WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy recovery drives

  1. Stability Analysis of Static Slip-Energy Recovery Drive via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stability of the sub synchronous static slip energy recovery scheme for the speed control of slip-ring induction motor is presented. A set of nonlinear differential equations which describe the system dynamics are derived and linearized about an operating point using perturbation technique. The Eigenvalue analysis of the ...

  2. THE CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY RECOVERY ELECTRIFIED URBAN TRANSPORT DURING THE INSTALLATION DRIVE FOR TRACTION SUBSTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sulim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a great attention is paid to increasing of energy efficiency at operated electrified urban transport. Perspective direction for increasing energy efficiency at that type of transport is the application of regenerative braking. For additional increasing of energy efficiency there were suggested the use of capacitive drive on tires of traction substation. One of the main task is the analysis of energy recovery application  with drive and without it.These analysis demonstrated that the calculation algorithms don’t allow in the full volume to carry out calculations of amount and cost of energy recovery without drive and with it. That is why we see the current interest to this topic. The purpose of work is to create methods of algorithms calculation for definite amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport due to definite regime of motion on wayside. There is algorithm developed, which allow to calculate amount and cost of consumed, redundant and recovery energy of electrified urban transport on wayside during the installation capacitive drive at traction substation. On the basis of developed algorithm for the definite regime of wagon motion of subway there were fulfilled the example of energy recovery amount and its cost calculation, among them with limited energy intensity drive, when there are 4 trains on wayside simultaneously.

  3. Performance improvement of a slip energy recovery drive system by a voltage-controlled technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunyasrirut, Satean [Department of Instrumentation Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pathumwan Institute of Technology, 833 Rama1 Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Kinnares, Vijit [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Ngamwiwit, Jongkol [Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    This paper introduces the performance improvement of a slip energy recovery drive system for the speed control of a wound rotor induction motor by a voltage-controlled technique. The slip energy occurred in the rotor circuit is transferred back to ac mains supply through a reactor instead of a step up transformer. The objective of the voltage-controlled technique is to increase power factor of the system and to reduce low order harmonics of the input line current. The drive system is designed and implemented using a voltage source inverter in conjunction with a boost chopper for DC link voltage, instead of a conventional drive using a 6 pulse converter or a Scherbius system. The slip power is recovered by the help of a voltage source inverter (VSI) based on a space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) technique. In order to keep the speed of the wound rotor induction motor constant over a certain range of operating conditions, the servo state feedback controller designed by a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is also introduced in this paper. The overall control system is implemented on DSP, DS1104'TMS320F240 controller board. The performance improvement of the proposed system is tested in comparison with the conventional Scherbius system and the modified conventional Scherbius system by a 12 pulse converter in conjunction with a chopper at steady state and at dynamic conditions. A 220 W wound motor is employed for testing. It is found that the motor speed can be controlled to be constant in the operating range of 450-1200 rpm at no load and full load. It is also found that the efficiency of the proposed system is remarkably increased since the harmonics of the input ac line current is reduced while the ac line input power factor is increased. (author)

  4. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullock, Daniel [USDOE Gulf Coast Clean Energy Application Center, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  5. Energy recovery from wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefanis, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper are reported analysis of some energy recovery form wastes plants. In this work are considered materials and energy flows, environmental impacts and related treatment costs and financial resources [it

  6. Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes present major reliability issues, leading to great interest in the current development of gearless direct-drive wind energy systems. Offering high reliability, high efficiency and low maintenance, developments in these direct-drive systems point the way to the next generation of wind power, and Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems is an authoritative guide to their design, development and operation. Part one outlines electrical drive technology, beginning with an overview of electrical generators for direct drive systems. Principles of electrical design for permanent magnet generators are discussed, followed by electrical, thermal and structural generator design and systems integration. A review of power electronic converter technology and power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications is then conducted. Part two then focuses on wind and marine applications, beginning with a commercial overview of wind turbine drive systems and a...

  7. The impact of continuous driving time and rest time on commercial drivers' driving performance and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianzhen; Pei, Yulong

    2014-09-01

    This real road driving study was conducted to investigate the effects of driving time and rest time on the driving performance and recovery of commercial coach drivers. Thirty-three commercial coach drivers participated in the study, and were divided into three groups according to driving time: (a) 2 h, (b) 3 h, and (c) 4 h. The Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) was used to assess the subjective fatigue level of the drivers. One-way ANOVA was employed to analyze the variation in driving performance. The statistical analysis revealed that driving time had a significant effect on the subjective fatigue and driving performance measures among the three groups. After 2 h of driving, both the subjective fatigue and driving performance measures began to deteriorate. After 4 h of driving, all of the driving performance indicators changed significantly except for depth perception. A certain amount of rest time eliminated the negative effects of fatigue. A 15-minute rest allowed drivers to recover from a two-hour driving task. This needed to be prolonged to 30 min for driving tasks of 3 to 4 h of continuous driving. Drivers' attention, reactions, operating ability, and perceptions are all affected in turn after over 2 h of continuous driving. Drivers should take a certain amount of rest to recover from the fatigue effects before they continue driving. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Incineration with energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, T.G.

    1986-02-01

    Motherwell Bridge Tacol Ltd. operate a 'Licence Agreement' with Deutsche Babcock Anlagen of Krefeld, West Germany, for the construction of Municipal Refuse Incineration plant and Industrial Waste plant with or without the incorporation of waste heat recovery equipment. The construction in the UK of a number of large incineration plants incorporating the roller grate incinerator unit is discussed. The historical background, combustion process, capacity, grate details, refuse analysis and use as fuel, heat recovery and costs are outlined.

  9. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit for propelling a projectile along a railgun the counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit consists of: a railgun having an effective inductance; a source inductor initially charged to an initial current; current means for initially charging the source inductor to the initial current; first current-zero type switching means; second current-zero type switching; third current-zero type switching; muzzle current-zero type switching means; transfer capacitor, the transfer capacitor is for cooperating with the first, second, third, and muzzle current-zero type switching means for providing a resonant circuit for transferring current from the source inductor to the effective inductance of the railgun during the propelling of a projectile along the railgun and for returning current from the effective inductance of the railgun to the source inductance after the projectile has exited the railgun

  10. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... demonstrated that energy optimal control will sometimes improve and sometimes deteriorate the stability. Comparison of small and medium-size induction motor drives with permanent magnet motor drives indicated why, and in which applications, PM motors are especially good. Calculations of economical aspects...... improvement by energy optimal control for any standard induction motor drive between 2.2 kW and 90 kW. A simple method to evaluate the robustness against load disturbances was developed and used to compare the robustness of different motor types and sizes. Calculation of the oscillatory behavior of a motor...

  11. What drives renewable energy development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagappan, L.; Orans, R.; Woo, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint reviews renewable energy development in 14 markets that differ in market structure (restructured vs. not restructured), use of feed-in-tariff (FIT) (yes vs. no), transmission planning (anticipatory vs. reactive), and transmission interconnection cost allocated to a renewable generator (high vs. low). We find that market restructuring is not a primary driver of renewable energy development. Renewable generation has the highest percent of total installed capacity in markets that use a FIT, employ anticipatory transmission planning, and have loads or end-users paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. In contrast, renewable developers have been less successful in markets that do not use a FIT, employ reactive transmission planning, and have generators paying for most, if not all, of the transmission interconnection costs. While these policies can lead to higher penetration of renewable energy in the short run, their high cost to ratepayers can threaten the economic sustainability of renewable energy in the long-run. - Highlights: → Market structure seems to have little effect on renewable energy development. → Renewable energy development is more successful in markets that use a FIT. → Anticipatory transmission planning aids renewable energy development. → Low interconnection costs for developers also aids renewable energy development.

  12. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lamb, Bradford [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Prudell, Joseph [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hammagren, Erik [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States); Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Project aims to satisfy objectives of the DOE’s Water Power Program by completing a system detailed design (SDD) and other important activities in the first phase of a utility-scale grid-connected ocean wave energy demonstration. In early 2012, Columbia Power (CPwr) had determined that further cost and performance optimization was necessary in order to commercialize its StingRAY wave energy converter (WEC). CPwr’s progress toward commercialization, and the requisite technology development path, were focused on transitioning toward a commercial-scale demonstration. This path required significant investment to be successful, and the justification for this investment required improved annual energy production (AEP) and lower capital costs. Engineering solutions were developed to address these technical and cost challenges, incorporated into a proposal to the US Department of Energy (DOE), and then adapted to form the technical content and statement of project objectives of the resulting Project (DE-EE0005930). Through Project cost-sharing and technical collaboration between DOE and CPwr, and technical collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) and other Project partners, we have demonstrated experimentally that these conceptual improvements have merit and made significant progress towards a certified WEC system design at a selected and contracted deployment site at the Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) at the Marine Corps Base in Oahu, HI (MCBH).

  13. Superluminal warp drive and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-11-29

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime where the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two-dimensional case, we find that if the warp drive is placed in an accelerating universe the warp bubble size increases in a comoving way to the expansion of the universe in which it is immersed. Also shown is the result that the apparent velocity of the ship steadily increases with time as phantom energy is accreted onto it.

  14. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Hammagren, Erik J. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    The most prudent path to a full-scale design, build and deployment of a wave energy conversion (WEC) system involves establishment of validated numerical models using physical experiments in a methodical scaling program. This Project provides essential additional rounds of wave tank testing at 1:33 scale and ocean/bay testing at a 1:7 scale, necessary to validate numerical modeling that is essential to a utility-scale WEC design and associated certification.

  15. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  16. Superconducting RF for energy-recovery linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepe, M.; Knobloch, J.

    2006-01-01

    Since superconducting RF for particle accelerators made its first appearance in the 1970s, it has found highly successful application in a variety of machines. Recent progress in this technology has made so-called Energy-Recovery Linacs (ERLs)-originally proposed in 1965-feasible, and interest in this type of machine has increased enormously. A superconducting linac is the driving heart of ERLs, and emittance preservation and cost efficiency is of utmost importance. The resulting challenges for the superconducting cavity technology and RF field control are manifold. In March 2005 the first international workshop on ERLs was held at Newport News, VA, to explore the potential of ERLs and to discuss machine-physics and technology challenges and their solutions. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in superconducting RF and RF control for ERLs, and summarizes the discussions of the SRF working group on this technology during the ERL2005 workshop

  17. Effect of rotor rectifier on motor performance in slip recovery drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zahawi, B.A.T.; Jones, B.L.; Drury, W.

    1987-01-01

    The static Kramer system, comprising a slip-ring induction motor and a slip energy recovery circuit, is one of the simplest and most efficient forms of ac variable-speed drive. It is sometimes used to upgrade drives which had originally been designed for fixed speed operation, often with substantial energy savings. In such cases, it is important to know how the inclusion of a rectifier in the slip energy recovery circuit affects motor performance. A satisfactory model for the motor-rectifier combination is also needed to provide a sound basis for assessing alternative forms of recovery systems which aim to overcome the principal shortcomings of the drive, namely the magnitude and variability of its reactive power. Despite its simplicity, the Kramer drive presents a formidable analytical challenge. Rigorous analysis is particularly difficult and there is a need for a simpler form of analysis when calculating ratings and steady-state performance. The approach taken in this paper uses a transformer-type model for the motor, and largely analytical expressions for predicting torque, stator power, stator reactive power and rectifier output voltage. Motor resistances, diode characteristics, and the several possible rectifier overlap modes are included. It is shown that the rectifier has an adverse effect on stator reactive power, power factor, and peak torque, particularly at speeds well below synchronous, requiring some derating of motors designed for resistance control and also requiring additional power factor correction. While the analysis does not cater to variations caused by harmonics at some speeds, it does provide a quick, accurate method of predicting performance over most sections of the operating range. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Wormholes, warp drives and energy conditions

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Top researchers in the field of gravitation present the state-of-the-art topics outlined in this book, ranging from the stability of rotating wormholes solutions supported by ghost scalar fields, modified gravity applied to wormholes, the study of novel semi-classical and nonlinear energy conditions, to the applications of quantum effects and the superluminal version of the warp drive in modified spacetime. Based on Einstein's field equations, this cutting-edge research area explores the more far-fetched theoretical outcomes of General Relativity and relates them to quantum field theory. This includes quantum energy inequalities, flux energy conditions, and wormhole curvature, and sheds light on not just the theoretical physics but also on the possible applications to warp drives and time travel. This book extensively explores the physical properties and characteristics of these 'exotic spacetimes,' describing in detail the general relativistic geometries that generate closed timelike curves.

  19. Nutrient and energy recovery from urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, P.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: urine, urine treatment, nutrient recovery, microbial fuel cells, energy production from urine, membrane capacitive deionization.

    In conventional wastewater treatment plants large amounts of energy are required for the removal and recovery of nutrients (i.e. nitrogen and

  20. Lowering operation costs by energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, W; Hausmann, H; Hausmann, K H

    1976-01-01

    Heat recovery and the heat sources available as well as possible applications of the heat recovered are discussed. Groundwater, shower water and waste air are considered as energy sources. Energy recovery by means of finned-tube systems and the heat pump, and economic aspects of the techniques are described.

  1. Stand age and climate drive forest carbon balance recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Simon; Carvalhais, Nuno; Clevers, Jan; Herold, Martin; Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Forests play an essential role in the terrestrial carbon (C) cycle, especially in the C exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. Ecological disturbances and forest management are drivers of forest dynamics and strongly impact the forest C budget. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the exogenous and endogenous factors driving forest C recovery. Our analysis includes 68 forest sites in different climate zones to determine the relative influence of stand age and climate conditions on the forest carbon balance recovery. In this study, we only included forest regrowth after clear-cut stand replacement (e.g. harvest, fire), and afforestation/reforestation processes. We synthesized net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Re), the photosynthetic respiratory ratio (GPP to Re ratio), the ecosystem carbon use efficiency (CUE), that is NEP to GPP ratio, and CUEclimax, where GPP is derived from the climate conditions. We implemented a non-linear regression analysis in order to identify the best model representing the C flux patterns with stand age. Furthermore, we showed that each C flux have a non-linear relationship with stand age, annual precipitation (P) and mean annual temperature (MAT), therefore, we proposed to use non-linear transformations of the covariates for C fluxes'estimates. Non-linear stand age and climate models were, therefore, used to establish multiple linear regressions for C flux predictions and for determining the contribution of stand age and climate in forest carbon recovery. Our findings depicted that a coupled stand age-climate model explained 33% (44%, average site), 62% (76%, average site), 56% (71%, average site), 41% (59%, average site), 50% (65%, average site) and 36% (50%, average site) of the variance of annual NEP, GPP, Re, photosynthetic respiratory ratio, CUE and CUEclimax across sites, respectively. In addition, we showed that gross fluxes (e.g. GPP and Re) are

  2. Kinetic energy recovery systems in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwiński, C.

    2016-09-01

    The article draws attention to the increasing environmental pollution caused by the development of vehicle transport and motorization. Different types of design solutions used in vehicles for the reduction of fuel consumption, and thereby emission of toxic gasses into the atmosphere, were specified. Historical design solutions concerning energy recovery devices in mechanical vehicles which used flywheels to accumulate kinetic energy were shown. Developmental tendencies in the area of vehicle manufacturing in the form of hybrid electric and electric devices were discussed. Furthermore, designs of energy recovery devices with electrical energy storage from the vehicle braking and shock absorbing systems were presented. A mechanical energy storing device using a flywheel operating under vacuum was presented, as were advantages and disadvantages of both systems, the limitations they impose on individual constructions and safety issues. The paper also discusses a design concept of an energy recovery device in mechanical vehicles which uses torsion springs as the main components of energy accumulation during braking. The desirability of a cooperation of both the mechanical- and electrical energy recovery devices was indicated.

  3. Energy recovery from plastic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, A; Atzger, J

    1983-07-01

    The conversion of plastic wastes to energy is suggested as a practicable and advantageous alternative to recycling. A two-stage pilot gasification plant for the pyrolysis of wastes is described and the utilization of the resulting fuel gas discussed.

  4. The market wants small scale plants for energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    1999-01-01

    The article deals with the development within energy conservation in Europe and describes some projects for energy recovery from wastes in Norway. A brief survey of Norwegian energy policy for and development of waste management and energy recovery is included

  5. Stored energy recovery of irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.T.; Chaplin, R.L.; Coltman, R.R. Jr.; Kerchner, H.R.; Klabunde, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The stored energy released in Stage I recovery of reactor neutron irradiated copper was measured by differential thermal analysis calorimetry for three fluences up to a maximum of 3.5 x 10 18 n/cm 2 (E>0.1 MeV) after irradiation at temperatures of less than 10 K. The dependence of the stored energy upon fluence, and a tendency toward saturation, were observed. Theoretical reaction rate processes were compared directly with the experimental rates of stored energy release, and the parameters associated with the theory were compared with results from previous resistivity measurements. Good agreement was found for several parameters, but major differences with previous D + E substage results lead to the conclusion that the point defect model may not describe materials experiencing severe neutron damage. Computer studies of warmup rates were made for first and second order and for correlated recovery processes as a function of defect concentration and of external power input. First and second order processes show definite distortion in their recovery rate curves for high defect concentrations; the correlated recovery process shows a much less pronounced effect. This investigation of stored energy used several new approaches. The use of induced radioactivity within the sample as the heating source, and the use of computer generated theoretical stored energy release curves to analyze the data were unique. (author)

  6. Status of the Novosibirsk energy recovery linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, V.P.; Vinokurov, N.A.; Gavrilov, N.G.; Kayran, D.A.; Knyazev, B.A.; Kolobanov, E.I.; Kotenkov, V.V.; Kubarev, V.V.; Kulipanov, G.N.; Matveenko, A.N.; Medvedev, L.E.; Miginsky, S.V.; Mironenko, L.A.; Oreshkov, A.D.; Ovchar, V.K.; Popik, V.M.; Salikova, T.V.; Serednyakov, S.S.; Skrinsky, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.A.; Scheglov, M.A.; Tcheskidov, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    The Novosibirsk terahertz free electron laser is based on the energy recovery linac (ERL) with room-temperature radiofrequency system. Some features of the ERL are discussed. The results of emittance measurements and electron optics tests are presented. The second stage of the ERL, which has four orbits, is described briefly

  7. Energy recovery from rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This book gathers the different projects, systems and technologies allowing to recover the energy from rivers, ocean streams, waves and tides with their economic interest. Content: project of swell and waves energy recovery: Pelamis and Searev projects, buoys and breaking systems; streams and tidal energy: horizontal axis and vertical axis turbines, oscillating column and hydraulic systems; kinematic chains of energy generation systems; terrestrial hydro-energy: small-scale hydro-power, French regulation, opening of energy markets, renewable energy law, the French Pope and Lema laws, exploitation permits, markets and perspectives; small hydro-power technologies: turbines, generator, multiplier; R and D trends: turbines, engines, control systems, combined energies and uses; low-fall technology; duct-embedded systems; other technologies. (J.S.)

  8. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  9. The best energy recovery project in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melaasen, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Norway is one of the world's leading producers of ferro-alloys and silicon metals. The high temperature required in the production process is obtained by using electric energy. The temperature of the waste gases varies between 200 and 900 o C. To recover the energy of hot dust-holding gases from ferro-alloy plants the waste gases are cooled by means of steam production. The ferro-alloy plant Globe Norge AS Hafslund Metall and the energy supply company Birka Energi have signed an agreement to build Norway's largest energy recovery plant. The plant will recover 260 GWh per year. The oil consumption will be reduced by 26000 tonne per year and the annual emission of carbon dioxide by 80000 tonne. Steam from the plant will be supplied to the two companies Borregaard and Glomma Papp. The article describes the plant in some detail

  10. Energy balance for uranium recovery from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, E.; Lindner, H. [The University of Texas, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The energy return on investment (EROI) of an energy resource is the ratio of the energy it ultimately produces to the energy used to recover it. EROI is a key viability measure for a new recovery technology, particularly in its early stages of development when financial cost assessment would be premature or highly uncertain. This paper estimates the EROI of uranium recovery from seawater via a braid adsorbent technology. In this paper, the energy cost of obtaining uranium from seawater is assessed by breaking the production chain into three processes: adsorbent production, adsorbent deployment and mooring, and uranium elution and purification. Both direct and embodied energy inputs are considered. Direct energy is the energy used by the processes themselves, while embodied energy is used to fabricate their material, equipment or chemical inputs. If the uranium is used in a once-through fuel cycle, the braid adsorbent technology EROI ranges from 12 to 27, depending on still-uncertain performance and system design parameters. It is highly sensitive to the adsorbent capacity in grams of U captured per kg of adsorbent as well as to potential economies in chemical use. This compares to an EROI of ca. 300 for contemporary terrestrial mining. It is important to note that these figures only consider the mineral extraction step in the fuel cycle. At a reference performance level of 2.76 g U recovered per kg adsorbent immersed, the largest energy consumers are the chemicals used in adsorbent production (63%), anchor chain mooring system fabrication and operations (17%), and unit processes in the adsorbent production step (12%). (authors)

  11. Energy Saving Potential in Knuckle Boom Cranes using a Novel Pump Controlled Cylinder Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ketelsen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is considering the application of a novel pump controlled cylinder drive, the so-called Speed-variable Switched Differential Pump (SvSDP, for knuckle boom crane actuation. Especially the control system for the SvSDP drive is considered, and aiming on improving energy efficiency a refinement of the existing control structure is proposed. An energy efficient sizing algorithm for the SvSDP drive is developed, and fundamental differences between the achievable operating range for the SvSDP drive compared to a conventional valve-cylinder drive are discussed. A case study is conducted with knuckle boom crane actuation, and compared to a conventional valve actuation. Simulation results show that the motion tracking performance is on a similar level compared to the valve actuation approach, while the energy consumption is drastically decreased. For the given test trajectory the valve actuation system consumes 0.79 kWh of electrical energy, while the SvSDP drive consume 0.06 kWh, if ideal energy recovery and storage is assumed.

  12. Microbial battery for efficient energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xing; Ye, Meng; Hsu, Po-Chun; Liu, Nian; Criddle, Craig S; Cui, Yi

    2013-10-01

    By harnessing the oxidative power of microorganisms, energy can be recovered from reservoirs of less-concentrated organic matter, such as marine sediment, wastewater, and waste biomass. Left unmanaged, these reservoirs can become eutrophic dead zones and sites of greenhouse gas generation. Here, we introduce a unique means of energy recovery from these reservoirs-a microbial battery (MB) consisting of an anode colonized by microorganisms and a reoxidizable solid-state cathode. The MB has a single-chamber configuration and does not contain ion-exchange membranes. Bench-scale MB prototypes were constructed from commercially available materials using glucose or domestic wastewater as electron donor and silver oxide as a coupled solid-state oxidant electrode. The MB achieved an efficiency of electrical energy conversion of 49% based on the combustion enthalpy of the organic matter consumed or 44% based on the organic matter added. Electrochemical reoxidation of the solid-state electrode decreased net efficiency to about 30%. This net efficiency of energy recovery (unoptimized) is comparable to methane fermentation with combined heat and power.

  13. Multiaspect measurement analysis of breaking energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartłomiejczyk, Mikołaj; Połom, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A case study of implementation of eco energy technologies in municipal transport. • The “ready to use” methods are presented. • The “niche” ways of increasing efficiency, e.g. “intelligent heating”. • Novel multi way measurement method using GPS localization system. • Confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement. - Abstract: Nowadays the issue of electric energy saving in public transport is becoming a key area of interest, which is connected both with a growth of environmental awareness in the society and an increase in the prices of fuel and electricity. That is why the reduction of energy consumption by increasing electrified urban transport, such as trams, trolleybuses, light rail and underground is becoming an increasingly important issue. Energy recovery during braking is possible in all modern electric vehicles, but in many cases this possibility is not fully taken advantage of, inter alia, because of an inadequate power supply structure. The aim of this article is to present practical examples of implementation of eco-friendly solutions in urban municipal transport. The article shows a thorough analysis of braking energy dispatch in the urban traction power supply system, which was based on extensive measurement research conducted in Gdynia trolleybus network. The authors applied multi way measurement method using Global Positioning System. The optimal conditions for implementation of several methods of energy recovery (storage energy systems, reconfiguration of supply system, using auxiliaries) have been shown. Great emphasis has been put on the confirmation of the results by means of research and experimental measurement.

  14. REVIEW OF ENERGY-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN MODERN HYDRAULIC DRIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on review of modern energy­saving technologies in hydraulic drives. Described main areas of energy conservation in hydraulic drive (which in turn are divided into many under the directions and was established the popularity of them. Reviewed the comparative analysis of efficiency application of various strategies for energy saving in a hydraulic drive. Based on the review for further research a combined method of real­time control systems with energy­saving algorithms and regeneration unit – selected for maxing efficiency in hydraulic drive. Scientific papers (40 papers, what introduced in review, is not older than 15 years in the databases “Sciencedirect” and “Scopus”.

  15. Evaluating the energy efficiency of a one pedal driving algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Besselink, I.J.M.; van Boekel, J.J.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative braking of electric vehicles (EVs) is important to improve the energy efficiency and increase the vehicle range. However, the additional friction braking during deceleration may limit the amount of recuperated energy. To improve the energy efficiency and driving comfort of EVs, a one

  16. Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy Peden; Sanjiv Shah

    2005-07-26

    This report describes complete results of the project entitled ''Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System''. This demonstration project was initiated in July 2003 and completed in March 2005. The objective of the project was to develop an integrated power production/variable frequency drive system that could easily be deployed in the oil field that would increase production and decrease operating costs. This report describes all the activities occurred and documents results of the demonstration.

  17. Fast ferroelectric phase shifters for energy recovery linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu Kazakov

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast phase shifters are described that use a novel barium strontium titanate ceramic that can rapidly change its dielectric constant as an external bias voltage is changed. These phase shifters promise to reduce by ∼10 times the power requirements for the rf source needed to drive an energy recovery linac (ERL. Such phase shifters will be coupled with superconducting radiofrequency cavities so as to tune them to compensate for phase instabilities, whether beam-driven or those caused by microphonics. The most promising design is presented, which was successfully cold tested and demonstrated a switching speed of ∼30  ns for 77 deg, corresponding to <0.5  ns per deg of rf phase. Other crucial issues (losses, phase shift values, etc. are discussed.

  18. Mobilizing private finance to drive an energy industrial revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.; Kidney, Sean; Mallon, Karl; Hughes, Mark

    2010-01-01

    While uptake of renewable energies as a solution to climate change is widely discussed, the issue of public vs. private financing is not yet adequately explored. The debates over the Kyoto Protocol and its successor, culminating in the COP15 Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen in December 2009, maintained a strong preference for public over private financing. Yet it is also clear to most observers that the energy revolution will never happen without the involvement of private finance to drive private investment. In this Viewpoint, we discuss the ways in which private financing could be mobilized to drive the energy industrial revolution that is needed if climate change mitigation is to succeed.

  19. Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Simulation of Energy Recovery from a Photovoltaic Solar cell. ... Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell which converts solar energy directly into electrical energy is one of ... model of the solar panel which could represent the real systems.

  20. Natural gas decompression energy recovery: Energy savings potential in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatti, A.; Piemonte, C.; Rampini, E.; Vatrano, F.; Techint SpA, Milan; ENEA, Rome

    1992-01-01

    This paper surveyed the natural gas distribution systems employed in the Italian civil, industrial and thermoelectric sectors to identify those installations which can make use of gas decompression energy recovery systems (consisting of turbo-expanders or alternative expanders) to economically generate electric power. Estimates were then made of the total amount of potential energy savings. The study considered as eligible for energy savings interventions only those plants with a greater than 5,000 standard cubic meter per hour plant capacity. It was evaluated that, with suitable decompression equipment installed at 50 key installations (33 civil, 15 industrial), about 200 GWh of power could be produced annually, representing potential savings of about 22,000 petroleum equivalent tonnes of energy. A comparative analysis was done on three investment alternatives involving inputs of varying amounts of Government financial assistance

  1. Ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikraj, C.; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-12-01

    Within the framework of a simple macroscopic model, the ternary-fragmentation-driving potential energies of 252Cf are studied. In this work, all possible ternary-fragment combinations of 252Cf are generated by the use of atomic mass evaluation-2016 (AME2016) data and these combinations are minimized by using a two-dimensional minimization approach. This minimization process can be done in two ways: (i) with respect to proton numbers (Z1, Z2, Z3) and (ii) with respect to neutron numbers (N1, N2, N3) of the ternary fragments. In this paper, the driving potential energies for the ternary breakup of 252Cf are presented for both the spherical and deformed as well as the proton-minimized and neutron-minimized ternary fragments. From the proton-minimized spherical ternary fragments, we have obtained different possible ternary configurations with a minimum driving potential, in particular, the experimental expectation of Sn + Ni + Ca ternary fragmentation. However, the neutron-minimized ternary fragments exhibit a driving potential minimum in the true-ternary-fission (TTF) region as well. Further, the Q -value energy systematics of the neutron-minimized ternary fragments show larger values for the TTF fragments. From this, we have concluded that the TTF region fragments with the least driving potential and high Q values have a strong possibility in the ternary fragmentation of 252Cf. Further, the role of ground-state deformations (β2, β3, β4, and β6) in the ternary breakup of 252Cf is also studied. The deformed ternary fragmentation, which involves Z3=12 -19 fragments, possesses the driving potential minimum due to the larger oblate deformations. We also found that the ground-state deformations, particularly β2, strongly influence the driving potential energies and play a major role in determining the most probable fragment combinations in the ternary breakup of 252Cf.

  2. Hohlraums energy balance and x-ray drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilkenny, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    For many years there has been an active ICF program in the US concentrating on x-ray drive. X-ray drive is produced by focusing laser beams into a high Z hohlraum. Conceptually, the radiation field comes close to thermodynamic equilibrium, that is it becomes isotropic and Planckian. These properties lead to the benefits of x-ray drive--it is relatively easy to obtain drive symmetry on a capsule with no small scalelengths drive perturbations. Other advantages of x-ray drive is the higher mass ablation rate, leading to lower growth rates for hydrodynamic instabilities. X-ray drive has disadvantages, principally the loss of energy to the walls of the hohlraum. This report is divided into the following sections: (1) review of blackbody radiation; (2) laser absorption and conversion to x-rays; (3) x-ray absorption coefficient in matter and Rosseland mean free path; (4) Marshak waves in high Z material; (5) x-ray albedo; and (6) power balance and hohlraum temperature

  3. A statistical approach to electrical storage sizing with application to the recovery of braking energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolino, V.; Pievatolo, A.; Tironi, E.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of efficient energy use, electrical energy in electric drives plays a fundamental role. High efficiency energy storage systems permit energy recovery, peak shaving and power quality functions. Due to their cost and the importance of system integration, there is a need for a correct design based on technical-economical optimization. In this paper, a method to design a centralized storage system for the recovery of the power regenerated by a number of electric drives is presented. It is assumed that the drives follow deterministic power cycles, but shifted by an uncertain amount. Therefore the recoverable energy and, consequently, the storage size requires the optimization of a random cost function, embedding both the plant total cost and the saving due to the reduced energy consumption during the useful life of the storage. The underlying stochastic model for the power profile of the drives as a whole is built from a general Markov chain framework. A numerical example, based on Monte Carlo simulations, concerns the maximization of the recoverable potential energy of multiple bridge cranes, supplied by a unique grid connection point and a centralized supercapacitor storage system. -- Highlights: ► Recovery of braking power produced by multiple electric drives. ► Temporal power profile modeled through the multinomial distribution and Markov chains. ► Storage sizing via random cost function optimization. ► The search region for the optimization is given explicitly. ► The value of energy recovered during the useful life of the storage outweighs its cost.

  4. CW Energy Recovery Operation of XFELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacek Sekutowicz; S. Bogacz; Dave Douglas; Peter Kneisel; Gwyn P. Wiliams; Massimo Ferrario; Luca Serafini; Ilan Ben-Zvi; James Rose; Triveni Srinivasan-Rao; Patrick Colestock; Wolf-Dietrich Moeller; Bernd Petersen; Dieter Proch; S. Simrock; James B. Rosenzweig

    2003-01-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: What will the next generation of the XFEL facilities look like ? Believing that super-conducting technology offers several advantages over room-temperature technology, such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches and the possibility of energy recovery or higher overall efficiency, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program is required over the next few years to arrive at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power. In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions

  5. Delta undulator for Cornell energy recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Temnykh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In anticipation of a new era of synchrotron radiation sources based on energy recovery linac techniques, we designed, built, and tested a short undulator magnet prototype whose features make optimum use of the unique conditions expected in these facilities. The prototype has pure permanent magnet (PPM structure with 24 mm period, 5 mm diameter round gap, and is 30 cm long. In comparison with conventional undulator magnets it has the following: (i full x-ray polarization control.—It may generate varying linear polarized as well as left and right circular polarized x rays with photon flux much higher than existing Apple-II–type devices. (ii 40% stronger magnetic field in linear and approximately 2 times stronger in circular polarization modes. This advantage translates into higher x-ray flux. (iii Compactness.—The prototype can be enclosed in a ∼20  cm diameter cylindrical vacuum vessel. These advantages were achieved through a number of unconventional approaches. Among them is control of the magnetic field strength via longitudinal motion of the magnet arrays. The moving mechanism is also used for x-ray polarization control. The compactness is achieved using a recently developed permanent magnet soldering technique for fastening PM blocks. We call this device a “Delta” undulator after the shape of its PM blocks. The presented article describes the design study, various aspects of the construction, and presents some test results.

  6. Fully Automated Driving: Impact of Trust and Practice on Manual Control Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payre, William; Cestac, Julien; Delhomme, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was performed in a driving simulator to investigate the impacts of practice, trust, and interaction on manual control recovery (MCR) when employing fully automated driving (FAD). To increase the use of partially or highly automated driving efficiency and to improve safety, some studies have addressed trust in driving automation and training, but few studies have focused on FAD. FAD is an autonomous system that has full control of a vehicle without any need for intervention by the driver. A total of 69 drivers with a valid license practiced with FAD. They were distributed evenly across two conditions: simple practice and elaborate practice. When examining emergency MCR, a correlation was found between trust and reaction time in the simple practice group (i.e., higher trust meant a longer reaction time), but not in the elaborate practice group. This result indicated that to mitigate the negative impact of overtrust on reaction time, more appropriate practice may be needed. Drivers should be trained in how the automated device works so as to improve MCR performance in case of an emergency. The practice format used in this study could be used for the first interaction with an FAD car when acquiring such a vehicle. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  8. Preliminary experiments on energy recovery on a neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.

    1977-06-01

    Energy recovery tests performed on an injector of energetic neutral atoms in which the ion source is operated at the ground potential and the neutralizer is biased at the high energy potential corresponding to the desired neutral beam energy, are presented. The operation of the suppressor grid is studied in two different experiments. These tests underline the problems to be solved for an efficient recovery of the energy of the unneutralized beam fraction

  9. Grand Challenge Portfolio: Driving Innovation in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-04

    Under the Recovery Act, AMO provided cost-shared funding for early-stage, low-cost, "concept definition studies" of 47 promising innovations for next-generation manufacturing, energy-intensive processes, advanced materials, and greenhouse gas emissions reduction. The brochure provides information on each of these projects.

  10. Open-wheel race car driving: energy cost for pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaune, Bruno; Durand, Sylvain; Mariot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy cost of speedway open-wheel race car driving using actimetry. Eight pilot students participated in a training session consisting of 5 successive bouts of around 30 minutes driving at steady speed on the Bugatti speedway of Le Mans (France). Energy expenditure (EE, kcal) was determined continuously by the actimetric method using the standard equation. Energy cost was estimated through physical activity ratio (PAR = EE/BMR ratio, Mets) calculation after basal metabolism rate (BMR, kcal·min-1) estimation. A 1-met PAR value was attributed to the individual BMR of each volunteer. Bout durations and EE were not significantly different between driving bouts. Mean speed was 139.94 ± 2.96 km·h-1. Physical activity ratio values ranged 4.92 ± 0.50 to 5.43 ± 0.47 Mets, corresponding to a 5.27 ± 0.47-Mets mean PAR values and a 1.21 ± 0.41 kcal·min-1 mean BMR value. These results suggest that actimetry is a simple and efficient method for EE and PAR measurements in motor sports. However, further studies are needed in the future to accurately evaluate relationships between PAR and driving intensity or between PAR and race car type.

  11. Energy Recovery in Existing Water Networks: Towards Greater Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable improvements in the performance of irrigation water networks. Improving the energy efficiency of water systems by hydraulic energy recovery is becoming an inevitable trend for energy conservation, emissions reduction, and the increase of profit margins as well as for environmental requirements. This paper presents the state of the art of hydraulic energy generation in drinking and irrigation water networks through an extensive review and by analyzing the types of machinery installed, economic and environmental implications of large and small hydropower systems, and how hydropower can be applied in water distribution networks (drinking and irrigation where energy recovery is not the main objective. Several proposed solutions of energy recovery by using hydraulic machines increase the added value of irrigation water networks, which is an open field that needs to be explored in the near future.

  12. Renewable and recovery energies for each industry sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitot, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    The French agency of environment and energy management (Ademe) has made available to the industrialists, a study about the proper choice of renewable and recovery energies capable to meet the energy and heat needs of their facilities. This article summarises in a table, sector by sector and for each renewable and recovery energy source, the capability of this energy source to supply part or the overall energy needs of some elementary industrial processes. Indication is given about the capability of an energy source to produce electricity as well

  13. Dynamic behavior of Rankine cycle system for waste heat recovery of heavy duty diesel engines under driving cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Hui; Yang, Can

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Waste heat recovery behavior of the RCS during driving cycle was investigated. • Four operating modes were defined to describe the operating process of the RCS under driving cycle. • The operating mode switching is the crucial reason for on-road inefficiency. • The dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet ones on the adaptability to unsteady ExGE. • The effects of the vapor parameters on RCT-E and power mode percentage are opposite. - Abstract: The RCS (Rankine cycle system) used to recover the WHE (waste heat energy) from engines has been regarded as one of the most potential ways of achieving higher efficiency. However, it is of great challenge to keep the RCS still in good performance under driving cycle. This paper tries to reveal and explain its on-road inefficiency. The operating process of the RCS under driving cycle was analyzed in advance. Afterwards, four basic operating modes were defined, including startup mode, turbine turning mode, power mode and protection mode. Then, a RCS model was established and operating performances of the RCS under an actual driving cycle were discussed based on this model. The results indicate that the on-road RCS-E (Rankine cycle system efficiency) is as low as 3.63%, which is less than half of the design RCS-E (7.77%) at the rated operating point. Despite the inevitable vapor state fluctuation, it is the operating mode switching during the driving cycle that leads to the on-road inefficiency. Further investigations indicate that the expander safety temperature and its safety margin affected by the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure are the main factors determining the operating mode switching. Finally, the effects of the working fluids, designed superheat degree and evaporating pressure on the operating mode switching and RC (Rankine cycle) efficiencies were profoundly investigated. The study shows that the dry and isentropic fluids are superior to the wet

  14. Driving efficiency in the energy Lifecycle - Investing in renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, Hartmut; Schmidt, Johannes; Wierl, Markus

    2010-09-15

    Climate change and the energy crisis are two of the most significant issues facing our planet today. Recognizing the urgent need for attention, renewable or clean energy started receiving industry focus several years ago, and the momentum picked up over the last decade. Today however, the demand and supply gap continues to be considerable. Although key indicators point to growth in the future, among the key stumbling blocks is financial support. This paper takes a look at the reasons that contribute to the risk, the rewards that the lie in store, and of the recent efforts in this area.

  15. Improving Energy Efficiency In Thermal Oil Recovery Surface Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy Nadella, Narayana

    2010-09-15

    Thermal oil recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and In-situ Combustion are being used for recovering heavy oil and bitumen. These processes expend energy to recover oil. The process design of the surface facilities requires optimization to improve the efficiency of oil recovery by minimizing the energy consumption per barrel of oil produced. Optimization involves minimizing external energy use by heat integration. This paper discusses the unit processes and design methodology considering thermodynamic energy requirements and heat integration methods to improve energy efficiency in the surface facilities. A design case study is presented.

  16. Energy saving and recovery measures in integrated urban water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freni, Gabriele; Sambito, Mariacrocetta

    2017-11-01

    The present paper describes different energy production, recovery and saving measures which can be applied in an integrated urban water system. Production measures are often based on the installation of photovoltaic systems; the recovery measures are commonly based on hydraulic turbines, exploiting the available pressure potential to produce energy; saving measures are based on substitution of old pumps with higher efficiency ones. The possibility of substituting some of the pipes of the water supply system can be also considered in a recovery scenario in order to reduce leakages and recovery part of the energy needed for water transport and treatment. The reduction of water losses can be obtained through the Active Leakage Control (ALC) strategies resulting in a reduction in energy consumption and in environmental impact. Measures were applied to a real case study to tested it the efficiency, i.e., the integrated urban water system of the Palermo metropolitan area in Sicily (Italy).

  17. Energy efficiency improvements in electric motors and drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy; Ameida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Electrotecnica; Falkner, H. [eds.] [AEA Technolgy, Harwell (United Kingdom). ETSU

    2000-07-01

    This book covers the state of the art of energy-efficient electric motor technologies, which can be used now and in the near future to achieve significant and cost-effective energy savings. Recent developments in advanced motor technologies by some of the largest manufacturers of motors and drives are also presented. Although energy-efficient motor technologies can save a huge amount of electricity, they still have not been widely adopted. The barriers which can hinder the adoption of those technologies are presented. Policies and programmes to promote the large scale penetration of energy-efficient technologies and the market transformation are featured in the book, describing the experiences carried out in different parts of the world. This extensive coverage includes contributions from relevant institutions in the European Union, North America, Latin America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. (orig.)

  18. Utilizing waste heat. Energy recovery options for trade and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krieg, W

    1988-08-01

    The article shows options for efficient and low-cost thermal energy recovery. Heat recovery involves a number of problems, e.g. the type of waste heat, the uses of the energy recovered, and the best way of utilizing it. There is no generally applicable way of solving these problems. Some practical examples are presented. Economically efficient solutions require detailed technical knowledge as well as a good portion of creativity and imagination. (BR).

  19. Factors Affecting the Ability of the Stroke Survivor to Drive Their Own Recovery outside of Therapy during Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Sandra G.; Kuys, Suzanne S.; Lord, Matthew; Hayward, Kathryn S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To explore factors affecting the ability of the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy during inpatient rehabilitation. Method. One-on-one, in-depth interviews with stroke survivors (n = 7) and their main carer (n = 6), along with two focus groups with clinical staff (n = 20). Data was thematically analysed according to group. Results. Stroke survivors perceived “dealing with loss,” whilst concurrently “building motivation and hope” for recovery affected their ability to drive their own recovery outside of therapy. In addition, they reported a “lack of opportunities” outside of therapy, with subsequent time described as “dead and wasted.” Main carers perceived stroke survivors felt “out of control … at everyone's mercy” and lacked knowledge of “what to do and why” outside of therapy. Clinical staff perceived the stroke survivor's ability to drive their own recovery was limited by the lack of “another place to go” and the “passive rehab culture and environment.” Discussion. To enable the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy, there is a need to increase opportunities for practice and promote active engagement. Suggested strategies include building the stroke survivor's motivation and knowledge, creating an enriched environment, and developing daily routines to provide structure outside of therapy time. PMID:24800104

  20. Factors Affecting the Ability of the Stroke Survivor to Drive Their Own Recovery outside of Therapy during Inpatient Stroke Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Wen Eng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To explore factors affecting the ability of the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy during inpatient rehabilitation. Method. One-on-one, in-depth interviews with stroke survivors (n=7 and their main carer (n=6, along with two focus groups with clinical staff (n=20. Data was thematically analysed according to group. Results. Stroke survivors perceived “dealing with loss,” whilst concurrently “building motivation and hope” for recovery affected their ability to drive their own recovery outside of therapy. In addition, they reported a “lack of opportunities” outside of therapy, with subsequent time described as “dead and wasted.” Main carers perceived stroke survivors felt “out of control … at everyone’s mercy” and lacked knowledge of “what to do and why” outside of therapy. Clinical staff perceived the stroke survivor’s ability to drive their own recovery was limited by the lack of “another place to go” and the “passive rehab culture and environment.” Discussion. To enable the stroke survivor to drive their own recovery outside of therapy, there is a need to increase opportunities for practice and promote active engagement. Suggested strategies include building the stroke survivor’s motivation and knowledge, creating an enriched environment, and developing daily routines to provide structure outside of therapy time.

  1. Centrifugal Compressor Unit-based Heat Energy Recovery at Compressor Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Shadrin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 95% of the electricity consumed by air compressor stations around the world, is transformed into thermal energy, which is making its considerable contribution to global warming. The present article dwells on the re-use (recovery of energy expended for air compression.The article presents the energy analysis of the process of compressing air from the point of view of compressor drive energy conversion into heat energy. The temperature level of excess heat energy has been estimated in terms of a potential to find the ways of recovery of generated heat. It is shown that the temperature level formed by thermal energy depends on the degree of air compression and the number of stages of the compressor.Analysis of technical characteristics of modern equipment from leading manufacturers, as well as projects of the latest air compressor stations have shown that there are two directions for the recovery of heat energy arising from the air compression: Resolving technological problems of compressor units. The use of the excess heat generation to meet the technology objectives of the enterprise. This article examines the schematic diagrams of compressor units to implement the idea of heat recovery compression to solve technological problems: Heating of the air in the suction line during operation of the compressor station in winter conditions. Using compression heat to regenerate the adsorbent in the dryer of compressed air.The article gives an equity assessment of considered solutions in the total amount of heat energy of compressor station. Presented in the present work, the analysis aims to outline the main vectors of technological solutions that reduce negative impacts of heat generation of compressor stations on the environment and creating the potential for reuse of energy, i.e. its recovery.

  2. Economic Assessment for Recycling Critical Metals From Hard Disk Drives Using a Comprehensive Recovery Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ruby Thuy; Diaz, Luis A.; Imholte, D. Devin; Lister, Tedd E.

    2017-09-01

    Since the 2011 price spike of rare earth elements (REEs), research on permanent magnet recycling has blossomed globally in an attempt to reduce future REE criticality. Hard disk drives (HDDs) have emerged as one feasible feedstock for recovering valuable REEs such as praseodymium, neodymium, and dysprosium. Nevertheless, current processes for recycling electronic waste only focus on certain metals as a result of feedstock and metal price uncertainties. In addition, there is a perception that recycling REEs is unprofitable. To shed some light on the economic viability of REE recycling from U.S. HDDs, this article combines techno-economic information of an electro-hydrometallurgical process with end-of-life HDD availability in a simulation model. The results showed that adding REE recovery to an HDD base and precious metal recovery process was profitable given current prices. Recovered REEs from U.S. HDDs could meet up to 5.2% rest-of-world (excluding China) neodymium magnet demand. Feedstock, aluminum, and gold prices are key factors to recycling profitability. REEs contributed 13% to the co-recycling profit.

  3. Complex processing of rubber waste through energy recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Smelík

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the applied energy recovery solutions for complex processing of rubber waste for energy recovery. It deals specifically with the solution that could maximize possible use of all rubber waste and does not create no additional waste that disposal would be expensive and dangerous for the environment. The project is economically viable and energy self-sufficient. The outputs of the process could replace natural gas and crude oil products. The other part of the process is also the separation of metals, which can be returned to the metallurgical secondary production.

  4. Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biomass gasification: a strategy for energy recovery and disposal of industrial and municipal wastes. Anurag Pandey, Anupam Shukla. Abstract. Energy from biological organic waste as an aspect of sustainable waste management is probably the most contentious. Solid and liquid wastes are a rapidly growing problem ...

  5. Resource and energy recovery options for fermentation industry residuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiesa, S C [Santa Clara Univ., CA (USA); Manning, Jr, J F [Alabama Univ., Birmingham, AL (USA)

    1989-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, the fermentation industry has provided facility planners, plant operators and environmental engineers with a wide range of residuals management challenges and resource/energy recovery opportunities. In response, the industry has helped pioneer the use of a number of innovative resource and energy recovery technologies. Production of animal feed supplements, composts, fertilizers, soil amendments, commercial baking additives and microbial protein materials have all been detailed in the literature. In many such cases, recovery of by-products significantly reduces the need for treatment and disposal facilities. Stable, reliable anaerobic biological treatment processes have also been developed to recover significant amounts of energy in the form of methane gas. Alternatively, dewatered or condensed organic fermentation industry residuals have been used as fuels for incineration-based energy recovery systems. The sale or use of recovered by-products and/or energy can be used to offset required processing costs and provide a technically and environmentally viable alternative to traditional treatment and disposal strategies. This review examines resource recovery options currently used or proposed for fermentation industry residuals and the conditions necessary for their successful application. (author).

  6. Energy and exergy recovery in a natural gas compressor station – A technical and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostowski, Wojciech J.; Kalina, Jacek; Bargiel, Paweł; Szufleński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy flow in a natural gas compressor station. • Operational efficiency only 18.3% vs. 35.1% nominal. • 3 energy/exergy recovery systems proposed. • Up to 168.9 GW h/y electricity and 6.5 GW h/y heat recoverable. • Legal obstacles: operators not allowed to produce electricity. - Abstract: The paper presents possible solutions to improve the thermodynamic performance of a natural gas compressor station equipped with various type of compressor units and operated at part-load conditions. A method for setting a simplified energy and exergy balance based on the available metering information has been presented. For a case study plant, it has been demonstrated that the current part-load operation leads to a significant decrease in energy and exergy efficiency compared to the nominal state of machinery. Three alternative improvement strategies have been proposed: (1) installation of a heat recovery hot water generator for covering the existing heat demand of the plant; (2) installation of a heat recovery thermal oil heater for covering the existing heat demand and driving an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) for electricity generation; (3) installation of a heat recovery thermal oil heater with and ORC and gas expanders for switching into full-load operation of the gas turbine unit. Energy and exergy performance of the proposed strategies as well as their economic feasibility have been analyzed. The second scenario involving an ORC unit provides the highest local energy savings, however, its economic feasibility is not achieved under the current part-load operating conditions. A hypothetic scenario of the same station operated at full-load due to an increased gas transmission capacity demonstrate the economic feasibility (possible under optimistic price conditions). Finally, it has been shown that the possibility of waste energy recovery from natural gas transmission systems (in particular, from compressor stations) depends on legal

  7. Recovery of energy in a gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergalant, Jacques; Guais, J.-C.; Perrault, Michel; Vignet, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Any energy recovery, even partial, goes in the direction of savings in energy and should be sought for. The Tricastin plant, now in the course of being built, will be able to deliver several hundreds of MW for the purpose of urban and agricultural heating. The new Coredif project will more completely integrate the valorization of calories in its definition (choice of temperatures, design of the heat exchangers, recovery cycles). In fact the recent evolution in energy costs renders the otpimization of a plant equipped with a heat recovery system (1 to 2% on the cost of the uranium produced) now economically worth-while. In the same way, the choice of the site of the future plant may be conditioned by the possible uses of calories in its vicinity [fr

  8. Kinetic energy recovery and power management for hybrid electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Suntharalingam, P

    2011-01-01

    The major contribution of the work presented in this thesis is a thorough investigation of the constraints on regenerative braking and kinetic energy recovery enhancement for electric/hybrid electric vehicles during braking. Regenerative braking systems provide an opportunity to recycle the braking energy, which is otherwise dissipated as heat in the brake pads. However, braking energy harnessing is a relatively new concept in the automotive sector which still requires further research and de...

