovery system consequently increases the temperature of hot water up to 62 °C. It is about 12 K above 50 °C the requirement hot water temperature of the hotel. In contrast, the TES could not deliver proper

  4. Anaerobic digestion and gasification hybrid system for potential energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zhiyi; Li, Wangliang; Kan, Xiang; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid growing interest in using biomass as an alternative source for clean and sustainable energy production. In this work, a hybrid system was developed to combine anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification for energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass. The feasibility of the proposed hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically and the energy efficiency was maximized by varying energy input in the drying process. The experiments were performed in two stages. At the first stage, AD of yard waste was conducted by mixing with anaerobic sludge. At the second stage, co-gasification was added as post-treatment for the AD residue for syngas production. The co-gasification experiments of AD residue and woody biomass were conducted at varying mixing ratios and varying moisture contents of AD residue. Optimal energy efficiency was found to be 70.8% at mixing ratio of 20 wt% AD residue with 30 wt% moisture content. Two kinetic models were then adapted for prediction of biogas produced in AD process and syngas produced in gasification process, respectively. Both experimental and numerical results showed that full utilization of biomass could be realized to produce energy through the combination of these two technologies. - Highlights: • The feasibility of the proposed two-stage hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically. • The proposed hybrid system could effectively improve the quality of produced gas. • The operating parameters were optimized to improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. • Drying process was found to play an important role in determining overall energy efficiency. • Optimal moisture content of AD residue was investigated for maximizing energy efficiency.

  5. Altered 5-HT2A Receptor Binding after Recovery from Bulimia-Type Anorexia Nervosa: Relationships to Harm Avoidance and Drive for Thinness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer, Ursula F; Price, Julie C; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Mathis, Chester A; Frank, Guido K; Weissfeld, Lisa; McConaha, Claire W; Henry, Shannan E; Brooks-Achenbach, Sarah; Barbarich, Nicole C; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that a disturbance of serotonin neuronal pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). This study applied positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the brain serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor, which could contribute to disturbances of appetite and behavior in AN and BN. To avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition, we studied 10 women recovered from bulimia-type AN (REC AN–BN, >1 year normal weight, regular menstrual cycles, no binging, or purging) compared with 16 healthy control women (CW) using PET imaging and a specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, [18F]altanserin. REC AN–BN women had significantly reduced [18F]altanserin binding potential relative to CW in the left subgenual cingulate, the left parietal cortex, and the right occipital cortex. [18F]altanserin binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance and negatively related to novelty seeking in cingulate and temporal regions only in REC AN–BN subjects. In addition, REC AN–BN had negative relationships between [18F]altanserin binding potential and drive for thinness in several cortical regions. In conclusion, this study extends research suggesting that altered 5-HT neuronal system activity persists after recovery from bulimia-type AN, particularly in subgenual cingulate regions. Altered 5-HT neurotransmission after recovery also supports the possibility that this may be a trait-related disturbance that contributes to the pathophysiology of eating disorders. It is possible that subgenual cingulate findings are not specific for AN–BN, but may be related to the high incidence of lifetime major depressive disorder diagnosis in these subjects. PMID:15054474

  6. Codes Don't Always Get Enforced, But Contracts Do: Changing the Procurement Paradigm to Drive Building Energy Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer G [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMillen, Adam [Seventhwave

    2016-08-26

    New construction could account for more than 25% of the U.S. energy consumption by 2030. Millions of square feet are built every year that will not perform as expected - despite advancing codes, rating systems, super-efficient technologies, and advanced utility programs. With retrofits of these under-performers decades away, savings potential will be lost for years to come. Only the building owner is in the driver's seat to demand - and verify - higher-performing buildings. Yet our current policy and market interventions really target the design team, not the owner. Accelerate Performance, a U.S. Department of Energy funded initiative, is changing the building procurement approach to drive deeper, verified savings in three pilot states: Illinois, Minnesota, and Connecticut. Performance-based procurement ties energy performance to design and contractor team compensation while freeing them to meet energy targets with strategies most familiar to them. The process teases out the creativity of the design and contracting teams to deliver energy performance - without driving up the construction cost. The paper will share early results and lessons learned from new procurement and contract approaches in government, public, and private sector building projects. The paper provides practical guidance for building owners, facilities managers, design, and contractor teams who wish to incorporate effective performance-based procurement for deeper energy savings in their buildings.

  7. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  8. Emittance growth caused by bends in the Los Alamos free-electron laser energy recovery experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experimentally transporting the beam from the wiggler to the decelerators in the energy recovery experiment (ERX) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory free-electron laser was more difficult than expected because of the large initial emittance in the beam. This emittance was apparently caused in an early 60 0 achromatic bend. To get this beam through subsequent bends without wall interception, the quadrupole focusing had to be changed from the design amount; as a result, the emittance grew further. This paper discusses various mechanisms for this emittance growth in the 60 0 bend, including effects caused by path changes in the bend resulting from wake-field-induced energy changes of particles in the beam and examines emittance filters, ranging from a simple aperture near a beam crossover to more complicated telescope schemes designed to regain the original emittance before the 60 0 bend

  9. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    of a Danish waste refinery solution against state-of-the-art waste technology alternatives (incineration, mechanical-biological treatment (MBT), and landfilling). In total, 252 scenarios were evaluated, including effects from source-segregation, waste composition, and energy conversion pathway efficiencies....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...... 15-40% compared with incineration), albeit at the potential expense of additional toxic emissions to soil. Society's need for the outputs from waste, i.e., energy products (electricity vs transport fuels) and resources (e.g., phosphorus), and the available waste composition were found decisive...

  10. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  11. Study of Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and grid power flow control Part B: boost converter with energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Rogelio, Garcia Retegui; Gustavo, Uicich; Mario, Benedetti; Gilles, Le Godec; Konstantinos, Papastergiou

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of a Transfer line (TT2) Consolidation Programme, a number of studies on Energy cycling have been commissioned. Part of this work involves the study of dierent power electronic system topologies for magnet energy recovery. In this report, the use of a boost front-end converter supplying DC link of a 4-quadrant magnet supply is analysed. The key objective of the study is to find control strategies that result in the control of the peak power required from the power network as well as to recover the magnet energy into capacitor banks with controlled voltage fluctuation. The study comprises the modelling of the system by means of the method of state averaging and the development of regulation strategies to energy management. The proposed control strategies can be divided in two groups: in the first group, the magnet current is used to define the reference for the control system, while in the second group this current is unknown and some strategies are devised to limit the power drawn from the el...

  12. Heat pipe heat exchanger and its potential to energy recovery in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Yat H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat recovery by the heat pipe heat exchangers was studied in the tropics. Heat pipe heat exchangers with two, four, six, and eight numbers of rows were examined for this purpose. The coil face velocity was set at 2 m/s and the temperature of return air was kept at 24°C in this study. The performance of the heat pipe heat exchangers was recorded during the one week of operation (168 hours to examine the performance data. Then, the collected data from the one week of operation were used to estimate the amount of energy recovered by the heat pipe heat exchangers annually. The effect of the inside design temperature and the coil face velocity on the energy recovery for a typical heat pipe heat exchanger was also investigated. In addition, heat pipe heat exchangers were simulated based on the effectiveness-NTU method, and their theoretical values for the thermal performance were compared with the experimental results.

  13. Material and energy recovery from Automotive Shredded Residues (ASR) via sequential gasification and combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, F; Consonni, S; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2010-01-01

    Shredding is the common end-of-life treatment in Europe for dismantled car wrecks. It produces the so-called Automotive Shredded Residue (ASR), usually disposed of in landfill. This paper summarizes the outcome of a study carried out by Politecnico di Milano and LEAP with the support of Actelios SpA on the prospects of a technology based on sequential gasification and combustion of this specific waste stream. Its application to the treatment of ASR allows the recovery of large fractions of metals as non-oxidized, easily marketable secondary raw materials, the vitrification of most of the ash content and the production of power via a steam cycle. Results show that despite the unfavourable characteristics of ASR, the proposed technology can reach appealing energy performances. Three of four environmental impact indicators and the cumulative energy demand index are favourable, the main positive contributes being electricity production and metal recovery (mainly aluminium and copper). The only unfavourable indicator is the global warming index because, since most of the carbon in ASR comes from fossil sources, the carbon dioxide emissions at the stack of the thermal treatment plant are mainly non-renewable and, at the same time, the avoided biogas production from the alternative disposal route of landfilling is minor.

  14. ThermoEnergy Ammonia Recovery Process for Municipal and Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Fassbender

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ammonia Recovery Process (ARP is an award-winning, low-cost, environmentally responsible method of recovering nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, from various dilute waste streams and converting it into concentrated ammonium sulfate. The ThermoEnergy Biogas System utilizes the new chemisorption-based ARP to recover ammonia from anaerobically digested wastes. The process provides for optimal biogas production and significantly reduced nitrogen levels in the treated water discharge. Process flows for the ammonia recovery and ThermoEnergy biogas processes are presented and discussed. A comparison with other techniques such as biological nitrogen removal is made. The ARP technology uses reversible chemisorption and double salt crystal precipitation to recover and concentrate the ammonia. The ARP technology was successfully proven in a recent large-scale field demonstration at New York City’s Oakwood Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant, located on Staten Island. This project was a joint effort with Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, the Civil Engineering Research Foundation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Independent validated plant data show that ARP consistently recovers up to 99.9% of the ammonia from the city’s centrate waste stream (derived from dewatering of sewage sludge, as ammonium sulfate. ARP technology can reduce the nitrogen (ammonia discharged daily into local bodies of water by municipalities, concentrated animal farming operations, and industry. Recent advances to ARP enhance its performance and economic competitiveness in comparison to stripping or ammonia destruction technologies.

  15. Analysis of freeze protection methods for recuperators used in energy recovery from exhaust air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacak Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study theoretical analysis of the heat and mass transfer in counter-flow recuperators used for energy recovery in air handling units (AHU under sub-zero outdoor air temperature operating conditions is presented. The most probable variants of year-round heat exchanger operation performance, which characterized by existence of three active heat and mass transfer zones (“dry”, “wet”, “frost”, and effect of the latent heat of water vapour condensation on the realization of these variants was determined. It was established, that the frost tends to take place with increasing temperature effectiveness of the heat exchanger. Two main techniques of the frost prevention (preheating and bypassing the outdoor airflow were described and analysed. The values of critical outdoor temperatures and outdoor-to-return airflow rate ratio were determined on the base of parametric frosting limits analysis conducted under different inlet return airflow conditions. The comparison of the heat recovery efficiency and additional energy consumption for the air treatment in the AHU is presented.

  16. Analysis of freeze protection methods for recuperators used in energy recovery from exhaust air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacak, Anna; Jedlikowski, Andrzej; Pandelidis, Demis; Anisimov, Sergey

    2017-11-01

    In this study theoretical analysis of the heat and mass transfer in counter-flow recuperators used for energy recovery in air handling units (AHU) under sub-zero outdoor air temperature operating conditions is presented. The most probable variants of year-round heat exchanger operation performance, which characterized by existence of three active heat and mass transfer zones ("dry", "wet", "frost"), and effect of the latent heat of water vapour condensation on the realization of these variants was determined. It was established, that the frost tends to take place with increasing temperature effectiveness of the heat exchanger. Two main techniques of the frost prevention (preheating and bypassing the outdoor airflow) were described and analysed. The values of critical outdoor temperatures and outdoor-to-return airflow rate ratio were determined on the base of parametric frosting limits analysis conducted under different inlet return airflow conditions. The comparison of the heat recovery efficiency and additional energy consumption for the air treatment in the AHU is presented.

  17. Techno-economic evaluation of a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery, electrical heater and solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Özyoğurtçu, Gamze; Mobedi, Moghtada; Özerdem, Barış

    2014-01-01

    The energy consumed to condition fresh air is considerable, particularly for the buildings such as cinema, theatre or gymnasium saloons. The aim of the present study is to design a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery unit, electrical heater and stored solar energy, then to make an economical analysis based on life cycle cost (LCC) to find out its payback period. The system is able to recover thermal energy of exhaust air, store solar energy during the sunlight period an...

  18. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike; Detwiler, Russell L; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  19. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors

  20. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors.

  1. Energy-efficient control of a multi-section supercapacitor power supply of an electric drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozzhechkov Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for synthesizing the control laws of a multi-section supercapacitor power supply of an electric drive is developed. The synthesized control law for an electric drive realizes the prescribed motion and minimizes the required capacitance of the power source. It is achieved through optimal disconnection and connection to the power line of the drive at designated times of one of the power supply sections. Reduction of the required capacitance of the power supply is achieved through a fuller discharge of some of its sections in motion conditions requiring a low level of electrical voltage and saving high voltage in other sections for the respective motion conditions. A mathematical formulation of the problem and a method of its solution is proposed. An example of the implementation of the proposed method is considered.

  2. Energy Efficient Control of High Speed IPMSM Drives - A Generalized PSO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GECIC, M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized particle swarm optimization (GPSO algorithm was applied to the problems of optimal control of high speed low cost interior permanent magnet motor (IPMSM drives. In order to minimize the total controllable electrical losses and to increase the efficiency, the optimum current vector references are calculated offline based on GPSO for the wide speed range and for different load conditions. The voltage and current limits of the drive system and the variation of stator inductances are all included in the optimization method. The stored optimal current vector references are used during the real time control and the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional high speed control algorithm, which is mostly voltage limit based. The computer simulations and experimental results on 1 kW low cost high speed IPMSM drive are discussed in details.

  3. Investigation of the LH wave energy conversion and current drive efficiency in the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.Y.; Wan, B.N.; Shi, Y.J.; Lin, S.Y.; Hu, L.Q.; Asif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) plasmas in the presence of DC electric filed have been investigated based on Karney-Fisch theory in the HT-7 tokamak. The relatively small scatter in the experimental data with various values of waveguide phasing and lower hybrid power, when plotted in the Karney-Fisch diagram, confirms that a reasonable theoretical interpretation is possible for the HT-7 data. The full non-inductively current drive efficiencies are obtained by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical curve. The efficiency strongly depends on the lower hybrid wave phase velocity

  4. Concurrent Phosphorus Recovery and Energy Generation in Mediator-Less Dual Chamber Microbial Fuel Cells: Mechanisms and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Almatouq

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanism and key factors influencing concurrent phosphorus (P recovery and energy generation in microbial fuel cells (MFC during wastewater treatment. Using a mediator-less dual chamber microbial fuel cell operated for 120 days; P was shown to precipitate as struvite when ammonium and magnesium chloride solutions were added to the cathode chamber. Monitoring data for chemical oxygen demand (COD, pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP and aeration flow rate showed that a maximum 38% P recovery was achieved; and this corresponds to 1.5 g/L, pH > 8, −550 ± 10 mV and 50 mL/min respectively, for COD, pHcathode, ORP and cathode aeration flow rate. More importantly, COD and aeration flow rate were shown to be the key influencing factors for the P recovery and energy generation. Results further show that the maximum P recovery corresponds to 72 mW/m2 power density. However, the energy generated at maximum P recovery was not the optimum; this shows that whilst P recovery and energy generation can be concurrently achieved in a microbial fuel cell, neither can be at the optimal value.

  5. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage : a Rayleigh-based method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HTATES systems applied in permeable

  6. National energy efficient driving system (NEEDS). Volume 1, Survey of requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-15

    This report provides a state-of-the-art summary of the means by which individual drivers can achieve more fuel-efficient vehicle operation. It identifies fuel-efficient driving behaviors, the means of influencing behavior, appropriate audiences for a...

  7. ER@CEBAF: A test of 5-pass energy recovery at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, S. A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Dubbe, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Michalski, T. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pilat, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Y. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Satogata, T. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Spata, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tiefenback, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Korysko, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Jefferson Lab personnel have broad expertise in the design, commissioning, and operation of multiple energy recovery linacs (ERLs): the CEBAF Front-End Test (early 1990s), CEBAF-ER (2003), the IR Free Electron Laser (FEL) Demo, the IR FEL Upgrade, and the UV FEL Driver (1997-2014). Continued development of this core competency has led to this collaborative proposal to explore the forefronts of ERL technology at high energy in a unique expansion of CEBAF capability to a 5-pass ERL with negligible switchover time and programmatic impact to the CEBAF physics program. Such a capability would enable world-class studies of open issues in high-energy ERL beam dynamics that are relevant to future facilities such as electron-ion colliders (EICs). This proposal requests support from the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee to seek funding for hardware installation, and a prospective 12 days of beam time circa Fall 2018 for commissioning this high-energy multi-pass ERL experiment in CEBAF.

  8. ER@CEBAF: A test of 5-pass energy recovery at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson Lab personnel have broad expertise in the design, commissioning, and operation of multiple energy recovery linacs (ERLs): the CEBAF Front-End Test (early 1990s), CEBAF-ER (2003), the IR Free Electron Laser (FEL) Demo, the IR FEL Upgrade, and the UV FEL Driver (1997-2014). Continued development of this core competency has led to this collaborative proposal to explore the forefronts of ERL technology at high energy in a unique expansion of CEBAF capability to a 5-pass ERL with negligible switchover time and programmatic impact to the CEBAF physics program. Such a capability would enable world-class studies of open issues in high-energy ERL beam dynamics that are relevant to future facilities such as electron-ion colliders (EICs). This proposal requests support from the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee to seek funding for hardware installation, and a prospective 12 days of beam time circa Fall 2018 for commissioning this high-energy multi-pass ERL experiment in CEBAF.

  9. Narrow-band photon beam via laser Compton scattering in an energy recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Akagi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Narrow-bandwidth photon beams in the x-ray and γ-ray energy ranges are expected to be applied in various fields. An energy recovery linac (ERL-based laser Compton scattering (LCS source employing a laser enhancement cavity can produce a high-flux and narrow-bandwidth photon beam. We conducted the first experiment of an ERL-based LCS source in combination with a laser enhancement cavity. We obtained LCS photons with an energy of 6.95±0.01  keV by colliding an electron beam of 20 MeV with a laser of 1064 nm wavelength. The photon flux at the interaction point was evaluated to be (2.6±0.1×10^{7}  photons/s with an average beam current of 58  μA and an average laser power of 10 kW. The energy bandwidth was evaluated to be 0.4% (rms with an opening angle of 0.14 mrad. The technologies demonstrated in this experiment are applicable for future ERL-based LCS sources.

