Applied energy an introduction
Abdullah, Mohammad Omar
2012-01-01
Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S
Science Programs Applied Energy Programs Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs Laboratory Directed Research » Applied Energy Program Applied Energy Program Los Alamos is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance national energy security by developing energy sources with limited environmental impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terra, Andre Miguel Barge Pontes Torres
2005-01-01
The Albedo method applied to criticality calculations to nuclear reactors is characterized by following the neutron currents, allowing to make detailed analyses of the physics phenomena about interactions of the neutrons with the core-reflector set, by the determination of the probabilities of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Then, allowing to make detailed appreciations of the variation of the effective neutron multiplication factor, keff. In the present work, motivated for excellent results presented in dissertations applied to thermal reactors and shieldings, was described the methodology to Albedo method for the analysis criticality of thermal reactors by using two energy groups admitting variable core coefficients to each re-entrant current. By using the Monte Carlo KENO IV code was analyzed relation between the total fraction of neutrons absorbed in the core reactor and the fraction of neutrons that never have stayed into the reflector but were absorbed into the core. As parameters of comparison and analysis of the results obtained by the Albedo method were used one dimensional deterministic code ANISN (ANIsotropic SN transport code) and Diffusion method. The keff results determined by the Albedo method, to the type of analyzed reactor, showed excellent agreement. Thus were obtained relative errors of keff values smaller than 0,78% between the Albedo method and code ANISN. In relation to the Diffusion method were obtained errors smaller than 0,35%, showing the effectiveness of the Albedo method applied to criticality analysis. The easiness of application, simplicity and clarity of the Albedo method constitute a valuable instrument to neutronic calculations applied to nonmultiplying and multiplying media. (author)
A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Dong
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.
Stochastic Methods Applied to Power System Operations with Renewable Energy: A Review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), Austin, TX (United States); Botterud, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2016-08-01
Renewable energy resources have been rapidly integrated into power systems in many parts of the world, contributing to a cleaner and more sustainable supply of electricity. Wind and solar resources also introduce new challenges for system operations and planning in terms of economics and reliability because of their variability and uncertainty. Operational strategies based on stochastic optimization have been developed recently to address these challenges. In general terms, these stochastic strategies either embed uncertainties into the scheduling formulations (e.g., the unit commitment [UC] problem) in probabilistic forms or develop more appropriate operating reserve strategies to take advantage of advanced forecasting techniques. Other approaches to address uncertainty are also proposed, where operational feasibility is ensured within an uncertainty set of forecasting intervals. In this report, a comprehensive review is conducted to present the state of the art through Spring 2015 in the area of stochastic methods applied to power system operations with high penetration of renewable energy. Chapters 1 and 2 give a brief introduction and overview of power system and electricity market operations, as well as the impact of renewable energy and how this impact is typically considered in modeling tools. Chapter 3 reviews relevant literature on operating reserves and specifically probabilistic methods to estimate the need for system reserve requirements. Chapter 4 looks at stochastic programming formulations of the UC and economic dispatch (ED) problems, highlighting benefits reported in the literature as well as recent industry developments. Chapter 5 briefly introduces alternative formulations of UC under uncertainty, such as robust, chance-constrained, and interval programming. Finally, in Chapter 6, we conclude with the main observations from our review and important directions for future work.
Energy Moment Method Applied to Nuclear Quadrupole Splitting of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Lines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frank, V
1962-01-01
Expressions giving the sum of the energy values, raised to the second and third power, for a nucleus interacting with a static magnetic field and a static electric field gradient are derived. Several applications of this method for obtaining the values of the components of the electric field...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matausek, M.
1972-01-01
A new proposed method for solving the space-energy dependent spherical harmonics equations represents a methodological contribution to neutron transport theory. The proposed method was applied for solving the problem of spec-energy transport of fast and resonance neutrons in multi-zone, cylindrical y symmetric infinite reactor cell and is related to previously developed procedure for treating the thermal energy region. The advantages of this method are as follows: a unique algorithm was obtained for detailed determination of spatial and energy distribution of neutrons (from thermal to fast) in the reactor cell; these detailed distributions enable more precise calculations of criticality conditions, obtaining adequate multigroup data and better interpretation of experimental data; computing time is rather short
Towards an optimal energy network topology by applying the cross‐entropy method
Mazairac, L.A.J.; Andrianantenaina, H.; Decorme, R.; Robert, S.
2014-01-01
During the last decades awareness regarding the problems related to the future of our energy supply increased significantly. E.g. changing relations between countries threaten a secure and constant supply of energy towards those countries not able to meet their own energy demand. The melting of the
Structural Modeling and Analysis of a Wave Energy Converter Applying Dynamical Substructuring Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Damkilde, Lars; Gao, Zhen
2013-01-01
to the relative stiff behavior of the arm the calculation can be reduced to a quasi-static analysis. The hydrodynamic and the structural analyses are thus performed separately. In order to reduce the computational time of the finite element calculation the main structure is modeled as a superelement......This paper deals with structural modeling and analysis of a wave energy converter. The device, called Wavestar, is a bottom fixed structure, located in a shallow water environment at the Danish Northwest coast. The analysis is concentrated on a single float and its structural arm which connects...... the WEC to a jackup structure. The wave energy converter is characterized by having an operational and survival mode. The survival mode drastically reduces the exposure to waves and therfore to the wave loads. Structural response analysis of the Wavestar arm is carried out in this study. Due...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caridi, Aurora; Debray, Mario; Hojman, Daniel; Kreiner, A.J.; Santos, Daniel
1989-01-01
The air pollution by lead at the downtown area of Buenos Aires city was studied applying the PIXE method. The samples were collected at different seasons of the year. An appreciable reduction of the Pb content was observed on holidays and in summer when there is a lot less of cars in the streets. The influence of the beam energy on the Bremsstrahlung background was studied in order to optimize the sensitivity of the method. The C-12 beam energy was varied from 54 MeV to 30 MeV. The maximum Bremsstrahlung energy of secondary electrons decreased from 10 keV to 5.5 keV. Simultaneously the background radiation was appreciably reduced in the whole spectrum for the lowest beam energy whereas the values for the cross section of X ray production in the Pb L shell were no substantially modified. It is concluded that it is possible to analyze those elements whose characteristic X rays have an energy larger than 5.5 keV. (Author) [es
Applied Bayesian hierarchical methods
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Congdon, P
2010-01-01
... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Posterior Inference from Bayes Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Markov Chain Monte Carlo Sampling in Relation to Monte Carlo Methods: Obtaining Posterior...
Methods of applied mathematics
Hildebrand, Francis B
1992-01-01
This invaluable book offers engineers and physicists working knowledge of a number of mathematical facts and techniques not commonly treated in courses in advanced calculus, but nevertheless extremely useful when applied to typical problems in many different fields. It deals principally with linear algebraic equations, quadratic and Hermitian forms, operations with vectors and matrices, the calculus of variations, and the formulations and theory of linear integral equations. Annotated problems and exercises accompany each chapter.
Delgado-González, M J; Sánchez-Guillén, M M; García-Moreno, M V; Rodríguez-Dodero, M C; García-Barroso, C; Guillén-Sánchez, D A
2017-05-01
During the ageing of brandies, many physicochemical processes take place involving the distilled spirit and the wood of the casks. Because of these reactions, the polyphenolic content of brandies and their content of organic acids increase with the ageing. These reactions are slow, and the ageing of high-quality brandies takes several years. In this paper, the development of a system that uses the circulation of the wine distillate through encapsulated American oak chips and the application of ultrasound energy with the aim of producing aged wine spirits has been carried out, and the influences of the operation variables over the characteristics of the produced drink have been measured. With that proposal, the influence of different powers of ultrasound, and also the influence of the movement of the liquor through oak chips, was determined first. This way, the results show that higher powers of ultrasound, of nearly 40W/L, in addition with the movement of the spirit, improve the extraction of phenolic compounds in a 33.94%, after seven days of ageing. Then, applying Youden and Steiner's experimental design, eight experiments of ageing were performed, and the samples obtained by this new method were analysed to obtain information related to their physicochemical and oenological characterisation in order to determine the experimental conditions that produce the best ageing results. This way, the best spirit produced by this new method of ageing is obtained with a high alcoholic strength of the distilled wine and a high quantity of oak chips, and with room temperature and high flow rate. In addition, the presence of oxygen in the sample and the absence of light increase the quality of the produced spirit. Finally, the application of ultrasound energy in large pulses is related with the improvement of two important ageing markers: the intensity of the colour and the TPI. As a last experiment, we applied this ageing method to five varietal spirits. The sensorial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
César Hernández-Hernández
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Electricity load forecasting, optimal power system operation and energy management play key roles that can bring significant operational advantages to microgrids. This paper studies how methods based on time series and neural networks can be used to predict energy demand and production, allowing them to be combined with model predictive control. Comparisons of different prediction methods and different optimum energy distribution scenarios are provided, permitting us to determine when short-term energy prediction models should be used. The proposed prediction models in addition to the model predictive control strategy appear as a promising solution to energy management in microgrids. The controller has the task of performing the management of electricity purchase and sale to the power grid, maximizing the use of renewable energy sources and managing the use of the energy storage system. Simulations were performed with different weather conditions of solar irradiation. The obtained results are encouraging for future practical implementation.
Dictionary of applied energy conservation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kut, D
1982-01-01
The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilton, P.R.; Nordholm, S.; Hush, N.S.
1980-01-01
The ground-state inversion method, which we have previously developed for the calculation of atomic cross-sections, is applied to the calculation of molecular photoionization cross-sections. These are obtained as a weighted sum of atomic subshell cross-sections plus multi-centre interference terms. The atomic cross-sections are calculated directly for the atomic functions which when summed over centre and symmetry yield the molecular orbital wave function. The use of the ground-state inversion method for this allows the effect of the molecular environment on the atomic cross-sections to be calculated. Multi-centre terms are estimated on the basis of an effective plane-wave expression for this contribution to the total cross-section. Finally the method is applied to the range of photon energies from 0 to 44 eV where atomic extrapolation procedures have not previously been tested. Results obtained for H 2 , N 2 and CO show good agreement with experiment, particularly when interference effects and effects of the molecular environment on the atomic cross-sections are included. The accuracy is very much better than that of previous plane-wave and orthogonalized plane-wave methods, and can stand comparison with that of recent more sophisticated approaches. It is a feature of the method that calculation of cross-sections either of atoms or of large molecules requires very little computer time, provided that good quality wave functions are available, and it is then of considerable potential practical interest for photoelectorn spectroscopy. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dario Maradin
2014-07-01
Full Text Available One of the fundamental tasks of modern power system is finding ways to produce stable and continuous electricity from scarce energy resources. One of the possible solutions is introduction, implementation and improvement of alternative forms of energy such as renewable energy sources, particularly wind energy as an increasingly important energy source which is expected to further increase its share in total electricity production. Numerous methods can be used in assessing the efficiency of wind energy companies, and in the focus of this research is the Data Envelopment Analysis method (DEA, a widely accepted methodology given its interdisciplinary approach and flexibility. This method represents a step forward in the field of renewable energy management, because it provides the possibility to compare the selected companies with the best in the industry (the most efficient and the possibility of determining sources of inefficiency and, consequently, the possibilities of their elimination.
Energy consumption assessment methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sutherland, K S
1975-01-01
The why, what, and how-to aspects of energy audits for industrial plants, and the application of energy accounting methods to a chemical plant in order to assess energy conservation possibilities are discussed. (LCL)
Applied Formal Methods for Elections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jian
development time, or second dynamically, i.e. monitoring while an implementation is used during an election, or after the election is over, for forensic analysis. This thesis contains two chapters on this subject: the chapter Analyzing Implementations of Election Technologies describes a technique...... process. The chapter Measuring Voter Lines describes an automated data collection method for measuring voters' waiting time, and discusses statistical models designed to provide an understanding of the voter behavior in polling stations....
Applied Formal Methods for Elections
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jian
Information technology is changing the way elections are organized. Technology renders the electoral process more efficient, but things could also go wrong: Voting software is complex, it consists of over thousands of lines of code, which makes it error-prone. Technical problems may cause delays...... bounded model-checking and satisfiability modulo theories (SMT) solvers can be used to check these criteria. Voter Experience: Technology profoundly affects the voter experience. These effects need to be measured and the data should be used to make decisions regarding the implementation of the electoral...... at polling stations, or even delay the announcement of the final result. This thesis describes a set of methods to be used, for example, by system developers, administrators, or decision makers to examine election technologies, social choice algorithms and voter experience. Technology: Verifiability refers...
Energy uses in combination processes applying irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brynjolfsson, A.
1998-01-01
The costs of energy in the food system are significant and have increased as a result of the growth in population worldwide. This, in turn, demands an increased harvest per area of land, and thus intensive agriculture. The energy used in the food system is not only a drain on limited resources but also has an adverse impact on the environment. It is therefore important to devise methods that reduce energy in all undertakings. The energy used in food irradiation is relatively low compared with other methods and relative to the amount of energy used in producing food. for this reason, food irradiation is an environmentally friendly method and the costs of processing and preserving food do not depend greatly on the fluctuating costs of renewable energy sources such as oil. Irradiation in 60 Co facilities uses a very small amount of energy, about 0.032-0.0465 MJ/kg for radicidation doses of 3 kGy. Irradiation in 5 MV DC electron accelerator facilities uses about twice as much energy; 10 MV travelling wave accelerator facilities use about five times as much and 5 MV X ray facilities about 25 times as much as 60 Co facilities. In practice, X ray facilities are employed only for low dose applications such as sprout inhibition, inactivation of trichina in pork products and disinfestation of fruits, therefore the energy used in low. Frequently, irradiation can be used in combination with other low energy methods such as the sun drying of spices, condiments, vegetables and fish. The overall method of preservation is then particularly environmentally friendly and results in microbiologically safe and wholesome food. (author)
Applying Systems Engineering on Energy Challenges
Safi, J.; Muller, G.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten
2012-01-01
Systems engineering is a discipline with methods and techniques to address complex problems. We want to study how Systems Engineering methods can help to address today's grand challenges, such as the energy problem. The first step is problem definition which aims at articulating the problem in its
[Montessori method applied to dementia - literature review].
Brandão, Daniela Filipa Soares; Martín, José Ignacio
2012-06-01
The Montessori method was initially applied to children, but now it has also been applied to people with dementia. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the research on the effectiveness of this method using Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline) with the keywords dementia and Montessori method. We selected lo studies, in which there were significant improvements in participation and constructive engagement, and reduction of negative affects and passive engagement. Nevertheless, systematic reviews about this non-pharmacological intervention in dementia rate this method as weak in terms of effectiveness. This apparent discrepancy can be explained because the Montessori method may have, in fact, a small influence on dimensions such as behavioral problems, or because there is no research about this method with high levels of control, such as the presence of several control groups or a double-blind study.
Energy loss spectroscopy applied to surface studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lecante, J.
1975-01-01
The analysis of energy losses suffered by slow electrons (5eV to 300eV) back-scattered by single crystal surfaces appears to be a powerful method for surfaces studies. The inelastic scattering of these slow electrons limits their escape depth to the surface region. After a review of the basic excitation processes due to the interaction between electrons and surfaces (phonons, plasmons and electronic transitions) a brief discussion is given about the instruments needed for this electrons spectroscopy. Finally some experimental results are listed and it is shown that the comparison of the results given by ELS with other surface sensitive methods such as UPS is very fruitful and new information can be obtained. The improvement of theoretical studies on surface excitations due to slow electrons will provide in the next future the possibility of analysing in a more quantitative way the results given by ELS [fr
Energy loss spectroscopy applied to surface studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lecante, J.
1975-01-01
The analysis of energy losses suffered by slow electrons (5 eV to 300 eV) back-scattered by single crystal surfaces appears to be a powerful method for surfaces studies. The inelastic scattering of these slow electrons limits their escape depth to the surface region which is defined here. After a review of the basic excitation processes due to the interaction between electrons and surfaces (phonons, plasmons and electronic transitions) a brief discussion is given about the instruments needed for this electron spectroscopy. Finally some experimental results are listed and it is shown that the comparison of the results given by ELS with other surface sensitive methods such as UPS is very fruitful and new information can be obtained [fr
Geostatistical methods applied to field model residuals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Maule, Fox; Mosegaard, K.; Olsen, Nils
consists of measurement errors and unmodelled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyse the residuals of the Oersted(09d/04) field model [http://www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field_models/IGRF_2005_candidates/], which is based...
Applied mathematical methods in nuclear thermal hydraulics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ransom, V.H.; Trapp, J.A.
1983-01-01
Applied mathematical methods are used extensively in modeling of nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic behavior. This application has required significant extension to the state-of-the-art. The problems encountered in modeling of two-phase fluid transients and the development of associated numerical solution methods are reviewed and quantified using results from a numerical study of an analogous linear system of differential equations. In particular, some possible approaches for formulating a well-posed numerical problem for an ill-posed differential model are investigated and discussed. The need for closer attention to numerical fidelity is indicated
Entropy viscosity method applied to Euler equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delchini, M. O.; Ragusa, J. C.; Berry, R. A.
2013-01-01
The entropy viscosity method [4] has been successfully applied to hyperbolic systems of equations such as Burgers equation and Euler equations. The method consists in adding dissipative terms to the governing equations, where a viscosity coefficient modulates the amount of dissipation. The entropy viscosity method has been applied to the 1-D Euler equations with variable area using a continuous finite element discretization in the MOOSE framework and our results show that it has the ability to efficiently smooth out oscillations and accurately resolve shocks. Two equations of state are considered: Ideal Gas and Stiffened Gas Equations Of State. Results are provided for a second-order time implicit schemes (BDF2). Some typical Riemann problems are run with the entropy viscosity method to demonstrate some of its features. Then, a 1-D convergent-divergent nozzle is considered with open boundary conditions. The correct steady-state is reached for the liquid and gas phases with a time implicit scheme. The entropy viscosity method correctly behaves in every problem run. For each test problem, results are shown for both equations of state considered here. (authors)
Analytical methods applied to water pollution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudin, G.
1977-01-01
A comparison of different methods applied to water analysis is given. The discussion is limited to the problems presented by inorganic elements, accessible to nuclear activation analysis methods. The following methods were compared: activation analysis: with gamma-ray spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, fluorimetry, emission spectrometry, colorimetry or spectrophotometry, X-ray fluorescence, mass spectrometry, voltametry, polarography or other electrochemical methods, activation analysis-beta measurements. Drinking-water, irrigation waters, sea waters, industrial wastes and very pure waters are the subjects of the investigations. The comparative evaluation is made on the basis of storage of samples, in situ analysis, treatment and concentration, specificity and interference, monoelement or multielement analysis, analysis time and accuracy. The significance of the neutron analysis is shown. (T.G.)
Le, Khanh Chau
2012-01-01
The above examples should make clear the necessity of understanding the mechanism of vibrations and waves in order to control them in an optimal way. However vibrations and waves are governed by differential equations which require, as a rule, rather complicated mathematical methods for their analysis. The aim of this textbook is to help students acquire both a good grasp of the first principles from which the governing equations can be derived, and the adequate mathematical methods for their solving. Its distinctive features, as seen from the title, lie in the systematic and intensive use of Hamilton's variational principle and its generalizations for deriving the governing equations of conservative and dissipative mechanical systems, and also in providing the direct variational-asymptotic analysis, whenever available, of the energy and dissipation for the solution of these equations. It will be demonstrated that many well-known methods in dynamics like those of Lindstedt-Poincare, Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky, Ko...
Applying Physics to Clean Energy Needs
Environmental Science and Technology, 1975
1975-01-01
Solar and ocean thermal energy sources offer real potential for an environmentally clean fuel by the year 2000. A review of current research contracts relating to ocean-thermal energy, cost requirements of plant construction and uses of the electricity produced, such as synthesizing ammonia and synthetic fuels, are discussed. (BT)
Nanoenergy Nanotechnology Applied for Energy Production
Leite, Edson
2013-01-01
Low dimensional systems have revolutionized the science and technology in several areas. However, their understanding is still a great challenge for the scientific community. Solar energy conversion devices based on nanostructured materials have shown exceptional gains in efficiency and stability. In this context, nanostructures allow an improvement of surface properties, transport and charge transfer, as well as direct application as sensors and storage devices and energy conversion. This book discuss the recent advances and future trends of the nanoscience in solar energy conversion and storage. It explores and discusses recent developments both in theory as well as in experimental studies and is of interest to materials scientists, chemists, physicists and engineers.
Self-energy production applied to buildings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlo, Fabricio Ramos del; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Sao Paulo State University Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: perrella@feg.unesp.br; Holanda, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Sao Paulo Univ. (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Engineering School], E-mail: marcelo@debas.eel.usp.br
2010-07-01
The decentralization of energy production in order to obtain better environmental conditions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the cost reduction of electricity and thermal energy consumed in residential buildings has been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes to demonstrate what are the chances of having a microcogeneration system toward the residential application. In this study, we contemplate the technologies involved and their possible inputs that are arranged in a superstructure to be studied. As a first step we obtain the cost of the products generated by the configuration that consists basically of two sources of power generation, and through optimization calculations intended to obtain the best configuration, taking into consideration the selection between four fuels, two equipment generators (Fuel Cell and Internal Combustion Engine)and three levels of energy production for each one. An economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the opportunity of selling the energy generated considering the fluctuations of the residential building consumption needs. (author)
Applied photovoltaics as a practical education in renewable energy technologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoev, Mitko
2009-01-01
The optional course „Applied Photovoltaic” for MEng students specializing in Electronics at the Faculty of Electronics and Automation, TU-Plovdiv is presented. The main topics of the advanced PV course as a modern sustainable energetic based on the photovoltaic effect and energy from Sun as a renewable energy source; materials and technologies in photovoltaic; design of solar cells and PV modules and PV generators up to 100 kWp; BIPV and CIPV systems; hybrid PV systems; PV mounting; monitoring of PV systems and EC regulations for PV systems connected to the utility grid are discussed. The advanced teaching method by online e-platform with virtual resources is presented. Key words: PV education, PV technologies, applied photovoltaic, e-platform
Energy analysis applied to uranium resource estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mortimer, N.D.
1980-01-01
It is pointed out that fuel prices and ore costs are interdependent, and that in estimating ore costs (involving the cost of fuels used to mine and process the uranium) it is necessary to take into account the total use of energy by the entire fuel system, through the technique of energy analysis. The subject is discussed, and illustrated with diagrams, under the following heads: estimate of how total workable resources would depend on production costs; sensitivity of nuclear electricity prices to ore costs; variation of net energy requirement with ore grade for a typical PWR reactor design; variation of average fundamental cost of nuclear electricity with ore grade; variation of cumulative uranium resources with current maximum ore costs. (U.K.)
Uncertainty Quantification in Alchemical Free Energy Methods.
Bhati, Agastya P; Wan, Shunzhou; Hu, Yuan; Sherborne, Brad; Coveney, Peter V
2018-05-02
Alchemical free energy methods have gained much importance recently from several reports of improved ligand-protein binding affinity predictions based on their implementation using molecular dynamics simulations. A large number of variants of such methods implementing different accelerated sampling techniques and free energy estimators are available, each claimed to be better than the others in its own way. However, the key features of reproducibility and quantification of associated uncertainties in such methods have barely been discussed. Here, we apply a systematic protocol for uncertainty quantification to a number of popular alchemical free energy methods, covering both absolute and relative free energy predictions. We show that a reliable measure of error estimation is provided by ensemble simulation-an ensemble of independent MD simulations-which applies irrespective of the free energy method. The need to use ensemble methods is fundamental and holds regardless of the duration of time of the molecular dynamics simulations performed.
CVD techniques applied to energy problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCreary, W.J.; Carroll, D.W.
1981-01-01
Some of the applications of chemical vapor deposition in energy related programs will be discussed, and coating parameters will be described. The coatings to be discussed were made at reduced pressures from the hydrogen reduction of metal fluorides, or metal silane and from the pyrolysis of metal carbonyls
Optimization methods applied to hybrid vehicle design
Donoghue, J. F.; Burghart, J. H.
1983-01-01
The use of optimization methods as an effective design tool in the design of hybrid vehicle propulsion systems is demonstrated. Optimization techniques were used to select values for three design parameters (battery weight, heat engine power rating and power split between the two on-board energy sources) such that various measures of vehicle performance (acquisition cost, life cycle cost and petroleum consumption) were optimized. The apporach produced designs which were often significant improvements over hybrid designs already reported on in the literature. The principal conclusions are as follows. First, it was found that the strategy used to split the required power between the two on-board energy sources can have a significant effect on life cycle cost and petroleum consumption. Second, the optimization program should be constructed so that performance measures and design variables can be easily changed. Third, the vehicle simulation program has a significant effect on the computer run time of the overall optimization program; run time can be significantly reduced by proper design of the types of trips the vehicle takes in a one year period. Fourth, care must be taken in designing the cost and constraint expressions which are used in the optimization so that they are relatively smooth functions of the design variables. Fifth, proper handling of constraints on battery weight and heat engine rating, variables which must be large enough to meet power demands, is particularly important for the success of an optimization study. Finally, the principal conclusion is that optimization methods provide a practical tool for carrying out the design of a hybrid vehicle propulsion system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.A.R.
1975-01-01
Using the 'Monte Carlo' method, a determination was made of the response function of a NaI cylindrical crystal when exposed to an omnidirectional γ ray flux in the range 0.5 - 20 MeV. Improvements over previous similar calculations include considerations of the bremsstrahlung and multiple scattering processes in the slowing down of the secondary electrons. These calculations will be applied to the problem of determining the energy spectrum of an incident gamma ray flux from the measured response of the crystal in the space [pt
Progressive innovations in applying of wind energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yershina, Ainakul K.; Yershin, Chingiz Sh.
2013-01-01
The article presents the current design of a laboratory model, the so-called model of vertical-axis wind turbine component. Construction work carried out, and then made a valid laboratory model of cross-sectional area S = 0,64 m 2 , which can operate as a conventional Darya, and in the mode of our constructive solutions. The tower that supports the wind turbine installed in the vertical position of the shaft 2, each of which is connected with only one blade and working with their current generator. The shafts are separated by a bearing and can operate autonomously, independently of each other. The mechanical energy of rotation is transferred to two different power generators, ie Each shaft works on his generator. Electricity generated by them is summarized. Thus, the feature of this design is the increased removal of wind energy in two independent working trees with the same swept area. Therefore, effective value of wind energy usage efficiency may be increased to 0.7 in case of high production culture.Vertical - axis turbine component has a special lock that supports the angle between the furs 180 °. Key words: wind turbine Darrieus, shaft, generator current, power, wind speed, blade
Progressive innovations in applying of wind energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yershina, Ainakul K. [Kazakh State Women Pedogogical University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Yershin, Chingiz Sh. [Kazakh Natio nal University named by al - Farabi, Almaty (Kazakhstan)
2013-07-01
The article presents the current design of a laboratory model, the so-called model of vertical-axis wind turbine component. Construction work carried out, and then made a valid laboratory model of cross-sectional area S = 0,64 m{sup 2} , which can operate as a conventional Darya, and in the mode of our constructive solutions. The tower that supports the wind turbine installed in the vertical position of the shaft 2, each of which is connected with only one blade and working with their current generator. The shafts are separated by a bearing and can operate autonomously, independently of each other. The mechanical energy of rotation is transferred to two different power generators, ie Each shaft works on his generator. Electricity generated by them is summarized. Thus, the feature of this design is the increased removal of wind energy in two independent working trees with the same swept area. Therefore, effective value of wind energy usage efficiency may be increased to 0.7 in case of high production culture.Vertical - axis turbine component has a special lock that supports the angle between the furs 180 °. Key words: wind turbine Darrieus, shaft, generator current, power, wind speed, blade.
Neuroscience applied to nuclear energy teaching
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barabás, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaianê, E-mail: robertabarabas@usp.br, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
Science and technology play a key role in helping countries increase the quality of life of their inhabitants. The development of peaceful nuclear applications offers important contribution for several fields. However, nuclear accidents are reported as factors that lead to the formation of prejudiced beliefs and attitudes against nuclear technology. The media also influence on what people believe about it. Holding prejudice against nuclear technology will lead to misconceptions and interfere with authorities' decision on the development of new technology. There are evidences in the literature that implicit prejudices might be avoidable, reduced and even reversed. Interest in prejudice and stereotyping is currently shared by emerging disciplines such as neuroscience. The field of educational neuroscience has developed several types of implicit association tests aiming to assess implicit prejudices that individuals are consciously unaware. As far as prejudices are reported in the nuclear energy education scenario implicit measurement techniques can be an effective tool to identify and measure prejudices against nuclear technology. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a valuable tool used worldwide as a measurement technique to assess implicit attitude toward discriminatory behaviors. This study aims to demonstrate the design and development of a neuroscience-based methodology, which will include a future administration of the IAT to school teachers to assess their implicit associations regarding nuclear energy. The procedure will contribute for understanding implicit prejudices interfering with teaching practices. Teaching a balanced view about the applications of the nuclear technology will contribute for the acceptance of nuclear technology. (author)
Neuroscience applied to nuclear energy teaching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barabás, Roberta de C.; Sabundjian, Gaianê
2017-01-01
Science and technology play a key role in helping countries increase the quality of life of their inhabitants. The development of peaceful nuclear applications offers important contribution for several fields. However, nuclear accidents are reported as factors that lead to the formation of prejudiced beliefs and attitudes against nuclear technology. The media also influence on what people believe about it. Holding prejudice against nuclear technology will lead to misconceptions and interfere with authorities' decision on the development of new technology. There are evidences in the literature that implicit prejudices might be avoidable, reduced and even reversed. Interest in prejudice and stereotyping is currently shared by emerging disciplines such as neuroscience. The field of educational neuroscience has developed several types of implicit association tests aiming to assess implicit prejudices that individuals are consciously unaware. As far as prejudices are reported in the nuclear energy education scenario implicit measurement techniques can be an effective tool to identify and measure prejudices against nuclear technology. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a valuable tool used worldwide as a measurement technique to assess implicit attitude toward discriminatory behaviors. This study aims to demonstrate the design and development of a neuroscience-based methodology, which will include a future administration of the IAT to school teachers to assess their implicit associations regarding nuclear energy. The procedure will contribute for understanding implicit prejudices interfering with teaching practices. Teaching a balanced view about the applications of the nuclear technology will contribute for the acceptance of nuclear technology. (author)
Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.
Crooks, S M; Xing, L
2001-10-01
Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.
Energy retrofit of commercial buildings. Case study and applied methodology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aste, N.; Del Pero, C. [Department of Building Environment Science and Technology (BEST), Politecnico di Milano, Via Bonardi 3, 20133 Milan (Italy)
2013-05-15
Commercial buildings are responsible for a significant share of the energy requirements of European Union countries. Related consumptions due to heating, cooling, and lighting appear, in most cases, very high and expensive. Since the real estate is renewed with a very small percentage each year and current trends suggest reusing the old structures, strategies for improving energy efficiency and sustainability should focus not only on new buildings, but also and especially on existing ones. Architectural renovation of existing buildings could provide an opportunity to enhance their energy efficiency, by working on the improvement of envelopes and energy supply systems. It has also to be noted that the measures aimed to improve the energy performance of buildings should pay particular attention to the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. In general, there is a lack of well-established methods for retrofitting, but if a case study achieves effective results, the adopted strategies and methodologies can be successfully replicated for similar kinds of buildings. In this paper, an iterative methodology for energy retrofit of commercial buildings is presented, together with a specific application on an existing office building. The case study is particularly significant as it is placed in an urban climatic context characterized by cold winters and hot summers; consequently, HVAC energy consumption is considerable throughout the year. The analysis and simulations of energy performance before and after the intervention, along with measured data on real energy performance, demonstrate the validity of the applied approach. The specifically developed design and refurbishment methodology, presented in this work, could be also assumed as a reference in similar operations.
Applied data analysis and modeling for energy engineers and scientists
Reddy, T Agami
2011-01-01
""Applied Data Analysis and Modeling for Energy Engineers and Scientists"" discusses mathematical models, data analysis, and decision analysis in modeling. The approach taken in this volume focuses on the modeling and analysis of thermal systems in an engineering environment, while also covering a number of other critical areas. Other material covered includes the tools that researchers and engineering professionals will need in order to explore different analysis methods, use critical assessment skills and reach sound engineering conclusions. The book also covers process and system design and
Applied Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Physics
Masujima, Michio
2005-04-01
All there is to know about functional analysis, integral equations and calculus of variations in a single volume. This advanced textbook is divided into two parts: The first on integral equations and the second on the calculus of variations. It begins with a short introduction to functional analysis, including a short review of complex analysis, before continuing a systematic discussion of different types of equations, such as Volterra integral equations, singular integral equations of Cauchy type, integral equations of the Fredholm type, with a special emphasis on Wiener-Hopf integral equations and Wiener-Hopf sum equations. After a few remarks on the historical development, the second part starts with an introduction to the calculus of variations and the relationship between integral equations and applications of the calculus of variations. It further covers applications of the calculus of variations developed in the second half of the 20th century in the fields of quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. Throughout the book, the author presents over 150 problems and exercises -- many from such branches of physics as quantum mechanics, quantum statistical mechanics, and quantum field theory -- together with outlines of the solutions in each case. Detailed solutions are given, supplementing the materials discussed in the main text, allowing problems to be solved making direct use of the method illustrated. The original references are given for difficult problems. The result is complete coverage of the mathematical tools and techniques used by physicists and applied mathematicians Intended for senior undergraduates and first-year graduates in science and engineering, this is equally useful as a reference and self-study guide.
Energy models: methods and trends
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reuter, A [Division of Energy Management and Planning, Verbundplan, Klagenfurt (Austria); Kuehner, R [IER Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Wohlgemuth, N [Department of Economy, University of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt (Austria)
1997-12-31
Energy environmental and economical systems do not allow for experimentation since this would be dangerous, too expensive or even impossible. Instead, mathematical models are applied for energy planning. Experimenting is replaced by varying the structure and some parameters of `energy models`, computing the values of depending parameters, comparing variations, and interpreting their outcomings. Energy models are as old as computers. In this article the major new developments in energy modeling will be pointed out. We distinguish between 3 reasons of new developments: progress in computer technology, methodological progress and novel tasks of energy system analysis and planning. 2 figs., 19 refs.
Energy models: methods and trends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reuter, A.; Kuehner, R.; Wohlgemuth, N.
1996-01-01
Energy environmental and economical systems do not allow for experimentation since this would be dangerous, too expensive or even impossible. Instead, mathematical models are applied for energy planning. Experimenting is replaced by varying the structure and some parameters of 'energy models', computing the values of depending parameters, comparing variations, and interpreting their outcomings. Energy models are as old as computers. In this article the major new developments in energy modeling will be pointed out. We distinguish between 3 reasons of new developments: progress in computer technology, methodological progress and novel tasks of energy system analysis and planning
University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research
University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research Search Help Research Our Expertise University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research | An Equal Opportunity University All Rights Remediation Power Generation CAER TechFacts CAER Factsheets CAER Affiliations Research Contacts Publications
Energy-efficient cooking methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)
2013-02-15
Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.
A Vision for Systems Engineering Applied to Wind Energy (Presentation)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Felker, F.; Dykes, K.
2015-01-01
This presentation was given at the Third Wind Energy Systems Engineering Workshop on January 14, 2015. Topics covered include the importance of systems engineering, a vision for systems engineering as applied to wind energy, and application of systems engineering approaches to wind energy research and development.