  9. Micro-drive and headgear for chronic implant and recovery of optoelectronic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jinho; Sharif, Farnaz; Jung, Dajung; Kim, Soyoun; Royer, Sebastien

    2017-06-05

    Silicon probes are multisite electrodes used for the electrophysiological recording of large neuronal ensembles. Optoelectronic probes (OEPs) are recent upgrades that allow, in parallel, the delivery of local optical stimuli. The procedures to use these delicate electrodes for chronic experiments in mice are still underdeveloped and typically assume one-time uses. Here, we developed a micro-drive, a support for OEPs optical fibers, and a hat enclosure, which fabrications consist in fitting and fastening together plastic parts made with 3D printers. Excluding two parts, all components and electrodes are relatively simple to recover after the experiments, via the loosening of screws. To prevent the plugging of OEPs laser sources from altering the stability of recordings, the OEPs fibers can be transiently anchored to the hat via the tightening of screws. We test the stability of recordings in the mouse hippocampus under three different conditions: acute head-fixed, chronic head-fixed, and chronic freely moving. Drift in spike waveforms is significantly smaller in chronic compared to acute conditions, with the plugging/unplugging of head-stage and fiber connectors not affecting much the recording stability. Overall, these tools generate stable recordings of place cell in chronic conditions, and make the recovery and reuse of electrode packages relatively simple.

  10. Theoretical Thermal Evaluation of Energy Recovery Incinerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Army Logistics Mgt Center, Fort Lee , VA DTIC Alexandria, VA DTNSRDC Code 4111 (R. Gierich), Bethesda MD; Code 4120, Annapolis, MD; Code 522 (Library...Washington. DC: Code (I6H4. Washington. DC NAVSECGRUACT PWO (Code .’^O.’^). Winter Harbor. IVIE ; PWO (Code 4(1). Edzell. Scotland; PWO. Adak AK...NEW YORK Fort Schuyler. NY (Longobardi) TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY W.B. Ledbetter College Station. TX UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Energy Engineer. Davis CA

  11. Thermal energy storage for industrial waste heat recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Kedl, R. J.; Duscha, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The potential is examined for waste heat recovery and reuse through thermal energy storage in five specific industrial categories: (1) primary aluminum, (2) cement, (3) food processing, (4) paper and pulp, and (5) iron and steel. Preliminary results from Phase 1 feasibility studies suggest energy savings through fossil fuel displacement approaching 0.1 quad/yr in the 1985 period. Early implementation of recovery technologies with minimal development appears likely in the food processing and paper and pulp industries; development of the other three categories, though equally desirable, will probably require a greater investment in time and dollars.

  12. Computer program for sizing residential energy recovery ventilator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Lee, S.M.; Spears, J.W.; Kesselring, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Energy recovery ventilators offer the prospect of tighter control over residential ventilation rates than manual methods, such as opening windows, with a lesser energy penalty. However, the appropriate size of such a ventilator is not readily apparent in most situations. Sizing of energy recovery ventilation software was developed to calculate the size of ventilator necessary to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, or a user-specified air exchange rate. Inputs to the software include house location, structural characteristics, house operations and energy costs, ventilation characteristics, and HVAC system COP/efficiency. Based on these inputs, the program estimates the existing air exchange rate for the house, the ventilation rate required to meet the ASHRAE standard or user-specified air exchange rate, the size of the ventilator needed to meet the requirement, and the expected changes in indoor air quality and energy consumption. In this paper an illustrative application of the software is provided

  13. Renewable energy recovery through selected industrial wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchong

    Typically, industrial waste treatment costs a large amount of capital, and creates environmental concerns as well. A sound alternative for treating these industrial wastes is anaerobic digestion. This technique reduces environmental pollution, and recovers renewable energy from the organic fraction of those selected industrial wastes, mostly in the form of biogas (methane). By applying anaerobic technique, selected industrial wastes could be converted from cash negative materials into economic energy feed stocks. In this study, three kinds of industrial wastes (paper mill wastes, brown grease, and corn-ethanol thin stillage) were selected, their performance in the anaerobic digestion system was studied and their applicability was investigated as well. A pilot-scale system, including anaerobic section (homogenization, pre-digestion, and anaerobic digestion) and aerobic section (activated sludge) was applied to the selected waste streams. The investigation of selected waste streams was in a gradually progressive order. For paper mill effluents, since those effluents contain a large amount of recalcitrant or toxic compounds, the anaerobic-aerobic system was used to check its treatability, including organic removal efficiency, substrate utilization rate, and methane yield. The results showed the selected effluents were anaerobically treatable. For brown grease, as it is already well known as a treatable substrate, a high rate anaerobic digester were applied to check the economic effect of this substrate, including methane yield and substrate utilization rate. These data from pilot-scale experiment have the potential to be applied to full-scale plant. For thin stillage, anaerobic digestion system has been incorporated to the traditional ethanol making process as a gate-to-gate process. The performance of anaerobic digester was applied to the gate-to-gate life-cycle analysis to estimate the energy saving and industrial cost saving in a typical ethanol plant.

  14. Ion energy recovery experiment based on magnetic electro suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Stirling, W.L.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Barber, G.C.; Ponte, N.S.

    1980-05-01

    A proof-of-principle experiment on direct recovery of residual hydrogen ions based on a magnetic electron suppression scheme is described. Ions extracted from a source plasma a few kilovolts above the ground potential (approx. 20 A) are accelerated to 40 keV by a negative potential maintained on a neutralizer gas cell. As the residual ions exit the gas cell, they are deflected from the neutral beam by a magnetic field that also suppresses gas cell electrons and then recovered on a ground-potential surface. Under optimum conditions, a recovery efficiency (the ratio of the net recovered current to the available full-energy ion current) of 80% +- 20% has been obtained. Magnetic suppression of the beam plasma electrons was rather easily achieved; however, handling the fractional-energy ions originating from molecular species (H 2 + and H 3 + ) proved to be extremely important to recovery efficiency

  15. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  16. Energy analysis of human stumbling: the limitations of recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forner Cordero, A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2005-01-01

    This study has analyzed the segmental energy changes in the recovery from a stumble induced during walking on a treadmill. Three strategies emerged according to the behavior of the perturbed limb, elevating, lowering, and delayed lowering. These three strategies showed different changes in the

  17. Assessment of the energy recovery potentials of solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoigiakih

    The main attributes of waste as a fuel are water content, calorific value, and burnable content. The study was conducted to evaluate the energy recovery potential of solid waste generated in. Akosombo. A total of twelve (12) samples were collected from the township in December, 2012 (dry month) and May, 2013 (Wet ...

  18. Study of the Energy Conversion Process in the Electro-Hydrostatic Drive of a Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Grzesikiewicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we describe a study of an electro-hydrostatic hybrid drive of a utility van intended for city traffic. In this hybrid drive, the electric drive is periodically accompanied by hydrostatic drive, especially during acceleration and regenerative braking of the vehicle. We present a mathematical model of the hybrid drive as a set of dynamics and regulation equations of the van traveling at a given speed. On this basis, we construct a computer program which we use to simulate the processes of energy conversion in the electro-hydrostatic drive. The main goal of the numerical simulation is to assess the possibility of reducing energy intensity of the electric drive through such a support of the hydrostatic drive. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to reduce the load on elements of the electric system and, therefore, improve energy conversion.

  19. Development of a driving cycle to evaluate the energy economy of electric vehicles in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, John; O’Mahony, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a driving cycle to evaluate energy economy of electric vehicles. • Improves on existing driving cycles by using real world data from electric vehicles. • Driving data from different road types and traffic conditions included. - Abstract: Understanding real-world driving conditions in the form of driving cycles is instrumental in the design of efficient powertrains and energy storage systems for electric vehicles. In addition, driving cycles serve as a standardised measurement procedure for the certification of a vehicle’s fuel economy and driving range. They also facilitate the evaluation of the economic and lifecycle costs of emerging vehicular technologies. However, discrepancies between existing driving cycles and real-world driving conditions exist due to a number of factors such as insufficient data, inadequate driving cycle development methodologies and methods to assess the representativeness of developed driving cycles. The novel aspect of the work presented here is the use of real-world data from electric vehicles, over a six month period, to derive a driving cycle appropriate for their assessment. A stochastic and statistical methodology is used to develop and assess the representativeness of the driving cycle against a separate set of real world electric vehicle driving data and the developed cycle performs well in that comparison. Although direct comparisons with internal combustion engine driving cycles are not that informative or relevant due to the marked differences between how they and electric vehicles operate, some discussion around how the developed electric vehicle cycle relates to them is also included.

  20. Low-Power Adiabatic Computing with Improved Quasistatic Energy Recovery Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of adiabatic logic circuits is determined by the adiabatic and non-adiabatic losses incurred by them during the charging and recovery operations. The lesser will be these losses circuit will be more energy efficient. In this paper, a new approach is presented for minimizing power consumption in quasistatic energy recovery logic (QSERL circuit which involves optimization by removing the nonadiabatic losses completely by replacing the diodes with MOSFETs whose gates are controlled by power clocks. Proposed circuit inherits the advantages of quasistatic ERL (QSERL family but is with improved power efficiency and driving ability. In order to demonstrate workability of the newly developed circuit, a 4 × 4 bit array multiplier circuit has been designed. A mathematical expression to calculate energy dissipation in proposed inverter is developed. Performance of the proposed logic (improved quasistatic energy recovery logic (IQSERL is analyzed and compared with CMOS and reported QSERL in their representative inverters and multipliers in VIRTUOSO SPECTRE simulator of Cadence in 0.18 μm UMC technology. In our proposed (IQSERL inverter the power efficiency has been improved to almost 20% up to 50 MHz and 300 fF external load capacitance in comparison to CMOS and QSERL circuits.

  1. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  2. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An energy recovery electron linac-on-ring collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merminga, L.; Krafft, G.A.; Lebedev, V.A.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    2000-01-01

    We present the design of high-luminosity electron-proton/ion colliders in which the electrons are produced by an Energy Recovering Linac (ERL). Electron-proton/ion colliders with center of mass energies between 14 GeV and 100 GeV (protons) or 63 GeV/A (ions) and luminosities at the 10 33 (per nucleon) level have been proposed recently as a means for studying hadronic structure. The linac-on-ring option presents significant advantages with respect to: (1) spin manipulations (2) reduction of the synchrotron radiation load in the detectors (3) a wide range of continuous energy variability. Rf power and beam dump considerations require that the electron linac recover the beam energy. Based on extrapolations from actual measurements and calculations, energy recovery is expected to be feasible at currents of a few hundred mA and multi-GeV energies. Luminosity projections for the linac-ring scenario based on fundamental limitations are presented. The feasibility of an energy recovery electron linac-on-proton ring collider is investigated and four conceptual point designs are shown corresponding to electron to proton energies of: 3 GeV on 15 GeV, 5 GeV on 50 GeV and 10 GeV on 250 GeV, and for gold ions with 100 GeV/A. The last two designs assume that the protons or ions are stored in the existing RHIC accelerator. Accelerator physics issues relevant to proton rings and energy recovery linacs are discussed and a list of required R and D for the realization of such a design is presented

  4. Development and operation of the JAERI superconducting energy recovery linacs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minehara, Eisuke J.

    2006-02-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute free-electron laser (JAERI FEL) group at Tokai, Ibaraki, Japan has successfully developed one of the most advanced and newest accelerator technologies named "superconducting energy recovery linacs (ERLs)" and some applications in near future using the ERLs. In the text, the current operation and high power JAERI ERL-FEL 10 kW upgrading program, ERL-light source design studies, prevention of the stainless-steel cold-worked stress-corrosion cracking failures and decommissioning of nuclear power plants in nuclear energy industries were reported and discussed briefly as a typical application of the ERL-FEL.

  5. Energy recovery from garden waste in a LCA perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    According to the common strategies regarding waste management and energy supply in EU countries, more efficient utilization of organic waste resources (including garden waste) with both nutrient and energy recovery is desired. Each of the most common treatments applied today – composting, direct...... use on land and incineration – only provides one of the two services. A technology ensuring both nutrient and energy utilization is anaerobic digestion (AD) that has become applicable for treatment of garden waste recently. In this study, life cycle assessment aimed to compare four garden waste...

  6. Possibilities of heat energy recovery from greywater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewitecka, Kaja

    2018-02-01

    Waste water contains a large amount of heat energy which is irretrievably lost, so it is worth thinking about the possibilities of its recovery. It is estimated that in a residential building with full sanitary fittings, about 70% of the total tap water supplied is discharged as greywater and could be reused. The subject of the work is the opportunity to reuse waste water as an alternative source of heat for buildings. For this purpose, the design of heat exchangers used in the process of greywater heat recovery in indoor sewage systems, public buildings as well as in industrial plants has been reviewed. The possibility of recovering heat from waste water transported in outdoor sewage systems was also taken into consideration. An exemplary waste water heat recovery system was proposed, and the amount of heat that could be obtained using a greywater heat recovery system in a residential building was presented. The work shows that greywater heat recovery systems allow for significant savings in preheating hot tap water, and the rate of cost reimbursement depends on the purpose of the building and the type of installation. At the same time, the work shows that one should adjust the construction solutions of heat exchangers and indoor installations in buildings to the quality of the medium flowing, which is greywater.

  7. Energy-neutral sustainable nutrient recovery incorporated with the wastewater purification process in an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongya; Gao, Yifan; Hou, Dianxun; Zuo, Kuichang; Chen, Xi; Liang, Peng; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Huang, Xia

    2018-04-01

    Recovery of nutrient resources from the wastewater is now an inevitable strategy to maintain the supply of both nutrient and water for our huge population. While the intensive energy consumption in conventional nutrient recovery technologies still remained as the bottleneck towards the sustainable nutrient recycle. This study proposed an enlarged microbial nutrient recovery cell (EMNRC) which was powered by the energy contained in wastewater and achieved multi-cycle nutrient recovery incorporated with in situ wastewater treatment. With the optimal recovery solution of 3 g/L NaCl and the optimal volume ratio of wastewater to recovery solution of 10:1, >89% of phosphorus and >62% of ammonium nitrogen were recovered into struvite. An extremely low water input ratio of water. It was proved the EMNRC system was a promising technology which could utilize the chemical energy contained in wastewater itself and energy-neutrally recover nutrient during the continuous wastewater purification process.

  8. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge. State of Science Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogo, Y; Monteith, H [Hydromantis Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    There is general consensus among sanitary engineering professionals that municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge is not a 'waste', but a potential source of valuable resources. The subject is a major interest to the members of the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC). The GWRC is therefore preparing a strategic research plan related to energy and resource recovery from wastewater sludge. The initial focus of the strategy will be on sewage sludge as water reuse aspects have been part of earlier studies. The plan will define new research orientations for deeper investigation. The current state of science (SoS) Report was prepared as the preliminary phase of GWRC's future strategic research plan on energy and resource recovery from sludge.

  9. Optimal control of Formula One car energy recovery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limebeer, D. J. N.; Perantoni, G.; Rao, A. V.

    2014-10-01

    The utility of orthogonal collocation methods in the solution of optimal control problems relating to Formula One racing is demonstrated. These methods can be used to optimise driver controls such as the steering, braking and throttle usage, and to optimise vehicle parameters such as the aerodynamic down force and mass distributions. Of particular interest is the optimal usage of energy recovery systems (ERSs). Contemporary kinetic energy recovery systems are studied and compared with future hybrid kinetic and thermal/heat ERSs known as ERS-K and ERS-H, respectively. It is demonstrated that these systems, when properly controlled, can produce contemporary lap time using approximately two-thirds of the fuel required by earlier generation (2013 and prior) vehicles.

  10. Energy and Resource Recovery from Sludge. State of Science Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalogo, Y.; Monteith, H. [Hydromantis Inc., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    There is general consensus among sanitary engineering professionals that municipal wastewater and wastewater sludge is not a 'waste', but a potential source of valuable resources. The subject is a major interest to the members of the Global Water Research Coalition (GWRC). The GWRC is therefore preparing a strategic research plan related to energy and resource recovery from wastewater sludge. The initial focus of the strategy will be on sewage sludge as water reuse aspects have been part of earlier studies. The plan will define new research orientations for deeper investigation. The current state of science (SoS) Report was prepared as the preliminary phase of GWRC's future strategic research plan on energy and resource recovery from sludge.

  11. Waste energy recovery in the industry in the ECE region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In the ECE region industry accounts for about 44 per cent of total final energy consumption, 50-55 per cent of which is ''lost''. Since the early 1970s the efficiency of energy use has improved by 5 or 6 percentage points. The potential for further cost-effective savings is estimated at 10 to 20 percentage points, depending on the type of industrial activity, kind of waste energy, availability of outlets, investment strategies, awareness of the significantly improved technical possibilities and degree of co-operation between energy specialists and production engineers, equipment manufacturers, and industrial sectors at the national and international levels. The present publication argues the case for secondary energy recovery (SER) by end-users and international co-operation in technical, economic, environmental and methodological fields. It is based on data compiled by the secretariat of the Economic Commission for Europe on 1 June 1984 and given general distribution. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Tracking studies in eRHIC energy-recovery recirculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Brooks, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trbojevic, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Beam and polarization tracking studies in eRHIC energy recovery electron recirculator are presented, based on a very preliminary design of the FFAG lattice. These simulations provide examples of some of the beam and spin optics aspects of the linear FFAG lattice concept and its application in eRHIC, they provide code benchmarking for synchrotron radiation and spin diffusion in addition, and pave the way towards end-to-end 6-D(phasespace)+3D(spin) tracking simulations.

  13. Energy recovery system using an organic rankine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C

    2013-10-01

    A thermodynamic system for waste heat recovery, using an organic rankine cycle is provided which employs a single organic heat transferring fluid to recover heat energy from two waste heat streams having differing waste heat temperatures. Separate high and low temperature boilers provide high and low pressure vapor streams that are routed into an integrated turbine assembly having dual turbines mounted on a common shaft. Each turbine is appropriately sized for the pressure ratio of each stream.

  14. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90* to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy

  15. Energy analysis of control rod drive mechanism in HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Hanliang; Wu Yuanqiang

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model for the control rod drive mechanism for the 10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR-10) and analyzes accidents which may occur in the drive mechanism, for example, chain break, coupling damage and other damage scenarios. The results show that the matching problem between buffer capability and coupling strength is the main reason for coupling damage; increased temperatures would reduce eddy damping and cause a mismatch between buffer capability and coupling strength; and the displacement of the buffer spring will affect the coupling force. The results provide a theoretical basis for the design of the control rod drive mechanism for HTR-10

  16. Solar power satellite life-cycle energy recovery consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead on monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on earth (rectenna) requires about 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production installation and operation, is about two years.

  17. Solar power satellite—Life-cycle energy recovery considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, S.; Blumenberg, J.

    1995-05-01

    The construction, in-orbit installation and maintenance of a solar power satellite (SPS) will demand large amounts of energy. As a minimum requirement for an energy effective power satellite it is asked that this amount of energy be recovered. The energy effectiveness in this sense resulting in a positive net energy balance is a prerequisite for a cost-effective power satellite. This paper concentrates on life-cycle energy recovery instead of monetary aspects. The trade-offs between various power generation systems (different types of solar cells, solar dynamic), various construction and installation strategies (using terrestrial or extra-terrestrial resources) and the expected/required lifetime of the SPS are reviewed. The presented work is based on a 2-year study performed at the Technical University of Munich. The study showed that the main energy which is needed to make a solar power satellite a reality is required for the production of the solar power plant components (up to 65%), especially for the solar cell production. Whereas transport into orbit accounts in the order of 20% and the receiving station on Earth (rectenna) requires in the order of 15% of the total energy investment. The energetic amortization time, i.e. the time the SPS has to be operational to give back the amount of energy which was needed for its production, installation and operation, is in the order of two years.

  18. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  19. Energy-Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland Paul [Muplus, Inc., Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-11-19

    Most radioisotopes are produced by nuclear reactors or positive ion accelerators, which are expensive to construct and to operate. Photonuclear reactions using bremsstrahlung photon beams from less-expensive electron linacs can generate isotopes of critical interest, but much of the beam energy in a conventional electron linac is dumped at high energy, making unwanted radioactivation. The largest part of this radioactivation may be completely eliminated by applying energy recovery linac technology to the problem with an additional benefit that the energy cost to produce a given amount of isotope is reduced. Consequently, a Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes at a cost lower than that of isotopes produced by reactors or positive-ion accelerators. A Jefferson Lab approach to this problem involves a thin photon production radiator, which allows the electron beam to recirculate through rf cavities so the beam energy can be recovered while the spent electrons are extracted and absorbed at a low enough energy to minimize unwanted radioactivation. The thicker isotope photoproduction target is not in the beam. MuPlus, with Jefferson Lab and Niowave, proposed to extend this ERL technology to the commercial world of radioisotope production. In Phase I we demonstrated that 1) the ERL advantage for producing radioisotopes is at high energies (~100 MeV), 2) the range of acceptable radiator thickness is narrow (too thin and there is no advantage relative to other methods and too thick means energy recovery is too difficult), 3) using optics techniques developed under an earlier STTR for collider low beta designs greatly improves the fraction of beam energy that can be recovered (patent pending), 4) many potentially useful radioisotopes can be made with this ERL technique that have never before been available in significant commercial quantities

  20. Energy recovery as a key technology for future mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellbeck, Hans; Risse, Silvio [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungsmotoren

    2011-07-01

    Internal and external combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications represent an essential, basic module for a functioning economy and society. In ensuring mobility worldwide by land and by sea, the combustion engine plays the dominant role. Customer requirements to be fulfilled are manifold. Accordingly a downward trend in the demand for or indeed the abandonment of the combustion engine in personal or freight transport is in the near future unforeseeable. With regard to the continuously increasing need for mobility subject to limited resources and rising environmental consciousness, the combustion engine and the means to improve its efficiency and sustainability are under intensive investigation. Along with the application of CO{sub 2}-neutral fuels, improvements in the system itself will be valuable to its future. More specifically, compared to many other techniques the recovery of energy losses resulting from the operation of these engines promises a very high degree of optimization. An overview of the current and predicted number of combustion engines in both stationary and mobile applications is given at the beginning of the paper. Furthermore, a differentiation between personal and freight traffic must be made since there is not only a difference in their respective power requirements but also in their lifecycles. The energy losses through exhaust gases and coolants, for example, are quantified and rated in terms of their capabilities on the basis of certain fields of application and utilization profiles. With regard to additional specific boundary conditions, various concepts ranging from recuperation in theory to actual recovery in practice under conditions approximating actual production are analysed in different application scenarios for their efficiency, ecological benefit, and economy. Retroactive or synergistic effects which may follow from their integration into the complete system are considered precisely with the help of examples

  1. Driving factors for the regional implementation of renewable energy ‐ A multiple case study on the German energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Lotte Marie; Fischer, Lisa-Britt; Newig, Jens; Lang, Daniel Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Understanding what drives the regional implementation of renewable energy is a prerequisite for energy transitions toward a post-fossil-based energy economy. This paper presents an empirical analysis of driving factors for the regional implementation and use of renewable energy. We tested literature-derived driving factors in a comparative analysis of 18 selected study regions using Rough Set Analysis and performance analysis. We paid special attention to common combinations of driving factors, which we understand as established practices concerning the use and implementation of renewable energy. Our findings confirm most of the driving factors identified in the literature, for example the existence of key actors, knowledge exchange, or the use of goals and milestones. We also observe differences in key driving factors between highly successful and less successful regions, especially regarding funding opportunities. The results may support policy makers who aim to successfully implement renewable energy at a regional level. - Highlights: • We analyzed driving factors for RE implementation in 18 best-practice regions. • Most driving factors from transition and governance literature were confirmed. • We identified common successful practices concerning RE implementation.

  2. Energy Recovery from a Non-Linear Electromagnetic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęcik Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents study of a pseudo-magnetic levitation system (pseudo-maglev dedicated for energy harvesting. The idea rely on motion of a pseudo-levitating magnet in a coil’s terminal. The study based on real prototype harvester system, which in the pendulum dynamic vibration absorber is applied. For some parameters, the stability loss caused by the period doubling bifurcation is detected. The coexistence of two stable solutions, one of which is much better for energy harvesting is observed. The influence of the pseudo-maglev parameters on the recovered current and stability of the periodic solutions is presented in detail. The obtained results show, that the best energy recovery occurs for the high pseudo-maglev stiffness and close to the coil resistance. The amplitude’s excitation, the load resistances and the coupling coefficient strongly influence on the system’s response.

  3. Beam Diagnostics for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Michael; Connolly, Roger; Dawson, William; Degen, Chris; DellaPenna, Al; Gassner, David; Kesselman, Martin; Kewish, Jorg; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Mead, Joseph; Oerter, Brian; Russo, Tom; Vetter, Kurt; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2004-01-01

    An Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL. The goals of this test facility are first to demonstrate stable intense CW electron beam with parameters typical for the RHIC e-cooling project (and potentially for eRHIC), second to test novel elements of the ERL (high current CW photo-cathode, superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers, and feedback systems), and finally to test lattice dependence of stability criteria. Planned diagnostics include position monitors, loss monitors, transverse profile monitors (both optical and wires), scrapers/halo monitors, a high resolution differential current monitor, phase monitors, an energy spread monitor, and a fast transverse monitor (for beam break-up studies and the energy feedback system). We discuss diagnostics challenges that are unique to this project, and present preliminary system specifications. In addition, we include a brief discussion of the timing system

  4. PERLE. Powerful energy recovery linac for experiments. Conceptual design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal-Kalinin, D.; Arduini, G.; Auchmann, B.; Bernauer, J.; Bogacz, A.; Bordry, F.; Bousson, S.; Bracco, C.; Brüning, O.; Calaga, R.; Cassou, K.; Chetvertkova, V.; Cormier, E.; Daly, E.; Douglas, D.; Dupraz, K.; Goddard, B.; Henry, J.; Hutton, A.; Jensen, E.; Kaabi, W.; Klein, M.; Kostka, P.; Lasheras, N.; Levichev, E.; Marhauser, F.; Martens, A.; Milanese, A.; Militsyn, B.; Peinaud, Y.; Pellegrini, D.; Pietralla, N.; Pupkov, Y.; Rimmer, R.; Schirm, K.; Schulte, D.; Smith, S.; Stocchi, A.; Valloni, A.; Welsch, C.; Willering, G.; Wollmann, D.; Zimmermann, F.; Zomer, F.

    2018-06-01

    A conceptual design is presented of a novel energy-recovering linac (ERL) facility for the development and application of the energy recovery technique to linear electron accelerators in the multi-turn, large current and large energy regime. The main characteristics of the powerful energy recovery linac experiment facility (PERLE) are derived from the design of the Large Hadron electron Collider, an electron beam upgrade under study for the LHC, for which it would be the key demonstrator. PERLE is thus projected as a facility to investigate efficient, high current (HC) (>10 mA) ERL operation with three re-circulation passages through newly designed SCRF cavities, at 801.58 MHz frequency, and following deceleration over another three re-circulations. In its fully equipped configuration, PERLE provides an electron beam of approximately 1 GeV energy. A physics programme possibly associated with PERLE is sketched, consisting of high precision elastic electron–proton scattering experiments, as well as photo-nuclear reactions of unprecedented intensities with up to 30 MeV photon beam energy as may be obtained using Fabry–Perot cavities. The facility has further applications as a general technology test bed that can investigate and validate novel superconducting magnets (beam induced quench tests) and superconducting RF structures (structure tests with HC beams, beam loading and transients). Besides a chapter on operation aspects, the report contains detailed considerations on the choices for the SCRF structure, optics and lattice design, solutions for arc magnets, source and injector and on further essential components. A suitable configuration derived from the here presented design concept may next be moved forward to a technical design and possibly be built by an international collaboration which is being established.

  5. Study on the effect of driving cycles on energy efficiency of electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Fenzhu; Xu Licong [School of Transportation Science and Engineering of Beihang Univ., BJ (China); Wu Zhixin [Tianjin Qing Yuan Electric Vehicle Corp. Ltd., TJ (China)

    2009-07-01

    The energy usage efficiency of electric vehicles (EVS) and evaluation index of electromotor efficiency were studied. The idea of ''interval usage percentage of energy efficiency'' and ''exertion degree of energy efficiency'' of electromotor was brought forward. The effect of driving cycles on the distribution of running status of electromotor and its efficiency was investigated. The electromotor efficiency and the variety trend of average driving force at different driving cycles were discussed. Based on several typical domestic and foreign driving cycles, the exertion degree of energy efficiency and the whole efficiency of power train on some types of EVS were analyzed and calculated. The result indicates that there is a difference of 9.64% in exertion degree of energy efficiency of electromotor at different driving cycles. The efficiency distribution of electromotor and control system is different, and the average driving force is different, too. That cause the great variety in driving range. The idiographic reference data are provided to the establishment of driving cycles' criterion of EVS in our country. (orig.)

  6. Mechanical Energy Recovery during Walking in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Dipaola

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of mechanical energy recovery during gait have been thoroughly investigated in healthy subjects, but never described in patients with Parkinson disease (PD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether such mechanisms are preserved in PD patients despite an altered pattern of locomotion. We consecutively enrolled 23 PD patients (mean age 64±9 years with bilateral symptoms (H&Y ≥II if able to walk unassisted in medication-off condition (overnight suspension of all dopaminergic drugs. Ten healthy subjects (mean age 62±3 years walked both at their 'preferred' and 'slow' speeds, to match the whole range of PD velocities. Kinematic data were recorded by means of an optoelectronic motion analyzer. For each stride we computed spatio-temporal parameters, time-course and range of motion (ROM of hip, knee and ankle joint angles. We also measured kinetic (Wk, potential (Wp, total (WtotCM energy variations and the energy recovery index (ER. Along with PD progression, we found a significant correlation of WtotCM and Wp with knee ROM and in particular with knee extension in terminal stance phase. Wk and ER were instead mainly related to gait velocity. In PD subjects, the reduction of knee ROM significantly diminished both Wp and WtotCM. Rehabilitation treatments should possibly integrate passive and active mobilization of knee to prevent a reduction of gait-related energetic components.

  7. Water quality and herbivory interactively drive coral-reef recovery patterns in American Samoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Houk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compared with a wealth of information regarding coral-reef recovery patterns following major disturbances, less insight exists to explain the cause(s of spatial variation in the recovery process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study quantifies the influence of herbivory and water quality upon coral reef assemblages through space and time in Tutuila, American Samoa, a Pacific high island. Widespread declines in dominant corals (Acropora and Montipora resulted from cyclone Heta at the end of 2003, shortly after the study began. Four sites that initially had similar coral reef assemblages but differential temporal dynamics four years following the disturbance event were classified by standardized measures of 'recovery status', defined by rates of change in ecological measures that are known to be sensitive to localized stressors. Status was best predicted, interactively, by water quality and herbivory. Expanding upon temporal trends, this study examined if similar dependencies existed through space; building multiple regression models to identify linkages between similar status measures and local stressors for 17 localities around Tutuila. The results highlighted consistent, interactive interdependencies for coral reef assemblages residing upon two unique geological reef types. Finally, the predictive regression models produced at the island scale were graphically interpreted with respect to hypothesized site-specific recovery thresholds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Cumulatively, our study purports that moving away from describing relatively well-known patterns behind recovery, and focusing upon understanding causes, improves our foundation to predict future ecological dynamics, and thus improves coral reef management.

  8. Handbook of solid waste disposal: materials and energy recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavoni, J L; Heer, Jr, J E; Hagerty, D J

    1975-01-01

    Traditional and innovative solid waste disposal techniques and new developments in materials and energy recovery systems are analyzed. Each method is evaluated in terms of system methodology, controlling process parameters, and process requirements, by-products, economics, and case histories. Medium and high temperature incineration; wet pulping; landfill with leachate recirculation; the Hercules, Inc., system; USBM front-end and back-end systems; pyrolysis; waste heat utilization, the Combustion Power Unit-400; use of refuse as a supplementary fuel; and methane production from anaerobic fermentation systems are considered, as well as sanitary landfilling, incineration, and composting. European solid waste management techniques are evaluated for their applicability to the US.

  9. Energy demands during a judo match and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degoutte, F; Jouanel, P; Filaire, E

    2003-06-01

    To assess energy demand during a judo match and the kinetics of recovery by measuring the metabolites of the oxypurine cascade, lipolytic activity, and glycolytic pathway. Venous blood samples were taken from 16 national judoists (mean (SEM) age 18.4 (1.6) years), before (T(1)) and three minutes (T(2)), one hour (T(3)), and 24 hours (T(4)) after a match. A seven day diet record was used to evaluate nutrient intake. Nutrient analysis indicated that these athletes followed a low carbohydrate diet. Plasma lactate concentration had increased to 12.3 (1.8) mmol/l at the end of the match. An increase in the levels of extracellular markers of muscle adenine nucleotide catabolism, urea, and creatinine was observed at T(2), while uric acid levels remained unchanged. High concentrations of urea persisted for 24 hours during the recovery period. Ammonia, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and creatinine returned to control levels within the 24 hour recovery period. Uric acid concentrations rose from T(3) and had not returned to baseline 24 hours after the match. The levels of triglycerides, glycerol, and free fatty acids had increased significantly (p<0.05) after the match (T(2)) but returned to baseline values within 24 hours. Concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol were significantly increased after the match. These results show that a judo match induces both protein and lipid metabolism. Carbohydrate availability, training adaptation, and metabolic stress may explain the requirement for these types of metabolism.

  10. Longitudinal transport measurements in an energy recovery accelerator with triple bend achromat arcs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jackson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal properties of electron bunches (energy spread and bunch length and their manipulation are of importance in free electron lasers (FELs, where magnetic bunch length compression is a common feature of beam transport. Recirculating accelerators and energy recovery linac accelerators (ERLs have been used as FEL drivers for several decades and control of longitudinal beam transport is particularly important in their magnet lattices. We report on measurements of longitudinal transport properties in an ERL-FEL, the ALICE (Accelerators and Lasers in Combined Experiments accelerator at Daresbury Laboratory. ALICE is an energy recovery research accelerator that drives an infrared free electron laser. By measuring the time of arrival of electron bunches, the canonical longitudinal transport quantities were measured in the beam transport and bunch compression sections of the lattice. ALICE includes a four-dipole bunch compression chicane providing fixed longitudinal transport, and triple bend achromat arcs including sextupole magnets where the first and second order longitudinal transport can be adjusted. The longitudinal transport properties in these lattice sections were measured and compared with the theoretical model of the lattice. A reasonable level of agreement has been found. The effect of sextupoles in second order, as well as first order, longitudinal correction is considered, with the measurements indicating the level of alignment of the beam to the center of the sextupole.

  11. Harnessing Big-Data for Estimating the Energy Consumption and Driving Range of Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    -effects econometrics model used in this paper predicts that the energy saving speed of driving is between 45 and 56 km/h. In addition to the contribution to the literature about energy efficiency of electric vehicles, the findings from this study enlightens consumers to choose appropriate cars that suit their travel......This study analyses the driving range and investigates the factors affecting the energy consumption rate of fully-battery electric vehicles under real-world driving patterns accounting for weather condition, drivers’ characteristics, and road characteristics. Four data sources are used: (i) up...

  12. Energy researchers - 1. Energy efficiency: Energy efficiency is driving innovation; No economic crisis for energy efficiency; How can we change our energy habits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisan, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel; Viterbo, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    A first article comments how the race to achieve energy efficiency is driving the emergence of new technologies in transportation and construction (hybrid cars, phase change material, digital mock-ups, and so on). The example of the AGV is evoked, a new version of the TGV developed by Alstom which will run faster and consume less energy. A second article outlines that, due to the support from public authorities and to an increased awareness of energy costs and environmental challenges, the energy savings market is booming. Then, in an interview, a sociologist of the ADEME comments the difficulty of changing habits in terms of energy savings

  13. Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production - Part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, Celidonio; Dispenza, Giorgio; Rocca, Vincenzo La; Panno, Giuseppe

    2009-01-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. In a previous paper, the authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Considering the LNG regasification projects in progress all over the World, an appropriate design option could be based on a modular unit having a mean regasification capacity of 2 x 10 9 standard cubic meters/year. This paper deals with the results of feasibility studies, developed by the authors at DREAM in the context of a research program, on ventures based on thermodynamic and economic analysis of improved CHP cycles and related innovative technology which demonstrate the suitability of the proposal

  14. Task-induced brain activity in aphasic stroke patients: what is driving recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The estimated prevalence of aphasia in the UK and the USA is 250 000 and 1 000 000, respectively. The commonest aetiology is stroke. The impairment may improve with behavioural therapy, and trials using cortical stimulation or pharmacotherapy are undergoing proof-of-principle investigation, but with mixed results. Aphasia is a heterogeneous syndrome, and the simple classifications according to the Broca-Wernicke-Lichtheim model inadequately describe the diverse communication difficulties with which patients may present. Greater knowledge of how intact neural networks promote recovery after aphasic stroke, either spontaneously or in response to interventions, will result in clearer hypotheses about how to improve the treatment of aphasia. Twenty-five years ago, a pioneering study on healthy participants heralded the introduction of functional neuroimaging to the study of mechanisms of recovery from aphasia. Over the ensuing decades, such studies have been interpreted as supporting one of three hypotheses, which are not mutually exclusive. The first two predate the introduction of functional neuroimaging: that recovery is the consequence of the reconstitution of domain-specific language systems in tissue around the lesion (the ‘perilesional’ hypothesis), or by homotopic cortex in the contralateral hemisphere (the ‘laterality-shift’ hypothesis). The third is that loss of transcallosal inhibition to contralateral homotopic cortex hinders recovery (the ‘disinhibition’ hypothesis). These different hypotheses at times give conflicting views about rehabilitative intervention; for example, should one attempt to activate or inhibit a contralateral homotopic region with cortical stimulation techniques to promote recovery? This review proposes that although the functional imaging data are statistically valid in most cases, their interpretation has often favoured one explanation while ignoring plausible alternatives. In our view, this is particularly evident when

  15. Vacuum system of the compact Energy Recovery Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T., E-mail: tohru.honda@kek.jp; Tanimoto, Y.; Nogami, T.; Takai, R.; Obina, T.; Asaoka, S.; Uchiyama, T.; Nakamura, N. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) (1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan) (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    The compact Energy Recovery Linac (cERL), a test accelerator to establish important technologies demanded for future ERL-based light sources, was constructed in late 2013 at KEK. The accelerator was successfully commissioned in early 2014, and demonstrated beam circulation with energy recovery. In the cERL vacuum system, low-impedance vacuum components are required to circulate high-intensity, low-emittance and short-bunch electron beams. We therefore developed ultra-high-vacuum (UHV)-compatible flanges that can connect beam tubes seamlessly, and employed retractable beam monitors, namely, a movable Faraday cup and screen monitors. In most parts of the accelerator, pressures below 1×10{sup −7} Pa are required to mitigate beam-gas interactions. Particularly, near the photocathode electron gun and the superconducting (SC) cavities, pressures below 1×10{sup −8} Pa are required. The beam tubes in the sections adjoining the SC cavities were coated with non-evaporable getter (NEG) materials, to reduce gas condensation on the cryo-surfaces. During the accelerator commissioning, stray magnetic fields from the permanent magnets of some cold cathode gauges (CCGs) were identified as a source of the disturbance to the beam orbit. Magnetic shielding was specially designed as a remedy for this issue.

  16. Preliminary experiments on energy recovery on a neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.

    1977-06-01

    Experimental tests of energy recovery are made on an injector of energetic neutral atoms in which the ion source (the circular periplasmatron) is operated at the ground potential and the neutralizer is biased at the high negative potential corresponding to the desired neutral beam energy. To prevent the acceleration of the neutralizer plasma electrons toward the collector of the decelerated ions (the recovery electrode), a potential barrier is created by means of a negatively biased long cylindrical grid (called the suppressor grid) surrounding the beam. For a given negative potential (relative to the neutralizer) applied to this grid a plasma sheath develops at the periphery of the beam. At the entry of the grid the width of this sheath is generally much smaller than the beam radius. However, the ions are deflected by the electric field of the sheath outward through the grid. The ion density in the sheath is thus decreasing as the beam propagates and the result is a sheath-widening process which in turn causes more ions to be deflected. If the suppressor grid is sufficiently long the sheath will eventually fill the whole section of the beam, the potential on the axis will fall below the neutralizer potential and stop the electrons. Concurrently, most of the ions are deflected out of the suppressor. These ions can be decelerated and collected outside the region where the neutral beam propagates. A drawing of such a system is shown

  17. An adaptive and rule based driving system for energy-e cient and safe driving behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Yay, Emre

    2016-01-01

    Falta palabras clave Saving energy and protecting the environment became fundamental for society and politics, why several laws were enacted to increase the energye ciency. Furthermore, the growing number of vehicles and drivers leaded to more accidents and fatalities on the roads, why road safety became an important factor as well. Due to the increasing importance of energye ciency and safety, car manufacturers started to optimise the vehicle in terms of energy-e ciency ...

  18. Recovery of barotrauma injuries in Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from exposure to pile driving sound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon M Casper

    Full Text Available Juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, were exposed to simulated high intensity pile driving signals to evaluate their ability to recover from barotrauma injuries. Fish were exposed to one of two cumulative sound exposure levels for 960 pile strikes (217 or 210 dB re 1 µPa(2·s SEL(cum; single strike sound exposure levels of 187 or 180 dB re 1 µPa(2⋅s SEL(ss respectively. This was followed by an immediate assessment of injuries, or assessment 2, 5, or 10 days post-exposure. There were no observed mortalities from the pile driving sound exposure. Fish exposed to 217 dB re 1 µPa(2·s SEL(cum displayed evidence of healing from injuries as post-exposure time increased. Fish exposed to 210 dB re 1 µPa(2·s SEL(cum sustained minimal injuries that were not significantly different from control fish at days 0, 2, and 10. The exposure to 210 dB re 1 µPa(2·s SEL(cum replicated the findings in a previous study that defined this level as the threshold for onset of injury. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that one or two Mild injuries resulting from pile driving exposure are unlikely to affect the survival of the exposed animals, at least in a laboratory environment.

  19. Policies and legislation driving Taiwan's development of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2010-01-01

    Under the current wave of international responses to the growing threat of climate change, Taiwan cannot afford to step back from its goal of advancing its renewable energy, strengthening its energy self sufficiency and energy security. This paper will first analyze the high level dependency structure of Taiwan's energy demands; then we will explore Taiwan current situation in terms of renewable energy development; furthermore from an overview of the course of changes and development in Taiwan's energy policy, highlight the commitment to and aims of Taiwan's Renewable Energy Development, made by the government at the Annual National Energy Conference. Fourth, we shall analyse technological R and D, incentives, taxes, market reforms and other related policy tools. Fifth, in light of public announcements and budgets set in recent years for Taiwan's renewable energy research plan, highlight main strategies being given impetus by the government. Sixth, the author will discuss the implications of recent significant legal reforms to the development of renewable energy in Taiwan and from the correlating aspects of industrial structures and energy consumption, take the first steps in emphasizing the urgent need for adjustments to be made to Taiwan's industrial structure. Finally, this paper will conclude by examining current policies, legislation and strategies which are in place to promote this area in Taiwan and discuss the potential competitiveness and future scenarios which the development of Renewable Energy could mean for Taiwan. (author)

  20. REDUCING ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY PASSENGER CAR WITH USING OF NON-ELECTRICAL HYBRID DRIVE TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Skrucany

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Not only electrical hybrid technology is used for drivetrain of passenger cars. Also other systems using non-electrical principles (hydraulic or air pressure, mechanical energy storage can be found in current vehicles. There is a quantification of the spared energy by using a hybrid vehicle in the paper. Driving cy-cle ECE 15 was chosen as a platform for simulation of driving resistances.

  1. The role of plant-soil feedbacks in driving native-species recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelenik, Stephanie G; Levine, Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of exotic plants on soil nutrient cycling are often hypothesized to reinforce their dominance, but this mechanism is rarely tested, especially in relation to other ecological factors. In this manuscript we evaluate the influence of biogeochemically mediated plant-soil feedbacks on native shrub recovery in an invaded island ecosystem. The introduction of exotic grasses and grazing to Santa Cruz Island, California, USA, converted native shrublands (dominated by Artemisia californica and Eriogonum arborescens) into exotic-dominated grasslands (dominated by Avena barbata) over a century ago, altering nutrient-cycling regimes. To test the hypothesis that exotic grass impacts on soils alter reestablishment of native plants, we implemented a field-based soil transplant experiment in three years that varied widely in rainfall. Our results showed that growth of Avena and Artemisia seedlings was greater on soils influenced by their heterospecific competitor. Theory suggests that the resulting plant-soil feedback should facilitate the recovery of Artemisia in grasslands, although four years of monitoring showed no such recovery, despite ample seed rain. By contrast, we found that species effects on soils lead to weak to negligible feedbacks for Eriogonum arborescens, yet this shrub readily colonized the grasslands. Thus, plant-soil feedbacks quantified under natural climate and competitive conditions did not match native-plant recovery patterns. We also found that feedbacks changed with climate and competition regimes, and that these latter factors generally had stronger effects on seedling growth than species effects on soils. We conclude that even when plant-soil feedbacks influence the balance between native and exotic species, their influence may be small relative to other ecological processes.

  2. Solutions for energy recovery of animal waste from leather industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaroiu, Gheorghe; Pană, Constantin; Mihaescu, Lucian; Cernat, Alexandru; Negurescu, Niculae; Mocanu, Raluca; Negreanu, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal fats in blend with diesel fuel for energy valorification through combustion. • Animal waste from tanneries as fuel and for biogas production. • Experimental tests using animal fats as fuel for diesel engines. • Experimental tests modifying the characteristic parameters. - Abstract: Secondary products from food and leather industries are regarded as animal wastes. Conversion of these animal wastes into fuels represents an energy recovery solution not only because of their good combustion properties, but also from the viewpoint of supply stability. A tannery factory usually processes 60–70 t/month of crude leathers, resulting in 12–15 t/month of waste. Fats, which can be used as the input fuel for diesel engines (in crude state or as biodiesel), represent 10% of this animal waste, while the rest are proteins that can be used to generate biogas through anaerobic digestion. Herein, we analyse two approaches to the use of animal waste from tanneries: as fuel for diesel engines and for biogas generation for heat production. Diesel fuelling and fuelling by animal wastes are compared in terms of the engine performance and pollutant emissions. The effects of animal waste usage on the pollutant emissions level, exhaust gas temperature, indicated mean effective pressure, maximum pressure, and engine efficiency are analysed. The energy recovery technologies for animal waste, which are analysed in this work, can be easily implemented and can simultaneously solve the problem posed by animal wastes by using them as an alternative to fossil fuels. Animal fats can be considered an excellent alternative fuel for diesel engines without major constructive modifications.

  3. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, F.; Lunberg, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    A study to assess the potential for waste heat recovery in the food industry and to evaluate prospective waste heat recovery system concepts employing thermal energy storage was conducted. The study found that the recovery of waste heat in canning facilities can be performed in significant quantities using systems involving thermal energy storage that are both practical and economical. A demonstration project is proposed to determine actual waste heat recovery costs and benefits and to encourage system implementation by the food industry.

  4. Simulation of Trolleybus Traction Induction Drive With Supercapacitor Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazis, V.; Latkovskis, L.; Grigans, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article considers the possibilities of saving the regenerative braking energy in Škoda 24Tr type trolleybuses by installing the onboard supercapacitor energy storage system (ESS) and improving its performance with automated switching to the autonomous traction mode. Proposed is an ESS control system with constant DC bus voltage in the supercapacitor charging mode and supercapacitor current proportional to the AC drive current in the discharging mode. The authors investigate stability of the trolleybus ESS control system operating together with AC traction drive in various overhead voltage failure modes. The co-simulation of ESS operation was done by Matlab/Simulink AC drive and PSIM ESS continuous models.

  5. Methanation and energy recovery from biogas: mutually beneficial?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couturier, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    Biogas is credited with a development potential of 18 million tons of oil equivalent by 2020 for the European Union. In terms of scale, this corresponds to the quantity of natural gas consumed today in France. Ten per cent of these resources are today being used, with wide variations from one country to another. If we compare this production to the population levels, it is the Northern European countries of Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands which emerge at the top of the list. Recovery of biogas is proportionally three times higher in these states than in France or in Belgium and six times that of Southern Europe. At a time when biogas appears in the European 'campaign for takeoff' as a sector likely to produce 'MW' in the short term, the identification of factors (including subsidies, purchase prices for energy and tax incentives) that have influenced the growth of methanation and recovery of biogas in certain countries hold valuable lessons for us all. (authors)

  6. ORC waste heat recovery in European energy intensive industries: Energy and GHG savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, F.; Bianchi, M.; Branchini, L.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Baresi, M.; Fermi, A.; Rossetti, N.; Vescovo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A methodology to estimate ORC industrial heat recovery potential is defined. • Heat recovery applications for different industrial processes are shown. • Cement, steel, glass and oil and gas applications are considered in EU27. • Savings in electricity costs and greenhouse gases are quantified. - Abstract: Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is a technology with important opportunities in heat recovery from energy intensive industrial processes. This paper represents the first comprehensive estimate of ORC units that can be installed in cement, steel, glass and oil and gas industries in the 27 countries of the European Union based on an accurate methodology related to real plants in operation or under construction. An evaluation of energy savings, depending on the number of operating hours per year and of the consequent decrease in CO 2 emission and electricity expenditure, is also provided. The study, carried out in the framework of an European research project on heat recovery in energy intensive industries, found that, in the most convenient considered scenario, up to about 20,000 GW h of thermal energy per year can be recovered and 7.6 M ton of CO 2 can be saved by the application of ORC technology to the investigated and most promising industrial sectors

  7. China's ongoing energy efficiency drive: Origins, progress and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews-Speed, Philip

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 China's government launched a vigorous programme to reverse the trend of rising national energy intensity and to reduce intensity by 20% over the period 2006-2010. The aim of this paper is to examine this programme in the context of nearly 30 years of measures to enhance energy efficiency in China, and thus to evaluate the likelihood that today's policies will yield improvements over a longer period. The country achieved a sustained decline of energy intensity in the period 1980-2001 but this trend was reversed in 2002. This reversal arose from a shift in the structure of the economy to more energy-intensive industries and from a decline in the rate of technical innovation. The measures taken since 2003 have been directed principally at energy-intensive industries, but have also addressed other sectors of the economy. Though the energy intensity target for the year 2010 may be achieved, greater efforts will be needed to address a number of constraints which include: the reluctance to use economic and financial instruments; the dependency of energy policy on industrial and social policies; the nature of political decision-making and of public administration; a shortage of skills; and social attitudes to energy

  8. Greenhouse effect reduction and energy recovery from waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: lidia.lombardi@pin.unifi.it; Carnevale, Ennio [Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Via Santa Marta 3, 50139 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita degli Studi di Siena, Via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Waste management systems are a non-negligible source of greenhouse gases. In particular, methane and carbon dioxide emissions occur in landfills due to the breakdown of biodegradable carbon compounds operated on by anaerobic bacteria. The conventional possibilities of reducing the greenhouse effect (GHE) from waste landfilling consists in landfill gas (LFG) flaring or combustion with energy recovery in reciprocating engines. These conventional treatments are compared with three innovative possibilities: the direct LFG feeding to a fuel cell (FC); the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a stationary FC; the production of a hydrogen-rich gas, by means of steam reforming and CO{sub 2} capture, to feed a vehicle FC. The comparison is carried out from an environmental point of view, calculating the specific production of GHE per unit mass of waste disposed in landfill equipped with the different considered technologies.