  10. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  11. A comparison of the combined-use of alcohol & energy drinks to alcohol-only on high-risk drinking and driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Jacobson, Bert H; Williams, Ronald D; Barry, Adam E; Davidson, Robert T; Evans, Marion W; Beck, Niels C

    2015-01-01

    The combined-use of alcohol and energy drinks is an emerging public health issue. This investigation examined differences in drinking and driving behaviors among combined-users (CU) and participants who consumed alcohol-only (AO). This study was specifically designed to investigate potential differences in drinker's perceptions of (a) what it means to them to drive over the .08 Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) driving limit and (b) what it means to drive after knowing they have had too much to drink to drive safely. College students (N = 355) were surveyed to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between the AO (n = 174) and CU (n = 107) groups. CU were more likely than AO to drive over the .08 BAC driving limit (53% vs. 38%; p = .009) and after knowing they were too drunk to drive (57% vs. 44%; p = .025). CU were also more likely (56% vs. 35%; p = .000) to ride with an intoxicated driver while knowing it was unsafe. Conclusions/Importance: Combined-users are more likely to drive after drinking, drive while knowingly drunk, and participate in other high-risk behaviors such as heavy drinking that increase the potential for injury. Public policy makers and health professionals should focus prevention efforts to reduce high-risk combined-use behavior.

  12. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries. Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto - via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies. (author)

  13. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Mario, E-mail: m.coccia@ceris.cnr.i [National Research Council of Italy, CERIS-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firm and Growth, Collegio Carlo Alberto-via Real Collegio, n. 30, 10024 Moncalieri (Torino) (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  14. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  15. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

  16. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management

  17. A linear programming approach for the optimal planning of a future energy system. Potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal solid wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George; Koroneos, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the mismatch between the energy supply levels and the end use, in a broader sense, was studied for the Hellenic energy system. The ultimate objective was to optimize the way to meet the country's energy needs in every different administrative and geographical region using...... renewable energy sources (RES) and at the same time to define the remaining available space for energy recovery units from municipal solid waste (MSW) in each region to participate in the energy system. Based on the results of the different scenarios examined for meeting the electricity needs using linear...... programming and by using the exergoeconomic analysis the penetration grade was found for the proposed energy recovery units from MSWs in each region....

  18. Direct Energy Recovery from Primary and Secondary Sludges by Supercritical Water Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svanstroem, Magdalena; Modell, Michael; Tester, Jefferson

    2003-07-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) oxidizes organic and biological materials virtually completely to benign products without the need for stack gas scrubbing. Heavy metals are recovered as stabilized solid, along with the sand and clay that is present in the feed. The technology has been under development for twenty years. The major obstacle to commercialization has been developing reactors that are not clogged by inorganic solid deposits. That problem has been solved by using tubular reactors with fluid velocities that are high enough to keep solids in suspension. Recently, system designs have been created that reduce the cost of processing sewage sludges below that of incineration. At 10 wt-% dry solids, sludge can be oxidized with virtually complete recovery of the sludge heating value as hot water or high-pressure steam. Liquid carbon dioxide of high purity can be recovered from the gaseous effluent and excess oxygen can be recovered for recycle. The net effect is to reduce the stack to a harmless vent with minimal flow rate of a clean gas. Complete simulations have been developed using physical property models that accurately simulate the thermodynamic properties of sub- and supercritical water in mixtures with O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}. and organics. Capital and operating cost estimates are given for sewage sludge treatment, which are less costly than incineration. The scenario of direct recovery of energy from sludges has inherent benefits compared to other gasification or liquefaction options. (author)

  19. Energy Recovery Hydropower: Prospects for Off-Setting Electricity Costs for Agricultural, Municipal, and Industrial Water Providers and Users; July 2017 - September 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy; Telluride, CO (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Energy recovery hydropower is one of the most cost-effective types of new hydropower development because it is constructed utilizing existing infrastructure, and it is typically able to complete Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) review in 60 days. Recent changes in federal and state policy have supported energy recovery hydropower. In addition, some states have developed programs and policies to support energy recovery hydropower, including resource assessments, regulatory streamlining initiatives, and grant and loan programs to reduce project development costs. This report examines current federal and state policy drivers for energy recovery hydropower, reviews market trends, and looks ahead at future federal resource assessments and hydropower reform legislation.

  20. What drives the change in China's energy intensity: Combining decomposition analysis and econometric analysis at the provincial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Feng; Zheng, Xinye

    2012-01-01

    We employ decomposition analysis and econometric analysis to investigate the driving forces behind China's changing energy intensity using a provincial-level panel data set for the period from 1995 to 2009. The decomposition analysis indicates that: (a) all of the provinces except for a few experienced efficiency improvement, while around three-fourths of the provinces' economics became more energy intensive or remained unchanged; (b) consequently the efficiency improvement accounts for more than 90% of China's energy intensity change as opposed to the economic structural change. The econometric analysis shows that the rising income plays a significant role in the reduction of energy intensity while the effect of energy price is relatively limited. The result may reflect the urgency of deregulating the price and establishing a market-oriented pricing system in China's energy sector. The implementation of the energy intensity reduction policies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (FYP) has helped reverse the increasing trend of energy intensity since 2002. Although the Chinese Government intended to change the industry-led economic growth pattern, it seems that most of the policy effects flow through the efficiency improvement as opposed to the economic structure adjustment. More fundamental changes to the economic structure are needed to achieve more sustainable progress in energy intensity reduction. - Highlights: ► We examine the determinants of China's energy intensity change at provincial level. ► Rising income plays a significant role in reducing China's energy intensity. ► Policy effects mainly flow through the efficiency improvement. ► Fundamental structure changes are needed to further reduce China's energy intensity.

  1. PROCEEDING OF WORKSHOP ON PHOTO-INJECTOR FOR ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG,X.J.

    2001-01-22

    Workshop on Photo-injectors for Energy Recovery Linac was held at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on January 22 and 23, 2001. Fifty people attended the workshop; they came from three countries, representing universities, industries and national laboratories. This is the first workshop ever held on photo-injectors for CW operation, and for the first time, both DC and RF photo-injectors were discussed at the workshop. Workshop covered almost all major issues of photo-injectors, photocathode, laser system, vacuum, DC, 433 MHz/B-factory cavities based RF gun, 1.3 GHz RF gun and beam instrumentation. High quantum efficiency and long live time photocathode is the issue discussed during the workshop. Four working group leaders have done great jobs summarizing the workshop discussion, and identifying the major issues for future R and D.

  2. A CW normal-conductive RF gun for free electron laser and energy recovery linac applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptiste, Kenneth; Corlett, John; Kwiatkowski, Slawomir; Lidia, Steven; Qiang, Ji; Sannibale, Fernando; Sonnad, Kiran; Staples, John; Virostek, Steven; Wells, Russell

    2008-10-08

    Currently proposed energy recovery linac and high average power free electron laser projects require electron beam sources that can generate up to {approx} 1 nC bunch charges with less than 1 mmmrad normalized emittance at high repetition rates (greater than {approx} 1 MHz). Proposed sources are based around either high voltage DC or microwave RF guns, each with its particular set of technological limits and system complications. We propose an approach for a gun fully based on mature RF and mechanical technology that greatly diminishes many of such complications. The concepts for such a source as well as the present RF and mechanical design are described. Simulations that demonstrate the beam quality preservation and transport capability of an injector scheme based on such a gun are also presented.

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation on frosting of energy-recovery ventilator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Stephane; Mercadier, Yves; Brousseau, Patrick

    Frosting of energy-recovery ventilators results in two major problems: increase of pressure losses and reduction of heat transfer rates. Frost formation of heat and mass exchangers used in these ventilation systems is investigated both experimentally and numerically. A numerical model for the prediction of the thermal behavior of the exchanger is presented. The model is validated with experimental data and is then employed to conduct a parametric study. Results indicate that the absolute humidity is the prevailing parameter for characterizing the frosting phenomenon. A frost-mass-fraction chart is established in terms of the absolute humidity of the warm exhaust stream and of the temperature of the cold supply stream. The effect of time and mass flowrate is also evaluated. The transient three-dimensional model shows that the absolute humidity and the temperature of both air flows vary nonlinearly in the frosted zone.

  4. Modeling and Simulation of Membrane-Based Dehumidification and Energy Recovery Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Qu, Ming [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a first-order physics-based model that accounts for the fundamental heat and mass transfer between a humid-air vapor stream on feed side to another flow stream on permeate side. The model comprises a few optional submodels for membrane mass transport; and it adopts a segment-by-segment method for discretizing heat and mass transfer governing equations for flow streams on feed and permeate sides. The model is able to simulate both dehumidifiers and energy recovery ventilators in parallel-flow, cross-flow, and counter-flow configurations. The predicted tresults are compared reasonably well with the measurements. The open-source codes are written in C++. The model and open-source codes are expected to become a fundament tool for the analysis of membrane-based dehumidification in the future.

  5. 4GLS and the Energy Recovery Linac Prototype Project at Daresbury Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Seddon, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    4GLS is a novel next generation proposal for a UK national light source to be sited at Daresbury Laboratory. It is based on a superconducting energy recovery linac (ERL) with capabilities for both high average current spontaneous photon sources (undulators and bending magnets) and high peak current free electron lasers. Key features of the proposal are a high gain, seeded FEL amplifier to generate XUV radiation and the prospect of advanced dynamics work arising from its unique combinations of sources and its femtosecond pulse structure. To meet the challenging accelerator technology involved, a significant R&D programme has commenced and a major part of this is a 35 MeV demonstrator, the ERL Prototype (ERLP), currently under construction. This paper summarises the 4GLS design activities, describes the ERLP in detail and explains the 4GLS project status and plans.

  6. Nutrient recovery and energy efficient algal harvest from anaerobic digestor wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of generation of wastewaters which are nutrient rich pose serious issues where conventional biological and chemical methods of treatment have failed in meeting sustainability challenges. In this study naturally occurring mixed algal species reared in mixotrophic growth modes have been deployed to remove recalcitrant organics and recover high nutrient concentrations (N and P from anaerobic digestor wastewater at short residence times of 6-7 days. Results from pilot scale operation show that the cultivation methods adopted and the use of naturally selected species lead to a tendency among these species to clump at certain stages of growth that in turn float or settle rapidly making algal harvest and thereby the nutrient recovery processes energy efficient. Algal biomass productivity in the liquid from anaerobic digestor of the consortia varied with season with a maximum of 6.3 g/m2/d.

  7. CAS on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs in Hamburg

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and DESY held a jointly-organised specialised course on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs (FELs and ERLs) in Hamburg, Germany, from 31 May to 10 June 2016.      The course was held in the Hotel Scandic Emporio in Hamburg and was attended by 68 participants of 13 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as China, Iran and Japan. The intensive programme comprised 44 lectures and one seminar. Following introductory lectures on electromagnetism, relativity and synchrotron radiation issues, the basic requirements of linacs and ERLs were discussed. Detailed lectures on the theory of FEL science followed. Undulators and the process of lasing and seeding were covered in some detail along with lectures on various beam dynamics and beam control issues. Case studies, for which seven hours were allocated, completed the academic programme. For these, the students were divided into small groups and tasked with completing the basic desig...

  8. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  9. Improvement of bioelectrochemical property and energy recovery by acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenzong; Cai, Weiwei; Ma, Anzhou; Ren, Ge; Li, Zhiling; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Wang, Aijie

    2015-06-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) has been extensively studied as a cell-cell communication system, where small chemical signal molecules (acylhomoserine lactones, AHLs) can regulate the bacterial communications in bioelectrochemical systems via chemical signaling and electric signaling. In this study, electrochemical activity of bio-anode is substantially promoted by adding two kinds of AHLs with different chain length at the stage of community formation in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Hydrogen yield increase is observed by adding of two chain length AHLs, 3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6-HSL) and 3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC12-HSL). A higher MEC current is acquired with addition of 3OC6-HSL than 3OC12-HSL at a fixed voltage of 0.8 V (vs. SHE). The highest yield is up to 3.8 ± 0.2 mol H2 mol-1 acetate at 10 μM 3OC6-HSL, which is increased 29% over control MECs. Evaluated on applied voltage, energy efficiency is increased to 171.6 ± 21.3% with short chain AHL, however, no significant improvement is performed on energy efficiency and coulombic efficiency with long-chain AHL. The study shows that bioelectrochemical characteristics of MECs varied on the chain length of AHL signal molecules and short-chain AHLs have a more positive effect on electron transfer and energy recovery in MECs.

  10. Does Renewable Energy Drive Sustainable Economic Growth? Multivariate Panel Data Evidence for EU-28 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ştefan Armeanu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy is crucial to economic progress, but the contemporary worldwide population increase that demands greater energy generated from conventional exhaustible resources, an energy price upsurge, and environmental concerns, imperils sustainable economic growth. Nevertheless, switching to renewable energy produced from naturally replenished resources promotes energy security, likewise addressing issues such as global warming and climate change. This paper aims at exploring the influence and causal relation between renewable energy, both overall and by type, and sustainable economic growth of European Union (EU-28 countries for the period of 2003–2014. We notice that the mean share of renewable energy in the gross final energy consumption is 15%, while the mean share of renewable energy in transport fuel consumption is 3%, which are below the thresholds of 20% and 10%, respectively, as set by the EU Directive 2009/28/EC. By estimating panel data fixed-effects regression models, the results provide support for a positive influence of renewable energy overall, as well as by type, namely biomass, hydropower, geothermal energy, wind power, and solar energy on gross domestic product per capita. However, biomass energy shows the highest influence on economic growth among the rest of renewable energy types. In fact, a 1% increase of the primary production of solid biofuels increases GDP per capita by 0.16%. Besides, cointegrating regressions set on panel fully modified and dynamic ordinary least squares regressions confirm the positive influence related to the primary production of renewable energies on economic growth. A 1% increase in primary production of renewable energies increases GDP per capita by 0.05%–0.06%. However, the results of Granger causality based on panel vector error correction model indicate both in short-run and long-run a unidirectional causal relationship running from sustainable economic growth to the primary production of

  11. Cities as development drivers: from waste problems to energy recovery and climate change mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Björn H; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aage; Lehmann, Martin

    2011-10-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The 'urban order' may form a platform for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden. It is shown that the cities have the potential to significantly contribute to a more sustainable development through increased material recycling and energy recovery. Waste prevention may increase this potential. For example, instead of constituting 3% of the total greenhouse gas emission problem, it seems possible for modern European cities to contribute to greenhouse gas emission reduction by 15% through up to date technology and integrated waste management systems for material and energy recovery. Going from being part of the problem to providing solutions; however, is not an easy endeavour. It requires political will and leadership, supportive regulatory frameworks, realistic timetables/roadmaps, and a diverse set of stakeholders that can provide the right creative and innovative mix to make it possible.

  12. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment for different wastewaters requires new approaches to quantify performance, and the establishment of specific procedures and parameters to characterize the outcome of fed-batch treatability tests. It is shown here that Coulombic efficiency can be used to directly calculate energy consumption relative to wastewater treatment in terms of COD removal, and that the average current, not maximum current, is a better metric to evaluate the rate of the bioelectrochemical reactions. The utility of these methods was demonstrated using simulated current profiles and actual wastewater tests. Industrial and domestic wastewaters were evaluated using small volume MECs, and different inoculation strategies. The energy needed for treatment was 2.17kWhkgCOD-1 for industrial wastewater and 2.59kWhkgCOD-1 for domestic wastewater. When these wastewaters were combined in equal amounts, the energy required was reduced to 0.63kWhkgCOD-1. Acclimation of the MEC to domestic wastewater, prior to tests with industrial wastewaters, was the easiest and most direct method to optimize MEC performance for industrial wastewater treatment. A pre-acclimated MEC accomplished the same removal (1847 ± 53 mg L-1) as reactor acclimated to only the industrial wastewater (1839 ± 57 mg L-1), but treatment was achieved in significantly less time (70 h versus 238 h). © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energy Taxis Drives Campylobacter jejuni toward the Most Favorable Conditions for Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, C.S.; Brondsted, L.; Li, Yiping

    2009-01-01

    an attractant's potency and its efficiency as an energy source. The tactic attraction was inhibited by the respiratory inhibitors HQNO (2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide) and sodium azide, which significantly reduce energy production by oxidative phosphorylation. These findings strongly indicate that energy...

  14. What Drives Saline Circulation Cells in Coastal Aquifers? An Energy Balance for Density-Driven Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C. F.; Michael, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We formulate the energy balance for coastal groundwater systems and apply it to: (1) Explain the energy driving offshore saline circulation cells, and; (2) Assess the accuracy of numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems. The flow of fresh groundwater to the ocean is driven by the loss of potential energy as groundwater drops from the elevation of the inland watertable, where recharge occurs, to discharge at sea level. This freshwater flow creates an underlying circulation cell of seawater, drawn into coastal aquifers offshore and discharging near shore, that adds to total submarine groundwater discharge. The saline water in the circulation cell enters and exits the aquifer through the sea floor at the same hydraulic potential. Existing theory explains that the saline circulation cell is driven by mixing of fresh and saline without any additional source of potential or mechanical power. This explanation raises a basic thermodynamic question: what is the source of energy that drives the saline circulation cell? Here, we resolve this question by building upon Hubbert's conception of hydraulic potential to formulate an energy balance for density-dependent flow and salt transport through an aquifer. We show that, because local energy dissipation within the aquifer is proportional to the square of the groundwater velocity, more groundwater flow may be driven through an aquifer for a given energy input if local variations in velocity are smoothed. Our numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems show that dispersion of salt across the fresh-saline interface spreads flow over larger volumes of the aquifer, smoothing the velocity field, and increasing total flow and submarine groundwater discharge without consuming more power. The energy balance also provides a criterion, in addition to conventional mass balances, for judging the accuracy of numerical solutions of non-linear density-dependent flow problems. Our results show that some numerical

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of a novel multigeneration energy system based on heat recovery from a biomass CHP cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, Reza; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    A multigeneration energy system with one fuel intake (sawdust biomass fuel) and five useful outputs is proposed and energy and exergy analyses are carried out to assess its performance. Instead of using a simple heat exchanger to satisfy district heating needs, applying a deaerator is found to result in 10% more hot water mass flow rate for the same conditions. The energy and exergy efficiencies of the multigeneration system are found to be around 60% and 25%, respectively, while the corresponding energy and exergy efficiencies of a biomass system with only electricity generation are 11% and 13%, respectively. When investigating the effect of adding various product outputs to biomass power generation, steam generation and then domestic hot water production are found to have the greatest enhancing effects on the system efficiencies. Heat recovery from exhaust gases for district heating and wood drying is found to enhance the energy efficiency more than the exergy efficiency. Also, due to the size of the heat recovery system, which is smaller than the biomass CHP cycle, district heating and drying cannot increase the energy and exergy efficiencies of the primary system like steam generation. A parametric study shows that the biomass fuel input rate affects significantly the district heating heat load and the electricity generation rate, in a linear manner. However, increasing the biomass input rate has no effect on the CHP system energy and exergy efficiencies, while increasing the exergy efficiency of the entire system and decreasing its corresponding energy efficiency slightly. Of the several heat recovery options from exhaust gases, electricity generation and wood drying result in the highest exergy efficiency while district heating and drying lead to highest energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Novel heat recovery based energy system is proposed. • There is one energy input while system has 5 useful outputs. • Combustion excess air increases district heating

  16. What drives energy consumption in developing countries? The experience of selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, Yaya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the drivers of energy consumption in Sub-Saharan African countries. It applies the bounds testing approach to cointegration to time series data at individual country levels over the period from 1970 to 2011. The study finds that energy consumption is cointegrated with real GDP per capita, industrial output, imports, foreign direct investment, credit to private sector, urbanization and population. Furthermore, the sign and magnitude of long-run estimates vary significantly for a single country and across countries depending on the energy consumption variable used. Overall, the findings confirm the leading role of economic growth, industrial output, population and urbanization. Economic growth, industrial output and population have positive effects on energy consumption in the majority of countries. Given the urgent need to address climate change, African countries should adopt policies to improve energy efficiency and accelerate transition toward renewable energy. The African Renewable Energy Initiative launched at the 21st session of the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) is an opportunity for African countries to provide and maintain widespread access to reliable and affordable environmentally cleaner energy to meet the requirements of rapid economic growth and improved living standards. - Highlights: •Key drivers of energy use in 12 African countries are examined. •Economic growth, industrial GDP, population and urbanization play a leading role in explaining energy use. •Urbanization has a positive effect on energy use in six countries and a negative effect in four countries. •The results obtained have useful policy implications.