Method applied for the HPGe detector characterization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guillot, Nicolas; Monestier, Mathieu; Saurel, Nicolas
2013-06-01
Gamma ray spectrometry is a passive non destructive assay most commonly used to identify and quantify the radionuclides present in the complex huge objects such as nuclear waste packages. The treatment of spectra from the measurement of nuclear waste is performed in two steps: the first step is to extract the raw data from the spectra (energies and net photoelectric absorption peaks areas) and the second step is to determine the detection efficiency of the measured scene. The establishment by numerical modeling of the detection efficiency of the measured scene requires numerical modeling of both the measuring device (in this case a hyper pure germanium detector HPGe) and numerical modeling of the measured object. Numerical detector modeling is also called diode characterization, and has a spatial response equivalent to these of the real HPGe detector. This characterization is essential for the quantification of complex and non reproducible huge objects for which the detection efficiency can not be determined empirically. The Nuclear Measurement and Valuation Laboratory (LMNE) at the Atomic Energy Commission Valduc (CEA Valduc) has developed a new methodology for characterizing the HPGe detector. It has been tested experimentally with a real diode present in the laboratory (P-type planar detector). The characterization obtained with this methodology is similar to these of a real HPGe detector with an uncertainty approaching 5 percents. It is valid for a distance ranging from 10 cm to 150 cm, an angle ranging from 0 to 90 degrees and energy range from 53 keV to 1112 keV. The energy range is obtained with a source of Barium-133 and a source of Europium-152. The continuity of the detection efficiency curve is checked between the two sources with an uncertainty less than 2 percents. In addition, this methodology can be extrapolated to any type of detector crystal geometry (planar). (authors)
Applying scrum methods to ITS projects.
2017-08-01
The introduction of new technology generally brings new challenges and new methods to help with deployments. Agile methodologies have been introduced in the information technology industry to potentially speed up development. The Federal Highway Admi...
Applying Fuzzy Possibilistic Methods on Critical Objects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Choros, Kazimierz
2016-01-01
Providing a ﬂexible environment to process data objects is a desirable goal of machine learning algorithms. In fuzzy and possibilistic methods, the relevance of data objects is evaluated and a membership degree is assigned. However, some critical objects objects have the potential ability to affect...... the performance of the clustering algorithms if they remain in a speciﬁc cluster or they are moved into another. In this paper we analyze and compare how critical objects affect the behaviour of fuzzy possibilistic methods in several data sets. The comparison is based on the accuracy and ability of learning...... methods to provide a proper searching space for data objects. The membership functions used by each method when dealing with critical objects is also evaluated. Our results show that relaxing the conditions of participation for data objects in as many partitions as they can, is beneﬁcial....
Quality assurance and applied statistics. Method 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1992-01-01
This German-Industry-Standards-paperback contains the International Standards from the Series ISO 9000 (or, as the case may be, the European Standards from the Series EN 29000) concerning quality assurance and including the already completed supplementary guidelines with ISO 9000- and ISO 9004-section numbers, which have been adopted as German Industry Standards and which are observed and applied world-wide to a great extent. It also includes the German-Industry-Standards ISO 10011 parts 1, 2 and 3 concerning the auditing of quality-assurance systems and the German-Industry-Standard ISO 10012 part 1 concerning quality-assurance demands (confirmation system) for measuring devices. The standards also include English and French versions. They are applicable independent of the user's line of industry and thus constitute basic standards. (orig.) [de
Lavine method applied to three body problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mourre, Eric.
1975-09-01
The methods presently proposed for the three body problem in quantum mechanics, using the Faddeev approach for proving the asymptotic completeness, come up against the presence of new singularities when the potentials considered v(α)(x(α)) for two-particle interactions decay less rapidly than /x(α)/ -2 ; and also when trials are made for solving the problem with a representation space whose dimension for a particle is lower than three. A method is given that allows the mathematical approach to be extended to three body problem, in spite of singularities. Applications are given [fr
The applied theory of energy substitution in production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, Henry
2006-01-01
This paper reviews the applied theory of energy cross price partial elasticities of substitution, and presents it in a transparent fashion. It uses log linear and translog production and cost functions due to their economic properties and convenient estimating forms, but the theory applies other functional forms. The objective is to encourage increased empirical research that would deepen understanding and appreciation of energy substitution. (author)
Applying Human Computation Methods to Information Science
Harris, Christopher Glenn
2013-01-01
Human Computation methods such as crowdsourcing and games with a purpose (GWAP) have each recently drawn considerable attention for their ability to synergize the strengths of people and technology to accomplish tasks that are challenging for either to do well alone. Despite this increased attention, much of this transformation has been focused on…
Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning
Voorhees, Richard A.
2008-01-01
In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…
[The diagnostic methods applied in mycology].
Kurnatowska, Alicja; Kurnatowski, Piotr
2008-01-01
The systemic fungal invasions are recognized with increasing frequency and constitute a primary cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. Early diagnosis improves prognosis, but remains a problem because there is lack of sensitive tests to aid in the diagnosis of systemic mycoses on the one hand, and on the other the patients only present unspecific signs and symptoms, thus delaying early diagnosis. The diagnosis depends upon a combination of clinical observation and laboratory investigation. The successful laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection depends in major part on the collection of appropriate clinical specimens for investigations and on the selection of appropriate microbiological test procedures. So these problems (collection of specimens, direct techniques, staining methods, cultures on different media and non-culture-based methods) are presented in article.
Monte Carlo method applied to medical physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, C.; Goncalves, I.F.; Chaves, A.; Lopes, M.C.; Teixeira, N.; Matos, B.; Goncalves, I.C.; Ramalho, A.; Salgado, J.
2000-01-01
The main application of the Monte Carlo method to medical physics is dose calculation. This paper shows some results of two dose calculation studies and two other different applications: optimisation of neutron field for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy and optimization of a filter for a beam tube for several purposes. The time necessary for Monte Carlo calculations - the highest boundary for its intensive utilisation - is being over-passed with faster and cheaper computers. (author)
Proteomics methods applied to malaria: Plasmodium falciparum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuesta Astroz, Yesid; Segura Latorre, Cesar
2012-01-01
Malaria is a parasitic disease that has a high impact on public health in developing countries. The sequencing of the plasmodium falciparum genome and the development of proteomics have enabled a breakthrough in understanding the biology of the parasite. Proteomics have allowed to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the parasite s expression of proteins and has provided information on protein expression under conditions of stress induced by antimalarial. Given the complexity of their life cycle, this takes place in the vertebrate host and mosquito vector. It has proven difficult to characterize the protein expression during each stage throughout the infection process in order to determine the proteome that mediates several metabolic, physiological and energetic processes. Two dimensional electrophoresis, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have been useful to assess the effects of antimalarial on parasite protein expression and to characterize the proteomic profile of different p. falciparum stages and organelles. The purpose of this review is to present state of the art tools and advances in proteomics applied to the study of malaria, and to present different experimental strategies used to study the parasite's proteome in order to show the advantages and disadvantages of each one.
METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM
Gray, A.G.
1959-07-14
A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.
Versatile Formal Methods Applied to Quantum Information.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witzel, Wayne [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarovar, Mohan [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-11-01
Using a novel formal methods approach, we have generated computer-veri ed proofs of major theorems pertinent to the quantum phase estimation algorithm. This was accomplished using our Prove-It software package in Python. While many formal methods tools are available, their practical utility is limited. Translating a problem of interest into these systems and working through the steps of a proof is an art form that requires much expertise. One must surrender to the preferences and restrictions of the tool regarding how mathematical notions are expressed and what deductions are allowed. Automation is a major driver that forces restrictions. Our focus, on the other hand, is to produce a tool that allows users the ability to con rm proofs that are essentially known already. This goal is valuable in itself. We demonstrate the viability of our approach that allows the user great exibility in expressing state- ments and composing derivations. There were no major obstacles in following a textbook proof of the quantum phase estimation algorithm. There were tedious details of algebraic manipulations that we needed to implement (and a few that we did not have time to enter into our system) and some basic components that we needed to rethink, but there were no serious roadblocks. In the process, we made a number of convenient additions to our Prove-It package that will make certain algebraic manipulations easier to perform in the future. In fact, our intent is for our system to build upon itself in this manner.
Applying the Socratic Method to Physics Education
Corcoran, Ed
2005-04-01
We have restructured University Physics I and II in accordance with methods that PER has shown to be effective, including a more interactive discussion- and activity-based curriculum based on the premise that developing understanding requires an interactive process in which students have the opportunity to talk through and think through ideas with both other students and the teacher. Studies have shown that in classes implementing this approach to teaching as compared to classes using a traditional approach, students have significantly higher gains on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). This has been true in UPI. However, UPI FCI results seem to suggest that there is a significant conceptual hole in students' understanding of Newton's Second Law. Two labs in UPI which teach Newton's Second Law will be redesigned replacing more activity with students as a group talking through, thinking through, and answering conceptual questions asked by the TA. The results will be measured by comparing FCI results to those from previous semesters, coupled with interviews. The results will be analyzed, and we will attempt to understand why gains were or were not made.
Scanning probe methods applied to molecular electronics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pavlicek, Niko
2013-08-01
Scanning probe methods on insulating films offer a rich toolbox to study electronic, structural and spin properties of individual molecules. This work discusses three issues in the field of molecular and organic electronics. An STM head to be operated in high magnetic fields has been designed and built up. The STM head is very compact and rigid relying on a robust coarse approach mechanism. This will facilitate investigations of the spin properties of individual molecules in the future. Combined STM/AFM studies revealed a reversible molecular switch based on two stable configurations of DBTH molecules on ultrathin NaCl films. AFM experiments visualize the molecular structure in both states. Our experiments allowed to unambiguously determine the pathway of the switch. Finally, tunneling into and out of the frontier molecular orbitals of pentacene molecules has been investigated on different insulating films. These experiments show that the local symmetry of initial and final electron wave function are decisive for the ratio between elastic and vibration-assisted tunneling. The results can be generalized to electron transport in organic materials.
OWL Ontologies and SWRL Rules Applied to Energy Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rossello Busquet, Ana; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy; Soler, José
2011-01-01
Energy consumption has increased considerably in the last years. How to reduce and make energy consumption more efficient in home environments has become of great interest for researchers. This could be achieved by introducing a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) into user residences. This system...... might allow the user to control the devices in the home network through an interface and apply energy management strategies to reduce and optimize their consumption. Furthermore, the number of devices and appliances found in users residences is increasing and these devices are usually manufactured...
Computing and Systems Applied in Support of Coordinated Energy, Environmental, and Climate Planning
This talk focuses on how Dr. Loughlin is applying Computing and Systems models, tools and methods to more fully understand the linkages among energy systems, environmental quality, and climate change. Dr. Loughlin will highlight recent and ongoing research activities, including: ...
Matrix converter applied to energy saving for street lighting systems
Román Lumbreras, Manuel; Velasco Quesada, Guillermo; Conesa Roca, Alfons
2010-01-01
This work presents a three-phase AC-AC converter, with independent phase control, based on matrix-converter structure. This converter is applied to electrical energy saving on the public lighting systems by means of regulation and control of the voltage applied to the lamps. The developed converter represents a technological improvement with respect to the traditional systems based on an autotransformer: it reduces system cost and volume, and increases lamps lifetime.
Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research
Hashemi, Mohammad R.
2012-01-01
This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…
Hybrid electrokinetic method applied to mix contaminated soil
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansour, H.; Maria, E. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)
2001-07-01
Several industrials and municipal areas in North America are contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum products. This mix contamination presents a particularly difficult task for remediation when is exposed in clayey soil. The objective of this research was to find a method to cleanup mix contaminated clayey soils. Finally, a multifunctional hybrid electrokinetic method was investigated. Clayey soil was contaminated with lead and nickel (heavy metals) at the level of 1000 ppm and phenanthrene (PAH) of 600 ppm. Electrokinetic surfactant supply system was applied to mobilize, transport and removal of phenanthrene. A chelation agent (EDTA) was also electrokinetically supplied to mobilize heavy metals. The studies were performed on 8 lab scale electrokinetic cells. The mix contaminated clayey soil was subjected to DC total voltage gradient of 0.3 V/cm. Supplied liquids (surfactant and EDTA) were introduced in different periods of time (22 days, 42 days) in order to optimize the most excessive removal of contaminants. The ph, electrical parameters, volume supplied, and volume discharged was monitored continuously during each experiment. At the end of these tests soil and cathalyte were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. The paper discusses results of experiments including the optimal energy use, removal efficiency of phenanthrene, as well, transport and removal of heavy metals. The results of this study can be applied for in-situ hybrid electrokinetic technology to remediate clayey sites contaminated with petroleum product mixed with heavy metals (e.g. manufacture Gas Plant Sites). (orig.)
Applying homotopy analysis method for solving differential-difference equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhen; Zou Li; Zhang Hongqing
2007-01-01
In this Letter, we apply the homotopy analysis method to solving the differential-difference equations. A simple but typical example is applied to illustrate the validity and the great potential of the generalized homotopy analysis method in solving differential-difference equation. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. The results show that the homotopy analysis method is an attractive method in solving the differential-difference equations
Energy forecasts, perspectives and methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svensson, J E; Mogren, A
1984-01-01
The authors have analyzed different methods for long term energy prognoses, in particular energy consumption forecasts. Energy supply and price prognoses are also treated, but in a less detailed manner. After defining and discussing the various methods/models used in forecasts, a generalized discussion of the influence on the prognoses from the perspectives (background factors, world view, norms, ideology) of the prognosis makers is given. Some basic formal demands that should be asked from any rational forecast are formulated and discussed. The authors conclude that different forecasting methodologies are supplementing each other. There is no best method, forecasts should be accepted as views of the future from differing perspectives. The primary prognostic problem is to show the possible futures, selecting the wanted future is a question of political process.
Neutron activation analysis applied to energy and environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyon, W.S.
1975-01-01
Neutron activation analysis was applied to a number of problems concerned with energy production and the environment. Burning of fossil fuel, the search for new sources of uranium, possible presence of toxic elements in food and water, and the relationship of trace elements to cardiovascular disease are some of the problems in which neutron activation was used. (auth)
Effective motion design applied to energy-efficient handling processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brett, Tobias
2013-10-01
Industrial robots are available in a large variety of mechanical alternatives regarding size, motor power, link length ratio or payload. The four major types of serial kinematics dominating the market are complemented by various parallel kinematics for special purpose. In contrast, few other path planning alternatives are applied in industrial robotics which are based on similar analytic solution principles. The objective of this thesis is to develop a systematic design method for artifacts in motion, to integrate motion design and mechanical design to enable new processes for production. For each design, a theoretical benchmark is developed, which cannot be attained by conventional robots in principle. A key performance indicator enables to measure the degree of goal achievement towards the benchmark during all design phases. Motion behaviors are identified on a local level by dynamic systems modeling and are integrated into new global behavior featuring a new quality, suitable for exceeding the design benchmark in industrial processes. Two exemplary handling robot designs are presented. The first concept enables motion behavior to consume less electrical power than kinetic energy transferred to and from its payload during motion. The second concept enables motion with four degrees of freedom by single motor stimulation, reducing idle power consumption on factor 4 towards conventional robots.
Printing method and printer used for applying this method
2006-01-01
The invention pertains to a method for transferring ink to a receiving material using an inkjet printer having an ink chamber (10) with a nozzle (8) and an electromechanical transducer (16) in cooperative connection with the ink chamber, comprising actuating the transducer to generate a pressure
Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.
2011-01-01
The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.
Applied wind energy research at the National Wind Technology Center
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, M.C.; Tu, P.
1997-01-01
Applied research activities currently being undertaken at the National Wind Technology Center, part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in the United States, are divided into several technical disciplines. An integrated multi-disciplinary approach is urged for the future in order to evaluate advanced turbine designs. The risk associated with any new turbine development program can thus be mitigated through the provision of the advanced technology, analysis tools and innovative designs available at the Center, and wind power can be promoted as a viable renewable energy alternative. (UK)
A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gestwick, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bianchi, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2011-04-01
This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.
Discrimination symbol applying method for sintered nuclear fuel product
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizaki, Jin
1998-01-01
The present invention provides a symbol applying method for applying discrimination information such as an enrichment degree on the end face of a sintered nuclear product. Namely, discrimination symbols of information of powders are applied by a sintering aid to the end face of a molded member formed by molding nuclear fuel powders under pressure. Then, the molded product is sintered. The sintering aid comprises aluminum oxide, a mixture of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide, aluminum hydride or aluminum stearate alone or in admixture. As an applying means of the sintering aid, discrimination symbols of information of powders are drawn by an isostearic acid on the end face of the molded product, and the sintering aid is sprayed thereto, or the sintering aid is applied directly, or the sintering aid is suspended in isostearic acid, and the suspension is applied with a brush. As a result, visible discrimination information can be applied to the sintered member easily. (N.H.)
Building "Applied Linguistic Historiography": Rationale, Scope, and Methods
Smith, Richard
2016-01-01
In this article I argue for the establishment of "Applied Linguistic Historiography" (ALH), that is, a new domain of enquiry within applied linguistics involving a rigorous, scholarly, and self-reflexive approach to historical research. Considering issues of rationale, scope, and methods in turn, I provide reasons why ALH is needed and…
Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview
Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick
2011-01-01
Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broc, J.S.
2006-12-01
Energy end-use Efficiency (EE) is a priority for energy policies to face resources exhaustion and to reduce pollutant emissions. At the same time, in France, local level is increasingly involved into the implementation of EE activities, whose frame is changing (energy market liberalization, new policy instruments). Needs for ex-post evaluation of the local EE activities are thus increasing, for regulation requirements and to support a necessary change of scale. Our thesis focuses on the original issue of the ex-post evaluation of local EE operations in France. The state of the art, through the analysis of the American and European experiences and of the reference guidebooks, gives a substantial methodological material and emphasises the key evaluation issues. Concurrently, local EE operations in France are characterized by an analysis of their environment and a work on their segmentation criteria. The combination of these criteria with the key evaluation issues provides an analysis framework used as the basis for the composition of evaluation methods. This also highlights the specific evaluation needs for local operations. A methodology is then developed to complete and adapt the existing material to design evaluation methods for local operations, so that stakeholders can easily appropriate. Evaluation results thus feed a know-how building process with experience feedback. These methods are to meet two main goals: to determine the operation results, and to detect the success/failure factors. The methodology was validated on concrete cases, where these objectives were reached. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Ming-Chung
2016-01-01
Under the trend of global energy prices continuously going up, this paper considers the concept of maximized energy reduction to model the energy productivity index by decomposing it into energy technical change and energy efficiency change. The paper takes the eight SADC (Southern Africa Development Community ) members as an example to estimate their energy efficiency, energy productivity change, energy technical change, energy efficiency change, and rebound effect on energy use, as well as to test the Jevons Paradox. The time period of the data spans 2005 to 2009. The empirical result shows large energy performance differences among the eight SADC members. Not one country among the eight members is an energy technology innovator. After calculating the rebound effect and testing the Jevons Paradox, the result shows that there seems to be no obvious Jevons Paradox in this economic region. - Highlights: • This paper discusses the concept of maximized energy reduction. • The method is applied towards the Southern Africa Development Community members. • This paper also investigates the rebound effect of energy use. • We offer suggestions on energy use and CO 2 emission reductions.
Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA
2011-12-06
Electrical power distribution control methods, electrical energy demand monitoring methods, and power management devices are described. In one aspect, an electrical power distribution control method includes providing electrical energy from an electrical power distribution system, applying the electrical energy to a load, providing a plurality of different values for a threshold at a plurality of moments in time and corresponding to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy, and adjusting an amount of the electrical energy applied to the load responsive to an electrical characteristic of the electrical energy triggering one of the values of the threshold at the respective moment in time.
Quantitative EEG Applying the Statistical Recognition Pattern Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engedal, Knut; Snaedal, Jon; Hoegh, Peter
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the discriminatory power of quantitative EEG (qEEG) applying the statistical pattern recognition (SPR) method to separate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from elderly individuals without dementia and from other dementia patients. METHODS...
An Improved Crow Search Algorithm Applied to Energy Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Primitivo Díaz
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The efficient use of energy in electrical systems has become a relevant topic due to its environmental impact. Parameter identification in induction motors and capacitor allocation in distribution networks are two representative problems that have strong implications in the massive use of energy. From an optimization perspective, both problems are considered extremely complex due to their non-linearity, discontinuity, and high multi-modality. These characteristics make difficult to solve them by using standard optimization techniques. On the other hand, metaheuristic methods have been widely used as alternative optimization algorithms to solve complex engineering problems. The Crow Search Algorithm (CSA is a recent metaheuristic method based on the intelligent group behavior of crows. Although CSA presents interesting characteristics, its search strategy presents great difficulties when it faces high multi-modal formulations. In this paper, an improved version of the CSA method is presented to solve complex optimization problems of energy. In the new algorithm, two features of the original CSA are modified: (I the awareness probability (AP and (II the random perturbation. With such adaptations, the new approach preserves solution diversity and improves the convergence to difficult high multi-modal optima. In order to evaluate its performance, the proposed algorithm has been tested in a set of four optimization problems which involve induction motors and distribution networks. The results demonstrate the high performance of the proposed method when it is compared with other popular approaches.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2011-01-01
The abstracts of the XIX Mendeleev Congress on general and applied chemistry held 25-30 September 2011 in Volgograd are presented. The program includes the Congress plenary and section reports, poster presentations, symposia and round tables on key areas of chemical science and technology, and chemical education. The work of the Congress was held the following sections: 1. Fundamental problems of chemical sciences; 2. Chemistry and technology of materials, including nanomaterials; 3. Physicochemical basis of metallurgical processes; 4. Current issues of chemical production, technical risk assessment; 5. Chemical aspects of modern power and alternative energy sources; 6. Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbons; 7. Analytical chemistry: new methods and instruments for chemical research and analysis; 8. Chemical education. Volume 4 includes abstracts of oral and poster presentations and presentations of correspondent participants of the sections: Chemistry aspects of modern energy and alternative energy resources; Chemistry of fossil and renewable hydrocarbon raw materials; Analytical chemistry: novel methods and devices for chemical research and analysis; Chemical education, and author index [ru
Electronic-projecting Moire method applying CBR-technology
Kuzyakov, O. N.; Lapteva, U. V.; Andreeva, M. A.
2018-01-01
Electronic-projecting method based on Moire effect for examining surface topology is suggested. Conditions of forming Moire fringes and their parameters’ dependence on reference parameters of object and virtual grids are analyzed. Control system structure and decision-making subsystem are elaborated. Subsystem execution includes CBR-technology, based on applying case base. The approach related to analysing and forming decision for each separate local area with consequent formation of common topology map is applied.
Efficient energy utilization and environmental issues applied to power planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, Hector; Montero, Gisela; Perez, Carlos; Lambert, Alejandro
2011-01-01
This document shows the importance of policies for electric energy savings and efficient energy utilization in power planning. The contributions of economic, social, and environmental items were evaluated according to their financial effects in the delay of investments, reduction of production costs and decrement of environmental emissions. The case study is Baja California, Mexico; this system has a unique primary source: geothermal energy. Whether analyzing the planning as usual or planning from the supply side, the forecast for 2005-2025 indicates that 4500 MW additional installed capacity will be required (3-times current capacity), representing an investment that will emit 12.7 Mton per year of CO 2 to the atmosphere and will cost US$2.8 billion. Systemic planning that incorporates polices of energy savings and efficiency allows the reduction of investments and pollutant emissions. For example, a reduction of 20% in the growth trend of the electricity consumption in the industrial customers would save US$10.4 billion over the next 20 years, with a potential reduction of 1.6 Mton/year of CO 2 . The increase in geothermal power generation is also attractive, and it can be combined with the reduction of use and energy losses of utilities, which would save US$13.5 billion and prevent the discharge of 8.5 Mton/year of CO 2 . - Highlights: → We contrast power planning methods for supply electricity for economy development. → Importance of policies for electricity savings and efficient use in power planning. → Systemic planning facilitates decision-making process for electricity optimization. → Supply-side planning will cause climb in prices and loss of energy self-sufficiency. → Power planning should be immersed in an environment of appropriate energy policies.
A Lagrangian meshfree method applied to linear and nonlinear elasticity.
Walker, Wade A
2017-01-01
The repeated replacement method (RRM) is a Lagrangian meshfree method which we have previously applied to the Euler equations for compressible fluid flow. In this paper we present new enhancements to RRM, and we apply the enhanced method to both linear and nonlinear elasticity. We compare the results of ten test problems to those of analytic solvers, to demonstrate that RRM can successfully simulate these elastic systems without many of the requirements of traditional numerical methods such as numerical derivatives, equation system solvers, or Riemann solvers. We also show the relationship between error and computational effort for RRM on these systems, and compare RRM to other methods to highlight its strengths and weaknesses. And to further explain the two elastic equations used in the paper, we demonstrate the mathematical procedure used to create Riemann and Sedov-Taylor solvers for them, and detail the numerical techniques needed to embody those solvers in code.
Renewable energy: Method and measures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nilsen, Trond Hartvedt
2003-01-01
The thesis presents various possibilities for renewable energy in Norway. The wind power would give a practical and economic alternative. The external costs for the wind power would be moderate. In chapter 3 the utility cost analysis for renewable alternatives are studied relative to the macroeconomic efficiency. Some methodical problems and how these analyses are used are reviewed. In the practical utility cost analyses wind power is studied relative to gas power which is the non-renewable alternative present in Norway today. A qualitative part is included. It is not possible to determine whether wind power is preferable to gas power in the macroeconomic perspective. Wind power would be the choice if high environmental and CO2 cleaning costs are expected. The first conclusion to be drawn is that it is difficult to decide whether wind power is the best solution based on cost benefit analysis. However, the alternative seems to be quite robust in the analysis. Due to the central position the energy supplies have in the society this business should be heavily regulated. The sector is also overtaxed as a reduction in consumption is desired. The analysis shows that the system does not function perfectly. The thesis surveys various measures for improving the renewable energy supply and focuses on the wind power. A model for and analysis of the measures are carried out and resulted in a second conclusion. The measures have various properties as to the influence on the market. A subsidy is a fine measure for stimulation production of green power while a tax reduces efficiently the production of black power. A system with green licenses in combination with a subsidy and a tax would be preferable as to increasing the part of renewable energy of the total production. It is therefore necessary to have clearly defined goals and use suitable measures for achieving them. The costs of wind power is falling and it would therefore soon be macroeconomic profitable. It is also
Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SERVER
2008-02-19
Feb 19, 2008 ... Nanobiotechnology Research Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Po.Box: 484, ... nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the ... of BSA/ethanol and organic solvent adding rate. ... Sodium aside and all other chemicals were purchased from.
Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles
Young, Douglas
1997-01-01
The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.
Magnetic stirring welding method applied to nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, Kenji; Watando, Masayuki; Morishige, Norio; Enoo, Kazuhide; Yasuda, Yuuji
2002-01-01
In construction of a new nuclear power plant, carbon steel and stainless steel are used as base materials for the bottom linear plate of Reinforced Concrete Containment Vessel (RCCV) to achieve maintenance-free requirement, securing sufficient strength of structure. However, welding such different metals is difficult by ordinary method. To overcome the difficulty, the automated Magnetic Stirring Welding (MSW) method that can demonstrate good welding performance was studied for practical use, and weldability tests showed the good results. Based on the study, a new welding device for the MSW method was developed to apply it weld joints of different materials, and it practically used in part of a nuclear power plant. (author)
Improved methods to evaluate realised energy savings
Boonekamp, P.G.M.
2005-01-01
This thesis regards the calculation of realised energy savings at national and sectoral level, and the policy contribution to total savings. It is observed that the results of monitoring and evaluation studies on realised energy savings are hardly applied in energy saving policy. Causes are the lack
Methods of applied mathematics with a software overview
Davis, Jon H
2016-01-01
This textbook, now in its second edition, provides students with a firm grasp of the fundamental notions and techniques of applied mathematics as well as the software skills to implement them. The text emphasizes the computational aspects of problem solving as well as the limitations and implicit assumptions inherent in the formal methods. Readers are also given a sense of the wide variety of problems in which the presented techniques are useful. Broadly organized around the theme of applied Fourier analysis, the treatment covers classical applications in partial differential equations and boundary value problems, and a substantial number of topics associated with Laplace, Fourier, and discrete transform theories. Some advanced topics are explored in the final chapters such as short-time Fourier analysis and geometrically based transforms applicable to boundary value problems. The topics covered are useful in a variety of applied fields such as continuum mechanics, mathematical physics, control theory, and si...
Renewable energy delivery systems and methods
Walker, Howard Andrew
2013-12-10
A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.
Which DTW Method Applied to Marine Univariate Time Series Imputation
Phan , Thi-Thu-Hong; Caillault , Émilie; Lefebvre , Alain; Bigand , André
2017-01-01
International audience; Missing data are ubiquitous in any domains of applied sciences. Processing datasets containing missing values can lead to a loss of efficiency and unreliable results, especially for large missing sub-sequence(s). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to build a framework for filling missing values in univariate time series and to perform a comparison of different similarity metrics used for the imputation task. This allows to suggest the most suitable methods for the imp...
Applying Qualitative Research Methods to Narrative Knowledge Engineering
O'Neill, Brian; Riedl, Mark
2014-01-01
We propose a methodology for knowledge engineering for narrative intelligence systems, based on techniques used to elicit themes in qualitative methods research. Our methodology uses coding techniques to identify actions in natural language corpora, and uses these actions to create planning operators and procedural knowledge, such as scripts. In an iterative process, coders create a taxonomy of codes relevant to the corpus, and apply those codes to each element of that corpus. These codes can...
APPLYING SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS ON ANALYSES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE
Dobrinić, Julijan; Kunić, Marija; Ciganj, Zlatko
2000-01-01
Abstract The paper presents results of measuring the content of heavy and other metals in waste samples from the hazardous waste disposal site of Sovjak near Rijeka. The preliminary design elaboration and the choice of the waste disposal sanification technology were preceded by the sampling and physico-chemical analyses of disposed waste, enabling its categorization. The following spectroscopic methods were applied on metal content analysis: Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and plas...
A new method of AHP applied to personal credit evaluation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIANG Ming-hui; XIONG Qi; CAO Jing
2006-01-01
This paper presents a new negative judgment matrix that combines the advantages of the reciprocal judgment matrix and the fuzzy complementary judgment matrix, and then puts forth the properties of this new matrix. In view of these properties, this paper derives a clear sequencing formula for the new negative judgment matrix, which improves the sequencing principle of AHP. Finally, this new method is applied to personal credit evaluation to show its advantages of conciseness and swiftness.
Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others
2003-03-01
A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)
Novel biodosimetry methods applied to victims of the Goiania accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Straume, T.; Langlois, R.G.; Lucas, J.; Jensen, R.H.; Bigbee, W.L.; Ramalho, A.T.; Brandao-Mello, C.E.
1991-01-01
Two biodosimetric methods under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory were applied to five persons accidentally exposed to a 137Cs source in Goiania, Brazil. The methods used were somatic null mutations at the glycophorin A locus detected as missing proteins on the surface of blood erythrocytes and chromosome translocations in blood lymphocytes detected using fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Biodosimetric results obtained approximately 1 y after the accident using these new and largely unvalidated methods are in general agreement with results obtained immediately after the accident using dicentric chromosome aberrations. Additional follow-up of Goiania accident victims will (1) help provide the information needed to validate these new methods for use in biodosimetry and (2) provide independent estimates of dose
Newton-Krylov methods applied to nonequilibrium radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, D.A.; Rider, W.J.; Olsen, G.L.
1998-01-01
The authors present results of applying a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method to a nonequilibrium radiation diffusion problem. Here, there is no use of operator splitting, and Newton's method is used to convert the nonlinearities within a time step. Since the nonlinear residual is formed, it is used to monitor convergence. It is demonstrated that a simple Picard-based linearization produces a sufficient preconditioning matrix for the Krylov method, thus elevating the need to form or store a Jacobian matrix for Newton's method. They discuss the possibility that the Newton-Krylov approach may allow larger time steps, without loss of accuracy, as compared to an operator split approach where nonlinearities are not converged within a time step
Sizing through simulation of systems for photovoltaic solar energy applied to rural electrification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodríguez‐Borges, Ciaddy Gina; Sarmiento‐Sera, Antonio
2011-01-01
The present work is based on the sizing method by means of simulation of the photovoltaic systems energy behavior, applied to rural electrification in regions far from the electric net. The denomination of infra/over sized systems is made and a requested analysis of one particular case is exposed, where it is considered two energy options of different qualities of electric service and the economic valuation of each option is requested, with its corresponding argument. The quality level is established with the fault index in the electricity service for energy lack in the batteries, besides the quantity of energy autonomy days of the system. As conclusions, in infra-sizing conditions systems, and with established quality level of service, multiple sizing solutions exist, and under certain conditions, not always the systems with more quality level, are those of more cost, as well as the presence of a minimum cost in the sizing can be obtained by simulation methods. (author)
GPS surveying method applied to terminal area navigation flight experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murata, M; Shingu, H; Satsushima, K; Tsuji, T; Ishikawa, K; Miyazawa, Y; Uchida, T [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)
1993-03-01
With an objective of evaluating accuracy of new landing and navigation systems such as microwave landing guidance system and global positioning satellite (GPS) system, flight experiments are being carried out using experimental aircraft. This aircraft mounts a GPS and evaluates its accuracy by comparing the standard orbits spotted by a Kalman filter from the laser tracing data on the aircraft with the navigation results. The GPS outputs position and speed information from an earth-centered-earth-fixed system called the World Geodetic System, 1984 (WGS84). However, in order to compare the navigation results with output from a reference orbit sensor or other navigation sensor, it is necessary to structure a high-precision reference coordinates system based on the WGS84. A method that applies the GPS phase interference measurement for this problem was proposed, and used actually in analyzing a flight experiment data. As referred to a case of the method having been applied to evaluating an independent navigation accuracy, the method was verified sufficiently effective and reliable not only in navigation method analysis, but also in the aspect of navigational operations. 12 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.
Splendor and misery of the distorted wave method applied to heavy ions transfer reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mermaz, M.C.
1979-01-01
The success and failure of the Distorted Wave Method (DWM) applied to heavy ion transfer reactions are illustrated by few examples: one and multi-nucleon transfer reactions induced by 15 N and 18 O on 28 Si target nucleus performed on the vicinity of Coulomb barrier respectively at 44 and 56 MeV incident energy
Methods for model selection in applied science and engineering.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Field, Richard V., Jr.
2004-10-01
Mathematical models are developed and used to study the properties of complex systems and/or modify these systems to satisfy some performance requirements in just about every area of applied science and engineering. A particular reason for developing a model, e.g., performance assessment or design, is referred to as the model use. Our objective is the development of a methodology for selecting a model that is sufficiently accurate for an intended use. Information on the system being modeled is, in general, incomplete, so that there may be two or more models consistent with the available information. The collection of these models is called the class of candidate models. Methods are developed for selecting the optimal member from a class of candidate models for the system. The optimal model depends on the available information, the selected class of candidate models, and the model use. Classical methods for model selection, including the method of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, as well as a method employing a decision-theoretic approach, are formulated to select the optimal model for numerous applications. There is no requirement that the candidate models be random. Classical methods for model selection ignore model use and require data to be available. Examples are used to show that these methods can be unreliable when data is limited. The decision-theoretic approach to model selection does not have these limitations, and model use is included through an appropriate utility function. This is especially important when modeling high risk systems, where the consequences of using an inappropriate model for the system can be disastrous. The decision-theoretic method for model selection is developed and applied for a series of complex and diverse applications. These include the selection of the: (1) optimal order of the polynomial chaos approximation for non-Gaussian random variables and stationary stochastic processes, (2) optimal pressure load model to be
Analysis of concrete beams using applied element method
Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen
2018-03-01
The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a displacement based method of structural analysis. Some of its features are similar to that of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, the structure is analysed by dividing it into several elements similar to FEM. But, in AEM, elements are connected by springs instead of nodes as in the case of FEM. In this paper, background to AEM is discussed and necessary equations are derived. For illustrating the application of AEM, it has been used to analyse plain concrete beam of fixed support condition. The analysis is limited to the analysis of 2-dimensional structures. It was found that the number of springs has no much influence on the results. AEM could predict deflection and reactions with reasonable degree of accuracy.