  9. Completing the cycle : Energy and Resource Recovery Centres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, D. [Pearl Earth Sciences, Corp., Ajax, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: ddickson@pearlearth.com

    2006-07-01

    Pearl Earth Sciences, Corp.'s Energy and Resource Recovery Centres support technologies that will provide long-term environmental and economical benefits to industry and society at large. Using a closed-loop production process with zero emissions we offer producers of waste a solution for their end of life products. Our prime goals are to have the flexibility to respond to individual waste market challenges using innovative ultra-high-temperature plasma conversion technology and to focus on the production of value-added industrial products such as a clean synthesis gas (ProGaz), Hydrogen, metals and other recovered materials. The syn-gas with its high hydrogen content can be used in the emerging 'distributed power generation' markets, to power automotive, stationary and portable fuel cells, as well as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles; chemical processing or direct feed to a pipeline.

  10. Completing the cycle : Energy and Resource Recovery Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Pearl Earth Sciences, Corp.'s Energy and Resource Recovery Centres support technologies that will provide long-term environmental and economical benefits to industry and society at large. Using a closed-loop production process with zero emissions we offer producers of waste a solution for their end of life products. Our prime goals are to have the flexibility to respond to individual waste market challenges using innovative ultra-high-temperature plasma conversion technology and to focus on the production of value-added industrial products such as a clean synthesis gas (ProGaz), Hydrogen, metals and other recovered materials. The syn-gas with its high hydrogen content can be used in the emerging 'distributed power generation' markets, to power automotive, stationary and portable fuel cells, as well as Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles; chemical processing or direct feed to a pipeline

  11. What's driving energy efficient appliance label awareness and purchase propensity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The EU appliance energy consumption labeling scheme is a key component of efforts to increase the diffusion of energy-efficient household appliances. In this paper, the determinants of consumer knowledge of the energy label for household appliances and the choice of class-A energy-efficient appliances are jointly estimated using data from a large survey of more than 20,000 German households. The results for five major appliances suggest that lack of knowledge of the energy label can generate considerable bias in both estimates of rates of uptake of class-A appliances and in estimates of the underlying determinants of choice of class-A appliance. Simulations of the choice to purchase a class-A appliance, given knowledge of the labeling framework, reveal that residence characteristics and, in several cases, regional electricity prices strongly increase the propensity to purchase a class-A appliance, but socio-economic characteristics have surprisingly little impact on appliance energy-class choice.

  12. Design and Experiment Analysis of a Direct-Drive Wave Energy Converter with a Linear Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Haitao Yu; Zhenchuan Shi

    2018-01-01

    Coastal waves are an abundant nonpolluting and renewable energy source. A wave energy converter (WEC) must be designed for efficient and steady operation in highly energetic ocean environments. A direct-drive wave energy conversion (D-DWEC) system with a tubular permanent magnet linear generator (TPMLG) on a wind and solar photovoltaic complementary energy generation platform is proposed to improve the conversion efficiency and reduce the complexity and device volume of WECs. The operating pr...

  13. Energy Management Strategy Based on the Driving Cycle Model for Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Fu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management strategy (EMS for a plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV is proposed based on the driving cycle model and dynamic programming (DP algorithm. A driving cycle model is constructed by collecting and processing the driving data of a certain school bus. The state of charge (SOC profile can be obtained by the DP algorithm for the whole driving cycle. In order to optimize the energy management strategy in the hybrid power system, the optimal motor torque control sequence can be calculated using the DP algorithm for the segments between the traffic intersections. Compared with the traditional charge depleting-charge sustaining (CDCS strategy, the test results on the ADVISOR platform show a significant improvement in fuel consumption using the EMS proposed in this paper.

  14. Energy-Recovery Pressure-Reducer in District Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Borkowski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Already existing man-made infrastructures that create water flow and unused pressure are interesting energy sources to which micro-hydropower plants can be applied. Apart from water supply systems (WSSs, which are widely described in the literature, significant hydropower potential can also be found in district heating systems (DHSs. In this paper, a prototype, a so-called energy-recovery pressure-reducer (ERPR, utilized for a DHS, is presented. It consisted of a pump as a turbine coupled to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The latter was connected to the power grid through the power electronic unit (PEU. The variable-speed operation allowed one to modify the turbine characteristics to match the substation’s hydraulic conditions. The proposed ERPR device could be installed in series to the existing classic pressure reducing valve (PRV as an independent device that reduces costs and simplifies system installation. The test results of the prototype system located in a substation of Cracow’s DHS are presented. The steady-state curves and regulation characteristics show the prototype’s operating range and efficiency. In this study, the pressure-reducer impact on the electrical and hydraulic systems, and on the environment, were analyzed. The operation tests during the annual heating season revealed an average system’s efficiency of 49%.

  15. The FFAG return loop for the CBETA Energy Recovery Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The CBETA energy recovery linac uses a single xed eld alternating gradient (FFAG) beam line to return the beam for electron beams with four energies, ranging from 42 MeV to 150 MeV. To keep the beam line compact, the ends of the return line have a small radius of curvature, but the central part of the return line is straight. These are connected by transition lines that adiabatically change from one to the other. We rst describe the design or the arc cell. We then describe how a straight cell is created to be a good match to this arc cell. We then describe the design of the transition line between them. The design process makes use of eld maps for the desired magnets. Because we switch magnet types as we move from the arc, through the transition, and into the straight, there are discrete jumps in the elds that degrade the adiabaticity of the transition, and we describe corrections to manage that.

  16. Energy efficiency high speed drives with magnetic bearings; Energieeffizienz durch schnell drehende, magnetgelagerte Antriebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroll, Matthias [LEViTEC GmbH, Lahnau (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In modern purification plans the contamination of the wastewater are biologically removed by supplying oxygen. The clarifier is ventilated by compressors around the clock and approximately 60% of the total energy consumption is used for that. It enables a great opportunity for saving energy. This contribution shows that the use of magnetic centrifugal compressors with high-speed drives leads to significant reduction of energy consumption. In addition, the drive is, due to contact free the magnetic bearings, practically wear- and maintenance-free. By the use of integrated sensors in the magnetic bearings a continuous monitoring of the compressor is implemented. Consequently this drive concept provides not only more efficiency and less energy consumption, but also leads to a higher plant availability. (orig.)

  17. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  18. Exploring driving forces and liquid properties for electrokinetic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an effort to understand electrokinetic energy conversion systems which are based on motion of ionic charges in micro- and nano-confinements. In particular, both experimentally and theoretically the utilization of different kind of liquids was investigated to convert mechanical

  19. NREL at 40: Research Efforts Drive Advanced Energy | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    benefits. The laboratory gives U.S. entrepreneurs a competitive edge in the global energy race by bridging a steadily increasing amount of solar power added annually and a single gigawatt (GW) having the increasing obstacles in transporting these massive structures." The solution may be in manufacturing

  20. Energy recovery from air flow in underground railway systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, B.; Mariani, A. [Seconda Univ. degli studi di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering; Costanzo, M.L. [Tecnosistem spa, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The 20-20-20 energy policy of the European Union commits members to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 20 per cent by 2020, and stipulates that 20 per cent of final-use energy is to be supplied by renewable energy sources. This paper proposed the concept of recovering energy from underground trains by using the air flow inside tunnels to drive energy conversion systems such as turbines to generate electricity. Underground trains use much of their power to overcome the aerodynamic resistance moving the air in front of the train, creating a piston effect when travelling inside tunnels at relatively low speed. Numerical simulations were used in this study to determine how much electricity could be produced. A one-dimensional numerical analysis of a specific subway train track was used to evaluate the air flow magnitude inside the tunnel. Once the air flow features were detected, the potential electricity production was evaluated by considering the characteristics of a Wells turbine. Two types of 3-dimensional models of the tunnel and train were presented. One considered a long straight tunnel with a train running in it, and a small portion of a bypass tunnel. The other considered a large part of an opposite tunnel connected to the main one through the by-pass tunnel. Both the 3D models revealed a maximum flow rate of 2.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h, while the 1D model showed an air flow of 1.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h. The difference was due primarily to the presence of fans in the 1D Model and different modelling assumptions. It was concluded that one single Wells type turbine placed in a by-pass tunnel can produce 32.6 kWh per day, or about 10 MWh per year, resulting in a CO{sub 2} savings of about 5.5 tons per year. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  1. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, Pentti

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration cuttings. The production goal of forest chips is 5 million m 3 solid (10TWh) in 2010. The use of forest chips is promoted by means of environmental taxes, financial aid for investments, and financial support for research, development and commercialization of technology. In 2002, altogether 365 heating and power plants larger than 0.4MW used forest chips. The total consumption was 1.7 million m 3 , the use of small houses and farms included. The growth of use is presently about 350000 m 3 per annum, but reaching the official goal will require an annual growth of 400000 m 3 during this decade. The consumption of roundwood per capita, 15m 3 per annum, is in Finland 20 times as high as the average consumption of the EU countries, respectively. Consequently, residual forest biomass is abundantly available. The capacity of heating and power plants to use forest chips is large enough to meet the goal. However, users require competitive chip prices, good quality control of fuel and reliable supply chains, and new efficient procurement systems are being developed. The paper deals with the drivers of this development: support measures of the Government; strong support to research, development and commercialization of forest chip production from the National Technology Agency Tekes; advanced infrastructure for the procurement of timber for the forest industries; positive attitude and active participation of the forest industries; the active role of leading forest machine and boiler manufacturers, and the possibility to cofire wood and peat fuels in large fluidized bed boilers so as to

  2. Flywheel Energy Storage Drive System for Wind Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Constantin Georgescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a wind small power plant with a Smart Storage Modular Structure (SSMS, as follows: a Short Time Storage Module (STSM based on a flywheel with Induction Motor (IM and a Medium/Long Time Storage Module (MLTSM based on a Vanadium Redox flow Battery (VRB. To control the speed and torque of the IM are used a nonlinear sensorless solution and a direct torque solution which have been compared. Now, the author proposes to replace the IM by a dc motor with permanent magnet energy injection. In this aim, are accomplished some laboratory tests.

  3. Energy Management Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Driving Condition Identification Using KGA-Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem related to adaptive energy management strategies based on driving condition identification being difficult to be applied to a real hybrid electric vehicle (HEV controller, this paper proposes an energy management strategy by combining the driving condition identification algorithm based on genetic optimized K-means clustering algorithm (KGA-means, and the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS. The simulation results show that compared with ECMS, the energy management strategy proposed in this article drives the engine working point closer to the best efficiency curve, and smooths out the state of charge (SOC change and better maintains the SOC in a highly efficient area. As a result, the vehicle fuel consumption reduces by 6.84%.

  4. Example for electrical energy savings with the pump adjustable electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchevski, Slobodan; Andonov, Zdravko; Saracevic, Fahrudin; Micevski, Darko; Buchkoski, Aleksandar

    2004-01-01

    Most used method of flow regulation is by throttling the pipeline. Development of power electronic gives opportunity for induction motor pump drives speed control. The common ways of pump flow control are throttling, reducing the working circle, usage of fore circle shovels rotating, by pass and pump speed control Only pump speed control is the most suitable for the energy possibilities. Intensive development of power electronic gives. opportunity to create devices - power converters, which can change the speed of induction motor. For that improvement the energy savings the measurements of power consumption with throttling and speed control have been made. Also, the MATLAB-SIMULINK model of the measured system has been made. The economic effects of saving energy using adjustable speed drives are analyzed for the measured values. The analysis shows that the money payback period of speed controller investment is short compared with the drive lifetime (20 years). (Author)

  5. How carbon credits could drive the emergence of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, John A. [Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    The shift to renewable energy options and low-carbon technologies, in response to the concerns over energy security and climate change, is proceeding more slowly than many would like. The usual argument against rapid deployment of new technologies is the costs imposed on the economy, commonly interpreted in terms of upfront costs to be borne or involving large cash transfers to fund, for example, efforts to preserve rainforests. In this contribution I argue that such a perspective provides a continuing barrier to taking effective action, whereas a perspective based on creation and use of carbon credits provides a means of avoiding the shock of abrupt industrial change. Carbon credits granted for bona fide carbon load reductions could be created through private initiative, for example by merchant banks, to constitute a market that will complement regulatory-based initiatives such as national emissions trading systems. This is not a novel idea; indeed it is the way that capitalism has funded every major change, including the Industrial Revolution, through the creation of credit. The emergence of a global carbon credit economy is likely to precede a global regulatory system governing climate change and will doubtless help to stimulate the emergence of such a global system. (author)

  6. How carbon credits could drive the emergence of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The shift to renewable energy options and low-carbon technologies, in response to the concerns over energy security and climate change, is proceeding more slowly than many would like. The usual argument against rapid deployment of new technologies is the costs imposed on the economy, commonly interpreted in terms of upfront costs to be borne or involving large cash transfers to fund, for example, efforts to preserve rainforests. In this contribution I argue that such a perspective provides a continuing barrier to taking effective action, whereas a perspective based on creation and use of carbon credits provides a means of avoiding the shock of abrupt industrial change. Carbon credits granted for bona fide carbon load reductions could be created through private initiative, for example by merchant banks, to constitute a market that will complement regulatory-based initiatives such as national emissions trading systems. This is not a novel idea; indeed it is the way that capitalism has funded every major change, including the Industrial Revolution, through the creation of credit. The emergence of a global carbon credit economy is likely to precede a global regulatory system governing climate change and will doubtless help to stimulate the emergence of such a global system

  7. Proposed continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Sekutowicz; S. A. Bogacz; D. Douglas; P. Kneisel; G. P. Williams; M. Ferrario; L. Serafini; I. Ben-Zvi; J. Rose; J. Smedley; T. Srinivasan-Rao; W.-D. Moeller; B. Petersen; D. Proch; S. Simrock; P. Colestock; J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-01-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions

  8. Continuous wave energy recovery operation of an XFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacek Sekutowicz; Bogacz, S. A.; Douglas, D.; Kneisel, Peter; Williams, G. P.; Ferrario, M.; Serafini, L.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rose, J.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Mueller, W.-D.; Petersen, B.; Proch, D.; Simrock, S.; Colestock, P.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2003-01-01

    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: ''What will the next generation of XFEL facilities look like?'' Believing that superconducting technology offers advantages such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches, the possibility of energy recovery and higher overall efficiency than warm technology, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in the machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R and D program should be proposed to arrive in the next few years at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power?'' In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions

  9. Energy self-sufficient sensory ball screw drive; Energieautarker sensorischer Kugelgewindetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Nowadays the availability of machine tools plays a decisive role in competition to increase in productivity. From state of the art it arises, that ball screw drives are the most abusive component in feed drives because of abrasive wear. Furthermore condition monitoring enables avoiding unplanned machine failure and increasing the availability of the deployed production facility. Thereby the application of additional sensors allows the direct acquisition of wear correlative measurements. To reduce the required effort for integration and increase the robustness, reliability and clarity in industrial environment energy self-sufficient sensor systems can be applied. In this thesis the development and investigation of an energy self-sufficient sensory ball screw drive with direct measurement of wear correlative pretension for condition monitoring application is described. The prototype measures the pretension with force sensors based on strain gauges. The sensor system includes microcontroller-based electronics for signal processing as well as wireless data transmission with ZigBee-standard. A hybrid system assures the energy supply of the sensor system. On the one hand a stepper motor generator produces electrical energy from the motion energy of the ball screw drive. On the other hand an energy buffer based on super caps is reloaded in stationary position by wireless energy transmission. For verification a prototype system is build up. In measurements the sensory and energetic characteristics of the energy self-sufficient sensor systems are analyzed. Moreover, the functionality of the ball screw drive as well as the signal characteristics of the force sensors are examined for different pretensions. In addition, pretension losses due to wear are established in realized endurance trials, which means that timely maintenance can be planned.

  10. Direct Drive Wave Energy Buoy – 33rd scale experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, Kenneth E. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Lenee-Bluhm, Pukha [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Prudell, Joseph H. [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.; Schacher, Alphonse A.; Hammagren, Erik J.; Zhang, Zhe [Columbia Power Technologies, Inc.

    2013-07-29

    Columbia Power Technologies (ColPwr) and Oregon State University (OSU) jointly conducted a series of tests in the Tsunami Wave Basin (TWB) at the O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (HWRL). These tests were run between November 2010 and February 2011. Models at 33rd scale representing Columbia Power’s Manta series Wave Energy Converter (WEC) were moored in configurations of one, three and five WEC arrays, with both regular waves and irregular seas generated. The primary research interest of ColPwr is the characterization of WEC response. The WEC response will be investigated with respect to power performance, range of motion and generator torque/speed statistics. The experimental results will be used to validate a numerical model. The primary research interests of OSU include an investigation into the effects of the WEC arrays on the near- and far-field wave propagation. This report focuses on the characterization of the response of a single WEC in isolation. To facilitate understanding of the commercial scale WEC, results will be presented as full scale equivalents.

  11. Processes of energy recovery / energy valorization at low temperature levels. State of the art. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manificat, A.; Megret, O.

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to realize a state of art of the processes of energy recovery at low level of temperature and their valorizations. The information provided will target particularly the thermal systems of waste and biomass treatment. After reminding the adequate context of development with these solutions and define the scope of the current work, the study begins with the definition of different concepts such as low-grade heat (fatal energy) and exergy, and also the presentation of the fiscal environment as well as the economic and regulatory situation, with information about the TGAP, prices of energy and energy efficiency. The second chapter focuses on the different sources of energy at low temperature level that can be recoverable in order to assess their potentials and their characteristics. The Determination of the temperature range of these energy sources will be put in relation with the needs and demands of users from different industrial sectors. The third part of the study is a review of various technologies for energy recovery and valorization at low temperature. It is useful to distinguish different types of heat exchangers interesting to implement. Moreover, innovative processes allow us to consider new perspectives other than a direct use of heat recovered. For example, we can take into account systems for producing electricity (ORC cycle, hot air engines, thermoelectric conversion), or cold generation (sorption refrigeration machine, Thermo-ejector refrigeration machine) or techniques for energy storage with PCM (Phase Change Material). The last chapter deals to the achievement of four study cases written in the form of sheet and aimed at assess the applicability of the processes previously considered, concerning the field of waste. (authors)

  12. Energy Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the United States: A Case Study of the Energy-Water Nexus

    OpenAIRE

    Ashlynn S. Stillwell; David C. Hoppock; Michael E. Webber

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript uses data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to analyze the potential for energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants via anaerobic digestion with biogas utilization and biosolids incineration with electricity generation. These energy recovery strategies could help offset the electricity consumption of the wastewater sector and represent possible areas for sustainable energy policy implementation. We estimate that anaerobic digestion could save 628 to 4,940 mil...

  13. Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kravcik, Milos; Bohuschke, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Klemke, R., Kravčík, M., & Bohuschke, F. (2013, 23-25 October). Energy-efficient and safe driving using a situation-aware gamification approach in logistics. Presentation at the Games and Learning Alliance Conference (GALAConf 2013), Paris, France. http://www.galaconf.org/

  14. A new energy-efficient control approach for astronomical telescope drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Drive control makes the astronomical telescope accurately tracking celestial bodies in spite of external and internal disturbances, which is a key technique to the performance of telescopes. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear ad, aptive observer based on power reversible approach for high precision telescope position tracking. The nonlinear adaptive observer automatically estimates the disturbances in drive system, and the observed value is applied to compensate for the real disturbances. With greatly reduced disturbances, the control precision can be evidently improved. In conventional drive control, the brake device is often used to slow down the reaction wheel and may waste enormous energy. To avoid those disadvantages, an H-bridge is put forward for wheel speed regulation. Such H-bridge has four independent sections, and each section mainly consists of a power electronic switch and an anti-parallel diode. During the period of the mount slowing down, the armature current of drive motor goes through the two path-wise diodes to charge the battery. Thus, energy waste is avoided. Based on the disturbance compensation, an optimal controller is designed to minimize an evaluation function which is made up of a weighted sum of position errors and energy consumption.The outputs of the controller are applied to control the H-bridge. Simulations are performed in MATLAB language. The results show that high precision control can be obtained by the proposed approach. And the energy consumption will be remarkably reduced.

  15. Design considerations for permanent magnet direct drive generators for wind energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jassal, A.K.; Polinder, H.; Damen, M.E.C.; Versteegh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Permanent Magnet Direct Drive (PMDD) generators offer very high force density, high efficiency and low number of components. Due to these advantages, PMDD generators are getting popular in the wind energy industry especially for offshore application. Presence of permanent magnets gives magnetic

  16. Reducing Energy Demand Using Wheel-Individual Electric Drives to Substitute EPS-Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Römer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy demand of vehicles is influenced, not only by the drive systems, but also by a number of add-on systems. Electric vehicles must satisfy this energy demand completely from the battery. Hence, the use of power steering systems directly result in a range reduction. The “e2-Lenk” joint project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF involves a novel steering concept for electric vehicles to integrate the function of steering assistance into the drive-train. Specific distribution of driving torque at the steered axle allows the steering wheel torque to be influenced to support the steering force. This provides a potential for complete substitution of conventional power steering systems and reduces the vehicle’s energy demand. This paper shows the potential of wheel-individual drives influencing the driver’s steering torque using a control technique based on classical EPS control plans. Compared to conventional power-assisted steering systems, a reduced energy demand becomes evident over a wide range of operating conditions.

  17. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicle driving schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, G.; Stadler, M.; Bozchalui, M.C.; Sharma, R.; Marnay, C.; Barbosa-Póvoa, A.; Ferrão, P.

    2014-01-01

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem. - Highlights: • This paper introduces a new EV aggregator model in the DER-CAM model and expands it with a stochastic formulation. • The model is used to analyze the impact of EVs in DER investment decisions in a large office building. • The uncertainty in EV driving patterns is considered through scenarios based on data from a daily commute driving survey. • Results indicate that EVs have a significant impact in optimal DER decisions, particularly when looking at short payback periods. • Furthermore, results indicate that uncertainty in EV driving schedules has little impact on DER investment decisions

  18. Characterization of secondary electron collection for energy recovery from high energy ions with a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagihara, Shota; Wada, Takayuki; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Yasaka, Yasuyoshi; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira

    2015-01-01

    A traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC) is expected to be used as an energy recovery device for fast protons produced during the D- 3 He nuclear fusion reaction. Some protons, however, are not fully decelerated and pass through the device. A secondary electron direct energy converter (SEDEC) was proposed as an additional device to recover the protons passing through a TWDEC. In our previous study, magnetic field was applied for efficient secondary electron (SE) collection, but the SEs were reflected close to the collector due to the magnetic mirror effect and the collection was degraded. Herein, a new arrangement of magnets is proposed to be set away from the collector, and experiments in various conditions are performed. An appropriate arrangement away from the collector resulted in the improvement of SE collection. (author)

  19. Electron Energy Confinement for HHFW Heating and Current Drive Phasing on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.C.; Bernabei, S.; Biewer, T.; LeBlanc, B.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Stutman, D.; Ryan, P.; Swain, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    Thomson scattering laser pulses are synchronized relative to modulated HHFW power to permit evaluation of the electron energy confinement time during and following HHFW pulses for both heating and current drive antenna phasing. Profile changes resulting from instabilities require that the total electron stored energy, evaluated by integrating the midplane electron pressure P(sub)e(R) over the magnetic surfaces prescribed by EFIT analysis, be used to derive the electron energy confinement time. Core confinement is reduced during a sawtooth instability but, although the electron energy is distributed outward by the sawtooth, the bulk electron energy confinement time is essentially unaffected. The radial deposition of energy into the electrons is noticeably more peaked for current drive phasing (longer wavelength excitation) relative to that for heating phasing (shorter wavelength excitation) as is expected theoretically. However, the power delivered to the core plasma is reduced consider ably for the current drive phasing, indicating that surface/peripheral damping processes play a more important role for this case

  20. New concept of electrical drives for paper and board machines based on energy efficiency principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeftenić Borislav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is described how the reconstruction of the facility of paper machine has been conducted, at the press and drying part of the machine in June 2001, as well as the expansion of the Paper Machine with the "third coating" introducing, that has been done in July 2002, in the board factory "Umka". The existing old drive of the press and the drive of drying groups were established as a Line Shaft Drive, 76 m long. The novel drive is developed on the basis of conventional squirrel cage induction motor application, with frequency converter. The system control is carried out with the programmable controller, and the communication between controllers, converters, and control boards is accomplished trough profibus. Reconstruction of the coating part of the machine, during technological reconstruction of this part of the machine, was being conducted with a purpose to improve performance of the machine by adding device for spreading "third coating". The demands for the power facility were to replace existing facility with the new one, based on energy efficiency principles and to provide adequate facility for new technological sections. Also, new part of the facility had to be connected with the remaining part of the machine, i.e. with the press and drying part, which have been reconstructed in 2001. It has to be stressed that energy efficiency principles means to realize new, modernized drive with better performances and greater capacity for the as small as possible amount of increased installed power of separate drives. In the paper are also, graphically presented achieved energy savings results, based on measurements performed on separate parts of paper machine, before and after reconstruction. .

  1. The combination of short rest and energy drink consumption as fatigue countermeasures during a prolonged drive of professional truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Adi; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Gershon, Pnina

    2014-06-01

    One of the major concerns for professional drivers is fatigue. Many studies evaluated specific fatigue countermeasures, in many cases comparing the efficiency of each method separately. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of rest areas combined with consumption of energy drinks on professional truck drivers during a prolonged simulated drive. Fifteen professional truck drivers participated in three experimental sessions: control-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of a placebo drink prior to the beginning of the drive. Energy drink-drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink containing 160 mg of caffeine prior to the beginning of the drive, and an Energy drink+Rest session--where the drivers were asked to drink 500 ml of an energy drink prior to driving, and rest for 10 min at a designated rest area zone 100 min into the drive. For all sessions, driving duration was approximately 150 min and consisted of driving on a monotonous, two-way rural road. In addition to driving performance measures, subjective measures, and heart rate variability were obtained. Results indicated that consumption of an energy drink (in both sessions) facilitated lower lane position deviations and reduced steering wheel deviations during the first 80-100 min of the drive relative to the control sessions. Resting after 100 min of driving, in addition to the energy drink that was consumed before the drive, enabled the drivers to maintain these abilities throughout the remainder of the driving session. Practical applications: Practical applications arising from the results of this research may give indication on the possible added value of combining fatigue counter measures methods during a prolonged drive and the importance of the timing of the use for each method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  3. Driving under the influence behaviours among high school students who mix alcohol with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N; Cumming, Tammy; Burkhalter, Robin; Langille, Donald B; Ogilvie, Rachel; Asbridge, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol and energy drinks are commonly used substances by youth in Canada, and are often mixed (AmED). While several studies have shown that AmED can have dangerous effects, less well understood is how AmED is associated with driving under the influence of either alcohol or drugs. This study sought to determine whether youth who use AmED were more likely to engage in driving, or being a passenger of a driver, under the influence of alcohol or cannabis compared to youth who use either alcohol or energy drinks alone. This study used data from grade 10-12 students who took part in the 2014/2015 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (N=17,450). The association of past-year AmED use with past-30day: driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, and riding with an alcohol- or cannabis-influenced driver, was assessed using logistic regression. One in four youth had consumed AmED in the previous 12months. AmED users were more likely to engage in all risk behaviours except riding with a drinking driver, relative to youth who only consumed alcohol. No association was observed for youth who consumed alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions. Youth who use AmED demonstrate a higher risk profile for driving under the influence of alcohol or cannabis, than youth who use alcohol alone. Future research should explore the biopsychosocial pathways that may explain why using energy drinks enhances the already heightened risk posed by alcohol on other health-related behaviours such as driving under the influence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of energy-efficient processes for natural gas liquids recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sekwang; Binns, Michael; Park, Sangmin; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2017-01-01

    A new NGL (natural gas liquids) recovery process configuration is proposed which can offer improved energy efficiency and hydrocarbon recovery. The new process configuration is an evolution of the conventional turboexpander processes with the introduction of a split stream transferring part of the feed to the demethanizer column. In this way additional heat recovery is possible which improves the energy efficiency of the process. To evaluate the new process configuration a number of different NGL recovery process configurations are optimized and compared using a process simulator linked interactively with external optimization methods. Process integration methodology is applied as part of the optimization to improve energy recovery during the optimization. Analysis of the new process configuration compared with conventional turbo-expander process designs demonstrates the benefits of the new process configuration. - Highlights: • Development of a new energy-efficient natural gas liquids recovery process. • Improving energy recovery with application of process integration techniques. • Considering multiple different structural changes lead to considerable energy savings.

  5. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binggang Cao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H∞ robust control, a H2/H∞ controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  7. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Ye [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Sengjie Jiao [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang’an University, Xi’an (China); Binggang Cao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an (China)

    2010-09-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H2 optimal control and H-infinity robust control, a H2/H-infinity controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source.

  8. Energy Recovery for the Main and Auxiliary Sources of Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, M.; Jiao, S. [Key Laboratory for Highway Construction Technology and Equipment of Ministry of Education, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China); Cao, B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Based on the traditional regenerative braking electrical circuit, a novel energy recovery system for the main and auxiliary sources of electric vehicles (EVs) has been developed to improve their energy efficiency. The electrical circuit topology is presented in detail. During regenerative braking, the recovered mechanical energy is stored in both the main source and the auxiliary source at the same time. The mathematical model of the proposed system is derived step by step. Combining the merits and defects of H{sub 2} optimal control and H{sub {infinity}} robust control, a H{sub 2}/H{sub {infinity}} controller is designed to guarantee both the system performance and robust stability. The perfect match between the simulated and experimental results validates the notion that the proposed novel energy recovery system is both feasible and effective, as more energy is recovered than that with the traditional energy recovery systems, in which recovered energy is stored only in the main source. (authors)

  9. Membrane heat exchanger in HVAC energy recovery systems, systems energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasif, M. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Opus International Consultants (New Zealand); AL-Waked, R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University (PMU), P.O. Box 1614, AlKhobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Morrison, G. [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Behnia, M. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    The thermal performance of an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is experimentally investigated. The heat exchanger utilizes a 60gsm Kraft paper as the heat and moisture transfer surface for HVAC energy recovery. The heat exchanger sensible, latent and total effectiveness have been determined through temperature and moisture content measurements. The annual energy consumption of an air conditioner coupled with an enthalpy/membrane heat exchanger is also studied and compared with a conventional air conditioning cycle using in-house modified HPRate software. The heat exchanger effectiveness are used as thermal performance indicators and incorporated in the modified software. Energy analysis showed that an air conditioning system coupled with a membrane heat exchanger consumes less energy than a conventional air conditioning system in hot and humid climates where the latent load is high. It has been shown that in humid climate a saving of up to 8% in annual energy consumption can be achieved when membrane heat exchanger is used instead of a conventional HVAC system. (author)

  10. Energy conversion efficiency of hybrid electric heavy-duty vehicles operating according to diverse drive cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banjac, Titina [AVL-AST d.o.o., Trg Leona Stuklja 5, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Trenc, Ferdinand; Katrasnik, Tomaz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of Ljubljana, Askerceva 6, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-12-15

    Energy consumption and exhaust emissions of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depend on the HEV topology, power ratios of their components and applied control strategy. Combined analytical and simulation approach was applied to analyze energy conversion efficiency of different HEV topologies. Analytical approach is based on the energy balance equations and considers all energy paths in the HEVs from the energy sources to the wheels and to other energy sinks. Simulation approach is based on a fast forward-facing simulation model for simulating parallel and series HEVs as well as for conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, and considers all components relevant for modeling energy conversion phenomena. Combined approach enables evaluation of energy losses on different energy paths and provides their impact on the fuel economy. It therefore enables identification of most suitable HEV topology and of most suitable power ratios of the components for targeted vehicle application, since it reveals and quantifies the mechanisms that could lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of particular HEV. The paper exposes characteristics of the test cycles that lead to improved energy conversion efficiency of HEVs. Mechanisms leading to improved fuel economy of parallel HEVs through drive-away and vehicle propulsion at low powertrain loads by electric motor are also analyzed. It was also shown that control strategies managing energy flow through electric storage devices significantly influence energy conversion efficiency of series HEVs. (author)

  11. Stochastic optimal charging of electric-drive vehicles with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantoš, Miloš

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents the stochastic optimization algorithm that may eventually be used by electric energy suppliers to coordinate charging of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) in order to maximize the use of renewable energy in transportation. Due to the stochastic nature of transportation patterns, the Monte Carlo simulation is applied to model uncertainties presented by numerous scenarios. To reduce the problem complexity, the simulated driving patterns are not individually considered in the optimization but clustered into fleets using the GAMS/SCENRED tool. Uncertainties of production of renewable energy sources (RESs) are presented by statistical central moments that are further considered in Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method in order to define estimate points considered in the optimization. Case studies illustrate the application of the proposed optimization in achieving maximal exploitation of RESs in transportation by EDVs. -- Highlights: ► Optimization model for EDV charging applying linear programming. ► Formation of EDV fleets based on the driving patterns assessment applying the GAMS/SCENRED. ► Consideration of uncertainties of RES production and energy prices in the market. ► Stochastic optimization. ► Application of Hong’s 2-point + 1 estimation method.

  12. Demonstration of low emittance in the Cornell energy recovery linac injector prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colwyn Gulliford

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed study of the six-dimensional phase space of the electron beam produced by the Cornell Energy Recovery Linac Photoinjector, a high-brightness, high repetition rate (1.3 GHz DC photoemission source designed to drive a hard x-ray energy recovery linac (ERL. A complete simulation model of the injector has been constructed, verified by measurement, and optimized. Both the horizontal and vertical 2D transverse phase spaces, as well as the time-resolved (sliced horizontal phase space, were simulated and directly measured at the end of the injector for 19 and 77 pC bunches at roughly 8 MeV. These bunch charges were chosen because they correspond to 25 and 100 mA average current if operating at the full 1.3 GHz repetition rate. The resulting 90% normalized transverse emittances for 19   (77  pC/bunch were 0.23±0.02 (0.51±0.04  μm in the horizontal plane, and 0.14±0.01 (0.29±0.02  μm in the vertical plane, respectively. These emittances were measured with a corresponding bunch length of 2.1±0.1 (3.0±0.2  ps, respectively. In each case the rms momentum spread was determined to be on the order of 10^{-3}. Excellent overall agreement between measurement and simulation has been demonstrated. Using the emittances and bunch length measured at 19  pC/bunch, we estimate the electron beam quality in a 1.3 GHz, 5 GeV hard x-ray ERL to be at least a factor of 20 times better than that of existing storage rings when the rms energy spread of each device is considered. These results represent a milestone for the field of high-brightness, high-current photoinjectors.

  13. Effects of introducing energy recovery processes to the municipal solid waste management system in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshiki, Kosuke; Giang, Pham Quy; Serrona, Kevin Roy B; Sekikawa, Takahiro; Yu, Jeoung-soo; Choijil, Baasandash; Kunikane, Shoichi

    2015-02-01

    Currently, most developing countries have not set up municipal solid waste management systems with a view of recovering energy from waste or reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we have studied the possible effects of introducing three energy recovery processes either as a single or combination approach, refuse derived fuel production, incineration and waste power generation, and methane gas recovery from landfill and power generation in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, as a case study. We concluded that incineration process is the most suitable as first introduction of energy recovery. To operate it efficiently, 3Rs strategies need to be promoted. And then, RDF production which is made of waste papers and plastics in high level of sorting may be considered as the second step of energy recovery. However, safety control and marketability of RDF will be required at that moment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan; Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment

  15. Road transport-related energy consumption: Analysis of driving factors in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraihi, Rafaa; Abdallah, Khaled ben; Abid, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of urban population and the development of road infrastructures in Tunisian cities have brought about many environmental and economic problems, including the rise scored in energy consumption and the increase in the quantity of gas emissions arising from road transport. Despite the critical nature of such problems, no policies have yet been adopted to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector. This paper aims to determine driving factors of energy consumption change for the road mode. It uses decomposition analysis to discuss the effects of economic, demographic and urban factors on the evolution of transport energy consumption. The main result highlighted in the present work is that vehicle fuel intensity, vehicle intensity, GDP per capita, urbanized kilometers and national road network are found to be the main drivers of energy consumption change in the road transport sector during 1990–2006 period. Consequently, several strategies can be elaborated to reduce road transport energy. Economic, fiscal and regulatory instruments can be applied in order to make road transport more sustainable. -- Highlights: •We are interested in determining driving factors of transport energy consumption growth in Tunisia. •We use decomposition analysis approach. •Vehicle fuel and road vehicle intensities are found to be principal factors. •Motorization and urbanization are also found to be responsible

  16. Optimal investment and scheduling of distributed energy resources with uncertainty in electric vehicles driving schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Goncalo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Center for Energy and Innovation Technologies (Austria); Bozchalui, Mohammed C. [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Sharma, Ratnesh [NEC Laboratories American Inc., Irving, TX (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbosa-Povoa, Ana [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Ferrao, Paulo [Technical Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-12-06

    The large scale penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) will introduce technical challenges to the distribution grid, but also carries the potential for vehicle-to-grid services. Namely, if available in large enough numbers, EVs can be used as a distributed energy resource (DER) and their presence can influence optimal DER investment and scheduling decisions in microgrids. In this work, a novel EV fleet aggregator model is introduced in a stochastic formulation of DER-CAM [1], an optimization tool used to address DER investment and scheduling problems. This is used to assess the impact of EV interconnections on optimal DER solutions considering uncertainty in EV driving schedules. Optimization results indicate that EVs can have a significant impact on DER investments, particularly if considering short payback periods. Furthermore, results suggest that uncertainty in driving schedules carries little significance to total energy costs, which is corroborated by results obtained using the stochastic formulation of the problem.

  17. Energy Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaics by Phase Change Materials through Thermal Energy Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panels convert a certain amount of incident solar radiation into electricity, while the rest is converted to heat, leading to a temperature rise in the PV. This elevated temperature deteriorates the power output and induces structural degradation, resulting in reduced PV lifespan. One potential solution entails PV thermal management employing active and passive means. The traditional passive means are found to be largely ineffective, while active means are considered to be energy intensive. A passive thermal management system using phase change materials (PCMs can effectively limit PV temperature rises. The PCM-based approach however is cost inefficient unless the stored thermal energy is recovered effectively. The current article investigates a way to utilize the thermal energy stored in the PCM behind the PV for domestic water heating applications. The system is evaluated in the winter conditions of UAE to deliver heat during water heating demand periods. The proposed system achieved a ~1.3% increase in PV electrical conversion efficiency, along with the recovery of ~41% of the thermal energy compared to the incident solar radiation.

  18. A new energy-efficient control approach for space telescope drive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wangping; Wang, Yong

    Drive control makes the telescope accurately track celestial bodies in spite of external and in-ternal disturbances, and is a key technique to the performance of telescopes. In this paper, we propose a nonlinear adaptive observer based on power reversible approach for high preci-sion position tracking, i.e., space telescopes. The nonlinear adaptive observer automatically estimates the disturbances in drive system, and the observed value is applied to compensate for the real disturbances. With greatly reduced disturbances, the control precision can be ev-idently improved. In conventional drive control, the brake device is often used to slow down the reaction wheel and may waste enormous energy. To avoid those disadvantages, an H-bridge is put forward for wheel speed regulation. Such H-bridge has four independent sections, and each section mainly consists of a power electronic switch and an anti-parallel diode. A pair of diagonal sections is switched on for speeding up the reaction wheel and the other pair act in reverse. During the period of the wheel slowing down, the armature current of drive motor goes through the two path-wise diodes to discharge the battery. Thusly, energy waste is avoided. Based on the disturbance compensation, an optimal controller is designed to minimize an eval-uation function which is made up of a weighted sum of position errors and energy consumption. The outputs of the controller are amplified to control the H-bridge. Simulations are performed in MATLAB language. The results show that high precision control can be obtained by the proposed approach. And the energy consumption will be remarkably reduced.

  19. Heavy Duty Roots Expander Heat Energy Recovery (HD-REHER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Eaton Corporation proposed a comprehensive project to develop and demonstrate advanced component technology that will reduce the cost of implementing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems to Heavy-Duty Diesel engines, making adaptation of this fuel efficiency improving technology more commercially attractive to end-users in the next 5 to 10 year time period. Accelerated adaptation and implementation of new fuel efficiency technology into service is critical for reduction of fuel used in the commercial vehicle segment.

  20. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  1. Negotiating EU CO2/energy taxation. Political economic driving forces and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob

    2001-11-01

    The primary objective of this project is to identify the main political economic driving forces behind and barriers against the creation of an EU agreement on CO 2 /energy taxation. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework for understanding European integration and on detailed historical investigations into a process of EU negotiations concerning CO 2 /energy taxation that took place from the 1980s to 1994. Following the historical analysis of political economic driving forces and barriers, some overall perspectives on possible future developments within the field of EU CO 2 /energy taxation are finally advanced. The secondary objective of the project is to consider the possible effects on the EU negotiation process of Danish efforts to push the CO 2 /energy tax proposal from the late 1980s to 994. This analysis is based on the preceding historical analysis of the EU negotiation process, as well as further investigations into the national Danish development within the field of CO 2 /energy taxation, including accounts of Denmark's particular relations with the EU during the period in question. Finally, based on the likely future developments in the field EU CO 2 /energy taxation. Denmark's strategic opportunities are outlined. (BA)

  2. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  3. Variation in emission and energy recovery concerning incident angle in a scheme recovering high energy ions by secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Takayuki; Konno, Shota; Nakamoto, Satoshi; Takeno, Hiromasa; Furuyama, Yuichi; Taniike, Akira

    2016-01-01

    As an energy recovery device for fast protons produced in D- 3 He nuclear fusion, secondary electron (SE) direct energy converter (SEDEC) was proposed in addition to traveling wave direct energy converter (TWDEC). Some protons passing through a TWDEC come into an SEDEC, where protons penetrate to a number of foil electrodes and emitted SEs are recovered. Following to a development of SE orbit control by magnetic field, dependence on incident angle of protons was examined to optimize structure of SEDEC. Based on a theoretical expectation, experiments were performed by changing incident angle of protons and variation in emission and energy recovery were measured. Both emission and energy recovery increased as the angle increased, and differences with theoretical expectation are discussed. (author)

  4. Energy recovery from municipal solid wastes in Italy: Actual study and perspective for future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetti, N.; Ciampa, F.; De Cecco, C.

    1992-01-01

    Materials and energy recovery from municipal solid wastes (MSW) and assimilable waste, and their re-use is one of strong points of current regulations and tendencies, both at the national and at community level in Europe. In Italy, the interest in energy recovery from renewable sources has been encouraged by energy-savings law which included financial incentives for thermal plant building if low grade fuels such as MSW were employed. New electric power prices imposed by Italian Electric Power Authority, ENEL, encourage energy recovery from waste burners. This paper aims to point out the present state of energy recovery from wastes in Italy, trends and prospects to satisfy, with new plants, the need for waste thermal destruction and part of the demand for energy in the different Italian regions: only about 10% of MSW are burned and just a small percentage of the estimated amount of recoverable energy (2 MTOE/y) is recuperated. Different technological cycles are discussed: incineration of untreated wastes and energy recovery; incineration (or gasification) of RDF (refuse derived fuels) and heat-electricity co-generation; burning of RDF in industrial plants, in addition to other fuels

  5. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  6. Possibilities of using energy recovery in underground mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obracaj Dariusz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In underground mines, there are many sources of energy that are often irrecoverably lost and which could be used in the energy structure of a mine. Methane contained in the ventilation air, the water from the dewatering of the mines and the exhaust air from the mine shafts are the most important sources of energy available to a mine. Among other sources of energy available in a mine, you can also distinguish waste energy from the process of the desalination of water or energy from the waste. The report reviewed the sources of energy available in a mine, assessed the amount of recoverable energy and indicated the potential for its use.

  7. Method for energy recovery of spent ERL beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marhauser, Frank; Hannon, Fay; Rimmer, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy

    2018-01-16

    A method for recovering energy from spent energy recovered linac (ERL) beams. The method includes adding a plurality of passive decelerating cavities at the beam dump of the ERL, adding one or more coupling waveguides between the passive decelerating cavities, setting an adequate external Q (Qext) to adjust to the beam loading situation, and extracting the RF energy through the coupling waveguides.

  8. CO2 recovery system using solar energy; Taiyo energy wo riyoshita CO2 bunri kaishu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosho, F; Naito, H; Yugami, H; Arashi, H [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    As a part of studies on chemical absorption process with MEA (monoethanolamine) for CO2 recovery from boiler waste gas in thermal power plants, use of solar heat as MEA regenerating energy was studied. An integrated stationary evacuated concentrator (ISEC) effective as collector in a medium temperature range was used to realize a regenerating temperature range of 100-120degC. ISEC is featured by vacuum insulation, use of selective absorbing membranes for an absorber, a CPC (compound parabolic concentrator)-shaped reflection mirror, and high-efficiency. An MEA regenerator is composed of an ISEC and PG(propylene glycol)-MEA heat exchanger, and circulates PG as heat medium. Heat collection experiment was also made using water instead of MEA. Both batch and continuous systems could supply a heat quantity necessary for MEA regeneration. CO2 concentration in the top of the regenerator rapidly decreased with PG circulation regenerating MEA. As mol ratios of CO2/MEA were compared between before and after regeneration, a recovery rate was estimated to be 59.4% for the batch system. 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Thermal energy recovery of air conditioning system--heat recovery system calculation and phase change materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Zhaolin; Liu Hongjuan; Li Yun

    2004-01-01

    Latent heat thermal energy storage systems can be used to recover the rejected heat from air conditioning systems, which can be used to generate low-temperature hot water. It decreases not only the consumption of primary energy for heating domestic hot water but also the calefaction to the surroundings due to the rejection of heat from air conditioning systems. A recovery system using phase change materials (PCMs) to store the rejected (sensible and condensation) heat from air conditioning system has been developed and studied, making up the shortage of other sensible heat storage system. Also, PCMs compliant for heat recovery of air conditioning system should be developed. Technical grade paraffin wax has been discussed in this paper in order to develop a paraffin wax based PCM for the recovery of rejected heat from air conditioning systems. The thermal properties of technical grade paraffin wax and the mixtures of paraffin wax with lauric acid and with liquid paraffin (paraffin oil) are investigated and discussed, including volume expansion during the phase change process, the freezing point and the heat of fusion

  10. Detuning Minimization of Induction Motor Drive System for Alternative Energy Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibur Rehman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates different types of AC machines and various control techniques for their suitability for the drive system of Alternative Energy Vehicles (AEV. An Indirect Field Oriented (IFO drive system for the AEV application is chosen and its major problem of detuning is addressed by designing an offline and an online rotor resistance adaptation technique. The offline scheme sets the slip gain at various operating conditions based on the fact that if the rotor resistance is set correctly and field orientation is achieved, then there should be a linear relationship between the torque current and the output torque. The online technique is designed using Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS for the rotor resistance adaptation. For an ideal field oriented machine, the rotor flux along the q-axis should be zero. This condition acts as a reference model for the proposed MRAS scheme. The current model flux observer in the synchronous frame of reference is selected as an adjustable model and its rotor resistance is tuned so that the flux along the q-axis becomes zero. The effectiveness of the offline tuning scheme is evident through performance validation of the drive system, which is implemented in a real Ford vehicle. The experimental results obtained while driving the test vehicle are included in the paper while the proposed online scheme is validated on a 3.75 kW prototype induction motor.

  11. Air Evaporation closed cycle water recovery technology - Advanced energy saving designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasko, Gwyndolyn; Putnam, David F.; Bagdigian, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Air Evaporation water recovery system is a visible candidate for Space Station application. A four-man Air Evaporation open cycle system has been successfully demonstrated for waste water recovery in manned chamber tests. The design improvements described in this paper greatly enhance the system operation and energy efficiency of the air evaporation process. A state-of-the-art wick feed design which results in reduced logistics requirements is presented. In addition, several design concepts that incorporate regenerative features to minimize the energy input to the system are discussed. These include a recuperative heat exchanger, a heat pump for energy transfer to the air heater, and solar collectors for evaporative heat. The addition of the energy recovery devices will result in an energy reduction of more than 80 percent over the systems used in earlier manned chamber tests.

  12. Energy saving opportunity with variable speed drive in primary air-handling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Air conditioners used in the court buildings in Kowloon City, Hong Kong were retrofitted with variable speed drives in the primary air handling unit (PAU) in an effort to reduce energy consumption. The initial effect of this retrofit was investigated along with the feasibility of using a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) based demand control ventilation to reduce energy consumption while optimizing indoor air quality. The air flow in most air conditioning fans is either constant or controlled by motorized inlet guide vanes. Although this controls the flow and may reduce the load on the fan, this constriction adds an energy loss, resulting in inefficient operation. Variable speed drives should be used on the PAU in order to maintain system efficiency. As the speed of the fans are reduced, the flow will decrease proportionally, while the power required by the fan will reduce the cube of the speed. Therefore, if the fresh air supply can be controlled by reducing the speed of the fan motor, then flow control would be more efficient. The energy saving associated with variable fresh air supply flow rate was evaluated along with the cost to building owners. This paper presented the results of the potential energy and cost savings associated with this retrofit, and included implementation cost and pay back period. It was estimated that about 20 per cent of power consumption and electricity costs can be saved per year, with a simple payback period of 2 years. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  13. The demand for environmental quality in driving transitions to low-polluting energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquet, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the long run demand for energy-related environmental quality, its influence on legislation and on transitions to low polluting energy sources. It presents a series of episodes in British history where a demand for improvements in energy-related environmental quality existed. These episodes helped to identify a few cases where markets partially drove transitions to low polluting energy sources, in specific economic conditions. More generally, they showed that, when pushed, governments will introduce environmental legislation, although it tends to be weak and poorly enforced. In the case of air pollution, strong and binding legislation occurred roughly one hundred years later than was socially optimal. Based on this evidence, for a transition to a low carbon economy, governments will probably need to introduce focussed and binding legislation, and this cannot be expected without strong and sustained demand for climate stability. This demand will need to be spearheaded by pressure groups to introduce legislation, to enforce it and to avoid it being over-turned by future governments. - Highlights: ► Reviews demand for improvements in environmental quality in British history. ► In special cases, demand may drive transitions through markets. ► Demand will probably have to drive transitions to low polluting energy through legislation. ► Need for strong and sustained demand spearheaded through pressure groups.