  17. Next generation of CO2 enhanced water recovery with subsurface energy storage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Kühn, Michael; Ma, Jianli; Niu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage (CCUS) is very popular in comparison with traditional CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in China. In particular, CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers with enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR) [1] is gaining more and more attention as a cleaner production technology. The CO2-EWR was written into the "U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change" released November 11, 2014. "Both sides will work to manage climate change by demonstrating a new frontier for CO2 use through a carbon capture, use, and sequestration (CCUS) project that will capture and store CO2 while producing fresh water, thus demonstrating power generation as a net producer of water instead of a water consumer. This CCUS project with enhanced water recovery will eventually inject about 1.0 million tonnes of CO2 and create approximately 1.4 million cubic meters of freshwater per year." In this article, at first we reviewed the history of the CO2-EWR and addressed its current status in China. Then, we put forth a new generation of the CO2-EWR with emphasizing the collaborative solutions between carbon emission reductions and subsurface energy storage or renewable energy cycle [2]. Furthermore, we figured out the key challenging problems such as water-CCUS nexus when integrating the CO2-EWR with the coal chemical industry in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China [3-5]. Finally, we addressed some crucial problems and strategic consideration of the CO2-EWR in China with focuses on its technical bottleneck, relative advantage, early opportunities, environmental synergies and other related issues. This research is not only very useful for the current development of CCUS in the relative "cold season" but also beneficial for the energy security and clean production in China. [1] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Liu G, Shi H (2015) CO2-EWR: a cleaner solution for coal chemical industry in China. Journal of Cleaner Production 103:330-337. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.073 [2] Streibel M

  18. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining; remote communities lacking

  19. Batch pervaporative fermentation with coupled membrane and its influence on energy consumption in permeate recovery and distillation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Juan A.; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2016-01-01

    In the ethanol production process from sugarcane molasses, the distillation process is a high-energy demand stage. The distillation energy efficiency is strongly associated with the alcoholic fermentation performance in the process. The final ethanol concentration in the alcoholic wines has a direct impact on consumption of thermal energy in ethanol separation. In this paper, ethanol production with a H-SBMF (Hybrid-Simple Batch Membrane Fermenter) using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) pervaporation membrane was modelled and simulated, in order to determine its influence on energy consumption in distillation. Steam in distillation and electrical energy needs in permeate recovery were mainly influenced by membrane adaptation. The H-SBMF achieved a higher ethanol production in the range of 10–13% compared to the conventional batch fermenter, and an increase in productivity of 150%. The distillation system consisted of two sets of columns: the ethanol recovery column and the rectification column. The permeate recovery system (i.e. vacuum and compression) was regarded in order to evaluate the electrical energy requirement, and the thermal energy demand was evaluated. A decrease in steam consumption was evidenced by the adaptation of the membrane to the fermenter. Higher energy efficiencies were achieved in distillation with larger membrane areas, achieving almost 17% steam reduction. - Highlights: • Higher and faster ethanol productions were achieved by fermenter hybridization. • Multi-stage permeate compression and inter-stage heat recovery were assumed. • Energy demand was studied based on an integrated fermentation and distillation scheme. • High-energy efficiency was attained in the distillation to produce hydrated alcohol.

  20. Long-tail shaft drive for energy-efficient boats. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastrup, H.

    1981-02-01

    A long-tail shaft drive utilized in a propulsion system for small boats is described. The objectives of the grant are discussed. The performance of the long-tail shaft indicates a savings of approximately 50% of the fuel used by the conventional outboard motor with comparable horsepower. A summary of actions taken in regard to the reversible pitch propeller, propeller shrouds, and the tail shaft are presented. Eight test procedures are briefly outlined. Information on materials and manufacturing was sought and applied to the experimental work. Patent, manufacturing, and marketing considerations are noted. Conclusions and recommendations are summarized. (MCW)

  1. Using an energy management strategy to drive improved business results and improve manufacturing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, Marc

    2010-09-15

    Energy typically represents the single largest controllable cost in manufacturing, and is under constant scrutiny by all levels of management. In this paper we will examine the role and components of an energy management strategy, and focus on the benefits of looking at the strategy from a business perspective. We will then examine the role that an effective program, either existing or new, can play in a collaborative manufacturing environment, and how these improvements can reduce energy requirements while maintaining, or improving productivity.

  2. Introduction: corporate restructuring of the global energy industry, driving forces and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, M.

    2000-01-01

    The introductory note briefly summarizes the major aspects discussed in the following individual contributions to this issue of the International Journal of Global Energy Issues which comprises the proceedings of the 1999 SNS Energy Day. The main theme is the dramatic changes in the corporate structure of the energy industries worldwide, i.e the liberalization of investment flows and international trade in the energy sector, the explosive development of information technology, providing novel market opportunities, and the novel structures that have emerged since the deregulation of power industries. (orig./CB)

  3. Compact compressive arc and beam switchyard for energy recovery linac-driven ultraviolet free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, J. A. G.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Setija, I. D.

    2017-08-01

    High gain free electron lasers (FELs) driven by high repetition rate recirculating accelerators have received considerable attention in the scientific and industrial communities in recent years. Cost-performance optimization of such facilities encourages limiting machine size and complexity, and a compact machine can be realized by combining bending and bunch length compression during the last stage of recirculation, just before lasing. The impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on electron beam quality during compression can, however, limit FEL output power. When methods to counteract CSR are implemented, appropriate beam diagnostics become critical to ensure that the target beam parameters are met before lasing, as well as to guarantee reliable, predictable performance and rapid machine setup and recovery. This article describes a beam line for bunch compression and recirculation, and beam switchyard accessing a diagnostic line for EUV lasing at 1 GeV beam energy. The footprint is modest, with 12 m compressive arc diameter and ˜20 m diagnostic line length. The design limits beam quality degradation due to CSR both in the compressor and in the switchyard. Advantages and drawbacks of two switchyard lines providing, respectively, off-line and on-line measurements are discussed. The entire design is scalable to different beam energies and charges.

  4. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness: Lake County study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    A brief summary is given of the results of a previously reported study designed to evaluate the costs and viability of combined thermodynamic and biologic cycles in a system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness (TERSA). This conceptual system involved the combined geothermally assisted activities of greenhouse crop and mushroom growing, fish farming, and biogas generation in an integrated biologic system such that the waste or by-products of each subsystem cycle were recovered to service input needs of companion cycles. An updated direct use geothermal system based on TERSA that is viable for implementation in Lake County is presented. Particular consideration is given to: location of geothermal resources, availability of land and irrigation quality water, compatibility of the specific direct use geothermal activities with adjacent and local uses. Private interest and opposition, and institutional factors as identified. Factors relevant to local TERSA implementation are discussed, followed by sites considered, selection criteria, site slection, and the modified system resulting. Particular attention is paid to attempt to make clear the process followed in applying this conceptual design to the specific task of realistic local implementation. Previous publications on geothermal energy and Lake County are referenced where specific details outside the scope of this study may be found. (JGB)

  6. Evaluation of two different alternatives of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Jimenez, Ana Carolina; Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios Bereche, Milagros Cecilia; Bereche, Reynaldo Palacios; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-11-01

    Brazil has a large population with a high waste generation. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generated is deposited mainly in landfills. However, a considerable fraction of the waste is still improperly disposed of in dumpsters. In order to overcome this inadequate deposition, it is necessary to seek alternative routes. Between these alternatives, it is possible to quote gasification and incineration. The objective of this study is to compare, from an energetic and economic point of view, these technologies, aiming at their possible implementation in Brazilian cities. A total of two configurations were evaluated: (i) waste incineration with energy recovery and electricity production in a steam cycle; and (ii) waste gasification, where the syngas produced is used as fuel in a boiler of a steam cycle for electricity production. Simulations were performed assuming the same amount of available waste for both configurations, with a composition corresponding to the MSW from Santo André, Brazil. The thermal efficiencies of the gasification and incineration configurations were 19.3% and 25.1%, respectively. The difference in the efficiencies was caused by the irreversibilities associated with the gasification process, and the additional electricity consumption in the waste treatment step. The economic analysis presented a cost of electrical energy produced of 0.113 (US$ kWh -1 ) and 0.139 (US$ kWh -1 ) for the incineration and gasification plants respectively.

  7. Design and Experimental Analysis of an Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fazlizan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT was positioned at the discharge outlet of a cooling tower electricity generator. To avoid a negative impact on the performance of the cooling tower and to optimize the turbine performance, the determination of the VAWT position in the discharge wind stream was conducted by experiment. The preferable VAWT position is where the higher wind velocity matches the positive torque area of the turbine rotation. With the proper matching among the VAWT configurations (blade number, airfoil type, operating tip-speed-ratio, etc. and exhaust air profile, the turbine system was not only able to recover the wasted kinetic energy, it also reduced the fan motor power consumption by 4.5% and increased the cooling tower intake air flow-rate by 11%. The VAWT had a free running rotational speed of 479 rpm, power coefficient of 10.6%, and tip-speed-ratio of 1.88. The double multiple stream tube theory was used to explain the VAWT behavior in the non-uniform wind stream. For the actual size of a cooling tower with a 2.4 m outlet diameter and powered by a 7.5 kW fan motor, it was estimated that a system with two VAWTs (side-by-side can generate 1 kW of power which is equivalent to 13% of energy recovery.

  8. New halo formation mechanism at the KEK compact energy recovery linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Olga; Nakamura, Norio; Shimada, Miho; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Ueda, Akira; Obina, Takashi; Takai, Ryota

    2018-02-01

    The beam halo mitigation is a very important challenge for reliable and safe operation of a high-energy machine. A systematic beam halo study was conducted at the KEK compact energy recovery linac (cERL) since non-negligible beam loss was observed in the recirculation loop during a common operation. We found that the beam loss can be avoided by making use of the collimation system. Beam halo measurements have demonstrated the presence of vertical beam halos at multiple locations in the beam line (except the region near the electron gun). Based on these observations, we made a conjecture that the transverse beam halo is attributed to the longitudinal bunch tail arising at the photocathode. The transfer of particles from the longitudinal space to a transverse halo may have been observed and studied in other machines, considering nonlinear effects as their causes. However, our study demonstrates a new unique halo formation mechanism, in which a transverse beam halo can be generated by a longitudinal bunch tail due to transverse rf kicks from the accelerating (monopole) fields of the radio-frequency cavities. This halo formation occurs when nonrelativistic particles enter the cavities with a transverse offset, even if neither nonlinear optics nor nonlinear beam effects are present. A careful realignment of the injector system will mitigate the present halo. Another possible cure is to reduce the bunch tails by changing the photocathode material from the present GaAs to a multi-alkali that is known to have a shorter longitudinal tail.

  9. Energy optimized sliding-mode control of sensorless induction motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajian, M.; Soltani, J.; Hoseinnia, S. [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Isfahan (Iran); Arab Markadeh, G.R. [Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Shahrekord, Shahrekord (Iran)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper a sensorless sliding-mode (SM) direct torque and flux control is described for three-phase induction motor (IM) drive. The IM drive is supplied with a two level space vector modulation (SVM) voltage source inverter. A conventional PI speed controller is employed to generate the desired torque command in the case of speed control. Stator and rotor flux vectors are estimated using a sliding-mode observer and are employed in rotor speed estimation. Moreover, the IM model includes the iron losses through a speed dependent shunt resistance in the motor two axis equivalent circuits. Motor efficiency is also optimized by adjusting the magnitude of the stator flux reference for each value of motor load and speed. For this purpose, an on-line search method (OSM) is adopted. According to this method, for each given value of load torque and rotor speed, the stator flux reference is adjusted so that the average of real input power becomes minimized. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the capability and validity of the proposed control scheme. (author)

  10. Environmental evaluation of the electric and cogenerative configurations for the energy recovery of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Deborah; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Given the desirability of reducing fossil fuel consumption, together with the increasing production of combustible solid wastes, there is clearly a need for waste treatment systems that achieve both volume reduction and energy recovery. Direct incineration method is one such system. The aim of this work was to analyze the municipal solid waste incineration plant currently under construction in the province of Turin (Piedmont, North Italy), especially the potential for energy recovery, and the consequent environmental effects. We analyzed two kinds of energy recovery: electric energy (electrical configuration) only, and both electric and thermal energy (cogenerative configuration), in this case with a different connection hypothesis to the district heating network. After we had evaluated the potential of the incinerator and considered local demographic, energy and urban planning effects, we assumed different possible connections to the district heating network. We computed the local and global environmental balances based on the characteristics of the flue gas emitted from the stack, taking into consideration the emissions avoided by the substituted sources. The global-scale results provided relevant information on the carbon dioxide emissions parameter. The results on the local scale were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model (Aermod) that allows evaluation of the actual concentration of the pollutants released into the atmosphere. The main results obtained highlight the high energy efficiency of the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize the environmental impact by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Added sugars drive nutrient and energy deficit in obesity: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Berger, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has traditionally been thought of as a state of caloric imbalance, where the intake of calories exceeds the expenditure or 'burning' of calories. However, a more nuanced appreciation for the complex biochemistry and physiology of cellular energy generation suggests that obesity is a state of hormonal imbalance causing increased shunting of food energy into adipose tissue for storage, resulting in decreased satiety and ultimately leading to increased caloric intake. Adding to this hypothesis, we propose that obesity is also a state of nutrient and energy deficit, leading to decreased fatty acid mobilisation and oxidation, the result of which may be a natural disinclination towards physical activity. Added sugars (sucrose, a.k.a. table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) may provide energy (4 kcal/g) but at current intakes they do not facilitate-and may even hinder-the production of energy. Not only do added sugars displace nutritionally superior foods in the diet, but they may also deplete nutrients from other foods that have been consumed, as well as from body stores, in order to enable their proper oxidation and liberate their calories as energy. Additionally, the consumption of added sugars damages the mitochondria and hence impairs energy generation. Moreover, overconsuming added sugars may result in a kind of 'internal starvation' (via leptin and insulin resistance) leading to further hunger signals in the body. Added sugars promote nutrient and energy deficit and through this novel pathway promote obesity.

  12. Topology Comparison of Superconducting Generators for 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbines: Cost of Energy Based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at finding feasible electromagnetic designs of superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) for a 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine. Since a lower levelized cost of energy (LCoE) increases the feasibility of SCSGs in this application, 12 generator topologies are compared regarding...... their LCoE in a simplified form of levelized equipment cost of energy (LCoE$_{\\text{eq}}$). MgB$_2$ wires are employed in the field winding. Based on the current unit cost and critical current density capability of the MgB $_2$ wire at 20 K, the topologies with more iron have a much lower LCo...... having the most iron in the core are the most promising for both now and the long term. If low weight is required, the topologies with more nonmagnetic cores should be considered....

  13. Motivations driving renewable energy in European countries: A panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Antonio C.; Fuinhas, Jose A.; Pires Manso, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing amount of literature available on renewable energy, the empirical analysis about drivers promoting renewables remains scarce. We have analyzed those drivers for European Countries. Over an extended period of time (1990-2006) we used panel data techniques, namely the fixed effects vector decomposition. The results suggest that both the lobby of the traditional energy sources (oil, coal, and natural gas) and CO 2 emissions restrain renewable deployment. The objective of reducing energy dependency appears to stimulate renewable energy use. Our results robustly support the EU decision to create a directive promoting the use of renewable sources (Directive 2001/77/EC). We also offer suggestions with regards to the design of appropriate policies towards renewable energy deployment.

  14. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40 mm) of pre-composted materials--sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest--evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Voltage protection scheme for MG sets used to drive inductive energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campen, G.L.; Easter, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    A recent tokamak proposal at ORNL called for MG (motor-generator) sets to drive the ohmic heating (OH] coil, which was to be subjected to 20 kV immediately after coil charge-up to initiate the experiment. Since most rotating machinery is inherently low voltage, including the machines available at ORNL, a mechanism was necessary to isolate the generators from the high voltage portions of the circuit before the appearance of this voltage. It is not the expected 20 kV at the coil that causes difficulty, because the main interrupting switch handles this. The voltage induced in the armature due to di/dt and the possibility of faults are the greatest causes for concern and are responsible for the complexity of the voltage protection scheme, which must accommodate any possible combination of fault time and location. Such a protection scheme is presented in this paper

  16. 78 FR 56944 - Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-9091-MLA; ASLBP No. 12-915-01-MLA-BD01] Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board (Board) in the...

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING SOLAR ENERGY TO POWER SELECTED MEASURING DRIVES IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marian Kolano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mankind’s misgivings caused by the depletion of fossil fuels have accelerated research on obtaining energy from unconventional sources. One such source is the Sun. The present article reviews the possibility of using solar energy, converted in batteries of photovoltaic cells into electricity, in agriculture and farming. It should also be emphasized that it is energy friendly to the environment, whose acquisition on agricultural land, which often lacks access to the power grid, is now legitimate and profitable. This study presents the results of computer simulations in tabular and graphical form, using the PVSYST program, for a pasture water pumping system for watering grazing cattle.