The Lattice Boltzmann Method applied to neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erasmus, B.; Van Heerden, F. A.
2013-01-01
In this paper the applicability of the Lattice Boltzmann Method to neutron transport is investigated. One of the main features of the Lattice Boltzmann method is the simultaneous discretization of the phase space of the problem, whereby particles are restricted to move on a lattice. An iterative solution of the operator form of the neutron transport equation is presented here, with the first collision source as the starting point of the iteration scheme. A full description of the discretization scheme is given, along with the quadrature set used for the angular discretization. An angular refinement scheme is introduced to increase the angular coverage of the problem phase space and to mitigate lattice ray effects. The method is applied to a model problem to investigate its applicability to neutron transport and the results are compared to a reference solution calculated, using MCNP. (authors)
Advanced methods for image registration applied to JET videos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Craciunescu, Teddy, E-mail: teddy.craciunescu@jet.uk [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Murari, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Padova (Italy); Gelfusa, Michela [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA – University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Tiseanu, Ion; Zoita, Vasile [EURATOM-MEdC Association, NILPRP, Bucharest (Romania); Arnoux, Gilles [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)
2015-10-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Development of an image registration method for JET IR and fast visible cameras. • Method based on SIFT descriptors and coherent point drift points set registration technique. • Method able to deal with extremely noisy images and very low luminosity images. • Computation time compatible with the inter-shot analysis. - Abstract: The last years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital cameras on JET. They are routinely applied for imaging in the IR and visible spectral regions. One of the main technical difficulties in interpreting the data of camera based diagnostics is the presence of movements of the field of view. Small movements occur due to machine shaking during normal pulses while large ones may arise during disruptions. Some cameras show a correlation of image movement with change of magnetic field strength. For deriving unaltered information from the videos and for allowing correct interpretation an image registration method, based on highly distinctive scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors and on the coherent point drift (CPD) points set registration technique, has been developed. The algorithm incorporates a complex procedure for rejecting outliers. The method has been applied for vibrations correction to videos collected by the JET wide angle infrared camera and for the correction of spurious rotations in the case of the JET fast visible camera (which is equipped with an image intensifier). The method has proved to be able to deal with the images provided by this camera frequently characterized by low contrast and a high level of blurring and noise.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Entingh, Daniel J.
1980-03-01
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/DGE), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigation, supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, reports on a neotectonic investigation in Connecticut. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains two articles, the first on OTEC core unit testing supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST), and the second on an analysis of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va. This work is supported by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Atlantic Division.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1980-06-01
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government and an agency of the State of Maryland, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 30 June 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into three sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains three articles. The first is on data analysis of OTEC core unit condenser tests, and is supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST). The second is on the current status of the Community Annual Storage Energy System at the U.S. Naval Air Station, Norfolk, Va., and is supported by the Department of Energy and the Department of Defense, Naval Facilities Engineering Command/Atlantic Division. The third is on utilization of landfill methane and is supported by Argonne National Laboratory.
Applying Nyquist's method for stability determination to solar wind observations
Klein, Kristopher G.; Kasper, Justin C.; Korreck, K. E.; Stevens, Michael L.
2017-10-01
The role instabilities play in governing the evolution of solar and astrophysical plasmas is a matter of considerable scientific interest. The large number of sources of free energy accessible to such nearly collisionless plasmas makes general modeling of unstable behavior, accounting for the temperatures, densities, anisotropies, and relative drifts of a large number of populations, analytically difficult. We therefore seek a general method of stability determination that may be automated for future analysis of solar wind observations. This work describes an efficient application of the Nyquist instability method to the Vlasov dispersion relation appropriate for hot, collisionless, magnetized plasmas, including the solar wind. The algorithm recovers the familiar proton temperature anisotropy instabilities, as well as instabilities that had been previously identified using fits extracted from in situ observations in Gary et al. (2016). Future proposed applications of this method are discussed.
Classification of Specialized Farms Applying Multivariate Statistical Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zuzana Hloušková
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Classification of specialized farms applying multivariate statistical methods The paper is aimed at application of advanced multivariate statistical methods when classifying cattle breeding farming enterprises by their economic size. Advantage of the model is its ability to use a few selected indicators compared to the complex methodology of current classification model that requires knowledge of detailed structure of the herd turnover and structure of cultivated crops. Output of the paper is intended to be applied within farm structure research focused on future development of Czech agriculture. As data source, the farming enterprises database for 2014 has been used, from the FADN CZ system. The predictive model proposed exploits knowledge of actual size classes of the farms tested. Outcomes of the linear discriminatory analysis multifactor classification method have supported the chance of filing farming enterprises in the group of Small farms (98 % filed correctly, and the Large and Very Large enterprises (100 % filed correctly. The Medium Size farms have been correctly filed at 58.11 % only. Partial shortages of the process presented have been found when discriminating Medium and Small farms.
Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho
2010-01-01
In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO 2 that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO 2 samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO 2 samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of the
Nuclear and nuclear related analytical methods applied in environmental research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popescu, Ion V.; Gheboianu, Anca; Bancuta, Iulian; Cimpoca, G. V; Stihi, Claudia; Radulescu, Cristiana; Oros Calin; Frontasyeva, Marina; Petre, Marian; Dulama, Ioana; Vlaicu, G.
2010-01-01
Nuclear Analytical Methods can be used for research activities on environmental studies like water quality assessment, pesticide residues, global climatic change (transboundary), pollution and remediation. Heavy metal pollution is a problem associated with areas of intensive industrial activity. In this work the moss bio monitoring technique was employed to study the atmospheric deposition in Dambovita County Romania. Also, there were used complementary nuclear and atomic analytical methods: Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). These high sensitivity analysis methods were used to determine the chemical composition of some samples of mosses placed in different areas with different pollution industrial sources. The concentrations of Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined. The concentration of Fe from the same samples was determined using all these methods and we obtained a very good agreement, in statistical limits, which demonstrate the capability of these analytical methods to be applied on a large spectrum of environmental samples with the same results. (authors)
Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.
2011-04-01
Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.
Dietary energy density: Applying behavioural science to weight management.
Rolls, B J
2017-09-01
Studies conducted by behavioural scientists show that energy density (kcal/g) provides effective guidance for healthy food choices to control intake and promote satiety. Energy density depends upon a number of dietary components, especially water (0 kcal/g) and fat (9 kcal/g). Increasing the proportion of water or water-rich ingredients, such as vegetables or fruit, lowers a food's energy density. A number of studies show that when the energy density of the diet is reduced, both adults and children spontaneously decrease their ad libitum energy intake. Other studies show that consuming a large volume of a low-energy-dense food such as soup, salad, or fruit as a first course preload can enhance satiety and reduce overall energy intake at a meal. Current evidence suggests that energy density influences intake through a complex interplay of cognitive, sensory, gastrointestinal, hormonal and neural influences. Other studies that focus on practical applications show how the strategic incorporation of foods lower in energy density into the diet allows people to eat satisfying portions while improving dietary patterns. This review discusses studies that have led to greater understanding of the importance of energy density for food intake regulation and weight management.
Applied systems ecology: models, data, and statistical methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eberhardt, L L
1976-01-01
In this report, systems ecology is largely equated to mathematical or computer simulation modelling. The need for models in ecology stems from the necessity to have an integrative device for the diversity of ecological data, much of which is observational, rather than experimental, as well as from the present lack of a theoretical structure for ecology. Different objectives in applied studies require specialized methods. The best predictive devices may be regression equations, often non-linear in form, extracted from much more detailed models. A variety of statistical aspects of modelling, including sampling, are discussed. Several aspects of population dynamics and food-chain kinetics are described, and it is suggested that the two presently separated approaches should be combined into a single theoretical framework. It is concluded that future efforts in systems ecology should emphasize actual data and statistical methods, as well as modelling.
Analysis of Brick Masonry Wall using Applied Element Method
Lincy Christy, D.; Madhavan Pillai, T. M.; Nagarajan, Praveen
2018-03-01
The Applied Element Method (AEM) is a versatile tool for structural analysis. Analysis is done by discretising the structure as in the case of Finite Element Method (FEM). In AEM, elements are connected by a set of normal and shear springs instead of nodes. AEM is extensively used for the analysis of brittle materials. Brick masonry wall can be effectively analyzed in the frame of AEM. The composite nature of masonry wall can be easily modelled using springs. The brick springs and mortar springs are assumed to be connected in series. The brick masonry wall is analyzed and failure load is determined for different loading cases. The results were used to find the best aspect ratio of brick to strengthen brick masonry wall.
Thermally stimulated current method applied to highly irradiated silicon diodes
Pintilie, I; Pintilie, I; Moll, Michael; Fretwurst, E; Lindström, G
2002-01-01
We propose an improved method for the analysis of Thermally Stimulated Currents (TSC) measured on highly irradiated silicon diodes. The proposed TSC formula for the evaluation of a set of TSC spectra obtained with different reverse biases leads not only to the concentration of electron and hole traps visible in the spectra but also gives an estimation for the concentration of defects which not give rise to a peak in the 30-220 K TSC temperature range (very shallow or very deep levels). The method is applied to a diode irradiated with a neutron fluence of phi sub n =1.82x10 sup 1 sup 3 n/cm sup 2.
Bayesian networks applied to process diagnostics. Applications in energy industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Widarsson, Bjoern (ed.); Karlsson, Christer; Dahlquist, Erik [Maelardalen Univ., Vaesteraas (Sweden); Nielsen, Thomas D.; Jensen, Finn V. [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark)
2004-10-01
Uncertainty in process operation occurs frequently in heat and power industry. This makes it hard to find the occurrence of an abnormal process state from a number of process signals (measurements) or find the correct cause to an abnormality. Among several other methods, Bayesian Networks (BN) is a method to build a model which can handle uncertainty in both process signals and the process itself. The purpose of this project is to investigate the possibilities to use BN for fault detection and diagnostics in combined heat and power industries through execution of two different applications. Participants from Aalborg University represent the knowledge of BN and participants from Maelardalen University have the experience from modelling heat and power applications. The co-operation also includes two energy companies; Elsam A/S (Nordjyllandsverket) and Maelarenergi AB (Vaesteraas CHP-plant), where the two applications are made with support from the plant personnel. The project ended out in two quite different applications. At Nordjyllandsverket, an application based (due to the lack of process knowledge) on pure operation data is build with capability to detect an abnormal process state in a coal mill. Detection is made through a conflict analysis when entering process signals into a model built by analysing the operation database. The application at Maelarenergi is built with a combination of process knowledge and operation data and can detect various faults caused by the fuel. The process knowledge is used to build a causal network structure and the structure is then trained by data from the operation database. Both applications are made as off-online applications, but they are ready for being run on-line. The performance of fault detection and diagnostics are good, but a lack of abnormal process states with known cause reduces the evaluation possibilities. Advantages with combining expert knowledge of the process with operation data are the possibility to represent
Applying Risk and Resilience Metrics to Energy Investments
2015-12-01
include. Resilient energy infrastructure extends beyond the installation’s energy gird and distribution capability to the people controlling the system...Effects on Energy Supply The report, How Two Microgrids Fared After the 2011 Earthquake, states that the Great East Japanese Earthquake and Tsunami...Company was unable to supply power to its customers; however, two microgrids successfully produced and distributed power after the GEJE, when the
A Multifactorial Analysis of Reconstruction Methods Applied After Total Gastrectomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oktay Büyükaşık
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reconstruction methods applied after total gastrectomy in terms of postoperative symptomology and nutrition. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted on 31 patients who underwent total gastrectomy due to gastric cancer in 2. Clinic of General Surgery, SSK Ankara Training Hospital. 6 different reconstruction methods were used and analyzed in terms of age, sex and postoperative complications. One from esophagus and two biopsy specimens from jejunum were taken through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy from all cases, and late period morphological and microbiological changes were examined. Postoperative weight change, dumping symptoms, reflux esophagitis, solid/liquid dysphagia, early satiety, postprandial pain, diarrhea and anorexia were assessed. Results: Of 31 patients,18 were males and 13 females; the youngest one was 33 years old, while the oldest- 69 years old. It was found that reconstruction without pouch was performed in 22 cases and with pouch in 9 cases. Early satiety, postprandial pain, dumping symptoms, diarrhea and anemia were found most commonly in cases with reconstruction without pouch. The rate of bacterial colonization of the jejunal mucosa was identical in both groups. Reflux esophagitis was most commonly seen in omega esophagojejunostomy (EJ, while the least-in Roux-en-Y, Tooley and Tanner 19 EJ. Conclusion: Reconstruction with pouch performed after total gastrectomy is still a preferable method. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2010; 48:126-31
Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogt, J. R. [ed.
1977-01-01
The topics considered in the seven sessions were nuclear methods in atmospheric research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in tracer applications; energy exploration, production, and utilization; nuclear methods in environmental monitoring; nuclear methods in water research; and nuclear methods in biological research. Individual abstracts were prepared for each paper. (JSR)
Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogt, J.R.
1980-01-01
A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research
Nuclear methods in environmental and energy research
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vogt, J R [ed.
1980-01-01
A total of 75 papers were presented on nuclear methods for analysis of environmental and biological samples. Sessions were devoted to software and mathematical methods; nuclear methods in atmospheric and water research; nuclear and atomic methodology; nuclear methods in biology and medicine; and nuclear methods in energy research.
Electromagnetic energy applied to and gained from lunar materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meek, T.T.; Vaniman, D.T.; Blake, R.D.; Cocks, F.H.
1986-01-01
Electromagnetic energy may be useful in microwave frequencies for in-situ melting or sintering of lunar regolith. Simple configurations of magnetron or gyrotron tubes might be constructed for unique melting geometries. For energy production, lunar ilmenite has potential applications in photovoltaic devices. 11 refs., 11 figs
Modified electron acoustic field and energy applied to observation data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdelwahed, H. G., E-mail: hgomaa-eg@yahoo.com, E-mail: hgomaa-eg@mans.edu.eg [College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Physics Department, Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt); El-Shewy, E. K. [Theoretical Physics Research Group, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516 (Egypt)
2016-08-15
Improved electrostatic acoustic field and energy have been debated in vortex trapped hot electrons and fluid of cold electrons with pressure term plasmas. The perturbed higher-order modified-Korteweg-de Vries equation (PhomKdV) has been worked out. The effect of trapping and electron temperatures on the electro-field and energy properties in auroral plasmas has been inspected.
Method for producing chemical energy
Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.
2004-09-21
Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles having a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer are prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1980-12-01
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 December 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into five sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains a report on institutional problems for small-scale hydroelectric power development in the southeastern states and a list of documents published by APL in the hydroelectric program and in the geothermal program, above. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigations, contains an article on work on the geologic structure of the Danbury Quadrangle that is supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and an in-house supported study on a new method for assessing earthquakes in intraplate regions. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains four articles. The first is an evaluation of the Einstein refrigerator, supported by independent IR and D funds. The second concerns fly-wheel technology development at APL supported by the Department of Energy, Division of Energy Storage (DOE/STOR). The third is a report on APL energy conservation efforts at its own buildings, and the fourth is an article on liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety evaluation, supported by the National Academy of Sciences. The fifth section explores the value of establishing an Energy Research Institute at The Johns Hopkins University.
Econometric methods for energy planning and policy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhatia, R.
1989-01-01
The paper reports on the following: econometric models are often used in energy planning and policy for energy demand analysis at the macro and sectorial levels; estimating income and price elasticities of demand which can be used to analyze effects of growth and price changes; assessing interfuel and interfactor substitutions; forecasting energy demand; and estimating cost functions and forecasting supply. The illustrations in the paper are confined to single equation systems estimated by least squares method as used in analyzing changes in aggregate energy demand and sectorial energy demand. The use of econometric methods is illustrated with the help of empirical studies from a few countries (notably India). 2 tabs
Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective
Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith
2010-01-01
The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…
Analytical methods applied to diverse types of Brazilian propolis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcucci Maria
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Propolis is a bee product, composed mainly of plant resins and beeswax, therefore its chemical composition varies due to the geographic and plant origins of these resins, as well as the species of bee. Brazil is an important supplier of propolis on the world market and, although green colored propolis from the southeast is the most known and studied, several other types of propolis from Apis mellifera and native stingless bees (also called cerumen can be found. Propolis is usually consumed as an extract, so the type of solvent and extractive procedures employed further affect its composition. Methods used for the extraction; analysis the percentage of resins, wax and insoluble material in crude propolis; determination of phenolic, flavonoid, amino acid and heavy metal contents are reviewed herein. Different chromatographic methods applied to the separation, identification and quantification of Brazilian propolis components and their relative strengths are discussed; as well as direct insertion mass spectrometry fingerprinting. Propolis has been used as a popular remedy for several centuries for a wide array of ailments. Its antimicrobial properties, present in propolis from different origins, have been extensively studied. But, more recently, anti-parasitic, anti-viral/immune stimulating, healing, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and analgesic activities of diverse types of Brazilian propolis have been evaluated. The most common methods employed and overviews of their relative results are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1980-09-01
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, under contracts with several agencies of the federal government, is engaged in developing energy resources, utilization concepts, and monitoring and storage methods. This Quarterly Report summarizes the work on the various tasks as of 31 September 1980. The Energy Quarterly Report is divided into four sections. The first, Geothermal Energy Development Planning and Technical Assistance, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy (DOE/DGE), contains reports on the progress of geothermal-related tasks on which effort was concentrated during the quarter. The second section, Operational Research, Hydroelectric Power Development, supported by the Department of Energy/Resource Applications (DOE/RA), contains reports on small-scale hydroelectric investigations in the southeastern states. The third section, Seismotectonic Investigations, supported by the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), reports on neotectonic investigations of the Manhattan Prong. The fourth section, Energy Conversion and Storage Techniques, contains three articles. The first is an evaluation of the Einstein refrigerator, supported by independent IR&D funds. The second concerns OTEC pilot plant performance calculations, supported by the Department of Energy/Division of Central Solar Technology (DOE/CST). The third, describing a study of landfill methane recovery, is supported by the National Park Service.
Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods.
Olden, Peter C
2006-01-01
Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management.
Six Sigma methods applied to cryogenic coolers assembly line
Ventre, Jean-Marc; Germain-Lacour, Michel; Martin, Jean-Yves; Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Benschop, Tonny; Griot, René
2009-05-01
Six Sigma method have been applied to manufacturing process of a rotary Stirling cooler: RM2. Name of the project is NoVa as main goal of the Six Sigma approach is to reduce variability (No Variability). Project has been based on the DMAIC guideline following five stages: Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve, Control. Objective has been set on the rate of coolers succeeding performance at first attempt with a goal value of 95%. A team has been gathered involving people and skills acting on the RM2 manufacturing line. Measurement System Analysis (MSA) has been applied to test bench and results after R&R gage show that measurement is one of the root cause for variability in RM2 process. Two more root causes have been identified by the team after process mapping analysis: regenerator filling factor and cleaning procedure. Causes for measurement variability have been identified and eradicated as shown by new results from R&R gage. Experimental results show that regenerator filling factor impacts process variability and affects yield. Improved process haven been set after new calibration process for test bench, new filling procedure for regenerator and an additional cleaning stage have been implemented. The objective for 95% coolers succeeding performance test at first attempt has been reached and kept for a significant period. RM2 manufacturing process is now managed according to Statistical Process Control based on control charts. Improvement in process capability have enabled introduction of sample testing procedure before delivery.
Metrological evaluation of characterization methods applied to nuclear fuels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faeda, Kelly Cristina Martins; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Camarano, Denise das Merces; Ferreira, Ricardo Alberto Neto; Migliorini, Fabricio Lima; Carneiro, Luciana Capanema Silva; Silva, Egonn Hendrigo Carvalho, E-mail: kellyfisica@gmail.co, E-mail: fernando.lameiras@pq.cnpq.b, E-mail: dmc@cdtn.b, E-mail: ranf@cdtn.b, E-mail: flmigliorini@hotmail.co, E-mail: lucsc@hotmail.co, E-mail: egonn@ufmg.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2010-07-01
In manufacturing the nuclear fuel, characterizations are performed in order to assure the minimization of harmful effects. The uranium dioxide is the most used substance as nuclear reactor fuel because of many advantages, such as: high stability even when it is in contact with water at high temperatures, high fusion point, and high capacity to retain fission products. Several methods are used for characterization of nuclear fuels, such as thermogravimetric analysis for the ratio O / U, penetration-immersion method, helium pycnometer and mercury porosimetry for the density and porosity, BET method for the specific surface, chemical analyses for relevant impurities, and the laser flash method for thermophysical properties. Specific tools are needed to control the diameter and the sphericity of the microspheres and the properties of the coating layers (thickness, density, and degree of anisotropy). Other methods can also give information, such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, microanalysis, and mass spectroscopy of secondary ions for chemical analysis. The accuracy of measurement and level of uncertainty of the resulting data are important. This work describes a general metrological characterization of some techniques applied to the characterization of nuclear fuel. Sources of measurement uncertainty were analyzed. The purpose is to summarize selected properties of UO{sub 2} that have been studied by CDTN in a program of fuel development for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). The selected properties are crucial for thermalhydraulic codes to study basic design accidents. The thermal characterization (thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity) and the penetration immersion method (density and open porosity) of UO{sub 2} samples were focused. The thermal characterization of UO{sub 2} samples was determined by the laser flash method between room temperature and 448 K. The adaptive Monte Carlo Method was used to obtain the endpoints of
Energy storage cell impedance measuring apparatus, methods and related systems
Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.
2017-12-26
Energy storage cell impedance testing devices, circuits, and related methods are disclosed. An energy storage cell impedance measuring device includes a sum of sinusoids (SOS) current excitation circuit including differential current sources configured to isolate a ground terminal of the differential current sources from a positive terminal and a negative terminal of an energy storage cell. A method includes applying an SOS signal comprising a sum of sinusoidal current signals to the energy storage cell with the SOS current excitation circuit, each of the sinusoidal current signals oscillating at a different one of a plurality of different frequencies. The method also includes measuring an electrical signal at a positive terminal and a negative terminal of the energy storage cell, and computing an impedance of the energy storage cell at each of the plurality of different frequencies using the measured electrical signal.
Applying systems ergonomics methods in sport: A systematic review.
Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Plant, Katherine L; Read, Gemma J M; Mclean, Scott; Clacy, Amanda; Salmon, Paul M
2018-04-16
As sports systems become increasingly more complex, competitive, and technology-centric, there is a greater need for systems ergonomics methods to consider the performance, health, and safety of athletes in context with the wider settings in which they operate. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify and critically evaluate studies which have applied a systems ergonomics research approach in the context of sports performance and injury management. Five databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus) were searched for the dates 01 January 1990 to 01 August 2017, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers. Reported analyses were underpinned by a recognised systems ergonomics method, and study aims were related to the optimisation of sports performance (e.g. communication, playing style, technique, tactics, or equipment), and/or the management of sports injury (i.e. identification, prevention, or treatment). A total of seven articles were identified. Two articles were focussed on understanding and optimising sports performance, whereas five examined sports injury management. The methods used were the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork, Cognitive Work Analysis (the Work Domain Analysis Abstraction Hierarchy), Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework, and the Systems Theoretic Accident Model and Processes method. The individual sport application was distance running, whereas the team sports contexts examined were cycling, football, Australian Football League, and rugby union. The included systems ergonomics applications were highly flexible, covering both amateur and elite sports contexts. The studies were rated as valuable, providing descriptions of injury controls and causation, the factors influencing injury management, the allocation of responsibilities for injury prevention, as well as the factors and their interactions underpinning sports performance. Implications and future
The virtual fields method applied to spalling tests on concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Forquin P.
2012-08-01
Full Text Available For one decade spalling techniques based on the use of a metallic Hopkinson bar put in contact with a concrete sample have been widely employed to characterize the dynamic tensile strength of concrete at strain-rates ranging from a few tens to two hundreds of s−1. However, the processing method mainly based on the use of the velocity profile measured on the rear free surface of the sample (Novikov formula remains quite basic and an identification of the whole softening behaviour of the concrete is out of reach. In the present paper a new processing method is proposed based on the use of the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. First, a digital high speed camera is used to record the pictures of a grid glued on the specimen. Next, full-field measurements are used to obtain the axial displacement field at the surface of the specimen. Finally, a specific virtual field has been defined in the VFM equation to use the acceleration map as an alternative ‘load cell’. This method applied to three spalling tests allowed to identify Young’s modulus during the test. It was shown that this modulus is constant during the initial compressive part of the test and decreases in the tensile part when micro-damage exists. It was also shown that in such a simple inertial test, it was possible to reconstruct average axial stress profiles using only the acceleration data. Then, it was possible to construct local stress-strain curves and derive a tensile strength value.
Artificial Intelligence Methods Applied to Parameter Detection of Atrial Fibrillation
Arotaritei, D.; Rotariu, C.
2015-09-01
In this paper we present a novel method to develop an atrial fibrillation (AF) based on statistical descriptors and hybrid neuro-fuzzy and crisp system. The inference of system produce rules of type if-then-else that care extracted to construct a binary decision system: normal of atrial fibrillation. We use TPR (Turning Point Ratio), SE (Shannon Entropy) and RMSSD (Root Mean Square of Successive Differences) along with a new descriptor, Teager- Kaiser energy, in order to improve the accuracy of detection. The descriptors are calculated over a sliding window that produce very large number of vectors (massive dataset) used by classifier. The length of window is a crisp descriptor meanwhile the rest of descriptors are interval-valued type. The parameters of hybrid system are adapted using Genetic Algorithm (GA) algorithm with fitness single objective target: highest values for sensibility and sensitivity. The rules are extracted and they are part of the decision system. The proposed method was tested using the Physionet MIT-BIH Atrial Fibrillation Database and the experimental results revealed a good accuracy of AF detection in terms of sensitivity and specificity (above 90%).
Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles
Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz
2017-10-01
Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed-end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.
Quantum computing applied to calculations of molecular energies
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pittner, Jiří; Veis, L.
2011-01-01
Roč. 241, - (2011), 151-phys ISSN 0065-7727. [National Meeting and Exposition of the American-Chemical-Society (ACS) /241./. 27.03.2011-31.03.2011, Anaheim] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : molecular energie * quantum computers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry
Flood Hazard Mapping by Applying Fuzzy TOPSIS Method
Han, K. Y.; Lee, J. Y.; Keum, H.; Kim, B. J.; Kim, T. H.
2017-12-01
There are lots of technical methods to integrate various factors for flood hazard mapping. The purpose of this study is to suggest the methodology of integrated flood hazard mapping using MCDM(Multi Criteria Decision Making). MCDM problems involve a set of alternatives that are evaluated on the basis of conflicting and incommensurate criteria. In this study, to apply MCDM to assessing flood risk, maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time are considered as criterion, and each applied elements are considered as alternatives. The scheme to find the efficient alternative closest to a ideal value is appropriate way to assess flood risk of a lot of element units(alternatives) based on various flood indices. Therefore, TOPSIS which is most commonly used MCDM scheme is adopted to create flood hazard map. The indices for flood hazard mapping(maximum flood depth, maximum velocity, and maximum travel time) have uncertainty concerning simulation results due to various values according to flood scenario and topographical condition. These kind of ambiguity of indices can cause uncertainty of flood hazard map. To consider ambiguity and uncertainty of criterion, fuzzy logic is introduced which is able to handle ambiguous expression. In this paper, we made Flood Hazard Map according to levee breach overflow using the Fuzzy TOPSIS Technique. We confirmed the areas where the highest grade of hazard was recorded through the drawn-up integrated flood hazard map, and then produced flood hazard map can be compared them with those indicated in the existing flood risk maps. Also, we expect that if we can apply the flood hazard map methodology suggested in this paper even to manufacturing the current flood risk maps, we will be able to make a new flood hazard map to even consider the priorities for hazard areas, including more varied and important information than ever before. Keywords : Flood hazard map; levee break analysis; 2D analysis; MCDM; Fuzzy TOPSIS
Three methods to measure RH bond energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.
1993-01-01
In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies
Complexity methods applied to turbulence in plasma astrophysics
Vlahos, L.; Isliker, H.
2016-09-01
In this review many of the well known tools for the analysis of Complex systems are used in order to study the global coupling of the turbulent convection zone with the solar atmosphere where the magnetic energy is dissipated explosively. Several well documented observations are not easy to interpret with the use of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and/or Kinetic numerical codes. Such observations are: (1) The size distribution of the Active Regions (AR) on the solar surface, (2) The fractal and multi fractal characteristics of the observed magnetograms, (3) The Self-Organised characteristics of the explosive magnetic energy release and (4) the very efficient acceleration of particles during the flaring periods in the solar corona. We review briefly the work published the last twenty five years on the above issues and propose solutions by using methods borrowed from the analysis of complex systems. The scenario which emerged is as follows: (a) The fully developed turbulence in the convection zone generates and transports magnetic flux tubes to the solar surface. Using probabilistic percolation models we were able to reproduce the size distribution and the fractal properties of the emerged and randomly moving magnetic flux tubes. (b) Using a Non Linear Force Free (NLFF) magnetic extrapolation numerical code we can explore how the emerged magnetic flux tubes interact nonlinearly and form thin and Unstable Current Sheets (UCS) inside the coronal part of the AR. (c) The fragmentation of the UCS and the redistribution of the magnetic field locally, when the local current exceeds a Critical threshold, is a key process which drives avalanches and forms coherent structures. This local reorganization of the magnetic field enhances the energy dissipation and influences the global evolution of the complex magnetic topology. Using a Cellular Automaton and following the simple rules of Self Organized Criticality (SOC), we were able to reproduce the statistical characteristics of the
Medipix 2 detector applied to low energy electron microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gastel, R. van; Sikharulidze, I.; Schramm, S.; Abrahams, J.P.; Poelsema, B.; Tromp, R.M.; Molen, S.J. van der
2009-01-01
Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photo-emission electron microscopy (PEEM) traditionally use microchannel plates (MCPs), a phosphor screen and a CCD-camera to record images and diffraction patterns. In recent years, however, MCPs have become a limiting factor for these types of microscopy. Here, we report on a successful test series using a solid state hybrid pixel detector, Medipix 2, in LEEM and PEEM. Medipix 2 is a background-free detector with an infinite dynamic range, making it very promising for both real-space imaging and spectroscopy. We demonstrate a significant enhancement of both image contrast and resolution, as compared to MCPs. Since aging of the Medipix 2 detector is negligible for the electron energies used in LEEM/PEEM, we expect Medipix to become the detector of choice for a new generation of systems.
Medipix 2 detector applied to low energy electron microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gastel, R. van, E-mail: R.vanGastel@utwente.nl [University of Twente, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 217, NL-7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Sikharulidze, I. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9502, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Schramm, S. [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Abrahams, J.P. [Leiden University, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, P.O. Box 9502, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Poelsema, B. [University of Twente, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, P.O. Box 217, NL-7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Tromp, R.M. [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Molen, S.J. van der [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)
2009-12-15
Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and photo-emission electron microscopy (PEEM) traditionally use microchannel plates (MCPs), a phosphor screen and a CCD-camera to record images and diffraction patterns. In recent years, however, MCPs have become a limiting factor for these types of microscopy. Here, we report on a successful test series using a solid state hybrid pixel detector, Medipix 2, in LEEM and PEEM. Medipix 2 is a background-free detector with an infinite dynamic range, making it very promising for both real-space imaging and spectroscopy. We demonstrate a significant enhancement of both image contrast and resolution, as compared to MCPs. Since aging of the Medipix 2 detector is negligible for the electron energies used in LEEM/PEEM, we expect Medipix to become the detector of choice for a new generation of systems.
Stochastic control applied to the ISWEC Wave Energy System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bracco, Giovanni; Casassa, Maria; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Mattiazzo, Giuliana; Passione, Biagio; Raffero, Mattia; Vissio, Giacomo; Martini, Michele
2015-01-01
ISWEC (Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter) is a floating marine device able to harvest sea waves energy by the interaction between the pitching motion of a floater and a spinning flywheel which can drive an electric PTO. In the ISWEC the hull dynamics is governed and controlled by the gyroscopic torque. The optimal control logic results in tuning the floater dynamics to the incoming waves in order to maximize the power transfer from the waves to the floater. In this paper the control problems of the ISWEC are stated and a control scheme based on the sub-optimal stochastic control logic is presented. The control scheme here presented has been tested using real wave records acquired at the deployment location in Pantelleria Island, which is one of the most energetic sites of the Mediterranean Sea.
Model-independent determination of dissociation energies: method and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogel, Manuel; Hansen, Klavs; Herlert, Alexander; Schweikhard, Lutz
2003-01-01
A number of methods are available for the purpose of extracting dissociation energies of polyatomic particles. Many of these techniques relate the rate of disintegration at a known excitation energy to the value of the dissociation energy. However, such a determination is susceptible to systematic uncertainties, mainly due to the unknown thermal properties of the particles and the potential existence of 'dark' channels, such as radiative cooling. These problems can be avoided with a recently developed procedure, which applies energy-dependent reactions of the decay products as an uncalibrated thermometer. Thus, it allows a direct measurement of dissociation energies, without any assumption on properties of the system or on details of the disintegration process. The experiments have been performed in a Penning trap, where both rate constants and branching ratios have been measured. The dissociation energies determined with different versions of the method yield identical values, within a small uncertainty
Applying sociodramatic methods in teaching transition to palliative care.