  14. Maximizing recovery of energy and nutrients from urban wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaratnam, T.; Henkanatte-Gedera, S.M.; Muppaneni, T.; Nirmalakhandan, N.; Deng, S.; Lammers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, UWWs (urban wastewaters) that contain high levels of organic carbon, N (nitrogen), and P (phosphorous) have been considered an environmental burden and have been treated at the expense of significant energy input. With the advent of new pollution abatement technologies, UWWs are now being regarded as a renewable resource from which, useful chemicals and energy could be harvested. This study proposes an integrated, algal-based system that has the potential to treat UWWs to the desired discharge standards in a sustainable manner while recovering high fraction of its energy content as well as its N- and P-contents for use as fertilizers. Key embodiments of the system being proposed are: i) cultivation of an extremophile microalga, Galdieria sulphuraria, in UWW for removal of carbon, N, and P via single-step by mixotrophic metabolism; ii) extraction of energy-rich biocrude and biochar from the cultivated biomass via hydrothermal processing; and, iii) enhancement of biomass productivity via partial recycling of the nutrient-rich AP (aqueous product) from hydrothermal-processed biomass to the cultivation step to optimize productivity, and formulation of fertilizers from the remaining AP. This paper presents a process model to simulate this integrated system, identify the optimal process conditions, and establish ranges for operational parameters. - Highlights: • Developed model for algal system for wastewater treatment/energy production. • Evaluated energy efficiency in algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Optimized algal wastewater treatment/energy production. • Demonstrated feasibility of energy-positive wastewater treatment.

  15. Determination of the energy of suprathermal electrons during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Goeler, S.; Bernabei, S.; Davis, W.; Ignat, D.; Kaita, R.; Roney, P.; Stevens, J.; Post-Zwicker, A.

    1993-06-01

    Suprathermal electrons are diagnosed by a hard x-ray pinhole camera during lower hybrid current drive on PBX-M. The experimental hard x-ray images are compared with simulated images, which result from an integration of the relativistic bremsstrahlung along lines-of-sight through the bean-shaped plasma. Images with centrally peaked and radially hollow radiation profiles are easily distinguished. The energy distribution of the suprathermal electrons is analyzed by comparing images taken with different absorber foils. An effective photon temperature is derived from the experimental images, and a comparison with simulated photon temperatures yields the energy of the suprathermal electrons. The analysis indicates that the energy of the suprathermal electrons in the hollow discharges is in the 50 to 100 key range in the center of the discharge. There seems to exist a very small higher energy component close to the plasma edge

  16. Energy efficiency of acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) recovery by heat-integrated distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisales Diaz, Victor Hugo; Olivar Tost, Gerard

    2018-03-01

    Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) is an alternative biofuel. However, the energy requirement of ABE recovery by distillation is considered elevated (> 15.2 MJ fuel/Kg-ABE), due to the low concentration of ABE from fermentation broths (between 15 and 30 g/l). In this work, to reduce the energy requirements of ABE recovery, four processes of heat-integrated distillation were proposed. The energy requirements and economic evaluations were performed using the fermentation broths of several biocatalysts. Energy requirements of the processes with four distillation columns and three distillation columns were similar (between 7.7 and 11.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Double-effect system (DED) with four columns was the most economical process (0.12-0.16 $/kg-ABE). ABE recovery from dilute solutions by DED achieved energy requirements between 6.1 and 8.7 MJ fuel/kg-ABE. Vapor compression distillation (VCD) reached the lowest energy consumptions (between 4.7 and 7.3 MJ fuel/kg-ABE). Energy requirements for ABE recovery DED and VCD were lower than that for integrated reactors. The energy requirements of ABE production were between 1.3- and 2.0-fold higher than that for alternative biofuels (ethanol or isobutanol). However, the energy efficiency of ABE production was equivalent than that for ethanol and isobutanol (between 0.71 and 0.76) because of hydrogen production in ABE fermentation.

  17. What drives energy consumers? : Engaging people in a sustainable energy transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda; Shwom, Rachel; Dietz, Thomas

    Providing clean, safe, reliable, and affordable energy for people everywhere will require converting to an energy system in which the use of fossil fuels is minimal. A sustainable energy transition means substantial changes in technology and the engagement of the engineering community. But it will

  18. Optimized energy recovery in line with balancing of an ATES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behi, M.; Mirmohammadi, S.A.; Suma, A.B.; Palm, B.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the potential imbalance problem of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) system at the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) campus, Eindhoven. This ATES is one of the largest European aquifer thermal energy storage systems, and has a seasonal imbalance problem.

  19. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  20. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  1. ENERGY RECOVERY FOR CONTINUOUS DYEING PROCESS IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Romaniuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper ascertains and presents alteration in the energy consumption as a consequence of utilizing the low-temperature waste streams commonly used in the lines of continuous dyeing at the finishing shops of textile enterprises of Belarus. The utilization realizes through the engagement of lithium-bromide absorption heat pumps with various energy characteristics such as the heating coefficient (relative conversion ratio COPhp = 1,15; 1,7; 2,2 and the heating capacity. The latter associates with the converted heat-flow energy utilization variant with the heat-transfer medium heating system scheme (one-, twoand multistage heating. The article considers transition to previously not applied service-water preheating due to the technological acceptance of feeding higher temperature water into the dyeing machine and widening specification of the heattransfer media. The authors adduce variants of internal and external energy use and their evaluation based on the relative energy and exergy characteristics. With results of the thermodynamic analysis of the modernized production effectiveness the researchers prove that alongside with traditional and apparent interior utilization of the energy associated with the stream heat recuperation, it is advisable to widen the range of applied heat-transfer media. The transition to the service water twoand multi-stage preheating is feasible. The study shows that the existing energy supply efficiency extremely low index-numbers improve by one or two degrees. Since they are conditioned, inter alia, by the machinery design, traditional approach to energy supply and heat-medium usage as well as the enterprise whole heating system answering requirements of the bygone era of cheap energy resources. The authors examine the continuous dyeing line modernization options intending considerable investments. Preliminary economic assessment of such inevitable modernization options for the enterprise entire heat-and-power system

  2. Comparison of Levelized Cost of Energy of superconducting direct drive generators for a 10 MW offshore wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Liu, Dong; Magnusson, Niklas

    2018-01-01

    A method for comparing the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE) of different superconducting drive trains is introduced. The properties of a 10 MW MgB$_{2}$ superconducting direct drive generator are presented in terms weight scaled to a turbine with a rotor diameter up of 280 m and the cost break down...

  3. What drives innovation in renewable energy technology? Evidence based on patent counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Jesse

    America's future economic growth and international competitiveness depend on our capacity to innovate, particularly in emerging global markets. This paper analyzes the forces that drive innovation in one such market, renewable energy technologies, utilizing the theory of induced technological innovation. Specifically, this paper operationalizes the determinants of innovation to consist of: 1) private market forces, 2) public policy that influences price and market size, and 3) public policy that catalyzes R&D investment. Analysis is conducted using a negative binomial regression to determine which of the three foundational determinants has the greatest impact on renewable energy innovation. In so doing this paper builds off of work conducted by Johnstone et al. (2010). Innovation is measured using European Patent Office data on a panel of 24 countries spanning the period from 1978-2005. The implications of this study are straightforward; policies, not market forces, are responsible for driving innovation in renewable energy technologies. Market-oriented policies are effective for mature technologies, particularly hydro, and to a lesser extent wind and solar power. R&D-oriented policy is effective for a broader technology set. In short, the United States needs a comprehensive policy environment to support renewable energy innovation; market forces alone will not provide the pace and breadth of innovations needed. That environment can and should be strategically targeted, however, to effectively allocate scare resources.

  4. Direct drive target survival during injection in an inertial fusion energy power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.; Goodin, D.T.; Nikroo, A.; Stephens, E.; Alexander, N.B.; Gallix, R.; Siegel, N.; Raffray, A.R.; Mau, T.K.; Tillack, M.; Najmabadi, F.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    In inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant designs, the fuel is a spherical layer of frozen DT contained in a target that is injected at high velocity into the reaction chamber. For direct drive, typically laser beams converge at the centre of the chamber (CC) to compress and heat the target to fusion conditions. To obtain the maximum energy yield from the fusion reaction, the frozen DT layer must be at about 18.5 K and the target must maintain a high degree of spherical symmetry and surface smoothness when it reaches the CC. During its transit in the chamber the cryogenic target is heated by radiation from the hot chamber wall. The target is also heated by convection as it passes through the rarefied fill-gas used to control chamber wall damage by x-rays and debris from the target explosion. This article addresses the temperature limits at the target surface beyond which target uniformity may be damaged. It concentrates on direct drive targets because fuel warm up during injection is not currently thought to be an issue for present indirect drive designs and chamber concepts. Detailed results of parametric radiative and convective heating calculations are presented for direct-drive targets during injection into a dry-wall reaction chamber. The baseline approach to target survival utilizes highly reflective targets along with a substantially lower chamber wall temperature and fill-gas pressure than previously assumed. Recently developed high-Z material coatings with high heat reflectivity are discussed and characterized. The article also presents alternate target protection methods that could be developed if targets with inherent survival features cannot be obtained within a reasonable time span. (author)

  5. Hydrogen Gas Recycling for Energy Efficient Ammonia Recovery in Electrochemical Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntke, Philipp; Rodríguez Arredondo, Mariana; Widyakristi, Laksminarastri; Heijne, ter Annemiek; Sleutels, Tom H.J.A.; Hamelers, Hubertus V.M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Recycling of hydrogen gas (H2) produced at the cathode to the anode in an electrochemical system allows for energy efficient TAN (Total Ammonia Nitrogen) recovery. Using a H2 recycling electrochemical system (HRES) we achieved high TAN transport rates at low energy input. At

  6. 76 FR 71082 - Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 40-9091; NRC-2011-0148] Strata Energy, Inc., Ross Uranium Recovery Project; New Source Material License Application; Notice of Intent To Prepare a... intent to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: Strata Energy, Inc. (Strata...

  7. A regional synergy approach to energy recovery: The case of the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, D. van; Biswas, W.K.

    2008-01-01

    Energy is a key issue in the Kwinana industrial area, Western Australia's major heavy industrial region, where the major energy consuming industries consume upto 80 PJ/yr of energy in their processes. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made towards the reduction of energy consumption and reduction of greenhouse gases in Kwinana. One way to further advance sustainable energy use is through the realisation of regional synergies. These concern the capture, recovery and reuse of by-products, water and energy between industries in close proximity. Kwinana is recognised as a leading edge example in regional synergy development, but more synergy opportunities appear to exist. The centre for sustainable resource processing (CSRP) is undertaking research to develop new synergies in Kwinana, including energy utility synergies. As part of the research, a methodology was developed and applied to identify and evaluate the economic, technical, and environmental feasibility of collaborative energy recovery opportunities from industry flue gases in Kwinana. The trial application demonstrated the significant potential to mitigate CO 2 emissions through energy recovery from flue gases by applying technologies to convert the embedded energy into useful thermal and electric applications. This article discusses the methodology and outcomes from the trial applications, including the impact of carbon taxes, reducing costs of emerging technologies, and increasing energy prices

  8. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broberg Viklund, Sarah; Johansson, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Technologies for recovery and use of industrial excess heat were investigated. • Heat harvesting, heat storage, heat utilization, and heat conversion technologies. • Heat recovery potential for Gävleborg County in Sweden was calculated. • Effects on global CO 2 emissions were calculated for future energy market scenarios. - Abstract: Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, which would create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the use of primary energy and to contribute to global CO 2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present different measures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the development of the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the most to global CO 2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of the excess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden. Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system and heat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO 2 emissions, six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrial excess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recovery measures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be supplied from this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO 2 emissions in all of the analyzed scenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production from biomass would result in increased global CO 2 emissions when the CO 2 emission charge is low

  9. A review of technologies and performances of thermal treatment systems for energy recovery from waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, Lidia, E-mail: lidia.lombardi@unicusano.it [Niccolò Cusano University, via Don Carlo Gnocchi, 3, 00166 Rome (Italy); Carnevale, Ennio [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Florence, via Santa Marta, 3, 50129 Florence (Italy); Corti, Andrea [Department of Information Engineering and Mathematics, University of Siena, via Roma, 56, 53100 (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The topic of energy recovery from waste by thermal treatment is reviewed. • Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis were considered. • Data about energy recovery performances were collected and compared. • Main limitations to high values of energy performances were illustrated. • Diffusion of energy recovery from waste in EU, USA and other countries was discussed. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to identify the current level of energy recovery through waste thermal treatment. The state of the art in energy recovery from waste was investigated, highlighting the differences for different types of thermal treatment, considering combustion/incineration, gasification and pyrolysis. Also different types of wastes – Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) or Solid Refuse Fuels (SRF) and some typologies of Industrial Waste (IW) (sludge, plastic scraps, etc.) – were included in the analysis. The investigation was carried out mainly reviewing papers, published in scientific journals and conferences, but also considering technical reports, to gather more information. In particular the goal of this review work was to synthesize studies in order to compare the values of energy conversion efficiencies measured or calculated for different types of thermal processes and different types of waste. It emerged that the dominant type of thermal treatment is incineration associated to energy recovery in a steam cycle. When waste gasification is applied, the produced syngas is generally combusted in a boiler to generate steam for energy recovery in a steam cycle. For both the possibilities – incineration or gasification – cogeneration is the mean to improve energy recovery, especially for small scale plants. In the case of only electricity production, the achievable values are strongly dependent on the plant size: for large plant size, where advanced technical solutions can be applied and sustained from an economic point of view, net

  10. Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, J.J.; Walsh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

  11. Design of water and heat recovery networks for the simultaneous minimisation of water and energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polley, Graham Thomas; Picon-Nunez, Martin; Lopez-Maciel, Jose de Jesus

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes procedures for the design of processes in which water and energy consumption form a large part of the operating cost. Good process design can be characterised by a number of properties, amongst the most important are: efficient use of raw materials, low capital cost and good operability. In terms of thermodynamic analysis these processes can be characterised as being either a 'pinch' problem or a 'threshold' problem. This paper concentrates on developing designs for problems of the threshold type. Most of the problems discussed by previous workers have been of this type. With these properties in mind this work looks at the design of integrated water and energy systems that exhibit the following features: 1. minimum water consumption, 2. minimum energy consumption, and 3. simple network structure. The approach applies for single contaminant. It is shown that the water conservation problem and the heat recovery problems can be de-coupled and the water conservation options should be established first. It is then shown that the number of heaters and heat recovery units required for the system, the quantity and type of hot utility needed for the plant and the complexity of the heat recovery network can all be determined without having to design any heat recovery network. This allows the engineer to select the better water conservation option before embarking on the design of the heat recovery network. For this type of problem the design of the heat recovery network itself is usually simple and straightforward.

  12. Efficient Solar Energy Harvesting and Storage through a Robust Photocatalyst Driving Reversible Redox Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangen; Zhang, Shun; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Leyuan; Zhang, Changkun; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2018-06-14

    Simultaneous solar energy conversion and storage is receiving increasing interest for better utilization of the abundant yet intermittently available sunlight. Photoelectrodes driving nonspontaneous reversible redox reactions in solar-powered redox cells (SPRCs), which can deliver energy via the corresponding reverse reactions, present a cost-effective and promising approach for direct solar energy harvesting and storage. However, the lack of photoelectrodes having both high conversion efficiency and high durability becomes a bottleneck that hampers practical applications of SPRCs. Here, it is shown that a WO 3 -decorated BiVO 4 photoanode, without the need of extra electrocatalysts, can enable a single-photocatalyst-driven SPRC with a solar-to-output energy conversion efficiency as high as 1.25%. This SPRC presents stable performance over 20 solar energy storage/delivery cycles. The high efficiency and stability are attributed to the rapid redox reactions, the well-matched energy level, and the efficient light harvesting and charge separation of the prepared BiVO 4 . This demonstrated device system represents a potential alternative toward the development of low-cost, durable, and easy-to-implement solar energy technologies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Energy uses and recovery in sludge disposal, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J L [Stanford Research Inst., Menlo Park, CA; Bomberger, D C; Lewis, F M

    1977-08-01

    Capital and operating costs were compared for 3 plant capacities having average dry weather flows of 10, 100, and 500 mgd. Five sludge handling options were considered. They were chemical conditioning with vacuum filtration, low pressure wet air oxidation, high pressure wet air oxidation aerobic and anaerobic digestion, and chemical oxidation with filter press dewatering. The plant sizes considered generated 11.5, 77, and 384 TPD of sludge. High pressure wet air oxidation and aerobic digestion operating costs were the most sensitive to electrical power costs, while the 2 incineration options without heat treatment were the least sensitive. Sludge drying and incineration of a 20% solids cake were the most sensitive to fuel costs, while aerobic and anaerobic digestion were not directly affected. Heat treatment of sludge and dewatering to a 40% cake had the lowest fuel requirements of the 3 incineration options but increased the total plant electric power consumption by >25%. The net Btus consumed were compared. The net consumption was lowest for anaerobic digestion, filter press plus incineration, and heat treatment plus incineration. Excluding heat recovery credit except for steam required in sludge heat treating, these 3 options are still lowest in net Btus consumed.

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Inertial confinement fusion: The quest for ignition and energy gain using indirect drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1999-06-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is an alternative way to control fusion which is based on scaling down a thermonuclear explosion to a small size, applicable for power production, a kind of thermonuclear internal combustion engine. This book extends many interesting topics concerning the research and development on ICF of the last 25 years. It provides a systematic development of the physics basis and also various experimental data on radiation driven implosion. This is a landmark treatise presented at the right time. It is based on the article ``Development of the indirect-drive approach to inertial confinement fusion and the target physics basis for ignition and gain'' by J.D. Lindl, published in Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 2, November 1995, pp. 3933-4024. As is well known, in the United States of America research on the target physics basis for indirect drive remained largely classified until 1994. The indirect drive approaches were closely related to nuclear weapons research at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos National Laboratories. In Japan and other countries, inertial confinement fusion research for civil energy has been successfully performed to achieve DT fuel pellet compression up to 1000 times normal density, and indirect drive concepts, such as the `Cannon Ball' scheme, also prevailed at several international conferences. In these circumstances the international fusion community proposed the Madrid Manifesto in 1988, which urged openness of ICF information to promote international collaboration on civil energy research for the future resources of the human race. This proposal was also supported by some of the US scientists. The United States Department of Energy revised its classification guidelines for ICF six years after the Madrid Manifesto. This first book from the USA treating target physics issues, covering topics from implosion dynamics to hydrodynamic stability, ignition physics, high-gain target design and the scope for energy applications is

  15. Improving Biofuels Recovery Processes for Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuels are made from living or recently living organisms. For example, ethanol can be made from fermented plant materials. Biofuels have a number of important benefits when compared to fossil fuels. Biofuels are produced from renewable energy sources such as agricultural resou...

  16. Energy recovery ventilation as a radon mitigation method for Navy family housing in Guam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    Energy recovery ventilation involves the exchange of contaminated indoor air with fresh, uncontaminated outdoor air with recovery of energy. During radon mitigation diagnostics, air change measurements were performed within three typical Navy family houses, and some were found to be well below recommended minimum standards. The only practical way to solve the indoor air quality problem was to increase the ventilation rate. Options were evaluated, and it was decided to install energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems. An ERV system is a packaged unit complete with blower fans, controls, and air-to-air heat exchanger. However, because of economical limits on the quantity of conditioned air that can be exchanged, ERV has a finite range of application in radon abatement. In Guam, ERV has potential applications in up to 370 units and in an additional 154 units if the mechanical systems are moved indoors. The performance of ERV systems were evaluated during a demonstration program to determine the removal efficiency of radon

  17. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taina Tervahauta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP, UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased the energy recovery by 23% in the UASB reactor compared to black water treatment. The increase in the energy recovery can cover the increased heat demand of the UASB reactor and the electricity demand of the grey water bioflocculation system with a surplus of 0.7 kWh/cap/y electricity and 14 MJ/cap/y heat. However, grey water sludge introduced more heavy metals in the excess sludge of the UASB reactor and might therefore hinder its soil application.

  18. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  19. New and renewable energies. Stakes, driving forces and perspectives of the renewable energies market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    New and renewable energies (hydro-power, wind-power, solar, biomass, biogas, geothermal and fuel cells) are progressively entering the industrialization phase (except for hydro-power which is already largely developed). Thus they are no more considered as solutions for utopian ecologists but have reached the status of alternative technologies. This study takes stock of the following questions: what are the applications of renewable energies, what is their stage of development and their potential with respect to fossil fuels, what are their perspectives of development, and what are the strategies developed by the actors of the sector? The main stakes of the renewable energy sector are: fulfilling the increasing power needs (in particular with the wind and solar power in isolated areas), improving the competitiveness (reduction of the investment costs), developing financial incentives (tax relief, financial helps, eco-taxes..), participating to the reduction of pollutant emissions. The renewable energy sector is progressively structuring and profits by the increasing implication of major energy actors, such as the oil companies. The behaviour and strategy of 14 major actors of the renewable energy sector is also analyzed. (J.S.)

  20. A performance study on a direct drive hydro turbine for wave energy converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Do; Kim, Chang Goo; Kim, You Taek; Lee, Young Ho; Song, Jung Il

    2010-01-01

    Clean and renewable energy technologies using ocean energy give us non-polluting alternatives to fossil-fueled power plants as a countermeasure against global warming and growing demand for electrical energy. Among the ocean energy resources, wave power takes a growing interest because of its enormous amount of potential energy in the world. Therefore, various types of wave power systems to capture the energy of ocean waves have been developed. However, a suitable turbine type is not yet normalized because of relatively low efficiency of the turbine systems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a newly developed direct drive hydro turbine (DDT), which will be built in a caisson for a wave power plant. Experiment and CFD analysis are conducted to clarify the turbine performance and internal flow characteristics. The results show that the DDT obtains fairly good turbine efficiency in cases with and without wave conditions. Most of the output power is generated at the runner passage of Stage 2. Relatively larger amount of the decreased tangential velocity at Stage 2 produces more angular momentum than that at Stage 1 and thus, the larger angular momentum at the Stage 2 makes a greater contribution to the generation of total output power in comparison with that at Stage 1. Large vortex existing in the upper-left region of the runner passage forms a large recirculation region in the runner passage, and the recirculating flow consumes the output power at Region 2

  1. A performance study on a direct drive hydro turbine for wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Do [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Goo; Kim, You Taek; Lee, Young Ho [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jung Il [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Clean and renewable energy technologies using ocean energy give us non-polluting alternatives to fossil-fueled power plants as a countermeasure against global warming and growing demand for electrical energy. Among the ocean energy resources, wave power takes a growing interest because of its enormous amount of potential energy in the world. Therefore, various types of wave power systems to capture the energy of ocean waves have been developed. However, a suitable turbine type is not yet normalized because of relatively low efficiency of the turbine systems. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a newly developed direct drive hydro turbine (DDT), which will be built in a caisson for a wave power plant. Experiment and CFD analysis are conducted to clarify the turbine performance and internal flow characteristics. The results show that the DDT obtains fairly good turbine efficiency in cases with and without wave conditions. Most of the output power is generated at the runner passage of Stage 2. Relatively larger amount of the decreased tangential velocity at Stage 2 produces more angular momentum than that at Stage 1 and thus, the larger angular momentum at the Stage 2 makes a greater contribution to the generation of total output power in comparison with that at Stage 1. Large vortex existing in the upper-left region of the runner passage forms a large recirculation region in the runner passage, and the recirculating flow consumes the output power at Region 2

  2. FLYWHEEL BASED KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEMS (KERS) INTEGRATED IN VEHICLES

    OpenAIRE

    THOMAS MATHEWS; NISHANTH D

    2013-01-01

    Today, many hybrid electric vehicles have been developed in order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels; unfortunately these vehicles require electrochemical batteries to store energy, with high costs as well as poor conversion efficiencies. By integrating flywheel hybrid systems, these drawbacks can be overcome and can potentially replace battery powered hybrid vehicles cost effectively. The paper will explain the engineering, mechanics of the flywheel system and it’s working in detail. ...

  3. Impact of Generator Stroke Length on Energy Production for a Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC, developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have been based on a combination of theory, know-how from previous experiments, and educated guesses. One key parameter in the design of the WECs linear generator is the stroke length. A long stroke requires a taller WEC with associated economical and mechanical challenges, but a short stroke limits the power production. The 2-m stroke of the current WECs has been an educated guess for the Swedish wave climate, though the consequences of this choice on energy absorption have not been studied. When the WEC technology is considered for international waters, with larger waves and challenges of energy absorption and survivability, the subject of stroke length becomes even more relevant. This paper studies the impact of generator stroke length on energy absorption for three sites off the coasts of Sweden, Chile and Scotland. 2-m, 4-m, and unlimited stroke are considered. Power matrices for the studied WEC prototype are presented for each of the studied stroke lengths. Presented results quantify the losses incurred by a limited stroke. The results indicate that a 2-m stroke length is likely to be a good choice for Sweden, but 4-m is likely to be necessary in more energetic international waters.

  4. Comparison of the primary energy consumption and the CO2-emission of an urban vehicle with conventional and alternative drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbreier, H.

    1992-01-01

    Based on a model car with its basic data corresponding to those of a series-produced small passenger car, conventional and alternative drives were compared. Cars shared the following features: same basic weight without tank, one energy storage system for the same driving range, same acceleration capacity from 0 to 50 km/h. Petrol and diesel were the conventional fuels; methanol, natural gas (pressurized, liquid), hydrogen (pressurized, liquid, hydride) and electric energy (NaS battery) were the alternative fuels. Both primary energy and CO 2 balancings take the different raw materials into account for the production of useful energies. (orig.) [de

  5. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste, an environmental and safety mini-overview survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.L.

    1976-06-01

    The environmental and safety aspects of processing municipal solid wastes to recover energy and materials are reviewed in some detail. The state of the art in energy recovery, energy potential for the near and long-term, and constraints to commercialization are discussed. Under the environmental and safety aspects the state of the art, need for research and development, and need for coordination among federal agencies and private industry are considered. Eleven principal types of refuse-to-energy processes are described and a projected energy balance is derived for each process. (JSR)

  6. Energy-Based Adaptive Sliding Mode Speed Control for Switched Reluctance Motor Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Namazi Isfahani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motor drives is a major subject based on these drives’ extensive use in the industry. In this paper, by using a well-known cascaded torque control structure and taking the machine physical structure characteristics into account, the proposed energy-based (passivity-based adaptive sliding algorithm derived from the view point of energy dissipation, control stability and algorithm robustness. First, a nonlinear dynamic model is developed and decomposed into separate slow and fast passive subsystems which are interconnected by negative feedbacks. Then, an outer loop speed control is employed by adaptive sliding controller to determine the appropriate torque command. Finally, to reduce torque ripple in switched reluctance motor a high-performance passivity-based current controller is proposed. It can overcome the inherent nonlinear characteristics of the system and make the whole system robust to uncertainties and bounded disturbances. The performance of the proposed controller algorithm has been demonstrated in simulation, and experimental using a 4KW, four-phase, 8/6 pole SRM DSP-based drive system.

  7. Modelling the Effect of Driving Events on Electrical Vehicle Energy Consumption Using Inertial Sensors in Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jiménez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution and climate change are some of the main problems that humankind is currently facing. The electrification of the transport sector will help to reduce these problems, but one of the major barriers for the massive adoption of electric vehicles is their limited range. The energy consumption in these vehicles is affected, among other variables, by the driving behavior, making range a value that must be personalized to each driver and each type of electric vehicle. In this paper we offer a way to estimate a personalized energy consumption model by the use of the vehicle dynamics and the driving events detected by the use of the smartphone inertial sensors, allowing an easy and non-intrusive manner to predict the correct range for each user. This paper proposes, for the classification of events, a deep neural network (Long-Short Time Memory which has been trained with more than 22,000 car trips, and the application to improve the consumption model taking into account the driver behavior captured across different trips, allowing a personalized prediction. Results and validation in real cases show that errors in the predicted consumption values are halved when abrupt events are considered in the model.

  8. Reduction efficiency prediction of CENIBRA's recovery boiler by direct minimization of gibbs free energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. L. Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The reduction efficiency is an important variable during the black liquor burning process in the Kraft recovery boiler. This variable value is obtained by slow experimental routines and the delay of this measure disturbs the pulp and paper industry customary control. This paper describes an optimization approach for the reduction efficiency determination in the furnace bottom of the recovery boiler based on the minimization of the Gibbs free energy. The industrial data used in this study were directly obtained from CENIBRA's data acquisition system. The resulting approach is able to predict the steady state behavior of the chemical composition of the furnace recovery boiler, - especially the reduction efficiency when different operational conditions are used. This result confirms the potential of this approach in the analysis of the daily operation of the recovery boiler.

  9. Ending America’s Energy Insecurity: How Electric Vehicles Can Drive the Solution to Energy Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Missile CBO Congressional Budget Office CAFE Corporate Average Fuel Economy DOE United States Department of Energy EV Electric Vehicle EIA...EV, 2 These funds are separate from the funds used to give $7,500 in tax rebates to customers who...corporate average fuel economy ( CAFE ) standards. That advantage stems from more 20 direct alignment with market forces (CBO, 2008). The

  10. Special Report "The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and the Department of Energy"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) was signed into law on February 17, 2009, as a way to jumpstart the U.S. economy, create or save millions of jobs, spur technological advances in science and health, and invest in the Nation's energy future. This national effort will require an unprecedented level of transparency and accountability to ensure that U.S. citizens know where their tax dollars are going and how they are being spent. As part of the Recovery Act, the Department of Energy will receive more than $38 billion to support a number of science, energy, and environmental initiatives. Additionally, the Department's authority to make or guarantee energy-related loans has increased to about $127 billion. The Department plans to disburse the vast majority of the funds it receives through grants, cooperative agreements, contracts, and other financial instruments. The supplemental funding provided to the Department of Energy under the Recovery Act dwarfs the Department's annual budget of about $27 billion. The infusion of these funds and the corresponding increase in effort required to ensure that they are properly controlled and disbursed in a timely manner will, without doubt, strain existing resources. It will also have an equally challenging impact on the inherent risks associated with operating the Department's sizable portfolio of missions and activities and, this is complicated by the fact that, in many respects, the Recovery Act requirements represent a fundamental transformation of the Department's mission. If these challenges are to be met successfully, all levels of the Department's structure and its many constituents, including the existing contractor community; the national laboratory system; state and local governments; community action groups and literally thousands of other contract, grant, loan and cooperative agreement recipients throughout the Nation will have to strengthen existing or

  11. The use of driving simulators for enhancing train driver’s performance in terms of energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador Zuriaga, P.; Garcia Roman, C.; Pineda Jaramillo, J.D.; Insa Franco, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a driving simulator to be used by train drivers for training their driving skills in terms of energy-efficiency. In railway operations, previous experiences have shown differences in energy consumption up to 20 % among train drivers for the same journey in similar operational conditions. This shows great saving potentials in both economic and environmental terms. For this reason, railway companies wishing to become more efficient must encourage their train drivers to balance the energy consumption towards the minimum threshold. In this sense, driving simulators are a good complement for training courses on energy-saving best practices given to train drivers, where they can put into practice the learned contents. The developed driving simulator consists in an Excel spreadsheet including an accurate energy consumption model, which was previously developed from real measurements on different train services. The fact of being an Excel spreadsheet provides a familiar interface to train drivers, making easier its use, and becomes an affordable tool for small and medium size freight private railway companies. Furthermore, the fact of being a non-real-time simulation makes possible to perform a journey of several hours in a few minutes, thus being able to test different driving strategies for the same train journey in a short time period. In this paper, the driving simulator was applied to the Valencia-Cuenca-Aranjuez railway line operated by Renfe Operadora with Diesel Multiple Units. The results are given in terms of fuel consumption, costs of fuel and CO2 emissions and enable train drivers to find by themselves the most efficient way to drive the train between two stations. Finally, this driving simulator may serve as the basis for training and evaluating train drivers in order to set up a bonus/penalty policy for rewarding the most efficient train drivers and achieve an overall energy consumption reduction. (Author)

  12. Thermoelectric energy recovery at ionic-liquid/electrode interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, Marco; Nakamae, Sawako; Huang, Bo Tao; Wiertel-Gasquet, Cécile; Roger, Michel [Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, CEA-IRAMIS-SPEC, CNRS-UMR 3680, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Salez, Thomas J. [Service de Physique de l’Etat Condensé, CEA-IRAMIS-SPEC, CNRS-UMR 3680, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); École des Ponts ParisTech, 6 et 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Champs-sur-Marne, F-77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France)

    2015-06-28

    A thermally chargeable capacitor containing a binary solution of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide in acetonitrile is electrically charged by applying a temperature gradient to two ideally polarisable electrodes. The corresponding thermoelectric coefficient is −1.7 mV/K for platinum foil electrodes and −0.3 mV/K for nanoporous carbon electrodes. Stored electrical energy is extracted by discharging the capacitor through a resistor. The measured capacitance of the electrode/ionic-liquid interface is 5 μF for each platinum electrode while it becomes four orders of magnitude larger, ≈36 mF, for a single nanoporous carbon electrode. Reproducibility of the effect through repeated charging-discharging cycles under a steady-state temperature gradient demonstrates the robustness of the electrical charging process at the liquid/electrode interface. The acceleration of the charging by convective flows is also observed. This offers the possibility to convert waste-heat into electric energy without exchanging electrons between ions and electrodes, in contrast to what occurs in most thermogalvanic cells.

  13. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  14. Development of a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm associated with the evaluation of power management in different driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Masih Tehrani; Mohammad Reza, Ha'iri Yazdi; Esfahanian, Vahid; Sagha, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm for electric vehicles is developed to achieve a semi optimum cost effective design. Using the developed algorithm, a driving cycle is divided into its micro-trips and the power and energy demands in each micro trip are determined. The battery size is estimated because the battery fulfills the power demands. Moreover, the ultra capacitor (UC) energy (or the number of UC modules) is assessed because the UC delivers the maximum energy demands of the different micro trips of a driving cycle. Finally, a design factor, which shows the power of the hybrid energy storage control strategy, is utilized to evaluate the newly designed control strategies. Using the developed algorithm, energy saving loss, driver satisfaction criteria, and battery life criteria are calculated using a feed forward dynamic modeling software program and are utilized for comparison among different energy storage candidates. This procedure is applied to the hybrid energy storage sizing of a series hybrid electric city bus in Manhattan and to the Tehran driving cycle. Results show that a higher aggressive driving cycle (Manhattan) requires more expensive energy storage system and more sophisticated energy management strategy

  15. Osmotically-driven membrane processes for water reuse and energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Andrea

    Osmotically-driven membrane processes are an emerging class of membrane separation processes that utilize concentrated brines to separate liquid streams. Their versatility of application make them an attractive alternative for water reuse and energy production/recovery. This work focused on innovative applications of osmotically-driven membrane processes. The novel osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) system for water reuse was presented. Experimental results demonstrated high sustainable flux and relatively low reverse diffusion of solutes from the draw solution into the mixed liquor. Membrane fouling was minimal and controlled with osmotic backwashing. The OMBR system was found to remove greater than 99% of organic carbon and ammonium-nitrogen. Forward osmosis (FO) can employ different draw solution in its process. More than 500 inorganic compounds were screened as draw solution candidates, the desktop screening process resulted in 14 draw solutions suitable for FO applications. The 14 draw solutions were then tested in the laboratory to evaluate water flux and reverse salt diffusion through the membrane. Results indicated a wide range of water flux and reverse salt diffusion depending on the draw solution utilized. Internal concentration polarization was found to lower both water flux and reverse salt diffusion by reducing the draw solution concentration at the interface between the support and dense layer of the membrane. A small group of draw solutions was found to be most suitable for FO processes with currently available FO membranes. Another application of osmotically-driven membrane processes is pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). PRO was investigated as a viable source of renewable energy. A PRO model was developed to predict water flux and power density under specific experimental conditions. The predictive model was tested using experimental results from a bench-scale PRO system. Previous investigations of PRO were unable to verify model predictions due to

  16. Synaptic energy drives the information processing mechanisms in spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Laithy, Karim; Bogdan, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Flow of energy and free energy minimization underpins almost every aspect of naturally occurring physical mechanisms. Inspired by this fact this work establishes an energy-based framework that spans the multi-scale range of biological neural systems and integrates synaptic dynamic, synchronous spiking activity and neural states into one consistent working paradigm. Following a bottom-up approach, a hypothetical energy function is proposed for dynamic synaptic models based on the theoretical thermodynamic principles and the Hopfield networks. We show that a synapse exposes stable operating points in terms of its excitatory postsynaptic potential as a function of its synaptic strength. We postulate that synapses in a network operating at these stable points can drive this network to an internal state of synchronous firing. The presented analysis is related to the widely investigated temporal coherent activities (cell assemblies) over a certain range of time scales (binding-by-synchrony). This introduces a novel explanation of the observed (poly)synchronous activities within networks regarding the synaptic (coupling) functionality. On a network level the transitions from one firing scheme to the other express discrete sets of neural states. The neural states exist as long as the network sustains the internal synaptic energy.

  17. Audit Report on "The Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act -- Florida State Energy Program"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) provides grants to states, territories, and the District of Columbia to support their energy priorities through the State Energy Program (SEP). The SEP provides Federal financial assistance to carry out energy efficiency and renewable energy projects that meet each state's unique energy needs while also addressing national goals such as energy security. Federal funding is based on a grant formula that takes into account population and energy consumption. The SEP emphasizes the state's role as the decision maker and administrator for the program. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) expanded the SEP, authorizing $3.1 billion in grants. Based on existing grant formulas and after reviewing state-level plans, EERE made awards to states. The State of Florida's Energy Office (Florida) was allocated $126 million - a 90-fold increase over Florida's average annual SEP grant of $1.4 million. Per the Recovery Act, this funding must be obligated by September 30, 2010, and spent by April 30, 2012. As of March 10, 2010, Florida had expended $13.2 million of the SEP Recovery Act funds. Florida planned to use its grant funds to undertake activities that would preserve and create jobs; save energy; increase renewable energy sources; and, reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To accomplish Recovery Act objectives, states could either fund new or expand existing projects. As a condition of the awards, EERE required states to develop and implement sound internal controls over the use of Recovery Act funds. Based on the significant increase in funding from the Recovery Act, we initiated this review to determine whether Florida had internal controls in place to provide assurance that the goals of the SEP and Recovery Act will be met and accomplished efficiently and effectively. We identified weaknesses in the implementation of SEP Recovery Act projects that

  18. Platforms for energy and nutrient recovery from domestic wastewater: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, D J; Hülsen, T; Mehta, C M; Keller, J

    2015-12-01

    Alternative domestic wastewater treatment processes that recover energy and nutrients while achieving acceptable nutrient limits (650mgCODL(-1). PRR offers the possibility for recovery of nitrogen and other nutrients (including potassium) through assimilative recovery. However, the energetic overhead of this is substantial, requiring 5kWhkgN(-1) as electricity, which compares to ammonia fixation costs. The lower energy costs, and near to market status of LEM treatment make it likely as a recovery platform in the shorter term, while ability to recover other elements such as nitrogen and potassium, as well as enhance favourability on concentrated wastewaters may enhance the desirability of partitioning in the longer term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal comfort analysis of a low temperature waste energy recovery system. SIECHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Martin, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, C/Dr. Fleming, s/n (Campus Muralla), 30202 Cartagena, Murcia (Spain); Rey Martinez, F.J.; Velasco Gomez, E. [Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, ETSII, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    The use of a recovery device is justified in terms of energy savings and environmental concerns. But it is clear that the use of a recovery system also has to lead to controlling indoor environmental quality, nowadays a priority concern. In this article, experimental research has been carried out whose aim is to study the thermal comfort provided by a combined recovery equipment (SIECHP), consisting of a ceramic semi-indirect evaporative cooler (SIEC) and a heat pipe device (HP) to recover energy at low temperature in air-conditioning systems. To characterize this device empirically in terms of thermal comfort (TC), Fanger's predicted mean vote (PMV), draught rate, and vertical air temperature difference were used in this study as the TC criteria. (author)

  20. Enhancing Low-Grade Thermal Energy Recovery in a Thermally Regenerative Ammonia Battery Using Elevated Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2015-02-13

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. A thermally regenerative ammonia battery (TRAB) is a new approach for converting low-grade thermal energy into electricity by using an ammonia electrolyte and copper electrodes. TRAB operation at 72°C produced a power density of 236±8 Wm-2, with a linear decrease in power to 95±5 Wm-2 at 23°C. The improved power at higher temperatures was due to reduced electrode overpotentials and more favorable thermodynamics for the anode reaction (copper oxidation). The energy density varied with temperature and discharge rates, with a maximum of 650 Whm-3 at a discharge energy efficiency of 54% and a temperature of 37°C. The energy efficiency calculated with chemical process simulation software indicated a Carnot-based efficiency of up to 13% and an overall thermal energy recovery of 0.5%. It should be possible to substantially improve these energy recoveries through optimization of electrolyte concentrations and by using improved ion-selective membranes and energy recovery systems such as heat exchangers.

  1. Applications of thermal energy storage to waste heat recovery in the food processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebilcox, G. J.; Lundberg, W. L.

    1981-03-01

    The canning segment of the food processing industry is a major energy user within that industry. Most of its energy demand is met by hot water and steam and those fluids, in addition to product cooling water, eventually flow from the processes as warm waste water. To minimize the possibility of product contamination, a large percentage of that waste water is sent directly to factory drains and sewer systems without being recycled and in many cases the thermal energy contained by the waste streams also goes unreclaimed and is lost from further use. Waste heat recovery in canning facilities can be performed economically using systems that employ thermal energy storage (TES). A project was proposed in which a demonstration waste heat recovery system, including a TES feature, would be designed, installed and operated.

  2. Direct energy recovery from helium ion beams by a beam direct converter with secondary electron suppressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Toku, H.; Kobayashi, A.; Okazaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-yr study of beam direct energy conversion was performed at the Kyoto University Institute of Atomic Energy to clarify the essential features of direct energy recovery from monoenergetic ion beams so that the performance characteristics of energy recovery can be predicted reasonably well by numerical calculations. The study used an improved version of an electrostatically electron-suppressed beam direct converter. Secondary electron suppressor grids were added, and a helium ion beam was used with typical parameters of 15.4 keV, 90 mA, and 100 ms. This paper presents a comparison of experimental results with numerical results by the two-dimensional Kyoto University Advanced Dart (KUAD) code, including evaluation of atomic processes

  3. Role of primary sedimentation on plant-wide energy recovery and carbon footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Riccardo; Giaccherini, Francesca; Jiang, Lu-Man; Sobhani, Reza; Rosso, Diego

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to show the effect of primary sedimentation on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and solids fractionation and consequently on the carbonaceous and energy footprints of wastewater treatment processes. Using a simple rational procedure for COD and solids fraction quantification, we quantify the effects of varying fractions on CO2 and CO2-equivalent mass flows, process energy demand and energy recovery. Then we analysed two treatment plants with similar biological nutrient removal processes in two different climatic regions and quantified the net benefit of gravity separation before biological treatment. In the cases analysed, primary settling increases the solid fraction of COD that is processed in anaerobic digestion, with an associated increase in biogas production and energy recovery, and a reduction in overall emissions of CO2 and CO2-equivalent from power importation.

  4. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Z N; Wu, P; Wu, D Z; Wang, L Q

    2013-01-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m 3 /h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result

  5. Design and optimization of a large flow rate booster pump in SWRO energy recovery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Z. N.; Wu, P.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is a high energy-consumption industry, so energy efficiency is an important issue. Energy recovery systems, which contain a pressure exchanger and a booster pump, are widely used in SWRO plants. As a key part of energy recovery system, the difficulty of designing booster pumps lies in high inlet pressure, high medium causticity and large flow rate. High inlet pressure adds difficulties to seal design, and large flow rate and high efficiency requirement bring high demand for hydraulic design. In this paper, a 625 m3/h booster pump is designed and optimized according to the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation results. The impeller and volute is well designed, a new type of high pressure mechanical seal is applied and axial force is well balanced. After optimization based on blade redesign, the efficiency of the pump was improved. The best efficiency reaches more than 85% at design point according to the CFD simulation result.

  6. Development of an Organic Rankine Cycle system for exhaust energy recovery in internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipollone, Roberto; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Gualtieri, Angelo; Di Battista, Davide; Mauriello, Marco; Fatigati, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Road transportation is currently one of the most influencing sectors for global energy consumptions and CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, more than one third of the fuel energy supplied to internal combustion engines is still rejected to the environment as thermal waste at the exhaust. Therefore, a greater fuel economy might be achieved recovering the energy from exhaust gases and converting it into useful power on board. In the current research activity, an ORC-based energy recovery system was developed and coupled with a diesel engine. The innovative feature of the recovery power unit relies upon the usage of sliding vane rotary machines as pump and expander. After a preliminary exhaust gas mapping, which allowed to assess the magnitude of the thermal power to be recovered, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out to design the ORC system and the sliding vane machines using R236fa as working fluid. An experimental campaign was eventually performed at different operating regimes according to the ESC procedure and investigated the recovery potential of the power unit at design and off-design conditions. Mechanical power recovered ranged from 0.7 kW up to 1.9 kW, with an overall cycle efficiency from 3.8% up to 4.8% respectively. These results candidate sliding vane machines as efficient and reliable devices for waste heat recovery applications.

  7. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervahauta, T.H.; Bryant, I.M.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were

  8. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycleWasteHeatRecovery (WHR)systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine andWHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI Diesel

  9. Integrated energy and emission management for diesel engines with waste heat recovery using dynamic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Rascanu, G.C.; Feru, E.

    2015-01-01

    Rankine-cycle Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) systems are promising solutions to reduce fuel consumption for trucks. Due to coupling between engine and WHR system, control of these complex systems is challenging. This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI

  10. Integrated Energy & Emission Management for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  11. Integrated energy and emission management for heavy-duty diesel engines with waste heat recovery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Kupper, F.; Cloudt, R.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for an Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  12. Energy management in vehicles with alternative drives; Energiemanagement in Fahrzeugen mit alternativen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S; Schimanski, M

    2007-11-21

    Within the next few years, the automotive industry will be confronted with many challenges, as for example stricter emission standards and increasing oil prices. To meet the challenges, alternative drive concepts are currently being developed and placed in the market. To ensure a secure and efficient operation of the electric components, the introduction of an integrated energy management is required. It comprises all planning, controlling and predictive measures. The first part of this dissertation presents a new system concept, which can make an online prognosis of expected driving situations, such as speed and altitude profiles by means of internal vehicle information during an operating cycle. Based on this the control strategy can calculate the future power requirement of the vehicle and initiate control commands to enable a more efficient driving. The basis of this system concept is the recognition of routes with characteristic steering angle information and the creation of a history database for the routes driven with the respective vehicle speeds and altitudes. On the basis of an extensive analysis of the vehicle's electrical system in the second part of the dissertation, different effects on the development process for dimensioning the electrical system power supply are discussed. From this follows the necessity to develop a tool chain based on simulations. The tool chain consists of commercial simulation tools and the software Avanti (Advanced Analysis Tool and Simulation Interface) which is developed within the scope of the dissertation. Avanti enables an automated and optimal procedure when dimensioning the vehicle's electrical system in consideration of different control algorithms. A substantial part of this tool chain is the integration of a verified VHDL-AMS model library for the electrical system components. (orig.)

  13. Energy management in vehicles with alternative drives; Energiemanagement in Fahrzeugen mit alternativen Antrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, S.; Schimanski, M.

    2007-11-21

    Within the next few years, the automotive industry will be confronted with many challenges, as for example stricter emission standards and increasing oil prices. To meet the challenges, alternative drive concepts are currently being developed and placed in the market. To ensure a secure and efficient operation of the electric components, the introduction of an integrated energy management is required. It comprises all planning, controlling and predictive measures. The first part of this dissertation presents a new system concept, which can make an online prognosis of expected driving situations, such as speed and altitude profiles by means of internal vehicle information during an operating cycle. Based on this the control strategy can calculate the future power requirement of the vehicle and initiate control commands to enable a more efficient driving. The basis of this system concept is the recognition of routes with characteristic steering angle information and the creation of a history database for the routes driven with the respective vehicle speeds and altitudes. On the basis of an extensive analysis of the vehicle's electrical system in the second part of the dissertation, different effects on the development process for dimensioning the electrical system power supply are discussed. From this follows the necessity to develop a tool chain based on simulations. The tool chain consists of commercial simulation tools and the software Avanti (Advanced Analysis Tool and Simulation Interface) which is developed within the scope of the dissertation. Avanti enables an automated and optimal procedure when dimensioning the vehicle's electrical system in consideration of different control algorithms. A substantial part of this tool chain is the integration of a verified VHDL-AMS model library for the electrical system components. (orig.)

  14. Design and Experiment Analysis of a Direct-Drive Wave Energy Converter with a Linear Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coastal waves are an abundant nonpolluting and renewable energy source. A wave energy converter (WEC must be designed for efficient and steady operation in highly energetic ocean environments. A direct-drive wave energy conversion (D-DWEC system with a tubular permanent magnet linear generator (TPMLG on a wind and solar photovoltaic complementary energy generation platform is proposed to improve the conversion efficiency and reduce the complexity and device volume of WECs. The operating principle of D-DWECs is introduced, and detailed analyses of the proposed D-DWEC’s floater system, wave force characteristics, and conversion efficiency conducted using computational fluid dynamics are presented. A TPMLG with an asymmetric slot structure is designed to increase the output electric power, and detailed analyses of the magnetic field distribution, detent force characteristics, and no-load and load performances conducted using finite element analysis are discussed. The TPMLG with an asymmetric slot, which produces the same power as the TPMLG with a symmetric slot, has one fifth detent force of the latter. An experiment system with a prototype of the TPMLG with a symmetric slot is used to test the simulation results. The experiment and analysis results agree well. Therefore, the proposed D-DWEC fulfills the requirements of WEC systems.

  15. How energy conversion drives economic growth far from the equilibrium of neoclassical economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Energy conversion in the machines and information processors of the capital stock drives the growth of modern economies. This is exemplified for Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of the 20th century: econometric analyses reveal that the output elasticity, i.e. the economic weight, of energy is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor just the opposite is true. This is at variance with mainstream economic theory according to which an economy should operate in the neoclassical equilibrium, where output elasticities equal factor cost shares. The standard derivation of the neoclassical equilibrium from the maximization of profit or of time-integrated utility disregards technological constraints. We show that the inclusion of these constraints in our nonlinear-optimization calculus results in equilibrium conditions, where generalized shadow prices destroy the equality of output elasticities and cost shares. Consequently, at the prices of capital, labor, and energy we have known so far, industrial economies have evolved far from the neoclassical equilibrium. This is illustrated by the example of the German industrial sector evolving on the mountain of factor costs before and during the first and the second oil price explosion. It indicates the influence of the ‘virtually binding’ technological constraints on entrepreneurial decisions, and the existence of ‘soft constraints’ as well. Implications for employment and future economic growth are discussed. (paper)

  16. How energy conversion drives economic growth far from the equilibrium of neoclassical economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2014-12-01

    Energy conversion in the machines and information processors of the capital stock drives the growth of modern economies. This is exemplified for Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of the 20th century: econometric analyses reveal that the output elasticity, i.e. the economic weight, of energy is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor just the opposite is true. This is at variance with mainstream economic theory according to which an economy should operate in the neoclassical equilibrium, where output elasticities equal factor cost shares. The standard derivation of the neoclassical equilibrium from the maximization of profit or of time-integrated utility disregards technological constraints. We show that the inclusion of these constraints in our nonlinear-optimization calculus results in equilibrium conditions, where generalized shadow prices destroy the equality of output elasticities and cost shares. Consequently, at the prices of capital, labor, and energy we have known so far, industrial economies have evolved far from the neoclassical equilibrium. This is illustrated by the example of the German industrial sector evolving on the mountain of factor costs before and during the first and the second oil price explosion. It indicates the influence of the ‘virtually binding’ technological constraints on entrepreneurial decisions, and the existence of ‘soft constraints’ as well. Implications for employment and future economic growth are discussed.