  18. Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A; Barton, J R; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-07-01

    Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the

  19. Algal Biofuels Factsheet: Long-Term Energy Benefits Drive U.S. Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-04

    Algal biofuels are generating considerable interest around the world. In the United States, they represent promising pathways for helping to meet the biofuel production targets set by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

  20. Energy efficient drives for construction and agricultural machinery; Energieeffiziente Antriebe fuer Bau- und Landmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, Georg [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Maschinenelemente und Maschinengestaltung (IME)

    2013-03-15

    Conclusions on the energy efficiency of mobile machines based on the conformance to emission limits given by the European guideline 97/68/EG are rarely possible. In opposite to the consumers of passenger car buyers of mobile machines mostly have no chance to consider the vehicle fuel consumption for established reference cycles. At RWTH Aachen a possibility for the efficiency rating and existing potentials to improve the energy efficiency of mobile machines were demonstrated with concrete examples. (orig.)

  1. Driving R&D for the Next Generation Work Truck; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.

    2015-03-04

    Improvements in medium- and heavy-duty work truck energy efficiency can dramatically reduce the use of petroleum-based fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with industry partners to develop fuel-saving, high-performance vehicle technologies, while examining fleet operational practices that can simulateneously improve fuel economy, decrease emissions, and support bottom-line goals.

  2. A multi-criteria analysis of options for energy recovery from municipal solid waste in India and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, H Y; Nixon, J D

    2015-12-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste plays a key role in sustainable waste management and energy security. However, there are numerous technologies that vary in suitability for different economic and social climates. This study sets out to develop and apply a multi-criteria decision making methodology that can be used to evaluate the trade-offs between the benefits, opportunities, costs and risks of alternative energy from waste technologies in both developed and developing countries. The technologies considered are mass burn incineration, refuse derived fuel incineration, gasification, anaerobic digestion and landfill gas recovery. By incorporating qualitative and quantitative assessments, a preference ranking of the alternative technologies is produced. The effect of variations in decision criteria weightings are analysed in a sensitivity analysis. The methodology is applied principally to compare and assess energy recovery from waste options in the UK and India. These two countries have been selected as they could both benefit from further development of their waste-to-energy strategies, but have different technical and socio-economic challenges to consider. It is concluded that gasification is the preferred technology for the UK, whereas anaerobic digestion is the preferred technology for India. We believe that the presented methodology will be of particular value for waste-to-energy decision-makers in both developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J. R.; Wang, D. [Gas Technology Institute; Bischoff, B.; Ciora, [Media and Process Technology; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S. B.

    2013-01-14

    Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina

  4. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.; Antiohos, S.K.; Papadi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of parameters characterising agricultural plastic waste (APW) quality. ► Analysis of samples to determine APW quality for recycling or energy recovery. ► Majority of APW samples from various countries have very good quality for recycling. ► Upper limit of 50% w/w soil contamination in APW acceptable for energy recovery. ► Chlorine and heavy metals content in APW below the lowest limit for energy recovery. - Abstract: A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a “very good quality” for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  5. Scenario analysis of carbon emissions' anti-driving effect on Qingdao's energy structure adjustment with an optimization model, Part II: Energy system planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C B; Huang, G H; Liu, Z P; Zhen, J L; Yin, J G

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an inexact multistage stochastic mixed-integer programming (IMSMP) method was developed for supporting regional-scale energy system planning (EPS) associated with multiple uncertainties presented as discrete intervals, probability distributions and their combinations. An IMSMP-based energy system planning (IMSMP-ESP) model was formulated for Qingdao to demonstrate its applicability. Solutions which can provide optimal patterns of energy resources generation, conversion, transmission, allocation and facility capacity expansion schemes have been obtained. The results can help local decision makers generate cost-effective energy system management schemes and gain a comprehensive tradeoff between economic objectives and environmental requirements. Moreover, taking the CO 2 emissions scenarios mentioned in Part I into consideration, the anti-driving effect of carbon emissions on energy structure adjustment was studied based on the developed model and scenario analysis. Several suggestions can be concluded from the results: (a) to ensure the smooth realization of low-carbon and sustainable development, appropriate price control and fiscal subsidy on high-cost energy resources should be considered by the decision-makers; (b) compared with coal, natural gas utilization should be strongly encouraged in order to insure that Qingdao could reach the carbon discharges peak value in 2020; (c) to guarantee Qingdao's power supply security in the future, the construction of new power plants should be emphasised instead of enhancing the transmission capacity of grid infrastructure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas

  7. Energy-related CO2 emission in European Union agriculture: Driving forces and possibilities for reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianxiang; Baležentis, Tomas; Makutėnienė, Daiva; Streimikiene, Dalia; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The research focuses on agricultural sectors of the eighteen European countries. • The main drivers of energy-related CO 2 emission are quantified by means of IDA. • The slack-based DEA model is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency. • Shadow prices of carbon emission are analysed. • Energy efficiency remains the primary means for increasing environmental efficiency. - Abstract: Climate change mitigation is a key issue in formulating global environmental policies. Energy production and consumption are the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Energy consumption and energy-related GHG emissions from agriculture are an important concern for policymakers, as the agricultural activities should meet food security goals along with proper economic, environmental, and social impacts. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission is the most significant among energy-related GHG emissions. This paper analyses the main drivers behind energy-related CO 2 emission across agricultural sectors of European countries. The analysis is based on aggregate data from the World Input-Output Database. The research explores two main directions. Firstly, Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), facilitated by the Shapley index, is used to identify the main drivers of CO 2 emission. Secondly, the Slack-based Model (SBM) is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency of European agricultural sectors. By applying frontier techniques, we also derive the measures of environmental efficiency and shadow prices, thereby contributing to a discussion on CO 2 emission mitigation in agriculture. Therefore, the paper devises an integrated approach towards analysis of CO 2 emission based upon advanced decomposition and efficiency analysis models. The research covers eighteen European countries and the applied methodology decomposes contributions to CO 2 emission across of regions and factors. Results of IDA suggest that decreasing energy intensity is the main factor

  8. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody [Hyperion Power Generation, Inc., 369 Montezuma Ave, Suite 508, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining

  9. Energy efficiency improvement in oil refineries through flare gas recovery technique to meet the emission trading targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Renzi, Massimiliano; Rossi, Mosè

    2016-01-01

    Flare gas recovery is one of the most attractive methods to improve energy efficiency in oil refineries to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The recovered gas is used to feed refinery processes, granting advantages in terms of fuel economy and flare stress. This paper presents the results obtained by a feasibility study of a flare gas recovery system in a real refinery; the work focused on: i) the choice and the design of the flare gas recovery system; ii) the gas treatment and reuse; iii) the economic feasibility, and the payback period. An experimental campaign has been performed to evaluate both the composition and the flow rate of the flare gas. Results showed that the flare gas had a strongly variable flow rate and composition due to the different gas species processed in refinery. A methodology for the system selection is presented: a 400 kg/h liquid ring compression device is chosen; its basic design is described as well as the chemical treatments of inert gases and hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S). The yearly energy recovery was estimated to be 2900 TOE, corresponding to 6600 tons of CDE (Carbon Dioxide Equivalent). Finally, an economic evaluation was carried out, showing a payback period of about 2.5 years. - Highlights: • A liquid ring compressor flare gas recovery system is applied to an oil refinery. • The composition of the flare gas and the design of the compressor are presented. • The system allows to recover 400 kg/h of flare gas with a LHV of 39,951 kJ/kg. • Cash flow derives from the spared energy and the emission trading allowances market. • The pay-back period of the presented flare gas recovery system is about 2 years.

  10. Energy recovery of the H2S and CO2 elimination with technology by hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar T, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This document is a research focused on energy recovery from acid gas removal contained in natural gas as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), by obtaining highly energetic gas such as syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, in particular) using plasma technology in its hybrid form, namely, gliding arc plasma, that has the property to behave like a thermal plasma and cold plasma, besides possessing among other virtues the ability to treat large flows continuously at atmospheric pressure without the need of using noble gases, with a power consumption of no more than 1000 W. Furthermore, this type of plasma has demonstrated to be a clean and efficient not only by high conversion rates of H 2 S (86%) and CO 2 (56%) and high percentages of selectivity in the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide carbon (CO) obtained in this work, but because it can even be seriously considered to replace other technologies currently used in the process of sweetening natural gas as adsorption, absorption and sequestering membranes. The results shown are based on a series of analysis, simulations, experiments and calculations, from the design of the plasma generating source based on an impulse-phase circuit, to the electrical characterization results and simulation by acquiring electrical signals, without forgetting the characterization of the resulting chemical components using various analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), optical spectroscopy Fourier inverse transformed (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and multi-gas detectors (iBrid MX6). Additionally, performed chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism of the compounds involved in the degradation of H 2 S and CO 2 similar to those experienced as well as the study of energy efficiency (Ece), specific energy (Se), all this to meet a projects needs 127499, entitled -Development of alternative

  11. Integrated Energy and Emission Management for Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery Using Dynamic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willems Frank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rankine-cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine and WHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel engine with WHR system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing online the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue consumption. Contrary to other control studies, the proposed control strategy optimizes overall engine-aftertreatment-WHR system performance and deals with emission constraints. From simulations, the potential of this IPC strategy is demonstrated over a World Harmonized Transient Cycle (WHTC using a high-fidelity simulation model. These results are compared with a state-of-the-art baseline engine control strategy. By applying the IPC strategy, an additional 2.6% CO2 reduction is achieved compare to the baseline strategy, while meeting the tailpipe NOx emission limit. In addition, the proposed low-level WHR controller is shown to deal with the cold start challenges.

  12. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-07-01

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Recovery of crown mass for energy with whole-tree skidding methods; Puupolttoaineen tuottaminen kokopuujuontomenetelmillae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nousiainen, I. [Finntech Ltd Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Vesisenaho, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The main aim of the project `Recovery of crown mass for energy with whole-tree skidding methods` was to develop the integrated harvesting method of wood raw material and wood fuel based on whole-tree skidding. The developed method gives also the possibility to deliver to sawmills raw material in the form of log section. In the harvesting chain under development whole-trees are felled and bunched with a normal one-grip harvester. The whole-trees are skidded to the roadside by a forwarder equipped with a clam bunk. At the roadside the trees are delimbed and cut with the one-grip harvester used for felling and bunching. According to the results of the field tests the harvesting costs of logging residues are in certain final cutting conditions even under 10 FIM/m{sup 3}, when the average stem size is over 0,500 m{sup 3}. In the developed method felling and bunching of whole trees with the one-grip harvester and skidding of whole-trees with the clam skidder succeeded well. The problems of the method concentrate on delimbing and bucking of whole-trees in landing site

  14. The Circular Economy of E-Waste in the Netherlands: Optimizing Material Recycling and Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Golsteijn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste is an important point for discussion on the circular economy agenda. This paper shows the Dutch example of how “waste” can be turned into a resource, and the climate change benefits from appropriate collection and recycling. It describes the avoided emissions of CO2-equivalents due to e-waste recycling and appropriate removal and destruction of (HCFCs contained in cooling and freezing appliances. Six different e-waste categories were included, and the results of 2016 were compared to previous years (2009–2015. In 2016, 110,000 tonnes of e-waste were collected. 80% of this was recycled to useful materials. Additionally, it resulted in 17% energy recovery. That year, the recycling of e-waste and the removal of (HCFKs resulted in approximately 416,000 tonnes of avoided emissions of CO2-equivalents. Although the phasing out of cooling and freezing appliances with (HCFKs led to a general decrease in the quantity of avoided CO2 emissions over time, removal of (HCFKs still explained most of the avoided CO2 emissions. Material recycling appeared particularly beneficial for cooling and freezing appliances and small and large household appliances. The paper ends with reasons to further close the loop and ways forward to do so.

  15. Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2010-12-01

    Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving a final concentration of 7.2 g COD L(-1). Large fractions of suspended COD were recovered in the concentrate (57%, 81% and 82% at SRT/HRT ratios of 3, 8 and 12, respectively) indicating a strong bioflocculation of grey water. A maximum of 11% of COD mineralization of grey water was measured at the longest SRT tested (1 d). The integration of bioflocculation of grey water in decentralized sanitation concepts may increase the overall production of methane by 73%, based on the biogas produced by black water only. Therefore, bioflocculation is a promising grey water pre-treatment step for energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating the Energy Recovery Potential of Nigerian Coals under Non-Isothermal Thermogravimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan Nyakuma, Bemgba; Oladokun, Olagoke; Jauro, Aliyu; Damian Nyakuma, Denen

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the fuel properties and energy recovery potential of two coal samples from Ihioma (IHM) and Ogboligbo (OGB) environs in Nigeria. The ultimate, proximate, and bomb calorimetric analyses of the coal were examined. Next, the rank classification and potential application of the coals were evaluated according to the ASTM standard D388. Lastly, thermal decomposition behaviour was examined by non-isothermal thermogravimetry (TG) under pyrolysis conditions from 30 - 900 °C. The results indicated IHM and OGB contain high proportions of combustible elements for potential thermal conversion. The higher heating value (HHV) of IHM was 20.37 MJ/kg whereas OGB was 16.33 MJ/kg. TG analysis revealed 55% weight loss for OGB and 76% for IHM. The residual mass was 23% for IHM and 44% for OGB. Based on the temperature profile characteristics (TPCs); Ton , Tmax , and Toff , IHM was more reactive than OGB due to its higher volatile matter (VM). Overall, results revealed the coals are Lignite (Brown) low-rank coals (LRCs) with potential for electric power generation.

  17. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E.C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R and D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R and D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  18. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E. C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Xu, Wencan

    2010-12-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  19. Recovery of energy and nutrient resources from cattle paunch waste using temperature phased anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul D; Mehta, Chirag M; Carney, Chris; Batstone, D J

    2016-05-01

    Cattle paunch is comprised of partially digested cattle feed, containing mainly grass and grain and is a major waste produced at cattle slaughterhouses contributing 20-30% of organic matter and 40-50% of P waste produced on-site. In this work, Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) and struvite crystallization processes were developed at pilot-scale to recover methane energy and nutrients from paunch solid waste. The TPAD plant achieved a maximum sustainable organic loading rate of 1-1.5kgCODm(-3)day(-1) using a feed solids concentration of approximately 3%; this loading rate was limited by plant engineering and not the biology of the process. Organic solids destruction (60%) and methane production (230LCH4kg(-1) VSfed) achieved in the plant were similar to levels predicted from laboratory biochemical methane potential (BMP) testing. Model based analysis identified no significant difference in batch laboratory parameters vs pilot-scale continuous parameters, and no change in speed or extent of degradation. However the TPAD process did result in a degree of process intensification with a high level of solids destruction at an average treatment time of 21days. Results from the pilot plant show that an integrated process enabled resource recovery at 7.8GJ/dry tonne paunch, 1.8kgP/dry tonne paunch and 1.0kgN/dry tonne paunch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hahn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  1. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Printed Circuit Boards for Metal and Energy Recovery after Milling and Mechanical Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Bizzo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proper disposal of electrical and electronic waste is currently a concern of researchers and environmental managers not only because of the large volume of such waste generated, but also because of the heavy metals and toxic substances it contains. This study analyzed printed circuit boards (PCBs from discarded computers to determine their metal content and characterized them as solid waste and fuel. The analysis showed that PCBs consist of approximately 26% metal, made up mainly of copper, lead, aluminum, iron and tin, as well as other heavy metals such as cadmium and nickel. Comparison with the results of other studies indicated that the concentration of precious metals (gold and silver has declined over time. Analysis of the leachate revealed high concentrations of cadmium and lead, giving the residue the characteristics of hazardous waste. After milling the PCBs, we found that larger amounts of metal were concentrated in smaller fractions, while the lightest fraction, obtained by density separation, had a gross calorific value of approximately 11 MJ/kg, although with a high ash content. Milling followed by density separation proved potentially useful for recovery of metals and energy-rich fractions.

  3. New halo formation mechanism at the KEK compact energy recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Tanaka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The beam halo mitigation is a very important challenge for reliable and safe operation of a high-energy machine. A systematic beam halo study was conducted at the KEK compact energy recovery linac (cERL since non-negligible beam loss was observed in the recirculation loop during a common operation. We found that the beam loss can be avoided by making use of the collimation system. Beam halo measurements have demonstrated the presence of vertical beam halos at multiple locations in the beam line (except the region near the electron gun. Based on these observations, we made a conjecture that the transverse beam halo is attributed to the longitudinal bunch tail arising at the photocathode. The transfer of particles from the longitudinal space to a transverse halo may have been observed and studied in other machines, considering nonlinear effects as their causes. However, our study demonstrates a new unique halo formation mechanism, in which a transverse beam halo can be generated by a longitudinal bunch tail due to transverse rf kicks from the accelerating (monopole fields of the radio-frequency cavities. This halo formation occurs when nonrelativistic particles enter the cavities with a transverse offset, even if neither nonlinear optics nor nonlinear beam effects are present. A careful realignment of the injector system will mitigate the present halo. Another possible cure is to reduce the bunch tails by changing the photocathode material from the present GaAs to a multi-alkali that is known to have a shorter longitudinal tail.

  4. Control of a 420 KN Discrete Displacement Cylinder Drive for the Wavestar Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico H.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the power production of their 1 MW wave energy converter, Wavestar is developing a new transmission based on discrete hydraulics. The discrete hydraulic system allows all cylinders to supply a common accumulator storage while maintaining low-loss individual force control of the 20...... different area/pressure combinations. Currently, a 420 kN DDC prototype has been implemented and tested at the newly commissioned full size wave energy testbench at Aalborg University. The initial design and control of the DDC had poorly damped switching transients. These issues treated in this paper...

  5. Climate change mitigation by recovery of energy from the water cycle: a new challenge for water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoek, J P

    2012-01-01

    Waternet is responsible for drinking water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, and surface water management and control (quality and quantity) in and around Amsterdam. Waternet has the ambition to operate climate neutral in 2020. To realise this ambition, measures are required to compensate for the emission of 53,000 ton CO(2)-eq/year. Energy recovery from the water cycle looks very promising. First, calculations reveal that energy recovery from the water cycle in and around Amsterdam may contribute to a total reduction in greenhouse gas emissions up to 148,000 ton CO(2)-eq/year. The challenge for the coming years is to choose combinations of all the possibilities to fulfil the energy demand as much as possible. Only then the use of fossil fuel can be minimized and inevitable greenhouse gas emissions can be compensated, supporting the target to operate climate neutral in 2020.