Baile, Walter F; Walters, Rebecca
2013-03-01
We introduce the technique of sociodrama, describe its key components, and illustrate how this simulation method was applied in a workshop format to address the challenge of discussing transition to palliative care. We describe how warm-up exercises prepared 15 learners who provide direct clinical care to patients with cancer for a dramatic portrayal of this dilemma. We then show how small-group brainstorming led to the creation of a challenging scenario wherein highly optimistic family members of a 20-year-old young man with terminal acute lymphocytic leukemia responded to information about the lack of further anticancer treatment with anger and blame toward the staff. We illustrate how the facilitators, using sociodramatic techniques of doubling and role reversal, helped learners to understand and articulate the hidden feelings of fear and loss behind the family's emotional reactions. By modeling effective communication skills, the facilitators demonstrated how key communication skills, such as empathic responses to anger and blame and using "wish" statements, could transform the conversation from one of conflict to one of problem solving with the family. We also describe how we set up practice dyads to give the learners an opportunity to try out new skills with each other. An evaluation of the workshop and similar workshops we conducted is presented. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Innovative wave energy device applied to coastal observatory systems
Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Scanu, Sergio; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Martellucci, Riccardo; Maximo, Peviani
2017-04-01
Marine environment is one of the most promising sources of renewable energy, whose exploitation could have an effect on several application fields. This work presents the design of an innovative device based on the Oscillating Water Column (OWC), that allows to convert wave energy into electricity, suitable for the typical Mediterranean wave climate. The flexibility of the device permits its installation either in deep or shallow waters, with reduced costs of deployment, maintenance and connection to the grid. Furthermore, the replicability of the design allows the device to be installed in array of several number of similar units. The technical concept is to convey the sea water within a vertical pipe, in which the water movements activate a rotor connected to a generator that transforms the energy of the water motion into electricity. The hydrodynamic design of the pipe is built to minimize the losses due to friction and turbulence and to exploit the maximum possible energy from wave motion. The wave energy is directly absorbed by the rotational movement of the turbine blades located in the water itself allowing a further reduction of the energy losses associated with the transformation of the linear water motion into electrical generation in the air phase (typical configuration of the OWC devices). In this work the device components are described considering two possible configurations that use a Wells turbine or a Bulb type turbine. The system can be realized at a low cost, because of the modularity of the device project, which allows large freedom of sizes and placements, being able to be installed both individually and in arrays. The modularity, associated with the fact that the main elements of the system are available on the market, makes the device particularly attractive from the economic point of view. Finally, it is realized with a high constructive flexibility: the proposed system can be transported floating and moored to existing coastal structures or
Estimating building energy consumption using extreme learning machine method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naji, Sareh; Keivani, Afram; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Alengaram, U. Johnson; Jumaat, Mohd Zamin; Mansor, Zulkefli; Lee, Malrey
2016-01-01
The current energy requirements of buildings comprise a large percentage of the total energy consumed around the world. The demand of energy, as well as the construction materials used in buildings, are becoming increasingly problematic for the earth's sustainable future, and thus have led to alarming concern. The energy efficiency of buildings can be improved, and in order to do so, their operational energy usage should be estimated early in the design phase, so that buildings are as sustainable as possible. An early energy estimate can greatly help architects and engineers create sustainable structures. This study proposes a novel method to estimate building energy consumption based on the ELM (Extreme Learning Machine) method. This method is applied to building material thicknesses and their thermal insulation capability (K-value). For this purpose up to 180 simulations are carried out for different material thicknesses and insulation properties, using the EnergyPlus software application. The estimation and prediction obtained by the ELM model are compared with GP (genetic programming) and ANNs (artificial neural network) models for accuracy. The simulation results indicate that an improvement in predictive accuracy is achievable with the ELM approach in comparison with GP and ANN. - Highlights: • Buildings consume huge amounts of energy for operation. • Envelope materials and insulation influence building energy consumption. • Extreme learning machine is used to estimate energy usage of a sample building. • The key effective factors in this study are insulation thickness and K-value.
Applying multi-resolution numerical methods to geodynamics
Davies, David Rhodri
Computational models yield inaccurate results if the underlying numerical grid fails to provide the necessary resolution to capture a simulation's important features. For the large-scale problems regularly encountered in geodynamics, inadequate grid resolution is a major concern. The majority of models involve multi-scale dynamics, being characterized by fine-scale upwelling and downwelling activity in a more passive, large-scale background flow. Such configurations, when coupled to the complex geometries involved, present a serious challenge for computational methods. Current techniques are unable to resolve localized features and, hence, such models cannot be solved efficiently. This thesis demonstrates, through a series of papers and closely-coupled appendices, how multi-resolution finite-element methods from the forefront of computational engineering can provide a means to address these issues. The problems examined achieve multi-resolution through one of two methods. In two-dimensions (2-D), automatic, unstructured mesh refinement procedures are utilized. Such methods improve the solution quality of convection dominated problems by adapting the grid automatically around regions of high solution gradient, yielding enhanced resolution of the associated flow features. Thermal and thermo-chemical validation tests illustrate that the technique is robust and highly successful, improving solution accuracy whilst increasing computational efficiency. These points are reinforced when the technique is applied to geophysical simulations of mid-ocean ridge and subduction zone magmatism. To date, successful goal-orientated/error-guided grid adaptation techniques have not been utilized within the field of geodynamics. The work included herein is therefore the first geodynamical application of such methods. In view of the existing three-dimensional (3-D) spherical mantle dynamics codes, which are built upon a quasi-uniform discretization of the sphere and closely coupled
Analytic methods in applied probability in memory of Fridrikh Karpelevich
Suhov, Yu M
2002-01-01
This volume is dedicated to F. I. Karpelevich, an outstanding Russian mathematician who made important contributions to applied probability theory. The book contains original papers focusing on several areas of applied probability and its uses in modern industrial processes, telecommunications, computing, mathematical economics, and finance. It opens with a review of Karpelevich's contributions to applied probability theory and includes a bibliography of his works. Other articles discuss queueing network theory, in particular, in heavy traffic approximation (fluid models). The book is suitable
Reactor calculation in coarse mesh by finite element method applied to matrix response method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakata, H.
1982-01-01
The finite element method is applied to the solution of the modified formulation of the matrix-response method aiming to do reactor calculations in coarse mesh. Good results are obtained with a short running time. The method is applicable to problems where the heterogeneity is predominant and to problems of evolution in coarse meshes where the burnup is variable in one same coarse mesh, making the cross section vary spatially with the evolution. (E.G.) [pt
What criteria should now be applied in energy resource planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puechl, K.H.
1976-01-01
Twenty years ago decisions on nuclear power were made on purely economic grounds. Little attention was given to public acceptability, broad-scope cost/benefit analysis, environmental impacts, or conservation of resources. In the light of the significantly different situation that exists today, were the proper decisions made, and what should now be the basis for proper comparable analysis. Acknowledging that energy resource planning is extremely complex, a logical approach is suggested that provides a more meaningful basis for public choice and decision-making. (author)
Applying Smart Grid Technology For Reducing Electric Energy Consumption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffman, Roy
2010-09-15
In recent years the term 'Smart Grid' has become a widely used buzz word with respect to the operation of Electric Power Systems. One analysis has suggested that a Smart Grid could potentially reduce annual energy consumption in the USA by 56 to 203 billion kWh in 2030, corresponding to a 1.2 to 4.3% reduction in projected retail electricity sales in 2030. This paper discusses some of the smart grid technologies pertaining to the operation of electric power distribution networks.
Method for optimising the energy of pumps
Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio
2011-01-01
The method involves determining whether pumps (pu1, pu5) are directly assigned to loads (v1, v3) as pilot pumps (pu2, pu3) and hydraulically connected upstream of the pilot pumps. The upstream pumps are controlled with variable speed for energy optimization. Energy optimization circuits are selected
A fuzzy levelised energy cost method for renewable energy technology assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, Daniel G.; Dey, Prasanta K.; Brammer, John G.
2013-01-01
Renewable energy project development is highly complex and success is by no means guaranteed. Decisions are often made with approximate or uncertain information yet the current methods employed by decision-makers do not necessarily accommodate this. Levelised energy costs (LEC) are one such commonly applied measure utilised within the energy industry to assess the viability of potential projects and inform policy. The research proposes a method for achieving this by enhancing the traditional discounting LEC measure with fuzzy set theory. Furthermore, the research develops the fuzzy LEC (F-LEC) methodology to incorporate the cost of financing a project from debt and equity sources. Applied to an example bioenergy project, the research demonstrates the benefit of incorporating fuzziness for project viability, optimal capital structure and key variable sensitivity analysis decision-making. The proposed method contributes by incorporating uncertain and approximate information to the widely utilised LEC measure and by being applicable to a wide range of energy project viability decisions. -- Highlights: •Proposes a fuzzy levelised energy cost (F-LEC) methodology to support energy project development. •Incorporates the terms and cost of project finance into the F-LEC method. •Applies the F-LEC method to an example bioenergy project development case
Analysis of coupled neutron-gamma radiations, applied to shieldings in multigroup albedo method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dunley, Leonardo Souza
2002-01-01
The principal mathematical tools frequently available for calculations in Nuclear Engineering, including coupled neutron-gamma radiations shielding problems, involve the full Transport Theory or the Monte Carlo techniques. The Multigroup Albedo Method applied to shieldings is characterized by following the radiations through distinct layers of materials, allowing the determination of the neutron and gamma fractions reflected from, transmitted through and absorbed in the irradiated media when a neutronic stream hits the first layer of material, independently of flux calculations. Then, the method is a complementary tool of great didactic value due to its clarity and simplicity in solving neutron and/or gamma shielding problems. The outstanding results achieved in previous works motivated the elaboration and the development of this study that is presented in this dissertation. The radiation balance resulting from the incidence of a neutronic stream into a shielding composed by 'm' non-multiplying slab layers for neutrons was determined by the Albedo method, considering 'n' energy groups for neutrons and 'g' energy groups for gammas. It was taken into account there is no upscattering of neutrons and gammas. However, it was considered that neutrons from any energy groups are able to produce gammas of all energy groups. The ANISN code, for an angular quadrature order S 2 , was used as a standard for comparison of the results obtained by the Albedo method. So, it was necessary to choose an identical system configuration, both for ANISN and Albedo methods. This configuration was six neutron energy groups and eight gamma energy groups, using three slab layers (iron aluminum - manganese). The excellent results expressed in comparative tables show great agreement between the values determined by the deterministic code adopted as standard and, the values determined by the computational program created using the Albedo method and the algorithm developed for coupled neutron
Applying some methods to process the data coming from the nuclear reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suleymanov, M.K.; Abdinov, O.B.; Belashev, B.Z.
2010-01-01
Full text : The methods of a posterior increasing the resolution of the spectral lines are offered to process the data coming from the nuclear reactions. The methods have applied to process the data coming from the nuclear reactions at high energies. They give possibilities to get more detail information on a structure of the spectra of particles emitted in the nuclear reactions. The nuclear reactions are main source of the information on the structure and physics of the atomic nuclei. Usually the spectrums of the fragments of the reactions are complex ones. Apparently it is not simple to extract the necessary for investigation information. In the talk we discuss the methods of a posterior increasing the resolution of the spectral lines. The methods could be useful to process the complex data coming from the nuclear reactions. We consider the Fourier transformation method and maximum entropy one. The complex structures were identified by the method. One can see that at lest two selected points are indicated by the method. Recent we presented a talk where we shown that the results of the analyzing the structure of the pseudorapidity spectra of charged relativistic particles with ≥ 0.7 measured in Au+Em and Pb+Em at AGS and SPS energies using the Fourier transformation method and maximum entropy one. The dependences of these spectra on the number of fast target protons were studied. These distribution shown visually some plateau and shoulder that was at least three selected points on the distributions. The plateaus become wider in PbEm reactions. The existing of plateau is necessary for the parton models. The maximum entropy method could confirm the existing of the plateau and the shoulder on the distributions. The figure shows the results of applying the maximum entropy method. One can see that the method indicates several clean selected points. Some of them same with observed visually ones. We would like to note that the Fourier transformation method could not
Methods for Distributed Optimal Energy Management
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brehm, Robert
The presented research deals with the fundamental underlying methods and concepts of how the growing number of distributed generation units based on renewable energy resources and distributed storage devices can be most efficiently integrated into the existing utility grid. In contrast to convent......The presented research deals with the fundamental underlying methods and concepts of how the growing number of distributed generation units based on renewable energy resources and distributed storage devices can be most efficiently integrated into the existing utility grid. In contrast...... to conventional centralised optimal energy flow management systems, here-in, focus is set on how optimal energy management can be achieved in a decentralised distributed architecture such as a multi-agent system. Distributed optimisation methods are introduced, targeting optimisation of energy flow in virtual......-consumption of renewable energy resources in low voltage grids. It can be shown that this method prevents mutual discharging of batteries and prevents peak loads, a supervisory control instance can dictate the level of autarchy from the utility grid. Further it is shown that the problem of optimal energy flow management...
The energy principle applied to diverted tokamak configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atanasiu, C. V.; Guenter, S.; Lackner, K.; Moraru, A.; Zakharov, L. E.; Subbotin, A. A.
2008-01-01
Writing the expression of the potential energy in terms of the perturbation of the flux function, and performing an Euler minimisation, one obtains a system of ordinary differential equations in that perturbation. For a diverted configuration, the usual vanishing boundary conditions for the perturbed flux function at the magnetic axis and at infinity can no longer be used. In place of the vanishing boundary conditions at infinity, an approach to fix 'natural' boundary conditions for the system of differential equations for the perturbed flux function, just at the plasma boundary has been developed. As an example of application of our approaches, a particular equilibrium configuration of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak has been considered and a detailed investigation of the dependence of the tearing stability parameter Δ' on plasma shape is given for a realistic tokamak equilibrium. The results shown are at least in qualitative agreement with experimental observations on ASDEX Upgrade and JET of a stabilizing influence of triangularity. The knowledge of Δ' for realistic tokamak plasmas is especially important for understanding of the plasma stability against NTMs. (authors)
Valuing national effects of digital health investments: an applied method.
Hagens, Simon; Zelmer, Jennifer; Frazer, Cassandra; Gheorghiu, Bobby; Leaver, Chad
2015-01-01
This paper describes an approach which has been applied to value national outcomes of investments by federal, provincial and territorial governments, clinicians and healthcare organizations in digital health. Hypotheses are used to develop a model, which is revised and populated based upon the available evidence. Quantitative national estimates and qualitative findings are produced and validated through structured peer review processes. This methodology has applied in four studies since 2008.
Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
In this and previous efforts ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study focused on two tasks, the first concerned with the economics of fusion in an economy that relies heavily upon synthetic fuels, and the second concerned with the overall economic effects of pursuing soft energy technologies instead of hard technologies. This report is organized in two parts, the first entitled An Economic Analysis of Coproduction of Fusion-Electric Energy and Other Products, and the second entitled Arguments Associated with the Choice of Potential Energy Futures
Dose rate reduction method for NMCA applied BWR plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagase, Makoto; Aizawa, Motohiro; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Varela, Juan; Caine, Thomas
2012-09-01
BRAC (BWR Radiation Assessment and Control) dose rate is used as an indicator of the incorporation of activated corrosion by products into BWR recirculation piping, which is known to be a significant contributor to dose rate received by workers during refueling outages. In order to reduce radiation exposure of the workers during the outage, it is desirable to keep BRAC dose rates as low as possible. After HWC was adopted to reduce IGSCC, a BRAC dose rate increase was observed in many plants. As a countermeasure to these rapid dose rate increases under HWC conditions, Zn injection was widely adopted in United States and Europe resulting in a reduction of BRAC dose rates. However, BRAC dose rates in several plants remain high, prompting the industry to continue to investigate methods to achieve further reductions. In recent years a large portion of the BWR fleet has adopted NMCA (NobleChem TM ) to enhance the hydrogen injection effect to suppress SCC. After NMCA, especially OLNC (On-Line NobleChem TM ), BRAC dose rates were observed to decrease. In some OLNC applied BWR plants this reduction was observed year after year to reach a new reduced equilibrium level. This dose rate reduction trends suggest the potential dose reduction might be obtained by the combination of Pt and Zn injection. So, laboratory experiments and in-plant tests were carried out to evaluate the effect of Pt and Zn on Co-60 deposition behaviour. Firstly, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of noble metal deposition on Co deposition on stainless steel surfaces. Polished type 316 stainless steel coupons were prepared and some of them were OLNC treated in the test loop before the Co deposition test. Water chemistry conditions to simulate HWC were as follows: Dissolved oxygen, hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide were below 5 ppb, 100 ppb and 0 ppb (no addition), respectively. Zn was injected to target a concentration of 5 ppb. The test was conducted up to 1500 hours at 553 K. Test
Applying Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes in Energy Harvesting and Energy Storage
Oguntoye, Moses
This work has been a scientific inquisition into the potential of carbon nanotubes, fabricated in a vertically aligned configuration, for their application to solving pressing energy problems. This dissertation is introduced by providing a background to energy storage and generation as well as the various major equipment and techniques used throughout the scientific inquisition. The generic method of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNT) growth is then presented. By using a combination of recipes previously described in literature, an easy to replicate method of growing carbon nanotubes is developed with demonstrated success on different substates. The different conditions required to facilitate efficiency in the VACNT growth are highlighted. The properties of the as-grown VACNT forest are also studied and presented. Based on the recipe used, the VACNT are categorized as multiwalled and the number of walls is confirmed to be about 15 walls using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their graphitic nature is confirmed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The surface area characterization is done using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method and weight-gain method. The first part of this dissertation deals with the application of the VACNT electrodes fabricated for the harvesting of mechanical energy using the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology. Here, energy is harvested from mechanical systems using both polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and polyethylene (PET) counter electrodes to confirm the applicability of VACNT electrodes for this purpose. A mechanism for the electron motion is proposed based on the already identified dielectric-metal TENG pairing. Furthermore, the usefulness of this technology is demonstrated further by charging a 0.47microF capacitor to 4.5V in one minute using the VACNT-PTFE TENG. The second part of this dissertation deals with the application of VACNT electrodes in energy storage using supercapacitors. Firstly, the
Four Essays on Applied Energy Economics and Policy
Buenestado, Raul Bajo
This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part (chapters 1 and 2) studies capacity payments in the electricity sector. The second part (chapter 3 and 4) is on gasoline retail markets. The first chapter explores welfare implications of capacity markets in the electricity sector. We propose a theoretical model with cost heterogeneous firms, for which price and quantity equilibria are obtained both with and without a capacity market. The consequences for consumers are assessed using three different measures: consumer surplus, probability of blackout and price volatility. We conclude that a capacity market is able to reduce extreme events. Under some circumstances, we show that a capacity market is also efficiency enhancing. In the second chapter, we use data from the Texas ERCOT to study the impact of capacity payments in a stylized wholesale electricity market. We find that the introduction of capacity payments has two countervailing effects. On the one hand, it increases consumers' bills. On the other hand, it reduces price volatility and blackout probability. We find that the net impact on consumer surplus is negative both in a perfectly competitive market and in the presence of market power. In the third chapter, we use monthly data from the Spanish gasoline retail market to explore asymmetries in consumers' responses to changes in gasoline prices and taxes. We investigate whether an increase in taxes has a more negative impact on the demand than an increase in the "pre-tax" price of gasoline. We estimate consumers' behavioral responses using a rich set of robust models. We find evidence of asymmetric responses for the demand of unleaded fuels and agricultural diesel fuel. In the final chapter we study a game of spatial competition in prices. We focus on the linear city duopoly model to see what we can learn about the distribution of consumers, which is approximated using variation in equilibrium prices and costs. We apply our methodology to a dataset on
Methods for risk estimation in nuclear energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gauvenet, A [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)
1979-01-01
The author presents methods for estimating the different risks related to nuclear energy: immediate or delayed risks, individual or collective risks, risks of accidents and long-term risks. These methods have attained a highly valid level of elaboration and their application to other industrial or human problems is currently under way, especially in English-speaking countries.
Applied Distributed Model Predictive Control for Energy Efficient Buildings and Ramp Metering
Koehler, Sarah Muraoka
suited for nonlinear optimization problems. The parallel computation of the algorithm exploits iterative linear algebra methods for the main linear algebra computations in the algorithm. We show that the splitting of the algorithm is flexible and can thus be applied to various distributed platform configurations. The two proposed algorithms are applied to two main energy and transportation control problems. The first application is energy efficient building control. Buildings represent 40% of energy consumption in the United States. Thus, it is significant to improve the energy efficiency of buildings. The goal is to minimize energy consumption subject to the physics of the building (e.g. heat transfer laws), the constraints of the actuators as well as the desired operating constraints (thermal comfort of the occupants), and heat load on the system. In this thesis, we describe the control systems of forced air building systems in practice. We discuss the "Trim and Respond" algorithm which is a distributed control algorithm that is used in practice, and show that it performs similarly to a one-step explicit DMPC algorithm. Then, we apply the novel distributed primal-dual active-set method and provide extensive numerical results for the building MPC problem. The second main application is the control of ramp metering signals to optimize traffic flow through a freeway system. This application is particularly important since urban congestion has more than doubled in the past few decades. The ramp metering problem is to maximize freeway throughput subject to freeway dynamics (derived from mass conservation), actuation constraints, freeway capacity constraints, and predicted traffic demand. In this thesis, we develop a hybrid model predictive controller for ramp metering that is guaranteed to be persistently feasible and stable. This contrasts to previous work on MPC for ramp metering where such guarantees are absent. We apply a smoothing method to the hybrid model predictive
The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Several different methods have been used to sense load currents and extract its ... in order to produce a reference current in shunt active power filters (SAPF), and ... technique compared to other similar methods are found quite satisfactory by ...
Muon radiography method for fundamental and applied research
Alexandrov, A. B.; Vladymyrov, M. S.; Galkin, V. I.; Goncharova, L. A.; Grachev, V. M.; Vasina, S. G.; Konovalova, N. S.; Malovichko, A. A.; Managadze, A. K.; Okat'eva, N. M.; Polukhina, N. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Starkov, N. I.; Tioukov, V. E.; Chernyavsky, M. M.; Shchedrina, T. V.
2017-12-01
This paper focuses on the basic principles of the muon radiography method, reviews the major muon radiography experiments, and presents the first results in Russia obtained by the authors using this method based on emulsion track detectors.
Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization
Piotr Markiewicz
2013-01-01
One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The method was c...
Classical and modular methods applied to Diophantine equations
Dahmen, S.R.
2008-01-01
Deep methods from the theory of elliptic curves and modular forms have been used to prove Fermat's last theorem and solve other Diophantine equations. These so-called modular methods can often benefit from information obtained by other, classical, methods from number theory; and vice versa. In our
El-Gafy, Inas
2017-10-01
Analysis the water-food-energy nexus is the first step to assess the decision maker in developing and evaluating national strategies that take into account the nexus. The main objective of the current research is providing a method for the decision makers to analysis the water-food-energy nexus of the crop production system at the national level and carrying out a quantitative assessment of it. Through the proposed method, indicators considering the water and energy consumption, mass productivity, and economic productivity were suggested. Based on these indicators a water-food-energy nexus index (WFENI) was performed. The study showed that the calculated WFENI of the Egyptian summer crops have scores that range from 0.21 to 0.79. Comparing to onion (the highest scoring WFENI,i.e., the best score), rice has the lowest WFENI among the summer food crops. Analysis of the water-food-energy nexus of forty-two Egyptian crops in year 2010 was caried out (energy consumed for irrigation represent 7.4% of the total energy footprint). WFENI can be applied to developed strategies for the optimal cropping pattern that minimizing the water and energy consumption and maximizing their productivity. It can be applied as a holistic tool to evaluate the progress in the water and agricultural national strategies. Moreover, WFENI could be applied yearly to evaluate the performance of the water-food-energy nexus managmant.
The pseudo-harmonics method applied to depletion calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, F.C. da; Amaral, J.A.C.; Thome, Z.D.
1989-01-01
In this paper, a new method for performing depletion calculations, based on the use of the Pseudo-Harmonics perturbation method, was developed. The fuel burnup was considered as a global perturbation and the multigroup difusion equations were rewriten in such a way as to treat the soluble boron concentration as the eigenvalue. By doing this, the critical boron concentration can be obtained by a perturbation method. A test of the new method was performed for a H 2 O-colled, D 2 O-moderated reactor. Comparison with direct calculation showed that this method is very accurate and efficient. (author) [pt
An unfolding method for high energy physics experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blobel, V.
2002-06-01
Finite detector resolution and limited acceptance require one to apply unfolding methods in high energy physics experiments. Information on the detector resolution is usually given by a set of Monte Carlo events. Based on the experience with a widely used unfolding program (RUN) a modified method has been developed. The first step of the method is a maximum likelihood fit of the Monte Carlo distributions to the measured distribution in one, two or three dimensions; the finite statistics of the Monte Carlo events is taken into account by the use of Barlow's method with a new method of solution. A clustering method is used before combining bins in sparsely populated areas. In the second step a regularization is applied to the solution, which introduces only a small bias. The regularization parameter is determined from the data after a diagonalization and rotation procedure. (orig.)
Covariance methodology applied to 35S disintegration rate measurements by the CIEMAT/NIST method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koskinas, M.F.; Nascimento, T.S.; Yamazaki, I.M.; Dias, M.S.
2014-01-01
The Nuclear Metrology Laboratory (LMN) at IPEN is carrying out measurements in a LSC (Liquid Scintillation Counting system), applying the CIEMAT/NIST method. In this context 35 S is an important radionuclide for medical applications and it is difficult to be standardized by other primary methods due to low beta ray energy. The CIEMAT/NIST is a standard technique used by most metrology laboratories in order to improve accuracy and speed up beta emitter standardization. The focus of the present work was to apply the covariance methodology for determining the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. All partial uncertainties involved in the measurements were considered, taking into account all possible correlations between each pair of them. - Highlights: ► 35 S disintegration rate measured in Liquid Scintillator system using CIEMAT/NIST method. ► Covariance methodology applied to the overall uncertainty in the 35 S disintegration rate. ► Monte Carlo simulation was applied to determine 35 S activity in the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence system
Waste classification and methods applied to specific disposal sites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, V.C.
1979-01-01
An adequate definition of the classes of radioactive wastes is necessary to regulating the disposal of radioactive wastes. A classification system is proposed in which wastes are classified according to characteristics relating to their disposal. Several specific sites are analyzed with the methodology in order to gain insights into the classification of radioactive wastes. Also presented is the analysis of ocean dumping as it applies to waste classification. 5 refs
Evaluation of methods used to determine realized energy savings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boonekamp, Piet G.M.
2006-01-01
Most methods to determine realized total energy savings at national or sectoral level make choices, or neglect problems, which hamper the calculation of sound and useful energy-saving figures. Issues are the choice of the right aggregation level, the appropriate variables to construct a reference energy consumption trend, the energy quantities to be applied and interaction between various effects. Uncertainty margins for results lack in most presentations as well. This paper presents six methods, illustrates the adverse effects of certain choices and problems, and investigates how these methods deal with them. The methods are scored with respect to the issues mentioned above. Finally, a number of improvements are suggested, among which the use of final energy demand expressed in primary energy units, and bottom-up analyses at the level of real saving options. The last option is the more important, as it could provide top-down evaluation results (total savings from decomposition) as well as bottom-up policy monitoring results, both being crucial to new European energy-saving policy
Numerical methods for Lagrangian hydrodynamics applied to inertial fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maire, P.H.; Breil, J.; Galera, S.; Schurtz, G.
2009-01-01
CHIC is a code of Lagrangian hydrodynamics and implosion that has been developed since 2003 for the simulation of plasma experiments concerning inertial fusion. The transport of electron energy is assured with the Spitzer-Harm diffusion model with flux limiter. The propagation of the laser beams inside the plasma is computed by an algorithm of 3-dimensional beam launching that takes into account refraction as well as collisional absorption. The self-generated transverse magnetic fields are assessed by a magnetohydrodynamics model that stems from a generalized Ohm's law. The coupling with electron energy transport is assured with Braginskii conduction model. The validation of this code has been performed with various plasma experiments. (A.C.)
Shark - new motor design concept for energy saving-applied to Switched Reluctance Motor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tataru, Ana Mari
with respect to a corresponding cylindrical air gap machine. Furthermore, the two Switched Reluctance Machines are compared with other motor technologies such as Induction Motor and Brushless DC Motor. Analysis of the forces produced in the Shark SRM reveals particular aspects, adding some difficulties...... geometrical pattern on the longitudinal axis of the electrical machine. This shape modification increases the air gap area and thus the energy conversion, taking place in the machine. Whilst other methods of improving the efficiency consider the use of more and/or better magnetic material and/or optimisation...... of the magnetic circuit of the radial cross-section of the machine, the proposed method makes use of the longitudinal cross-section of the machine. In spite of a few reports claiming the improvement of the efficiency by applying the optimisation of the longitudinal cross-section, none analysis of various air gap...
nuclear and atomic methods applied in the determination of some
African Journals Online (AJOL)
NAA is a quantitative and qualitative method for the precise determination of a number of major, minor and trace elements in different types of geological, environmental and biological samples. It is based on nuclear reaction between neutron and target nuclei of a sample material. It is a useful method for the simultaneous.
Instructions for applying inverse method for reactivity measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milosevic, M.
1988-11-01
This report is a brief description of the completed method for reactivity measurement. It contains description of the experimental procedure needed instrumentation and computer code IM for determining reactivity. The objective of this instructions manual is to enable experiments and reactivity measurement on any critical system according to the methods adopted at the RB reactor
The spectral volume method as applied to transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McClarren, Ryan G.
2011-01-01
We present a new spatial discretization for transport problems: the spectral volume method. This method, rst developed by Wang for computational fluid dynamics, divides each computational cell into several sub-cells and enforces particle balance on each of these sub-cells. Also, these sub-cells are used to build a polynomial reconstruction in the cell. The idea of dividing cells into many cells is a generalization of the simple corner balance and other similar schemes. The spectral volume method preserves particle conservation and preserves the asymptotic diffusion limit. We present results from the method on two transport problems in slab geometry using discrete ordinates and second through sixth order spectral volume schemes. The numerical results demonstrate the accuracy and preservation of the diffusion limit of the spectral volume method. Future work will explore possible bene ts of the scheme for high-performance computing and for resolving diffusive boundary layers. (author)
Literature Review of Applying Visual Method to Understand Mathematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Xiaojuan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available As a new method to understand mathematics, visualization offers a new way of understanding mathematical principles and phenomena via image thinking and geometric explanation. It aims to deepen the understanding of the nature of concepts or phenomena and enhance the cognitive ability of learners. This paper collates and summarizes the application of this visual method in the understanding of mathematics. It also makes a literature review of the existing research, especially with a visual demonstration of Euler’s formula, introduces the application of this method in solving relevant mathematical problems, and points out the differences and similarities between the visualization method and the numerical-graphic combination method, as well as matters needing attention for its application.
Method II : The energy-momentum map
Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.
2003-01-01
In this chapter we apply the energy–momentum map reduction method to the same class of systems as in Chap. 2, namely two degree-of-freedom systems with optional symmetry, near equilibrium and close to resonance. We calculate the tangent space and nondegeneracy conditions for the 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4
Particle identification methods in High Energy Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Va' Vra, J.
2000-01-27
This paper deals with two major particle identification methods: dE/dx and Cherenkov detection. In the first method, the authors systematically compare existing dE/dx data with various predictions available in the literature, such as the Particle Data group recommendation, and judge the overall consistency. To my knowledge, such comparison was not done yet in a published form for the gaseous detectors used in High-Energy physics. As far as the second method, there are two major Cherenkov light detection techniques: the threshold and the Ring imaging methods. The authors discuss the recent trend in these techniques.
Energy saving baking methods. Energibesparende bagemetoder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gry, P.
1988-01-01
The project ''Energy Saving Baking Methods'', run as part of the Energy Research Project-1984, and has as its aim to investigate potentials for energy saving by employing microwaves in the baking process. The project is a follow-up of the Nordic Industry Fund project which was completed in 1983. Smaller test ovens with IR long waves, warm air convection and microwaves of 2,47 GHz were used. Measurements of heat distribution from all three energy sources have been made. Extensive experiments have been carried out in order to develope baking methods for white loaves which are energy saving, but where the quality of the bread does not undergo any form of deterioration. Tests were made using microwaves alone, and in combination with hot air and IR. A resulting saving 35% baking time was achieved, and a further reduction of baking time can be reached where a greater improvement of energy distribution can take place, especially in the case of microwaves and IR. (AB).
Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr Markiewicz
2013-06-01
Full Text Available One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The method was created as a result of implementing the project “Measuring performance in the Organization of the future” of 1990, completed by a team under the supervision of David Norton (Kaplan, Norton 2002. The developed method was used first of all to evaluate performance by decomposition of a strategy into four perspectives and identification of measures of achievement. In the middle of 1990s the method was improved by enriching it, first of all, with a strategy map, in which the process of transition of intangible assets into tangible financial effects is reflected (Kaplan, Norton 2001. Strategy map enables illustration of cause and effect relationship between processes in all four perspectives and performance indicators at the level of organization. The purpose of the study being prepared is to present methodical conditions of using strategy maps in the strategy implementation process in organizations of different nature.
Excitation methods for energy dispersive analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaklevic, J.M.
1976-01-01
The rapid development in recent years of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis has been based primarily on improvements in semiconductor detector x-ray spectrometers. However, the whole analysis system performance is critically dependent on the availability of optimum methods of excitation for the characteristic x rays in specimens. A number of analysis facilities based on various methods of excitation have been developed over the past few years. A discussion is given of the features of various excitation methods including charged particles, monochromatic photons, and broad-energy band photons. The effects of the excitation method on background and sensitivity are discussed from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. Recent developments such as pulsed excitation and polarized photons are also discussed
Applying a life cycle approach to project management methods
Biggins, David; Trollsund, F.; Høiby, A.L.
2016-01-01
Project management is increasingly important to organisations because projects are the method\\ud by which organisations respond to their environment. A key element within project management\\ud is the standards and methods that are used to control and conduct projects, collectively known as\\ud project management methods (PMMs) and exemplified by PRINCE2, the Project Management\\ud Institute’s and the Association for Project Management’s Bodies of Knowledge (PMBOK and\\ud APMBOK. The purpose of t...
Method for curing alkyd resin compositions by applying ionizing radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watanabe, T.; Murata, K.; Maruyama, T.
1975-01-01
An alkyd resin composition is prepared by dissolving a polymerizable alkyd resin having from 10 to 50 percent of oil length into a vinyl monomer. The polymerizable alkyd resin is obtained by a half-esterification reaction of an acid anhydride having a polymerizable unsaturated group and an alkyd resin modified with conjugated unsaturated oil having at least one reactive hydroxyl group per one molecule. The alkyd resin composition thus obtained is coated on an article, and ionizing radiation is applied on the article to cure the coated film thereon. (U.S.)
The integral equation method applied to eddy currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biddlecombe, C.S.; Collie, C.J.; Simkin, J.; Trowbridge, C.W.
1976-04-01
An algorithm for the numerical solution of eddy current problems is described, based on the direct solution of the integral equation for the potentials. In this method only the conducting and iron regions need to be divided into elements, and there are no boundary conditions. Results from two computer programs using this method for iron free problems for various two-dimensional geometries are presented and compared with analytic solutions. (author)
Application of He’s Energy Balance Method to Duffing-Harmonic Oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Momeni, M.; Jamshidi, j.; Barari, Amin
2011-01-01
In this article, He's energy balance method is applied for calculating angular frequencies of nonlinear Duffing oscillators. This method offers a promising approach by constructing a Hamiltonian for the nonlinear oscillator. We illustrate that the energy balance is very effective and convenient...... and does not require linearization or small perturbation. Contrary to the conventional methods, in energy balance, only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions. It is predicted that the energy balance method finds wide applications in engineering problems....
Systems and methods for wave energy conversion
MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.
2017-02-28
Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.
Radiation energy calibrating system and method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, A.F.
1980-01-01
A radiation energy calibrating system and method which uses a pair of calibrated detectors for measurements of radiation intensity from x-ray tubes for a non-invasive determination of the electrical characteristics; I.E., the tube potential and/or current
Solar energy utilization by physical methods.
Wolf, M
1974-04-19
On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will
Apply of torque method at rationalization of work
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bandurová Miriam
2001-03-01
Full Text Available Aim of the study was to analyse consumption of time for profession - cylinder grinder, by torque method.Method of torque following is used for detection of sorts and size of time slope, on detection of portion of individual sorts of time consumption and cause of time slope. By this way it is possible to find out coefficient of employment and recovery of workers in organizational unit. Advantage of torque survey is low costs on informations acquirement, non-fastidiousness per worker and observer, which is easy trained. It is mentally acceptable method for objects of survey.Finding and detection of reserves in activity of cylinders grinder result of torque was surveys. Loss of time presents till 8% of working time. In 5 - shift service and average occupiying of shift by 4,4 grinder ( from statistic information of service , loss at grinder of cylinders are for whole centre 1,48 worker.According presented information it was recommended to cancel one job place - grinder of cylinders - and reduce state about one grinder. Next job place isn't possible cancel, because grindery of cylinders must to adapt to the grind line by number of polished cylinders in shift and semi - finishing of polished cylinders can not be high for often changes in area of grinding and sortiment changes.By this contribution we confirmed convenience of exploitation of torque method as one of the methods using during the job rationalization.