  17. Anaerobic Digestion Performance in the Energy Recovery of Kiwi Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ramiro; Boaventura, Rui; Paulista, Larissa

    2017-12-01

    World production and trade of fruits generate losses in the harvest, post-harvest, handling, distribution and consumption phases, corresponding to 6.8% of total production. These residues present high potential as a substrate for the anaerobic digestion process and biogas generation. Thus, the energy valuation of the agro-industrial residues of kiwi production was evaluated by anaerobic digestion, aiming at optimizing the biogas production and its quality. Ten assays were carried out in a batch reactor (500 mL) under mesophilic conditions and varying a number of operational factors: different substrate/inoculum ratios; four distinct values for C: N ratio; inoculum from different digesters; and inoculum collected at different times of the year. The following parameters were used to control and monitor the process: pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids (VFA), volatile solids (VS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Among the tests performed, the best result obtained for the biogas production corresponded to the use of 2 g of substrate and 98 mL of inoculum of the anaerobic digester of the Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Bragança, with addition of 150 mg of bicarbonate leading to a production of 1628 L biogas.kg-1 VS (57% methane). In relation to the biogas quality, the best result was obtained with 20 g of substrate and 380 mL of inoculum from the anaerobic digester sludge of WWTP of Ave (with addition 600 mg of sodium bicarbonate), presenting a value of 85% of CH4, with a production of 464 L biogas.kg-1 VS.

  18. City of Camden, New Jersey Program offering widespread energy recovery (power): Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witkowski, Stanley [City of Camden, NJ (United States). Dept. of Development and Planning Bureau of Housing Services

    2013-12-31

    The Camden Residential POWER Program, Program Offering Widespread Energy Recovery, is a program designed to benefit Camden homeowners, stabilize neighborhoods and put local contractors to work. Camden POWER granted up to $18,600 to fund energy efficient home improvements and necessary life/safety rehabilitation repairs. The program was designed as a self-sustaining, neighborhood approach to bringing long-term energy and financial savings to the community. Valuable home upgrades were completed, including high-efficiency furnaces, hot water heaters, insulation, insulated roofs and blower door guided air-sealing. The goal of all improvements were to reduce energy consumption, lower utility bills, improve property values and promote neighborhood stabilization.

  19. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  20. Feasibility analysis of a small-scale ORC energy recovery system for vehicular application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capata, Roberto; Toro, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the feasibility of an “on-board” ORC recovery system to power auxiliaries. • Performance of the ORC cycle has been simulated with CAMEL-Pro™. • Several relevant ORC components have been designed. • Approximate characteristics dimensions of HRSG and evaporator have been calculated and a preliminary layout provided. • The evaluation of a possible assembling of the system has been developed. - Abstract: This paper analyses the feasibility of an “on-board” innovative and patented ORC recovery system. The vehicle thermal source can be either a typical diesel engine (1400 cc) or a small gas turbine set (15–30 kW). The sensible heat recovered from the exhaust gases feeds the energy recovery system that can produce sufficient extra power to sustain the conditioning system and other auxiliaries. The concept is suitable for all types of thermally propelled vehicles, but it is studied here for automotive applications. The characteristics of the organic cycle-based recovery system are discussed, and a preliminary design of the main components, such as the heat recovery exchanger, the evaporator and the pre-heater is presented. The main challenge are the imposed size and weight limitations that require a particular design for this compact recovery system. A possible system layout is analyzed and the requirements for a prototypal application are investigated

  1. Research on the Multi-Energy Management Strategy of the Electric Drive System of a Tracked Bulldozer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The multi-energy management strategy of electric drive system of tracked bulldozer was researched. Firstly, based on power requirement of typical working condition of a tracked bulldozer, the power distribution strategy for three energy sources in the front power chain was proposed by using wavelet theory and fuzzy control theory. Secondly, the electric drive system simulation platform was built in MATLAB/Simulink. At last, a driver-controller based HILS (hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform was built and the multi-energy management strategy was verified. The HILS result shows that front power chain’s power output can meet the back power chain’s requirement, the engine-generator set works near the best fuel consumption curve, and the battery pack’s charge-discharge frequency and current are low. Thus the designed multi-energy management strategy can be used in real-time control of electric drive bulldozer.

  2. The Question of Energy-Efficient Design of the Automated Electric Drive of Multi-Engine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semykina Irina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes a method for improving the energy efficiency of multi-motor variable frequency electric drives of trunk belt conveyors, based on the conveyor speed changing and controlling of the magnetic state of the motor. At conclusion, economic and energy effects of the implementation are estimated.

  3. Maximization of energy recovery inside supersonic separator in the presence of condensation and normal shock wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shooshtari, S.H. Rajaee; Shahsavand, A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural gases provide around a quarter of energy consumptions around the globe. Supersonic separators (3S) play multifaceted role in natural gas industry processing, especially for water and hydrocarbon dew point corrections. These states of the art devices have minimum energy requirement and favorable process economy compared to conventional facilities. Their relatively large pressure drops may limit their application in some situations. To maximize the energy recovery of the dew point correction facility, the pressure loss across the 3S unit should be minimized. The optimal structure of 3s unit (including shock wave location and diffuser angle) is selected using simultaneous combination of normal shock occurrence and condensation in the presence of nucleation and growth processes. The condense-free gas enters the non-isentropic normal shock wave. The simulation results indicate that the normal shock location, pressure recovery coefficient and onset position strongly vary up to a certain diffuser angle (β = 8°) with the maximum pressure recovery of 0.88 which leads to minimum potential energy loss. Computational fluid dynamic simulations show that separation of boundary layer does not happen for the computed optimal value of β and it is essentially constant when the inlet gas temperatures and pressures vary over a relatively broad range. - Highlights: • Supersonic separators have found numerous applications in oil and gas industries. • Maximum pressure recovery is crucial for such units to maximize energy efficiency. • Simultaneous condensation and shock wave occurrence are studied for the first time. • Diverging nozzle angle of 8° can provide maximum pressure recovery of 0.88. • The optimal diffuser angle remains constant over a broad range of inlet conditions.

  4. An Investigation on the Effect of Driver Style and Driving Events on Energy Demand of a PHEV

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Brahmadevan; McGordon, Andrew; Jennings, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns, security of fuel supply and CO2 regulations are driving innovation in the automotive industry towards electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The fuel economy and emission performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depends on the energy management system (EMS). Prior knowledge of driving information could be used to enhance the performance of a HEV. However, how the necessary information can be obtained to use in EMS optimisation still remains a challenge. ...

  5. An investigation on the effect of driver style and driving\\ud events on energy demand of a PHEV

    OpenAIRE

    Padmarajan, Brahmadevan V.; McGordon, Andrew; Jennings, P. A. (Paul A.)

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns, security of fuel supply and CO2 regulations are driving innovation in the automotive industry towards electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The fuel economy and emission performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) strongly depends on the energy management system (EMS). Prior knowledge of driving information could be used to enhance the performance of a HEV. However, how the necessary information can be obtained to use in EMS optimisation still remains a challenge. ...

  6. Study of non-inductive current drive using high energy neutral beam injection on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, Toshihiro

    2004-01-01

    The negative ion based neutral beam (N-NB) current drive was experimentally studied. The N-NB driven current density was determined over a wide range of electron temperatures by using the motional Stark effect spectroscopy. Theoretical prediction of the NB current drive increasing with beam energy and electron temperature was validated. A record value of NB current drive efficiency 1.55 x 10 19 Am -2 W -1 was achieved simultaneously with high confinement and high beta at at a plasma current of 1.5 MA under a fully non-inductively current driven condition. The experimental validation of NB current drive theory for MHD quiescent plasmas gives greater confidence in predicting the NB current drive in future reactors. However, it was also found that MHD instabilities caused a degradation of NB current drive. A beam-driven instability expelled N-NB fast ions carrying non-inductive current from the central region. The lost N-NB driven current was estimated to be 7% of the total N-NB driven current. For the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), comparisons of the measured neutron yield and fast ion pressure profile with transport code calculations revealed that the loss of fast ions increases with the NTM activity and that fast ions at higher energies suffer larger transport than at lower energies. (author)

  7. A Novel Maximum Power Point Tracking Control for Permanent Magnet Direct Drive Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel optimal current given (OCG maximum power point tracking (MPPT control strategy based on the theory of power feedback and hill climb searching (HCS for a permanent magnet direct drive wind energy conversion system (WECS. The presented strategy not only has the advantages of not needing the wind speed and wind turbine characteristics of the traditional HCS method, but it also improves the stability and accuracy of MPPT by estimating the exact loss torque. The OCG MPPT control strategy is first carried out by simulation, then an experimental platform based on the dSPACE1103 controller is built and a 5.5 kW permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG is tested. Furthermore, the proposed method is compared experimentally with the traditional optimum tip speed ratio (TSR MPPT control. The experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed OCG MPPT strategy and demonstrate its better performance than the traditional TSR MPPT control.

  8. Control of a 420 KN Discrete Displacement Cylinder Drive for the Wavestar Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico H.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    absorbers. The system is implemented using multi-chambered cylinders, where the different chambers may be switched between three pressure lines using a manifold with fast on/off valves. Resultantly, a Discrete Displacement Cylinder (DDC) is obtained, where force control is implemented by shifting between...... different area/pressure combinations. Currently, a 420 kN DDC prototype has been implemented and tested at the newly commissioned full size wave energy testbench at Aalborg University. The initial design and control of the DDC had poorly damped switching transients. These issues treated in this paper....... This leads to a new control, which gives a smooth operating DDC, while meeting the requirements to the efficiency of the drive....

  9. Simulation of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Girts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.

  10. Effect on energy use and greenhouse micro climate through fan motor control by variable frequency drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teitel, Meir; Zhao Yun; Barak, Moti; Bar-lev, Eli; Shmuel, David

    2004-01-01

    A comparison was conducted between ON-OFF and variable frequency drive (VFD) systems to control greenhouse ventilation fans. The study aimed to determine the effect of each system on the energy consumption and resulting greenhouse micro climate. The experiments were conducted in a commercial size greenhouse in which pepper was grown. To check the performance of the fan that was controlled by a VFD system, it was installed in a test facility and operated under several rotation speeds. At each speed of rotation, the static pressure on the fan was changed and parameters, such as electricity consumption and air flow rate, were measured. Reducing the fan speed with the VFD system resulted in reductions in the air flow rate through the greenhouse and energy consumption, the latter being much more significant. The study showed that VFD control can reduce electricity consumption compared with ON-OFF operation by an amount that depends on the weather. In the present study, the average energy consumption with the VFD control system over a period of one month, was about 0.64 of that with an ON-OFF system. The average greenhouse daily air temperatures and humidity ratios obtained with each control system between 0700 and 1800 were nearly equal during that month. The results obtained in the greenhouse further show that the VFD system has a greater potential than the ON-OFF to reduce the range of amplitude variations in the air temperature and humidity ratio within the greenhouse

  11. Moisture transfer through the membrane of a cross-flow energy recovery ventilator: Measurement and simple data-driven modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    CR Boardman; Samuel V. Glass

    2015-01-01

    The moisture transfer effectiveness (or latent effectiveness) of a cross-flow, membrane based energy recovery ventilator is measured and modeled. Analysis of in situ measurements for a full year shows that energy recovery ventilator latent effectiveness increases with increasing average relative humidity and surprisingly increases with decreasing average temperature. A...

  12. Electrophilic acid gas-reactive fluid, proppant, and process for enhanced fracturing and recovery of energy producing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Heldebrant, David J.; Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2018-01-23

    An electrophilic acid gas-reactive fracturing fluid, proppant, and process are detailed. The fluid expands in volume to provide rapid and controlled increases in pressure that enhances fracturing in subterranean bedrock for recovery of energy-producing materials. The proppant stabilizes fracture openings in the bedrock to enhance recovery of energy-producing materials.

  13. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Kuckelkorn, Jens; Liu, Di; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO 2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  14. Energy saving in the baking industry by more selective use of energy and by recovery of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, L.; Nieman, W.; Rouwen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Approximately 7000 Tj energy are used yearly by the bakery industry in the Netherlands. Until now, very little is known about energy use in this sector, this being partly due to the extremely decentralised production. The aim of the study is to pinpoint and evaluate methods for energy saving and heat recovery in the bakery. Priority was given to the procedures or places where a large amount of energy is used or is lost. A second important part of the study is to identify the situations where energy can easly be saved in very simple ways. The study was subsidised by the European Economic Community, the Industry group for bakeries and the Dutch Ministry for Economic Affairs. Monitoring was in the hands of a committee, with representation by the Nederlandse Bakkerijstichting (Dutch Bakery Organisation), the Stichting Voorlichting Energiebesparing Nederland (Organisation for Information about Energy Conservation), the Ministry of Agriculture/Fisheries and the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

  15. Assessment of infiltration heat recovery and its impact on energy consumption for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solupe, Mikel; Krarti, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five steady-state air infiltration heat recovery or IHR models are described and compared. • IHR models are incorporated within whole-building simulation analysis tool. • IHR can reduce the thermal loads of residential buildings by 5–30%. - Abstract: Infiltration is a major contributor to the energy consumption of buildings, particularly in homes where it accounts for one-third of the heating and cooling loads. Traditionally, infiltration is calculated independent of the building envelope performance, however, it has been established that a thermal coupling exists between the infiltration and conduction heat transfer of the building envelope. This effect is known as infiltration heat recovery (IHR). Experiments have shown that infiltration heat recovery can typically reduce the infiltration thermal load by 10–20%. Currently, whole-building energy simulation tools do not account for the effect of infiltration heat recovery on heating and cooling loads. In this paper, five steady-state IHR models are described to account for the thermal interaction between infiltration air and building envelope components. In particular, inter-model and experimental comparisons are carried out to assess the prediction accuracy of five IHR models. In addition, the results from a series of sensitivity analyses are presented, including an evaluation of the predictions for heating energy use associated with four audited homes obtained from whole-building energy simulation analysis with implemented infiltration heat recovery models. Experimental comparison of the IHR models reveal that the predictions from all the five models are consistent and are within 2% when 1-D flow and heat transfer conditions are considered. When implementing IHR models to a whole-building simulation environment, a reduction of 5–30% in heating consumption is found for four audited residential homes

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation. Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Brown, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); DeFlorio, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); McKenzie, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Tao, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL) and Cambridge Systematics, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Solar Energy for a Solvent Recovery Stage in a Biodiesel Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. León

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development of clean energy have become essential due to the global climate change problem, which is caused largely by fossil fuels burning. Therefore, biodiesel, a renewable and ecofriendly biofuel with less environmental impact than diesel, continues expanding worldwide. The process for biodiesel production involves a significant energy demand, specifically in the methanol recovery stage through a flash separator and a distillation column. Traditionally, the energy required for this process is supplied by fossil fuels. It represents an opportunity for the application of renewable energy. Hence, the current study presents a system of thermal energy storage modeled in TRNSYS® and supported by simulations performed in ASPEN PLUS®. The aim of this research was to supply solar energy for a methanol recovery stage in a biodiesel production process. The results highlighted that it is feasible to meet 91% of the energy demand with an array of 9 parabolic trough collectors. The array obtained from the simulation was 3 in series and 3 in parallel, with a total area of 118.8 m2. It represents an energy saving of 70 MWh per year.

  19. Energetic recovery from LNG gasification plant : cold energy utilization in agro-alimentary industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messineo, A.; Panno, D.

    2009-01-01

    It is known how the complete gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can return about 230 kWh/t of energy. Nevertheless out of 51 gasification plants in the world, only 31 of them are equipped with systems for the partial recovery of the available energy. At the moment most of these plants mainly produce electric energy; however the employment of the cold energy results very interesting, in fact, it can be recovered for agrofood transformation and conservation as well as for some loops in the cold chain. Cold energy at low temperatures requires high amounts of mechanical energy and it unavoidably increases as the required temperature diminishes. Cold energy recovery from LNG gasification would allow considerable energy and economic savings to these applications, as well as environmental benefits due to the reduction of climate-changing gas emissions. The task of this work is to assess the possibility to create around a gasification plant an industrial site for firms working on the transformation and conservation of agrofood products locally grown. The cold recovered from gasification would be distributed to those firms through an opportune liquid Co 2 network distribution capable of supplying the cold to the different facilities. A LNG gasification plant in a highly agricultural zone in Sicily would increase the worth of the agrofood production, lower transformation and conservation costs when compared to the traditional systems and bring economic and environmental benefits to the interested areas. [it

  20. An assessment of climate change impacts on micro-hydropower energy recovery in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jennifer; Patil, Sopan; McNabola, Aonghus; Gallagher, John; Coughlan, Paul; Harris, Ian; Packwood, Andrew; Williams, Prysor

    2015-04-01

    Continuity of service of a high quality water supply is vital in sustaining economic and social development. However, water supply and wastewater treatment are highly energy intensive processes and the overall cost of water provision is rising rapidly due to increased energy costs, higher capital investment requirements, and more stringent regulatory compliance in terms of both national and EU legislation. Under the EU Directive 2009/28/EC, both Ireland and the UK are required to have 16% and 15% respectively of their electricity generated by renewable sources by 2020. The projected impacts of climate change, population growth and urbanisation will place additional pressures on resources, further increasing future water demand which in turn will lead to higher energy consumption. Therefore, there is a need to achieve greater efficiencies across the water industry. The implementation of micro-hydropower turbines within the water supply network has shown considerable viability for energy recovery. This is achieved by harnessing energy at points of high flow or pressure along the network which can then be utilised on site or alternatively sold to the national grid. Micro-hydropower can provide greater energy security for utilities together with a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. However, potential climate change impacts on water resources in the medium-to-long term currently act as a key barrier to industry confidence as changes in flow and pressure within the network can significantly alter the available energy for recovery. The present study aims to address these uncertainties and quantify the regional and local impacts of climate change on the viability of energy recovery across water infrastructure in Ireland and the UK. Specifically, the research focuses on assessing the potential future effects of climate change on flow rates at multiple pressure reducing valve sites along the water supply network and also in terms of flow at a number of wastewater

  1. Thermoelectric automotive waste heat energy recovery using maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Chuang; Chau, K.T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and implements a thermoelectric waste heat energy recovery system for internal combustion engine automobiles, including gasoline vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The key is to directly convert the heat energy from automotive waste heat to electrical energy using a thermoelectric generator, which is then regulated by a DC-DC Cuk converter to charge a battery using maximum power point tracking. Hence, the electrical power stored in the battery can be maximized. Both analysis and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can work well under different working conditions, and is promising for automotive industry.

  2. Energy conservation strategy in Hydraulic Power Packs using Variable Frequency Drive IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S.; Ashok, S. Denis; Nagaraj, Shanmukha; Reddy, M. Lohith Kumar; Naulakha, Niranjan Kumar; Adithyakumar, C. R.

    2018-02-01

    At present, energy consumption is to such an extent that if the same trend goes on then in the future at some point of time, the energy sources will all be exploited. Energy conservation in a hydraulic power pack refers to the reduction in the energy consumed by the power pack. Many experiments have been conducted to reduce the energy consumption and one of those methods is by introducing a variable frequency drive. The main objective of the present work is to reduce the energy consumed by the hydraulic power pack using variable frequency drive. Variable Frequency drive is used to vary the speed of the motor by receiving electrical signals from the pressure switch which acts as the feedback system. Using this concept, the speed of the motor can be varied between the specified limits. In the present work, a basic hydraulic power pack and a variable frequency drive based hydraulic power pack were designed and compared both of them with the results obtained. The comparison was based on the power consumed, rise in temperature, noise levels, and flow of oil through pressure relief valve, total oil flow during loading cycle. By comparing both the circuits, it is found that for the proposed system, consumption of power reduces by 78.4% and is as powerful as the present system.

  3. Harvesting the decay energy of 26Al to drive lightning discharge in protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2018-01-01

    Chondrules in primitive meteorites likely formed by recrystallisation of dust aggregates that were flash-heated to nearly complete melting. Chondrules may represent the building blocks of rocky planetesimals and protoplanets in the inner regions of protoplanetary discs, but the source of ubiquitous thermal processing of their dust aggregate precursors remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that escape of positrons released in the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al leads to a large-scale charging of dense pebble structures, resulting in neutralisation by lightning discharge and flash-heating of dust and pebbles. This charging mechanism is similar to a nuclear battery where a radioactive source charges a capacitor. We show that the nuclear battery effect operates in circumplanetesimal pebble discs. The extremely high pebble densities in such discs are consistent with conditions during chondrule heating inferred from the high abundance of sodium within chondrules. The sedimented mid-plane layer of the protoplanetary disc may also be prone to charging by the emission of positrons, if the mass density of small dust there is at least an order of magnitude above the gas density. Our results imply that the decay energy of 26Al can be harvested to drive intense lightning activity in protoplanetary discs. The total energy stored in positron emission is comparable to the energy needed to melt all solids in the protoplanetary disc. The efficiency of transferring the positron energy to the electric field nevertheless depends on the relatively unknown distribution and scale-dependence of pebble density gradients in circumplanetesimal pebble discs and in the protoplanetary disc mid-plane layer.

  4. Wastewater Treatment Energy Recovery Potential For Adaptation To Global Change: An Integrated Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breach, Patrick A.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 20% of wastewaters globally do not receive treatment, whereas wastewater discharges are projected to increase, thereby leading to excessive water quality degradation of surface waters on a global scale. Increased treatment could help alleviate water quality issues by constructing more treatment plants; however, in many areas there exist economic constraints. Energy recovery methods including the utilization of biogas and incineration of biosolids generated during the treatment process may help to alleviate treatment costs. This study explores the potential for investments in energy recovery from wastewater to increase treatment levels and thus improve surface water quality. This was done by examining the relationships between nutrient over-enrichment, wastewater treatment, and energy recovery at a global scale using system dynamics simulation as part of the ANEMI integrated assessment model. The results show that a significant amount of energy can be recovered from wastewater, which helps to alleviate some of the costs of treatment. It was found that wastewater treatment levels could be increased by 34%, helping to offset the higher nutrient loading from a growing population with access to improved sanitation. The production of renewable natural gas from biogas was found to have the potential to prolong the depletion of natural gas resources used to produce electricity and heat. It is recommended that agricultural nutrient discharges be better managed to help reduce nutrient over-enrichment on global scale. To increase the utility of the simulation, a finer spatial scale should be used to consider regional treatment, economic, and water quality characteristics.

  5. Factors influencing the life cycle burdens of the recovery of energy from residual municipal waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Stephen; Coleman, Terry; Peirce, Adam

    2015-05-01

    A life cycle assessment was carried out to assess a selection of the factors influencing the environmental impacts and benefits of incinerating the fraction of municipal waste remaining after source-separation for reuse, recycling, composting or anaerobic digestion. The factors investigated were the extent of any metal and aggregate recovery from the bottom ash, the thermal efficiency of the process, and the conventional fuel for electricity generation displaced by the power generated. The results demonstrate that incineration has significant advantages over landfill with lower impacts from climate change, resource depletion, acidification, eutrophication human toxicity and aquatic ecotoxicity. To maximise the benefits of energy recovery, metals, particularly aluminium, should be reclaimed from the residual bottom ash and the energy recovery stage of the process should be as efficient as possible. The overall environmental benefits/burdens of energy from waste also strongly depend on the source of the power displaced by the energy from waste, with coal giving the greatest benefits and combined cycle turbines fuelled by natural gas the lowest of those considered. Regardless of the conventional power displaced incineration presents a lower environmental burden than landfill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. APPLICATIONS OF THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE TO WASTE HEAT RECOVERY IN THE FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.

    1979-07-31

    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  7. Energy and economic analysis of total energy systems for residential and commercial buildings. [utilizing waste heat recovery techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, W. L.; Bollenbacher, G.

    1974-01-01

    Energy and economic analyses were performed for an on-site power-plant with waste heat recovery. The results show that for any specific application there is a characteristic power conversion efficiency that minimizes fuel consumption, and that efficiencies greater than this do not significantly improve fuel consumption. This type of powerplant appears to be a reasonably attractive investment if higher fuel costs continue.

  8. Sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage with single well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jun-Seo; Lee, Seung-Rae; Pasquinelli, Lisa; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage system usually shows higher performance than other borehole thermal energy storage systems. Although there is a limitation in the widespread use of the HT-ATES system because of several technical problems such as clogging, corrosion, etc., it is getting more attention as these issues are gradually alleviated. In this study, a sensitivity analysis of recovery efficiency in two cases of HT-ATES system with a single well is conducted to select key parameters. For a fractional factorial design used to choose input parameters with uniformity, the optimal Latin hypercube sampling with an enhanced stochastic evolutionary algorithm is considered. Then, the recovery efficiency is obtained using a computer model developed by COMSOL Multiphysics. With input and output variables, the surrogate modeling technique, namely the Gaussian-Kriging method with Smoothly Clopped Absolute Deviation Penalty, is utilized. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is performed based on the variation decomposition. According to the result of sensitivity analysis, the most important input variables are selected and confirmed to consider the interaction effects for each case and it is confirmed that key parameters vary with the experiment domain of hydraulic and thermal properties as well as the number of input variables. - Highlights: • Main and interaction effects on recovery efficiency in HT-ATES was investigated. • Reliability depended on fractional factorial design and interaction effects. • Hydraulic permeability of aquifer had an important impact on recovery efficiency. • Site-specific sensitivity analysis of HT-ATES was recommended.

  9. Level of satiety: In vitro energy metabolism in brain during hypophagic and hyperphagic body weight recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasser, T.R.; Harris, R.B.; Martin, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rates of in vitro glucose and fatty acid oxidation were examined in four brain sites during hypophagic and hyperphagic recovery of normal body weight. Rats were fed 40, 100, or 160% of normal intake, via gastric intubation, for 3 wk. Another group of rats was starved until body weight loss was equivalent to weight loss in 40%-fed rats. Groups of rats were killed at the conclusion of tube feeding or fasting and at specific periods during recovery of body weight. Brain sites examined were the ventrolateral hypothalamus (VLH), ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a caudal brain stem site encompassing the area postrema-nucleus of the solitary tract (AP-NTS), and cortex. During recovery, rats previously fed 160% of normal intake (anorectic) maintained low rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hypophagic until most excess fat was depleted. Conversely, rats previously fed 40% of normal intake (hungry) maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation and were hyperphagic until most deficient fat was repleted. Rats previously starved maintained high rates of VLH fatty acid oxidation during hyperphagic recovery, although levels of VLH fatty acid oxidation and food intake were initially low on refeeding. Rates of glucose oxidation in the brain sites examined did not relate well to energy balance status and the needed adjustments in food intake. The results indicated that the level of glucose oxidation in the VLH and AP-NTS responded to the level of energy immediately coming into the system (food intake)

  10. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-01-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

  12. Life cycle greenhouse gases and non-renewable energy benefits of kraft black liquor recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreault, Caroline; Malmberg, Barry; Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid

    2012-01-01

    The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) and fossil fuel benefits of black liquor recovery are analyzed. These benefits are due to the production of energy that can be used in the pulping process or sold, and the recovery of the pulping chemicals that would otherwise need to be produced from other resources. The fossil GHG emissions and non-renewable energy consumption of using black liquor in the kraft recovery system are approximately 90% lower than those for a comparable fossil fuel-based system. Across all scenarios, the systems relying on black liquor solids achieve a median reduction of approximately 140 kg CO 2 eq./GJ of energy produced, compared to the systems relying on fossil fuels to provide the same energy and pulping chemical production functions. The benefits attributable to the recovery of pulping chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit. Applied to the total production of kraft pulp in the U.S., the avoided emissions are equivalent to the total Scopes 1 and 2 emissions from the entire U.S. forest products industry. These results do not depend on the accounting method for biogenic carbon (because biogenic CO 2 emissions are the same for the systems compared) and the results are valid across a range of assumptions about the displaced fossil fuel, the GHG-intensity of the electricity grid, the fossil fuels used in the lime kiln, and the level of cogeneration at pulp and paper mills. The benefits occur without affecting the amount of wood harvested or the amount of chemical pulp produced. -- Highlights: ► Black liquor, a by-product of kraft pulping, represents about half of the energy used in the paper industry. ► The greenhouse gases (GHG) benefits of black liquor recovery compared to an equivalent fossil fuel system were analyzed. ► The GHG emissions of the black liquor system are approximately 90% lower than those for the fossil fuel system. ► The benefits from the recovery of the chemicals vary from 44% to 75% of the total benefit.

  13. Development of a Trip Energy Estimation Model Using Real-World Global Positioning System Driving Data: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Ye [Metropia, Inc.

    2017-09-15

    A data-driven technique for estimation of energy requirements for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed. Based on over 700,000 miles of driving data, the technique has been applied to generate a model that estimates trip energy requirements. The model uses a novel binning approach to categorize driving by road type, traffic conditions, and driving profile. The trip-level energy estimations can easily be aggregated to any higher-level transportation system network desired. The model has been tested and validated on the Austin, Texas, data set used to build this model. Ground-truth energy consumption for the data set was obtained from Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) vehicle simulation results. The energy estimation model has demonstrated 12.1 percent normalized total absolute error. The energy estimation from the model can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations, to reduce energy consumption. The model can also be used to determine more accurate energy consumption of regional or national transportation networks if trip origin and destinations are known. Additionally, this method allows the estimation tool to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  14. CONSTRUCTIVE MODELLING FOR ZONE OF RECOVERY ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF DC TRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Shynkarenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The article is aimed to develop the means and methods of forming a plurality of real and potential structural diagrams for zones of energy recovery and different locations of trains for further training neuro-fuzzy networks on the basis of expert solutions and also for the formation of good control. Methodology. Methodology of mathematical and algorithmic constructivism for modeling the structural diagrams of the electric supply system and modes of traction power consumption and the train’s locations in zones of energy recovery was applied. This approach involves the development of constructive-synthesizing structures (CSS with transformation by specialization, interpretation, specification and implementation. Development CSS provides an extensible definition media, relations and the signature of operations and constructive axiomatic. The most complex and essential part of the axioms is the set formed by the substitution rules defining the process of withdrawal of the corresponding structures. Findings. A specialized and specified CSS, which allows considering all the possibilities and features, that supply power traction systems with modern equipment, stations and trains location was designed. Its feature: the semantic content of the terminal alphabet images of electrical traction network and power consumers with relevant attributes. A special case of the formation of the structural diagram shows the possibilities CSS in relation to this problem. Originality. A new approach to solving the problem of rational use of energy recovery, which consists in application of the methods and means of artificial neural networks, expert systems, fuzzy logic and mathematical and algorithmic constructivism. This paper presents the methods of constructive simulation of a production-distribution of energy recovery zone structure in the system of the DC traction. Practical value. The tasks decision of the rational use of energy recovery can

  15. What is an energy recovery linac, and why there might be one in your future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krafft, Geoffrey [Jefferson Laboratory, Newport News, VA (United States); Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Applying beam energy recovery allows a class of novel accelerators to be built with performance characteristics beyond that possible in ring accelerators or non-recirculated linear accelerators. Although the idea was published 50 years ago, and was explored and developed as a result of ''Star Wars'' strategic defense programs in the 1980s and 1990s, renewed interest in energy recovery linacs (ERLs) has flowered as a result of continuous development and improvement of superconducting beam acceleration systems. Many applications to electron accelerators where the very best beam quality is required at high average current have been and are being explored. Examples include advanced X-ray sources, electron sources for electron ion colliders, internal target experiments and applications, lithography, and other topics. Examples highlighting new performance possibilities and the present perception on the limits of ERLs are given.

  16. Environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities. A MITE Program evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFs) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. The MITE Program is sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency to foster the demonstration and development of innovative technologies for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). This project was also funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Material recovery facilities are increasingly being used as one option for managing a significant portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The owners and operators of these facilities employ a combination of manual and mechanical techniques to separate and sort the recyclable fraction of MSW and to transport the separated materials to recycling facilities.

  17. Status of RF system for the JAERI energy-recovery linac FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawamura, Masaru; Nagai, Ryoji

    2006-01-01

    The two types of the RF sources are used for the JAERI ERL-FEL. One is an all-solid state amplifier and the other is an inductive output tube (IOT). There are advantages of little failure and wide bandwidth for the all-solid state amplifier, low cost and high efficiency for IOT. The property of low cost with the IOT is suitable for a large machine like an energy recovery linac (ERL)

  18. Federal role in resource recovery will focus on waste-to-energy R and D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Virtually all of the federal programs created in recent years to sponsor resource recovery R and D have been slated for budget cuts or termination by the administration of President Ronald Reagan. The only programs that will survive revised fiscal budgets will be waste-to-energy R and D studies sponsored by DOE and EPA. Differing reactions to such cuts are apparent: the affected agencies are protesting, while private industry welcomes this hands-off policy.

  19. Improved Energy Recovery by Anaerobic Grey Water Sludge Treatment with Black Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tervahauta, Taina; Bryant, Isaac; Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the potential of combining anaerobic grey water sludge treatment with black water in an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to improve energy recovery within source-separated sanitation concepts. Black water and the mixture of black water and grey water sludge were compared in terms of biochemical methane potential (BMP), UASB reactor performance, chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance and methanization. Grey water sludge treatment with black water increased...

  20. A hydraulic test stand for demonstrating the operation of Eaton’s energy recovery system (ERS)

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meng (Rachel); Danzl, Per; Mahulkar, Vishal; Piyabongkarn, Damrongrit (Neng); Brenner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cost represents a significant operating expense for owners and fleet managers of hydraulic off-highway vehicles. Further, the upcoming Tier IV compliance for off-highway applications will create further expense for after-treatment and cooling. Solutions that help address these factors motivate fleet operators to consider and pursue more fuelefficient hydraulic energy recovery systems. Electrical hybridization schemes are typically complex, expensive, and often do not satisfy customer pay...

  1. Material resources, energy, and nutrient recovery from waste: are waste refineries the solution for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Martinez-Sanchez, Veronica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Waste refineries focusing on multiple outputs of material resources, energy carriers, and nutrients may potentially provide more sustainable utilization of waste resources than traditional waste technologies. This consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluated the environmental performance....... Overall, the waste refinery provided global warming (GW) savings comparable with efficient incineration, MBT, and bioreactor landfilling technologies. The main environmental benefits from waste refining were a potential for improved phosphorus recovery (about 85%) and increased electricity production (by...

  2. The European investment bank and financing the installation of urban refuse treatment plants with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty-Gauquie, H.

    1992-01-01

    The European Investment Bank (BEI), the world's leading international financing institution, with an annual loans total of 15.3 billion Ecus in 1991, every year finances a number of projects for the treatment of refuse, with energy recovery from waste and heat distribution. This article describes the missions of the BEI and the parameters taken into account for authorizing investment. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Energy recovery from municipal solid waste by refuse derived fuel production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanaz Saheri; Noorezlin Ahmad Baseri; Masoud Aghajani Mir; Malmasi Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW) is so beneficial both for the energy and for the positive environmental implications. Mainly related to the saving of primary energy derived from fossil fuel. Malaysia as a fast growing population country has the average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated around 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day and it has been increased to 1.7 kg/person/day in major cities. Regarding characterization exercise, the main parts of the Malaysian MSW were found to be food, paper and plastic, which made up almost 80 % of the waste by weight. Furthermore, the average moisture content of the MSW was about 55 %, making incineration a challenging mission. In addition waste sectors in Malaysia contributes to 1.3 million ton of CH 4 compare to total CH 4 emission which is 2.2 MT. In order to overcome waste problem considering other technical, environmental and economical methods seems to be necessarily. Resource recovery centers recovers the maximum proportion of recyclable and recoverable resources from the mixed municipal solid waste .The resource recovery process itself is one of the step-by-step segregation and elimination of all non-combustibles , and separation of the combustibles in the desired form of fuel for good combustion. Then, a further mechanical separation process converts combustible materials to refuse derived fuel (RDF) with moisture content between 20 and 30 % and an average calorific fuel value of about 3450 kcal/kg. So, the aim of this paper is taking into account resource recovery from waste using refuse derived fuel as a secondary resource with regarding advantages and disadvantages of this kind of energy production in Malaysia as a developing country. (author)

  4. Energy and water conservation at lignite-fired power plants using drying and water recovery technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ming; Qin, Yuanzhi; Yan, Hui; Han, Xiaoqu; Chong, Daotong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-drying and water recovery technologies were used to conserve energy and water. • The energy and water conservation potential were analyzed with reference cases. • The air-cooling unit produces water when the water content of lignite is high enough. • Influences of main parameters on energy and water conservation were analyzed. - Abstract: Lignite is considered as a competitive energy raw material with high security of supply viewed from a global angle. However, lignite-fired power plants have many shortcomings, including high investment, low energy efficiency and high water use. To address these issues, the drying and water recovery technologies are integrated within lignite-fired power plants. Both air-cooling and wet-cooling units with three kinds of lignite as feeding fuel were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed that energy conservation and water conservation are obtained simultaneously. The power plant firing high moisture lignite becomes more environmental friendly with higher power generation efficiency and a lower water makeup rate than the one firing low moisture lignite. And further calculation revealed that the air-cooling unit needs no makeup water and even produces some water as it generates power, when the water carrying coefficient is higher than 40 g/MJ.

  5. Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-06-17

    Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  6. Energy Recovery from Solutions with Different Salinities Based on Swelling and Shrinking of Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping; Yang, Wulin; Hatzell, Marta C.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies, including pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix), are being developed to recover energy from salinity gradients. Here, we present a new approach to capture salinity gradient energy based on the expansion and contraction properties of poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels. These materials swell in fresh water and shrink in salt water, and thus the expansion can be used to capture energy through mechanical processes. In tests with 0.36 g of hydrogel particles 300 to 600 μm in diameter, 124 mJ of energy was recovered in 1 h (salinity ratio of 100, external load of 210 g, water flow rate of 1 mL/min). Although these energy recovery rates were relatively lower than those typically obtained using PRO, RED, or CapMix, the costs of hydrogels are much lower than those of membranes used in PRO and RED. In addition, fouling might be more easily controlled as the particles can be easily removed from the reactor for cleaning. Further development of the technology and testing of a wider range of conditions should lead to improved energy recoveries and performance. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  7. Optimally efficient swimming in hyper-redundant mechanisms: control, design, and energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, A J; Nahon, M

    2012-01-01

    Hyper-redundant mechanisms (HRMs), also known as snake-like robots, are highly adaptable during locomotion on land. Researchers are currently working to extend their capabilities to aquatic environments through biomimetic undulatory propulsion. In addition to increasing the versatility of the system, truly biomimetic swimming could also provide excellent locomotion efficiency. Unfortunately, the complexity of the system precludes the development of a functional solution to achieve this. To explore this problem, a rapid optimization process is used to generate efficient HRM swimming gaits. The low computational cost of the approach allows for multiple optimizations over a broad range of system conditions. By observing how these conditions affect optimal kinematics, a number of new insights are developed regarding undulatory swimming in robotic systems. Two key conditions are varied within the study, swimming speed and energy recovery. It is found that the swimmer mimics the speed control behaviour of natural fish and that energy recovery drastically increases the system's efficiency. Remarkably, this efficiency increase is accompanied by a distinct change in swimming kinematics. With energy recovery, the swimmer converges to a clearly anguilliform gait, without, it tends towards the carangiform mode. (paper)

  8. Differential current measurement in the BNL energy recovery linac test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Peter

    2006-01-01

    An energy recovery linac (ERL) test facility is presently under construction at BNL [V.N. Litvinenko, et al., High current energy recovery linac at BNL, PAC, 2005; I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Extremely high current, high brightness energy recovery linac, PAC, 2005]. The goal of this test facility is to demonstrate CW operation with an average beam current greater than 100mA, and with greater than 99.95% efficiency of current recovery. This facility will serve as a test bed for the novel high current CW photo-cathode [A. Burrill, et al., Multi-alkali photocathode development at BNL, PAC, 2005; A. Murray, et al., State-of-the-art electron guns and injector designs for energy recovery linacs, PAC, 2005], the superconducting RF cavity with HOM dampers [R. Calaga, et al., High current superconducting cavities at RHIC, EPAC, 2004; R. Calaga, et al., in: Proceedings of the 11th workshop on RF superconductivity, Lubeck, Germany, 2003], and the lattice [D. Kayran, V. Litvinenko, Novel method of emittance preservation in ERL merging system in presence of strong space charge forces, PAC, 2005; D. Kayran, et al., Optics for high brightness and high current ERL project at BNL, PAC, 2005] and feedback systems needed to insure the specified beam parameters. It is an important stepping stone for electron cooling in RHIC [I. Ben-Zvi, et al., Electron cooling of RHIC, PAC, 2005], and essential to meet the luminosity specifications of RHICII [T. Hallman, et al., RHICII/eRHIC white paper, available at http://www.bnl.gov/henp/docs/NSAC_RHICII-eRHIC_2-15-03.pdf]. The expertise and experience gained in this effort might also extend forward into a 10-20GeV ERL for the electron-ion collider eRHIC [http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/eRHIC/, Appendix A, The linac-ring option, 2005]. We report here on the use of a technique of differential current measurement to monitor the efficiency of current recovery in the test facility, and investigate the possibility of using such a monitor in the machine

  9. Technology Roadmap. Energy Loss Reduction and Recovery in Industrial Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-11-01

    To help guide R&D decision-making and gain industry insights on the top opportunities for improved energy systems, ITP sponsored the Energy Loss Reduction and Recoveryin Energy Systems Roadmapping Workshopin April 2004 in Baltimore, Maryland. This Technology Roadmapis based largely on the results of the workshop and additional industrial energy studies supported by ITP and EERE. It summarizes industry feedback on the top opportunities for R&D investments in energy systems, and the potential for national impacts on energy use and the environment.

  10. A role for nuclear energy in the recovery of oil from the tar sands of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttagunta, V.R.; Sochaski, R.O.; Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-12-01

    Techniques of oil recovery from the tar sands and the energy requirements of this operation are described. Fossil fuels, and CANDU reactors are examined as competitive sources of energy for the tar sands plants. The CANDU-OCR reactor appears to have the necessary flexibility to fit into many of the possible methods of recovering oil from the tar sands. Cost comparisons of fossil and nuclear sources show that, for the supply of process steam, the nuclear source is competitive under the criteria of debt financing or low discount rates on capital, continued escalation, and long plant capital write-off period. (author)

  11. Optimized Design of Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems for Waste Heat Recovery from Exhaust Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nesarajah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing interest in energy efficiency and resource protection, waste heat recovery processes have gained importance. Thereby, one possibility is the conversion of the heat energy into electrical energy by thermoelectric generators. Here, a thermoelectric energy harvesting system is developed to convert the waste heat from exhaust pipes, which are very often used to transport the heat, e.g., in automobiles, in industrial facilities or in heating systems. That is why a mockup of a heating is built-up, and the developed energy harvesting system is attached. To build-up this system, a model-based development process is used. The setup of the developed energy harvesting system is very flexible to test different variants and an optimized system can be found in order to increase the energy yield for concrete application examples. A corresponding simulation model is also presented, based on previously developed libraries in Modelica®/Dymola®. In the end, it can be shown—with measurement and simulation results—that a thermoelectric energy harvesting system on the exhaust pipe of a heating system delivers extra energy and thus delivers a contribution for a more efficient usage of the inserted primary energy carrier.

  12. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes -- Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sara Farrar, Stacey Rothgeb, Ben Polly, Lieko Earle, Tim Merrigan

    2017-01-01

    This document is a set of appendices presenting technical discussion and references as a companion to the 'Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes' publication.

  13. Bioenergy, material, and nutrients recovery from household waste: Advanced material, substance, energy, and cost flow analysis of a waste refinery process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Dorini, Gianluca Fabio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    Energy, materials, and resource recovery from mixed household waste may contribute to reductions in fossil fuel and resource consumption. For this purpose, legislation has been enforced to promote energy recovery and recycling. Potential solutions for separating biogenic and recyclable materials...

  14. Multi-fuctional heat recovery systems. Really energy saving; Multifunktionale Waermerueckgewinnung. Wie man wirklich Energie spart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, Heinz [SEW Systemtechnik fuer Energierecycling und Waermeflussbegrenzung GmbH, Kempen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    An energy saving leeds only to a correct optimized operation, if a demand-oriented total design is integrated into the building. In special for air-conditioning energy saving measures are presented and essential criteria named, to save in fact effectively, efficiently, reliably and profitably energy and enhance simultanously user quality. (orig./GL)

  15. Driving Sodium-Potassium Pumps With An Oscillating Electric Field: Effects On Muscle Recovery In The Human Biceps Brachii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovyn, Matt; Chen, Wei; Lanes, Olivia; Mast, Jason

    2013-03-01

    Dr. Chen has developed a technique called synchronization modulation, which uses an oscillating electric field to increase the rate at which the sodium-potassium pumps in the cell membrane work. Because the sodium-potassium pump is integral in the recovery of skeletal muscle fibers after an action potential, we investigated the effects of applying synchronization modulation to muscles which had already undergone fatigue due to repeated action potentials during exercise. Fatigue was induced in human subjects' biceps brachii through isometric contraction. Surface electromyography measurements of fatigue index were used to quantify how the muscle recovered over the minutes following fatigue, both when synchronization modulation was applied and when it was absent. The preliminary results were inconclusive, but it is hoped that in later work it will be shown that applying synchronization modulation is effective in increasing the rate at which the muscle recovers to its initial state. This would demonstrate not only that synchronization modulation can be successfully applied to human muscle, but also that it has many potential applications in sports medicine and novel disease treatments. Work done as part of an REU program at the University of South Florida

  16. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Mike S. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Detwiler, Russell L. [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Lao, Kang [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Serajian, Vahid [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Elkhoury, Jean [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); Diessl, Julia [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada); White, Nicky [Terralog Technologies USA, Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  17. Analysis and optimization of indicators of energy and resource consumption of gas turbine and electric drives for transportation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. V.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Seroshtanov, I. V.; Begalko, Z. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the results of the analysis of statistical indicators of energy and resource consumption in oil and gas transportation by the example of one of the regions of Russia. The article analyzes engineering characteristics of compressor station drives. Official statistical bulletins on the fuel and energy resources of the region in the pipeline oil and gas transportation system were used as the initial data.

  18. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  20. Coupled superconducting qudit-resonator system: Energy spectrum, state population, and state transition under microwave drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Y.; Xu, H. K.; Su, F. F.; Li, Z. Y.; Tian, Ye; Han, Siyuan; Zhao, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    Superconducting quantum multilevel systems coupled to resonators have recently been considered in some applications such as microwave lasing and high-fidelity quantum logical gates. In this work, using an rf-SQUID type phase qudit coupled to a microwave coplanar waveguide resonator, we study both theoretically and experimentally the energy spectrum of the system when the qudit level spacings are varied around the resonator frequency by changing the magnetic flux applied to the qudit loop. We show that the experimental result can be well described by a theoretical model that extends from the usual two-level Jaynes-Cummings system to the present four-level system. It is also shown that due to the small anharmonicity of the phase device a simplified model capturing the leading state interactions fits the experimental spectra very well. Furthermore we use the Lindblad master equation containing various relaxation and dephasing processes to calculate the level populations in the simpler qutrit-resonator system, which allows a clear understanding of the dynamics of the system under the microwave drive. Our results help to better understand and perform the experiments of coupled multilevel and resonator systems and can be applied in the case of transmon or Xmon qudits having similar anharmonicity to the present phase device.

  1. A discrete role for alternative oxidase under hypoxia to increase nitric oxide and drive energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Kumari, Aprajita; Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2018-03-28

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is an integral part of the mitochondrial electron transport and can prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production under non-stressed, normoxic conditions. Here we assessed the roles of AOX by imposing stress under normoxia in comparison to hypoxic conditions using AOX over expressing (AOX OE) and anti-sense (AOX AS) transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and roots. Under normoxic conditions stress was induced with the defence elicitor flagellin (flg22). AOX OE reduced NO production whilst this was increased in AOX AS. Moreover AOX AS also exhibited an increase in superoxide and therefore peroxynitrite, tyrosine nitration suggesting that scavenging of NO by AOX can prevent toxic peroxynitrite formation under normoxia. In contrast, during hypoxia interestingly we found that AOX is a generator of NO. Thus, the NO produced during hypoxia, was enhanced in AOX OE and suppressed in AOX AS. Additionally, treatment of WT or AOX OE with the AOX inhibitor SHAM inhibited hypoxic NO production. The enhanced levels of NO correlated with expression of non-symbiotic haemoglobin, increased NR activity and ATP production. The ATP generation was suppressed in nia1,2 mutant and non symbiotic haemoglobin antisense line treated with SHAM. Taken together these results suggest that hypoxic NO generation mediated by AOX has a discrete role by feeding into the haemoglobin-NO cycle to drive energy efficiency under conditions of low oxygen tension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inverter Output Filter Effect on PWM Motor Drives of a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Walter

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been involved in the research and development of high speed flywheel systems for small satellite energy storage and attitude control applications. One research and development area has been the minimization of the switching noise produced by the pulsed width modulated (PWM) inverter that drives the flywheel permanent magnet motor/generator (PM M/G). This noise can interfere with the flywheel M/G hardware and the system avionics hampering the full speed performance of the flywheel system. One way to attenuate the inverter switching noise is by placing an AC filter at the three phase output terminals of the inverter with the filter neutral point connected to the DC link (DC bus) midpoint capacitors. The main benefit of using an AC filter in this fashion is the significant reduction of the inverter s high dv/dt switching and its harmonics components. Additionally, common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) voltages caused by the inverter s high dv/dt switching are also reduced. Several topologies of AC filters have been implemented and compared. One AC filter topology consists of a two-stage R-L-C low pass filter. The other topology consists of the same two-stage R-L-C low pass filter with a series connected trap filter (an inductor and capacitor connected in parallel). This paper presents the analysis, design and experimental results of these AC filter topologies and the comparison between the no filter case and conventional AC filter.

  3. Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action, and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Zhengxin Tong; Evren Unsal; Siluni Wickramathilaka; Shaochang Wo; Peigui Yin

    2008-06-30

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  4. FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman R. Morrow

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  5. FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman R. Morrow

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  6. The effects of swimming and running on energy intake during 2 hours of recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C P; Flynn, M G; Braun, W A; Boardley, D J

    1999-12-01

    To determine energy intake in the 2 hrs after swimming (S) and running (R) at the same relative exercise intensity and duration (71.8 +/- 2.5% VO2max; 45 min) to evaluate whether a difference in recovery energy intake could explain the greater body fat observed in swimmers relative to runners. this was a randomized crossover design. running exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill (Quinton) while swimming was conducted in a 45.7 m pool. eight well-trained competitive male triathletes participated in this investigation. subjects were blinded to the purpose of the study and swam and ran on separate occasions for 45 min at 71.8 +/- 2.5% of VO2max. Subjects were then placed in a room with a variety of foods and beverages for 2 hrs after R and S. energy intake (kJ/2 hrs and kcal/2 hrs) was determined by weighing and measuring the food remaining in the room after 2 hrs of postexercise recovery. Expired gases, heart rates, and Ratings of Perceived Exertion were obtained at 15 min intervals throughout exercise. Blood samples for serum glucose and lactate were obtained preexercise and immediately, 15 min, and 135 min postexercise. Perceived hunger and thirst ratings were obtained after the subjects were seated in the room containing the food. Serum glucose was significantly (p energy intake (4584 +/- 611 kJ/2 hrs; 1095 +/- 146 kcal/2 hrs for R and 4383 +/- 484 kJ/2 hrs; 1047 +/- 116 kcal for S) or blood lactate. The type of exercise, swimming or running, did not significantly influence energy intake during 2 hours of postexercise recovery.