  6. Citrus waste as feedstock for bio-based products recovery: Review on limonene case study and energy valorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro, Viviana; Mancini, Giuseppe; Ruggeri, Bernardo; Fino, Debora

    2016-08-01

    The citrus peels and residue of fruit juices production are rich in d-limonene, a cyclic terpene characterized by antimicrobial activity, which could hamper energy valorization bioprocess. Considering that limonene is used in nutritional, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, citrus by-products processing appear to be a suitable feedstock either for high value product recovery or energy bio-processes. This waste stream, more than 10MTon at 2013 in European Union (AIJN, 2014), can be considered appealing, from the view point of conducting a key study on limonene recovery, as its content of about 1%w/w of high value-added molecule. Different processes are currently being studied to recover or remove limonene from citrus peel to both prevent pollution and energy resources recovery. The present review is aimed to highlight pros and contras of different approaches suggesting an energy sustainability criterion to select the most effective one for materials and energy valorization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Proceedings of Canada Forum 4. annual conference : powering up Aboriginal energy : clean energy driving Aboriginal economic development across Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, C.; Buckell, J.

    2010-01-01

    This conference provided a form to discuss issues related to renewable energy and methods of creating successful and sustainable business models and plans in Aboriginal communities. The Government of Canada's new Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development promotes partnerships supporting Aboriginal businesses in order to maximize access to capital. More than $350 billion in major resource and energy developments have been identified in or near Aboriginal communities. The tools available for small, medium and large-sized Aboriginal businesses were discussed along with financing sources and mechanisms for creating equity in renewable energy projects. Speakers also addressed the need for new transmission to serve renewable generation; recognition of rights in sharing the land; and Ontario's Aboriginal Energy Partnerships Program which provides an opportunity for First Nations and Metis to work with the government and private sector to build, own and operate new electricity transmission. Other topics presented at the conference included biomass district heating; bioenergy projects; wind partnerships with Aboriginal communities; hydroelectric development; and northern and remote communities. The conference featured 11 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  8. Safe and efficient: Energy companies looking for telecommunications answers that protect people and drive productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, C. G.

    2005-04-01

    Telecommunications needs of the energy industry are discussed based on a survey of North American energy and utility companies, conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute. Employee and public safety emerged as the top priority.The survey was sponsored by TELUS, a company with some 75 per cent share of the telecom market. To meet these requirements, TELUS is working with the Alberta government by developing a system comprised of a secure database of emergency contacts, a mapping system, and an interactive voice response system. Using TELUS Geomatics and an Integrated Voice Response System connected to Alberta's critical infrastructure database, the system presents more than 300 layers of information, including roads, railways, oil wells, and residential housing. The emergency response system required by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) which will include each well site in the spatial operating system, will be integrated within the next two years. TELUS is also developing 'Camp in a box', an all-inclusive communications package for large-scale construction sites. The system will include voice communications, data capabilities, resource plant and asset management tools, and pay-per-use processing, besides providing video capabilities, including training and security services.

  9. Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kravcik, Milos; Bohuschke, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Safety and energy-efficiency is the main aim of every reasonable driver. But often there is too much relevant information a driver has to take into account and evaluate. A useful support can be provided by technology that can observe the driver’s situation, analyze it, and offer individualized

  10. Microscopic Driving Parameters-Based Energy-Saving Effect Analysis under Different Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjian Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid motorization over the recent years, China's transportation sector has been facing an increasing environmental pressure. Compared with gasoline vehicle (GV, electric vehicle (EV is expected to play an important role in the mitigation of CO2 and other pollution emissions, and urban air quality improvement, for its zero emission during use and higher energy efficiency. This paper aims to estimate the energy saving efficiency of EV, especially under different EV penetration and road traffic conditions. First, based on the emission and electricity consumption data collected by a light-duty EV and a light duty GV, a set of electricity consumption rate models and gasoline consumption rate models are established. Then, according to the conversion formula of coal equivalent, these models are transformed into coal equivalent consumption models, which make gasoline consumption and electricity consumption comparable. Finally, the relationship between the EV penetration and the reduction of energy consumption is explored based on the simulation undertaken on the North Second Ring Road in Beijing. The results show that the coal equivalent consumption will decrease by about 5% with the increases of EV penetration by 10% and the maximum energy-saving effect can be achieved when the traffic volume is about 4000 pcu/h.

  11. Energy efficiency in a drive system of induction motors; Eficiencia energetica em um sistema de acionamento de motores de inducao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Kawaphara, Mario Kiyoshi; Apolonio, Roberto; Annunciacao, Luiz de; Silva, Thiago Vieira da; Sao Jose, Bernardo Dias [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Industrial consumers are interested in reducing their monthly expenditure on electricity. Tackling the waste of electrical energy means improving the way you use it, without giving up the comfort and the advantages it provides. Means to reduce consumption, but without compromising safety, quality of product or process or production capacity. In this context, this study presents the results obtained by measurements in a drive system for elevator type pitchers in the laboratory by conventional means and by electronic devices, which simulates a system of operation of a grain transportation industry. We monitored voltages, currents, active power, active power consumption of the system triggered by the conventional method by starting directly and, through microprocessor controls with frequency converter and analyzed the power efficiency obtained with the two processes drive. This study aims at a possible reduction in electricity consumption for active power and active power demand for the automated activation with the frequency inverter. In a broader analysis, conservation of power ends up benefiting society in general, because its effects are felt in different ways. Encourage the reduction or even elimination of new investment to build power plants and power grids, reduce prices of products and services, and ensure availability of electricity supply and service to new consumers. (author)

  12. Driving Demand for Home Energy Improvements: Motivating residential customers to invest in comprehensive upgrades that eliminate energy waste, avoid high utility bills, and spur the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-09-20

    new to the field, such as the over 2,000 towns, cities, states, and regions who are recipients of American Reinvestment and Recovery Act funds for clean energy programs. This report synthesizes lessons from first generation programs, highlights emerging best practices, and suggests methods and approaches to use in designing, implementing, and evaluating these programs. We examined 14 residential energy efficiency programs, conducted an extensive literature review, interviewed industry experts, and surveyed residential contractors to draw out these lessons.

  13. Comparative analysis of energy economy among different types of electric motor driving; Analise comparativa de economia de energia entre diferentes tipos de acionamento de motores electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Santos da; Oliveira, Carlos Henrique, e-mails: mcelo_sant@ig.com.br; caique1979@yahoo.com.br; Albuquerque, Carlos Jesivan Marques; Fortes, Marcio Zamboti [Universidade Severino Sombra (USS), Vassouras, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: cjesivan@uss.br; mzamboti@uss.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of controlled drives loads of small power can cause undesirable disturbances for electrical installations, but it brings some benefits when comparing the energy consumption that this application has on its regular period of operation. This study analyses using comparatives, the electrical economy using the different types of drives for three phase electric induction motors of low voltage. Running up tests on the test bench didactic, the inverter drives, soft starter and contactor switch were analyzed for different loads (motor without load, 50% and 100% load), rating in S1 and S4. (author)

  14. Recovery Act: Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, Kenneth L

    2013-03-31

    In this project, we have developed the use of thin-film magnetic materials to improve in energy efficiency of digital computing applications by enabling integrated dc-dc power conversion and management with on-chip power inductors. Integrated voltage regulators also enables fine-grained power management, by providing dynamic scaling of the supply voltage in concert with the clock frequency of synchronous logic to throttle power consumption at periods of low computational demand. The voltage converter generates lower output voltages during periods of low computational performance requirements and higher output voltages during periods of high computational performance requirements. Implementation of integrated power conversion requires high-capacity energy storage devices, which are generally not available in traditional semiconductor processes. We achieve this with integration of thin-film magnetic materials into a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process for high-quality on-chip power inductors. This project includes a body of work conducted to develop integrated switch-mode voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Soft-magnetic materials and inductor topologies are selected and optimized, with intent to maximize efficiency and current density of the integrated regulators. A custom integrated circuit (IC) is designed and fabricated in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to provide the control system and power-train necessary to drive the power inductors, in addition to providing a digital load for the converter. A silicon interposer is designed and fabricated in collaboration with IBM Research to integrate custom power inductors by chip stacking with the 45-nm CMOS integrated circuit, enabling power conversion with current density greater than 10A/mm2. The concepts and designs developed from this work enable significant improvements in performance-per-watt of future microprocessors in servers, desktops, and mobile

  15. Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 2009 United States Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mohit [Seeo, Incorporated, Hayward, CA (United States); Grape, Ulrik [Seeo, Incorporated, Hayward, CA (United States)

    2014-07-29

    The purpose of this project was for Seeo to deliver the first ever large-scale or grid-scale prototype of a new class of advanced lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The technology combines unprecedented energy density, lifetime, safety, and cost. The goal was to demonstrate Seeo’s entirely new class of lithium-based batteries based on Seeo’s proprietary nanostructured polymer electrolyte. This technology can enable the widespread deployment in Smart Grid applications and was demonstrated through the development and testing of a 10 kilowatt-hour (kWh) prototype battery system. This development effort, supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) enabled Seeo to pursue and validate the transformational performance advantages of its technology for use in grid-tied energy storage applications. The focus of this project and Seeo’s goal as demonstrated through the efforts made under this project is to address the utility market needs for energy storage systems applications, especially for residential and commercial customers tied to solar photovoltaic installations. In addition to grid energy storage opportunities Seeo’s technology has been tested with automotive drive cycles and is seen as equally applicable for battery packs for electric vehicles. The goals of the project were outlined and achieved through a series of specific tasks, which encompassed materials development, scaling up of cells, demonstrating the performance of the cells, designing, building and demonstrating a pack prototype, and providing an economic and environmental assessment. Nearly all of the tasks were achieved over the duration of the program, with only the full demonstration of the battery system and a complete economic and environmental analysis not able to be fully completed. A timeline over the duration of the program is shown in figure 1.

  16. Wascana Energy Inc. 1996 annual report : technology driving the drill bit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Financial highlights from Wascana Energy Inc. and a review of their 1996 operations was presented. Wascana Energy Inc. is an independent Canadian oil and gas exploration, production and marketing company. This report presented a review of operations in technology development, corporate activity, exploration and production, an analysis and discussion of management decisions, a summary of consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Revenue for the company amounted to $539.3 million, or $0.43 per fully diluted share, up from $485.7 million and $0.01 in 1995, respectively. Wascana's 1996 business results place them among the leaders in the industry, with a cash flow recorded at $215 million, and reserves increased by 46 per cent. Capital spending at $284 million was the largest in the company's history on exploration and development. Drilling activity at 163,669 metres with 112 development wells outstripped all other producers. tabs., figs

  17. Exploring driving factors of energy-related CO2 emissions in Chinese provinces: A case of Liaoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Yong; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Zhu; Xue, Bing; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Xi, Fengming

    2013-01-01

    In order to uncover driving forces for provincial CO 2 emission in China, a case study was undertaken to shed light on the CO 2 emission growth in such a region. Liaoning province was selected due to its typical features as one industrial province. The environmental input–output analysis and structure decomposing analysis have been conducted in order to provide a holistic picture on Liaoning's CO 2 emissions during 1997–2007. Research outcomes indicate that rapid increase of per capita consumption activities is the main driver for Liaoning to have a significant CO 2 emission growth, followed by consumption structure, production structure and population size. Energy intensity and energy structure partly offset the CO 2 emission increase. Electricity power and heat supply and construction sectors caused the most CO 2 emission, indicating that more specific mitigation policies for these two sectors should be prepared. From final demand point of view, it is clear that trade plays a leading role in regional CO 2 emission, followed by fixed capital investment and urban household consumption which become increasingly important over time. Consequently, in order to realize low carbon development, local governments should consider all these factors so that appropriate mitigation policies can be raised by considering the local realities. - Highlights: • Driving forces for Liaoning's CO 2 emission have been uncovered through the use of IO-SDA model. • Construction and electricity power/heat supply sectors have the highest embodied emissions. • Trade plays a key role on regional CO 2 emission in Chinese old industrial base. • Fixed capital investment and urban households generated more CO 2 emissions

  18. Energy-efficient modification of reduction-melting for lead recovery from cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Yonezawa, Susumu

    2013-08-01

    Lead can be recovered from funnel glass of waste cathode ray tubes via reduction melting. While low-temperature melting is necessary for reduced energy consumption, previously proposed methods required high melting temperatures (1400 °C) for the reduction melting. In this study, the reduction melting of the funnel glass was performed at 900-1000 °C using a lab-scale reactor with varying concentrations of Na(2)CO(3) at different melting temperatures and melting times. The optimum Na(2)CO(3) dosage and melting temperature for efficient lead recovery was 0.5 g per 1g of the funnel glass and 1000 °C respectively. By the reduction melting with the mentioned conditions, 92% of the lead in the funnel glass was recovered in 60 min. However, further lead recovery was difficult because the rate of the lead recovery decreased as with the recovery of increasing quantity of the lead from the glass. Thus, the lead remaining in the glass after the reduction melting was extracted with 1M HCl, and the lead recovery improved to 98%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of waste heat recovery systems on energy efficiency improvement of a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zheshu; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    The increase of ship's energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is seeking measures to reduce the CO2 emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.

  20. Optimal design of advanced distillation configuration for enhanced energy efficiency of waste solvent recovery process in semiconductor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaniago, Yus Donald; Minh, Le Quang; Khan, Mohd Shariq; Koo, Kee-Kahb; Bahadori, Alireza; Lee, Moonyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermally coupled distillation process is proposed for waste solvent recovery. • A systematic optimization procedure is used to optimize distillation columns. • Response surface methodology is applied to optimal design of distillation column. • Proposed advanced distillation allows energy efficient waste solvent recovery. - Abstract: The semiconductor industry is one of the largest industries in the world. On the other hand, the huge amount of solvent used in the industry results in high production cost and potential environmental damage because most of the valuable chemicals discharged from the process are incinerated at high temperatures. A distillation process is used to recover waste solvent, reduce the production-related costs and protect the environment from the semiconductor industrial waste. Therefore, in this study, a distillation process was used to recover the valuable chemicals from semiconductor industry discharge, which otherwise would have been lost to the environment. The conventional sequence of distillation columns, which was optimized using the Box and sequential quadratic programming method for minimum energy objectives, was used. The energy demands of a distillation problem may have a substantial influence on the profitability of a process. A thermally coupled distillation and heat pump-assisted distillation sequence was implemented to further improve the distillation performance. Finally, a comparison was made between the conventional and advanced distillation sequences, and the optimal conditions for enhancing recovery were determined. The proposed advanced distillation configuration achieved a significant energy saving of 40.5% compared to the conventional column sequence

  1. Design and Control of a Multi-Functional Energy Recovery Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Long

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aiming at the energy loss and harmonic problems in the conventional power accumulator battery pack testing system (PABPTS, an improved multi-functional energy recovery PABPTS (ERPABPTS for electric vehicles (EVs was proposed. The improved system has the functions of harmonic detection, suppression, reactive compensation and energy recovery. The ERPABPTS, which contains a bi-directional buck-boost direct current (DC-DC converter and a bi-directional alternating current (AC-DC converter with an inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL type filter interfacing to the AC-grid, is proposed. System configuration and operation principle of the combined system are discussed first, then, the reactive compensation and harmonic suppression controller under balanced grid-voltage condition are presented. Design of a fourth order band-pass Butterworth filter for current harmonic detection is put forward, and the reactive compensator design procedure considering the non-linear load is also illustrated. The proposed scheme is implemented in a 175-kW prototype in the laboratory. Simulation and experimental results show that the combined configuration can effectively realize energy recovery for high accuracy current test requirement, meanwhile, can effectively achieve reactive compensation and current harmonic suppression.

  2. Differential Development of Acute Tolerance May Explain Heightened Rates of Impaired Driving After Consumption of Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drinks Versus Alcohol Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F

    2018-01-15

    Consumers of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) are more likely to drive while impaired when compared to alcohol alone consumers. In addition, acute tolerance to the internal cues of feelings of intoxication is known to contribute to maladaptive decisions to drive while impaired. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there is differential development of acute tolerance for AmED versus alcohol alone for ratings of willingness to drive after alcohol consumption. Social drinkers (n = 12) attended 4 separate sessions where they received alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. The development of acute tolerance to alcohol was assessed for several objective (a computerized cued go/no-go reaction time task) and subjective measures at matched breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) for the ascending and descending limbs of the BrAC curve. The results indicated that alcohol administration decreased willingness to drive ratings. Acute tolerance was observed in the AmED dose condition for only the willingness to drive ratings that were significantly higher on the descending versus ascending test. Alcohol-induced impairments of the computer task performance did not exhibit any acute tolerance. Therefore, the differential development of acute tolerance may explain why many studies observe higher rates of impaired driving for AmED consumers compared to alcohol alone consumers. Because drunk driving is a major public health concern, alcohol consumers should be warned that the use of energy drink mixers with alcohol could lead to a false sense of security in one's ability to drive after drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Burst train generator of high energy femtosecond laser pulses for driving heat accumulation effect during micromachining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Saeid; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R

    2015-05-01

    A new method for generating high-repetition-rate (12.7-38.2 MHz) burst trains of femtosecond laser pulses has been demonstrated for the purpose of tailoring ultrashort laser interactions in material processing that can harness the heat accumulation effect among pulses separated by a short interval (i.e., 26 ns). Computer-controlled time delays were applied to synchronously trigger the high frequency switching of a high voltage Pockels cell to specify distinctive values of polarization rotation for each round-trip of a laser pulse cycling within a passive resonator. Polarization dependent output coupling facilitated the flexible shaping of the burst envelope profile to provide burst trains of up to ∼1  mJ of burst energy divided over a selectable number (1 to 25) of pulses. Individual pulses of variable energy up to 150 μJ and with pulse duration tunable over 70 fs to 2 ps, were applied in burst trains to generate deep and high aspect ratio holes that could not form with low-repetition-rate laser pulses.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Miao; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO(2) from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO(2)-eq t(-1) rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

    2011-01-01

    A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m 3 storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

  6. Comparative life cycle assessment of alternative strategies for energy recovery from used cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lidia; Mendecka, Barbara; Carnevale, Ennio

    2017-05-15

    The separate collection of Used Cooking Oil (UCO) is gaining popularity through several countries in Europe. An appropriate management of UCO waste stream leads to substantial benefits. In this study, we analyse two different possibilities of UCO energy reuse: the direct feed to a reciprocating internal combustion engine (ICE) for cogeneration purpose, and the processing to generate biodiesel. Concerning biodiesel production, we analyse four among conventional and innovative technologies, characterised by different type and amount of used chemicals, heat and electricity consumptions and yields. We perform a systematic evaluation of environmental benefits and drawbacks by applying life cycle assessment (LCA) analysis to compare the alternatives. For the impact assessment, two methods are selected: the Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Cumulative Exergy Consumption (CExC). Results related only to the processing phases (i.e. not including yet the avoided effects) show that the recovery of UCO in cogeneration plant has in general lower values in terms of environmental impacts than its employment in biodiesel production. When products and co-products substitution are included, the savings obtained by the substitution of conventional diesel production, in the biodiesel cases, are significantly higher than the avoided effects for electricity and heat in the cogeneration case. In particular, by using the UCO in the biodiesel production processes, the savings vary from 41.6 to 54.6 GJ ex per tUCO, and from 2270 to 2860 kg CO 2eq per tUCO for CExC and GWP, respectively. A particular focus is put on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Overall, high uncertainty of final results for process impacts is observed, especially for the supercritical methanol process. Low uncertainty values are evaluated for the avoided effects. Including the uncertain character of the impacts, cogeneration scenario and NaOH catalysed process of biodiesel production result to be the most suitable

  7. A comparison study on energy savings and fungus growth control using heat recovery devices in a modern tropical operating theatre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yau, Y.H.; Ng, W.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The paper can be used as a comprehensive guide for building services engineers. → Energy is wasted in overcooling and reheating processes in the reheat system. → The recovery wheel integrated system is a good choice for heat recovery purpose. → The heat pipe heat exchanger system is the best choice for energy saving purpose. -- Abstract: Fungus growth has always been a problem in hot and humid areas. This particular problem is crucial for operating theatre as it could affect the success rate of operations. Many postoperative fungus infection cases had occurred in the past, and it is generally agreed that air-conditioning system play a very important role in resolving the fungus growth problem. Besides air quality, the energy consumption level of air-conditioning system is also very important. In this study, the operating theatre 3 in Putrajaya Hospital, Malaysia was chosen as the research subject. The air-conditioning system for OT3 was redesigned with the energy recovery wheel, desiccant dehumidifier and heat pipe heat exchanger to achieve the objectives of this study. A computer program called Transient system simulation program (TRNSYS) was utilized for analysis in this research. From the outcome of simulations, it was found that the heat pipe heat exchanger could reduce the most energy consumed by the air-conditioning system. It managed to reduce the energy consumption by 57.85%. Moreover, the payback period of the device is only 0.95 years, which is the shortest among all the systems studied. Therefore, applying heat pipe heat exchanger is a good choice to save energy and resolve fungus growth problem in hot and humid areas.