Thermoluminescence as a dating method applied to the Morocco Neolithic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ousmoi, M.
1989-09-01
Thermoluminescence is an absolute dating method which is well adapted to the study of burnt clays and so of the prehistoric ceramics belonging to the Neolithic period. The purpose of this study is to establish a first absolute chronology of the septentrional morocco Neolithic between 3000 and 7000 years before us and some improvements of the TL dating. The first part of the thesis contains some hypothesis about the morocco Neolithic and some problems to solve. Then we study the TL dating method along with new process to ameliorate the quality of the results like the shift of quartz TL peaks or the crushing of samples. The methods which were employed using 24 samples belonging to various civilisations are: the quartz inclusion method and the fine grain technique. For the dosimetry, several methods were used: determination of the K 2 O contents, alpha counting, site dosimetry using TL dosimeters and a scintillation counter. The results which were found bring some interesting answers to the archeologic question and ameliorate the chronologic schema of the Northern morocco Neolithic: development of the old cardial Neolithic in the North, and perhaps in the center of Morocco (the region of Rabat), between 5500 and 7000 before us. Development of the recent middle Neolithic around 4000-5000 before us, with a protocampaniforme (Skhirat), little older than the campaniforme recognized in the south of Spain. Development of the bronze age around 2000-4000 before us [fr
Modal method for crack identification applied to reactor recirculation pump
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, W.H.; Brook, R.
1991-01-01
Nuclear reactors have been operating and producing useful electricity for many years. Within the last few years, several plants have found cracks in the reactor coolant pump shaft near the thermal barrier. The modal method and results described herein show the analytical results of using a Modal Analysis test method to determine the presence, size, and location of a shaft crack. The authors have previously demonstrated that the test method can analytically and experimentally identify shaft cracks as small as five percent (5%) of the shaft diameter. Due to small differences in material property distribution, the attempt to identify cracks smaller than 3% of the shaft diameter has been shown to be impractical. The rotor dynamics model includes a detailed motor rotor, external weights and inertias, and realistic total support stiffness. Results of the rotor dynamics model have been verified through a comparison with on-site vibration test data
Boron autoradiography method applied to the study of steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gugelmeier, R.; Barcelo, G.N.; Boado, J.H.; Fernandez, C.
1986-01-01
The boron state, contained in the steel microestructure, is determined. The autoradiography by neutrons is used, permiting to obtain boron distribution images by means of additional information which is difficult to acquire by other methods. The application of the method is described, based on the neutronic irradiation of a polished steel sample, over which a celulose nitrate sheet or other appropriate material is fixed to constitute the detector. The particles generated by the neutron-boron interaction affect the detector sheet, which is subsequently revealed with a chemical treatment and can be observed at the optical microscope. In the case of materials used for the construction of nuclear reactors, special attention must be given to the presence of boron, since owing to the exceptionaly high capacity of neutron absorption, lowest quantities of boron acquire importance. The adaption of the method to metallurgical problems allows the obtainment of a correlation between the boron distribution images and the material's microstructure. (M.E.L.) [es
Nonstandard Finite Difference Method Applied to a Linear Pharmacokinetics Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oluwaseun Egbelowo
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We extend the nonstandard finite difference method of solution to the study of pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic models. Pharmacokinetic (PK models are commonly used to predict drug concentrations that drive controlled intravenous (I.V. transfers (or infusion and oral transfers while pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PD interaction models are used to provide predictions of drug concentrations affecting the response of these clinical drugs. We structure a nonstandard finite difference (NSFD scheme for the relevant system of equations which models this pharamcokinetic process. We compare the results obtained to standard methods. The scheme is dynamically consistent and reliable in replicating complex dynamic properties of the relevant continuous models for varying step sizes. This study provides assistance in understanding the long-term behavior of the drug in the system, and validation of the efficiency of the nonstandard finite difference scheme as the method of choice.
Efficient electronic structure methods applied to metal nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Ask Hjorth
of efficient approaches to density functional theory and the application of these methods to metal nanoparticles. We describe the formalism and implementation of localized atom-centered basis sets within the projector augmented wave method. Basis sets allow for a dramatic increase in performance compared....... The basis set method is used to study the electronic effects for the contiguous range of clusters up to several hundred atoms. The s-electrons hybridize to form electronic shells consistent with the jellium model, leading to electronic magic numbers for clusters with full shells. Large electronic gaps...... and jumps in Fermi level near magic numbers can lead to alkali-like or halogen-like behaviour when main-group atoms adsorb onto gold clusters. A non-self-consistent NewnsAnderson model is used to more closely study the chemisorption of main-group atoms on magic-number Au clusters. The behaviour at magic...
Variance reduction methods applied to deep-penetration problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cramer, S.N.
1984-01-01
All deep-penetration Monte Carlo calculations require variance reduction methods. Before beginning with a detailed approach to these methods, several general comments concerning deep-penetration calculations by Monte Carlo, the associated variance reduction, and the similarities and differences of these with regard to non-deep-penetration problems will be addressed. The experienced practitioner of Monte Carlo methods will easily find exceptions to any of these generalities, but it is felt that these comments will aid the novice in understanding some of the basic ideas and nomenclature. Also, from a practical point of view, the discussions and developments presented are oriented toward use of the computer codes which are presented in segments of this Monte Carlo course
Non-perturbative methods applied to multiphoton ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.; Zagury, N.
1982-09-01
The use of non-perturbative methods in the treatment of atomic ionization is discussed. Particular attention is given to schemes of the type proposed by Keldysh where multiphoton ionization and tunnel auto-ionization occur for high intensity fields. These methods are shown to correspond to a certain type of expansion of the T-matrix in the intra-atomic potential; in this manner a criterium concerning the range of application of these non-perturbative schemes is suggested. A brief comparison between the ionization rate of atoms in the presence of linearly and circularly polarized light is presented. (Author) [pt
On second quantization methods applied to classical statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matos Neto, A.; Vianna, J.D.M.
1984-01-01
A method of expressing statistical classical results in terms of mathematical entities usually associated to quantum field theoretical treatment of many particle systems (Fock space, commutators, field operators, state vector) is discussed. It is developed a linear response theory using the 'second quantized' Liouville equation introduced by Schonberg. The relationship of this method to that of Prigogine et al. is briefly analyzed. The chain of equations and the spectral representations for the new classical Green's functions are presented. Generalized operators defined on Fock space are discussed. It is shown that the correlation functions can be obtained from Green's functions defined with generalized operators. (Author) [pt
Review of PCMS and heat transfer enhancement methods applied ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Most available PCMs have low thermal conductivity making heat transfer enhancement necessary for power applications. The various methods of heat transfer enhancement in latent heat storage systems were also reviewed systematically. The review showed that three commercially - available PCMs are suitable in the ...
E-LEARNING METHOD APPLIED TO TECHNICAL GRAPHICS SUBJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
GOANTA Adrian Mihai
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The paper presents some of the author’s endeavors in creating video courses for the students from the Faculty of Engineering in Braila related to subjects involving technical graphics . There are also mentioned the steps taken in completing the method and how to achieve a feedback on the rate of access to these types of courses by the students.
Towards a More Energy Efficient Future: Applying indicators to enhance energy policy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2009-07-01
Improving energy efficiency is a shared policy goal of many governments around the world. The benefits of more efficient use of energy are well known. Not only does it reduce energy costs and investments in energy infrastructure, it also lowers fossil fuel dependency and CO2 emissions, while at the same time increasing competitiveness and improving consumer welfare. Yet many questions remain unanswered. What are the latest trends in global energy use and CO2 emissions? How do factors such as demography, economic structure, income, lifestyle and climate affect these trends? Where are the greatest potentials to further improve energy efficiency, and which data are required to support energy efficiency policy development? This publication answers these questions using the latest insights from the IEA energy indicators work. The goal is to show policy makers how in-depth indicators can be used to track the progress in efficiency and identify new opportunities for improvements.
Scalable Methods for Eulerian-Lagrangian Simulation Applied to Compressible Multiphase Flows
Zwick, David; Hackl, Jason; Balachandar, S.
2017-11-01
Multiphase flows can be found in countless areas of physics and engineering. Many of these flows can be classified as dispersed two-phase flows, meaning that there are solid particles dispersed in a continuous fluid phase. A common technique for simulating such flow is the Eulerian-Lagrangian method. While useful, this method can suffer from scaling issues on larger problem sizes that are typical of many realistic geometries. Here we present scalable techniques for Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations and apply it to the simulation of a particle bed subjected to expansion waves in a shock tube. The results show that the methods presented here are viable for simulation of larger problems on modern supercomputers. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1315138. This work was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Relativistic convergent close-coupling method applied to electron scattering from mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bostock, Christopher J.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor
2010-01-01
We report on the extension of the recently formulated relativistic convergent close-coupling (RCCC) method to accommodate two-electron and quasi-two-electron targets. We apply the theory to electron scattering from mercury and obtain differential and integrated cross sections for elastic and inelastic scattering. We compared with previous nonrelativistic convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations and for a number of transitions obtained significantly better agreement with the experiment. The RCCC method is able to resolve structure in the integrated cross sections for the energy regime in the vicinity of the excitation thresholds for the (6s6p) 3 P 0,1,2 states. These cross sections are associated with the formation of negative ion (Hg - ) resonances that could not be resolved with the nonrelativistic CCC method. The RCCC results are compared with the experiment and other relativistic theories.
Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ronald L. Boring
2012-06-01
Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.
Probabilist methods applied to electric source problems in nuclear safety
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carnino, A.; Llory, M.
1979-01-01
Nuclear Safety has frequently been asked to quantify safety margins and evaluate the hazard. In order to do so, the probabilist methods have proved to be the most promising. Without completely replacing determinist safety, they are now commonly used at the reliability or availability stages of systems as well as for determining the likely accidental sequences. In this paper an application linked to the problem of electric sources is described, whilst at the same time indicating the methods used. This is the calculation of the probable loss of all the electric sources of a pressurized water nuclear power station, the evaluation of the reliability of diesels by event trees of failures and the determination of accidental sequences which could be brought about by the 'total electric source loss' initiator and affect the installation or the environment [fr
Theoretical and applied aerodynamics and related numerical methods
Chattot, J J
2015-01-01
This book covers classical and modern aerodynamics, theories and related numerical methods, for senior and first-year graduate engineering students, including: -The classical potential (incompressible) flow theories for low speed aerodynamics of thin airfoils and high and low aspect ratio wings. - The linearized theories for compressible subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics. - The nonlinear transonic small disturbance potential flow theory, including supercritical wing sections, the extended transonic area rule with lift effect, transonic lifting line and swept or oblique wings to minimize wave drag. Unsteady flow is also briefly discussed. Numerical simulations based on relaxation mixed-finite difference methods are presented and explained. - Boundary layer theory for all Mach number regimes and viscous/inviscid interaction procedures used in practical aerodynamics calculations. There are also four chapters covering special topics, including wind turbines and propellers, airplane design, flow analogies and h...
Applying probabilistic methods for assessments and calculations for accident prevention
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1984-01-01
The guidelines for the prevention of accidents require plant design-specific and radioecological calculations to be made in order to show that maximum acceptable expsoure values will not be exceeded in case of an accident. For this purpose, main parameters affecting the accident scenario have to be determined by probabilistic methods. This offers the advantage that parameters can be quantified on the basis of unambigious and realistic criteria, and final results can be defined in terms of conservativity. (DG) [de
Applying flow chemistry: methods, materials, and multistep synthesis.
McQuade, D Tyler; Seeberger, Peter H
2013-07-05
The synthesis of complex molecules requires control over both chemical reactivity and reaction conditions. While reactivity drives the majority of chemical discovery, advances in reaction condition control have accelerated method development/discovery. Recent tools include automated synthesizers and flow reactors. In this Synopsis, we describe how flow reactors have enabled chemical advances in our groups in the areas of single-stage reactions, materials synthesis, and multistep reactions. In each section, we detail the lessons learned and propose future directions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ching, J.; Oblow, E.M.; Goldstein, H.
1976-01-01
An algebraic equivalence between the point-energy and multigroup forms of the Boltzmann transport equation is demonstrated that allows the development of a discrete energy, discrete ordinates method for the solution of radiation transport problems. In the discrete energy method, the group averaging required in the cross-section processing for multigroup calculations is replaced by a faster numerical quadrature scheme capable of generating transfer cross sections describing all the physical processes of interest on a fine point-energy grid. Test calculations in which the discrete energy method is compared with the multigroup method show that, for the same energy grid, the discrete energy method is much faster, although somewhat less accurate, than the multigroup method. However, the accuracy of the discrete energy method increases rapidly as the spacing between energy grid points is decreased, approaching that of multigroup calculations. For problems requiring great detail in the energy spectrum, the discrete energy method is therefore expected to be far more economical than the multigroup technique for equivalent accuracy solutions. This advantage of the point method is demonstrated by application to the study of neutron transport in a thick iron slab
Energy-dependent applications of the transfer matrix method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oeztunali, O.I.; Aronson, R.
1975-01-01
The transfer matrix method is applied to energy-dependent neutron transport problems for multiplying and nonmultiplying media in one-dimensional plane geometry. Experimental cross sections are used for total, elastic, and inelastic scattering and fission. Numerical solutions are presented for the problem of a unit point isotropic source in an infinite medium of water and for the problem of the critical 235 U slab with finite water reflectors. No iterations were necessary in this method. Numerical results obtained are consistent with physical considerations and compare favorably with the moments method results for the problem of the unit point isotropic source in an infinite water medium. (U.S.)
Wielandt method applied to the diffusion equations discretized by finite element nodal methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mugica R, A.; Valle G, E. del
2003-01-01
Nowadays the numerical methods of solution to the diffusion equation by means of algorithms and computer programs result so extensive due to the great number of routines and calculations that should carry out, this rebounds directly in the execution times of this programs, being obtained results in relatively long times. This work shows the application of an acceleration method of the convergence of the classic method of those powers that it reduces notably the number of necessary iterations for to obtain reliable results, what means that the compute times they see reduced in great measure. This method is known in the literature like Wielandt method and it has incorporated to a computer program that is based on the discretization of the neutron diffusion equations in plate geometry and stationary state by polynomial nodal methods. In this work the neutron diffusion equations are described for several energy groups and their discretization by means of those called physical nodal methods, being illustrated in particular the quadratic case. It is described a model problem widely described in the literature which is solved for the physical nodal grade schemes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in three different ways: to) with the classic method of the powers, b) method of the powers with the Wielandt acceleration and c) method of the powers with the Wielandt modified acceleration. The results for the model problem as well as for two additional problems known as benchmark problems are reported. Such acceleration method can also be implemented to problems of different geometry to the proposal in this work, besides being possible to extend their application to problems in 2 or 3 dimensions. (Author)
Stolzer, Alan J.; Halford, Carl
2007-01-01
In a previous study, multiple regression techniques were applied to Flight Operations Quality Assurance-derived data to develop parsimonious model(s) for fuel consumption on the Boeing 757 airplane. The present study examined several data mining algorithms, including neural networks, on the fuel consumption problem and compared them to the multiple regression results obtained earlier. Using regression methods, parsimonious models were obtained that explained approximately 85% of the variation in fuel flow. In general data mining methods were more effective in predicting fuel consumption. Classification and Regression Tree methods reported correlation coefficients of .91 to .92, and General Linear Models and Multilayer Perceptron neural networks reported correlation coefficients of about .99. These data mining models show great promise for use in further examining large FOQA databases for operational and safety improvements.
The colour analysis method applied to homogeneous rocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Halász Amadé
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Computer-aided colour analysis can facilitate cyclostratigraphic studies. Here we report on a case study involving the development of a digital colour analysis method for examination of the Boda Claystone Formation which is the most suitable in Hungary for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Rock type colours are reddish brown or brownish red, or any shade between brown and red. The method presented here could be used to differentiate similar colours and to identify gradual transitions between these; the latter are of great importance in a cyclostratigraphic analysis of the succession. Geophysical well-logging has demonstrated the existence of characteristic cyclic units, as detected by colour and natural gamma. Based on our research, colour, natural gamma and lithology correlate well. For core Ib-4, these features reveal the presence of orderly cycles with thicknesses of roughly 0.64 to 13 metres. Once the core has been scanned, this is a time- and cost-effective method.
Comparison Study of Subspace Identification Methods Applied to Flexible Structures
Abdelghani, M.; Verhaegen, M.; Van Overschee, P.; De Moor, B.
1998-09-01
In the past few years, various time domain methods for identifying dynamic models of mechanical structures from modal experimental data have appeared. Much attention has been given recently to so-called subspace methods for identifying state space models. This paper presents a detailed comparison study of these subspace identification methods: the eigensystem realisation algorithm with observer/Kalman filter Markov parameters computed from input/output data (ERA/OM), the robust version of the numerical algorithm for subspace system identification (N4SID), and a refined version of the past outputs scheme of the multiple-output error state space (MOESP) family of algorithms. The comparison is performed by simulating experimental data using the five mode reduced model of the NASA Mini-Mast structure. The general conclusion is that for the case of white noise excitations as well as coloured noise excitations, the N4SID/MOESP algorithms perform equally well but give better results (improved transfer function estimates, improved estimates of the output) compared to the ERA/OM algorithm. The key computational step in the three algorithms is the approximation of the extended observability matrix of the system to be identified, for N4SID/MOESP, or of the observer for the system to be identified, for the ERA/OM. Furthermore, the three algorithms only require the specification of one dimensioning parameter.
Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis Method to Discovery Layer Evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marlen Promann
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Libraries are implementing discovery layers to offer better user experiences. While usability tests have been helpful in evaluating the success or failure of implementing discovery layers in the library context, the focus has remained on its relative interface benefits over the traditional federated search. The informal site- and context specific usability tests have offered little to test the rigor of the discovery layers against the user goals, motivations and workflow they have been designed to support. This study proposes hierarchical task analysis (HTA as an important complementary evaluation method to usability testing of discovery layers. Relevant literature is reviewed for the discovery layers and the HTA method. As no previous application of HTA to the evaluation of discovery layers was found, this paper presents the application of HTA as an expert based and workflow centered (e.g. retrieving a relevant book or a journal article method to evaluating discovery layers. Purdue University’s Primo by Ex Libris was used to map eleven use cases as HTA charts. Nielsen’s Goal Composition theory was used as an analytical framework to evaluate the goal carts from two perspectives: a users’ physical interactions (i.e. clicks, and b user’s cognitive steps (i.e. decision points for what to do next. A brief comparison of HTA and usability test findings is offered as a way of conclusion.
Evaluation of Slow Release Fertilizer Applying Chemical and Spectroscopic methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
AbdEl-Kader, A.A.; Al-Ashkar, E.A.
2005-01-01
Controlled-release fertilizer offers a number of advantages in relation to crop production in newly reclaimed soils. Butadiene styrene latex emulsion is one of the promising polymer for different purposes. In this work, laboratory evaluation of butadiene styrene latex emulsion 24/76 polymer loaded with a mixed fertilizer was carried out. Macro nutrients (N, P and K) and micro-nutrients(Zn, Fe, and Cu) were extracted by basic extract from the polymer fertilizer mixtures. Micro-sampling technique was investigated and applied to measure Zn, Fe, and Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrometry in order to overcome the nebulization difficulties due to high salt content samples. The cumulative releases of macro and micro-nutrients have been assessed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the release depends on both nutrients and polymer concentration in the mixture. Macro-nutrients are released more efficient than micro-nutrients of total added. Therefore it can be used for minimizing micro-nutrients hazard in soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. González-Piqueras
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The monitoring of the energy fluxes over vineyard applying the one source energy balance model METRIC (Allen et al., 2007b are shown in this work. This model is considered operaive because it uses an internalized calibration method derived from the selection of two extreme pixels in the scene, from the minimum ET values such as the bare soil to a maximum that corresponds to full cover active vegetation. The model provides the maps of net radiation (Rn, soil heat flux (G, sensible heat (H, latent heat (LE, evapotranspiration (ET and crop coefficient (Kc. The flux values have been validated with a flux tower installed in the plot, providing a RMSE for instantaneous fluxes of 43 W m2, 33 W m2, 55 W m2 y 40 W m2 on Rn, G, H and LE. In relative terms are 8%, 29%, 21% and 20% respectively. The RMSE at daily scale for the ET is 0.58 mm day-1, with a value in the crop coefficient for the mid stage of 0.42±0.08. These results allow considering the model adequate for crop monitoring and irrigation purposes in vineyard. The values obtained have been compared to other studies over vineyard and with alternative energy balance models showing similar results.
The lumped heat capacity method applied to target heating
Rickards, J.
2013-01-01
The temperature of metal samples was measured while they were bombarded by the beam from the a particle accelerator. The evolution of the temperature with time can be explained using the lumped heat capacity method of heat transfer. A strong dependence on the type of mounting was found. Se midió la temperatura de muestras metálicas al ser bombardeadas por el haz de iones del Acelerador Pelletron del Instituto de Física. La evolución de la temperatura con el tiempo se puede explicar usando ...
Modern analytic methods applied to the art and archaeology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tenorio C, M. D.; Longoria G, L. C.
2010-01-01
The interaction of diverse areas as the analytic chemistry, the history of the art and the archaeology has allowed the development of a variety of techniques used in archaeology, in conservation and restoration. These methods have been used to date objects, to determine the origin of the old materials and to reconstruct their use and to identify the degradation processes that affect the integrity of the art works. The objective of this chapter is to offer a general vision on the researches that have been realized in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) in the field of cultural goods. A series of researches carried out in collaboration with national investigators and of the foreigner is described shortly, as well as with the great support of degree students and master in archaeology of the National School of Anthropology and History, since one of the goals that have is to diffuse the knowledge of the existence of these techniques among the young archaeologists, so that they have a wider vision of what they could use in an in mediate future and they can check hypothesis with scientific methods. (Author)
Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations
Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen
2016-01-01
Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.
Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations
Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.
2016-12-01
Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.
Frequency domain methods applied to forecasting electricity markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trapero, Juan R.; Pedregal, Diego J.
2009-01-01
The changes taking place in electricity markets during the last two decades have produced an increased interest in the problem of forecasting, either load demand or prices. Many forecasting methodologies are available in the literature nowadays with mixed conclusions about which method is most convenient. This paper focuses on the modeling of electricity market time series sampled hourly in order to produce short-term (1 to 24 h ahead) forecasts. The main features of the system are that (1) models are of an Unobserved Component class that allow for signal extraction of trend, diurnal, weekly and irregular components; (2) its application is automatic, in the sense that there is no need for human intervention via any sort of identification stage; (3) the models are estimated in the frequency domain; and (4) the robustness of the method makes possible its direct use on both load demand and price time series. The approach is thoroughly tested on the PJM interconnection market and the results improve on classical ARIMA models. (author)
Applying Simulation Method in Formulation of Gluten-Free Cookies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikitina Marina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available At present time priority direction in the development of new food products its developing of technology products for special purposes. These types of products are gluten-free confectionery products, intended for people with celiac disease. Gluten-free products are in demand among consumers, it needs to expand assortment, and improvement of quality indicators. At this article results of studies on the development of pastry products based on amaranth flour does not contain gluten. Study based on method of simulation recipes gluten-free confectionery functional orientation to optimize their chemical composition. The resulting products will allow to diversify and supplement the necessary nutrients diet for people with gluten intolerance, as well as for those who follow a gluten-free diet.
Nuclear method applied in archaeological sites at the Amazon basin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Latini, Rose Mary
2002-01-01
The aim of this work was to use the nuclear methodology to character pottery discovered inside archaeological sites recognized with circular earth structure in Acre State - Brazil which may contribute to the research in the reconstruction of part of the pre-history of the Amazonic Basin. The sites are located mainly in the Hydrographic Basin of High Purus River. Three of them were strategic chosen to collect the ceramics: Lobao, in Sena Madureira County at north; Alto Alegre in Rio Branco County at east and Xipamanu I, in Xapuri County at south. Neutron Activation Analysis in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods were used for the ceramic characterization and classification. An homogeneous group was established by all the sherds collected from Alto Alegre and was distinct from the other two groups analyzed. Some of the sherds collected from Xipamunu I appeared in Lobao's urns, probably because they had the same fabrication process. (author)
Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis Methods for Fire Risk Assessment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pushkina Julia
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove the application of multi-criteria analysis methods for optimisation of fire risk identification and assessment process. The object of this research is fire risk and risk assessment. The subject of the research is studying the application of analytic hierarchy process for modelling and influence assessment of various fire risk factors. Results of research conducted by the authors can be used by insurance companies to perform the detailed assessment of fire risks on the object and to calculate a risk extra charge to an insurance premium; by the state supervisory institutions to determine the compliance of a condition of object with requirements of regulations; by real state owners and investors to carry out actions for decrease in degree of fire risks and minimisation of possible losses.
Applied statistical methods in agriculture, health and life sciences
Lawal, Bayo
2014-01-01
This textbook teaches crucial statistical methods to answer research questions using a unique range of statistical software programs, including MINITAB and R. This textbook is developed for undergraduate students in agriculture, nursing, biology and biomedical research. Graduate students will also find it to be a useful way to refresh their statistics skills and to reference software options. The unique combination of examples is approached using MINITAB and R for their individual strengths. Subjects covered include among others data description, probability distributions, experimental design, regression analysis, randomized design and biological assay. Unlike other biostatistics textbooks, this text also includes outliers, influential observations in regression and an introduction to survival analysis. Material is taken from the author's extensive teaching and research in Africa, USA and the UK. Sample problems, references and electronic supplementary material accompany each chapter.
A new deconvolution method applied to ultrasonic images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sallard, J.
1999-01-01
This dissertation presents the development of a new method for restoration of ultrasonic signals. Our goal is to remove the perturbations induced by the ultrasonic probe and to help to characterize the defects due to a strong local discontinuity of the acoustic impedance. The point of view adopted consists in taking into account the physical properties in the signal processing to develop an algorithm which gives good results even on experimental data. The received ultrasonic signal is modeled as a convolution between a function that represents the waveform emitted by the transducer and a function that is abusively called the 'defect impulse response'. It is established that, in numerous cases, the ultrasonic signal can be expressed as a sum of weighted, phase-shifted replicas of a reference signal. Deconvolution is an ill-posed problem. A priori information must be taken into account to solve the problem. The a priori information translates the physical properties of the ultrasonic signals. The defect impulse response is modeled as a Double-Bernoulli-Gaussian sequence. Deconvolution becomes the problem of detection of the optimal Bernoulli sequence and estimation of the associated complex amplitudes. Optimal parameters of the sequence are those which maximize a likelihood function. We develop a new estimation procedure based on an optimization process. An adapted initialization procedure and an iterative algorithm enables to quickly process a huge number of data. Many experimental ultrasonic data that reflect usual control configurations have been processed and the results demonstrate the robustness of the method. Our algorithm enables not only to remove the waveform emitted by the transducer but also to estimate the phase. This parameter is useful for defect characterization. At last the algorithm makes easier data interpretation by concentrating information. So automatic characterization should be possible in the future. (author)
Applying Human-Centered Design Methods to Scientific Communication Products
Burkett, E. R.; Jayanty, N. K.; DeGroot, R. M.
2016-12-01
Knowing your users is a critical part of developing anything to be used or experienced by a human being. User interviews, journey maps, and personas are all techniques commonly employed in human-centered design practices because they have proven effective for informing the design of products and services that meet the needs of users. Many non-designers are unaware of the usefulness of personas and journey maps. Scientists who are interested in developing more effective products and communication can adopt and employ user-centered design approaches to better reach intended audiences. Journey mapping is a qualitative data-collection method that captures the story of a user's experience over time as related to the situation or product that requires development or improvement. Journey maps help define user expectations, where they are coming from, what they want to achieve, what questions they have, their challenges, and the gaps and opportunities that can be addressed by designing for them. A persona is a tool used to describe the goals and behavioral patterns of a subset of potential users or customers. The persona is a qualitative data model that takes the form of a character profile, built upon data about the behaviors and needs of multiple users. Gathering data directly from users avoids the risk of basing models on assumptions, which are often limited by misconceptions or gaps in understanding. Journey maps and user interviews together provide the data necessary to build the composite character that is the persona. Because a persona models the behaviors and needs of the target audience, it can then be used to make informed product design decisions. We share the methods and advantages of developing and using personas and journey maps to create more effective science communication products.
Comparing Waste-to-Energy technologies by applying energy system analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Münster, Marie; Lund, Henrik
2010-01-01
Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This article asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste......-to-Energy technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is carried out by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power as well as wind power. The study shows...... potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are hence interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also recommended to support research...
Applying the partitioned multiobjective risk method (PMRM) to portfolio selection.
Reyes Santos, Joost; Haimes, Yacov Y
2004-06-01
The analysis of risk-return tradeoffs and their practical applications to portfolio analysis paved the way for Modern Portfolio Theory (MPT), which won Harry Markowitz a 1992 Nobel Prize in Economics. A typical approach in measuring a portfolio's expected return is based on the historical returns of the assets included in a portfolio. On the other hand, portfolio risk is usually measured using volatility, which is derived from the historical variance-covariance relationships among the portfolio assets. This article focuses on assessing portfolio risk, with emphasis on extreme risks. To date, volatility is a major measure of risk owing to its simplicity and validity for relatively small asset price fluctuations. Volatility is a justified measure for stable market performance, but it is weak in addressing portfolio risk under aberrant market fluctuations. Extreme market crashes such as that on October 19, 1987 ("Black Monday") and catastrophic events such as the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 that led to a four-day suspension of trading on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) are a few examples where measuring risk via volatility can lead to inaccurate predictions. Thus, there is a need for a more robust metric of risk. By invoking the principles of the extreme-risk-analysis method through the partitioned multiobjective risk method (PMRM), this article contributes to the modeling of extreme risks in portfolio performance. A measure of an extreme portfolio risk, denoted by f(4), is defined as the conditional expectation for a lower-tail region of the distribution of the possible portfolio returns. This article presents a multiobjective problem formulation consisting of optimizing expected return and f(4), whose solution is determined using Evolver-a software that implements a genetic algorithm. Under business-as-usual market scenarios, the results of the proposed PMRM portfolio selection model are found to be compatible with those of the volatility-based model
Simplified Methods Applied to Nonlinear Motion of Spar Platforms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haslum, Herbjoern Alf
2000-07-01
Simplified methods for prediction of motion response of spar platforms are presented. The methods are based on first and second order potential theory. Nonlinear drag loads and the effect of the pumping motion in a moon-pool are also considered. Large amplitude pitch motions coupled to extreme amplitude heave motions may arise when spar platforms are exposed to long period swell. The phenomenon is investigated theoretically and explained as a Mathieu instability. It is caused by nonlinear coupling effects between heave, surge, and pitch. It is shown that for a critical wave period, the envelope of the heave motion makes the pitch motion unstable. For the same wave period, a higher order pitch/heave coupling excites resonant heave response. This mutual interaction largely amplifies both the pitch and the heave response. As a result, the pitch/heave instability revealed in this work is more critical than the previously well known Mathieu's instability in pitch which occurs if the wave period (or the natural heave period) is half the natural pitch period. The Mathieu instability is demonstrated both by numerical simulations with a newly developed calculation tool and in model experiments. In order to learn more about the conditions for this instability to occur and also how it may be controlled, different damping configurations (heave damping disks and pitch/surge damping fins) are evaluated both in model experiments and by numerical simulations. With increased drag damping, larger wave amplitudes and more time are needed to trigger the instability. The pitch/heave instability is a low probability of occurrence phenomenon. Extreme wave periods are needed for the instability to be triggered, about 20 seconds for a typical 200m draft spar. However, it may be important to consider the phenomenon in design since the pitch/heave instability is very critical. It is also seen that when classical spar platforms (constant cylindrical cross section and about 200m draft
Spacecraft Dynamic Characterization by Strain Energies Method
Bretagne, J.-M.; Fragnito, M.; Massier, S.
2002-01-01
In the last years the significant increase in satellite broadcasting demand, with the wide band communication dawn, has given a great impulse to the telecommunication satellite market. The big demand is translated from operators (such as SES/Astra, Eutelsat, Intelsat, Inmarsat, EuroSkyWay etc.) in an increase of orders of telecom satellite to the world industrials. The largest part of these telecom satellite orders consists of Geostationary platforms which grow more and more in mass (over 5 tons) due to an ever longer demanded lifetime (up to 20 years), and become more complex due to the need of implementing an ever larger number of repeaters, antenna reflectors and feeds, etc... In this frame, the mechanical design and verification of these large spacecraft become difficult and ambitious at the same time, driven by the dry mass limitation objective. By the Finite Element Method (FEM), and on the basis of the telecom satellite heritage of a world leader constructor such as Alcatel Space Industries it is nowadays possible to model these spacecraft in a realistic and confident way in order to identify the main global dynamic aspects such as mode shapes, mass participation and/or dynamic responses. But on the other hand, one of the main aims consists in identifying soon in a program the most critical aspects of the system behavior in the launch dynamic environment, such as possible dynamic coupling between the different subsystems and secondary structures of the spacecraft (large deployable reflectors, thrusters, etc.). To this aim a numerical method has been developed in the frame of the Alcatel SPACEBUS family program, using MSC/Nastran capabilities and it is presented in this paper. The method is based on Spacecraft sub-structuring and strain energy calculation. The method mainly consists of two steps : 1) subsystem modal strain energy ratio (with respect to the global strain energy); 2) subsystem strain energy calculation for each mode according to the base driven
Continuous energy Monte Carlo method based lattice homogeinzation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Mancang; Yao Dong; Wang Kan
2014-01-01
Based on the Monte Carlo code MCNP, the continuous energy Monte Carlo multi-group constants generation code MCMC has been developed. The track length scheme has been used as the foundation of cross section generation. The scattering matrix and Legendre components require special techniques, and the scattering event method has been proposed to solve this problem. Three methods have been developed to calculate the diffusion coefficients for diffusion reactor core codes and the Legendre method has been applied in MCMC. To the satisfaction of the equivalence theory, the general equivalence theory (GET) and the superhomogenization method (SPH) have been applied to the Monte Carlo method based group constants. The super equivalence method (SPE) has been proposed to improve the equivalence. GET, SPH and SPE have been implemented into MCMC. The numerical results showed that generating the homogenization multi-group constants via Monte Carlo method overcomes the difficulties in geometry and treats energy in continuum, thus provides more accuracy parameters. Besides, the same code and data library can be used for a wide range of applications due to the versatility. The MCMC scheme can be seen as a potential alternative to the widely used deterministic lattice codes. (authors)
A Framework for Engaging Navajo Women in Clean Energy Development through Applied Theatre
Osnes, Beth; Manygoats, Adrian; Weitkamp, Lindsay
2015-01-01
Through applied theatre, Navajo women can participate in authoring a new story for how energy is mined, produced, developed, disseminated and used in the Navajo Nation. This article is an analysis of a creative process that was utilised with primarily Navajo women to create a Navajo Women's Energy Project (NWEP). The framework for this creative…
Variational methods applied to problems of diffusion and reaction
Strieder, William
1973-01-01
This monograph is an account of some problems involving diffusion or diffusion with simultaneous reaction that can be illuminated by the use of variational principles. It was written during a period that included sabbatical leaves of one of us (W. S. ) at the University of Minnesota and the other (R. A. ) at the University of Cambridge and we are grateful to the Petroleum Research Fund for helping to support the former and the Guggenheim Foundation for making possible the latter. We would also like to thank Stephen Prager for getting us together in the first place and for showing how interesting and useful these methods can be. We have also benefitted from correspondence with Dr. A. M. Arthurs of the University of York and from the counsel of Dr. B. D. Coleman the general editor of this series. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction and Preliminaries . 1. 1. General Survey 1 1. 2. Phenomenological Descriptions of Diffusion and Reaction 2 1. 3. Correlation Functions for Random Suspensions 4 1. 4. Mean Free ...