  7. Cost Modeling for Fabrication of Direct Drive Inertial Fusion Energy Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, William Samuel; Goodin, Daniel T.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical engineering analyses are underway for a commercial-scale [1000-MW(electric)] divinyl benzene foam-based Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Target Fabrication Facility (TFF). This facility is designed to supply 500,000, 4-mm-outer diameter targets per day - coated via interfacial polycondensation, dried with supercritical CO 2 , sputter coated with Au and/or Pd, and filled with deuterium-tritium layered at cryogenic temperatures and injected into the fusion chamber. Such targets would be used in a direct-drive IFE power plant.The work uses manufacturing processes being developed in the laboratory, chemical engineering scaleup principles, and established cost-estimating methods. The plant conceptual design includes a process flow diagram, mass and energy balances, equipment sizing and sketches, storage tanks, and facility views.The cost estimate includes both capital and operating costs. Initial results for a TFF dedicated to one 1000-MW(electric) plant indicate that the costs per target are well within the commercially viable range. Larger TFF plants [3000 MW(electric)] are projected to lead to significantly reduced costs per injected target. Additional cost reductions are possible by producing dried, sputter-coated empty shells at a central facility that services multiple power plants.The results indicate that the installed capital cost is about $100 million and the annual operating costs will be about $20 million, for a cost per target of about $0.17 each. These design and cost projections assume that a significant process development and scaleup program is successfully completed for all of the basic unit operations included in the facility

  8. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trip Energy Estimation Methodology and Model Based on Real-World Driving Data for Green Routing Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Jacob [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Til, Harrison J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gonder, Jeffrey D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhu, Lei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-09

    A data-informed model to predict energy use for a proposed vehicle trip has been developed in this paper. The methodology leverages nearly 1 million miles of real-world driving data to generate the estimation model. Driving is categorized at the sub-trip level by average speed, road gradient, and road network geometry, then aggregated by category. An average energy consumption rate is determined for each category, creating an energy rates look-up table. Proposed vehicle trips are then categorized in the same manner, and estimated energy rates are appended from the look-up table. The methodology is robust and applicable to almost any type of driving data. The model has been trained on vehicle global positioning system data from the Transportation Secure Data Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and validated against on-road fuel consumption data from testing in Phoenix, Arizona. The estimation model has demonstrated an error range of 8.6% to 13.8%. The model results can be used to inform control strategies in routing tools, such as change in departure time, alternate routing, and alternate destinations to reduce energy consumption. This work provides a highly extensible framework that allows the model to be tuned to a specific driver or vehicle type.

  10. Energy consumption by forward osmosis treatment of landfill leachate for water recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, Syeed Md; Zou, Shiqiang; Brazil, Brian; Novak, John T; He, Zhen

    2017-05-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative approach for treating landfill leachate with potential advantages of reducing leachate volume and recovering high quality water for direct discharge or reuse. However, energy consumption by FO treatment of leachate has not been examined before. Herein, the operational factors such as recirculation rates and draw concentrations were studied for their effects on the quantified energy consumption by an FO system treating actual leachate collected from two different landfills. It was found that the energy consumption increased with a higher recirculation rate and decreased with a higher draw concentration, and higher water recovery tended to reduce energy consumption. The highest energy consumption was 0.276±0.033kWhm -3 with the recirculation rate of 110mLmin -1 and 1-M draw concentration, while the lowest of 0.005±0.000kWhm -3 was obtained with 30mLmin -1 recirculation and 3-M draw concentration. The leachate with lower concentrations of the contaminants had a much lower requirement for energy, benefited from its higher water recovery. Osmotic backwashing appeared to be more effective for removing foulants, but precise understanding of membrane fouling and its controlling methods will need a long-term study. The results of this work have implied that FO treatment of leachate could be energy efficient, especially with the use of a suitable draw solute that can be regenerated in an energy efficient way and/or through combination with other treatment technologies that can reduce contaminant concentrations before FO treatment, which warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing energy recovery in the steel industry: Matching continuous charge with off-gas variability smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal Magro, Fabio; Meneghetti, Antonella; Nardin, Gioacchino; Savino, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A system based on phase change material is inserted into the off-gas-line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace. • The off-gas temperature profile after scrap preheating is smoothed. • A heat transfer fluid through phase change material containers allows to control overheating issues. • The smoothed off-gas profiles enable efficient downstream power generation. • The recovery system investment cost is decreased due to lower sizes of components. - Abstract: In order to allow an efficient energy recovery from off-gas in the steel industry, the high variability of heat flow should be managed. A temperature smoothing device based on phase change materials at high temperatures is inserted into the off-gas line of a continuous charge electric arc furnace process with scrap preheating. To address overheating issues, a heat transfer fluid flowing through containers is introduced and selected by developing an analytical model. The performance of the smoothing system is analyzed by thermo-fluid dynamic simulations. The reduced maximum temperature of off-gas allows to reduce the size and investment cost of the downstream energy recovery system, while the increased minimum temperature enhances the steam turbine load factor, thus increasing its utilization. Benefits on environmental issues due to dioxins generation are also gained

  12. Gasification: An alternative solution for energy recovery and utilization of vegetable market waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Sunil L; Srivastava, Nsl; Vahora, Samir

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables waste is generally utilized through a bioconversion process or disposed of at municipal landfills, dumping sites or dumped on open land, emitting a foul odor and causing health hazards. The presents study deals with an alternative way to utilize solid vegetable waste through a thermochemical route such as briquetting and gasification for its energy recovery and subsequent power generation. Briquettes of 50 mm diameter were produced from four different types of vegetable waste. The bulk density of briquettes produced was increased 10 to 15 times higher than the density of the dried vegetable waste in loose form. The lower heating value (LHV) of the briquettes ranged from 10.26 MJ kg -1 to 16.60 MJ kg -1 depending on the type of vegetable waste. The gasification of the briquettes was carried out in an open core downdraft gasifier, which resulted in syngas with a calorific value of 4.71 MJ Nm -3 at the gasification temperature between 889°C and 1011°C. A spark ignition, internal combustion engine was run on syngas and could generate a maximum load up to 10 kW e . The cold gas efficiency and the hot gas efficiency of the gasifier were measured at 74.11% and 79.87%, respectively. Energy recovery from the organic vegetable waste was possible through a thermochemical conversion route such as briquetting and subsequent gasification and recovery of the fuel for small-scale power generation.

  13. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  14. An Energy Efficient Hydraulic Winch Drive Concept Based on a Speed-variable Switched Differential Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Andersen, Torben O.; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2017-01-01

    controls. Such solutions are typically constituted by many and rather expensive components, and are furthermore often suffering from low frequency dynamics. In this paper an alternative solution is proposed for winch drive operation, which is based on the so-called speed-variable switched differential pump......, originally designed for direct drive of hydraulic differential cylinders. This concept utilizes three pumps, driven by a single electric servo drive. The concept is redesigned for usage in winch drives, driven by flow symmetric hydraulic motors and single directional loads as commonly seen in e.g. active...... heave compensation applications. A general drive configuration approach is presented, along with a proper control strategy and design. The resulting concept is evaluated when applied for active heave compensation. Results demonstrate control performance on level with conventional valve solutions...

  15. Advanced drive package saves energy. Synchronous reluctance motor with frequency converter; Energiesparpaket der Zukunft. Synchronreluktanzmotor und Frequenzumrichter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donabauer, Fred [ABB Automation Products GmbH, Ladenburg (Germany); Lendenmann, Heinz [ABB AB, Vaesteras (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    The drive package consisting of a synchronous reluctance motor and a frequency converters with Direct Torque Control (DTC) reaches a high level of efficiency and can make a substantial contribution to energy saving in many drive applications. The motor needs no permanent magnets or excitation system. The synchronous reluctance motor is up to two sizes smaller than an induction motor with a similar output and its power density is up to 40% higher than that of an induction motor. A frequency converter with DTC enables exact speed control without requiring an encoder. (orig.)

  16. Experimental study of enhancing heating performance of the air-source heat pump by using a novel heat recovery device designed for reusing the energy of the compressor shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bi; Jian, Qifei; Luo, Lizhong; Zhao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel heat recovery device was designed and tested. • Aiming at avoiding liquid slugging in cold areas. • Recovery of the waste energy of compressor housing. • Refrigerant is heated with the energy recovered before it is sucked into the compressor. • Requires no extra power while the recovery system is operating. - Abstract: A novel heat recovery device designed to recover the heat that is released from the outer surface of heat pump compressors, and to enhance the performance of heat pumps in cold areas was made and tested in this study. The novel heat recovery device consists of three fundamental units: a heat absorption unit, a heat emission unit and heat pipes. An amount of work focused on recovering the heat of compressors through oil system, but few studies concentrated on the housing. The main advantage of the heat recovery device is no need for extra energy consumption for its only driving force is the temperature difference between the compressor shell and the working fluid inside the suction line. The experimental results were obtained from a series of tests with a R410A air-source heat pump. Effects of the device are analyzed with respect of the suction temperature, temperature distribution among the housing, input power and exergy destruction. Moreover, the impact on the heating capacity is also discussed. Further, direction for improvement is also given based on the analysis.

  17. Analyzing driving forces behind changes in energy vulnerability of Spanish electricity generation through a Divisia index-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.; Moreno, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose and develop the LMDI approach to factorize changes in electricity bill vulnerability. • Spanish vulnerability (1995–2011) markedly grew mainly by increasing gas dependence. • Fuel price increase and growing importance of electricity damage energy security. • Energy intensity advances & fuel diversification: insufficient to drive vulnerability. • Main recommendation: enhance internal energy market and common external EU strategy. - Abstract: High energy dependence on fossil raises vulnerability concerns about security of supply and energy cost. This research examines the impact of high dependence of imported fuels for power generation in Spain through the quantification and analysis of the driving forces behind the change in its electricity bill. Following logarithmic mean Divisia indexes approach, we present and perform a new method that enables a complete decomposition of changes in electricity vulnerability into contributions from several drivers. In fact, we identify five predefined factors behind the variations in vulnerability in Spain during the 1998–2011 period: fuel price, average heat rate, fuel dependence, degree of electricity importance and energy intensity. The application of this approach reveals a significant increase in Spanish vulnerability in the last two decades, promoted by increments in fuel price and importance of electricity over the primary energy consumption, but especially by increasing fuel dependence (particularly gas dependence). Therefore, findings mainly advocate for those strategies aimed at reducing Spanish energy dependence. Also those improving thermal efficiency and energy intensity are indicated

  18. Anaerobic digestion of stillage fractions - estimation of the potential for energy recovery in bioethanol plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosg, B; Fuchs, W; Meixner, K; Waltenberger, R; Kirchmayr, R; Braun, R; Bochmann, G

    2013-01-01

    Stillage processing can require more than one third of the thermal energy demand of a dry-grind bioethanol production plant. Therefore, for every stillage fraction occurring in stillage processing the potential of energy recovery by anaerobic digestion (AD) was estimated. In the case of whole stillage up to 128% of the thermal energy demand in the process can be provided, so even an energetically self-sufficient bioethanol production process is possible. For wet cake the recovery potential of thermal energy is 57%, for thin stillage 41%, for syrup 40% and for the evaporation condensate 2.5%. Specific issues for establishing AD of stillage fractions are evaluated in detail; these are high nitrogen concentrations, digestate treatment and trace element supply. If animal feed is co-produced at the bioethanol plant and digestate fractions are to be reused as process water, a sufficient quality is necessary. Most interesting stillage fractions as substrates for AD are whole stillage, thin stillage and the evaporation condensate. For these fractions process details are presented.

  19. Efficiency of energy recovery from waste incineration, in the light of the new Waste Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Mario; Motta, Astrid; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2010-07-01

    This paper deals with a key issue related to municipal waste incineration, which is the efficiency of energy recovery. A strong driver for improving the energy performances of waste-to-energy plants is the recent Waste Framework Directive (Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives), which allows high efficiency installations to benefit from a status of "recovery" rather than "disposal". The change in designation means a step up in the waste hierarchy, where the lowest level of priority is now restricted to landfilling and low efficiency wastes incineration. The so-called "R1 formula" reported in the Directive, which counts for both production of power and heat, is critically analyzed and correlated to the more scientific-based approach of exergy efficiency. The results obtained for waste-to-energy plants currently operating in Europe reveal some significant differences in their performance, mainly related to the average size and to the availability of a heat market (district heating). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery of energy and iron from oily sludge pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Linbo; Han, Jun; He, Xiang; Zhan, Yiqiu; Yu, Fei

    2015-05-01

    In the steel industry, about 0.86 ton of oily sludge is produced for every 1000 tons of rolling steel. Due to the adverse impact on human health and the environment, oily sludge is designated as a hazardous waste in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRT). In this paper, the pyrolysis treatment of oily sludge is studied in a fluidized bed reactor at a temperature range of 400-600 °C. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 59.2% and a minimum energy loss of 19.0% are achieved at 500 °C. The energy consumption of treating 1 kg oily sludge is only 2.4-2.9 MJ. At the same time, the energy of produced oil, gas and solid residue are 20.8, 6.32, and 0.83 MJ, respectively. In particular, it is found that the solid residue contains more than 42% iron oxide, which can be used as the raw material for iron production. Thus, the simultaneous recovery of energy and iron from oil sludge by pyrolysis is feasible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exergy losses of resource recovery from a waste-to-energy plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyzinkarova, Dana; Laner, D.; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2013-01-01

    Metal resources recovered from waste incineration bottom ash (BA) are of lower quality as compared to primary resources, but to date no framework for expressing the quality losses exists. Exergy is a concept that may have the potential to evaluate the resource quality in waste management....... In this study, focusing on recovery from waste-to-energy plants with basic and advanced BA treatment, the goal is to give an indication about quality of selected recovered resources (Fe, Al, and Cu) by means of exergy analysis. Metal flows are modeled through both incineration scenarios, and then chemical....... The results indicate that exergy losses due to mixing are insignificant as compared to chemical exergies of metals in all flows. Total exergy losses for Fe, Al, and Cu recovery in the two WtE systems range from 38% to 90%....

  2. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. → For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. → For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. → For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  3. Energy recovery in SUDS towards smart water grids: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Helena M.; Teyssier, Charlotte; Samora, Irene; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2013-01-01

    The development of a methodology for urban flood adaptation and energy recovery solutions is resting on the concept of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) as a measure to reduce risks of urban flooding while fully utilizing the available resources. Flood drainage systems are infrastructures essential in urban areas, which include retention ponds that can be used as water storage volumes to damp floods and simultaneously to produce energy, constituting innovative solutions to be integrated in future smart water grid′s designs. The consideration of urban flooding as a problem caused by excess water that can be harvested and re-used is expected to provide a comprehensive representation of a water-energy nexus for future urban areas. The study comprises an optimization of energy recovery in SUDS of a small district area of Lisbon down-town through the use of a low-head hydropower converter. The status-quo solution based on a basin catchment for the average expected runoff is analysed, with influence of the tidal backwater effect of the Atlantic Ocean which causes difficulties to the drainage of excess flow. The methodology used to reach the flow damping and the optimized solution for energy production is presented. -- Highlights: •An innovative solution for Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). •Use of retention ponds to reduce risks of urban flooding while producing energy. •Use of recently developed hydropower converters for low heads. •Solution to be integrated in future smart water networks for increasing efficiency. •Water and energy nexus for sustainable operation towards future smart cities

  4. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems. An evaluation based on life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giugliano, Michele; Cernuschi, Stefano; Grosso, Mario; Rigamonti, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the environmental results, integrated with those arising from mass and energy balances, of a research project on the comparative analysis of strategies for material and energy recovery from waste, funded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. The project, involving the cooperation of five University research groups, was devoted to the optimisation of material and energy recovery activities within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. Four scenarios of separate collection (overall value of 35%, 50% without the collection of food waste, 50% including the collection of food waste, 65%) were defined for the implementation of energetic, environmental and economic balances. Two sizes of integrated MSW management system (IWMS) were considered: a metropolitan area, with a gross MSW production of 750,000 t/year and an average province, with a gross MSW production of 150,000 t/year. The environmental analysis was conducted using Life Cycle Assessment methodology (LCA), for both material and energy recovery activities. In order to avoid allocation we have used the technique of the expansion of the system boundaries. This means taking into consideration the impact on the environment related to the waste management activities in comparison with the avoided impacts related to the saving of raw materials and primary energy. Under the hypotheses of the study, both for the large and for the small IWMS, the energetic and environmental benefits are higher than the energetic and environmental impacts for all the scenarios analysed in terms of all the indicators considered: the scenario with 50% separate collection in a drop-off scheme excluding food waste shows the most promising perspectives, mainly arising from the highest collection (and recycling) of all the packaging materials, which is the activity giving the biggest energetic and environmental benefits. Main conclusions of the study in the general field of the

  5. Altered 5-HT2A Receptor Binding after Recovery from Bulimia-Type Anorexia Nervosa: Relationships to Harm Avoidance and Drive for Thinness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailer, Ursula F; Price, Julie C; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Mathis, Chester A; Frank, Guido K; Weissfeld, Lisa; McConaha, Claire W; Henry, Shannan E; Brooks-Achenbach, Sarah; Barbarich, Nicole C; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that a disturbance of serotonin neuronal pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). This study applied positron emission tomography (PET) to investigate the brain serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor, which could contribute to disturbances of appetite and behavior in AN and BN. To avoid the confounding effects of malnutrition, we studied 10 women recovered from bulimia-type AN (REC AN–BN, >1 year normal weight, regular menstrual cycles, no binging, or purging) compared with 16 healthy control women (CW) using PET imaging and a specific 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, [18F]altanserin. REC AN–BN women had significantly reduced [18F]altanserin binding potential relative to CW in the left subgenual cingulate, the left parietal cortex, and the right occipital cortex. [18F]altanserin binding potential was positively related to harm avoidance and negatively related to novelty seeking in cingulate and temporal regions only in REC AN–BN subjects. In addition, REC AN–BN had negative relationships between [18F]altanserin binding potential and drive for thinness in several cortical regions. In conclusion, this study extends research suggesting that altered 5-HT neuronal system activity persists after recovery from bulimia-type AN, particularly in subgenual cingulate regions. Altered 5-HT neurotransmission after recovery also supports the possibility that this may be a trait-related disturbance that contributes to the pathophysiology of eating disorders. It is possible that subgenual cingulate findings are not specific for AN–BN, but may be related to the high incidence of lifetime major depressive disorder diagnosis in these subjects. PMID:15054474

  6. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  7. Energy use and recovery in waste management and implications for accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Thilde; Astrup, Thomas; Ekvall, T.

    2009-01-01

    The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspec...

  8. Driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings: an analysis of energy performance of Swedish buildings, 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglseth, Bente Beckstroem

    2008-06-15

    The building sector is responsible for a substantial part of energy use and green house gas emissions in Europe. This report explores driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings, using the Swedish building sector as a case. The development of energy performance of buildings in Sweden from 2000 until 2006 is explored by applying a threefold understanding of energy performance of buildings: substitution from fossil fuels to renewable energy, conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. Three explanatory approaches are used to analyse driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance: the techno-economic approach stresses the physical aspects of infrastructure and technologies, the institutional approach emphasizes the role of institutional factors, while the regulative approach focuses on formal rules and laws. The study concludes that all factors have promoted substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy, while they have prevented conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. (author). 95 refs

  9. Microbial fuel cells for direct electrical energy recovery from urban wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, A G; Molognoni, D; Dallago, E; Liberale, A; Cella, R; Longoni, P; Pantaleoni, L

    2013-01-01

    Application of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to wastewater treatment for direct recovery of electric energy appears to provide a potentially attractive alternative to traditional treatment processes, in an optic of costs reduction, and tapping of sustainable energy sources that characterizes current trends in technology. This work focuses on a laboratory-scale, air-cathode, and single-chamber MFC, with internal volume of 6.9 L, operating in batch mode. The MFC was fed with different types of substrates. This study evaluates the MFC behaviour, in terms of organic matter removal efficiency, which reached 86% (on average) with a hydraulic retention time of 150 hours. The MFC produced an average power density of 13.2 mW/m(3), with a Coulombic efficiency ranging from 0.8 to 1.9%. The amount of data collected allowed an accurate analysis of the repeatability of MFC electrochemical behaviour, with regards to both COD removal kinetics and electric energy production.

  10. Simultaneous Waste Heat and Water Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gases for Advanced Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dexin [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This final report presents the results of a two-year technology development project carried out by a team of participants sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project is to develop a membrane-based technology to recover both water and low grade heat from power plant flue gases. Part of the recovered high-purity water and energy can be used directly to replace plant boiler makeup water as well as improving its efficiency, and the remaining part of the recovered water can be used for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), cooling tower water makeup or other plant uses. This advanced version Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) with lower capital and operating costs can be applied to existing plants economically and can maximize waste heat and water recovery from future Advanced Energy System flue gases with CO2 capture in consideration, which will have higher moisture content that favors the TMC to achieve higher efficiency.

  11. Integrating Microbial Electrochemical Technology with Forward Osmosis and Membrane Bioreactors: Low-Energy Wastewater Treatment, Energy Recovery and Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2014-06-01

    Wastewater treatment is energy intensive, with modern wastewater treatment processes consuming 0.6 kWh/m3 of water treated, half of which is required for aeration. Considering that wastewater contains approximately 2 kWh/m3 of energy and represents a reliable alternative water resource, capturing part of this energy and reclaiming the water would offset or even eliminate energy requirements for wastewater treatment and provide a means to augment traditional water supplies. Microbial electrochemical technology is a novel technology platform that uses bacteria capable of producing an electric current outside of the cell to recover energy from wastewater. These bacteria do not require oxygen to respire but instead use an insoluble electrode as their terminal electron acceptor. Two types of microbial electrochemical technologies were investigated in this dissertation: 1) a microbial fuel cell that produces electricity; and 2) a microbial electrolysis cell that produces hydrogen with the addition of external power. On their own, microbial electrochemical technologies do not achieve sufficiently high treatment levels. Innovative approaches that integrate microbial electrochemical technologies with emerging and established membrane-based treatment processes may improve the overall extent of wastewater treatment and reclaim treated water. Forward osmosis is an emerging low-energy membrane-based technology for seawater desalination. In forward osmosis water is transported across a semipermeable membrane driven by an osmotic gradient. The microbial osmotic fuel cell described in this dissertation integrates a microbial fuel cell with forward osmosis to achieve wastewater treatment, energy recovery and partial desalination. This system required no aeration and generated more power than conventional microbial fuel cells using ion exchange membranes by minimizing electrochemical losses. Membrane bioreactors incorporate semipermeable membranes within a biological wastewater

  12. Which goals are driving the Energiewende? Making sense of the German Energy Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, Fabian; Pahle, Michael; Flachsland, Christian; Joas, Amani

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Germany agreed a plan to increase the share of renewables in power consumption to 80% by 2050, and in 2011 the decision was taken to phase-out nuclear power by 2022. This policy is now widely known as the “Energiewende”. While many global observers consider this program to be primarily driven by the need to tackle climate change, the precise political goals of the Energiewende are, by and large, unclear. In our study we compiled a list of 14 goals put forward in political debates and conducted a “mapping” survey among more than 50 policy experts. We asked them to prioritize the goals based on their personal views and provide arguments for their rankings in ensuing interviews. Our main findings are as follows: (i) a large majority named climate protection among the top-level goals of the Energiewende; at the same time, around 80% of all participants also identified additional goals; (ii) when asked if the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist, two thirds of the participants agreed, which, when taken with the first finding, demonstrates that the goals and motivations driving the Energiewende are more complex than often assumed. We conclude that for the sake of effective and efficient policies and ever rising climate policy ambition, a public debate and clear specification of the top-level goals are indispensable. - Highlights: •We examine the goals of German energy policy called the “Energiewende”. •We show that policy experts relate up to 14 goals with the Energiewende. •So far the political goals of the Energiewende, and especially their ranking is unclear. •We call for a public debate and a clear specification of the top-level goals of the Energiewende.

  13. Future projections of the Greenland ice sheet energy balance driving the surface melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulations at 25 km resolution are performed over the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, using the regional climate model MAR forced by four RCP scenarios from three CMIP5 global circulation models (GCMs, in order to investigate the projected changes of the surface energy balance (SEB components driving the surface melt. Analysis of 2000–2100 melt anomalies compared to melt results over 1980–1999 reveals an exponential relationship of the GrIS surface melt rate simulated by MAR to the near-surface air temperature (TAS anomalies, mainly due to the surface albedo positive feedback associated with the extension of bare ice areas in summer. On the GrIS margins, the future melt anomalies are preferentially driven by stronger sensible heat fluxes, induced by enhanced warm air advection over the ice sheet. Over the central dry snow zone, the surface albedo positive feedback induced by the increase in summer melt exceeds the negative feedback of heavier snowfall for TAS anomalies higher than 4 °C. In addition to the incoming longwave flux increase associated with the atmosphere warming, GCM-forced MAR simulations project an increase of the cloud cover decreasing the ratio of the incoming shortwave versus longwave radiation and dampening the albedo feedback. However, it should be noted that this trend in the cloud cover is contrary to that simulated by ERA-Interim–forced MAR for recent climate conditions, where the observed melt increase since the 1990s seems mainly to be a consequence of more anticyclonic atmospheric conditions. Finally, no significant change is projected in the length of the melt season, which highlights the importance of solar radiation absorbed by the ice sheet surface in the melt SEB.

  14. Opportunities for Fundamental University-Based Research in Energy and Resource Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, M. D.; Hitzman, M.; Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    In this talk we present, from a university perspective, a few examples of fundamental research needs related to improved energy and resource recovery. One example of such a research need is related to the fact that it is not widely recognized that meeting domestic and worldwide energy needs with renewables such as wind and solar will be materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by renewable technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. Unfortunately, there is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology in the context of securing sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Another option for transitioning away from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system to non-carbon based sources, is geothermal energy - from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in ground source heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. To this end, there is a need for research, development and demonstration in five important areas - estimating the magnitude and distribution of recoverable geothermal resources, establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs the including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co

  15. Assessment of needs and research roadmaps for rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) onboard electric drive buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    In support of the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) Electric Drive Strategic Plan (EDSP), this report assesses state-of-art advances in lithium-ion batteries, ultracapacitors, and related power management and control technologies for the rechargea...

  16. Start-To-End Simulations of the Energy Recovery Linac Prototype FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Gerth, Christopher; Muratori, Bruno; Owen, Hywel; Thompson, Neil R

    2004-01-01

    Daresbury Laboratory is currently building an Energy Recovery Linac Prototype (ERLP) that serves as a testbed for the study of beam dynamics and accelerator technology important for the design and construction of the proposed 4th Generation Light Source (4GLS) project. Two major objectives for the ERLP are the operation of an oscillator infra-red FEL and demonstration of energy recovery from an electron bunch with an energy spread induced by the FEL. In this paper we present start-to-end simulations including the FEL of the ERLP. The beam dynamics in the high-brightness injector, which consists of a DC photocathode gun and a super-conducting booster, have been modelled using the particle tracking code ASTRA. After the main linac, in which the particles are accelerated to 35 MeV, particles have been tracked with the code ELEGANT. The 3D code GENESIS was used to model the FEL interaction with the electron beam. Different modes of operation and their impact on the design of the ERLP are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of an integrated continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor: Wastewater treatment, energy recovery and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiman; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Da; Zhou, Xiangtong; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    A continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor (CSMER) was developed by integrating anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrochemical system (MES). The system was capable of treating high strength artificial wastewater and simultaneously recovering electric and methane energy. Maximum power density of 583±9, 562±7, 533±10 and 572±6 mW m(-2) were obtained by each cell in a four-independent circuit mode operation at an OLR of 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). COD removal and energy recovery efficiency were 87.1% and 32.1%, which were 1.6 and 2.5 times higher than that of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Larger amount of Deltaproteobacteria (5.3%) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens (47%) can account for the better performance of CSMER, since syntrophic associations among them provided more degradation pathways compared to the CSTR. Results demonstrate the CSMER holds great promise for efficient wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of innovations on future energy supply - chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects an increase of global energy demand by one-third during next 20 years together with a change in the global energy mix. A key-influencing factor is a strong expected increase in oil and gas production in the United States driven by 'new' technologies such as hydraulic fracturing. Chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) is another strong growing technology with the potential of a step change innovation, which will help to secure future oil supply by turning resources into reserves. While conventional production methods give access to on average only one-third of original oil in place, the use of surfactants and polymers allows for recovery of up to another third of this oil. In the case of polymer flooding with poly acrylamide, the number of full field implementations has increased in recent years. In the meantime new polymers have been developed to cover previously unmet needs - such polymers can be applied in fields of high salinity and high temperature. Use of surfactants is in an earlier stage, but pilot tests show promising results.

  19. Group traction drive as means to increase energy efficiency of lokomotives of open-pit transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Izmerov, O. V.; Bishutin, S. G.; Kobishchanov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Questions of possible use of a group drive for locomotives of an open-pit transport are considered. The possibility of a significant reduction of traction costs in the case of a combination of a group traction drive with devices for the non-inertial regulation of the coefficient of friction between the wheel and the rail has been shown, and new patentable solutions have been proposed.

  20. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system Vhutshilo Madzivhandilaa, Thokozani... temperature and the thermal efficiency of the plant. The 13th Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� 1. Introduction The IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) is one...

  1. Experimental analysis of energy performance of a ventilated window for heat recovery under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelfeld, David; Svendsen, Svend

    2011-01-01

    balance of the ventilated window and clarified the methodology for thermal performance evaluation. Comparison between windows with and without ventilation using the window-room-ventilation heat balance revealed that a ventilated window can potentially contribute to energy savings. In addition...... transmittance introduced by the ventilation was higher than the effect of heat recovery. Accordingly, the use of the ventilated windows might be most suitable for window unit with low ventilation rates. The results correlated with theoretical calculations in standards and software. However, the concept...

  2. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Free Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    These proceedings collate lectures given at the course on Free Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs (FELsand ERLs), organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held at the Hotel Scandic HamburgEmporio, Hamburg, Germany from 31 May to 10 June 2016, in collaboration with DESY. Following introductorylectures on radiation issues, the basic requirements on linear accelerators and ERLs are discussed. Undulators andthe process of seeding and lasing are then treated in some detail, followed by lectures on various beam dynamicsand controls issues.

  3. Suitability of Synthetic Driving Profiles from Traffic Micro-Simulation for Real-World Energy Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Yunfei; Wood, Eric; Burton, Evan; Gonder, Jeffrey

    2015-10-14

    A shift towards increased levels of driving automation is generally expected to result in improved safety and traffic congestion outcomes. However, little empirical data exists to estimate the impact that automated driving could have on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. In the absence of empirical data on differences between drive cycles from present day vehicles (primarily operated by humans) and future vehicles (partially or fully operated by computers) one approach is to model both situations over identical traffic conditions. Such an exercise requires traffic micro-simulation to not only accurately model vehicle operation under high levels of automation, but also (and potentially more challenging) vehicle operation under present day human drivers. This work seeks to quantify the ability of a commercial traffic micro-simulation program to accurately model real-world drive cycles in vehicles operated primarily by humans in terms of driving speed, acceleration, and simulated fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from models of freeway and arterial facilities near Atlanta, Georgia, are compared to empirical data collected from real-world drivers on the same facilities. Empirical and synthetic drive cycles are then simulated in a powertrain efficiency model to enable comparison on the basis of fuel economy. Synthetic profiles from traffic micro-simulation were found to exhibit low levels of transient behavior relative to the empirical data. Even with these differences, the synthetic and empirical data in this study agree well in terms of driving speed and simulated fuel economy. The differences in transient behavior between simulated and empirical data suggest that larger stochastic contributions in traffic micro-simulation (relative to those present in the traffic micro-simulation tool used in this study) are required to fully capture the arbitrary elements of human driving. Interestingly, the lack of stochastic contributions from models of human drivers

  4. Energy Balance and Performance Indices for Kraft Recovery Boilers; Standardmetod foer beraekning av energibalans oever sodapanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerk, Anders

    2007-09-15

    It has been recognized that different rules exist in calculating energy flows to and from a Recovery boiler. In this report definitions are given with the intention that the branch should adopt a common position in reporting power production for the Swedish system with charge on emission of nitrogen oxides, for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and for the electricity certificate system. Legislation and guidelines are described as also different standards for determination of boiler efficiency. The definition of the liquor heating value is discussed as also the different ways in which an energy balance could be set up. For the Emissions Trading Scheme a literature survey of interpretations made in other countries has been made. The recommendation is to define the heat input as the product of the virgin liquor flow and the net calorific value of virgin liquor. A net calorific value as defined in SS-ISO 1928 is determined in an environment with excess of oxygen and is consequently named net calorific value in oxidizing condition. In a Recovery boiler part of that heat is required for reduction of sulfur and a net calorific value in reducing condition are therefore defined in a branch specific way. The flow of liquor could be calculated using a heat balance based on steam generation. The envelope for that heat balance could be selected as to fit each individual installation; however some general recommendations are given. In reporting energy flow for the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and to EPA it is recommended to use the net calorific value in oxidizing condition. This definition should also be good for reporting to Statistics Sweden, Swedish Forest Industries Federation and for internal use. For reporting to the electricity certificate system the part of the total power production with origin from biofuel should be stated. The heat of reduction is not available for power production and consequently the recommendation is to use the net calorific value in reducing

  5. Energy recovery by pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) in SWRO–PRO integrated processes

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Chun Feng

    2015-11-11

    Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a promising technology to reduce the specific energy consumption of a seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. In this study, it is projected that 25.6-40.7millionkWh/day of energy can be recovered globally, if the brines from SWRO are used as the draw solution and diluted to the seawater level in a PRO system. Detailed integrated SWRO-PRO processes are developed in this study with the option to form a closed-loop SWRO-PRO process that can substantially reduce the pretreatment cost of desalination. The governing mathematical models that describe both the transport phenomena on a module level and the energy flow on a system level are developed to evaluate the performances of the SWRO-PRO processes. The model aims to investigate the performance of the hollow fibers as dilution occurs and provides guidelines on hollow fiber module design and process operation. Determining the dilution factor and the corresponding operating pressure of PRO is the key to optimize the integrated process. The specific energy consumptions of three SWRO-involved processes; namely, (1) SWRO without a pressure exchanger, (2) SWRO with a pressure exchanger, and (3) SWRO with pressure exchangers and PRO are compared. The results show that the specific energy consumptions for the above three processes are 5.51, 1.79 and 1.08kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 25% recovery SWRO plant; and 4.13, 2.27 and 1.14kWh/(m of desalinated water) for a 50% recovery SWRO plant, using either freshwater or wastewater as the feed solution in PRO.

  6. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliopova, Irina, E-mail: irina.kliopova@ktu.lt; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg{sup −1} of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  7. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg −1 of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  8. Artificial Knee Joints Actuators with Energy Recovery Capabilities: A Comparison of Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Alò

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The human knee absorbs more energy than it expends in level ground walking. For this reason it would be useful if the actuation system of a wearable robot for lower limbs was able to recover energy thus improving portability. Presently, we recognize three promising technologies with energy recovery capabilities already available in the literature: the Series Elastic Actuator (SEA, the Clutchable Series Elastic Actuator (C-SEA, and the flywheel Infinitely Variable Transmission (F-IVT actuator. In this paper, a simulation model based comparison of the performance of these actuators is presented. The focus is on two performance indexes: the energy consumed by the electric motor per gait and the peak torque/power requested to the electric motor. Both quantities are related to the portability of the device: the former affects the size of the batteries for a given desired range; the latter affects the size and the weight of the electric motor. The results show that, besides some well-explained limitations of the presented methodology, the C-SEA is the most energy efficient whereas the F-IVT allows cutting down the motor torque/peak power strongly. The analysis also leads to defining how it is possible to improve the F-IVT to achieve a reduction of the energy consumption.

  9. Waste Energy Recovery from Natural Gas Distribution Network: CELSIUS Project Demonstrator in Genoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Borelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy efficiency by the smart recovery of waste energy is the scope of the CELSIUS Project (Combined Efficient Large Scale Integrated Urban Systems. The CELSIUS consortium includes a world-leading partnership of outstanding research, innovation and implementation organizations, and gather competence and excellence from five European cities with complementary baseline positions regarding the sustainable use of energy: Cologne, Genoa, Gothenburg, London, and Rotterdam. Lasting four-years and coordinated by the City of Gothenburg, the project faces with an holistic approach technical, economic, administrative, social, legal and political issues concerning smart district heating and cooling, aiming to establish best practice solutions. This will be done through the implementation of twelve new high-reaching demonstration projects, which cover the most major aspects of innovative urban heating and cooling for a smart city. The Genoa demonstrator was designed in order to recover energy from the pressure drop between the main supply line and the city natural gas network. The potential mechanical energy is converted to electricity by a turboexpander/generator system, which has been integrated in a combined heat and power plant to supply a district heating network. The performed energy analysis assessed natural gas saving and greenhouse gas reduction achieved through the smart systems integration.

  10. Minimizing temperature instability of heat recovery hot water system utilizing optimized thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suamir, I. N.; Sukadana, I. B. P.; Arsana, M. E.

    2018-01-01

    One energy-saving technology that starts gaining attractive for hotel industry application in Indonesia is the utilization of waste heat of a central air conditioning system to heat water for domestic hot water supply system. Implementing the technology for such application at a hotel was found that hot water capacity generated from the heat recovery system could satisfy domestic hot water demand of the hotel. The gas boilers installed in order to back up the system have never been used. The hot water supply, however, was found to be instable with hot water supply temperature fluctuated ranging from 45 °C to 62 °C. The temperature fluctuations reaches 17 °C, which is considered instable and can reduce hot water usage comfort level. This research is aimed to optimize the thermal energy storage in order to minimize the temperature instability of heat recovery hot water supply system. The research is a case study approach based on cooling and hot water demands of a hotel in Jakarta-Indonesia that has applied water cooled chillers with heat recovery systems. The hotel operation with 329 guest rooms and 8 function rooms showed that hot water production in the heat recovery system completed with 5 m3 thermal energy storage (TES) could not hold the hot water supply temperature constantly. The variations of the cooling demand and hot water demands day by day were identified. It was found that there was significant mismatched of available time (hours) between cooling demand which is directly correlated to the hot water production from the heat recovery system and hot water usage. The available TES system could not store heat rejected from the condenser of the chiller during cooling demand peak time between 14.00 and 18.00 hours. The extra heat from the heat recovery system consequently increases the temperature of hot water up to 62 °C. It is about 12 K above 50 °C the requirement hot water temperature of the hotel. In contrast, the TES could not deliver proper

  11. Coronary wave energy: a novel predictor of functional recovery after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Kalpa; Foster, Paul; Guilcher, Antoine; Bandara, Asela; Jogiya, Roy; Lockie, Tim; Chowiencyzk, Phil; Nagel, Eike; Marber, Michael; Redwood, Simon; Plein, Sven; Perera, Divaka

    2013-04-01

    Revascularization after acute coronary syndromes provides prognostic benefit, provided that the subtended myocardium is viable. The microcirculation and contractility of the subtended myocardium affect propagation of coronary flow, which can be characterized by wave intensity analysis. The study objective was to determine in acute coronary syndromes whether early wave intensity analysis-derived microcirculatory (backward) expansion wave energy predicts late viability, defined by functional recovery. Thirty-one patients (58±11 years) were enrolled after non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Regional left ventricular function and late-gadolinium enhancement were assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, before and 3 months after revascularization. The backward-traveling (microcirculatory) expansion wave was derived from wave intensity analysis of phasic coronary pressure and velocity in the infarct-related artery, whereas mean values were used to calculate hyperemic microvascular resistance. Twelve-hour troponin T, left ventricular ejection fraction, and percentage late-gadolinium enhancement mass were 1.35±1.21 µg/L, 56±11%, and 8.4±6.0%, respectively. The infarct-related artery backward-traveling (microcirculatory) expansion wave was inversely correlated with late-gadolinium enhancement infarct mass (r=-0.81; Pwave threshold of 2.8 W m(-2) s(-2)×10(5) predicted functional recovery with sensitivity and specificity of 0.91 and 0.82 (AUC 0.88). Hyperemic microvascular resistance correlated with late-gadolinium enhancement mass (r=0.48; P=0.03) but not left ventricular recovery (r=-0.34; P=0.07). The microcirculation-derived backward expansion wave is a new index that correlates with the magnitude and location of infarction, which may allow for the prediction of functional myocardial recovery. Coronary wave intensity analysis may facilitate myocardial viability assessment during cardiac catheterization.

  12. Energy efficiency improvement of a Kraft process through practical stack gases heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostajeran Goortani, B.; Mateos-Espejel, E.; Moshkelani, M.; Paris, J.

    2011-01-01

    A process scheme for the optimal recovery of heat from stack gases considering energy and technical constraints has been developed and applied to an existing Kraft pulping mill. A system based on a closed loop recirculation of hot oil is used to recover the heat from stack gases and distribute it to the appropriate cold streams. The recovery of heat from stack gases is part of an overall optimization of the Kraft mill. Tools such as Pinch Analysis and exergy analysis are used to evaluate the process streams. The results indicate that 10.8 MW of heat from stack gases can be reused to heat process streams such as the deaerator water, hot water, drying filtrates, and black liquor. A simulation model of the recirculation loop has been developed to determine the specifications of the recovery system. The total heat exchanger surface area required by the system is 3460 m 2 , with a hot oil recirculation temperature of 137 o C. The anticipated total investment is $10.3 M, with a payback time of 1.8 years. - Highlights: → We developed a process design for recovering heat from stack gases in a Kraft mill. → The recovered heat is optimally distributed to the process cold streams. → Heat recovery system has a total surface area of 3500 m 2 without gases condensation. → A reduction of 7 percent in total process steam demand is anticipated. → A total investment of 10.3 M$ is needed with a payback time of less than two years

  13. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  14. Anaerobic digestion and gasification hybrid system for potential energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Zhiyi; Li, Wangliang; Kan, Xiang; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    There is a rapid growing interest in using biomass as an alternative source for clean and sustainable energy production. In this work, a hybrid system was developed to combine anaerobic digestion (AD) and gasification for energy recovery from yard waste and woody biomass. The feasibility of the proposed hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically and the energy efficiency was maximized by varying energy input in the drying process. The experiments were performed in two stages. At the first stage, AD of yard waste was conducted by mixing with anaerobic sludge. At the second stage, co-gasification was added as post-treatment for the AD residue for syngas production. The co-gasification experiments of AD residue and woody biomass were conducted at varying mixing ratios and varying moisture contents of AD residue. Optimal energy efficiency was found to be 70.8% at mixing ratio of 20 wt% AD residue with 30 wt% moisture content. Two kinetic models were then adapted for prediction of biogas produced in AD process and syngas produced in gasification process, respectively. Both experimental and numerical results showed that full utilization of biomass could be realized to produce energy through the combination of these two technologies. - Highlights: • The feasibility of the proposed two-stage hybrid system was validated experimentally and numerically. • The proposed hybrid system could effectively improve the quality of produced gas. • The operating parameters were optimized to improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. • Drying process was found to play an important role in determining overall energy efficiency. • Optimal moisture content of AD residue was investigated for maximizing energy efficiency.

  15. Computational and experimental optimization of the exhaust air energy recovery wind turbine generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaeikia, Seyedsaeed; Ghazali, Nik Nazri Bin Nik; Chong, Wen Tong; Shahizare, Behzad; Izadyar, Nima; Esmaeilzadeh, Alireza; Fazlizan, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying the viability of harvesting wasted energy by exhaust air recovery generator. • Optimizing the design using response surface methodology. • Validation of optimization and computation result by performing experimental tests. • Investigation of flow behaviour using computational fluid dynamic simulations. • Performing the technical and economic study of the exhaust air recovery generator. - Abstract: This paper studies the optimization of an innovative exhaust air recovery wind turbine generator through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. The optimization strategy aims to optimize the overall system energy generation and simultaneously guarantee that it does not violate the cooling tower performance in terms of decreasing airflow intake and increasing fan motor power consumption. The wind turbine rotor position, modifying diffuser plates, and introducing separator plates to the design are considered as the variable factors for the optimization. The generated power coefficient is selected as optimization objective. Unlike most of previous optimizations in field of wind turbines, in this study, response surface methodology (RSM) as a method of analytical procedures optimization has been utilised by using multivariate statistic techniques. A comprehensive study on CFD parameters including the mesh resolution, the turbulence model and transient time step values is presented. The system is simulated using SST K-ω turbulence model and then both computational and optimization results are validated by experimental data obtained in laboratory. Results show that the optimization strategy can improve the wind turbine generated power by 48.6% compared to baseline design. Meanwhile, it is able to enhance the fan intake airflow rate and decrease fan motor power consumption. The obtained optimization equations are also validated by both CFD and experimental results and a negligible deviation in range of 6–8.5% is observed.

  16. Multi-mode energy management strategy for fuel cell electric vehicles based on driving pattern identification using learning vector quantization neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ke; Li, Feiqiang; Hu, Xiao; He, Lin; Niu, Wenxu; Lu, Sihao; Zhang, Tong

    2018-06-01

    The development of fuel cell electric vehicles can to a certain extent alleviate worldwide energy and environmental issues. While a single energy management strategy cannot meet the complex road conditions of an actual vehicle, this article proposes a multi-mode energy management strategy for electric vehicles with a fuel cell range extender based on driving condition recognition technology, which contains a patterns recognizer and a multi-mode energy management controller. This paper introduces a learning vector quantization (LVQ) neural network to design the driving patterns recognizer according to a vehicle's driving information. This multi-mode strategy can automatically switch to the genetic algorithm optimized thermostat strategy under specific driving conditions in the light of the differences in condition recognition results. Simulation experiments were carried out based on the model's validity verification using a dynamometer test bench. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy can obtain better economic performance than the single-mode thermostat strategy under dynamic driving conditions.

  17. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  18. Electron bunch structure in energy recovery linac with high-voltage dc photoelectron gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Saveliev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The internal structure of electron bunches generated in an injector line with a dc photoelectron gun is investigated. Experiments were conducted on the ALICE (accelerators and lasers in combined experiments energy recovery linac at Daresbury Laboratory. At a relatively low dc gun voltage of 230 kV, the bunch normally consisted of two beamlets with different electron energies, as well as transverse and longitudinal characteristics. The beamlets are formed at the head and the tail of the bunch. At a higher gun voltage of 325 kV, the beam substructure is much less pronounced and could be observed only at nonoptimal injector settings. Experiments and computer simulations demonstrated that the bunch structure develops during the initial beam acceleration in the superconducting rf booster cavity and can be alleviated either by increasing the gun voltage to the highest possible level or by controlling the beam acceleration from the gun voltage in the first accelerating structure.

  19. Waste heat recovery system for recapturing energy after engine aftertreatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-06-17

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery (WHR) system including a Rankine cycle (RC) subsystem for converting heat of exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine, and an internal combustion engine including the same. The WHR system includes an exhaust gas heat exchanger that is fluidly coupled downstream of an exhaust aftertreatment system and is adapted to transfer heat from the exhaust gas to a working fluid of the RC subsystem. An energy conversion device is fluidly coupled to the exhaust gas heat exchanger and is adapted to receive the vaporized working fluid and convert the energy of the transferred heat. The WHR system includes a control module adapted to control at least one parameter of the RC subsystem based on a detected aftertreatment event of a predetermined thermal management strategy of the aftertreatment system.

  20. Emittance growth caused by bends in the Los Alamos free-electron laser energy recovery experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experimentally transporting the beam from the wiggler to the decelerators in the energy recovery experiment (ERX) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory free-electron laser was more difficult than expected because of the large initial emittance in the beam. This emittance was apparently caused in an early 60 0 achromatic bend. To get this beam through subsequent bends without wall interception, the quadrupole focusing had to be changed from the design amount; as a result, the emittance grew further. This paper discusses various mechanisms for this emittance growth in the 60 0 bend, including effects caused by path changes in the bend resulting from wake-field-induced energy changes of particles in the beam and examines emittance filters, ranging from a simple aperture near a beam crossover to more complicated telescope schemes designed to regain the original emittance before the 60 0 bend

  1. Heat pipe heat exchanger and its potential to energy recovery in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Yat H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The heat recovery by the heat pipe heat exchangers was studied in the tropics. Heat pipe heat exchangers with two, four, six, and eight numbers of rows were examined for this purpose. The coil face velocity was set at 2 m/s and the temperature of return air was kept at 24°C in this study. The performance of the heat pipe heat exchangers was recorded during the one week of operation (168 hours to examine the performance data. Then, the collected data from the one week of operation were used to estimate the amount of energy recovered by the heat pipe heat exchangers annually. The effect of the inside design temperature and the coil face velocity on the energy recovery for a typical heat pipe heat exchanger was also investigated. In addition, heat pipe heat exchangers were simulated based on the effectiveness-NTU method, and their theoretical values for the thermal performance were compared with the experimental results.

  2. ThermoEnergy Ammonia Recovery Process for Municipal and Agricultural Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex G. Fassbender

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ammonia Recovery Process (ARP is an award-winning, low-cost, environmentally responsible method of recovering nitrogen, in the form of ammonia, from various dilute waste streams and converting it into concentrated ammonium sulfate. The ThermoEnergy Biogas System utilizes the new chemisorption-based ARP to recover ammonia from anaerobically digested wastes. The process provides for optimal biogas production and significantly reduced nitrogen levels in the treated water discharge. Process flows for the ammonia recovery and ThermoEnergy biogas processes are presented and discussed. A comparison with other techniques such as biological nitrogen removal is made. The ARP technology uses reversible chemisorption and double salt crystal precipitation to recover and concentrate the ammonia. The ARP technology was successfully proven in a recent large-scale field demonstration at New York City’s Oakwood Beach Wastewater Treatment Plant, located on Staten Island. This project was a joint effort with Foster Wheeler Environmental Corporation, the Civil Engineering Research Foundation, and New York City Department of Environmental Protection. Independent validated plant data show that ARP consistently recovers up to 99.9% of the ammonia from the city’s centrate waste stream (derived from dewatering of sewage sludge, as ammonium sulfate. ARP technology can reduce the nitrogen (ammonia discharged daily into local bodies of water by municipalities, concentrated animal farming operations, and industry. Recent advances to ARP enhance its performance and economic competitiveness in comparison to stripping or ammonia destruction technologies.