  8. INFORMATION: Special Report on "Selected Department of Energy Program Efforts to Implement the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was enacted on February 17, 2009, to jumpstart the economy by creating or saving millions of jobs, spurring technological advances in health and science, and investing in the Nation's energy future. The Department of Energy received over $32.7 billion in Recovery Act funding for various science, energy, and environmental programs and initiatives. As of November 2009, the Department had obligated $18.3 billion of the Recovery Act funding, but only $1.4 billion had been spent. The Department's Offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Fossil Energy, Environmental Management, Science, and Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability received the majority of funding allocated to the Department, about $32.3 billion. Obligating these funds by the end of Fiscal Year 2010, as required by the Recovery Act, and overseeing their effective use in succeeding years, represents a massive workload increase for the Department's programs. The effort to date has strained existing resources. As has been widely acknowledged, any effort to disburse massive additional funding and to expeditiously initiate and complete projects increases the risk of fraud, waste and abuse. It is, therefore, important for the Department's program offices to assess and mitigate these risks to the maximum extent practicable. In this light, we initiated this review as an initial step in the Office of Inspector General's charge to determine whether the Department's major program offices had developed an effective approach for identifying and mitigating risks related to achieving the goals and objectives of the Recovery Act. The Department's program offices included in our review identified risks and planned mitigation strategies that, if successfully implemented and executed, should help achieve the goals and objectives of the Recovery Act. While each office identified risks unique to its respective

  9. Energy recovery from waste streams with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-09-15

    discharge. Such a new system may offer a promising avenue for drinking water treatment and energy recovery. (Author)

  10. Pooled Results From 5 Validation Studies of Dietary Self-Report Instruments Using Recovery Biomarkers for Energy and Protein Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, Laurence S.; Commins, John M.; Moler, James E.; Arab, Lenore; Baer, David J.; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Moshfegh, Alanna J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Prentice, Ross L.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Spiegelman, Donna; Subar, Amy F.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Willett, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We pooled data from 5 large validation studies of dietary self-report instruments that used recovery biomarkers as references to clarify the measurement properties of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-hour recalls. The studies were conducted in widely differing US adult populations from 1999 to 2009. We report on total energy, protein, and protein density intakes. Results were similar across sexes, but there was heterogeneity across studies. Using a FFQ, the average correlation coef...

  11. New Region-Scalable Discriminant and Fitting Energy Functional for Driving Geometric Active Contours in Medical Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchu Wang

    2014-01-01

    that uses region-scalable discriminant and fitting energy functional for handling the intensity inhomogeneity and weak boundary problems in medical image segmentation. The region-scalable discriminant and fitting energy functional is defined to capture the image intensity characteristics in local and global regions for driving the evolution of active contour. The discriminant term in the model aims at separating background and foreground in scalable regions while the fitting term tends to fit the intensity in these regions. This model is then transformed into a variational level set formulation with a level set regularization term for accurate computation. The new model utilizes intensity information in the local and global regions as much as possible; so it not only handles better intensity inhomogeneity, but also allows more robustness to noise and more flexible initialization in comparison to the original global region and regional-scalable based models. Experimental results for synthetic and real medical image segmentation show the advantages of the proposed method in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  12. Engine cold start analysis using naturalistic driving data: City level impacts on local pollutants emissions and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Marta V; Varella, Roberto A; Duarte, Gonçalo O; Farias, Tiago L; Baptista, Patrícia C

    2018-02-26

    The analysis of vehicle cold start emissions has become an issue of utmost importance since the cold phase occurs mainly in urban context, where most of the population lives. In this sense, this research work analyzes and quantifies the impacts of cold start in urban context using naturalistic driving data. Furthermore, an assessment of the influence of ambient temperature on the percentage of time spent on cold start was also performed. Regarding the impacts of ambient temperature on cold start duration, a higher percentage of time spent on cold start was found for lower ambient temperatures (80% of the time for 0°C and ~50% for 29°C). Results showed that, during cold start, energy consumption is >110% higher than during hot conditions while emissions are up to 910% higher. Moreover, a higher increase on both energy consumption and emissions was found for gasoline vehicles than for diesel vehicles. When assessing the impacts on a city perspective, results revealed that the impacts of cold start increase for more local streets. The main finding of this study is to provide evidence that a higher increase on emissions occurs on more local streets, where most of the population lives. This kind of knowledge is of particular relevance to urban planners in order to perform an informed definition of public policies and regulations to be implemented in the future, to achieve a cleaner and healthier urban environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnet design for the splitter/combiner regions of CBETA, the Cornell-Brookhaven Energy-Recovery-Linac Test Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crittendon, J. A. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Burke, D. C. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Fuentes, Y. L.P. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mayes, C. E. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States); Smolenski, K. W. [Cornell Lab. for Accelerator-Based Sciences and Education, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-01-06

    The Cornell-Brookhaven Energy-Recovery-Linac Test Accelerator (CBETA) will provide a 150-MeV electron beam using four acceleration and four deceleration passes through the Cornell Main Linac Cryomodule housing six 1.3-GHz superconducting RF cavities. The return path of this 76-m-circumference accelerator will be provided by 106 fixed-field alternating-gradient (FFAG) cells which carry the four beams of 42, 78, 114 and 150 MeV. Here we describe magnet designs for the splitter and combiner regions which serve to match the on-axis linac beam to the off-axis beams in the FFAG cells, providing the path-length adjustment necessary to energy recovery for each of the four beams. The path lengths of the four beamlines in each of the splitter and combiner regions are designed to be adapted to 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-pass staged operations. Design specifi- cations and modeling for the 24 dipole and 32 quadrupole electromagnets in each region are presented. The CBETA project will serve as the first demonstration of multi-pass energy recovery using superconducting RF cavities with FFAG cell optics for the return loop.

  14. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  16. Bidirectional DC-DC converter fed drive for electric vehicle system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batteries are the primary energy-storage devices in ground vehicles. Now days battery fed electric drives are commonly being used for electric vehicles applications, due to various advantages, such as: nearly zero emission, guaranteed load leveling, good transient operation and energy recovery during braking operation.

  17. Bidirectional DC-DC converter fed drive for electric vehicle system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ATHARVA

    Batteries are the primary energy-storage devices in ground vehicles. Now days battery fed electric drives are commonly being used for electric vehicles applications, due to various advantages, such as: nearly zero emission, guaranteed load leveling, good transient operation and energy recovery during braking operation.

  18. Potential for energy recovery and greenhouse gas mitigation from municipal solid waste using a waste-to-material approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu

    2016-12-01

    Energy recovery and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wastes are getting noticed in recent years. This study evaluated the potential for energy recovery and GHG mitigation from municipal solid waste (MSW) with a waste-to-material (WTM) approach. Waste generated in Taiwan contains a large amount of paper, food waste, and plastics, which previously were mostly sent to waste-to-energy (WTE) plants for incineration. However, the mitigation of GHGs by the WTM approach has been especially successful in the recycling of metals (averaging 1.83×10 6 kgCO 2 -eq/year) and paper (averaging 7.38×10 5 kgCO 2 -eq/year). In addition, the recycling of paper (1.33×10 10 kWh) and plastics (1.26×10 10 kWh) has contributed greatly to energy saving. Both metal and glass are not suitable for incineration due to their low energy content. The volumes of paper and food waste contained in the MSW are positively related to the carbon concentration, which may contribute to increased GHGs during incineration. Therefore, the recycling of paper, metals, and food waste is beneficial for GHG mitigation. Measures to reduce GHGs were also suggested in this study. The development of the WTM approach may be helpful for the proper management of MSW with regards to GHG mitigation. The results of this study can be a successful example for other nations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy recovery from waste processing; La recuperation de l'energie issue du traitement des dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, H.

    2000-07-15

    This report discusses the feasibility of energy production by waste reprocessing. After an analysis of the situation, the different steps of the methane and gas production, are detailed. Many scenari of energy efficiency are compared. The report proposes also solutions to enhance the treatment units of energy production. Propositions are discussed around five main axis: the energy improvement and the product improvement, the safety and the public health, the compensation by economical tools of the greenhouse effect impacts, the competition equilibrium between energy produced by the wastes and other energy forms and the decrease of the processing cost of wastes producing energy. (A.L.B.)

  20. Energy recovery from waste food by combustion or gasification with the potential for regenerative dehydration: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, P.A.; Carr, M.A.; Kim, S.S.; Beautyman, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Energy recovery from food waste was studied using the food service at the US Naval Academy as a case study. Post-consumer food waste was captured over a period of ten days to estimate individual waste per meal and total waste per month. The food waste was analyzed for chemical composition and water content using ultimate and proximate analysis, and for energy content, and compared with the same analyses of wood (a more typical biomass fuel). Three different samples of food waste showed relative uniformity of properties despite being sampled on different days, with different menus. Food waste had lower oxygen content, higher nitrogen and ash content, and higher energy content than wood. The food waste in this study had approximately 70% water content. Temperatures and emissions from combustion of wood pellets, dried pelletized food waste, and dried non-pelletized food waste were measured and compared using a modified residential pellet stove. Temperatures were higher for food waste due to the higher energy content. Emissions of NO, HC, and soot were slightly higher for food waste. Despite the large water content, thermodynamic analysis showed that regenerative dehydration, in which waste energy from the combustion system is used to remove water from the incoming wet fuel, is possible. An excess enthalpy ratio is defined to formalize the comparison of waste sensible enthalpy with the energy required for dehydration. Analysis of fuel-lean combustion and fuel-rich gasification shows that little, if any, external energy would necessarily be required to remove the water from the incoming fuel. An equilibrium model was used to simulate waste food gasification by extending the simulation to high water content levels. Probable ranges for successful food waste gasification are identified. Energy recovery of waste food could result in cost savings by offsetting traditional fuel-use (e.g. natural gas for heating) and by reducing disposal costs.

  1. Comparison of Levelized Cost of Energy of a 10 MW superconducting and magnetic pseudo direct drive generator targeted for the INNWIND.EU reference turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Liu, D.; Magnusson, Niklas; Thomas, A; Z., Azar; Stehouwer, Ewoud; Hendriks, E; Penzkofer, A.; Atallah, K; Dragan, R.R.; .Clark, R.E.; Deng, F.; Chen, Z; Karwatzki, D.; Mertens, A.; Parker, M; Finney, SJ; Polinder, H.

    2017-01-01

    Innovative drive trains targeted at 10-20 MW offshore turbines are investigated in the INNWIND.EU project in order to determine the impact on the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) resulting when installed in the ,North sea at 50 m of water [1]. The two main technologies studied are superconducting

  2. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find the loss of driving privileges and the inherent loss of independence upsetting. Encourage the individual with ... to modify their driving. This can reduce the risk of an accident if the individual’s driving skills ...

  3. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  4. Experimental analysis of energy performance of a ventilated window for heat recovery under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    transmittance introduced by the ventilation was higher than the effect of heat recovery. Accordingly, the use of the ventilated windows might be most suitable for window unit with low ventilation rates. The results correlated with theoretical calculations in standards and software. However, the concept......A ventilated window in cold climates can be considered as a passive heat recovery system. This study carried out tests to determine the thermal transmittance of ventilated windows by using the Guarded Hot Box. By testing under defined boundary conditions, the investigation described the heat...

  5. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Thermal Energy Recovery System and its Applications in Building (A Short Comunication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsane Chavoshani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a heat recovery system from oil heater as a water heater is proposed and analyzed. The potential of heat recovery is studied technically and economically. A model was built and experiments on it are discussed. Recovery of waste heat from the oil heater stack and its application in building is proven to be economically beneficial. The most part of this apparatus was a double-walled tanks and oil heater stack act as firebox for water heater. This tank with 200 liters volume was made of galvanized iron sheets and painted with black color for adsorption of solar radiation. The tank of water heater was filled with 12-15○C water. Sampling was performed at 8 in the morning to 8 at night during one week. The analysis results show that the heat recovery system is recognized as a well option for the examined residential building from both economic and environmental points of view. With the operation considering optimal economic benefits, cost is reduced by about 50%. With maximizing the environmental advantages, CO2 emissions are decreased.

  7. Feasibility of bioflocculation in a high-loaded membrane bioreactor for improved energy recovery from sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akanyeti, I.; Temmink, B.G.; Remy, M.J.J.; Zwijnenburg, A.

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of a high-loaded membrane bioreactor to improve methane recovery from sewage was investigated. Although the process needs further optimization, it already is feasible to recover at least 35% of the sewage COD. Important aspects for further research are the occurrence of membrane

  8. Energy supply strategy: getting technology commercialized, shale oil and enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, J.E.; Sullo, P.; Michaelis, M.; Nason, H.K.

    1979-12-01

    Purpose is to identify factors inhibiting the near-term investment of industrial funds for producing oil from shale and through enhanced oil recovery, and to estimate the investment and production which would result if these deterrents were removed and suitable incentives provided. The barriers are discussed under the following categories: economic, environmental, institutional/regulatory, and technical. (DLC)

  9. Advanced simulations of energy demand and indoor climate of passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University......In building design the requirements for energy consumption for ventilation, heating and cooling and the requirements for increasingly better indoor climate are two opposing factors. This paper presents the schematic layout and simulation results of an innovative multifunctional ventilation concept...... simulation program ESP-r to model the heat and air flows and the results show the feasibility of the proposed ventilation concept in terms of low energy consumption and good indoor climate....

  10. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...... of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste....

  11. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  12. Thermophilic sludge digestion improves energy balance and nutrient recovery potential in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Smet, Davey; Klok, Jacob; Colsen, Joop; Angenent, Largus T; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2016-10-01

    The conventional treatment of municipal wastewater by means of activated sludge is typically energy demanding. Here, the potential benefits of: (1) the optimization of mesophilic digestion; and (2) transitioning to thermophilic sludge digestion in three wastewater treatment plants (Tilburg-Noord, Land van Cuijk and Bath) in the Netherlands is evaluated, including a full-scale trial validation in Bath. In Tilburg-Noord, thermophilic sludge digestion covered the energy requirements of the plant (102%), whereas 111% of sludge operational treatment costs could be covered in Bath. Thermophilic sludge digestion also resulted in a strong increase in nutrient release. The potential for nutrient recovery was evaluated via: (1) stripping/absorption of ammonium; (2) autotrophic removal of ammonium via partial nitritation/anammox; and (3) struvite precipitation. This research shows that optimization of sludge digestion may lead to a strong increase in energy recovery, sludge treatment costs reduction, and the potential for advanced nutrient management in full-scale sewage treatment plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovery of biogas as a source of renewable energy from ice-cream production residues and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Burak; Orok, Murat; Hot, Elif; Erkişi, Selin; Albükrek, Metin; Onay, Turgut T

    2013-01-01

    Proper management of waste streams and residues from agro-industry is very important to prevent environmental pollution. In particular, the anaerobic co-digestion process can be used as an important tool for safe disposal and energy recovery from agro-industry waste streams and residues. The primary objective of this laboratory-scale study was to determine whether it was possible to recover energy (biogas) from ice-cream production residues and wastewater, through a mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion process. A high methane yield of 0.338 L CH4/gCOD(removed) could be achieved from anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater alone, with almost 70% of methane in biogas, while anaerobic digestion of ice-cream production residue alone did not seem feasible. When wastewater and ice-cream production residue were anaerobically co-digested at a ratio of 9:1 by weight, the highest methane yield of 0.131 L CH4/gCOD(removed) was observed. Buffering capacity seemed to be imperative in energy recovery from these substrates in the anaerobic digestion process.

  14. Passive solar energy recovery in non-transparent facades; Passive solare Energiegewinnung im nicht-transparenten Fassadenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liersch, K.W. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Baukonstruktion und Bauphysik

    1999-10-01

    Evaluation of theoretical and practical studies has shown that non-bearing glass facades of reduced transparency hold a considerable potential for energy recovery. The most important factors governing this process are solar irradiation and inhibition of reflection in the long-wave range. Net energy recovery can be expressed in terms of the decrease of the mean effective heat transmission coefficient. The achievable gains are the smaller the more effective the heat insulating properties of the wall are, i.e. the lower the U-value of the non-transparent wall is. In the case of outer walls with additional heat insulation and a heat transmission coefficient of less than k{sub w} = approx. 0.25 W/ (m-2K) energy recovery is practically negligible, with little scope for improvement through facade orientation. [Deutsch] Die Auswertung der theoretischen und messtechnischen Untersuchungen zeigt, dass mittels einer vorgehaengten, reduziert transparenten Glasfassade betraechtliche Waermegewinne zu erzielen sind. Diese ergeben sich aus der Sonnenzustrahlung sowie der Behinderung langwelliger Waermeabstrahlung. Die Gewinne lassen sich durch eine Abminderung des mittleren effektiven Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten darstellen. Die zu erzielenden Gewinne sind allerdings um so geringer, je besser die sonstige waermeschutztechnische Ausruestung der betreffenden Wand, d.h. je niedriger der k-Wert der nicht-transparenten Wandflaeche ist. Das bedeutet, dass bei Aussenwaenden mit Zusatzdaemmung und einem Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten unterhalb k{sub W}{approx}0,25 W/(m{sup 2}K) der Gewinn nicht mehr nennenswert ist, wobei dann auch die Ausrichtung der Fassade zur Himmelsrichtung das Ergebnis nur noch in geringem Umfang beeinflusst. (orig.)