Nondestructive methods of analysis applied to oriental swords
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edge, David
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Various neutron techniques were employed at the Budapest Nuclear Centre in an attempt to find the most useful method for analysing the high-carbon steels found in Oriental arms and armour, such as those in the Wallace Collection, London. Neutron diffraction was found to be the most useful in terms of identifying such steels and also indicating the presence of hidden patternEn el Centro Nuclear de Budapest se han empleado varias técnicas neutrónicas con el fin de encontrar un método adecuado para analizar las armas y armaduras orientales con un alto contenido en carbono, como algunas de las que se encuentran en la Colección Wallace de Londres. El empleo de la difracción de neutrones resultó ser la técnica más útil de cara a identificar ese tipo de aceros y también para encontrar patrones escondidos.
Perturbation Method of Analysis Applied to Substitution Measurements of Buckling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Persson, Rolf
1966-11-15
Calculations with two-group perturbation theory on substitution experiments with homogenized regions show that a condensation of the results into a one-group formula is possible, provided that a transition region is introduced in a proper way. In heterogeneous cores the transition region comes in as a consequence of a new cell concept. By making use of progressive substitutions the properties of the transition region can be regarded as fitting parameters in the evaluation procedure. The thickness of the region is approximately equal to the sum of 1/(1/{tau} + 1/L{sup 2}){sup 1/2} for the test and reference regions. Consequently a region where L{sup 2} >> {tau}, e.g. D{sub 2}O, contributes with {radical}{tau} to the thickness. In cores where {tau} >> L{sup 2} , e.g. H{sub 2}O assemblies, the thickness of the transition region is determined by L. Experiments on rod lattices in D{sub 2}O and on test regions of D{sub 2}O alone (where B{sup 2} = - 1/L{sup 2} ) are analysed. The lattice measurements, where the pitches differed by a factor of {radical}2, gave excellent results, whereas the determination of the diffusion length in D{sub 2}O by this method was not quite successful. Even regions containing only one test element can be used in a meaningful way in the analysis.
Split kinetic energy method for quantum systems with competing potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mineo, H.; Chao, Sheng D.
2012-01-01
For quantum systems with competing potentials, the conventional perturbation theory often yields an asymptotic series and the subsequent numerical outcome becomes uncertain. To tackle such a kind of problems, we develop a general solution scheme based on a new energy dissection idea. Instead of dividing the potential energy into “unperturbed” and “perturbed” terms, a partition of the kinetic energy is performed. By distributing the kinetic energy term in part into each individual potential, the Hamiltonian can be expressed as the sum of the subsystem Hamiltonians with respective competing potentials. The total wavefunction is expanded by using a linear combination of the basis sets of respective subsystem Hamiltonians. We first illustrate the solution procedure using a simple system consisting of a particle under the action of double δ-function potentials. Next, this method is applied to the prototype systems of a charged harmonic oscillator in strong magnetic field and the hydrogen molecule ion. Compared with the usual perturbation approach, this new scheme converges much faster to the exact solutions for both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. When properly extended, this new solution scheme can be very useful for dealing with strongly coupling quantum systems. - Highlights: ► A new basis set expansion method is proposed. ► Split kinetic energy method is proposed to solve quantum eigenvalue problems. ► Significant improvement has been obtained in converging to exact results. ► Extension of such methods is promising and discussed.
Vezzoli, C; Ceschin, F; Osanjo, L; M'Rithaa, MK; Moalosi, R; Nakazibwe, V.; Diehl, J.C.
2018-01-01
This open access book addresses the issue of diffusing sustainable energy access in low- and middle-income contexts.
Access to energy is one of the greatest challenges for many people living in low-
income and developing contexts, as around 1.4 billion people lack access to electricity.
Resonating group method as applied to the spectroscopy of α-transfer reactions
Subbotin, V. B.; Semjonov, V. M.; Gridnev, K. A.; Hefter, E. F.
1983-10-01
In the conventional approach to α-transfer reactions the finite- and/or zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is used in liaison with a macroscopic description of the captured α particle in the residual nucleus. Here the specific example of 16O(6Li,d)20Ne reactions at different projectile energies is taken to present a microscopic resonating group method analysis of the α particle in the final nucleus (for the reaction part the simple zero-range distorted-wave Born approximation is employed). In the discussion of suitable nucleon-nucleon interactions, force number one of the effective interactions presented by Volkov is shown to be most appropriate for the system considered. Application of the continuous analog of Newton's method to the evaluation of the resonating group method equations yields an increased accuracy with respect to traditional methods. The resonating group method description induces only minor changes in the structures of the angular distributions, but it does serve its purpose in yielding reliable and consistent spectroscopic information. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE 16O(6Li,d)20Ne; E=20 to 32 MeV; calculated B(E2); reduced widths, dσdΩ extracted α-spectroscopic factors. ZRDWBA with microscope RGM description of residual α particle in 20Ne; application of continuous analog of Newton's method; tested and applied Volkov force No. 1; direct mechanism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broc, J S
2006-12-15
Energy end-use Efficiency (EE) is a priority for energy policies to face resources exhaustion and to reduce pollutant emissions. At the same time, in France, local level is increasingly involved into the implementation of EE activities, whose frame is changing (energy market liberalization, new policy instruments). Needs for ex-post evaluation of the local EE activities are thus increasing, for regulation requirements and to support a necessary change of scale. Our thesis focuses on the original issue of the ex-post evaluation of local EE operations in France. The state of the art, through the analysis of the American and European experiences and of the reference guidebooks, gives a substantial methodological material and emphasises the key evaluation issues. Concurrently, local EE operations in France are characterized by an analysis of their environment and a work on their segmentation criteria. The combination of these criteria with the key evaluation issues provides an analysis framework used as the basis for the composition of evaluation methods. This also highlights the specific evaluation needs for local operations. A methodology is then developed to complete and adapt the existing material to design evaluation methods for local operations, so that stakeholders can easily appropriate. Evaluation results thus feed a know-how building process with experience feedback. These methods are to meet two main goals: to determine the operation results, and to detect the success/failure factors. The methodology was validated on concrete cases, where these objectives were reached. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Broc, J.S
2006-12-15
Energy end-use Efficiency (EE) is a priority for energy policies to face resources exhaustion and to reduce pollutant emissions. At the same time, in France, local level is increasingly involved into the implementation of EE activities, whose frame is changing (energy market liberalization, new policy instruments). Needs for ex-post evaluation of the local EE activities are thus increasing, for regulation requirements and to support a necessary change of scale. Our thesis focuses on the original issue of the ex-post evaluation of local EE operations in France. The state of the art, through the analysis of the American and European experiences and of the reference guidebooks, gives a substantial methodological material and emphasises the key evaluation issues. Concurrently, local EE operations in France are characterized by an analysis of their environment and a work on their segmentation criteria. The combination of these criteria with the key evaluation issues provides an analysis framework used as the basis for the composition of evaluation methods. This also highlights the specific evaluation needs for local operations. A methodology is then developed to complete and adapt the existing material to design evaluation methods for local operations, so that stakeholders can easily appropriate. Evaluation results thus feed a know-how building process with experience feedback. These methods are to meet two main goals: to determine the operation results, and to detect the success/failure factors. The methodology was validated on concrete cases, where these objectives were reached. (author)
The new energy management policy: Indonesian PSC-gross-split applied on steam flooding project
Irham, S.; Julyus, P.
2018-01-01
“SIPY” oil field has been producing oil using steam flooding technology since 1992 under the PSC-Cost-Recovery policy. In 2021, the contract will be finished, and a new agreement must be submitted to the Indonesian government. There are two applied fiscal policies on oil and gas management: PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-Split (introduced in 2017 as the new energy management plan). The contractor must choose between PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-split which makes more profit. The aim of this research is to determine the best oil and gas contract policy for the contractor. The methods are calculating contractor cash flow and comparing the Profitability Indexes. The results of this study are (1) Net Present Values for the PSC-Cost-Recovery and the PSC-Gross-Split are 15 MMUS and 61 MMUS, respectively; and (2) Internal Rate of Return values for the PSC-Cost-Recovery and PSC-Gross-Split are 10% and 11%, respectively. The conclusion is that the Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return of PSC-Gross-Split are greater than those of PSC-Cost-Recovery, but in Pay Out Time of PSC-Gross-split is longer than Pay Out Time in PSC-Cost-Recovery. Thus, the new energy management policy will be more attractive than PSC-Cost-Recovery.
Dynamics of energy systems: Methods of analysing technology change
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neij, Lena
1999-05-01
Technology change will have a central role in achieving a sustainable energy system. This calls for methods of analysing the dynamics of energy systems in view of technology change and policy instruments for effecting and accelerating technology change. In this thesis, such methods have been developed, applied, and assessed. Two types of methods have been considered, methods of analysing and projecting the dynamics of future technology change and methods of evaluating policy instruments effecting technology change, i.e. market transformation programmes. Two methods are focused on analysing the dynamics of future technology change; vintage models and experience curves. Vintage models, which allow for complex analysis of annual streams of energy and technological investments, are applied to the analysis of the time dynamics of electricity demand for lighting and air-distribution in Sweden. The results of the analyses show that the Swedish electricity demand for these purposes could decrease over time, relative to a reference scenario, if policy instruments are used. Experience curves are used to provide insight into the prospects of diffusion of wind turbines and photo voltaic (PV) modules due to cost reduction. The results show potential for considerable cost reduction for wind-generated electricity, which, in turn, could lead to major diffusion of wind turbines. The results also show that major diffusion of PV modules, and a reduction of PV generated electricity down to the level of conventional base-load electricity, will depend on large investments in bringing the costs down (through R D and D, market incentives and investments in niche markets) or the introduction of new generations of PV modules (e.g. high-efficiency mass-produced thin-film cells). Moreover, a model has been developed for the evaluation of market transformation programmes, i.e. policy instruments that effect technology change and the introduction and commercialisation of energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakane, Shinichi; Yezdimer, Eric M.; Liu, Wenbin; Barriocanal, Jose A.; Doren, Douglas J.; Wood, Robert H.
2000-01-01
The ab initio/classical free energy perturbation (ABC-FEP) method proposed previously by Wood et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1329 (1999)] uses classical simulations to calculate solvation free energies within an empirical potential model, then applies free energy perturbation theory to determine the effect of changing the empirical solute-solvent interactions to corresponding interactions calculated from ab initio methods. This approach allows accurate calculation of solvation free energies using an atomistic description of the solvent and solute, with interactions calculated from first principles. Results can be obtained at a feasible computational cost without making use of approximations such as a continuum solvent or an empirical cavity formation energy. As such, the method can be used far from ambient conditions, where the empirical parameters needed for approximate theories of solvation may not be available. The sources of error in the ABC-FEP method are the approximations in the ab initio method, the finite sample of configurations, and the classical solvent model. This article explores the accuracy of various approximations used in the ABC-FEP method by comparing to the experimentally well-known free energy of hydration of water at two state points (ambient conditions, and 973.15 K and 600 kg/m3). The TIP4P-FQ model [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6141 (1994)] is found to be a reliable solvent model for use with this method, even at supercritical conditions. Results depend strongly on the ab initio method used: a gradient-corrected density functional theory is not adequate, but a localized MP2 method yields excellent agreement with experiment. Computational costs are reduced by using a cluster approximation, in which ab initio pair interaction energies are calculated between the solute and up to 60 solvent molecules, while multi-body interactions are calculated with only a small cluster (5 to 12 solvent molecules). Sampling errors for the ab initio contribution to
Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same
Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L
2015-04-28
Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.
The stochastic energy-Casimir method
Arnaudon, Alexis; Ganaba, Nader; Holm, Darryl D.
2018-04-01
In this paper, we extend the energy-Casimir stability method for deterministic Lie-Poisson Hamiltonian systems to provide sufficient conditions for stability in probability of stochastic dynamical systems with symmetries. We illustrate this theory with classical examples of coadjoint motion, including the rigid body, the heavy top, and the compressible Euler equation in two dimensions. The main result is that stable deterministic equilibria remain stable in probability up to a certain stopping time that depends on the amplitude of the noise for finite-dimensional systems and on the amplitude of the spatial derivative of the noise for infinite-dimensional systems. xml:lang="fr"
Advanced Analysis Methods in High Energy Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pushpalatha C. Bhat
2001-10-03
During the coming decade, high energy physics experiments at the Fermilab Tevatron and around the globe will use very sophisticated equipment to record unprecedented amounts of data in the hope of making major discoveries that may unravel some of Nature's deepest mysteries. The discovery of the Higgs boson and signals of new physics may be around the corner. The use of advanced analysis techniques will be crucial in achieving these goals. The author discusses some of the novel methods of analysis that could prove to be particularly valuable for finding evidence of any new physics, for improving precision measurements and for exploring parameter spaces of theoretical models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vesisenaho, T [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Liukkonen, S [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)
1997-12-01
The objective of this project is to apply whole-tree harvesting method to Finnish timber harvesting conditions in order to lower the harvesting costs of energy wood and timber in spruce-dominant final cuttings. In Finnish conditions timber harvesting is normally based on the log-length method. Because of small landings and the high level of thinning cuttings, whole-tree skidding methods cannot be utilised extensively. The share of stands which could be harvested with whole-tree skidding method showed up to be about 10 % of the total harvesting amount of 50 mill. m{sup 3}. The corresponding harvesting potential of energy wood is 0,25 Mtoe. The aim of the structural measurements made in this project was to get information about the effect of different hauling methods into the structural response of the tractor, and thus reveal the possible special requirements that the new whole-tree skidding places forest tractor design. Altogether 7 strain gauge based sensors were mounted into the rear frame structures and drive shafts of the forest tractor. Five strain gauges measured local strains in some critical details and two sensors measured the torque moments of the front and rear bogie drive shafts. Also the revolution speed of the rear drive shaft was recorded. Signal time histories, maximum peaks, Time at Level distributions and Rainflow distributions were gathered in different hauling modes. From these, maximum values, average stress levels and fatigue life estimates were calculated for each mode, and a comparison of the different methods from the structural point of view was performed
Method and apparatus for in-situ characterization of energy storage and energy conversion devices
Christophersen, Jon P [Idaho Falls, ID; Motloch, Chester G [Idaho Falls, ID; Morrison, John L [Butte, MT; Albrecht, Weston [Layton, UT
2010-03-09
Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for determining an impedance of an energy-output device using a random noise stimulus applied to the energy-output device. A random noise signal is generated and converted to a random noise stimulus as a current source correlated to the random noise signal. A bias-reduced response of the energy-output device to the random noise stimulus is generated by comparing a voltage at the energy-output device terminal to an average voltage signal. The random noise stimulus and bias-reduced response may be periodically sampled to generate a time-varying current stimulus and a time-varying voltage response, which may be correlated to generate an autocorrelated stimulus, an autocorrelated response, and a cross-correlated response. Finally, the autocorrelated stimulus, the autocorrelated response, and the cross-correlated response may be combined to determine at least one of impedance amplitude, impedance phase, and complex impedance.
Cohen, Ayala; Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Doveh, Etti
2010-01-01
In their seminal paper, Edwards and Parry (1993) presented the polynomial regression as a better alternative to applying difference score in the study of congruence. Although this method is increasingly applied in congruence research, its complexity relative to other methods for assessing congruence (e.g., difference score methods) was one of the…
Z-1 perturbation theory applied to the correlation energy problem of atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, B.H.
1975-01-01
Rayleigh--Schroedinger Perturbation Theory is applied to obtain directly exact and explicit analytic formulas for the electron correlation energies of N electron systems in terms of their pairwise interactions through second order in Z -1 , where Z is the nucleus of the atom. It is demonstrated that the second order correlation energy may be expressed as exactly the sum of pairwise correlation energies. In the case of no zeroth order degeneracy, the zeroth and first order terms vanish. The expression for the pairwise energies is an infinite sum, all terms of which are of the same sign. There is no numerical differencing. In the case of zeroth order degeneracy it is shown that the above statement concerning the second order energy still holds, but the expressions are a bit more complicated. It is shown that they ''almost'' reduce to a much simpler form. Also, the computation of the first order correlation energy is considered
Applied methods for mitigation of damage by stress corrosion in BWR type reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez C, R.; Diaz S, A.; Gachuz M, M.; Arganis J, C.
1998-01-01
The Boiling Water nuclear Reactors (BWR) have presented stress corrosion problems, mainly in components and pipes of the primary system, provoking negative impacts in the performance of energy generator plants, as well as the increasing in the radiation exposure to personnel involucred. This problem has caused development of research programs, which are guided to find solution alternatives for the phenomena control. Among results of greater relevance the control for the reactor water chemistry stands out particularly in the impurities concentration and oxidation of radiolysis products; as well as the supervision in the materials selection and the stresses levels reduction. The present work presents the methods which can be applied to diminish the problems of stress corrosion in BWR reactors. (Author)
Building Energy Assessment and Computer Simulation Applied to Social Housing in Spain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juan Aranda
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The actual energy consumption and simulated energy performance of a building usually differ. This gap widens in social housing, owing to the characteristics of these buildings and the consumption patterns of economically vulnerable households affected by energy poverty. The aim of this work is to characterise the energy poverty of the households that are representative of those residing in social housing, specifically in blocks of apartments in Southern Europe. The main variables that affect energy consumption and costs are analysed, and the models developed for software energy-performance simulations (which are applied to predict energy consumption in social housing are validated against actual energy-consumption values. The results demonstrate that this type of household usually lives in surroundings at a temperature below the average thermal comfort level. We have taken into account that a standard thermal comfort level may lead to significant differences between computer-aided energy building simulation and actual consumption data (which are 40–140% lower than simulated consumption. This fact is of integral importance, as we use computer simulation to predict building energy performance in social housing.
Sanitation methods using high energy electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levaillant, C.; Gallien, C.L.
1979-01-01
Short recycling of waste water and the use of liquid or dehydrated sludge as natural manure for agriculture or animal supplement feed is of great economical and ecological interest. It implies strong biological and chemical disinfection. Ionizing radiations produced by radioactive elements or linear accelerators can be used as a complement of conventional methods in the treatment of liquid and solid waste. An experiment conducted with high-energy electron-beam linear accelerators is presented. Degradation of undesirable metabolites in water occurs for a dose of 50 kRad. Undesirable seeds present in sludge are destroyed with a 200 kRad dose. A 300 kRad dose is sufficient for parasitic and bacterial disinfection (DL 90). Destruction of polio virus (DL 90) is obtained for 400 kRad. Higher doses (1000 to 2000 kRad) produce mineralization of toxic organic mercury, reduce some chemical toxic pollutants present in sludge and improve flocculation. (author)
Method and system of nuclear energy generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilke, W.
1975-01-01
The method is based on the nuclear reaction Li 6 (n,α)H 3 . Thermal neutrons, whose generation require a power reactor, are fed to a lithium deuterite target in such a manner that part of the tritons produced in this reaction undergo nuclear fusion of the kind d(T,n)α with the deuterons of the target. The remaining tritons are reacted with additional deuterons. The tritium produced in this reaction is processed and fed back to the lithium target over a triton source. It is also possible to process the tritium to a target, feed deuterons to it, and in addition to give the neutrons produced from the T(d,n)α reaction after slowing down to thermal energy to the lithium target. (DG/LH) [de
MPA-11: Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices; Overview of an Applied Energy Group
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dattelbaum, Andrew Martin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-11-16
Our mission is to provide innovative and creative chemical synthesis and materials science solutions to solve materials problems across the LANL missions. Our group conducts basic and applied research in areas related to energy security as well as problems relevant to the Weapons Program.
Lan, B.-R.; Chang, C.-A.; Huang, P.-Y.; Kuo, C.-H.; Ye, Z.-J.; Shen, B.-C.; Chen, B.-K.
2017-11-01
Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) includes peak demand reduction, energy conservation, carbon emission reduction, and electricity bill reduction. This paper analyzes the energy-reduction of Siwei Feeders with applying CVR, which are situated in Penghu region and equipped with smart meters. Furthermore, the applicable voltage reduction range for the feeders will be explored. This study will also investigate how the CVR effect and energy conservation are improved with the voltage control devices integrated. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the Taiwan Power Company to promote and implement voltage reduction and energy conservation techniques. This study is expected to enhance the energy-reduction performance of the Penghu Low Carbon Island Project.
Efficient alpha particle detection by CR-39 applying 50 Hz-HV electrochemical etching method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohrabi, M.; Soltani, Z.
2016-01-01
Alpha particles can be detected by CR-39 by applying either chemical etching (CE), electrochemical etching (ECE), or combined pre-etching and ECE usually through a multi-step HF-HV ECE process at temperatures much higher than room temperature. By applying pre-etching, characteristics responses of fast-neutron-induced recoil tracks in CR-39 by HF-HV ECE versus KOH normality (N) have shown two high-sensitivity peaks around 5–6 and 15–16 N and a large-diameter peak with a minimum sensitivity around 10–11 N at 25°C. On the other hand, 50 Hz-HV ECE method recently advanced in our laboratory detects alpha particles with high efficiency and broad registration energy range with small ECE tracks in polycarbonate (PC) detectors. By taking advantage of the CR-39 sensitivity to alpha particles, efficacy of 50 Hz-HV ECE method and CR-39 exotic responses under different KOH normalities, detection characteristics of 0.8 MeV alpha particle tracks were studied in 500 μm CR-39 for different fluences, ECE duration and KOH normality. Alpha registration efficiency increased as ECE duration increased to 90 ± 2% after 6–8 h beyond which plateaus are reached. Alpha track density versus fluence is linear up to 10 6 tracks cm −2 . The efficiency and mean track diameter versus alpha fluence up to 10 6 alphas cm −2 decrease as the fluence increases. Background track density and minimum detection limit are linear functions of ECE duration and increase as normality increases. The CR-39 processed for the first time in this study by 50 Hz-HV ECE method proved to provide a simple, efficient and practical alpha detection method at room temperature. - Highlights: • Alpha particles of 0.8 MeV were detected in CR-39 by 50 Hz-HV ECE method. • Efficiency/track diameter was studied vs fluence and time for 3 KOH normality. • Background track density and minimum detection limit vs duration were studied. • A new simple, efficient and low-cost alpha detection method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maiz, F., E-mail: Fethi_maiz@yahoo.fr [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); University of Cartage, Nabeul Engineering Preparatory Institute, Merazka, 8000 Nabeul (Tunisia); Eissa, S.A. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); AL-AZHAR University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); AlFaify, S. [King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia)
2013-09-15
Assuming an effective mass approximation and using Bastard's boundary conditions, a simple method for simultaneous determination of the energy levels forming the sub-band structure and the transmissions coefficient of non-symmetrical, non-periodical potential semiconducting heterostructure is being proposed. The method can be applied on a multilayer system with varying thickness and effective mass of the layers, and with potential that is neither periodical nor symmetrical. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, cases of symmetrical rectangular triple-barrier structure with constant effective mass, multi-barrier semiconductor heterostructure (nine barriers–eight-wells), and monomer height barrier superlattices (300 barriers) systems have been examined. Findings show very good agreements with previously published results obtained by different methods on similar systems. The proposed method was found to be useful for any number of semiconducting layers arranged in any random way making it more realistic, simple, and applicable to superlattice analysis and for devices design.
Novel DNA sequence detection method based on fluorescence energy transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, S.; Tamiya, E.; Karube, I.
1987-01-01
Recently the detection of specific DNA sequence, DNA analysis, has been becoming more important for diagnosis of viral genomes causing infections disease and human sequences related to inherited disorders. These methods typically involve electrophoresis, the immobilization of DNA on a solid support, hybridization to a complementary probe, the detection using labeled with /sup 32/P or nonisotopically with a biotin-avidin-enzyme system, and so on. These techniques are highly effective, but they are very time-consuming and expensive. A principle of fluorescene energy transfer is that the light energy from an excited donor (fluorophore) is transferred to an acceptor (fluorophore), if the acceptor exists in the vicinity of the donor and the excitation spectrum of donor overlaps the emission spectrum of acceptor. In this study, the fluorescence energy transfer was applied to the detection of specific DNA sequence using the hybridization method. The analyte, single-stranded DNA labeled with the donor fluorophore is hybridized to a probe DNA labeled with the acceptor. Because of the complementary DNA duplex formation, two fluorophores became to be closed to each other, and the fluorescence energy transfer was occurred
Application of Indenting Method for Calculation of Activation Energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong-Seog; Kim, Tae-Ryong
2006-01-01
For the calculation of activation energy of cable materials, we used to apply the break-elongation test in accordance with ASTM D412(Stand Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension). For the cable jacket and insulation which have regular thickness, break-elongation test had been preferred since it showed linear character in the activation energy curve. But, for the cable which has irregular thickness or rugged surface of cable inside, break-elongation test show scattered data which can not be used for the calculation of activation energy. It is not easy to prepare break-elongation specimen for the cable smaller than 13mm diameter in accordance with ASTM D412. In the cases of above, we sometime use TGA method which heat the specimen from 50 .deg. C to 700 .deg. C at heating rates of 10, 15, 20 .deg. C/min. But, TGA is suspected for the representative of natural aging in the plant since it measure the weight decreasing rate during burning which may have different aging mechanism with that of natural aging. To solve above problems, we investigated alternatives such as indenter test. Indenter test is very convenient since it does not ask for a special test specimen as the break-elongation test does. Regular surface of cable outside is the only requirement of indenter test. Experience of activation energy calculation by using the indenter test is described herein
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carballo Penela, Adolfo; Sebastian Villasante, Carlos
2008-01-01
Nowadays, the achievement of sustainable development constitutes an important constraint in the design of energy policies, being necessary the development of reliable indicators to obtain helpful information about the use of energy resources. The ecological footprint (EF) provides a referential framework for the analysis of human demand for bioproductivity, including energy issues. In this article, the theoretical bases of the footprint analysis are described by applying input-output tables of energy to estimate the Galician energy ecological footprint (EEF). It is concluded that the location of highly polluting industries in Galicia makes the Galician EEF quite higher than more developed regions of Spain. The relevance of the outer component of the Galician EEF is also studied. First, available information seems to indicate that the energy incorporated to the trading of manufactured goods would notably increase the Galician consumption of energy. On the other hand, the inclusion of electricity trade in the EEF analysis, including an adjustment, following the same philosophy as with manufactured goods is proposed. This adjustment would substantially reduce the Galician EEF, as the exported electricity widely exceeds the imported one
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sekijima, Y.; Kudo, Y.; Inui, M. [Central Japan Railway Co., Aichi (Japan); Monden, Y.; Toda, S.; Aoyama, I. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
2006-07-01
This paper provided details of an energy storage system designed for use with DC electric rolling stock through the application of an electric double layer capacitor (EDLC). The EDLC was selected due to its long life-span and its low operational costs. Testing was conducted to assess the system's basic control function, acceleration using stored energy, and behaviour during regenerative brake failure. A control circuit chip was used in the DC electric rolling stock on an inverter of the energy storage system. Tests confirmed that the control method was effective for actual rolling stocks. A full-scale energy storage system for installation on series 313 locomotives was then constructed. Braking energy was generated only from a regenerative brake. In case of brake failure, braking energy was generated from an air brake was well as an electric brake. Data from a field test conducted at the Tokaido and Chuo railway lines showed a capacity of 0.6 kWh. The EDLC was used to reduce peak air brake energy. It was concluded that storing 0.28 kW of brake energy in the EDLC can reduce peaks of air brake energy in high speed ranges. Experimental equipment was used to confirm use of the system with 0.56 kWh of EDLC, the average energy of air brake used in regenerative energy failure. 1 tab., 10 figs.
Examining ion channel properties using free-energy methods.
Domene, Carmen; Furini, Simone
2009-01-01
Recent advances in structural biology have revealed the architecture of a number of transmembrane channels, allowing for these complex biological systems to be understood in atomistic detail. Computational simulations are a powerful tool by which the dynamic and energetic properties, and thereby the function of these protein architectures, can be investigated. The experimentally observable properties of a system are often determined more by energetic than dynamics, and therefore understanding the underlying free energy (FE) of biophysical processes is of crucial importance. Critical to the accurate evaluation of FE values are the problems of obtaining accurate sampling of complex biological energy landscapes, and of obtaining accurate representations of the potential energy of a system, this latter problem having been addressed through the development of molecular force fields. While these challenges are common to all FE methods, depending on the system under study, and the questions being asked of it, one technique for FE calculation may be preferable to another, the choice of method and simulation protocol being crucial to achieve efficiency. Applied in a correct manner, FE calculations represent a predictive and affordable computational tool with which to make relevant contact with experiments. This chapter, therefore, aims to give an overview of the most widely implemented computational methods used to calculate the FE associated with particular biochemical or biophysical events, and to highlight their recent applications to ion channels. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marshall, H. E.; Ruegg, R. T.; Wilson, F.
1980-01-01
Economic analysis techniques for evaluating alternative energy conservation investments in buildings are presented. Life cycle cost, benefit cost, savings to investment, payback, and rate of return analyses are explained and illustrated. The procedure for discounting is described for a heat pump investment. Formulas, tables of discount factors, and detailed instructions are provided to give all information required to make economic evaluations of energy conserving building designs.
Chemometric methods and near-infrared spectroscopy applied to bioenergy production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liebmann, B.
2010-01-01
The present work examines bioenergy production from different viewpoints. The three main objectives are: (1) to reveal the relation of technology, sustainability and economy in bioenergy processes; (2) to investigate spectroscopic methods as a tool for analytical monitoring of bioenergy processes; and (3) to develop new chemometric methods for advanced analysis of spectroscopic data. At the first stage, this thesis investigates the technological, ecological, and economic features of renewable-resource-based and de-centralized bioenergy production systems. In different scenarios, small-scale bioethanol production is combined with other technologies that provide renewable energy from residuals of the bioethanol process. The general aim is to substitute fossil energy conventionally used within the bioethanol process. The investigated technologies are biogas production and straw incineration. Agricultural aspects are introduced by sustainable crop rotation concepts that reconcile food, feed, and biofuel production. The sustainability of small-scale bioethanol production in the different scenarios is quantified by an ecological footprint method, the sustainable process index, SPI, and compared to conventional fuels. The main findings are: (i) small-scaled bioethanol production can be operated with 100 % renewable energy supply, (ii) the SPI of bioethanol can be reduced up to 92 % compared to conventional fuels, (iii) a complex trade-off between ecology-of-scale and economy-of-scale is necessary. At the second stage, this thesis approaches bioenergy production processes from an analytical perspective, and presents near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) as promising method for fast process monitoring of bioethanol production and biomass characterization. In addition, new analytical methods are presented for a fast determination of the heating value of solid biomass fuel, based on IR and NIR spectroscopy. The main findings are that NIR spectroscopy and appropriate chemometric
Shark, new motor design concept for energy saving applied to switched reluctance motor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tataru Kjaer, A.M.
2005-07-01
The aim of this thesis is to document and promote a relatively new concept of designing electrical machine with improved efficiency, without using more or better material. The concept, called Shark, consists in replacing the cylindrical air gap by a non-linear shape obtained by translating specific geometrical pattern on the longitudinal axis of the electrical machine. This shape modification increases the air gap area and thus the energy conversion, taking place in the machine. Whilst other methods of improving the efficiency consider the use of more and/or better magnetic material and/or optimisation of the magnetic circuit of the radial cross-section of the machine, the proposed method makes use of the longitudinal cross-section of the machine. In spite of a few reports claiming the improvement of the efficiency by applying the optimisation of the longitudinal cross-section, none analysis of various air gap shapes and of their influence on the magnetic performance has been reported. Due to a simple geometry, the Switched Reluctance Machine has been selected for demonstration of the Shark principle. Initially, linear and finite element analyses are considered. They provide the basic knowledge of the manner in which various Shark air gap, having different dimensions, influence the energy conversion in the machine. The saturation mechanisms, specific to each Shark profile are analysed and optimum Shark profile and its dimensions are selected for implementation in a demonstration machine. Due to the lack of quick analysis tools, an analytical model of the Shark Switched Reluctance Machine is also proposed in this thesis. This model is conceived by modifying one of the existing models of cylindrical air gap Switched Reluctance Machines, such as to account for the presence of the Shark profiles in the air gap. The calculations are verified by measurement on two demonstration machines, having cylindrical and Shark air gaps. The measurement proved the theory right and
Economic Evaluation for Energy Business Using Real Options Pricing Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yun, W.C. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)
2001-11-01
Recently, facing the new era of restructuring, privatization, and liberalization the energy industry in the world is changing rapidly, and thus the uncertain factors tend to increase. This would imply that energy-related business is now confronted with new market risks as well as the simple price risks. The traditional investment valuation method using the concept of net present value (NPV) or internal rate of revenue (IRR) might not incorporate the managerial alternatives which enable managers to respond flexibly to the changes in business environment. This study pointed out the problems of the traditional discounted cash flow (DCF) method when evaluating a certain capital investment in energy industry. As an alternative, the real option pricing method (ROPM) was proposed, which is widely adopted in the field of profit projection for the venture business. In addition, when applying to energy sector the feasibility of ROPM was discussed, and the frameworks and major results of previous related studies were described. For those using the ROPM in real business, I explained the detailed procedures and solutions of ROPM, and introduced the log-transformed binomial model which provides a more efficient solution. In order to verify the usefulness of the ROPM, this study performed an empirical analysis for a virtual construction and operation project of power plant. And, the results from the ROPM was compared to those from the traditional DCF method. Based on the empirical results, the values of various investment opportunities were shown to be high. Therefore, the project not justified in terms of traditional DCF would turn into the project with a positive gross project value, properly reflecting managerial flexibilities inherent in the original project. (author). 58 refs., 32 figs., 33 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Roofegari Nejad
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents novel methods for Demand Response (DR programs by considering welfare state of consumers, to deal with the operational uncertainties, such as wind energy and energy price, within the framework of a smart microgrid. In this regard, total loads of microgrid are classified into two groups and each one is represented by a typical load. First group is energy storage capability represents by heater loads and second is curtailment capability loads represents by lighting loads. Next by the proposed DR methods, consumed energy of the all loads is coupled to the wind energy rate and energy price. Finally these methods are applied in the operation of a smart microgrid, consists of dispatchable supplier (microturbine, nondispatchable supplier (wind turbine, energy storage system and loads with the capability of energy exchanging with upstream distribution network. In order to consider uncertainties, Monte Carlo simulation method is used, which various scenarios are generated and applied in the operation of microgrid. In the end, the simulation results on a typical microgrid show that implementing proposed DR methods contributes to increasing total operational profit of smart microgrid and also decreasing the risk of low profit too.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taylor Mac Intyer Fonseca Junior
2013-12-01
Full Text Available This work evaluate seven estimation methods of fatigue properties applied to stainless steels and aluminum alloys. Experimental strain-life curves are compared to the estimations obtained by each method. After applying seven different estimation methods at 14 material conditions, it was found that fatigue life can be estimated with good accuracy only by the Bäumel-Seeger method for the martensitic stainless steel tempered between 300°C and 500°C. The differences between mechanical behavior during monotonic and cyclic loading are probably the reason for the absence of a reliable method for estimation of fatigue behavior from monotonic properties for a group of materials.