  3. Environmental assessment of alternative treatment schemes for energy and nutrient recovery from livestock manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedizzi, C; Noya, I; Sarli, J; González-García, S; Lema, J M; Moreira, M T; Carballa, M

    2018-04-20

    The application of livestock manure on agricultural land is being restricted due to its significant content of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), leading to eutrophication. At the same time, the growing demand for N and P mineral fertilizers is increasing their production costs and causing the depletion of natural phosphate rock deposits. In the present work, seven technologically feasible treatment schemes for energy (biogas) and nutrient recovery (e.g., struvite precipitation) and/or removal (e.g., partial nitritation/anammox) were evaluated from an environmental perspective. In general, while approaches based solely on energy recovery and use of digestate as fertilizer are commonly limited by community regulations, strategies pursuing the generation of high-quality struvite are not environmentally sound alternatives. In contrast, schemes that include further solid/liquid separation of the digestate improved the environmental profile, and their combination with an additional N-removal stage would lead to the most environmental-friendly framework. However, the preferred scenario was identified to be highly dependent on the particular conditions of each site, integrating environmental, social and economic criteria. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of direct expansion configurations for electricity production by LNG cold energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Alessandro; Casarosa, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, after a brief review of the perspectives of the various schemes proposed for electricity generation from the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), a detailed analysis of two particular direct expansion solutions is proposed. The purpose is to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered with the aim of electricity production, using configurations with direct expansion. The analysis developed resorting to a simplified thermodynamic model, shows that using a direct expansion configurations with multistage turbine, values of power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ for each kg of natural gas that flows through the plant) can be obtained. The development of a direct expansion plant with multistage turbine and internal heat recovery systems could permit to approach the production of more than 160 kJ for each kg of flowing liquefied natural gas. Considering values of the mass flow rate typical of LNG gas stations (e.g. 70 kg/s); this corresponds to an output power ranging between 8.3 MW and 11.4 MW. - Highlights: • Recovery of the cold energy contained in Liquefied Natural Gas. • Thermodynamic analysis of systems for electricity generation in regasification. • Direct expansion solutions with multistage expansion. • Comparison of direct expansion solutions with conventional ORC systems. • Power output in conditions typical of existing LNG regasification terminals

  5. Thermodynamic and thermoeconomic analyses of seawater reverse osmosis desalination plant with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Emam, Rami Salah; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a RO (reverse osmosis) desalination plant at different seawater salinity values. An energy recovery Pelton turbine is integrated with the desalination plant. Thermodynamic analysis, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, as well as a thermo-based economic analysis is performed for the proposed system. The effects of the system components irreversibilities on the economics and cost of product water are parametrically studied through the thermoeconomic analysis. The exergy analysis shows that large irreversibilities occur in the high pressure pump and in the RO module. Both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of the overall system are investigated under different operating parameters. For the base case; the system achieves an exergy efficiency of 5.82%. The product cost is estimated to be 2.451 $/m 3 and 54.2 $/MJ when source water with salinity of 35,000 ppm is fed to the system. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analyses are performed for SWRO with energy recovery. • Parametric studies are done to study effects of operating conditions on performance. • Different seawater sources with different salinity values are tested. • At base case, plant exergy efficiency is 5.82% and product cost is 2.451 $/m 3

  6. Potential of Electronic Plastic Waste as a Source of Raw Material and Energy Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazli Othman; Nor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Lariyah Mohd Sidek

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the production of electronic equipment is one of the fastest growing industrial activities in this world. The increase use of plastic in this sector resulted in an increase of electronic plastic waste. Basically, electronic plastic material contains various chemical elements which act as a flame retardant when electronic equipment is operated. In general, the concept of recycling electronic plastic waste should be considered in order to protect the environment. For this purpose, research has been conducted to different resins of electronic plastic waste to identify the potential of electronic plastic waste as a source of raw material and energy recovery. This study was divided into two part for example determination of physical and chemical characteristics of plastic resins and calculation of heating value for plastic resins based on Dulong formula. Results of this research show that the average calorific value of electronic waste is 30,872.42 kJ/ kg (7,375 kcal/ kg). The emission factor analysis showed that the concentration of emission value that might occur during waste management activities is below the standard set by the Environment Quality Act 1974. Basically, this research shows that electronic plastic waste has the potential to become the source of raw material and energy recovery. (author)

  7. Compatibility analysis of material and energy recovery in a regional solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ying-Hsi; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2003-01-01

    The rising prices of raw materials and concerns about energy conservation have resulted in an increasing interest in the simultaneous recovery of materials and energy from waste streams. Compatibility exists for several economic, environmental, and managerial reasons. Installing an on-site or off-site presorting facility before an incinerator could be a feasible alternative to achieve both goals if household recycling programs cannot succeed in local communities. However, the regional impacts of presorting solid waste on a waste-to-energy facility remain unclear because of the inherent complexity of solid waste compositions and properties over different areas. This paper applies a system-based approach to assess the impact of installing a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) process before an incinerator. Such an RDF process, consisting of standard unit operations of shredding, magnetic separation, trommel screening, and air classification, might be useful for integrating the recycling and presorting efforts for a large-scale municipal incinerator from a regional sense. An optimization modeling analysis is performed to characterize such integration potential so that the optimal size of the RDF process and associated shipping patterns for flow control can be foreseen. It aims at exploring how the waste inflows with different rates of generation, physical and chemical compositions, and heating values collected from differing administrative districts can be processed by either a centralized presorting facility or an incinerator to meet both the energy recovery and throughput requirements. A case study conducted in Taipei County, which is one of the most densely populated metropolitan areas in Taiwan, further confirms the application potential of such a cost-benefit analysis.

  8. Energy-efficient control of a multi-section supercapacitor power supply of an electric drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozzhechkov Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for synthesizing the control laws of a multi-section supercapacitor power supply of an electric drive is developed. The synthesized control law for an electric drive realizes the prescribed motion and minimizes the required capacitance of the power source. It is achieved through optimal disconnection and connection to the power line of the drive at designated times of one of the power supply sections. Reduction of the required capacitance of the power supply is achieved through a fuller discharge of some of its sections in motion conditions requiring a low level of electrical voltage and saving high voltage in other sections for the respective motion conditions. A mathematical formulation of the problem and a method of its solution is proposed. An example of the implementation of the proposed method is considered.

  9. Energy Efficient Control of High Speed IPMSM Drives - A Generalized PSO Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GECIC, M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized particle swarm optimization (GPSO algorithm was applied to the problems of optimal control of high speed low cost interior permanent magnet motor (IPMSM drives. In order to minimize the total controllable electrical losses and to increase the efficiency, the optimum current vector references are calculated offline based on GPSO for the wide speed range and for different load conditions. The voltage and current limits of the drive system and the variation of stator inductances are all included in the optimization method. The stored optimal current vector references are used during the real time control and the proposed algorithm is compared with the conventional high speed control algorithm, which is mostly voltage limit based. The computer simulations and experimental results on 1 kW low cost high speed IPMSM drive are discussed in details.

  10. International perspective on energy recovery from landfill gas. A joint report of the IEA Bioenergy Programme and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-02-01

    This report presents a review of the current status of energy recovery from landfill gas. Utilisation, collection and treatment technologies are examined, and ten case studies of landfill gas utilisation are given. Non-technical issues such as barrier to energy recovery from landfill gas, landfill gas generation, and landfill gas emissions are addressed, and recommendations are outlined. The potential market for landfill gas, and market opportunities are considered. Details of the objectives of the International Energy Agency (IEA), the IEA Bioenergy Programme, and the IEA CADDET Renewable Energy Technologies Programme are included in appendices. (UK)

  11. Impact of the resource conservation and recovery act on energy facility siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevepaugh, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 is a multifaceted approach to the management of both solid and hazardous waste. The focus of this research is on the RCRA mandated proposed regulations for the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities. This research is an analysis of the interactions among hazardous waste disposal facilities, energy supply technologies and land use issues. This study addresses the impact of RCRA hazardous waste regulations in a descriptive and exploratory manner. A literature and legislative review, interviews and letters of inquiry were synthesized to identify the relationship between RCRA hazardous waste regulations and the siting of selected energy supply technologies. The results of this synthesis were used to determine if and how RCRA influences national land use issues. It was found that the interaction between RCRA and the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities required by energy supply technologies will impact national land use issues. All energy supply technologies reviewed generate hazardous waste. The siting of industrial functions such as energy supply facilities and hazardous waste disposal facilities will influence future development patterns. The micro-level impacts from the siting of hazardous waste disposal facilities will produce a ripple effect on land use with successive buffer zones developing around the facilities due to the interactive growth of the land use sectors

  12. Techno-economic evaluation of a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery, electrical heater and solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Özyoğurtçu, Gamze; Mobedi, Moghtada; Özerdem, Barış

    2014-01-01

    The energy consumed to condition fresh air is considerable, particularly for the buildings such as cinema, theatre or gymnasium saloons. The aim of the present study is to design a ventilation system assisted with exhaust air heat recovery unit, electrical heater and stored solar energy, then to make an economical analysis based on life cycle cost (LCC) to find out its payback period. The system is able to recover thermal energy of exhaust air, store solar energy during the sunlight period an...

  13. Energy recovery storage systems in electrical vehicles with batteries; Tecnicas de armazenamiento de energia em veiculos electricos a baterias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, M.; Maia, J.; Foito, D.

    2004-07-01

    In this paper are presented three energy recovery storage systems that can be used in electrical vehicles with batteries. The first storage system uses ultra capacitors that is electrical energy storage, the second system is based on superconductivity magnetic storage, and the third system uses on kinetic energy stored in flywheels. It is also presented the power electronics needed to perform the energy systems. (Author)

  14. Investigation of the LH wave energy conversion and current drive efficiency in the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.Y.; Wan, B.N.; Shi, Y.J.; Lin, S.Y.; Hu, L.Q.; Asif, M.

    2005-01-01

    Lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) plasmas in the presence of DC electric filed have been investigated based on Karney-Fisch theory in the HT-7 tokamak. The relatively small scatter in the experimental data with various values of waveguide phasing and lower hybrid power, when plotted in the Karney-Fisch diagram, confirms that a reasonable theoretical interpretation is possible for the HT-7 data. The full non-inductively current drive efficiencies are obtained by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical curve. The efficiency strongly depends on the lower hybrid wave phase velocity

  15. Topology Comparison of Superconducting Generators for 10-MW Direct-Drive Wind Turbines: Cost of Energy Based

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at finding feasible electromagnetic designs of superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) for a 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine. Since a lower levelized cost of energy (LCoE) increases the feasibility of SCSGs in this application, 12 generator topologies are compared regarding...... their LCoE in a simplified form of levelized equipment cost of energy (LCoE$_{\\text{eq}}$). MgB$_2$ wires are employed in the field winding. Based on the current unit cost and critical current density capability of the MgB $_2$ wire at 20 K, the topologies with more iron have a much lower LCo...

  16. Harnessing big data for estimating the energy consumption and driving range of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Kaplan, Sigal; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    type; (iv) weather conditions. The results of the analysis measure the mean ECR of BEVs at 0.183 kW h/km, underline a 34% increase in ECR and a 25% decrease in driving range in the winter with respect to the summer, and suggest the electricity tariff for BEVs to be cost efficient with respect...

  17. Networks of entrepreneurs driving the Triple Helix: two cases of the Dutch energy system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werker, C.; Ubacht, J.; Ligtvoet, A.

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurs are often envisioned as small private start-up firms operating against all odds. Here, we investigate how in the context of the Triple Helix various entrepreneurs form communities and drive institutional and technological change. To theoretically shape a socialized view of

  18. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano [University of Trento, Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Insubria University of Varese, Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications.

  19. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Villotti, Stefano; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications

  20. Potentials and limitations of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulenburg, Hong Giang

    2012-11-01

    The major aim of study is the evaluation of the potentials and limitations of energy recovery from MSW in Vietnam through a comparative assessment of the climate change impacts (via CO2-eq.) among waste-to-energy (WtE) options in order to select the suitable technique for waste management. Recovered energy by these waste management options is assumed to replace the energy from fossil fuels-based sources, including three power possibilities. A survey on national legal and institutional framework for solid waste management was therefore undertaken to point out the strength and weakness and suggest the developing and improvement policies in this field. A view on economic benefit is also one important objective and it represented in terms of ''CO2- Avoidance Cost'' among different investment options. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out with regard to the optimum technical parameters and the change of energy mix in 2020-2030 in order to assess the variations of overall GHGs impacts in Vietnam. Due to waste composition, the energy mix and legal framework on solid waste management at national level are not robust, therefore the outcomes of this study do not aim to select the best waste management approach or to pose the Vietnamese waste managers or decision makers under pressure. Instead, it endeavors to indicate the potential of GHGs savings and the economic benefits that could be gained by introducing WtE practices. It also aims to suggest the improvement of national legal framework in solid waste management and energy development plan in order to transfer the technical knowledge and experience on WtE technology from developed countries to Vietnam.

  1. Nutritional Improvement and Energy Intake Are Associated with Functional Recovery in Patients after Cerebrovascular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Maria; Maeda, Keisuke; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Shinta; Tanaka, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition affects the activities of daily living (ADLs) in convalescent patients with cerebrovascular disorders. We investigated the relationship between nutritional improvement, energy intake at admission, and recovery of ADLs. We evaluated 67 patients with cerebrovascular disorders admitted to our rehabilitation hospital between April 2013 and April 2015. These patients received interventions from the rehabilitation nutritional support team according to the following criteria: weight loss of 2 kg or more and body mass index of 19 kg/m(2) or lower. Exclusion criteria included a body mass index of 25 kg/m(2) or higher, duration of intervention of less than 14 days, or transfer to an acute care hospital because of clinical deterioration. We assessed nutritional status using the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and ADL using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, FIM gain, and FIM efficiency. The mean age of the patients was 78.7 ± 8.0 years. The numbers of patients in each category of cerebrovascular disorder were 39 with cerebral infarction, 16 with intracerebral hemorrhage, 8 with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 4 others. Compared with the counterpart group, the group with an improvement in GNRI had a greater gain in FIM (median 17 and 20, respectively; P = .036) and a higher FIM efficiency (.14 and .22, respectively; P = .020). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that an improvement in GNRI, increasing energy intake at admission, and intracerebral hemorrhage were associated independently with greater FIM efficiency. This study suggested that nutritional improvement and energy intake at admission are associated with recovery of ADL after cerebrovascular disorders. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy efficient drives and control engineering. Intelligent machine and plant concepts for manufacturing; Energieeffiziente Antriebs- und Steuerungstechnik. Intelligente Maschinen- und Anlagenkonzepte fuer die Fertigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Christian; Frank, Klaus; Haack, Steffen; Schemm, Eberhardt; Wittschen, Wiebke

    2010-07-01

    The book discusses the potential of intelligent and energy-efficient drive and control concepts. It shows that energy efficient components - pumps, motors, or speed-controlled pump drives - may result in a double-digit reduction of energy consumption. The effect is even more pronounced when the system is opotimized as a whole. If energy-efficient components are combined so that a direct energy flow will result, energy will be converted on demand, i.e. the right amount at the right time. The book also discusses how these design options can be applied in the various phases of the machine life cycle.

  3. Energy expenditure in children with cerebral palsy and moderate / severe malnutrition during nutritional recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Contreras, Andrea A; Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M; Romero-Velarde, Enrique; Ibarra-Gutierrez, Ana I; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting energy expenditure (REE) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and moderate or severe malnutrition during nutritional recovery. In an intervention study, thirteen subjects with CP (10 females and 3 males with a mean age of 9y11m ± 2y3m), level V of the Gross Motor Function Classification System and moderate or severe malnutrition were included. Eight were fed by nasogastric tube and five by gastrostomy. They were compared with 57 healthy participants (31 females and 26 males with mean age of 8y7m ± 10m). Anthropometric measurements, body composition and energy expenditure by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and indirect calorimetry (IC) were performed in both groups. TEE and REE were higher in healthy children than in children with CP in kcal/d and kcal/cm/d but were lower in kcal/kg/d (p children with CP produced a significant increase in energy expenditure. TEE and REE, in children with CP, are lower than in healthy children. Estimating the REE in children with CP and malnutrition is better performed in kcal/kg/d than in kcal/cm/d. Fat-free mass (FFM) is a good predictor of the REE in healthy children and children with CP. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy recovery from waste incineration: Assessing the importance of district heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruergaard, T.; Christensen, T.H.; Astrup, T.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration contributes with 20% of the heat supplied to the more than 400 district heating networks in Denmark. In evaluation of the environmental consequences of this heat production, the typical approach has been to assume that other (fossil) fuels could be saved on a 1:1 basis (e.g. 1 GJ of waste heat delivered substitutes for 1 GJ of coal-based heat). This paper investigates consequences of waste-based heat substitution in two specific Danish district heating networks and the energy-associated interactions between the plants connected to these networks. Despite almost equal electricity and heat efficiencies at the waste incinerators connected to the two district heating networks, the energy and CO 2 accounts showed significantly different results: waste incineration in one network caused a CO 2 saving of 48 kg CO 2 /GJ energy input while in the other network a load of 43 kg CO 2 /GJ. This was caused mainly by differences in operation mode and fuel types of the other heat producing plants attached to the networks. The paper clearly indicates that simple evaluations of waste-to-energy efficiencies at the incinerator are insufficient for assessing the consequences of heat substitution in district heating network systems. The paper also shows that using national averages for heat substitution will not provide a correct answer: local conditions need to be addressed thoroughly otherwise we may fail to assess correctly the heat recovery from waste incineration.

  5. Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires: A Sustainable Option for Small Islands like Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico generates and disposes nearly five million/year scrap tires (ST, of which 4.2% is recycled and 80% is exported. The Island has one of the world highest electrical service tariff ($0.28 kWh, because of its dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. The Government has not considered ST for electricity production, despite more than 13,000 ST are generated daily, and paradoxically exported for that purpose. Theoretically, if ST recycling increases to 10% and assuming that the caloric value of ST be 33 MJ/kg, it was estimated that scrap tires processed with pyrolysis can supply annually about 379 MWh, a potential value that shall not be unnoticed. This paper is a literature review to describe the legal, technical, and economic framework for the viability of ST for power generation in Puerto Rico using pyrolysis, the most recommended process for ST energy recovery. Data of ST from Puerto Rico was used to model the potential of ST for pyrolytic energy conversion. The herein article is intended to invite other insular countries and territories, to join efforts with the academic and scientific community, and with the energy generation sector, to validate ST as a sustainable option for energy generation.

  6. ER@CEBAF: A test of 5-pass energy recovery at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogacz, S. A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Douglas, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Dubbe, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Hutton, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Michalski, T. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pilat, F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Roblin, Y. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Satogata, T. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Spata, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, C. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tiefenback, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hao, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Korysko, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roser, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tsoupas, N. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Jefferson Lab personnel have broad expertise in the design, commissioning, and operation of multiple energy recovery linacs (ERLs): the CEBAF Front-End Test (early 1990s), CEBAF-ER (2003), the IR Free Electron Laser (FEL) Demo, the IR FEL Upgrade, and the UV FEL Driver (1997-2014). Continued development of this core competency has led to this collaborative proposal to explore the forefronts of ERL technology at high energy in a unique expansion of CEBAF capability to a 5-pass ERL with negligible switchover time and programmatic impact to the CEBAF physics program. Such a capability would enable world-class studies of open issues in high-energy ERL beam dynamics that are relevant to future facilities such as electron-ion colliders (EICs). This proposal requests support from the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee to seek funding for hardware installation, and a prospective 12 days of beam time circa Fall 2018 for commissioning this high-energy multi-pass ERL experiment in CEBAF.

  7. Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schout, Gilian; Drijver, Benno; Gutierrez-Neri, Mariene; Schotting, Ruud

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

  8. Advanced Energy and Water Recovery Technology from Low Grade Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dexin Wang

    2011-12-19

    The project has developed a nanoporous membrane based water vapor separation technology that can be used for recovering energy and water from low-temperature industrial waste gas streams with high moisture contents. This kind of exhaust stream is widely present in many industrial processes including the forest products and paper industry, food industry, chemical industry, cement industry, metal industry, and petroleum industry. The technology can recover not only the sensible heat but also high-purity water along with its considerable latent heat. Waste heats from such streams are considered very difficult to recover by conventional technology because of poor heat transfer performance of heat-exchanger type equipment at low temperature and moisture-related corrosion issues. During the one-year Concept Definition stage of the project, the goal was to prove the concept and technology in the laboratory and identify any issues that need to be addressed in future development of this technology. In this project, computational modeling and simulation have been conducted to investigate the performance of a nanoporous material based technology, transport membrane condenser (TMC), for waste heat and water recovery from low grade industrial flue gases. A series of theoretical and computational analyses have provided insight and support in advanced TMC design and experiments. Experimental study revealed condensation and convection through the porous membrane bundle was greatly improved over an impermeable tube bundle, because of the membrane capillary condensation mechanism and the continuous evacuation of the condensate film or droplets through the membrane pores. Convection Nusselt number in flue gas side for the porous membrane tube bundle is 50% to 80% higher than those for the impermeable stainless steel tube bundle. The condensation rates for the porous membrane tube bundle also increase 60% to 80%. Parametric study for the porous membrane tube bundle heat transfer

  9. Safe Disposal of Medical and Plastic Waste and Energy Recovery Possibilities using Plasma Pyrolysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nema, S.K.; Mukherjee, S.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis and plasma gasification are emerging technologies that can provide complete solution to organic solid waste disposal. In these technologies plasma torch is used as a workhorse to convert electrical energy into heat energy. These technologies dispose the organic waste in an environment friendly manner. Thermal plasma provides extremely high temperature in oxygen free or controlled air environment which is required for pyrolysis or gasification reactions. Plasma based medical waste treatment is an extremely complex technology since it has to contend with extreme temperatures and corrosion-prone environment, complex pyro-chemistry resulting in toxic and dangerous products, if not controlled. In addition, one has to take care of complete combustion of pyrolyzed gases followed by efficient scrubbing to meet the emission standards set by US EPA and Central Pollution Control Board, India. In medical waste, high volume and low packing density waste with nonstandard composition consisting of a variety of plastics, organic material and liquids used to be present. The present paper describes the work carried out at Institute for Plasma Research, India, on plasma pyrolysis of (i) medical waste disposal and the results of emission measurement done at various locations in the system and (ii) energy recovery from cotton and plastic waste. The process and system development has been done in multiple steps. Different plasma pyrolysis models were made and each subsequent model was improved upon to meet stringent emission norms and to make the system energy efficient and user friendly. FCIPT, has successfully demonstrated up to 50 kg/ hr plasma pyrolysis systems and have installed plasma pyrolysis facilities at various locations in India . Plastic Waste disposal along with energy recovery in 15 kg/ hr model has also been developed and demonstrated at FCIPT. In future, this technology has great potential to dispose safely different waste streams such as biomass

  10. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management

  11. Department of Energy plan for recovery and utilization of nuclear byproducts from defense wastes. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear wastes from the defense production cycle contain many uniquely useful, intrinsically valuable, and strategically important materials. These materials have a wide range of known and potential applications in food technology, agriculture, energy, public health, medicine, industrial technology, and national security. Furthermore, their removal from the nuclear waste stream can facilitate waste management and yield economic, safety, and environmental advantages in the management and disposal of the residual nuclear wastes that have no redemptive value. This document is the program plan for implementing the recovery and beneficial use of these valuable materials. An Executive Summary of this document, DOE/DP-0013, Vol. 1, January 1983, is available. Program policy, goals and strategy are stated in Section 2. Implementation tasks, schedule and funding are detailed in Section 3. The remaining five sections and the appendixes provide necessary background information to support these two sections. Section 4 reviews some of the unique properties of the individual byproduct materials and describes both demonstrated and potential applications. The amounts of byproduct materials that are available now for research and demonstration purposes, and the amounts that could be recovered in the future for expanded applications are detailed in Section 5. Section 6 describes the effects byproduct recovery and utilization have on the management and final disposal of nuclear wastes. The institutional issues that affect the recovery, processing and utilization of nuclear byproducts are discussed in Section 7. Finally, Section 8 presents a generalized mathematical process by which applications can be evaluated and prioritized (rank-ordered) to provide planning data for program management.

  12. Cost-effective treatment of swine wastes through recovery of energy and nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Adib; Aponte-Morales, Veronica; Wang, Meng; Dilbeck, Merrill; Lahav, Ori; Zhang, Qiong; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Ergas, Sarina J

    2017-11-01

    Wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are challenging to treat because they are high in organic matter and nutrients. Conventional swine waste treatment options in the U.S., such as uncovered anaerobic lagoons, result in poor effluent quality and greenhouse gas emissions, and implementation of advanced treatment introduces high costs. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance and life cycle costs of an alternative system for treating swine CAFO waste, which recovers valuable energy (as biogas) and nutrients (N, P, K + ) as saleable fertilizers. The system uses in-vessel anaerobic digestion (AD) for methane production and solids stabilization, followed by struvite precipitation and ion exchange (IX) onto natural zeolites (chabazite or clinoptilolite) for nutrient recovery. An alternative approach that integrated struvite recovery and IX into a single reactor, termed STRIEX, was also investigated. Pilot- and bench-scale reactor experiments were used to evaluate the performance of each stage in the treatment train. Data from these studies were integrated into a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) to assess the cost-effectiveness of various process alternatives. Significant improvement in water quality, high methane production, and high nutrient recovery (generally over 90%) were observed with both the AD-struvite-IX process and the AD-STRIEX process. The LCCA showed that the STRIEX system can provide considerable financial savings compared to conventional systems. AD, however, incurs high capital costs compared to conventional anaerobic lagoons and may require larger scales to become financially attractive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic steel: The synergy of stacking fault energy and chemical driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moallemi, M., E-mail: m.moallemi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fould Institute of Technology, Fouladshahr, Isfahan, 8491663763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, A.; Baghbadorani, H. Samaei; Nezhadfar, P. Dastranjy [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the correlation of stacking fault energy's synergy and driving force in the formation of deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic stainless steel. The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic induction techniques. The kinetics of the martensite formation versus applied strain was evaluated through the sigmoidal model. It was shown that the volume fraction of ά-martensite is closely related to the driving force/SFE ratio of the alloy. The results also showed that the martensite content is similar in both XRD and magnetic methods and the applied sigmoidal model was consistent with the obtained experimental data.

  14. A highly efficient Francis turbine designed for energy recovery in cooling towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqing Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In China, cooling water entering cooling towers still retains surplus pressure between 39,240 and 147,150 Pa. In order to utilize this wasted energy, it is suggested that the surplus water energy can be harnessed to drive a type of hydroturbine installed in the inner platform of cooling tower and make the fan rotate via its coupled shafts. However, conventional hydroturbines are not suited for this job because of their low efficiency or unmatched rotating speed with that of the fan under the operating conditions of cooling towers. In this article, according to the requirements of turbine work environment in cooling towers, a new type of hydroturbine, Francis turbine with ultra-low specific speed (ns  = 50 m.kW, was designed to replace the fan motor in a cooling tower. Primarily, the shape, position, and number of runner blades were designed and optimized through theoretical analyses and computational fluid dynamics simulations. Additionally, metal elliptical volute and single-row ring guide vanes were applied to scale down the structural dimensions. Finally, the optimal scheme of the new Francis turbine was proven to have a high efficiency of 88% and good operation stability through testing of a physical model and can achieve the goal of harvesting renewable energy in the cooling tower.

  15. Energy Recovery Hydropower: Prospects for Off-Setting Electricity Costs for Agricultural, Municipal, and Industrial Water Providers and Users; July 2017 - September 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy; Telluride, CO (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Energy recovery hydropower is one of the most cost-effective types of new hydropower development because it is constructed utilizing existing infrastructure, and it is typically able to complete Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) review in 60 days. Recent changes in federal and state policy have supported energy recovery hydropower. In addition, some states have developed programs and policies to support energy recovery hydropower, including resource assessments, regulatory streamlining initiatives, and grant and loan programs to reduce project development costs. This report examines current federal and state policy drivers for energy recovery hydropower, reviews market trends, and looks ahead at future federal resource assessments and hydropower reform legislation.

  16. Energy metrics for driving competitiveness of countries: Energy weakness magnitude, GDP per barrel and barrels per capita

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Energy metrics is the development of a whole new theoretical framework for the conception and measurement of energy and economic system performances, energy efficiency and productivity improvements with important political economy implications consistent with the best use of all natural and economic resources. The purpose of this research is to present some vital energy indicators based on magnitude and scale of energy weakness, GDP per barrel of oil that is an indicator of energy productivity and barrels (of oil) per capita that is an indicator of energy efficiency. Energy metrics can support the monitoring of energy and economic system performances in order to design effective energy strategy and political economy interventions focused on the 'competitive advantage' increase of countries in modern economies.

  17. CAS on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs in Hamburg

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and DESY held a jointly-organised specialised course on Free-Electron Lasers and Energy Recovery Linacs (FELs and ERLs) in Hamburg, Germany, from 31 May to 10 June 2016.      The course was held in the Hotel Scandic Emporio in Hamburg and was attended by 68 participants of 13 nationalities, coming from countries as far away as China, Iran and Japan. The intensive programme comprised 44 lectures and one seminar. Following introductory lectures on electromagnetism, relativity and synchrotron radiation issues, the basic requirements of linacs and ERLs were discussed. Detailed lectures on the theory of FEL science followed. Undulators and the process of lasing and seeding were covered in some detail along with lectures on various beam dynamics and beam control issues. Case studies, for which seven hours were allocated, completed the academic programme. For these, the students were divided into small groups and tasked with completing the basic desig...

  18. Combustion of used tires for energy recovery. Yozumi taiya shokyaku ni suru netsuriyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, N. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-15

    The recycled automobile tires in 1991 amounts to 87%, and the tires are used most effectively for heat generation. The utilization of tires for heat in Japan and in other countries are outlined, and a detailed report is made on the use of used tires as fuel at coal cogeneration plants in tire manufacturing plants. The 'utilization percent for heat' is steadily increasing among the recycling applications of used tires. Energy recovery by dry distillation method and by direct combustion method is discussed. The states of used tire utilization in America, West Germany, and Britain are introduced. A concrete example of utilization for heat of used tires at a tire manufacturing plant is shown. Used tires are chopped into chips, mixed and burned in a coal boiler, the generated steam is used as the heat source for private power generation, and the power is used as the power source for the plant. 15 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Numerical and experimental investigation on frosting of energy-recovery ventilator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Stephane; Mercadier, Yves; Brousseau, Patrick

    Frosting of energy-recovery ventilators results in two major problems: increase of pressure losses and reduction of heat transfer rates. Frost formation of heat and mass exchangers used in these ventilation systems is investigated both experimentally and numerically. A numerical model for the prediction of the thermal behavior of the exchanger is presented. The model is validated with experimental data and is then employed to conduct a parametric study. Results indicate that the absolute humidity is the prevailing parameter for characterizing the frosting phenomenon. A frost-mass-fraction chart is established in terms of the absolute humidity of the warm exhaust stream and of the temperature of the cold supply stream. The effect of time and mass flowrate is also evaluated. The transient three-dimensional model shows that the absolute humidity and the temperature of both air flows vary nonlinearly in the frosted zone.

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Membrane-Based Dehumidification and Energy Recovery Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Qu, Ming [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a first-order physics-based model that accounts for the fundamental heat and mass transfer between a humid-air vapor stream on feed side to another flow stream on permeate side. The model comprises a few optional submodels for membrane mass transport; and it adopts a segment-by-segment method for discretizing heat and mass transfer governing equations for flow streams on feed and permeate sides. The model is able to simulate both dehumidifiers and energy recovery ventilators in parallel-flow, cross-flow, and counter-flow configurations. The predicted tresults are compared reasonably well with the measurements. The open-source codes are written in C++. The model and open-source codes are expected to become a fundament tool for the analysis of membrane-based dehumidification in the future.

  1. R'07 World Congress - Recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This final congress report summarises the topics dealt with at the R'07 World Congress on the recovery of materials and energy for resource efficiency. The congress was held in 2007 in Davos, Switzerland. Details on the organisation and participants are given and the experts who held plenary lectures are listed. Brief details are given on oral and poster sessions, along with details on how the proceedings of the congress can be obtained. Workshops held at the conference covered the following topics: Plastics recycling, biofuels and E-waste, workshops on zero wastes, scarce metals and the identification and management of social implications over the product life cycle (footprint). An Internet-address where the results of the sessions can be obtained is given along with a summary of excursions and social events held within the framework of the congress. Finally, participant feedback is presented in graphical form.

  2. Recovery of energy from geothermal brine and other hot water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, III, Edward F.; Boucher, Frederic B.

    1981-01-01

    Process and system for recovery of energy from geothermal brines and other hot water sources, by direct contact heat exchange between the brine or hot water, and an immiscible working fluid, e.g. a hydrocarbon such as isobutane, in a heat exchange column, the brine or hot water therein flowing countercurrent to the flow of the working fluid. The column can be operated at subcritical, critical or above the critical pressure of the working fluid. Preferably, the column is provided with a plurality of sieve plates, and the heat exchange process and column, e.g. with respect to the design of such plates, number of plates employed, spacing between plates, area thereof, column diameter, and the like, are designed to achieve maximum throughput of brine or hot water and reduction in temperature differential at the respective stages or plates between the brine or hot water and the working fluid, and so minimize lost work and maximize efficiency, and minimize scale deposition from hot water containing fluid including salts, such as brine. Maximum throughput approximates minimum cost of electricity which can be produced by conversion of the recovered thermal energy to electrical energy.

  3. What drives the change in China's energy intensity: Combining decomposition analysis and econometric analysis at the provincial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Feng; Zheng, Xinye

    2012-01-01

    We employ decomposition analysis and econometric analysis to investigate the driving forces behind China's changing energy intensity using a provincial-level panel data set for the period from 1995 to 2009. The decomposition analysis indicates that: (a) all of the provinces except for a few experienced efficiency improvement, while around three-fourths of the provinces' economics became more energy intensive or remained unchanged; (b) consequently the efficiency improvement accounts for more than 90% of China's energy intensity change as opposed to the economic structural change. The econometric analysis shows that the rising income plays a significant role in the reduction of energy intensity while the effect of energy price is relatively limited. The result may reflect the urgency of deregulating the price and establishing a market-oriented pricing system in China's energy sector. The implementation of the energy intensity reduction policies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (FYP) has helped reverse the increasing trend of energy intensity since 2002. Although the Chinese Government intended to change the industry-led economic growth pattern, it seems that most of the policy effects flow through the efficiency improvement as opposed to the economic structure adjustment. More fundamental changes to the economic structure are needed to achieve more sustainable progress in energy intensity reduction. - Highlights: ► We examine the determinants of China's energy intensity change at provincial level. ► Rising income plays a significant role in reducing China's energy intensity. ► Policy effects mainly flow through the efficiency improvement. ► Fundamental structure changes are needed to further reduce China's energy intensity.

  4. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment for different wastewaters requires new approaches to quantify performance, and the establishment of specific procedures and parameters to characterize the outcome of fed-batch treatability tests. It is shown here that Coulombic efficiency can be used to directly calculate energy consumption relative to wastewater treatment in terms of COD removal, and that the average current, not maximum current, is a better metric to evaluate the rate of the bioelectrochemical reactions. The utility of these methods was demonstrated using simulated current profiles and actual wastewater tests. Industrial and domestic wastewaters were evaluated using small volume MECs, and different inoculation strategies. The energy needed for treatment was 2.17kWhkgCOD-1 for industrial wastewater and 2.59kWhkgCOD-1 for domestic wastewater. When these wastewaters were combined in equal amounts, the energy required was reduced to 0.63kWhkgCOD-1. Acclimation of the MEC to domestic wastewater, prior to tests with industrial wastewaters, was the easiest and most direct method to optimize MEC performance for industrial wastewater treatment. A pre-acclimated MEC accomplished the same removal (1847 ± 53 mg L-1) as reactor acclimated to only the industrial wastewater (1839 ± 57 mg L-1), but treatment was achieved in significantly less time (70 h versus 238 h). © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison between two braking control methods integrating energy recovery for a two-wheel front driven electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itani, Khaled; De Bernardinis, Alexandre; Khatir, Zoubir; Jammal, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between two braking methods for an EV maximizing the energy recovery. • Wheels slip ratio control based on robust sliding mode and ECE R13 control methods. • Regenerative braking control strategy. • Energy recovery of a HESS with respect to road surface type and road condition. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparison between two braking methods for a two-wheel front driven Electric Vehicle maximizing the energy recovery on the Hybrid Energy Storage System. The first method consists in controlling the wheels slip ratio while braking using a robust sliding mode controller. The second method will be based on ECE R13H constraints for an M1 passenger vehicle. The vehicle model used for simulation is a simplified five degrees of freedom model. It is driven by two 30 kW permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) recovering energy during braking phases. Several simulation results for extreme braking conditions will be performed and compared on various road type surfaces using Matlab/Simulink®. For an initial speed of 80 km/h, simulation results demonstrate that the difference of energy recovery efficiency between the two control braking methods is beneficial to the ECE constraints control method and it can vary from 3.7% for high friction road type to 11.2% for medium friction road type. At low friction road type, the difference attains 6.6% due to different reasons treated in the paper. The stability deceleration is also discussed and detailed.

  6. Energy supply with growing energy efficiency - the energy supply companies as driving force for rational energy use?; Energieversorgung bei wachsender Energieeffizienz - die Energieversorgungsunternehmen als Motor rationeller Energieverwendung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawe, J. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke VDEW e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Schulz, E. [Vereinigung Deutscher Elektrizitaetswerke VDEW e.V., Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-09-23

    The authors explain that growing energy efficiency was and is the positive prerequisite for the development of the electricity supply industry. They show that the business-oriented use of the concept of integrated resource planning by economic enterprises can improve energy efficiency and thus contribute towards mastering future demands and challenges. With the eta-initiative for energy rationalism the German electricity suppliers also intend to continue being motors of energy efficiency. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Verfasser verdeutlichen, dass wachsende Energie-Effizienz positive Voraussetzung fuer die Entwicklung der Elektrizitaetswirtschaft war und ist. Sie arbeiten heraus, dass die unternehmenswirtschaftliche Nutzung des Konzepts der Integrierten Ressourcen-Planung die Energie-Effizienz verbessern und damit dazu beitragen kann, die kuenftigen Anforderungen und Herausforderungen zu meistern. Mit der eta-Initiative fuer Energievernunft wollen die deutschen Stromversorger auch in Zukunft Motor der Energie-Effizienz bleiben. (orig.)

  7. A linear programming approach for the optimal planning of a future energy system. Potential contribution of energy recovery from municipal solid wastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George; Koroneos, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper the mismatch between the energy supply levels and the end use, in a broader sense, was studied for the Hellenic energy system. The ultimate objective was to optimize the way to meet the country's energy needs in every different administrative and geographical region using...... renewable energy sources (RES) and at the same time to define the remaining available space for energy recovery units from municipal solid waste (MSW) in each region to participate in the energy system. Based on the results of the different scenarios examined for meeting the electricity needs using linear...

  8. What Drives Saline Circulation Cells in Coastal Aquifers? An Energy Balance for Density-Driven Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, C. F.; Michael, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    We formulate the energy balance for coastal groundwater systems and apply it to: (1) Explain the energy driving offshore saline circulation cells, and; (2) Assess the accuracy of numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems. The flow of fresh groundwater to the ocean is driven by the loss of potential energy as groundwater drops from the elevation of the inland watertable, where recharge occurs, to discharge at sea level. This freshwater flow creates an underlying circulation cell of seawater, drawn into coastal aquifers offshore and discharging near shore, that adds to total submarine groundwater discharge. The saline water in the circulation cell enters and exits the aquifer through the sea floor at the same hydraulic potential. Existing theory explains that the saline circulation cell is driven by mixing of fresh and saline without any additional source of potential or mechanical power. This explanation raises a basic thermodynamic question: what is the source of energy that drives the saline circulation cell? Here, we resolve this question by building upon Hubbert's conception of hydraulic potential to formulate an energy balance for density-dependent flow and salt transport through an aquifer. We show that, because local energy dissipation within the aquifer is proportional to the square of the groundwater velocity, more groundwater flow may be driven through an aquifer for a given energy input if local variations in velocity are smoothed. Our numerical simulations of coastal groundwater systems show that dispersion of salt across the fresh-saline interface spreads flow over larger volumes of the aquifer, smoothing the velocity field, and increasing total flow and submarine groundwater discharge without consuming more power. The energy balance also provides a criterion, in addition to conventional mass balances, for judging the accuracy of numerical solutions of non-linear density-dependent flow problems. Our results show that some numerical

  9. Next generation of CO2 enhanced water recovery with subsurface energy storage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Kühn, Michael; Ma, Jianli; Niu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilization and storage (CCUS) is very popular in comparison with traditional CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in China. In particular, CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers with enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR) [1] is gaining more and more attention as a cleaner production technology. The CO2-EWR was written into the "U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change" released November 11, 2014. "Both sides will work to manage climate change by demonstrating a new frontier for CO2 use through a carbon capture, use, and sequestration (CCUS) project that will capture and store CO2 while producing fresh water, thus demonstrating power generation as a net producer of water instead of a water consumer. This CCUS project with enhanced water recovery will eventually inject about 1.0 million tonnes of CO2 and create approximately 1.4 million cubic meters of freshwater per year." In this article, at first we reviewed the history of the CO2-EWR and addressed its current status in China. Then, we put forth a new generation of the CO2-EWR with emphasizing the collaborative solutions between carbon emission reductions and subsurface energy storage or renewable energy cycle [2]. Furthermore, we figured out the key challenging problems such as water-CCUS nexus when integrating the CO2-EWR with the coal chemical industry in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China [3-5]. Finally, we addressed some crucial problems and strategic consideration of the CO2-EWR in China with focuses on its technical bottleneck, relative advantage, early opportunities, environmental synergies and other related issues. This research is not only very useful for the current development of CCUS in the relative "cold season" but also beneficial for the energy security and clean production in China. [1] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Liu G, Shi H (2015) CO2-EWR: a cleaner solution for coal chemical industry in China. Journal of Cleaner Production 103:330-337. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.09.073 [2] Streibel M

  10. Energy price spread as a driving force for combined generation investments: A view on Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavvadias, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Combined generation of heat, cooling and power has a large potential to increase its share in distributed generation of energy. Such investments are driven by energy savings which result to operational profits. These profits are very sensitive to the prices of the competitive energy products: electricity and gas. In this work a theoretical indicator is developed between energy prices, the technical characteristics of cogeneration and conventional generation equipment and the investment viability. Through this indicator, the operational profitability of cogeneration equipment is mapped and discussed. Empirical rules are extracted which can give a clear view of the sensitivity of energy prices on energy efficiency investments. The European cogeneration status quo is analyzed in terms of energy prices and market share. The developed indicator is also used, to analyze market related barriers and highlight the importance of energy pricing policy as a tool to minimize the risk exposure of energy efficiency investments. - Highlights: • Energy price spread of competitive fuels affects combined generation profitability. • Its uncertainty is the most important barrier for new investments. • The minimum energy price spread had been generalized and mathematically justified. • Can be used as a tax-based mechanism to hedge the risk of fuel price fluctuations. • For a typical installation, power has to be at least 2 times more expensive than gas.

  11. What drives energy consumption in developing countries? The experience of selected African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keho, Yaya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the drivers of energy consumption in Sub-Saharan African countries. It applies the bounds testing approach to cointegration to time series data at individual country levels over the period from 1970 to 2011. The study finds that energy consumption is cointegrated with real GDP per capita, industrial output, imports, foreign direct investment, credit to private sector, urbanization and population. Furthermore, the sign and magnitude of long-run estimates vary significantly for a single country and across countries depending on the energy consumption variable used. Overall, the findings confirm the leading role of economic growth, industrial output, population and urbanization. Economic growth, industrial output and population have positive effects on energy consumption in the majority of countries. Given the urgent need to address climate change, African countries should adopt policies to improve energy efficiency and accelerate transition toward renewable energy. The African Renewable Energy Initiative launched at the 21st session of the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP21) is an opportunity for African countries to provide and maintain widespread access to reliable and affordable environmentally cleaner energy to meet the requirements of rapid economic growth and improved living standards. - Highlights: •Key drivers of energy use in 12 African countries are examined. •Economic growth, industrial GDP, population and urbanization play a leading role in explaining energy use. •Urbanization has a positive effect on energy use in six countries and a negative effect in four countries. •The results obtained have useful policy implications.

  12. Analysis of an integrated packed bed thermal energy storage system for heat recovery in compressed air energy storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Zavattoni, Simone A.; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno; Barbato, Maurizio C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A packed bed TES system is proposed for heat recovery in CAES technology. •A CFD-based approach has been developed to evaluate the behaviour of the TES unit. •TES system enhancement and improvement alternatives are also demonstrated. •TES performance evaluated according to the first and second law of thermodynamics. -- Abstract: Compressed air energy storage (CAES) represents a very attracting option to grid electric energy storage. Although this technology is mature and well established, its overall electricity-to-electricity cycle efficiency is lower with respect to other alternatives such as pumped hydroelectric energy storage. A meager heat management strategy in the CAES technology is among the main reasons of this gap of efficiency. In current CAES plants, during the compression stage, a large amount of thermal energy is produced and wasted. On the other hand, during the electricity generation stage, an extensive heat supply is required, currently provided by burning natural gas. In this work, the coupling of both CAES stages through a thermal energy storage (TES) unit is introduced as an effective solution to achieve a noticeable increase of the overall CAES cycle efficiency. In this frame, the thermal energy produced in the compression stage is stored in a TES unit for its subsequent deployment during the expansion stage, realizing an Adiabatic-CAES plant. The present study addresses the conceptual design of a TES system based on a packed bed of gravel to be integrated in an Adiabatic-CAES plant. With this objective, a complete thermo-fluid dynamics model has been developed, including the implications derived from the TES operating under variable-pressure conditions. The formulation and treatment of the high pressure conditions were found being particularly relevant issues. Finally, the model provided a detailed performance and efficiency analysis of the TES system under charge/discharge cyclic conditions including a realistic operative

  13. Batch pervaporative fermentation with coupled membrane and its influence on energy consumption in permeate recovery and distillation stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Juan A.; Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2016-01-01

    In the ethanol production process from sugarcane molasses, the distillation process is a high-energy demand stage. The distillation energy efficiency is strongly associated with the alcoholic fermentation performance in the process. The final ethanol concentration in the alcoholic wines has a direct impact on consumption of thermal energy in ethanol separation. In this paper, ethanol production with a H-SBMF (Hybrid-Simple Batch Membrane Fermenter) using PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) pervaporation membrane was modelled and simulated, in order to determine its influence on energy consumption in distillation. Steam in distillation and electrical energy needs in permeate recovery were mainly influenced by membrane adaptation. The H-SBMF achieved a higher ethanol production in the range of 10–13% compared to the conventional batch fermenter, and an increase in productivity of 150%. The distillation system consisted of two sets of columns: the ethanol recovery column and the rectification column. The permeate recovery system (i.e. vacuum and compression) was regarded in order to evaluate the electrical energy requirement, and the thermal energy demand was evaluated. A decrease in steam consumption was evidenced by the adaptation of the membrane to the fermenter. Higher energy efficiencies were achieved in distillation with larger membrane areas, achieving almost 17% steam reduction. - Highlights: • Higher and faster ethanol productions were achieved by fermenter hybridization. • Multi-stage permeate compression and inter-stage heat recovery were assumed. • Energy demand was studied based on an integrated fermentation and distillation scheme. • High-energy efficiency was attained in the distillation to produce hydrated alcohol.

  14. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG). The Hyperion Power 'Module' was specifically designed for applications in remote areas where cost, safety, and security is of concern. The Hyperion Power Module, a self-contained, self-regulating reactor, is breaking new ground in the nuclear industry and filling a heretofore-unmet need for moderately sized power applications either distributed or dedicated. Employing proven science in a new way, Hyperion provides a safe, clean power solution for remote locations or locations that must currently employ less than satisfactory alternatives. Generating nearly 70 megawatts of thermal energy and from 25 to 30 megawatts of electrical energy, the Power Module is the world's first small mobile reactor, taking advantage of the natural laws of chemistry and physics and leveraging all of the engineering and technology advancements made over the last fifty years. The HPM is comparable in size to a deep residential hot tub and is designed to be cited underground in a containment vessel. The CEO of Hyperion will outline the benefits of small nuclear reactors by examining their impact on the U.S. economy, national security, the environment, remote regions, and developing nations. The speaker will also focus on the four main applications of the Hyperion Reactor: military bases; oil and gas recovery and refining; remote communities lacking

  15. Evaluation of two different alternatives of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Jimenez, Ana Carolina; Nordi, Guilherme Henrique; Palacios Bereche, Milagros Cecilia; Bereche, Reynaldo Palacios; Gallego, Antonio Garrido; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2017-11-01

    Brazil has a large population with a high waste generation. The municipal solid waste (MSW) generated is deposited mainly in landfills. However, a considerable fraction of the waste is still improperly disposed of in dumpsters. In order to overcome this inadequate deposition, it is necessary to seek alternative routes. Between these alternatives, it is possible to quote gasification and incineration. The objective of this study is to compare, from an energetic and economic point of view, these technologies, aiming at their possible implementation in Brazilian cities. A total of two configurations were evaluated: (i) waste incineration with energy recovery and electricity production in a steam cycle; and (ii) waste gasification, where the syngas produced is used as fuel in a boiler of a steam cycle for electricity production. Simulations were performed assuming the same amount of available waste for both configurations, with a composition corresponding to the MSW from Santo André, Brazil. The thermal efficiencies of the gasification and incineration configurations were 19.3% and 25.1%, respectively. The difference in the efficiencies was caused by the irreversibilities associated with the gasification process, and the additional electricity consumption in the waste treatment step. The economic analysis presented a cost of electrical energy produced of 0.113 (US$ kWh -1 ) and 0.139 (US$ kWh -1 ) for the incineration and gasification plants respectively.

  16. Design and Experimental Analysis of an Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fazlizan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT was positioned at the discharge outlet of a cooling tower electricity generator. To avoid a negative impact on the performance of the cooling tower and to optimize the turbine performance, the determination of the VAWT position in the discharge wind stream was conducted by experiment. The preferable VAWT position is where the higher wind velocity matches the positive torque area of the turbine rotation. With the proper matching among the VAWT configurations (blade number, airfoil type, operating tip-speed-ratio, etc. and exhaust air profile, the turbine system was not only able to recover the wasted kinetic energy, it also reduced the fan motor power consumption by 4.5% and increased the cooling tower intake air flow-rate by 11%. The VAWT had a free running rotational speed of 479 rpm, power coefficient of 10.6%, and tip-speed-ratio of 1.88. The double multiple stream tube theory was used to explain the VAWT behavior in the non-uniform wind stream. For the actual size of a cooling tower with a 2.4 m outlet diameter and powered by a 7.5 kW fan motor, it was estimated that a system with two VAWTs (side-by-side can generate 1 kW of power which is equivalent to 13% of energy recovery.

  17. Beam-dynamics driven design of the LHeC energy-recovery linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Dario; Latina, Andrea; Schulte, Daniel; Bogacz, S. Alex

    2015-12-01

    The LHeC is envisioned as a natural upgrade of the LHC that aims at delivering an electron beam for collisions with the existing hadronic beams. The current baseline design for the electron facility consists of a multipass superconducting energy-recovery linac (ERL) operating in a continuous wave mode. The unprecedently high energy of the multipass ERL combined with a stringent emittance dilution budget poses new challenges for the beam optics. Here, we investigate the performances of a novel arc architecture based on a flexible momentum compaction lattice that mitigates the effects of synchrotron radiation while containing the bunch lengthening. Extensive beam-dynamics investigations have been performed with placet2, a recently developed tracking code for recirculating machines. They include the first end-to-end tracking and a simulation of the machine operation with a continuous beam. This paper briefly describes the Conceptual Design Report lattice, with an emphasis on possible and proposed improvements that emerged from the beam-dynamics studies. The detector bypass section has been integrated in the lattice, and its design choices are presented here. The stable operation of the ERL with a current up to ˜150 mA in the linacs has been validated in the presence of single- and multibunch wakefields, synchrotron radiation, and beam-beam effects.