  15. Hydrogen and methane production, energy recovery, and organic matter removal from effluents in a two-stage fermentative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja-Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Agnelli, José Augusto Bolzan; Barboza, Marlei; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluates the potential for using different effluents for simultaneous H(2) and CH(4) production in a two-stage batch fermentation process with mixed microflora. An appreciable amount of H(2) was produced from parboiled rice wastewater (23.9 mL g(-1) chemical oxygen demand [COD]) and vinasse (20.8 mL g(-1) COD), while other effluents supported CH(4) generation. The amount of CH(4) produced was minimum for sewage (46.3 mL g(-1) COD), followed by parboiled rice wastewater (115.5 mL g(-1) COD) and glycerol (180.1 mL g(-1) COD). The maximum amount of CH(4) was observed for vinasse (255.4 mL g(-1) COD). The total energy recovery from vinasse (10.4 kJ g(-1) COD) corresponded to the maximum COD reduction (74.7 %), followed by glycerol (70.38 %, 7.20 kJ g(-1) COD), parboiled rice wastewater (63.91 %, 4.92 kJ g(-1) COD), and sewage (51.11 %, 1.85 kJ g(-1) COD). The relatively high performance of vinasse in such comparisons could be attributed to the elevated concentrations of macronutrients contained in raw vinasse. The observations are based on kinetic parameters of H(2) and CH(4) production and global energy recovery of the process. These observations collectively suggest that organic-rich effluents can be deployed for energy recovery with sequential generation of H(2) and CH(4).

  16. Potential for improving the energy efficiency of cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) using binary heat recovery cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneke, Mathew; Wang, Meihong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the potential of improving the energy efficiency of a conventional cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) was investigated through modelling and simulation using Aspen Plus ® v 8.1. It is achieved through converting the heat from the compressor effluent to electricity using organic Ranking cycle (ORC). Two different arrangements of combining compressor and waste heat recovery ORC system were compared with the conventional cryogenic ASU which was used as the benchmark. The benchmark is a conventional cryogenic ASU with 3 stages of compression which uses water for intercooling. In the first arrangement the water used as the cooling fluid of the intercooler/after cooler heat exchanger of a conventional cryogenic ASU process was replaced by R134a which also acts as the working fluid for the ORC system (C3WHR) while in the second arrangement, the 3 stages compressor of the conventional process was replaced with a single stage compressor with the same overall pressure ratio as the conventional process and the hot compressor effluent cooled with R134a which also acts as the working fluid of the ORC system (C1WHR). The simulation results based on a cryogenic ASU capable of processing 100 kg/s of atmospheric air at 30  ° C as feedstock show that the specific power consumption for the pure products which was 0.32 kWh/kg, 0.37 kWh/kg and 17.35 kWh/kg for oxygen, nitrogen and argon respectively for the conventional cryogenic ASU process was reduced by the addition of the waste heat recovery ORC system. The C1WHR reduced the specific power consumption by an average of 0.2% across the aforementioned pure products while the C3WHR reduced it by an average of 11%. The net power consumption of the conventional cryogenic ASU which was 21826.19 kW was also found to be reduced by the same percentage. - Highlights: • We model two cryogenic air separation unit with compressor waste heat recovery. • We compare the specific energy consumption of the models. • We

  17. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  18. Driving forces behind the stagnancy of China's energy-related CO2 emissions from 1996 to 1999: the relative importance of structural change, intensity change and scale change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is noteworthy that income elasticity of energy consumption in China shifted from positive to negative after 1996, accompanied by an unprecedented decline in energy-related CO 2 emissions. This paper therefore investigate the evolution of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1985 to 1999 and the underlying driving forces, using the newly proposed three-level 'perfect decomposition' method and provincially aggregated data. The province-based estimates and analyses reveal a 'sudden stagnancy' of energy consumption, supply and energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1996 to 1999. The speed of a decrease in energy intensity and a slowdown in the growth of average labor productivity of industrial enterprises may have been the dominant contributors to this 'stagnancy'. The findings of this paper point to the highest rate of deterioration of state-owned enterprises in early 1996, the industrial restructuring caused by changes in ownership, the shutdown of small-scale power plants, and the introduction of policies to improve energy efficiency as probable factors. Taking into account the characteristics of those key driving forces, we characterize China's decline of energy-related CO 2 emissions as a short-term fluctuation and incline to the likelihood that China will resume an increasing trend from a lower starting point in the near future. (author)

  19. Producing energy efficiently; Energieeffizient produzieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blass, H.W.; Schumacher, M.; Coy, C; Pfister, J.; Finkbeiner, M.; Kuehnle, J.; Kiel, E.; Duerrschmidt, R.; Diede, J.; Scheffels, G.; Kranz, H.; Simon, J.; Diebold, K.; Koch, H.R.; Lehnhardt, M.

    2008-04-07

    Producing energy efficiently means saving much energy and money. Drives are responsible for the accounting of power for companies. The fair shows examples on the complete field of producing sector, hits the advantages of heat recovery and an efficient cooling. (GL)

  20. Design for a 1.3 MW, 13 MeV Beam Dump for an Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Charles K; Smith, Colin H

    2005-01-01

    The electron beam exiting an Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is dumped close to the injection energy. This energy is chosen as low as possible while allowing the beam quality specifications to be met. As ERLs are designed for high average beam current, beam dumps are required to handle high beam power at low energy. Low energy electrons have a short range in practical dump materials, requiring the beam size at the dump face be enlarged to give acceptable power densities and heat fluxes. Cornell University is developing a 100 mA average current ERL as a synchrotron radiation source. The 13 MeV optimum injection energy requires a 1.3 MW beam dump. We present a mature design for this dump, using an array of water-cooled extruded copper tubes. This array is mounted in the accelerator vacuum normal to the beam. Fatigue failure resulting from abrupt thermal cycles associated with beam trips is a potential failure mechanism. We report on designs for a 75 kW, 750 keV tube-cooled beryllium plate dump for electron gun test...

  1. Energy conservation in electric drives: a practical approach with applications in a steel lamination; Conservacao de energia em acionamentos eletricos: uma abordagem pratica com aplicacoes numa laminacao siderurgica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Jose Mauricio Gomes

    1991-07-01

    The goal of this work is to propose a method to save energy in electrical drives by exploiting latent potentialities of the equipment. So, a significant reduction of energy consumption may be obtained through inexpensive measures. Although the examples here studied are directed to equipment of Plate Mill at COSIPA works, the analysis methodology is not restricted to steelmaking plants, being applied to any other industrial activities. Was adopted a practical approach, highlighting maintenance viewpoint and focusing their responsibilities in energy saving practices. (author)

  2. New Integrated Multilevel Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives in Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Flexible Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Chun; Wu, Jianhua; Hu, Yihua

    2017-01-01

    . In generator driving mode, the battery bank is employed to elevate the phase voltage for fast excitation and demagnetization. In battery driving mode, the converter is reconfigured as a four-level converter, and the capacitor is used as an additional charge capacitor to produce multilevel voltage outputs......, which enhances the torque capability. The operating modes of the proposed drive are explained and the phase current and voltage are analyzed in details. The battery charging is naturally achieved by the demagnetization current in motoring mode and by the regenerative current in braking mode. Moreover...

  3. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, Jeff [SBW Consulting, Inc., Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-06-21

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol.

  4. Development of a program for estimating air-to-air sensible heat recovery energy savings reduction due to frost control and comparison with EE4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, I. [GES Technologies Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Air-to-air heat recovery is an important energy savings measure for new or existing buildings. However, frost formation in cold climates limits the use of air-to-air heat recovery for HVAC applications. This study examined the methodology for estimating heat recovery energy savings in the program EE4, the main building energy modelling tool used in Canada. The EE4 is used together with the Modeling National Energy Building code to evaluate building energy performance for the Commercial Building Incentive Program. It is the basis for calculating the resulting financial incentives for building owners. The main objective of the study was to present a more realistic algorithm for estimating energy savings in relation to sensible air-to-air heat recovery accounting for two types of conventional frost control methods: face and bypass and outdoor air preheat. This algorithm was developed into a computer program called HRSIM that performs hourly calculations and contains an option for air-to-air heat recovery. Results from the simulations demonstrate that when accounting for frost control, the annual energy savings calculated in EE4 were 10 to 53 per cent higher than with HRSIM. 6 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  5. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 282 Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Gordon, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Brian K.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hand, James R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-09-30

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Gordon, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Gordon took place on March 9, 2010.

  6. Observation of high-power coherent synchrotron radiation in the THz region from the JAEA energy recovery linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiharu; Okuda, Shuichi; Minehara, Eisuke J.; Hajima, Ryoichi; Sawamura, Masaru; Nagai, Ryoji; Kikuzawa, Nobihiro; Iijima, Hokuto; Nishitani, Tomohiro; Nishimori, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    The energy recovery linac (ERL) is able to generate high-power coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz and the millimeter-wave regions, because it produces shorter bunches than usual storage rings and a higher current than conventional linacs. The spectrum of CSR has been measured at the JAEA-ERL in the wavenumber range from 0.5 to 15 cm -1 . The detected power was 2x10 -4 W/cm -1 at 2.5 cm -1 for the average beam current of 17.7 μA. When the infrared FEL was operated with the undulator in the ERL, the CSR spectrum was shifted to the longer wavelengths because of the energy broadening of the electron beam. (author)

  7. Innovative Stirling Convertor for Distributed Electric Power from Thermal Energy Recovery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SCCAQ Energy, LLC (SCCAQ) in collaboration with Temple University and Infinia Technology Corporation (ITC) proposes to develop a Reliable Stirling Convertor (RSC)...

  8. An environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with ammonia recovery and energy production: Experimental study and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ye; Tan, Michelle Ting Ting; Chong, Clive; Xiao, Wende; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-10-01

    Animal manure waste is considered as an environmental challenge especially in farming areas mainly because of gaseous emission and water pollution. Among all the pollutants emitted from manure waste, ammonia is of greatest concern as it could contribute to formation of aerosols in the air and could hardly be controlled by traditional disposal methods like landfill or composting. On the other hand, manure waste is also a renewable source for energy production. In this work, an environmental friendly animal waste disposal process with combined ammonia recovery and energy production was proposed and investigated both experimentally and economically. Lab-scale feasibility study results showed that 70% of ammonia in the manure waste could be converted to struvite as fertilizer, while solid manure waste was successfully gasified in a 10kW downdraft fixed-bed gasifier producing syngas with the higher heating value of 4.9MJ/(Nm 3 ). Based on experimental results, economic study for the system was carried out using a cost-benefit analysis to investigate the financial feasibility based on a Singapore case study. In addition, for comparison, schemes of gasification without ammonia removal and incineration were also studied for manure waste disposal. The results showed that the proposed gasification-based manure waste treatment process integrated with ammonia recovery was most financially viable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste in EU: proposals to assess the management performance under a circular economy perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Elena Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 the European Commission issued a package of documents on Circular Economy concerning an integrated revision of legislative proposals on waste management. The aim was to stimulate a European transition towards a circular economy concept, which is expected to foster competitiveness, sustainable economic growth and new jobs generation. Three indicators are proposed in this paper to contribute to the assessment of the energy recovery management performance from MSW in a scenario of circular economy: a referring to MSW directly used (RMSW or indirectly used (SRF as input of thermochemical plants, an indicator can be the percentage of waste having LHV > 13MJ/kg; b referring to the MSW directly or indirectly used as input of thermochemical plants, the percentage of waste having ash recovered; c referring to food waste, percentage of this stream sent to anaerobic digestion. The above indicators, proposed and discussed in this paper, have to be integrated with other ones in order to complete the quantification of the role of MSW management in term of energy recovery under a circular economy strategy. It is not the aim of the present paper to give a comprehensive solution to this complex issue.

  10. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E; Antiohos, S K; Papadi, C

    2012-06-01

    A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a "very good quality" for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary design note for a direct coupled 200,000 amp neutrino horn power supply with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, A.T.

    1995-03-01

    The availability of high current, (several thousand amperes) silicon controlled rectifiers and high current, low loss capacitors make it practical to design a direct coupled energy discharge power supply for the neutrino horns in the proposed NuMI facility at Fermilab. The neutrino horns require a continuous pulse train of 200,000 A and 1 msec duration at a pulse period of 1.5 seconds. This high current pulse train yields a system load current of about 9,000 A rms. Using a high power coupling transformer between the energy stored in a capacitor bank and the horns is very expensive because the transformer secondary winding would have to be rated for 9,000 A rms at about 1,400 Vpk. The transformer would also add leakage inductance to the discharge circuit, take up a substantial amount of floor space and make stored energy recovery from the horns less effective or maybe even impractical. The transformer would need a reset winding to remove the high remnant magnet field in the transformer steel which is caused by the unipolar discharge pulses. A coupling transformer is practical for high voltage loads, but the horns operate at a relatively low voltage of about 1,400 V, which makes direct coupling very attractive. This note describes a preliminary design for a direct coupled system. From the design notes the authors can conclude that direct coupling is economical, practical, relatively simple, can use energy recovery and does not require materials or equipment that is hard to obtain. The charging power supply could be two standard (Fermilab) 240 kW beamline power supplies connected in series and grounded at the midpoint. The capacitor bank, switches, transmission line and controls can be most economically assembled in house. They may conclude that it is desirable to build a direct coupled neutrino horn power supply system and to connect both horns in series

  12. The potential of Saudi Arabian natural zeolites in energy recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, A.S.; Ouda, O.K.M.; Rehan, M.; El-Maghraby, A.M.O.; Gardy, J.; Hassanpour, A.; Kumar, S.; Ismail, I.M.I.

    2016-01-01

    Energy consumption in KSA (kingdom of Saudi Arabia) is growing rapidly due to economic development with raised levels of population, urbanization and living standards. Fossil fuels are currently solely used to meet the energy requirements. The KSA government have planned to double its energy generating capacity (upto 120 GW (gigawatts)) by 2032. About half of the electricity capacity of this targeted energy will come from renewable resources such as nuclear, wind, solar, WTE (waste-to-energy) etc. Natural zeolites are found abundantly in KSA at Jabal Shamah occurrence near Jeddah city, whose characteristics have never been investigated in energy related applications. This research aims to study the physical and chemical characteristics of natural zeolite in KSA and to review its potential utilization in selected WTE technologies and solar energy. The standard zeolite group of alumina–silicate minerals were found with the presence of other elements such as Na, Mg and K etc. A highly crystalline structure and thermal stability of natural zeolites together with unique ion exchange, adsorption properties, high surface area and porosity make them suitable in energy applications such as WTE and solar energy as an additive or catalyst. A simple solid–gas absorption system for storing solar energy in natural zeolites will be a cheap alternative method for KSA. In AD (anaerobic digestion), the dual characteristics of natural zeolite like Mordenite will increase the CH 4 production of OFMSW (organic fraction of municipal solid waste). Further investigations are recommended to study the technical, economical, and environmental feasibility of natural zeolite utilization in WTE technologies in KSA. - Highlights: • A highly crystalline structure is found in natural zeolites. • Natural zeolites will store solar energy in solid–gas absorption system. • The composites of natural zeolites will produce more liquid fuel like gasoline. • The natural zeolite will increase

  13. Energy recovery from organic fractions of municipal solid waste: A case study of Hyderabad city, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Korai M; Bux, Mahar R; Aslam, Uqaili M; Ahmed, Memon S; Ahmed, Lashari I

    2016-04-01

    Non-renewable energy sources have remained the choice of the world for centuries. Rapid growth in population and industrialisation have caused their shortage and environmental degradation by using them. Thus, at the present rate of consumption, they will not last very long. In this prospective, this study has been conducted. The estimation of energy in terms of biogas and heat from various organic fractions of municipal solid waste is presented and discussed. The results show that organic fractions of municipal solid waste possess methane potential in the range of 3%-22% and their heat capacity ranges from 3007 to 20,099 kJ kg(-1) Also, theoretical biogas potential of different individual fruit as well as vegetable components and mixed food waste are analysed and estimated in the range of 608-1244 m(3) t(-1) Further, the share of bioenergy from municipal solid waste in the total primary energy supply in Pakistan has been estimated to be 1.82%. About 8.43% of present energy demand of the country could be met from municipal solid waste. The study leads us to the conclusion that the share of imported energy (i.e. 0.1% of total energy supply) and reduction in the amount of energy from fossil fuels can be achieved by adopting a waste-to-energy system in the country. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system usually shows higher performance than other borehole thermal energy storage systems. Although there is a limitation in the widespread use of the HT-ATES system because of several technical problems such as clogging, corrosion, etc., it is get...

  15. TAS::89 0927::TAS RECOVERY - The Lean Green Energy Controller Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeter, John; Wang, Gene; Moss, David

    2012-12-30

    Achieving efficiency improvements and providing demand-response programs have been identified as key elements of our national energy initiative. The residential market is the largest, yet most difficult, segment to engage in efforts to meet these objectives. This project developed Energy Management System that engages the consumer and enables Smart Grid services, applications, and business processes to address this need. Our innovative solution provides smart controller providing dynamic optimization of energy consumption for the residential energy consumer. Our solution extends the technical platform to include a cloud based Internet of Things (IoT) aggregation of data sensors and actuators the go beyond energy management and extend to life style services provided through compelling mobile and console based user experiences.