Evdokimova, Ekaterina
2013-01-01
The purpose of this thesis was to gather information about vertical and horizontal wind mills and to complete a research on wind power production by wind mills which were installed in Tampere University of Applied Sciences. The horizontally mounted wind mill Windspot 3.5 and vertically mounted wind mill Cypress were installed in summer 2011 but they started functioning and supplying energy only during 2012. In the theoretical part of this thesis wind speed and wind power production is dis...
Prokhorov, Sergey
2017-10-01
Building industry in a present day going through the hard times. Machine and mechanism exploitation cost, on a field of construction and installation works, takes a substantial part in total building construction expenses. There is a necessity to elaborate high efficient method, which allows not only to increase production, but also to reduce direct costs during machine fleet exploitation, and to increase its energy efficiency. In order to achieve the goal we plan to use modern methods of work production, hi-tech and energy saving machine tools and technologies, and use of optimal mechanization sets. As the optimization criteria there are exploitation prime cost and set efficiency. During actual task-solving process we made a conclusion, which shows that mechanization works, energy audit with production juxtaposition, prime prices and costs for energy resources allow to make complex machine fleet supply, improve ecological level and increase construction and installation work quality.
Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Pugh, Kevin J.
2018-01-01
Onwuegbuzie and colleagues proposed the Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process as a mixed methods framework for creating and validating measures. Examples applying IDCV are lacking. We provide an illustrative case integrating the Rasch model and cognitive interviews applied to the development of the Transformative…
An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy
Gamso, Nancy M.
2011-01-01
The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…
Method for the transmission of energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weissenbach, B.
1976-01-01
According ot the invention, chemical energy and/or chemically bound latent energy from a heat source (preferably from a nuclear reactor), is conveyed to a consumer by means of ordinary, saturated hydrocarbons, or their oxygen-containing derivates (preferably methanol), or synthesis gas in open- or closed-cycle systems. (GG) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sehgal, A K; Gupta, S C [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics
1982-12-14
The complementary variational principles method (CVP) is applied to the thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The results of computations show that the CVP derived results are very useful.
Nuclear structure studies with low-energy light ions: fundamental and applied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazumdar, I.
2016-01-01
Studies in low and medium energy nuclear physics have been dominated by heavy-ion induced reactions for last five decades. Heavy-ion induced nuclear reactions have enriched our knowledge of the structural evolutions and intricacies of reaction dynamics of the nuclear many-body systems. However, the emergence and rise of heavy-ion physics have seen a general decline in studies with low- and medium-energy light-ion beams. The harsh reality of dwindling number of low-energy light ion facilities adversely affect research in nuclear physics. Very low-energy and high current light-ion facilities immediately conjures up in our minds the studies in nuclear astrophysics. Measurements of light-ion capture cross sections and astrophysical S factors are the major themes of research at most of the light-ion facilities. However, the importance low energy light-ion beams is multifarious. A variety of measurements providing vital support and inputs to heavy-ion research can only be carried out at the low-energy, light-ion facilities. Light-ion beams are also useful for generation of mono-energetic neutron beams. In this talk I will draw from some of our recent measurements to show the importance of light-ion beams in nuclear astrophysics and also in applied nuclear physics. (author)
Graph theory applied to noise and vibration control in statistical energy analysis models.
Guasch, Oriol; Cortés, Lluís
2009-06-01
A fundamental aspect of noise and vibration control in statistical energy analysis (SEA) models consists in first identifying and then reducing the energy flow paths between subsystems. In this work, it is proposed to make use of some results from graph theory to address both issues. On the one hand, linear and path algebras applied to adjacency matrices of SEA graphs are used to determine the existence of any order paths between subsystems, counting and labeling them, finding extremal paths, or determining the power flow contributions from groups of paths. On the other hand, a strategy is presented that makes use of graph cut algorithms to reduce the energy flow from a source subsystem to a receiver one, modifying as few internal and coupling loss factors as possible.
Student ability to apply the concepts of work and energy to extended systems
Lindsey, Beth A.; Heron, Paula R. L.; Shaffer, Peter S.
2009-11-01
We report results from an investigation of student ability to apply the concepts of work and energy to situations in which the internal structure of a system cannot be ignored, that is, the system cannot be treated as a particle. Students in introductory calculus-based physics courses were asked written and online questions after relevant instruction by lectures, textbook, and laboratory. Several difficulties were identified. Some related to student ability to calculate the work done on a system. Failure to associate work with the change in energy of a system was also widespread. The results have implications for instruction that aims for a rigorous treatment of energy concepts that is consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. The findings are guiding the development of two tutorials to supplement instruction.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berenguer Ungaro, Mónica Rosario; Yero, Douglas Deás; López Juanes, Pedro; Areas Gilar, Ramón; Prada Sánchez, Jorge; Hernández Rodríguez, Norma Rafaela
2017-01-01
The objective of this work is to evaluate the potential for the diversification of the energy matrix of the National Center for Applied Electromagnetism, CNEA. This evaluation were realize through Three steps . In the first step, were determinated the demand for electricity from the CNEA, the electric bill were the source of information. In the second step, were identified the possible locations, for instalation of the solar panels.the third step, were calculated what percentage of the demand for electrical energy the CNEA that could be covered by the generation with this photovoltaic panels . As a result, five possible locations were identified, all on the CNEA roof. With the proposition we can cover between a 35 and 78% of the demand of CNEA electrical energy. It was recommended to continue with the technical-economic study in order to present a project for the search of the financing. (author)
Energy saving during bulb storage applying modeling with computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sapounas, A.A.; Campen, J.B.; Wildschut, J.; Bot, G.P. [Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticutlure and Applied Plant Research, Wageningen (Netherlands)
2010-07-01
Tulip bulbs are stored in ventilated containers to avoid high ethylene concentration between the bulbs. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used in this study to examine the distribution of air flow between the containers and the potential energy saving by applying simple solutions concerning the design of the air inlet area and the adjustment of the ventilation rate. The variation in container ventilation was calculated to be between 60 and 180 per cent, with 100 per cent being the average flow through the containers. Various improvement measures were examined. The study showed that 7 per cent energy can be saved by smoothing the sharp corners of the entrance channels of the ventilation wall. The most effective and simple improvement was to cover the open top containers. In this case, the variation was between 80 and 120 per cent. The energy saving was about 38 per cent by adjusting the overall ventilation to the container with the minimal acceptable air flow.
The calculation of surface free energy based on embedded atom method for solid nickel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Wenhua; Hu Wangyu; Su Kalin; Liu Fusheng
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► A new solution for accurate prediction of surface free energy based on embedded atom method was proposed. ► The temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of solid nickel was obtained. ► In isotropic environment, the approach does not change most predictions of bulk material properties. - Abstract: Accurate prediction of surface free energy of crystalline metals is a challenging task. The theory calculations based on embedded atom method potentials often underestimate surface free energy of metals. With an analytical charge density correction to the argument of the embedding energy of embedded atom method, an approach to improve the prediction for surface free energy is presented. This approach is applied to calculate the temperature dependent anisotropic surface energy of bulk nickel and surface energies of nickel nanoparticles, and the obtained results are in good agreement with available experimental data.
Methods of Comprehensive Assessment for China’s Energy Sustainability
Xu, Zhijin; Song, Yankui
2018-02-01
In order to assess the sustainable development of China’s energy objectively and accurately, we need to establish a reasonable indicator system for energy sustainability and make a targeted comprehensive assessment with the scientific methods. This paper constructs a comprehensive indicator system for energy sustainability from five aspects of economy, society, environment, energy resources and energy technology based on the theory of sustainable development and the theory of symbiosis. On this basis, it establishes and discusses the assessment models and the general assessment methods for energy sustainability with the help of fuzzy mathematics. It is of some reference for promoting the sustainable development of China’s energy, economy and society.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Ling; Zhou, Peng; Newton, Sidney; Fang, Jian-xin; Zhou, De-qun; Zhang, Lu-ping
2015-01-01
Promoting the utilization of clean energy has been identified as one potential solution to addressing environmental pollution and achieving sustainable development in many countries around the world. Evaluating clean energy alternatives includes a requirement to balance multiple conflict criteria, including technology, environment, economy and society, all of which are incommensurate and interdependent. Traditional MCDM (multi-criteria decision making) methods, such as the weighted average method, often fail to aggregate such criteria consistently. In this paper, an improved MCDM method based on fuzzy measure and integral is developed and applied to evaluate four primary clean energy options for Jiangsu Province, China. The results confirm that the preferred clean energy option for Jiangsu is solar photovoltaic, followed by wind, biomass and finally nuclear. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to evaluate the values of clean energy resources for Jiangsu. The ordered weighted average method is also applied to compare the method mentioned above in our empirical study. The results show that the improved MCDM method provides higher discrimination between alternative clean energy alternatives. - Highlights: • Interactions among evaluation criteria of clean energy resources are taken into account. • An improved multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) method is proposed based on entropy weight method, fuzzy measure and integral. • Clean energy resources of Jiangsu are evaluated with the improved MCDM method, and their ranks are identified.
What is the method in applying formal methods to PLC applications?
Mader, Angelika H.; Engel, S.; Wupper, Hanno; Kowalewski, S.; Zaytoon, J.
2000-01-01
The question we investigate is how to obtain PLC applications with confidence in their proper functioning. Especially, we are interested in the contribution that formal methods can provide for their development. Our maxim is that the place of a particular formal method in the total picture of system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.M. Simabuco
1994-08-01
Full Text Available Three certified samples of different matrices (Soil-5, SL-1/IAEA and SARM-4/SABS were quantitatively analysed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence with radioisotopic excitation. The observed errors were about 10-20% for the majority of the elements and less than 10% for Fe and Zn in the Soil-5, Mn in SL-1, and Ti, Fe and Zn in SARM-4 samples. Annular radioactive sources of Fe-55 and Cd-109 were utilized for the excitation of elements while a Si(Li semiconductor detector coupled to a multichannel emulation card inserted in a microcomputer was used for the detection of the characteristic X-rays. The fundamental parameters method was used for the determination of elemental sensitivities and the irradiator or transmission method for the correction of the absorption effect of characteristic X-rays of elements on the range of atomic number 22 to 42 (Ti to Mo and excitation with Cd-109. For elements in the range of atomic number 13 to 23 (Al to V the irradiator method cannot be applied since samples are not transparent for the incident and emergent X-rays. In order to perform the absorption correction for this range of atomic number excited with Fe-55 source, another method was developed based on the experimental value of the absorption coefficients, associated with absorption edges of the elements.Foi realizada a análise quantitativa de três amostras certificadas de diferentes matrizes (Soil-5/IAEA, SL-1/IAEA e SARM-4/SABS através da fluorescência de raios X por dispersão de energia e excitação radioisotópica. Os erros observados foram em torno de 10 a 20% para a maioria dos elementos e inferiores a 10% para Fe e Zn na amostra Soil-5, Mn na amostra SL-1 e Ti, Fe e Zn na amostra SARM-4. Para a excitação dos elementos presentes foram empregadas as fontes radioativas anelares de Fe-55 e Cd-109, enquanto que na detecção dos raios X característicos utilizou-se um detector de Si(Li, acoplado a uma placa analisadora de pulsos multicanal
An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry
Yao, Dong-mei; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Ke-feng; Zou, Tao; Wang, Dong; Qian, Xin-hua
2016-01-01
According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production proce...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K. [Energy in the Built Environment and Networks, Petten (Netherlands)
2007-01-15
Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaeffer, G.J.; Warmer, C.J.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Kamphuis, I.G.; Kok, J.K.
2007-01-01
Multi-agent technology is state of the art ICT. It is not yet widely applied in power control systems. However, it has a large potential for bottom-up, distributed control of a network with large-scale renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed energy resources (DER) in future power systems. At least two major European R and D projects (MicroGrids and CRISP) have investigated its potential. Both grid-related as well as market-related applications have been studied. This paper will focus on two field tests, performed in the Netherlands, applying multi-agent control by means of the PowerMatcher concept. The first field test focuses on the application of multi-agent technology in a commercial setting, i.e. by reducing the need for balancing power in the case of intermittent energy sources, such as wind energy. In this case the flexibility is used of demand and supply of industrial and residential consumers and producers. Imbalance reduction rates of over 40% have been achieved applying the PowerMatcher, and with a proper portfolio even larger rates are expected. In the second field test the multi-agent technology is used in the design and implementation of a virtual power plant (VPP). This VPP digitally connects a number of micro-CHP units, installed in residential dwellings, into a cluster that is controlled to reduce the local peak demand of the common low-voltage grid segment the micro-CHP units are connected to. In this way the VPP supports the local distribution system operator (DSO) to defer reinforcements in the grid infrastructure (substations and cables)
Heavy Bearings Exploitation Energy and Reduction Methods
Szekely, V. G.; Cioară, R.
2016-11-01
The global trend of resource conservation so as “not to compromise the ability of future generation's development” is the fundamental basis of the concept of sustainable development. Concordant with this, the energy efficiency of products is increasingly discussed and frequently taken into account in the design stage. In more cases a product is more appreciated and more attractive as the energy consumption and its associated materials are lower. In the production stage, said consumption advantages primarily the manufacturer, particularly through low consumption thereof. In the operational phase, low energy and materials consumption represents an user advantage and it's a major argument in the decision to purchase and use a particular product. Heavy bearings are frequent products used in wind turbines that are producing non-conventional “clean” energy, as windmills. An enhanced energy efficiency bearing contributes to the enhancement of the overall efficiency of the wind turbines. Based on a suitable mathematical model, this paper identifies and recommends courses of action to reduce the operating energy of heavy bearing through the “cage” - which is the subject of a much larger research - with the highest priority. The identified actions may constitute from a set of requirements for the design stage of the heavy bearing predominantly oriented towards innovation-invention.
Method for energy recovery of spent ERL beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marhauser, Frank; Hannon, Fay; Rimmer, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy
2018-01-16
A method for recovering energy from spent energy recovered linac (ERL) beams. The method includes adding a plurality of passive decelerating cavities at the beam dump of the ERL, adding one or more coupling waveguides between the passive decelerating cavities, setting an adequate external Q (Qext) to adjust to the beam loading situation, and extracting the RF energy through the coupling waveguides.
Formal methods applied to industrial complex systems implementation of the B method
Boulanger, Jean-Louis
2014-01-01
This book presents real-world examples of formal techniques in an industrial context. It covers formal methods such as SCADE and/or the B Method, in various fields such as railways, aeronautics, and the automotive industry. The purpose of this book is to present a summary of experience on the use of "formal methods" (based on formal techniques such as proof, abstract interpretation and model-checking) in industrial examples of complex systems, based on the experience of people currently involved in the creation and assessment of safety critical system software. The involvement of people from
Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods
Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.
2016-09-13
Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.
Evolution Strategies with Optimal Covariance Matrix Update Applied to Sustainable Wave Energy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rodríguez Arbonès, Dídac
plants requires large financial investments. A common type of wave energy plants are buoy farms. These farms consist of a group of buoys moored to the sea floor. The buoys capture the movement of the waves and pump hydraulic fluid onshore, where a turbine generates power. Constructive and destructive...... power modelling, gradient information is not available and one has to resort to derivative-free optimization methods. Furthermore, not all possible buoy configurations can be implemented. The daily operation of wave energy plants introduces constraints on the layouts that can be achieved in practice......Modern society depends heavily on fossil fuels. We rely on this source of energy for everything, from food and clothing production to daily transportation. Even the Internet is mostly powered by these sources of energy. This reliance has led us to a high-risk situation where all that we take...
Enhancement of power output by a new stress-applied mode on circular piezoelectric energy harvester
Shu, Fangming; Yang, Tongqing; Liu, Yaoze
2018-04-01
A new stress-applied mode is proposed on piezoelectric circular diaphragm energy harvester. Differing from the usual mode used in previous researches, the mass stick at the center of the diaphragm (PZT-51) is designed into an annular hollow shape. In this case, stress of the mass is applied along the edge of the copper sheet. A screw bonded with the undersurface of the diaphragm transfers force from the vibrator to the diaphragm. This device has a cylindrical shape and its volume is ˜7.9 cm3. With this new stress-applied mode, the piezoelectric energy harvester (with an optimal load of 18 kΩ, a mass of 30 g) could generate a maximum power output of ˜20.8 mW under 9.8 m.s-2 at its resonant frequency of ˜237 Hz. Meanwhile, the greater the hardness ratio between the ceramic and the copper sheet, the greater the advantages of the new structure.
Method of osmotic energy harvesting using responsive compounds and molecules
Hu, Xiao; Cai, Yufeng; Lai, Zhiping; Zhong, Yujiang
2017-01-01
The present invention discloses and claims a more efficient and economical method and system for osmotic energy production and capture using responsive compounds and molecules. The present invention is an energy harvest system enabled by stimuli
A new clamp method for firing bricks | Obeng | Journal of Applied ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A new clamp method for firing bricks. ... Journal of Applied Science and Technology ... To overcome this operational deficiencies, a new method of firing bricks that uses brick clamp technique that incorporates a clamp wall of 60 cm thickness, a six tier approach of sealing the top of the clamp (by combination of green bricks) ...
1978-10-01
This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...
Determination methods for plutonium as applied in the field of reprocessing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-07-01
The papers presented report on Pu-determination methods, which are routinely applied in process control, and also on new developments which could supercede current methods either because they are more accurate or because they are simpler and faster. (orig./DG) [de
Life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment method for energy conversion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanbur, Baris Burak; Xiang, Liming; Dubey, Swapnil; Choo, Fook Hoong; Duan, Fei
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A new LCA integrated thermoeconomic approach is presented. • The new unit fuel cost is found 4.8 times higher than the classic method. • The new defined parameter increased the sustainability index by 67.1%. • The case studies are performed for countries with different CO 2 prices. - Abstract: Life cycle assessment (LCA) based thermoeconomic modelling has been applied for the evaluation of energy conversion systems since it provided more comprehensive and applicable assessment criteria. This study proposes an improved thermoeconomic method, named as life cycle integrated thermoeconomic assessment (LCiTA), which combines the LCA based enviroeconomic parameters in the production steps of the system components and fuel with the conventional thermoeconomic method for the energy conversion systems. A micro-cogeneration system is investigated and analyzed with the LCiTA method, the comparative studies show that the unit cost of fuel by using the LCiTA method is 3.8 times higher than the conventional thermoeconomic model. It is also realized that the enviroeconomic parameters during the operation of the system components do not have significant impacts on the system streams since the exergetic parameters are dominant in the thermoeconomic calculations. Moreover, the improved sustainability index is found roundly 67.2% higher than the previously defined sustainability index, suggesting that the enviroeconomic and thermoeconomic parameters decrease the impact of the exergy destruction in the sustainability index definition. To find the feasible operation conditions for the micro-cogeneration system, different assessment strategies are presented. Furthermore, a case study for Singapore is conducted to see the impact of the forecasted carbon dioxide prices on the thermoeconomic performance of the micro-cogeneration system.
Water Permeability of Pervious Concrete Is Dependent on the Applied Pressure and Testing Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yinghong Qin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Falling head method (FHM and constant head method (CHM are, respectively, used to test the water permeability of permeable concrete, using different water heads on the testing samples. The results indicate the apparent permeability of pervious concrete decreasing with the applied water head. The results also demonstrate the permeability measured from the FHM is lower than that from the CHM. The fundamental difference between the CHM and FHM is examined from the theory of fluid flowing through porous media. The testing results suggest that the water permeability of permeable concrete should be reported with the applied pressure and the associated testing method.
Accurate simulation of MPPT methods performance when applied to commercial photovoltaic panels.
Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel
2015-01-01
A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.
Accurate Simulation of MPPT Methods Performance When Applied to Commercial Photovoltaic Panels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Cubas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers’ datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.
The method of planning the energy consumption for electricity market
Russkov, O. V.; Saradgishvili, S. E.
2017-10-01
The limitations of existing forecast models are defined. The offered method is based on game theory, probabilities theory and forecasting the energy prices relations. New method is the basis for planning the uneven energy consumption of industrial enterprise. Ecological side of the offered method is disclosed. The program module performed the algorithm of the method is described. Positive method tests at the industrial enterprise are shown. The offered method allows optimizing the difference between planned and factual consumption of energy every hour of a day. The conclusion about applicability of the method for addressing economic and ecological challenges is made.
METHOD FOR OPTIMIZING THE ENERGY OF PUMPS
Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio
2013-01-01
The device for energy-optimization on operation of several centrifugal pumps controlled in rotational speed, in a hydraulic installation, begins firstly with determining which pumps as pilot pumps are assigned directly to a consumer and which pumps are hydraulically connected in series upstream of
Different methods for waste to energy transformation
Koning, J. de
1998-01-01
In the past 25 years, many technological developments have taken place in the thermal treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Apart from the initials goal of the technology (i.e., volume reduction and inertisation), flue gas emissions, solid residues, energy efficiency and economics became
Channel for Applied Investigations on Low Energy Ion Beams of Cyclotron DC-60
Gikal, B N; Borisenko, A N; Fateev, A A; Gulbekyan, G G; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I; Kazarinov, N Yu; Kolesov, I V; Lebedev, N I; Lysukhin, S N; Melnikov, V N
2006-01-01
The channel intended for carrying out applied investigations on the low energy ion beams having the kinetic energy 25 $Z/A$ keV/a.u. and transported from the ECR-source to a target is worked out. The channel structure and parameters of all its optics elements are defined. The calculation results of different ion types transportation are given. It is shown that ions having the ratio of their mass to charge Z/A=2-20 can be transported in the worked out channel with enough high expected efficiency. At that the ion beam diameter on the target is $\\sim$40 mm. The characteristics of the basic optical elements of the channel are also given.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nabavi-Pelesaraei, Ashkan; Hosseinzadeh-Bandbafha, Homa; Qasemi-Kordkheili, Peyman; Kouchaki-Penchah, Hamed; Riahi-Dorcheh, Farshid
2016-01-01
In this study a non-parametric method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and MOGA (Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm) were used to estimate the energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reduction of wheat farmers in Ahvaz county of Iran. Data were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire method from 39 farmers. The results showed that based on constant returns to scale model, 41.02% of wheat farms were efficient, though based on variable returns to scale model it was 53.23%. The average of technical, pure technical and scale efficiency of wheat farms were 0.94, 0.95 and 0.98, respectively. By following the recommendations of this study, 3640.90 MJ ha"−"1 could be saved (9.13% of total input energy). Moreover, 42 optimal units were found by MOGA. The total energy required and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions of the best generation of MOGA were about 23105 MJ ha"−"1 and 340 kgCO_2_e_q_. ha"−"1, respectively. The results revealed that the total energy required of MOGA was less than DEA, significantly. Also, the GHG emissions of present, DEA and MOGA farms were about 903, 837 and 340 kgCO_2_e_q_. ha"−"1, respectively. - Highlights: • We analyze the energy efficiency and GHG emissions of wheat production in Iran. • The technical and pure technical efficiencies were 0.94 and 0.95 respectively. • DEA can be saved total energy and GHG emissions 9.13% and 7.28% respectively. • MOGA can be reduced total energy and GHG emissions more than DEA significantly.
Energy Saving Potentials of Phase Change Materials Applied to Lightweight Building Envelopes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoon-Bok Seong
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs have been considered as an innovative technology that can reduce the peak loads and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC energy consumption in buildings. Basically they are substances capable of storing or releasing thermal energy as latent heat. Because the amount of latent heat absorbed or released is much larger than the sensible heat, the application of PCMs in buildings has significant potential to reduce energy consumption. However, because each PCM has its own phase change temperature, which is the temperature at which latent heat is absorbed or released, it is important to use an appropriate PCM for the purpose of building envelope design. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope by analyzing the thermal load characteristics. As results, the annual heating load increased at every phase change temperature, but the peak heating load decreased by 3.19% with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C, and the lowest indoor temperature increased by 0.86 °C with heptadecane (phase change temperature 21 °C. The annual cooling load decreased by 1.05% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak cooling load decreased by 1.30% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.50 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C. When the night ventilation was applied to the building HVAC system for better passive cooling performance, the annual cooling load decreased by 9.28% with dodecanol (phase change temperature 24 °C, the peak load decreased by 11.33% with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C, and the highest indoor temperature dropped by 0.85 °C with octadecane (phase change temperature 29 °C.
Diamond difference method with hybrid angular quadrature applied to neutron transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Alves Filho, Hermes
2005-01-01
In this work we presents the results for the calculations of the disadvantage factor in thermal nuclear reactor physics. We use the one-group discrete ordinates (S N ) equations to mathematically model the flux distributions in slab lattices. We apply the diamond difference method with source iteration iterative scheme to numerically solve the discretized systems equations. We used special interface conditions to describe the method with hybrid angular quadrature. We show numerical results to illustrate the accuracy of the hybrid method. (author)
Ando, Yoshinobu; Eguchi, Yuya; Mizukawa, Makoto
In this research, we proposed and evaluated a management method of college mechatronics education. We applied the project management to college mechatronics education. We practiced our management method to the seminar “Microcomputer Seminar” for 3rd grade students who belong to Department of Electrical Engineering, Shibaura Institute of Technology. We succeeded in management of Microcomputer Seminar in 2006. We obtained the good evaluation for our management method by means of questionnaire.
Bendinskaitė, Irmina
2015-01-01
Bendinskaitė I. Perspective for applying traditional and innovative teaching and learning methods to nurse’s continuing education, magister thesis / supervisor Assoc. Prof. O. Riklikienė; Departament of Nursing and Care, Faculty of Nursing, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. – Kaunas, 2015, – p. 92 The purpose of this study was to investigate traditional and innovative teaching and learning methods perspective to nurse’s continuing education. Material and methods. In a period fro...
Applied & Computational MathematicsChallenges for the Design and Control of Dynamic Energy Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, D L; Burns, J A; Collis, S; Grosh, J; Jacobson, C A; Johansen, H; Mezic, I; Narayanan, S; Wetter, M
2011-03-10
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) was passed with the goal 'to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security.' Energy security and independence cannot be achieved unless the United States addresses the issue of energy consumption in the building sector and significantly reduces energy consumption in buildings. Commercial and residential buildings account for approximately 40% of the U.S. energy consumption and emit 50% of CO{sub 2} emissions in the U.S. which is more than twice the total energy consumption of the entire U.S. automobile and light truck fleet. A 50%-80% improvement in building energy efficiency in both new construction and in retrofitting existing buildings could significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption and mitigate climate change. Reaching these aggressive building efficiency goals will not happen without significant Federal investments in areas of computational and mathematical sciences. Applied and computational mathematics are required to enable the development of algorithms and tools to design, control and optimize energy efficient buildings. The challenge has been issued by the U.S. Secretary of Energy, Dr. Steven Chu (emphasis added): 'We need to do more transformational research at DOE including computer design tools for commercial and residential buildings that enable reductions in energy consumption of up to 80 percent with investments that will pay for themselves in less than 10 years.' On July 8-9, 2010 a team of technical experts from industry, government and academia were assembled in Arlington, Virginia to identify the challenges associated with developing and deploying newcomputational methodologies and tools thatwill address building energy efficiency. These experts concluded that investments in fundamental applied and computational mathematics will be required to build enabling technology that can be used to realize the target of 80% reductions in energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koeijer, Gelein M. de
2002-05-01
In this thesis the entropy production rates of diabatic distillation columns and a SO{sub 2} converter were minimised. This is the same as maximising the second law energy efficiency of the systems. The development of chemical industry can be made more sustainable by knowing this minimum. We found that the entropy production rate of distillation could be reduced up to 50 %. In order to achieve this reduction, heat exchangers were added on each tray. The characteristics of an optimum distillation column were presented. Furthermore, the entropy production rate of a SO{sub 2} converter was reduced with 16.7 % by altering the heights of catalytic beds, transfer areas of heat exchangers, and temperature differences over heat exchangers. These reductions show that there is still a large improvement potential in chemical industry. By applying the improved operations the world oil production can be reduced in the order of magnitude of 1 %. A similar reduction in the emission of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} can be expected. For deriving the entropy production rate in a systematic manner the theory of irreversible thermodynamics was useful. A simpler and a more complicated equation for the entropy production rate of distillation were derived. The simpler equation used only one force-flux product. It was suitable for minimisation of the entropy production rate of columns with the assumption of equilibrium between the outlets on each tray. The more complicated equation was able to describe satisfactorily the entropy production rate of an experimental column that separated the non-ideal mixture water-ethanol. It was next used to derive an extended set of transport equations for distillation, that includes the interface and the Soret effect (or thermal diffusion). Finally, irreversible thermodynamics was used to describe the contribution to the entropy production rate of heat transfer in heat exchangers. This contribution had a significant impact on the results of the
Cluster detection methods applied to the Upper Cape Cod cancer data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ozonoff David
2005-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of statistical methods have been suggested to assess the degree and/or the location of spatial clustering of disease cases. However, there is relatively little in the literature devoted to comparison and critique of different methods. Most of the available comparative studies rely on simulated data rather than real data sets. Methods We have chosen three methods currently used for examining spatial disease patterns: the M-statistic of Bonetti and Pagano; the Generalized Additive Model (GAM method as applied by Webster; and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. We apply these statistics to analyze breast cancer data from the Upper Cape Cancer Incidence Study using three different latency assumptions. Results The three different latency assumptions produced three different spatial patterns of cases and controls. For 20 year latency, all three methods generally concur. However, for 15 year latency and no latency assumptions, the methods produce different results when testing for global clustering. Conclusion The comparative analyses of real data sets by different statistical methods provides insight into directions for further research. We suggest a research program designed around examining real data sets to guide focused investigation of relevant features using simulated data, for the purpose of understanding how to interpret statistical methods applied to epidemiological data with a spatial component.
Energy-pointwise discrete ordinates transport methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.L.; Asgari, M.; Tashakorri, R.
1997-01-01
A very brief description is given of a one-dimensional code, CENTRM, which computes a detailed, space-dependent flux spectrum in a pointwise-energy representation within the resolved resonance range. The code will become a component in the SCALE system to improve computation of self-shielded cross sections, thereby enhancing the accuracy of codes such as KENO. CENTRM uses discrete-ordinates transport theory with an arbitrary angular quadrature order and a Legendre expansion of scattering anisotropy for moderator materials and heavy nuclides. The CENTRM program provides capability to deterministically compute full energy range, space-dependent angular flux spectra, rigorously accounting for resonance fine-structure and scattering anisotropy effects
Apparatus and method for applying an end plug to a fuel rod tube end
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rieben, S.L.; Wylie, M.E.
1987-01-01
An apparatus is described for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube, comprising: support means mounted for reciprocal movement between remote and adjacent positions relative to a nuclear fuel rod tube end to which an end plug is to be applied; guide means supported on the support means for movement; and drive means coupled to the support means and being actuatable for movement between retracted and extended positions for reciprocally moving the support means between its respective remote and adjacent positions. A method for applying an end plug to a hollow end of a nuclear fuel rod tube is also described
Non-conventional energy and propulsion methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valone, T.
1991-01-01
From the disaster of the Space Shuttle, Challenger, to the Kuwaiti oil well fires, we are reminded constantly of our dependence on dangerous, combustible fuels for energy and propulsion. Over the past ten years, there has been a considerable production of new and exciting inventions which defy conventional analysis. The term non-conventional was coined in 1980 by a Canadian engineer to designate a separate technical discipline for this type of endeavor. Since then, several conferences have been devoted solely to these inventions. Integrity Research Corp., an affiliate of the Institute, has made an effort to investigate each viable product, develop business plans for several to facilitate development and marketing, and in some cases, assign an engineering student intern to building a working prototype. Each inventor discussed in this presentation has produced a unique device for free energy generation or highly efficient force production. Included in this paper is also a short summary for non-specialists explaining the physics of free energy generation along with a working definition. The main topics of discussion include: space power, inertial propulsion, kinetobaric force, magnetic motors, thermal fluctuations, over-unity hat pumps, ambient temperature superconductivity and nuclear battery
Method of levelized discounted costs applied in economic evaluation of nuclear power plant project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Li; Wang Yongqing; Liu Jingquan; Guo Jilin; Liu Wei
2000-01-01
The main methods of economic evaluation of bid which are in common use are introduced. The characteristics of levelized discounted cost method and its application are presented. The method of levelized discounted cost is applied to the cost calculation of a 200 MW nuclear heating reactor economic evaluation. The results indicate that the method of levelized discounted costs is simple, feasible and which is considered most suitable for the economic evaluation of various case. The method is suggested which is used in the national economic evaluation
Local regression type methods applied to the study of geophysics and high frequency financial data
Mariani, M. C.; Basu, K.
2014-09-01
In this work we applied locally weighted scatterplot smoothing techniques (Lowess/Loess) to Geophysical and high frequency financial data. We first analyze and apply this technique to the California earthquake geological data. A spatial analysis was performed to show that the estimation of the earthquake magnitude at a fixed location is very accurate up to the relative error of 0.01%. We also applied the same method to a high frequency data set arising in the financial sector and obtained similar satisfactory results. The application of this approach to the two different data sets demonstrates that the overall method is accurate and efficient, and the Lowess approach is much more desirable than the Loess method. The previous works studied the time series analysis; in this paper our local regression models perform a spatial analysis for the geophysics data providing different information. For the high frequency data, our models estimate the curve of best fit where data are dependent on time.
Resmini, Ronald G.; Graver, William R.; Kappus, Mary E.; Anderson, Mark E.
1996-11-01
Constrained energy minimization (CEM) has been applied to the mapping of the quantitative areal distribution of the mineral alunite in an approximately 1.8 km2 area of the Cuprite mining district, Nevada. CEM is a powerful technique for rapid quantitative mineral mapping which requires only the spectrum of the mineral to be mapped. A priori knowledge of background spectral signatures is not required. Our investigation applies CEM to calibrated radiance data converted to apparent reflectance (AR) and to single scattering albedo (SSA) spectra. The radiance data were acquired by the 210 channel, 0.4 micrometers to 2.5 micrometers airborne Hyperspectral Digital Imagery Collection Experiment sensor. CEM applied to AR spectra assumes linear mixing of the spectra of the materials exposed at the surface. This assumption is likely invalid as surface materials, which are often mixtures of particulates of different substances, are more properly modeled as intimate mixtures and thus spectral mixing analyses must take account of nonlinear effects. One technique for approximating nonlinear mixing requires the conversion of AR spectra to SSA spectra. The results of CEM applied to SSA spectra are compared to those of CEM applied to AR spectra. The occurrence of alunite is similar though not identical to mineral maps produced with both the SSA and AR spectra. Alunite is slightly more widespread based on processing with the SSA spectra. Further, fractional abundances derived from the SSA spectra are, in general, higher than those derived from AR spectra. Implications for the interpretation of quantitative mineral mapping with hyperspectral remote sensing data are discussed.
Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.
2008-01-01
The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an updated assessment of geothermal resources in the United States. The primary method applied in assessments of identified geothermal systems by the USGS and other organizations is the volume method, in which the recoverable heat is estimated from the thermal energy available in a reservoir. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. The new assessment will incorporate some changes in the models for temperature and depth ranges for electric power production, preferred chemical geothermometers for estimates of reservoir temperatures, estimates of reservoir volumes, and geothermal energy recovery factors. Monte Carlo simulations are used to characterize uncertainties in the estimates of electric power generation. These new models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of natural geothermal reservoirs.