  18. Beam-dynamics driven design of the LHeC energy-recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pellegrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The LHeC is envisioned as a natural upgrade of the LHC that aims at delivering an electron beam for collisions with the existing hadronic beams. The current baseline design for the electron facility consists of a multipass superconducting energy-recovery linac (ERL operating in a continuous wave mode. The unprecedently high energy of the multipass ERL combined with a stringent emittance dilution budget poses new challenges for the beam optics. Here, we investigate the performances of a novel arc architecture based on a flexible momentum compaction lattice that mitigates the effects of synchrotron radiation while containing the bunch lengthening. Extensive beam-dynamics investigations have been performed with placet2, a recently developed tracking code for recirculating machines. They include the first end-to-end tracking and a simulation of the machine operation with a continuous beam. This paper briefly describes the Conceptual Design Report lattice, with an emphasis on possible and proposed improvements that emerged from the beam-dynamics studies. The detector bypass section has been integrated in the lattice, and its design choices are presented here. The stable operation of the ERL with a current up to ∼150  mA in the linacs has been validated in the presence of single- and multibunch wakefields, synchrotron radiation, and beam-beam effects.

  19. New halo formation mechanism at the KEK compact energy recovery linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Olga; Nakamura, Norio; Shimada, Miho; Miyajima, Tsukasa; Ueda, Akira; Obina, Takashi; Takai, Ryota

    2018-02-01

    The beam halo mitigation is a very important challenge for reliable and safe operation of a high-energy machine. A systematic beam halo study was conducted at the KEK compact energy recovery linac (cERL) since non-negligible beam loss was observed in the recirculation loop during a common operation. We found that the beam loss can be avoided by making use of the collimation system. Beam halo measurements have demonstrated the presence of vertical beam halos at multiple locations in the beam line (except the region near the electron gun). Based on these observations, we made a conjecture that the transverse beam halo is attributed to the longitudinal bunch tail arising at the photocathode. The transfer of particles from the longitudinal space to a transverse halo may have been observed and studied in other machines, considering nonlinear effects as their causes. However, our study demonstrates a new unique halo formation mechanism, in which a transverse beam halo can be generated by a longitudinal bunch tail due to transverse rf kicks from the accelerating (monopole) fields of the radio-frequency cavities. This halo formation occurs when nonrelativistic particles enter the cavities with a transverse offset, even if neither nonlinear optics nor nonlinear beam effects are present. A careful realignment of the injector system will mitigate the present halo. Another possible cure is to reduce the bunch tails by changing the photocathode material from the present GaAs to a multi-alkali that is known to have a shorter longitudinal tail.

  20. Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness: Lake County study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogleman, S.F.; Fisher, L.A.; Black, A.R.

    1978-04-01

    A brief summary is given of the results of a previously reported study designed to evaluate the costs and viability of combined thermodynamic and biologic cycles in a system known as the Total Energy Recovery System for Agribusiness (TERSA). This conceptual system involved the combined geothermally assisted activities of greenhouse crop and mushroom growing, fish farming, and biogas generation in an integrated biologic system such that the waste or by-products of each subsystem cycle were recovered to service input needs of companion cycles. An updated direct use geothermal system based on TERSA that is viable for implementation in Lake County is presented. Particular consideration is given to: location of geothermal resources, availability of land and irrigation quality water, compatibility of the specific direct use geothermal activities with adjacent and local uses. Private interest and opposition, and institutional factors as identified. Factors relevant to local TERSA implementation are discussed, followed by sites considered, selection criteria, site slection, and the modified system resulting. Particular attention is paid to attempt to make clear the process followed in applying this conceptual design to the specific task of realistic local implementation. Previous publications on geothermal energy and Lake County are referenced where specific details outside the scope of this study may be found. (JGB)

  1. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Compact compressive arc and beam switchyard for energy recovery linac-driven ultraviolet free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, J. A. G.; Di Mitri, S.; Douglas, D.; Setija, I. D.

    2017-08-01

    High gain free electron lasers (FELs) driven by high repetition rate recirculating accelerators have received considerable attention in the scientific and industrial communities in recent years. Cost-performance optimization of such facilities encourages limiting machine size and complexity, and a compact machine can be realized by combining bending and bunch length compression during the last stage of recirculation, just before lasing. The impact of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) on electron beam quality during compression can, however, limit FEL output power. When methods to counteract CSR are implemented, appropriate beam diagnostics become critical to ensure that the target beam parameters are met before lasing, as well as to guarantee reliable, predictable performance and rapid machine setup and recovery. This article describes a beam line for bunch compression and recirculation, and beam switchyard accessing a diagnostic line for EUV lasing at 1 GeV beam energy. The footprint is modest, with 12 m compressive arc diameter and ˜20 m diagnostic line length. The design limits beam quality degradation due to CSR both in the compressor and in the switchyard. Advantages and drawbacks of two switchyard lines providing, respectively, off-line and on-line measurements are discussed. The entire design is scalable to different beam energies and charges.

  3. Perceptions, realities, concession-What is driving the integration of European energy policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointvogl, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Today's European energy policy is characterised by national approaches portraying it as one of the least successful areas of integration despite its importance for our everyday life. This exploratory study presents a new way in analysing the approaches and processes operative in this area. It introduces a new dimension of policy evaluation, the role of national energy majors, and proposes its utilisation in the increasingly important method of using indexes for energy supply security. By doing so, the relevance of perceptions of energy supply security for energy policy integration is highlighted, pointing at the concessions necessary to overcome the integratory deadlock. The indexes proposed in this paper can provide insights for policy-makers and researchers into the ongoing integration process and the crucial importance energy business plays therein. Finally, the exploratory methodology developed in this essay can be employed in various other policy areas to classify, discover and analyse policy directions.

  4. Using an energy management strategy to drive improved business results and improve manufacturing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroux, Marc

    2010-09-15

    Energy typically represents the single largest controllable cost in manufacturing, and is under constant scrutiny by all levels of management. In this paper we will examine the role and components of an energy management strategy, and focus on the benefits of looking at the strategy from a business perspective. We will then examine the role that an effective program, either existing or new, can play in a collaborative manufacturing environment, and how these improvements can reduce energy requirements while maintaining, or improving productivity.

  5. Introduction: corporate restructuring of the global energy industry, driving forces and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetzki, M.

    2000-01-01

    The introductory note briefly summarizes the major aspects discussed in the following individual contributions to this issue of the International Journal of Global Energy Issues which comprises the proceedings of the 1999 SNS Energy Day. The main theme is the dramatic changes in the corporate structure of the energy industries worldwide, i.e the liberalization of investment flows and international trade in the energy sector, the explosive development of information technology, providing novel market opportunities, and the novel structures that have emerged since the deregulation of power industries. (orig./CB)

  6. Dune recovery after storm erosion on a high-energy beach: Vougot Beach, Brittany (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suanez, Serge; Cariolet, Jean-Marie; Cancouët, Romain; Ardhuin, Fabrice; Delacourt, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    On 10th March 2008, the high energy storm Johanna hit the French Atlantic coast, generating severe dune erosion on Vougot Beach (Brittany, France). In this paper, the recovery of the dune of Vougot Beach is analysed through a survey of morphological changes and hydrodynamic conditions. Data collection focused on the period immediately following storm Johanna until July 2010, i.e. over two and a half years. Results showed that the dune retreated by a maximum of almost 6 m where storm surge and wave attack were the most energetic. Dune retreat led to the creation of accommodation space for the storage of sediment by widening and elevating space between the pre- and post-storm dune toe, and reducing impacts of the storm surge. Dune recovery started in the month following the storm event and is still ongoing. It is characterised by the construction of "secondary" embryo dunes, which recovered at an average rate of 4-4.5 cm per month, although average monthly volume changes varied from - 1 to 2 m 3.m - 1 . These embryo dunes accreted due to a large aeolian sand supply from the upper tidal beach to the existing foredune. These dune-construction processes were facilitated by growth of vegetation on low-profile embryo dunes promoting backshore accretion. After more than two years of survey, the sediment budget of the beach/dune system showed that more than 10,000 m 3 has been lost by the upper tidal beach. We suggest that seaward return currents generated during the storm of 10th March 2008 are responsible for offshore sediment transport. Reconstitution of the equilibrium beach profile following the storm event may therefore have generated cross-shore sediment redistribution inducing net erosion in the tidal zone.

  7. Comparison of energy and material recovery of household waste management from the environmental point of view - Case Kaunas, Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luoranen, Mika; Soukka, Risto; Denafas, Gintaras; Horttanainen, Mika

    2009-01-01

    The results of life cycle assessment of five different energy recovery-based waste management system options are presented. The system options were designed for the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. The Kaunas model was formed according to the Simple Integrated System Management concept developed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. CML2001 was selected as the method according to which the life cycle impact assessment profiles were compiled and analyzed. The results suggest that energy recovery from biowaste, paper and cardboard derived from households could be a more recommendable waste management option than material recovery of the fractions (composting of biowaste and recycling of paper and cardboard). The calculations were carried out with limited process information, and cannot thus be generalized in all parts

  8. Novel control algorithm of braking energy regeneration system for an electric vehicle during safety–critical driving maneuvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Chen; Zhang, Junzhi; Li, Yutong; Yuan, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of an electric vehicle with regenerative braking system (RBS) are built. • Control algorithm of RBS under safety–critical driving maneuvers is proposed. • Simulations and HIL tests of the proposed strategy are conducted. • Performance improvement of vehicle’s mean deceleration is up to 13.89%. • Test results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. - Abstract: This paper mainly focuses on control algorithm of the braking energy regeneration system of an electric bus under safety–critical driving situations. With the aims of guaranteeing vehicle stability in various types of tyre–road adhesion conditions, based on the characteristics of electrified powertrain, a novel control algorithm of regenerative braking system is proposed for electric vehicles during anti-lock braking procedures. First, the models of vehicle dynamics and main components including braking energy regenerative system of the case-study electric bus are built in MATLAB/Simulink. Then, based on the phase-plane method, the optimal brake torque is calculated for ABS control of vehicle. Next, a novel allocation strategy, wherein the target optimal brake torque is divided into two parts that are handled separately by the regenerative and friction brakes, is developed. Simulations of the proposed control strategy are conducted based on system models built using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed strategy enables improved control in terms of vehicle stability and braking performance under different emergency driving conditions. To further verify the synthesized control algorithm, hardware-in-the-loop tests are also performed. The experimental results validate the simulation data and verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control algorithm.

  9. Environmental evaluation of the electric and cogenerative configurations for the energy recovery of the Turin municipal solid waste incineration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panepinto, Deborah; Genon, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    Given the desirability of reducing fossil fuel consumption, together with the increasing production of combustible solid wastes, there is clearly a need for waste treatment systems that achieve both volume reduction and energy recovery. Direct incineration method is one such system. The aim of this work was to analyze the municipal solid waste incineration plant currently under construction in the province of Turin (Piedmont, North Italy), especially the potential for energy recovery, and the consequent environmental effects. We analyzed two kinds of energy recovery: electric energy (electrical configuration) only, and both electric and thermal energy (cogenerative configuration), in this case with a different connection hypothesis to the district heating network. After we had evaluated the potential of the incinerator and considered local demographic, energy and urban planning effects, we assumed different possible connections to the district heating network. We computed the local and global environmental balances based on the characteristics of the flue gas emitted from the stack, taking into consideration the emissions avoided by the substituted sources. The global-scale results provided relevant information on the carbon dioxide emissions parameter. The results on the local scale were used as reference values for the implementation of a Gaussian model (Aermod) that allows evaluation of the actual concentration of the pollutants released into the atmosphere. The main results obtained highlight the high energy efficiency of the combined production of heat and electricity, and the opportunity to minimize the environmental impact by including cogeneration in a district heating scheme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Energy demands, goal of energy independence drives renewed interest in nuclear power in the U.S. and elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    2002-01-01

    Worldwide energy consumption is going to rise in step with population growth and economic development. Forecasts indicate a growth of the electricity sector alone from the present annual requirement of 12 500 TWh to approx. 28 000 TWh in 2042. This challenge requires governments all over the world to find appropriate solutions which include economic and ecological aspects as well as those of energy policy, among others. In the United States, the goal of a balanced energy mix is to be reached by including all sources of energy, inclusive of a larger share of nuclear power. Nuclear power offers considerable advantages in a number of important factors. Nuclear power plants generate electricity in a cost-effective way, thus ensuring low prices in the energy mix. The use of nuclear power contributes to the conservation of other, natural energy resources, which makes it the only source of energy available which still offers a considerable further potential for use. Moreover, climate protection requires the use of nuclear power. In the United States alone, nuclear power today reduces emissions of carbon dioxide on a level comparable to 100 million road vehicles. This makes nuclear power an important part of energy supply worldwide and will allow it to play a major role in the future energy mix. The nuclear industry is prepared to meet this challenge. (orig.)

  11. Added sugars drive nutrient and energy deficit in obesity: a new paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNicolantonio, James J; Berger, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has traditionally been thought of as a state of caloric imbalance, where the intake of calories exceeds the expenditure or 'burning' of calories. However, a more nuanced appreciation for the complex biochemistry and physiology of cellular energy generation suggests that obesity is a state of hormonal imbalance causing increased shunting of food energy into adipose tissue for storage, resulting in decreased satiety and ultimately leading to increased caloric intake. Adding to this hypothesis, we propose that obesity is also a state of nutrient and energy deficit, leading to decreased fatty acid mobilisation and oxidation, the result of which may be a natural disinclination towards physical activity. Added sugars (sucrose, a.k.a. table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup) may provide energy (4 kcal/g) but at current intakes they do not facilitate-and may even hinder-the production of energy. Not only do added sugars displace nutritionally superior foods in the diet, but they may also deplete nutrients from other foods that have been consumed, as well as from body stores, in order to enable their proper oxidation and liberate their calories as energy. Additionally, the consumption of added sugars damages the mitochondria and hence impairs energy generation. Moreover, overconsuming added sugars may result in a kind of 'internal starvation' (via leptin and insulin resistance) leading to further hunger signals in the body. Added sugars promote nutrient and energy deficit and through this novel pathway promote obesity.

  12. Motivations driving renewable energy in European countries: A panel data approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Antonio C.; Fuinhas, Jose A.; Pires Manso, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increasing amount of literature available on renewable energy, the empirical analysis about drivers promoting renewables remains scarce. We have analyzed those drivers for European Countries. Over an extended period of time (1990-2006) we used panel data techniques, namely the fixed effects vector decomposition. The results suggest that both the lobby of the traditional energy sources (oil, coal, and natural gas) and CO 2 emissions restrain renewable deployment. The objective of reducing energy dependency appears to stimulate renewable energy use. Our results robustly support the EU decision to create a directive promoting the use of renewable sources (Directive 2001/77/EC). We also offer suggestions with regards to the design of appropriate policies towards renewable energy deployment.

  13. An approach for exhaust gas energy recovery of internal combustion engine: Steam-assisted turbocharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Deng, Banglin; Feng, Renhua; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Zhao, Xiaohuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The calculation method for SAT engine was developed and introduced. • SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine. • At 1500 r/min, intake pressure reaches target value and torque is increased by 25%. • The thermal efficiency of SAT engine only has a slight increase. - Abstract: An approach for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery, named as steam-assisted turbocharging (SAT), is developed to assist the exhaust turbocharger. A steam generating plant is coupled to the exhaust turbocharged engine’s exhaust pipe, which uses the high-temperature exhaust gas to generate steam. The steam is injected into turbine inlet and used as the supplementary working medium for turbine. By this means, turbine output power and then boosting pressure can be promoted due to the increase of turbine working medium. To reveal the advantages and energy saving potentials of SAT, this concept was applied to an exhaust turbocharging engine, and a parameter analysis was carried out. Research results show that, SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine, and make the peak torque shift to low-speed area. At 1500 r/min, the intake gas pressure can reach the desired value and the torque can be increased by 25.0% over the exhaust turbocharging engine, while the pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP) and thermal efficiency only have a slight increase. At 1000 r/min, the improvement of IC engine performances is very limited due to the low exhaust gas energy

  14. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40 mm) of pre-composted materials--sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest--evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Voltage protection scheme for MG sets used to drive inductive energy storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campen, G.L.; Easter, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    A recent tokamak proposal at ORNL called for MG (motor-generator) sets to drive the ohmic heating (OH] coil, which was to be subjected to 20 kV immediately after coil charge-up to initiate the experiment. Since most rotating machinery is inherently low voltage, including the machines available at ORNL, a mechanism was necessary to isolate the generators from the high voltage portions of the circuit before the appearance of this voltage. It is not the expected 20 kV at the coil that causes difficulty, because the main interrupting switch handles this. The voltage induced in the armature due to di/dt and the possibility of faults are the greatest causes for concern and are responsible for the complexity of the voltage protection scheme, which must accommodate any possible combination of fault time and location. Such a protection scheme is presented in this paper

  16. Energy efficient drive technologies. Hybridization - downsizing - software and IT; Energieeffiziente Antriebstechnologien. Hybridisierung - Downsizing - Software und IT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (ed.)

    2013-02-01

    The prior two years were characterized by enormous advances in the development of automobiles. The editor of the book under consideration reports on the most exciting contributions from the journal ATZ, MTZ and ATZelektronik. New approaches in the development of components (especially of drives, ventilation systems and aerodynamics) of electric-powered vehicles as well as hybrid electric-powered vehicles are presented. Simultaneously, the author considers the rapid developments in the conventional motorization: actual downsizing engines for passenger cars as well as the potential of new concepts of combustion with regard to the conservation of CO{sub 2} emissions are considered. The new fuel saving developments in the motorization overcompensate the increasing consumption of current consuming components. Information technology and communication technology discover the automobile. Car-to-X themes take o a concrete shape. Since 2012 it is clear that the dual-voltage network formerly being reputed to be dead with an electric power of 48 Volt will appear.

  17. Advanced simulations of energy demand and indoor climate of passive ventilation systems with heat recovery and night cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Christian Anker; Svendsen, Svend

    with little energy consumption and with satisfying indoor climate. The concept is based on using passive measures like stack and wind driven ventilation, effective night cooling and low pressure loss heat recovery using two fluid coupled water-to-air heat exchangers developed at the Technical University...... simulation program ESP-r to model the heat and air flows and the results show the feasibility of the proposed ventilation concept in terms of low energy consumption and good indoor climate....

  18. LCA of local strategies for energy recovery from waste in England, applied to a large municipal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunesi, Simonetta

    2011-01-01

    An intense waste management (WM) planning activity is currently undergoing in England to build the infrastructure necessary to treat residual wastes, increase recycling levels and the recovery of energy from waste. From the analyses of local WM strategic and planning documents we have identified the emerging of three different energy recovery strategies: established combustion of residual waste; pre-treatment of residual waste and energy recovery from Solid Recovered Fuel in a dedicated plant, usually assumed to be a gasifier; pre-treatment of residual waste and reliance on the market to accept the 'fuel from waste' so produced. Each energy recovery strategy will result in a different solution in terms of the technology selected; moreover, on the basis of the favoured solution, the total number, scale and location of thermal treatment plants built in England will dramatically change. To support the evaluation and comparison of these three WM strategy in terms of global environmental impacts, energy recovery possibilities and performance with respect to changing 'fuel from waste' market conditions, the LCA comparison of eight alternative WM scenarios for a real case study dealing with a large flow of municipal wastes was performed with the modelling tool WRATE. The large flow of waste modelled allowed to formulate and assess realistic alternative WM scenarios and to design infrastructural systems which are likely to correspond to those submitted for approval to the local authorities. The results show that all alternative scenarios contribute to saving abiotic resources and reducing global warming potential. Particularly relevant to the current English debate, the performance of a scenario was shown to depend not from the thermal treatment technology but from a combination of parameters, among which most relevant are the efficiency of energy recovery processes (both electricity and heat) and the calorific value of residual waste and pre-treated material. The

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF USING SOLAR ENERGY TO POWER SELECTED MEASURING DRIVES IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marian Kolano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mankind’s misgivings caused by the depletion of fossil fuels have accelerated research on obtaining energy from unconventional sources. One such source is the Sun. The present article reviews the possibility of using solar energy, converted in batteries of photovoltaic cells into electricity, in agriculture and farming. It should also be emphasized that it is energy friendly to the environment, whose acquisition on agricultural land, which often lacks access to the power grid, is now legitimate and profitable. This study presents the results of computer simulations in tabular and graphical form, using the PVSYST program, for a pasture water pumping system for watering grazing cattle.

  20. Cold-air performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the Department of Energy baseline automobile gas-turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelke, R. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of the compressor-drive turbine of the DOE baseline gas-turbine engine was determined over a range of pressure ratios and speeds. In addition, static pressures were measured in the diffusing transition duct located immediately downstream of the turbine. Results are presented in terms of mass flow, torque, specific work, and efficiency for the turbine and in terms of pressure recovery and effectiveness for the transition duct.

  1. Assessment of the greenhouse effect impact of technologies used for energy recovery from municipal waste: a case for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, A; Barton, J R; Karagiannidis, A

    2009-07-01

    Waste management activities contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions approximately by 4%. In particular the disposal of waste in landfills generates methane that has high global warming potential. Effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is important and could provide environmental benefits and sustainable development, as well as reduce adverse impacts on public health. The European and UK waste policy force sustainable waste management and especially diversion from landfill, through reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, and recovery of value from waste. Energy from waste is a waste management option that could provide diversion from landfill and at the same time save a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions, since it recovers energy from waste which usually replaces an equivalent amount of energy generated from fossil fuels. Energy from waste is a wide definition and includes technologies such as incineration of waste with energy recovery, or combustion of waste-derived fuels for energy production or advanced thermal treatment of waste with technologies such as gasification and pyrolysis, with energy recovery. The present study assessed the greenhouse gas emission impacts of three technologies that could be used for the treatment of Municipal Solid Waste in order to recover energy from it. These technologies are Mass Burn Incineration with energy recovery, Mechanical Biological Treatment via bio-drying and Mechanical Heat Treatment, which is a relatively new and uninvestigated method, compared to the other two. Mechanical Biological Treatment and Mechanical Heat Treatment can turn Municipal Solid Waste into Solid Recovered Fuel that could be combusted for energy production or replace other fuels in various industrial processes. The analysis showed that performance of these two technologies depends strongly on the final use of the produced fuel and they could produce GHG emissions savings only when there is end market for the fuel. On the

  2. Advanced Membrane Separation Technologies for Energy Recovery from Industrial Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J. R.; Wang, D. [Gas Technology Institute; Bischoff, B.; Ciora, [Media and Process Technology; Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S. B.

    2013-01-14

    Recovery of energy from relatively low-temperature waste streams is a goal that has not been achieved on any large scale. Heat exchangers do not operate efficiently with low-temperature streams and thus require such large heat exchanger surface areas that they are not practical. Condensing economizers offer one option for heat recovery from such streams, but they have not been widely implemented by industry. A promising alternative to these heat exchangers and economizers is a prototype ceramic membrane system using transport membrane technology for separation of water vapor and recovery of heat. This system was successfully tested by the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) on a natural gas fired boiler where the flue gas is relatively clean and free of contaminants. However, since the tubes of the prototype system were constructed of aluminum oxide, the brittle nature of the tubes limited the robustness of the system and even limited the length of tubes that could be used. In order to improve the robustness of the membrane tubes and make the system more suitable for industrial applications, this project was initiated with the objective of developing a system with materials that would permit the system to function successfully on a larger scale and in contaminated and potentially corrosive industrial environments. This required identifying likely industrial environments and the hazards associated with those environments. Based on the hazardous components in these environments, candidate metallic materials were identified that are expected to have sufficient strength, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance to permit production of longer tubes that could function in the industrial environments identified. Tests were conducted to determine the corrosion resistance of these candidate alloys, and the feasibility of forming these materials into porous substrates was assessed. Once the most promising metallic materials were identified, the ability to form an alumina

  3. A multi-criteria analysis of options for energy recovery from municipal solid waste in India and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, H Y; Nixon, J D

    2015-12-01

    Energy recovery from municipal solid waste plays a key role in sustainable waste management and energy security. However, there are numerous technologies that vary in suitability for different economic and social climates. This study sets out to develop and apply a multi-criteria decision making methodology that can be used to evaluate the trade-offs between the benefits, opportunities, costs and risks of alternative energy from waste technologies in both developed and developing countries. The technologies considered are mass burn incineration, refuse derived fuel incineration, gasification, anaerobic digestion and landfill gas recovery. By incorporating qualitative and quantitative assessments, a preference ranking of the alternative technologies is produced. The effect of variations in decision criteria weightings are analysed in a sensitivity analysis. The methodology is applied principally to compare and assess energy recovery from waste options in the UK and India. These two countries have been selected as they could both benefit from further development of their waste-to-energy strategies, but have different technical and socio-economic challenges to consider. It is concluded that gasification is the preferred technology for the UK, whereas anaerobic digestion is the preferred technology for India. We believe that the presented methodology will be of particular value for waste-to-energy decision-makers in both developed and developing countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Driving R&D for the Next Generation Work Truck; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, M.

    2015-03-04

    Improvements in medium- and heavy-duty work truck energy efficiency can dramatically reduce the use of petroleum-based fuels and the emissions of greenhouse gases. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with industry partners to develop fuel-saving, high-performance vehicle technologies, while examining fleet operational practices that can simulateneously improve fuel economy, decrease emissions, and support bottom-line goals.

  5. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briassoulis, D.; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.; Antiohos, S.K.; Papadi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Definition of parameters characterising agricultural plastic waste (APW) quality. ► Analysis of samples to determine APW quality for recycling or energy recovery. ► Majority of APW samples from various countries have very good quality for recycling. ► Upper limit of 50% w/w soil contamination in APW acceptable for energy recovery. ► Chlorine and heavy metals content in APW below the lowest limit for energy recovery. - Abstract: A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a “very good quality” for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  6. Potential recovery of industrial wood and energy wood raw material in different cutting and climate scenarios for Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkkaeinen, Leena; Nuutinen, Tuula; Matala, Juho; Kellomaeki, Seppo; Haerkoenen, Kari

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the simultaneous recovery of industrial wood and raw material for energy wood from cuttings in Finland during the next 50 years. Two cutting scenarios (maximum and sustainable cuttings) and two climate scenarios (current and changing climate) were analysed to determine their impacts on harvesting potential. The analysis was carried out using sample plot and tree data from the ninth National Forest Inventory and a management-oriented large-scale forestry model (MELA) into which the transfer functions based on physiological modelling were incorporated to describe the impacts of climate change. Depending on the climate scenario, the volume of potential recovery of industrial wood in the maximum cutting scenario during the period 2003-2013 varied from 103 to 105 million m 3 a -1 , while the amount of potential energy wood raw material was 35 Tg a -1 . During the period 2043-2053, in the current climate scenario, the potential recovery of industrial wood was 64 million m 3 a -1 and energy wood raw material 22 Tg a -1 , and in the changing climate scenario, 85 million m 3 a -1 and 29 Tg a -1 , respectively. In the sustainable cutting scenario, depending on the climate scenario used, the potential recovery of industrial wood during the period 2003-2013 varied from 74 to 76 million m 3 a -1 , while the amount of potential energy wood was 25 Tg a -1 . During the period 2043-2053, in the current climate scenario, the potential recovery of industrial wood was 80 million m 3 a -1 and energy wood raw material 26 Tg a -1 , and in the changing climate scenario, 88 million m 3 a -1 and 29 Tg a -1 , respectively. (author)

  7. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas

  8. Life-cycle-assessment of the historical development of air pollution control and energy recovery in waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgaard, Anders; Riber, Christian; Fruergaard, Thilde; Hulgaard, Tore; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste is a debated waste management technology. In some countries it is the main waste management option whereas in other countries it has been disregarded. The main discussion point on waste incineration is the release of air emissions from the combustion of the waste, but also the energy recovery efficiency has a large importance. The historical development of air pollution control in waste incineration was studied through life-cycle-assessment modelling of eight different air pollution control technologies. The results showed a drastic reduction in the release of air emissions and consequently a significant reduction in the potential environmental impacts of waste incineration. Improvements of a factor 0.85-174 were obtained in the different impact potentials as technology developed from no emission control at all, to the best available emission control technologies of today (2010). The importance of efficient energy recovery was studied through seven different combinations of heat and electricity recovery, which were modelled to substitute energy produced from either coal or natural gas. The best air pollution control technology was used at the incinerator. It was found that when substituting coal based energy production total net savings were obtained in both the standard and toxic impact categories. However, if the substituted energy production was based on natural gas, only the most efficient recovery options yielded net savings with respect to the standard impacts. With regards to the toxic impact categories, emissions from the waste incineration process were always larger than those from the avoided energy production based on natural gas. The results shows that the potential environmental impacts from air emissions have decreased drastically during the last 35 years and that these impacts can be partly or fully offset by recovering energy which otherwise should have been produced from fossil fuels like coal or natural gas.

  9. Experimental studies of 7-cell dual axis asymmetric cavity for energy recovery linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Konoplev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High average current, transportable energy recovery linacs (ERLs can be very attractive tools for a number of applications including next generation high-luminosity, compact light sources. Conventional ERLs are based on an electron beam circulating through the same set of rf cavity cells. This leads to an accumulation of high-order modes inside the cavity cells, resulting in the development of a beam breakup (BBU instability, unless the beam current is kept below the BBU start current. This limits the maximum current which can be transported through the ERL and hence the intensity of the photon beam generated. It has recently been proposed that splitting the accelerating and decelerating stages, tuning them separately and coupling them via a resonance coupler can increase the BBU start current. The paper presents the first experimental rf studies of a dual axis 7-cell asymmetric cavity and confirms the properties predicted by the theoretical model. The field structures of the symmetric and asymmetric modes are measured and good agreement with the numerical predictions is demonstrated. The operating mode field flatness was also measured and discussed. A novel approach based on the coupled mode (Fano-like model has been developed for the description of the cavity eigenmode spectrum and good agreement between analytical theory, numerical predictions and experimental data is shown. Numerical and experimental results observed are analyzed, discussed and a good agreement between theory and experiment is demonstrated.

  10. Recovery of energy and nutrient resources from cattle paunch waste using temperature phased anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul D; Mehta, Chirag M; Carney, Chris; Batstone, D J

    2016-05-01

    Cattle paunch is comprised of partially digested cattle feed, containing mainly grass and grain and is a major waste produced at cattle slaughterhouses contributing 20-30% of organic matter and 40-50% of P waste produced on-site. In this work, Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) and struvite crystallization processes were developed at pilot-scale to recover methane energy and nutrients from paunch solid waste. The TPAD plant achieved a maximum sustainable organic loading rate of 1-1.5kgCODm(-3)day(-1) using a feed solids concentration of approximately 3%; this loading rate was limited by plant engineering and not the biology of the process. Organic solids destruction (60%) and methane production (230LCH4kg(-1) VSfed) achieved in the plant were similar to levels predicted from laboratory biochemical methane potential (BMP) testing. Model based analysis identified no significant difference in batch laboratory parameters vs pilot-scale continuous parameters, and no change in speed or extent of degradation. However the TPAD process did result in a degree of process intensification with a high level of solids destruction at an average treatment time of 21days. Results from the pilot plant show that an integrated process enabled resource recovery at 7.8GJ/dry tonne paunch, 1.8kgP/dry tonne paunch and 1.0kgN/dry tonne paunch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Comparative Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on an Innovative Exhaust Air Energy Recovery Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedsaeed Tabatabaeikia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recovering energy from exhaust air systems of building cooling towers is an innovative idea. A specific wind turbine generator was designed in order to achieve this goal. This device consists of two Giromill vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT combined with four guide vanes and two diffuser plates. It was clear from previous literatures that no comprehensive flow behavior study had been carried out on this innovative device. Therefore, the working principle of this design was simulated using the Analysis System (ANSYS Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD package and the results were compared to experimental ones. It was perceived from the results that by introducing the diffusers and then the guide vanes, the overall power output of the wind turbine was improved by approximately 5% and 34%, respectively, compared to using VAWT alone. In the case of the diffusers, the optimum angle was found to be 7°, while for guide vanes A and B, it was 70° and 60° respectively. These results were in good agreement with experimental results obtained in the previous experimental study. Overall, it can be concluded that exhaust air recovery turbines are a promising form of green technology.

  12. Feasibility Study for High Power RF – Energy Recovery in Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    When dealing with particle accelerators, especially in systems with travelling wave structures and low beam loading, a substantial amount of RF power is dissipated in 50Ω termination loads. For the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at Cern this is 69 % of the incident RF power or about 1 MW. Different ideas, making use of that otherwise dissipated power, are presented and their feasibility is reviewed. The most feasible one, utilizing an array of semiconductor based RF/DC modules, is used to create a design concept for energy recovery in the SPS. The modules are required to operate at high power, high efficiency and with low harmonic radiation. Besides the actual RF rectifier, they contain additional components to ensure a graceful degradation of the overall system. Different rectifier architectures and semiconductor devices are compared and the most suitable ones are chosen. Two prototype devices were built and operated with up to 400 W of pulsed RF power. Broadband measurements – capturing all harmonics up ...

  13. Methanogenic degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in subsurface environments remediation, heavy oil formation, and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Hubert, C; Dolfing, J; Head, I M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbons are common constituents of surface, shallow, and deep-subsurface environments. Under anaerobic conditions, hydrocarbons can be degraded to methane by methanogenic microbial consortia. This degradation process is widespread in the geosphere. In comparison with other anaerobic processes, methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is more sustainable over geological time scales because replenishment of an exogenous electron acceptor is not required. As a consequence, this process has been responsible for the formation of the world's vast deposits of heavy oil, which far exceed conventional oil assets such as those found in the Middle East. Methanogenic degradation is also a potentially important component of attenuation in hydrocarbon contamination plumes. Studies of the organisms, syntrophic partnerships, mechanisms, and geochemical signatures associated with methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation have identified common themes and diagnostic markers for this process in the subsurface. These studies have also identified the potential to engineer methanogenic processes to enhance the recovery of energy assets as biogenic methane from residual oils stranded in petroleum systems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N

    2010-12-01

    Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving a final concentration of 7.2 g COD L(-1). Large fractions of suspended COD were recovered in the concentrate (57%, 81% and 82% at SRT/HRT ratios of 3, 8 and 12, respectively) indicating a strong bioflocculation of grey water. A maximum of 11% of COD mineralization of grey water was measured at the longest SRT tested (1 d). The integration of bioflocculation of grey water in decentralized sanitation concepts may increase the overall production of methane by 73%, based on the biogas produced by black water only. Therefore, bioflocculation is a promising grey water pre-treatment step for energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hahn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  16. Axial turbine with underwater generator for energy recovery; Axialturbine mit Unterwassergenerator zur Energierueckgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welzel, B. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1997-12-31

    Within the framework of a project sponsored by the Stiftung Energieforschung Baden-Wuerttemberg, an axial turbine was developed as a flash evaporator, which permits energy recovery in all sectors where liquids in piping undergoes pressure relaxation. A specific feature of this turbine is that it forms part, complete with generator, of a single pipeline and that it does not cause any pressure variations worth mentioning in case of mains failure. The report describes the turbine, its advantages, and a pilot operation carried out with a prototype. The turbine`s performance is compared with a return pump. Further, the optimization of the hydraulic design by computer and the results of a market analysis are dealt with. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen einer von der Stiftung Energieforschung Baden-Wuerttemberg gefoerderten Neuentwicklung wurde eine Axialturbine als Entspannungsturbine entwickelt, mit der eine Energierueckgewinnung in allen Bereichen erfolgen kann, in denen Fluessigkeiten in Rohrleitungssystemen entspannt werden. Die Turbine zeichnet sich unter anderem dadurch aus, dass sie komplett, inklusive Generator, innerhalb einer Rohrleitung angeordnet ist und bei Netzausfall keine nennenswerte Druckschwankung erzeugt. Es werden die Turbine, deren Vorteile sowie der mit einem Prototypen durchgefuehrte Betriebsversuch beschrieben. Weiterhin werden ein Vergleich des Betriebsverhaltens mit einer rueckwaertslaufenden Pumpe, die rechnerische Optimierung der hydraulischen Formgebung sowie die Ergebnisse einer Marktanalyse behandelt. (orig.)

  17. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E.C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R and D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R and D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  18. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E. C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Xu, Wencan

    2010-12-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  19. Characterization of Printed Circuit Boards for Metal and Energy Recovery after Milling and Mechanical Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Bizzo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proper disposal of electrical and electronic waste is currently a concern of researchers and environmental managers not only because of the large volume of such waste generated, but also because of the heavy metals and toxic substances it contains. This study analyzed printed circuit boards (PCBs from discarded computers to determine their metal content and characterized them as solid waste and fuel. The analysis showed that PCBs consist of approximately 26% metal, made up mainly of copper, lead, aluminum, iron and tin, as well as other heavy metals such as cadmium and nickel. Comparison with the results of other studies indicated that the concentration of precious metals (gold and silver has declined over time. Analysis of the leachate revealed high concentrations of cadmium and lead, giving the residue the characteristics of hazardous waste. After milling the PCBs, we found that larger amounts of metal were concentrated in smaller fractions, while the lightest fraction, obtained by density separation, had a gross calorific value of approximately 11 MJ/kg, although with a high ash content. Milling followed by density separation proved potentially useful for recovery of metals and energy-rich fractions.

  20. Recovery of crown mass for energy with whole-tree skidding methods; Puupolttoaineen tuottaminen kokopuujuontomenetelmillae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nousiainen, I. [Finntech Ltd Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Vesisenaho, T. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The main aim of the project `Recovery of crown mass for energy with whole-tree skidding methods` was to develop the integrated harvesting method of wood raw material and wood fuel based on whole-tree skidding. The developed method gives also the possibility to deliver to sawmills raw material in the form of log section. In the harvesting chain under development whole-trees are felled and bunched with a normal one-grip harvester. The whole-trees are skidded to the roadside by a forwarder equipped with a clam bunk. At the roadside the trees are delimbed and cut with the one-grip harvester used for felling and bunching. According to the results of the field tests the harvesting costs of logging residues are in certain final cutting conditions even under 10 FIM/m{sup 3}, when the average stem size is over 0,500 m{sup 3}. In the developed method felling and bunching of whole trees with the one-grip harvester and skidding of whole-trees with the clam skidder succeeded well. The problems of the method concentrate on delimbing and bucking of whole-trees in landing site

  1. Recovery of crown mass for energy with whole-tree skidding methods; Puupolttoaineen tuottaminen kokopuujuontomenetelmillae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nousiainen, I [Finntech Ltd Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Vesisenaho, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The main aim of the project `Recovery of crown mass for energy with whole-tree skidding methods` was to develop the integrated harvesting method of wood raw material and wood fuel based on whole-tree skidding. The developed method gives also the possibility to deliver to sawmills raw material in the form of log section. In the harvesting chain under development whole-trees are felled and bunched with a normal one-grip harvester. The whole-trees are skidded to the roadside by a forwarder equipped with a clam bunk. At the roadside the trees are delimbed and cut with the one-grip harvester used for felling and bunching. According to the results of the field tests the harvesting costs of logging residues are in certain final cutting conditions even under 10 FIM/m{sup 3}, when the average stem size is over 0,500 m{sup 3}. In the developed method felling and bunching of whole trees with the one-grip harvester and skidding of whole-trees with the clam skidder succeeded well. The problems of the method concentrate on delimbing and bucking of whole-trees in landing site

  2. Energy-related CO_2 emission in European Union agriculture: Driving forces and possibilities for reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tianxiang; Baležentis, Tomas; Makutėnienė, Daiva; Streimikiene, Dalia; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The research focuses on agricultural sectors of the eighteen European countries. • The main drivers of energy-related CO_2 emission are quantified by means of IDA. • The slack-based DEA model is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency. • Shadow prices of carbon emission are analysed. • Energy efficiency remains the primary means for increasing environmental efficiency. - Abstract: Climate change mitigation is a key issue in formulating global environmental policies. Energy production and consumption are the main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Energy consumption and energy-related GHG emissions from agriculture are an important concern for policymakers, as the agricultural activities should meet food security goals along with proper economic, environmental, and social impacts. Carbon dioxide (CO_2) emission is the most significant among energy-related GHG emissions. This paper analyses the main drivers behind energy-related CO_2 emission across agricultural sectors of European countries. The analysis is based on aggregate data from the World Input-Output Database. The research explores two main directions. Firstly, Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), facilitated by the Shapley index, is used to identify the main drivers of CO_2 emission. Secondly, the Slack-based Model (SBM) is applied to gauge the environmental efficiency of European agricultural sectors. By applying frontier techniques, we also derive the measures of environmental efficiency and shadow prices, thereby contributing to a discussion on CO_2 emission mitigation in agriculture. Therefore, the paper devises an integrated approach towards analysis of CO_2 emission based upon advanced decomposition and efficiency analysis models. The research covers eighteen European countries and the applied methodology decomposes contributions to CO_2 emission across of regions and factors. Results of IDA suggest that decreasing energy intensity is the main factor

  3. Energy recovery of the H2S and CO2 elimination with technology by hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar T, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    This document is a research focused on energy recovery from acid gas removal contained in natural gas as hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), by obtaining highly energetic gas such as syngas (mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, in particular) using plasma technology in its hybrid form, namely, gliding arc plasma, that has the property to behave like a thermal plasma and cold plasma, besides possessing among other virtues the ability to treat large flows continuously at atmospheric pressure without the need of using noble gases, with a power consumption of no more than 1000 W. Furthermore, this type of plasma has demonstrated to be a clean and efficient not only by high conversion rates of H 2 S (86%) and CO 2 (56%) and high percentages of selectivity in the production of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon monoxide carbon (CO) obtained in this work, but because it can even be seriously considered to replace other technologies currently used in the process of sweetening natural gas as adsorption, absorption and sequestering membranes. The results shown are based on a series of analysis, simulations, experiments and calculations, from the design of the plasma generating source based on an impulse-phase circuit, to the electrical characterization results and simulation by acquiring electrical signals, without forgetting the characterization of the resulting chemical components using various analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), optical emission spectroscopy (OES), optical spectroscopy Fourier inverse transformed (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and multi-gas detectors (iBrid MX6). Additionally, performed chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism of the compounds involved in the degradation of H 2 S and CO 2 similar to those experienced as well as the study of energy efficiency (Ece), specific energy (Se), all this to meet a projects needs 127499, entitled -Development of alternative

  4. Pyrolysis process of agricultural waste using CO2 for waste management, energy recovery, and biochar fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jechan; Yang, Xiao; Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Jae-Kon; Lee, Sang Soo; Tsang, Daniel C.W.; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO 2 reacts with VOCs enhancing syngas generation from pyrolysis of biomass. • CO 2 reduces tar formation by expediting thermal cracking of VOCs. • Properties of biochar can be easily modified using CO 2 as a pyrolysis agent. • A detailed mass balance for pyrolysis of red pepper stalk was provided. • Energy saving can be expected in pyrolysis of biomass using CO 2 . - Abstract: This study focused on the mechanistic understanding of CO 2 in pyrolysis process of agricultural waste to achieve waste management, energy recovery, and biochar fabrication. In order to scrutinize the genuine role of CO 2 in the biomass pyrolysis, all pyrogenic products such as syngas, pyrolytic oil (i.e., tar), and biochar generated from pyrolysis of red pepper stalk in N 2 and CO 2 were characterized. Thermo-gravimetric analysis confirmed that during the thermolysis of red pepper stalk, the magnitude of exothermic reaction in CO 2 from 220 to 400 °C was substantially different from that in N 2 , resulting in the different extents of carbonization. The physico-chemical properties of biochar produced in CO 2 were varied compared to biochar produced in N 2 . For example, the surface area of biochar produced in CO 2 was increased from 32.46 to 109.15 m 2 g −1 . This study validates the role of CO 2 not only as expediting agent for the thermal cracking of volatile organic carbons (VOCs) but also as reacting agent with VOCs. This genuine influence of CO 2 in pyrolysis of red pepper stalk led to enhanced generation of syngas, which consequently reduced tar production because VOCs evolving from devolatilization of biomass served as substrates for syngas via reaction between CO 2 and VOCs. The enhanced generation of CO reached up to 3000 and 6000% at 600 and 690 °C, respectively, whereas 33.8% tar reduction in CO 2 was identified at 600 °C.

  5. Resolving Key Uncertainties in Subsurface Energy Recovery: One Role of In Situ Experimentation and URLs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, D.

    2013-12-01

    Significant uncertainties remain and influence the recovery of energy from the subsurface. These uncertainties include the fate and transport of long-lived radioactive wastes that result from the generation of nuclear power and have been the focus of an active network of international underground research laboratories dating back at least 35 years. However, other nascent carbon-free energy technologies including conventional and EGS geothermal methods, carbon-neutral methods such as carbon capture and sequestration and the utilization of reduced-carbon resources such as unconventional gas reservoirs offer significant challenges in their effective deployment. We illustrate the important role that in situ experiments may play in resolving behaviors at extended length- and time-scales for issues related to chemical-mechanical interactions. Significantly, these include the evolution of transport and mechanical characteristics of stress-sensitive fractured media and their influence of the long-term behavior of the system. Importantly, these interests typically relate to either creating reservoirs (hydroshearing in EGS reservoirs, artificial fractures in shales and coals) or maintaining seals at depth where the permeating fluids may include mixed brines, CO2, methane and other hydrocarbons. Critical questions relate to the interaction of these various fluid mixtures and compositions with the fractured substrate. Important needs are in understanding the roles of key processes (transmission, dissolution, precipitation, sorption and dynamic stressing) on the modification of effective stresses and their influence on the evolution of permeability, strength and induced seismicity on the resulting development of either wanted or unwanted fluid pathways. In situ experimentation has already contributed to addressing some crucial issues of these complex interactions at field scale. Important contributions are noted in understanding the fate and transport of long-lived wastes

  6. Energy and cost savings potential of oscillating heat pipes for waste heat recovery ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govinda Mahajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using finned oscillating heat pipes (OHPs for heat exchange between counter-flowing air streams in HVAC air systems (i.e., outdoor and exhaust air flows, along with the associated cost savings in typical North American climates, is investigated. For a prescribed temperature difference and volumetric flow rate of air, rudimentary design parameters for a viable OHP Heat Recovery Ventilator (OHP-HRV were determined using the ε-NTU (effectiveness-Number of Transfer Unit method. The two-phase heat transfer within the OHP-HRV is modeled via effective evaporation/condensation heat transfer coefficients, while the latent heat transfer required to initiate OHP operation via boiling and evaporation is also considered. Results suggest that an OHP-HRV can possess a reasonable pressure drop (5 kW. The proposed OHP-HRV can possess an effectiveness near 0.5 and can pre-cool/heat HVAC air by >5°C. Potential energy and cost savings associated with using an OHP-HRV were estimated for commercial building envelopes in various regions of the United States. It is found that the proposed OHP-HRV can save more than $2500 annually in cities that have continental climatic conditions, such as Chicago and Denver, and for the selected locations the average yearly cost savings per building is found to be on-the-order of $700. Overall, the OHP-HRV shows potential in effectively reducing energy consumption and the operational cost of air handling units in buildings.

  7. A study on the flow characteristics of a direct drive turbine for energy conversion generation by experiment and CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y J; Zullah, M A; Faizal, M; Lee, Y H; Choi, Y D

    2012-01-01

    A variety of technologies has been proposed to capture the energy from waves. Some of the more promising designs are undergoing demonstration testing at commercial scales. Due to the complexity of most offshore wave energy devices and their motion response in different sea states, physical tank tests are common practice for WEC design. Full scale tests are also necessary, but are expensive and only considered once the design has been optimized. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is now recognized as an important complement to traditional physical testing techniques in offshore engineering. Once properly calibrated and validated to the problem, CFD offers a high density of test data and results in a reasonable timescale to assist with design changes and improvements to the device. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a newly developed direct drive hydro turbine (DDT), which will be built in a caisson for extraction of wave energy. Experiments and CFD analysis are conducted to clarify the turbine performance and internal flow characteristics. The results show that commercial CFD code can be applied successfully to the simulation of the wave motion in the water tank. The performance of the turbine for wave energy converter is studied continuously for a ongoing project.

  8. A study on the flow characteristics of a direct drive turbine for energy conversion generation by experiment and CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. J.; Zullah, M. A.; Faizal, M.; Choi, Y. D.; Lee, Y. H.

    2012-11-01

    A variety of technologies has been proposed to capture the energy from waves. Some of the more promising designs are undergoing demonstration testing at commercial scales. Due to the complexity of most offshore wave energy devices and their motion response in different sea states, physical tank tests are common practice for WEC design. Full scale tests are also necessary, but are expensive and only considered once the design has been optimized. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is now recognized as an important complement to traditional physical testing techniques in offshore engineering. Once properly calibrated and validated to the problem, CFD offers a high density of test data and results in a reasonable timescale to assist with design changes and improvements to the device. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a newly developed direct drive hydro turbine (DDT), which will be built in a caisson for extraction of wave energy. Experiments and CFD analysis are conducted to clarify the turbine performance and internal flow characteristics. The results show that commercial CFD code can be applied successfully to the simulation of the wave motion in the water tank. The performance of the turbine for wave energy converter is studied continuously for a ongoing project.

  9. Driving forces in energy-related CO2 emissions in south and east coastal China: commonality and variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Liu, Y.; Jin, J.; Wei, T.

    2015-12-01

    East and south coastal China contributes to respectively about 30% and 8% of CO2 emissions in China and the world, and therefore play a critical role in achieving the national goal of emission reduction to mitigate the global warming. It also serves as a benchmark for the less developed regions of China, in terms of achieving the developed world's human development standard under lower per capita emissions. We analyze the driving forces of emissions in this region and their provincial characteristics by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method. Our findings show that emissions have been doubled during the period from 2000 to 2012, along with three and two folds increase in economy and energy consumption, respectively. This suggests a persistent lock between economic growth and emissions, even in this socioeconomically advanced region in China. Provincial difference in annual emission growth reveals three distinguished low-carbon developmental stages, owning mainly to the effectiveness of energy efficiency in reducing emission growth. This may explain why previous climate policies have aimed to reduce carbon intensity. These results indicate that targeted measures on enhancing energy efficiency in the short term and de-carbonization of both the economic and energy structure in the long term can lower the emission growth more effectively and efficiently. They also suggest that factor-driven emission reduction strategies and policies are needed in the geographically and socioeconomically similar regions.

  10. Energy to save the world: use of portable nuclear energy for hydrocarbon recovery, electrical generation, and water reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deal, John R. Grizz; Pearson, Cody [Hyperion Power Generation, Inc., 369 Montezuma Ave, Suite 508, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear-based electric and steam generation has traditionally been limited to large-scale plants that require enormous capital and infrastructure. A new wave of nuclear reactors is ready for introduction into locales and industry that previously have been unable to take advantage of the clean, safe, and cheap energy nuclear affords. One of these 'new kids on the block' is the Hyperion Power Module (HPM), an original design developed in Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through the U.S. government's technology transfer initiative, the exclusive license to develop and commercialize the invention has been granted to Hyperion Power Generation (HPG).