  16. Studies of Energy Recovery Linacs at Jefferson Laboratory: 1 GeV Demonstration of Energy Recovery at CEBAF and Studies of the Multibunch, Multipass Beam Breakup Instability in the 10 kW FEL Upgrade Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-10-01

    An energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. Two primary physics challenges exist in pushing the frontier of ERL performance. The first is energy recovering a high energy beam while demonstrating operational control of two coupled beams in a common transport channel. The second is controlling the high average current effects in ERLs, specifically a type of beam instability called multipass beam breakup (BBU). This work addresses both of these issues. A successful 1 GeV energy recovery demonstration with a maximum-to-injection energy ratio of 51:1 was carried out on the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Laboratory in an effort to address issues related to beam quality preservation in a large scale system. With a 1.3 km recirculation length and containing 312 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, this experiment has demonstrated energy recovery on the largest scale, and through the largest SRF environment, to date. The BBU instability imposes a potentially severe limitation to the average current that can be accelerated in an ERL. Simulation results for Jefferson Laboratory's 10 kW free electron laser (FEL) Upgrade Driver predict the occurrence of BBU below the nominal operating current. Measurements of the threshold current are described and shown to agree to within 10% of predictions from BBU simulation codes. This represents the first time the codes have been benchmarked with experimental data. With BBU limiting the beam current, several suppression schemes were developed. These include direct damping of the higher-order mode using two different cavity-based feedbacks and modifying the electron beam optics to reduce the coupling between the beam and mode. Specifically the effect of implementing (1) point

  17. POTENTIAL USE OF MICROBIAL ELECTROLYSIS CELLS (MECs IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS FOR ENERGY RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eEscapa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, large amounts of electrical energy are spent every year for domestic wastewater (dWW treatment. In the future, energy prices are expected to rise as the demand for energy resources increases and fossil fuel reserves become depleted. By using appropriate technologies, the potential chemical energy contained in the organic compounds present in dWWs might help to improve the energy and economic balance of dWW treatment plants. Bioelectrochemical Systems (BESs in general and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs in particular represent an emerging technology capable of harvesting part of this energy. This study offers an overview of the potential of using MEC technology in dWW treatment plants (dWWTPs to reduce the energy bill. It begins with a brief account of the basics of BESs, followed by an examination of how MECs can be integrated in dWW treatment plants (dWWTPs, identifying scaling-up bottlenecks and estimating potential energy savings. A simplified analysis showed that the use of MEC technology may help to reduce up to ~20% the energy consumption in a conventional dWWTP. The study concludes with a discussion of the future perspectives of MEC technology for dWW treatment. The growing rates of municipal water and wastewater treatment markets in Europe offer excellent business prospects and it is expected that the first generation of MECs could be ready within 1-4 years. However, before MEC technology may achieve practical implementation in dWWTPs, it needs not only to overcome important techno-economic challenges, but also to compete with other energy-producing technologies.

  18. Potential Use of Microbial Electrolysis Cells in Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plants for Energy Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escapa, Adrián; San-Martín, María Isabel; Morán, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Globally, large amounts of electrical energy are spent every year for domestic wastewater (dWW) treatment. In the future, energy prices are expected to rise as the demand for energy resources increases and fossil fuel reserves become depleted. By using appropriate technologies, the potential chemical energy contained in the organic compounds present in dWWs might help to improve the energy and economic balance of dWW treatment plants. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) in general and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) in particular represent an emerging technology capable of harvesting part of this energy. This study offers an overview of the potential of using MEC technology in domestic wastewater treatment plants (dWWTPs) to reduce the energy bill. It begins with a brief account of the basics of BESs, followed by an examination of how MECs can be integrated in dWWTPs, identifying scaling-up bottlenecks and estimating potential energy savings. A simplified analysis showed that the use of MEC technology may help to reduce up to ~20% the energy consumption in a conventional dWWTP. The study concludes with a discussion of the future perspectives of MEC technology for dWW treatment. The growing rates of municipal water and wastewater treatment markets in Europe offer excellent business prospects and it is expected that the first generation of MECs could be ready within 1–4 years. However, before MEC technology may achieve practical implementation in dWWTPs, it need not only to overcome important techno-economic challenges, but also to compete with other energy-producing technologies.

  19. Energy and exergy analysis of the turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive on LNG carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrzljak, Vedran; Poljak, Igor; Mrakovčić, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two low-power steam turbines in the LNG carrier propulsion plant were investigated. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of both steam turbines vary between 46% and 62%. • The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines. • The maximum efficiencies area of both turbines was investigated. • A method for increasing the turbo-generator efficiencies by 1–3% is presented. - Abstract: Nowadays, marine propulsion systems are mainly based on internal combustion diesel engines. Despite this fact, a number of LNG carriers have steam propulsion plants. In such plants, steam turbines are used not only for ship propulsion, but also for electrical power generation and main feed water pump drive. Marine turbo-generators and steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were investigated on the analyzed LNG carrier with steam propulsion plant. The measurements of various operating parameters were performed and obtained data were used for energy and exergy analysis. All the measurements and calculations were performed during the ship acceleration. The analysis shows that the energy and exergy efficiencies of both analyzed low-power turbines vary between 46% and 62% what is significantly lower in comparison with the high-power steam turbines. The ambient temperature has a low impact on exergy efficiency of analyzed turbines (change in ambient temperature for 10 °C causes less than 1% change in exergy efficiency). The highest exergy efficiencies were achieved at the lowest observed ambient temperature. Also, the highest efficiencies were achieved at 71.5% of maximum developed turbo-generator power while the highest efficiencies of steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive were achieved at maximum turbine developed power. Replacing the existing steam turbine for the main feed water pump drive with an electric motor would increase the turbo-generator energy and exergy efficiencies for at least 1–3% in all analyzed

  20. Effect of nutritional recovery with soybean flour diet on body composition, energy balance and serum leptin concentration in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschero Antonio C

    2009-08-01

    group. Conclusion Protein restriction during intrauterine life and lactation periods did not provoke obesity in adulthood. Nutritional recovery with soybean diet decreased the body weight at the expense of lower energy efficiency with repercussion on lean mass.

  1. Model predictive control-based efficient energy recovery control strategy for regenerative braking system of hybrid electric bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Yang, Chao; Yan, Bingjie; Marina Martinez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 7-degree-of-freedom model of hybrid electric vehicle with regenerative braking system is built. • A modified nonlinear model predictive control strategy is developed. • The particle swarm optimization algorithm is employed to solve the optimization problem. • The proposed control strategy is verified by simulation and hardware-in-loop tests. • Test results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. - Abstract: As one of the main working modes, the energy recovered with regenerative braking system provides an effective approach so as to greatly improve fuel economy of hybrid electric bus. However, it is still a challenging issue to ensure braking stability while maximizing braking energy recovery. To solve this problem, an efficient energy recovery control strategy is proposed based on the modified nonlinear model predictive control method. Firstly, combined with the characteristics of the compound braking process of single-shaft parallel hybrid electric bus, a 7 degrees of freedom model of the vehicle longitudinal dynamics is built. Secondly, considering nonlinear characteristic of the vehicle model and the efficiency of regenerative braking system, the particle swarm optimization algorithm within the modified nonlinear model predictive control is adopted to optimize the torque distribution between regenerative braking system and pneumatic braking system at the wheels. So as to reduce the computational time of modified nonlinear model predictive control, a nearest point method is employed during the braking process. Finally, the simulation and hardware-in-loop test are carried out on road conditions with different tire–road adhesion coefficients, and the proposed control strategy is verified by comparing it with the conventional control method employed in the baseline vehicle controller. The simulation and hardware-in-loop test results show that the proposed strategy can ensure vehicle safety during emergency braking

  2. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    analysis was further advanced by development of a mathematical optimization model for determination of the theoretical recovery potential. The results highlighted that the waste refinery may recover ca. 56% of the dry matter input as bioliquid, yielding 6.2GJ biogas-energy. The potential for nitrogen...... process optimization. A challenge for the process may be digestate quality, as digestate may represent an emission pathway when applied on land. Considering the potential variability of local revenues for energy outputs, the costs for the waste refinery solution appeared comparable with alternatives......Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials...

  3. A Microfiltration Polymer-Based Hollow-Fiber Cathode as a Promising Advanced Material for Simultaneous Recovery of Energy and Water

    KAUST Repository

    Katuri, Krishna

    2016-09-12

    A novel electrocatalytic and microfiltration polymeric hollow fiber is fabricated for simultaneous recovery of energy (H2) and clean fresh water from wastewater, hence addressing two grand challenges facing society in the current century (i.e., providing adequate supplies of clean fresh water and energy as the world\\'s population increases).

  4. Recovery Act - CAREER: Sustainable Silicon -- Energy-Efficient VLSI Interconnect for Extreme-Scale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Patrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The research goal of this CAREER proposal is to develop energy-efficient, VLSI interconnect circuits and systems that will facilitate future massively-parallel, high-performance computing. Extreme-scale computing will exhibit massive parallelism on multiple vertical levels, from thou­ sands of computational units on a single processor to thousands of processors in a single data center. Unfortunately, the energy required to communicate between these units at every level (on­ chip, off-chip, off-rack) will be the critical limitation to energy efficiency. Therefore, the PI's career goal is to become a leading researcher in the design of energy-efficient VLSI interconnect for future computing systems.

  5. Application of thermal energy storage to process heat recovery in the aluminum industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccabe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The economic viability and the institutional compatibility of a district heating system in the city of Bellingham, Washington are assessed and the technical and economic advantages of using thermal energy storage methods are determined.

  6. Energy Efficient Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Ethanol Recovery ad Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower f...

  7. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  8. Control of Single-room Ventilation with Regenerative Heat Recovery for Indoor Climate and Energy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kevin Michael; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    constructions and will soon require 85%. The development of single-room ventilation units may aim for these requirements as a result. The exhaust temperatures in highly efficient heat exchangers may approach outdoor levels. The cold exhaust cannot contain ample moisture, so vapour will condense on the heat...... exchanger. Available literature suggests that uncoated rotary heat exchangers transfer this condensate to the supply air, so the drying capacity of the ventilation system may be severely limited. This could raise indoor relative humidities to unsafe levels, which could promote the growth of dust......-mites and mould. Controls may increase drying capacity by increasing ventilation airflow, but this may not be sufficient to limit moisture-related risks. This research investigated the added demand-control measure of reducing variable heat recovery to increase drying capacity when using an uncoated rotary heat...

  9. Sparse recovery of undersampled intensity patterns for coherent diffraction imaging at high X-ray energies

    OpenAIRE

    Maddali, Siddharth; Calvo-Almazan, Irene; Almer, Jonathan; Kenesei, Peter; Park, Jun-Sang; Harder, Ross; Nashed, Youssef; Hruszkewycz, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Coherent X-ray photons with energies higher than 50 keV offer new possibilities for imaging nanoscale lattice distortions in bulk crystalline materials using Bragg peak phase retrieval methods. However, the compression of reciprocal space at high energies typically results in poorly resolved fringes on an area detector, rendering the diffraction data unsuitable for the three-dimensional reconstruction of compact crystals. To address this problem, we propose a method by which to recover fine f...

  10. Prospects for Increased Energy Recovery from Horse Manure—A Case Study of Management Practices, Environmental Impact and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Hadin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A transition to renewable energy sources and a circular economy has increased interest in renewable resources not usually considered as energy sources or plant nutrient resources. Horse manure exemplifies this, as it is sometimes recycled but not often used for energy purposes. The purpose of this study was to explore horse manure management in a Swedish municipality and prospects for energy recovery. The case study includes a survey of horse manure practices, environmental assessment of horse manure treatment in a biogas plant, including associated transport, compared to on-site unmanaged composting, and finally a simplified economic analysis. It was found that horse manure management was characterized by indoor collection of manure most of the year and storage on concrete slabs or in containers, followed by direct application on arable land. Softwood was predominantly used as bedding, and bedding accounted for a relatively small proportion (13% of the total mix. Anaerobic digestion was indicated to reduce potential environmental impact in comparison to unmanaged composting, mainly due to biogas substituting use of fossil fuels. The relative environmental impact from transport of manure from horse facilities to anaerobic digestion plant was small. Results also indicate a relatively high cost for horse keepers to change from composting on site to anaerobic digestion in a centralized plant.

  11. UTILIZATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES AND CHANGINGENERGY STUCTURE AT LOCAL GOVERMENT, AS DRIVERS OFECONOMIC RECOVERY: HUNGARIAN CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    György Gonda

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The growth and stability of the world economy is hindered because of theexhaustion of the fossil and traditional energy sources and because ofenvironmental consequences and increasing costs oftheir use. The energy supplyof is increasingly unstable and unsafe because in countries which suffer from highdependence of energy import. The traditional sectors have been facing recessionduring the last couple of years and the recovery also highly depends on newsolutions in energy supply. The rural regions are more vulnerable from botheconomic and social, because their adaptive capacities are limited. The main goalis this paper is to show the key factors of the limited possibilities of theirrecovery, such as low level of income, high rate ofunemployment and migration,high share of unskilled labour, lack of capital andappropriate know-how inenergetics. Development requires a new approach inenergetics, in agriculture andalso in waste management, resulting in high utilization of the renewable energiesgenerating regional economic growth. In this paper,a Hungarian case study willbe presented, which will show one solution of a rural municipality for viability,stability, job creation, and economic and social development. The paper concludesthe necessity of the role of the public private partnership and of the increasingsocial capital, in the future economic environmental and social balance in the ruralarea.

  12. Flexible and stable heat energy recovery from municipal wastewater treatment plants using a fixed-inverter hybrid heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Ren, Xianghao

    2016-01-01

    applied to highly load-fluctuating real WWTPs. To improve the overall efficiency of the heat recovery system, although the heat pump is the largest energy-consuming component, taking up 56.0–68.5% of the total energy, new efforts to develop a novel design are also needed to make the heat exchanger more energy-efficient.

  13. Peripheral drive in Aα/β-fiber neurons is altered in a rat model of osteoarthritis: changes in following frequency and recovery from inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Q

    2013-03-01

    controls. These changes might influence peripheral drive of spinal excitability and plasticity, thus contributing to OA sensory abnormalities, including OA pain.Keywords: dorsal root ganglion, repetitive firing, peripheral drive, electrophysiology, conduction failure, adaptation

  14. Freeway Driving Cycle Construction Based on Real-Time Traffic Information and Global Optimal Energy Management for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a freeway driving cycle (FDC construction method based on traffic information. A float car collected different type of roads in California and we built a velocity fragment database. We selected a real freeway driving cycle (RFDC and established the corresponding time traffic information tensor model by using the data in California Department of Transportation performance measure system (PeMS. The correlation of road velocity in the time dimension and spatial dimension are analyzed. According to the average velocity of road sections at different times, the kinematic fragments are stochastically selected in the velocity fragment database to construct a real-time FDC of each section. The comparison between construction freeway driving cycle (CFDC and real freeway driving cycle (RFDC show that the CFDC well reflects the RFDC characteristic parameters. Compared to its application in plug-in electric hybrid vehicle (PHEV optimal energy management based on a dynamic programming (DP algorithm, CFDC and RFDC fuel consumption are similar within approximately 5.09% error, and non-rush hour fuel economy is better than rush hour 3.51 (L/100 km at non-rush hour, 4.29 (L/km at rush hour. Moreover, the fuel consumption ratio can be up to 13.17% in the same CFDC at non-rush hour.

  15. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  16. Impact of Different Driving Cycles and Operating Conditions on CO2 Emissions and Energy Management Strategies of a Euro-6 Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cubito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs represent one of the key technologies to reduce CO2 emissions, their effective potential in real world driving conditions strongly depends on the performance of their Energy Management System (EMS and on its capability to maximize the efficiency of the powertrain in real life as well as during Type Approval (TA tests. Attempting to close the gap between TA and real world CO2 emissions, the European Commission has decided to introduce from September 2017 the Worldwide Harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP, replacing the previous procedure based on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC. The aim of this work is the analysis of the impact of different driving cycles and operating conditions on CO2 emissions and on energy management strategies of a Euro-6 HEV through the limited number of information available from the chassis dyno tests. The vehicle was tested considering different initial battery State of Charge (SOC, ranging from 40% to 65%, and engine coolant temperatures, from −7 °C to 70 °C. The change of test conditions from NEDC to WLTP was shown to lead to a significant reduction of the electric drive and to about a 30% increase of CO2 emissions. However, since the specific energy demand of WLTP is about 50% higher than that of NEDC, these results demonstrate that the EMS strategies of the tested vehicle can achieve, in test conditions closer to real life, even higher efficiency levels than those that are currently evaluated on the NEDC, and prove the effectiveness of HEV technology to reduce CO2 emissions.

  17. Heat recovery with heat pumps in non-energy intensive industry: A detailed bottom-up model analysis in the French food and drink industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seck, Gondia Sokhna; Guerassimoff, Gilles; Maïzi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • First bottom-up energy model for NEI at 4-digit level of NACE for energy analysis. • Energy end-use modelling due to the unsuitability of end-product/process approach. • Analysis of heat recovery with HP on industrial processes up to 2020 in French F and D. • Energy consumption and emissions drop respectively by 10% compared to 2001 and 9% to 1990. • Results only achieved at heat temperature below 100 °C, concentrated in 1/3 of F and D sectors. - Abstract: Rising energy prices and environmental impacts inevitably encourage industrials to get involved in promoting energy efficiency and emissions reductions. To achieve this goal, we have developed the first detailed bottom-up energy model for Non-Energy Intensive industry (NEI) to study its global energy efficiency and the potential for CO 2 emissions reduction at a 4-digit level of NACE classification. The latter, which is generally neglected in energy analyses, is expected to play an important role in reducing industry energy intensity in the long term due to its economic and energy significance and relatively high growth rate. In this paper, the modelling of NEI is done by energy end-use owing to the unsuitability of the end-product/process approach used in the Energy Intensive industry modelling. As an example, we analysed the impact of heat recovery with heat pumps (HP) on industrial processes up to 2020 on energy savings and CO 2 emissions reductions in the French food and drink industry (F and D), the biggest NEI sector. The results showed HP could be an excellent and very promising energy recovery technology. For further detailed analysis, the depiction of HP investment cost payments is given per temperature range for each F and D subsector. This model constitutes a useful decision-making tool for assessing potential energy savings from investing in efficient technologies at the highest level of disaggregation, as well as a better subsectoral screening

  18. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of an energy recovery plant in the olive oil industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intini, Francesca; Kuhtz, Silvana [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Basilicata (Italy); Gianluca Rospi, [Dep. Engineering and Environmental Physics, Faculty of Architecture, University of Basilicata (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    To reduce the GHG emissions in the UE and to increase the produced energy it is important to spread out decentralized technologies for renewable energy production. In this paper a power plant fed with biomass is studied, in particular the biomass considered is the waste of the olive oil industries. This study focuses on the possibility of using the de-oiled pomace and waste wood as fuel. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of a biomass power plant located in the South of Italy was performed. The global warming potential has been calculated and compared with that of a plant for energy production that uses refuse derived fuel (RDF) and that of one that uses coal. The LCA shows the important environmental advantages of biomass utilization in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reduction. An improved impact assessment methodology may better underline the advantages due to the biomass utilization.

  19. Application of Waste Heat Recovery Energy Saving Technology in Reform of UHP-EAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. H.; Zhang,