Loendersloot, Richard; Ooijevaar, T.H.; Warnet, Laurent; Akkerman, Remko; de Boer, Andries; Meguid, S.A.; Gomes, J.F.S.
2009-01-01
The feasibility of a vibration based damage identification method is investigated. The Modal Strain Energy method is applied to a T–beam structure. The dynamic response of an intact structure and a damaged, delaminated structure is analysed employing a commercially available Finite Element package.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tordrup, Karl Woldum; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Bjørn, Henrik
2017-01-01
Dimensioning of large-scale borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) is inherently uncertain due to the natural variability of thermal conductivity and heat capacity in the storage volume. We present an improved method for upscaling a pilot BTES to full scale and apply the method to an operational...
Deep learning versus traditional machine learning methods for aggregated energy demand prediction
Paterakis, N.G.; Mocanu, E.; Gibescu, M.; Stappers, B.; van Alst, W.
2018-01-01
In this paper the more advanced, in comparison with traditional machine learning approaches, deep learning methods are explored with the purpose of accurately predicting the aggregated energy consumption. Despite the fact that a wide range of machine learning methods have been applied to
High-energy power capacitors, their applied technology and the trends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2012-01-01
High-voltage and high-energy-density power capacitors called high-power ones such as film or electrolytic capacitors, have been used in large quantities for the pulse power technology such as an impulse current or voltage generator and a laser power supply, and for the power electronics one with progress of the power semiconductor device and the inverter technology. Recently, electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) with remarkable technical progress have been applied for the equipments of electric power and industrial field for the purpose of energy saving or electric power quality improvement, which have come to link to the electric power system. Thus, using a lot of high-power capacitors near our life would require to know the structure, the principle and the characteristic of capacitors, and also to consider suitable directions for use, maintenance and safety and so on, when carrying out a system and a facility design. In the technical report, while describing the dielectric and the feature of some high-power capacitors, and introducing the application examples to the laser-fusion power supply and some systems with EDLC, the trend of standardization of EDLC and the directivity of the examination about installation and maintenance of the applied equipments are described. (author)
A modeling method for hybrid energy behaviors in flexible machining systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yufeng; He, Yan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yulin; Yan, Ping; Lin, Shenlong
2015-01-01
Increasingly environmental and economic pressures have led to great concerns regarding the energy consumption of machining systems. Understanding energy behaviors of flexible machining systems is a prerequisite for improving energy efficiency of these systems. This paper proposes a modeling method to predict energy behaviors in flexible machining systems. The hybrid energy behaviors not only depend on the technical specification related of machine tools and workpieces, but are significantly affected by individual production scenarios. In the method, hybrid energy behaviors are decomposed into Structure-related energy behaviors, State-related energy behaviors, Process-related energy behaviors and Assignment-related energy behaviors. The modeling method for the hybrid energy behaviors is proposed based on Colored Timed Object-oriented Petri Net (CTOPN). The former two types of energy behaviors are modeled by constructing the structure of CTOPN, whist the latter two types of behaviors are simulated by applying colored tokens and associated attributes. Machining on two workpieces in the experimental workshop were undertaken to verify the proposed modeling method. The results showed that the method can provide multi-perspective transparency on energy consumption related to machine tools, workpieces as well as production management, and is particularly suitable for flexible manufacturing system when frequent changes in machining systems are often encountered. - Highlights: • Energy behaviors in flexible machining systems are modeled in this paper. • Hybrid characteristics of energy behaviors are examined from multiple viewpoints. • Flexible modeling method CTOPN is used to predict the hybrid energy behaviors. • This work offers a multi-perspective transparency on energy consumption
Method to detect substances in a body and device to apply the method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voigt, H.
1978-01-01
The method and the measuring disposition serve to localize pellets doped with Gd 2 O 3 , lying between UO 2 pellets within a reactor fuel rod. The fuel rod is penetrating a homogeneous magnetic field generated between two pole shoes. The magnetic stray field caused by the doping substances is then measured by means of Hall probes (e.g. InAs) for quantitative discrimination from UO 2 . The position of the Gd 2 O 3 -doped pellets is determined by moving the fuel rod through the magnetic field in a direction perpendicular to the homogeneous field. The measuring signal is caused by the different susceptibility of Gd 2 O 3 with respect to UO 2 . (DG) [de
Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems
Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA
2006-03-07
Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.
Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems
Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA
2008-09-02
Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vomiero, Alberto; Restello, Silvio; Scian, Carlo; Marchi, Enrico Boscolo; Mea, Gianantonio Della; Guidi, Vincenzo; Milan, Emiliano; Baricordi, Stefano; Martinelli, Giuliano; Carnera, Alberto; Sambo, Andrea
2006-01-01
Bent crystals can be successfully applied for extraction/collimation of relativistic particles. A crucial feature to obtain high extraction efficiencies is the treatment of the surfaces being encountered by the beam, since mechanical operations induce considerable lattice imperfections. In order to remove the superficial damaged layer a planar etching can be applied on the surface exposed to the beam. This work presents a systematic study of the morphology and the crystalline perfection of the surface of the samples that have been used in accelerators with high efficiency. Crystals with different surface treatments have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were applied on the characterisation of surface morphology. Low energy backscattering channeling of 2-MeV α particles or protons was used as a probe for the crystalline structure. The presence of a superficial damaged layer in the samples just after mechanical treatment was unveiled, while, in contrast, chemical etching leaves a surface with high crystalline perfection that can be related to the record efficiency
Geothermal energy control system and method
Matthews, Hugh B.
1977-01-01
A geothermal energy transfer and utilization system makes use of thermal energy stored in hot solute-bearing well water to generate super-heated steam from an injected flow of clean water; the super-heated steam is then used for operating a turbine-driven pump at the well bottom for pumping the hot solute-bearing water at high pressure and in liquid state to the earth's surface, where it is used by transfer of its heat to a closed-loop boiler-turbine-alternator combination for the generation of electrical or other power. Residual concentrated solute-bearing water is pumped back into the earth. The clean cooled water is regenerated at the surface-located system and is returned to the deep well pumping system also for lubrication of a novel bearing arrangement supporting the turbine-driven pump system. The bearing system employs liquid lubricated thrust and radial bearings with all bearing surfaces bathed in clean water serving as a lubricant and maintained under pressure to prevent entry into the bearings of contaminated geothermal fluid, an auxiliary thrust ball bearing arrangement comes into operation when starting or stopping the pumping system.
Fixed Nadir Focus Concentrated Solar Power Applying Reflective Array Tracking Method
Setiawan, B.; DAMayanti, A. M.; Murdani, A.; Habibi, I. I. A.; Wakidah, R. N.
2018-04-01
The Sun is one of the most potential renewable energy develoPMent to be utilized, one of its utilization is for solar thermal concentrators, CSP (Concentrated Solar Power). In CSP energy conversion, the concentrator is as moving the object by tracking the sunlight to reach the focus point. This method need quite energy consumption, because the unit of the concentrators has considerable weight, and use large CSP, means the existence of the usage unit will appear to be wider and heavier. The addition of weight and width of the unit will increase the torque to drive the concentrator and hold the wind gusts. One method to reduce energy consumption is direct the sunlight by the reflective array to nadir through CSP with Reflective Fresnel Lens concentrator. The focus will be below the nadir direction, and the position of concentrator will be fixed position even the angle of the sun’s elevation changes from morning to afternoon. So, the energy concentrated maximally, because it has been protected from wind gusts. And then, the possibility of dAMage and changes in focus construction will not occur. The research study and simulation of the reflective array (mechanical method) will show the reflective angle movement. The distance between reflectors and their angle are controlled by mechatronics. From the simulation using fresnel 1m2, and efficiency of solar energy is 60.88%. In restriction, the intensity of sunlight at the tropical circles 1KW/peak, from 6 AM until 6 PM.
Willingness to pay lip service? Applying a neuroscience-based method to WTP for green electricity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herbes, Carsten; Friege, Christian; Baldo, Davide; Mueller, Kai-Markus
2015-01-01
Consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) represents a central question for providers of renewable energy. Most studies on the subject have used contingent valuation and choice experiments. However, all empirical designs employed to date suffer from serious biases, such as strategic behavior. We introduce a novel neuroscience-based approach to renewable energy-related WTP research, Neuropricing, which eliminates some of these biases. We tested consumers' WTP for two different green electricity products and found WTP for these products to be about 15% above that for a non-green electricity tariff. Our results suggest that Neuropricing is indeed able to eliminate strategic behavior. Moreover, this approach allows for WTP studies with much smaller sample sizes than traditional methods require. The neuroscience methodology can be used by researchers and marketers alike not only for testing the effects of product attributes on WTP but also for evaluating WTP effects of specific messages in marketing communications. Thus it may lead to a better understanding of consumer behavior and hence facilitate more successful marketing of renewable energy. - Highlights: • We introduce a neuroscience-based method for studying consumer WTP for green energy. • WTP derived from Neuropricing is above self-reported WTP for green energy. • Neuropricing allows smaller samples and eliminates respondents' strategic behavior. • Neuropricing offers a powerful new resource for companies marketing green energy. • Neuropricing offers new perspectives for architects of energy policy.
Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Comparison of gas dehydration methods based on energy consumption. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This study compares three conventional methods of natural gas (Associated Natural Gas) dehydration to carry out ...
Applying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus to the Charcoal Value Chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Harry K. Hoffmann
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Globally, natural resources are increasingly under pressure, especially due to population growth, economic growth and transformation as well as climate change. As a result, the water, energy, and food (WEF nexus approach has emerged to understand interdependencies and commonly manage resources within a multi-scale and multi-level framework. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the high and growing consumption of traditional biomass for cooking purposes - notably fuelwood and charcoal—is both a key source of energy and contributor for food security as well as a pressure on natural resources. Improving the bioenergy value chains is essential for limiting environmental degradation and for securing the livelihoods of millions of people. Although the WEF nexus approach entails large potential to address the complex problems arising along the bioenergy value chains, these are currently not considered. Based on the WEF nexus approach, we analyze the different steps within the charcoal value chain in Sub-Saharan Africa and highlight the respective interdependencies and the potential for improving overall socio-economic and environmental sustainability. We emphasize the water, energy and food related implications of vicious and virtuous production cycles, separated by value chain segments. We discuss the potential and major challenges for implementing more sustainable value chains. Furthermore, we underline the necessity of applying WEF nexus approaches to these value chains in order to optimize environmental and social outcomes.
A Low Cost Concept for Data Acquisition Systems Applied to Decentralized Renewable Energy Plants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fábio T. Brito
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper describes experiences of the use of monitoring and data acquisition systems (DAS and proposes a new concept of a low cost DAS applied to decentralized renewable energy (RE plants with an USB interface. The use of such systems contributes to disseminate these plants, recognizing in real time local energy resources, monitoring energy conversion efficiency and sending information concerning failures. These aspects are important, mainly for developing countries, where decentralized power plants based on renewable sources are in some cases the best option for supplying electricity to rural areas. Nevertheless, the cost of commercial DAS is still a barrier for a greater dissemination of such systems in developing countries. The proposed USB based DAS presents a new dual clock operation philosophy, in which the acquisition system contains two clock sources for parallel information processing from different communication protocols. To ensure the low cost of the DAS and to promote the dissemination of this technology in developing countries, the proposed data acquisition firmware and the software for USB microcontrollers programming is a free and open source software, executable in the Linux and Windows® operating systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicolau-Rebigan, S.; Sporea, D.; Niculescu, V.I.R.
2000-01-01
The paper presents a holographic method applied in the ionizing radiation dosimetry. It is possible to use two types of holographic interferometry like as double exposure holographic interferometry, or fast real time holographic interferometry. In this paper the applications of holographic interferometry to ionizing radiation dosimetry are presented. The determination of the accurate value of dose delivered by an ionizing radiation source (released energy per mass unit) is a complex problem which imposes different solutions depending on experimental parameters and it is solved with a double exposure holographic interferometric method associated with an optoelectronic interface and Z80 microprocessor. The method can determine the absorbed integral dose as well as the three-dimensional distribution of dose in given volume. The paper presents some results obtained in radiation dosimetry. Original mathematical relations for integral absorbed dose in irreversible radiolyzing liquids where derived. Irradiation effects can be estimated from the holographic fringes displacement and density. To measure these parameters, the obtained holographic interferograms were picked-up by a closed TV circuit system in such a way that a selected TV line explores the picture along the direction of interest using a special designed interface, a Z80 and our microprocessor system captures data along the selected TV line. When the integral dose is to be measured the microprocessor computes it from the information contained in the fringes distribution, according to the proposed formulae. Integral absorbed dose and spatial dose distribution can be estimated with an accuracy better than 4%. Some advantages of this method are outlined comparatively with conventional method in radiation dosimetry. The paper presents an original holographic set-up with an electronic interface, assisted by a Z80 microprocessor and used for nondestructive testing of transparent objects at the laser wave length
A path method for finding energy barriers and minimum energy paths in complex micromagnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dittrich, R.; Schrefl, T.; Suess, D.; Scholz, W.; Forster, H.; Fidler, J.
2002-01-01
Minimum energy paths and energy barriers are calculated for complex micromagnetic systems. The method is based on the nudged elastic band method and uses finite-element techniques to represent granular structures. The method was found to be robust and fast for both simple test problems as well as for large systems such as patterned granular media. The method is used to estimate the energy barriers in CoCr-based perpendicular recording media
A method for energy and exergy analyses of product transformation processes in industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abou Khalil, B.
2008-12-01
After a literature survey enabling the determination of the advantages and drawbacks of existing methods of assessment of the potential energy gains of an industrial site, this research report presents a newly developed method, named Energy and Exergy Analysis of Transformation Processes (or AEEP for Analyse energetique et exergetique des procedes de transformation), while dealing with actual industrial operations, in order to demonstrate the systematic character of this method. The different steps of the method are presented and detailed, one of them, the process analysis, being critical for the application of the developed method. This particular step is then applied to several industrial unitary operations in order to be a base for future energy audits in the concerned industry sectors, as well as to demonstrate its generic and systematic character. The method is the then applied in a global manner to a cheese manufacturing plant, all the different steps of the AEEP being applied. The author demonstrates that AEEP is a systematic method and can be applied to all energy audit levels, moreover to the lowest levels which have a relatively low cost
Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira
2013-09-28
We develop an efficient Ewald method of molecular dynamics simulation for calculating the electrostatic interactions among charged and polar particles between parallel metallic plates, where we may apply an electric field with an arbitrary size. We use the fact that the potential from the surface charges is equivalent to the sum of those from image charges and dipoles located outside the cell. We present simulation results on boundary effects of charged and polar fluids, formation of ionic crystals, and formation of dipole chains, where the applied field and the image interaction are crucial. For polar fluids, we find a large deviation of the classical Lorentz-field relation between the local field and the applied field due to pair correlations along the applied field. As general aspects, we clarify the difference between the potential-fixed and the charge-fixed boundary conditions and examine the relationship between the discrete particle description and the continuum electrostatics.
Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleo-ontological cephalopod research
Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.
2014-05-01
Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum/maximum size of objects that can be studied, the degree of post-processing needed and availability. The main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells. In particular we present a method for precise buoyancy calculation. Therefore, cephalopod shells were scanned together with different reference bodies, an approach developed in medical sciences. It is necessary to know the volume of the reference bodies, which should have similar absorption properties like the object of interest. Exact volumes can be obtained from surface scanning. Depending on the dimensions of the study object different computed tomography techniques were applied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haixiang Zang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed and applied to quickly calculate the capacity of energy storage for stand-alone and grid-connected wind energy systems, according to the discrete Fourier transform theory. Based on practical wind resource data and power data, which are derived from the American Wind Energy Technology Center and HOMER software separately, the energy storage capacity of a stand-alone wind energy system is investigated and calculated. Moreover, by applying the practical wind power data from a wind farm in Fujian Province, the energy storage capacity for a grid-connected wind system is discussed in this paper. This method can also be applied to determine the storage capacity of a stand-alone solar energy system with practical photovoltaic power data.
Integrated project delivery methods for energy renovation of social housing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadeo Baldiri Salcedo Rahola
2015-11-01
renting them. As such, SHOs are used to dealing with renovations on a professional basis. The limited financial capacity of SHOs to realise energy renovations magnifies the importance of improving process performance in order to get the best possible outcomes. In the last 30 years numerous authors have addressed the need to improve the performance of traditional construction processes via alternative project delivery methods. However, very little is known about the specifics of renovations processes for social housing, the feasibility of applying innovative construction management methods and the consequences for the process, for the role of all the actors involved and for the results of the projects. The aim of this study is to provide an insight into the project delivery methods available for SHOs when they are undertaking energy renovation projects and to evaluate how these methods could facilitate the achievement of a higher process performance. The main research question is: How can Social Housing Organisations improve the performance of energy renovation processes using more integrated project delivery methods? The idea of a PhD thesis about social housing renovation processes originated from the participation of TU Delft as research partner in the Intelligent Energy Europe project SHELTER1 which was carried out between 2010 and 2013. The aim of the SHELTER project was to promote and facilitate the use of new models of cooperation, inspired by integrated design, for the energy renovation of social housing. The SHELTER project was a joint effort between six social housing organisations (Arte Genova, Italy; Black Country Housing Group, United Kingdom; Bulgarian Housing Association, Bulgaria; Dynacité, France; Logirep, France and Société Wallonne du Logement, Belgium, three European professional federations based in Brussels (Architects Council of Europe, Cecodhas Housing Europe and European Builders Confederation and one research partner (Delft University of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, W.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.
2012-01-01
More and more MOX fuels are used in all over the world in the past several decades. Compared with UO 2 fuel, it contains some new features. For example, the neutron spectrum is harder and more resonance interference effects within the resonance energy range are introduced because of more resonant nuclides contained in the MOX fuel. In this paper, the wavelets scaling function expansion method is applied to study the resonance behavior of plutonium isotopes within MOX fuel. Wavelets scaling function expansion continuous-energy self-shielding method is developed recently. It has been validated and verified by comparison to Monte Carlo calculations. In this method, the continuous-energy cross-sections are utilized within resonance energy, which means that it's capable to solve problems with serious resonance interference effects without iteration calculations. Therefore, this method adapts to treat the MOX fuel resonance calculation problem natively. Furthermore, plutonium isotopes have fierce oscillations of total cross-section within thermal energy range, especially for 240 Pu and 242 Pu. To take thermal resonance effect of plutonium isotopes into consideration the wavelet scaling function expansion continuous-energy resonance calculation code WAVERESON is enhanced by applying the free gas scattering kernel to obtain the continuous-energy scattering source within thermal energy range (2.1 eV to 4.0 eV) contrasting against the resonance energy range in which the elastic scattering kernel is utilized. Finally, all of the calculation results of WAVERESON are compared with MCNP calculation. (authors)
Optimization Models and Methods Developed at the Energy Systems Institute
N.I. Voropai; V.I. Zorkaltsev
2013-01-01
The paper presents shortly some optimization models of energy system operation and expansion that have been created at the Energy Systems Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Consideration is given to the optimization models of energy development in Russia, a software package intended for analysis of power system reliability, and model of flow distribution in hydraulic systems. A general idea of the optimization methods developed at the Energy Systems Institute...
A novel iterative energy calibration method for composite germanium detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pattabiraman, N.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ghugre, S.S.
2004-01-01
An automatic method for energy calibration of the observed experimental spectrum has been developed. The method presented is based on an iterative algorithm and presents an efficient way to perform energy calibrations after establishing the weights of the calibration data. An application of this novel technique for data acquired using composite detectors in an in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy experiment is presented
A novel iterative energy calibration method for composite germanium detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pattabiraman, N.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ghugre, S.S. E-mail: ssg@alpha.iuc.res.in
2004-07-01
An automatic method for energy calibration of the observed experimental spectrum has been developed. The method presented is based on an iterative algorithm and presents an efficient way to perform energy calibrations after establishing the weights of the calibration data. An application of this novel technique for data acquired using composite detectors in an in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy experiment is presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zambach, Sine; Madsen, Bodil Nistrup
2009-01-01
By applying formal terminological methods to model an ontology within the domain of enzyme inhibition, we aim to clarify concepts and to obtain consistency. Additionally, we propose a procedure for implementing this ontology in OWL with the aim of obtaining a strict structure which can form...
Method of applying single higher order polynomial basis function over multiple domains
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Lysko, AA
2010-03-01
Full Text Available A novel method has been devised where one set of higher order polynomial-based basis functions can be applied over several wire segments, thus permitting to decouple the number of unknowns from the number of segments, and so from the geometrical...
Applied probabilistic methods in the field of reactor safety in Germany
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heuser, F.W.
1982-01-01
Some aspects of applied reliability and risk analysis methods in nuclear safety and the present role of both in Germany, are discussed. First, some comments on the status and applications of reliability analysis are given. Second, some conclusions that can be drawn from previous work on the German Risk Study are summarized. (orig.)
21 CFR 111.320 - What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination?
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to laboratory methods for testing and examination? 111.320 Section 111.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING...
A nodal method applied to a diffusion problem with generalized coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laazizi, A.; Guessous, N.
1999-01-01
In this paper, we consider second order neutrons diffusion problem with coefficients in L ∞ (Ω). Nodal method of the lowest order is applied to approximate the problem's solution. The approximation uses special basis functions in which the coefficients appear. The rate of convergence obtained is O(h 2 ) in L 2 (Ω), with a free rectangular triangulation. (authors)
Trends in Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: China and the West.
Yihong, Gao; Lichun, Li; Jun, Lu
2001-01-01
Examines and compares current trends in applied linguistics (AL) research methods in China and the West. Reviews AL articles in four Chinese journals, from 1978-1997, and four English journals from 1985 to 1997. Articles are categorized and subcategorized. Results show that in China, AL research is heading from non-empirical toward empirical, with…
Critical path method applied to research project planning: Fire Economics Evaluation System (FEES)
Earl B. Anderson; R. Stanton Hales
1986-01-01
The critical path method (CPM) of network analysis (a) depicts precedence among the many activities in a project by a network diagram; (b) identifies critical activities by calculating their starting, finishing, and float times; and (c) displays possible schedules by constructing time charts. CPM was applied to the development of the Forest Service's Fire...
Rajabi, A; Dabiri, A
2012-01-01
Activity Based Costing (ABC) is one of the new methods began appearing as a costing methodology in the 1990's. It calculates cost price by determining the usage of resources. In this study, ABC method was used for calculating cost price of remedial services in hospitals. To apply ABC method, Shahid Faghihi Hospital was selected. First, hospital units were divided into three main departments: administrative, diagnostic, and hospitalized. Second, activity centers were defined by the activity analysis method. Third, costs of administrative activity centers were allocated into diagnostic and operational departments based on the cost driver. Finally, with regard to the usage of cost objectives from services of activity centers, the cost price of medical services was calculated. The cost price from ABC method significantly differs from tariff method. In addition, high amount of indirect costs in the hospital indicates that capacities of resources are not used properly. Cost price of remedial services with tariff method is not properly calculated when compared with ABC method. ABC calculates cost price by applying suitable mechanisms but tariff method is based on the fixed price. In addition, ABC represents useful information about the amount and combination of cost price services.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoclet, Michel
1971-06-01
Spectrometry using Ge(Li) detectors is discussed. The excellent resolution of this type of detector, the mathematical analysis of the spectral lines of the pulses, and the reproducibility of the spectrometer enable highly accurate measurements of the abscises (some 10 -5 ) corresponding to the peaks. A method using the annihilation energy of the electron as the only standard was developed. The method is applied to the measurement of the gamma ray energies of the radioelements: 22 Na, 24 Na, 56 Mn, 56 Co, 59 Fe, 72 Ga, 88 Y, 122 Sb, 124 Sb and 137 Cs. (author) [fr
Energy based methods for determining elastic plastic fracture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witt, F.J.
1979-01-01
Several methods are currently in use or under study for calculating various conditions of fracturing for varying degrees of plasticity. Among these are innovations on the J-integral concept, crack opening displacement or angle, the two parameter concept and the equivalent energy method. Methods involving crack arrest and ductile tearing also fall in this category. Each of these methods have many salient points and some efforts are underway to establish the underlying relationship between them. In this paper, the current research directions of J-integral and equivalent energy methodologies are reviewed with a broader discussion presented for the equivalent energy methodology. The fundamental basis of equivalent energy methodology rests with the volumetric energy ratio. For fractures governed by linear elastic fracture mechanics, the volumetric energy ratio is independent of flaw size and geometry and depends only on the scale factor between model and prototype and temperature. The behavioral aspects of the volumetric energy ratios have been investigated throughout the temperature range from brittle fracture to fully ductile fracture. For five different specimen and structural configurations it has been shown experimentally that the volumetric energy ratio retains its basic properties. That is, the volumetric energy ratio while changing in actual value, maintains its independence of geometry and flaw size while retaining a unique dependence on scale factor and temperature. This property interpreted in terms of fracture mechanics leads to the equivalent energy method. (orig.)
Development of characterization methods applied to radioactive wastes and waste packages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guy, C.; Bienvenu, Ph.; Comte, J.; Excoffier, E.; Dodi, A.; Gal, O.; Gmar, M.; Jeanneau, F.; Poumarede, B.; Tola, F.; Moulin, V.; Jallu, F.; Lyoussi, A.; Ma, J.L.; Oriol, L.; Passard, Ch.; Perot, B.; Pettier, J.L.; Raoux, A.C.; Thierry, R.
2004-01-01
This document is a compilation of R and D studies carried out in the framework of the axis 3 of the December 1991 law about the conditioning and storage of high-level and long lived radioactive wastes and waste packages, and relative to the methods of characterization of these wastes. This R and D work has permitted to implement and qualify new methods (characterization of long-lived radioelements, high energy imaging..) and also to improve the existing methods by lowering detection limits and reducing uncertainties of measured data. This document is the result of the scientific production of several CEA laboratories that use complementary techniques: destructive methods and radiochemical analyses, photo-fission and active photonic interrogation, high energy imaging systems, neutron interrogation, gamma spectroscopy and active and passive imaging techniques. (J.S.)
Linkov, Pavel; Artemyev, Mikhail; Efimov, Anton E; Nabiev, Igor
2013-10-07
Fabrication of modern nanomaterials and nanostructures with specific functional properties is both scientifically promising and commercially profitable. The preparation and use of nanomaterials require adequate methods for the control and characterization of their size, shape, chemical composition, crystalline structure, energy levels, pathways and dynamics of physical and chemical processes during their fabrication and further use. In this review, we discuss different instrumental methods for the analysis and metrology of materials and evaluate their advantages and limitations at the nanolevel.
Econometrics analysis of consumer behaviour: a linear expenditure system applied to energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giansante, C.; Ferrari, V.
1996-12-01
In economics literature the expenditure system specification is a well known subject. The problem is to define a coherent representation of consumer behaviour through functional forms easy to calculate. In this work it is used the Stone-Geary Linear Expenditure System and its multi-level decision process version. The Linear Expenditure system is characterized by an easy calculating estimation procedure, and its multi-level specification allows substitution and complementary relations between goods. Moreover, the utility function separability condition on which the Utility Tree Approach is based, justifies to use an estimation procedure in two or more steps. This allows to use an high degree of expenditure categories disaggregation, impossible to reach the Linear Expediture System. The analysis is applied to energy sectors
Battery Energy Storage Sizing When Time of Use Pricing Is Applied
Khormali, Shahab
2014-01-01
Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs. PMID:25295309
Battery Energy Storage Sizing When Time of Use Pricing Is Applied
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guido Carpinelli
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESSs are considered a key device to be introduced to actuate the smart grid paradigm. However, the most critical aspect related to the use of such device is its economic feasibility as it is a still developing technology characterized by high costs and limited life duration. Particularly, the sizing of BESSs must be performed in an optimized way in order to maximize the benefits related to their use. This paper presents a simple and quick closed form procedure for the sizing of BESSs in residential and industrial applications when time-of-use tariff schemes are applied. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to consider different perspectives in terms of life span and future costs.
Local Energies and Energy Fluctuations — Applied to the High Entropy Alloy CrFeCoNi
Fukushima, Tetsuya; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sato, Kazunori; Ogura, Masako; Zeller, Rudolf; Dederichs, Peter H.
2017-11-01
High entropy alloys show a variety of fascinating properties like high hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, etc. They are random solid solutions of many components with rather high concentrations. We perform ab-initio calculations for the high entropy alloy CrFeCoNi, which equal concentration of 25% for each element. By the KKRnano program package, which is based on an order-N screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method, we consider a face-centered cubic (FCC) supercell with 1372 randomly distributed elements, and in addition also smaller supercells with 500 and 256 atoms. It is found from our calculations that the local moments of the Cr atoms show a large environmental variation, ranging from -1.70 μB to +1.01 μB with an average of about -0.51 μB. We present a new method to calculate "local energies" of all atoms. This is based on the partitioning of the whole space into Voronoi cells and allows to calculate the energetic contribution of each atomic cell to the total energy of the supercell. The supercell calculations show very large variations of the local energies, analogous to the variations of the local moments. This shows that the random solid solution is not stable and has a tendency to form an L12-structure with the Cr-atoms ordered at the corner of the cube and the elements Fe, Co, and Ni randomly distributed on the three other FCC sublattices. For this structure the variation of the local moments are much smaller.
Systematic Convergence in Applying Variational Method to Double-Well Potential
Mei, Wai-Ning
2016-01-01
In this work, we demonstrate the application of the variational method by computing the ground- and first-excited state energies of a double-well potential. We start with the proper choice of the trial wave functions using optimized parameters, and notice that accurate expectation values in excellent agreement with the numerical results can be…
Impedance adaptation methods of the piezoelectric energy harvesting
Kim, Hyeoungwoo
factor. This characteristic is useful for a small force vibration source which has a high displacement such as human's activities. An experimental setup was used to apply the same conditions as a vibrating car engine. The experiment was done with a cymbal transducer which has 29 mm PZT diameter, 1mm PZT thickness, and 0.4mm endcap operating under force of 70 N in the frequency range of 10--200 Hz. It was found that the generated power was increased and the output impedance was decreased with a higher frequency of vibration source at a constant force. The experimental results were found to be in agreement with the analytical results from the model using the equivalent circuit. In addition, the FEM simulation (ATILA) was employed to optimize the dimensions of cymbal transducer such as endcap thickness and PZT thickness. Finally, the electrical impedance matching method used to increase the electrical to electrical energy transfer for some applications was discussed. To match the output impedance, two methods were employed: one is changing capacitance of transducer by size effect and multilayered ceramics, and another one is developing an energy harvesting circuit which consumes low electrical power and maximizes the output transferred to the intended load. The fabricated multilayered ceramics which has 10, 100 mum thick, layers yielded 10 times higher output current for 40 times reduced output load. Also the electrical output power was double. A DC-DC buck converter which has 78% efficiency was fabricated to transfer the accumulated electrical energy to the low output load without consuming more than 5 mW of power itself. In this DC-DC converter, most of the power was consumed by the gate drive which was required for PWM switching. To reduce the power consumption of the gate drive, the switching frequency was fixed at 1 kHz with optimal duty cycle around 1˜5%. Also the dependence of the inductance (L) in the DC-DC converter was investigated and optimized to increase the
A new effective Monte Carlo Midway coupling method in MCNP applied to a well logging problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serov, I.V.; John, T.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E
1998-12-01
The background of the Midway forward-adjoint coupling method including the black absorber technique for efficient Monte Carlo determination of radiation detector responses is described. The method is implemented in the general purpose MCNP Monte Carlo code. The utilization of the method is fairly straightforward and does not require any substantial extra expertise. The method was applied to a standard neutron well logging porosity tool problem. The results exhibit reliability and high efficiency of the Midway method. For the studied problem the efficiency gain is considerably higher than for a normal forward calculation, which is already strongly optimized by weight-windows. No additional effort is required to adjust the Midway model if the position of the detector or the porosity of the formation is changed. Additionally, the Midway method can be used with other variance reduction techniques if extra gain in efficiency is desired.
Determination of activity of I-125 applying sum-peak methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbelo Penna, Y.; Hernandez Rivero, A.T.; Oropesa Verdecia, P.; Serra Aguila, R.; Moreno Leon, Y.
2011-01-01
The determination of activity of I-125 in radioactive solutions, applying sum-peak methods, by using an n-type HPGe detector of extended range is described. Two procedures were used for obtaining I-125 specific activity in solutions: a) an absolute method, which is independent of nuclear parameters and detector efficiency, and b) an option which consider constant the efficiency in the region of interest and involves calculations using nuclear parameters. The measurement geometries studied are specifically solid point sources. The relative deviations between specific activities, obtained by these different procedures are not higher than 1 %. Moreover, the activity of the radioactive solution was obtained by measuring it in NIST ampoule using a CAPINTEC CRC 35R dose calibrator. The consistency of obtained results, confirm the feasibility of applying direct methods of measurement for I-125 activity determinations, which allow us to achieve lower uncertainties in comparison with the relative methods of measurement. The establishment of these methods is aimed to be applied for the calibration of equipment and radionuclide dose calibrators used currently in clinical RIA/IRMA assays and Nuclear medicine practice respectively. (Author)
Ultra-low energy Ar+ beam applied for SIMS depth profile analysis of layered nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konarski, P.; Mierzejewska, A.; Iwanejko, I.
2001-01-01
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analyses of flat layered nanostructures: 10 nm Ta 2 O 3 /Ta and 20 nm (10 x B 4 C/Mo)/Si as well as microparticles of core (illite) - shell (rutile) structure, performed with the use of ultra-low energy ion beam (180-880 eV, Ar + ), are presented. The profiles were obtained using 'mesa' scanning technique and also sample rotation. Depth profile resolution below 1 nanometer was obtained for flat nanostructures. Presented experimental results are compared with Monte Carlo sputtering simulations of analysed structures. A method of finding beam energy, optimal for the best resolution SIMS depth profile analysis, is suggested. (author)
An applied study using systems engineering methods to prioritize green systems options
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sonya M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Macdonald, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
For many years, there have been questions about the effectiveness of applying different green solutions. If you're building a home and wish to use green technologies, where do you start? While all technologies sound promising, which will perform the best over time? All this has to be considered within the cost and schedule of the project. The amount of information available on the topic can be overwhelming. We seek to examine if Systems Engineering methods can be used to help people choose and prioritize technologies that fit within their project and budget. Several methods are used to gain perspective into how to select the green technologies, such as the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Kepner-Tregoe. In our study, subjects applied these methods to analyze cost, schedule, and trade-offs. Results will document whether the experimental approach is applicable to defining system priorities for green technologies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nam Lyong Kang
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The projection-reduction method introduced by the present authors is known to give a validated theory for optical transitions in the systems of electrons interacting with phonons. In this work, using this method, we derive the linear and first order nonlinear optical conductivites for an electron-impurity system and examine whether the expressions faithfully satisfy the quantum mechanical philosophy, in the same way as for the electron-phonon systems. The result shows that the Fermi distribution function for electrons, energy denominators, and electron-impurity coupling factors are contained properly in organized manners along with absorption of photons for each electron transition process in the final expressions. Furthermore, the result is shown to be represented properly by schematic diagrams, as in the formulation of electron-phonon interaction. Therefore, in conclusion, we claim that this method can be applied in modeling optical transitions of electrons interacting with both impurities and phonons.
An Energy Efficiency Evaluation Method Based on Energy Baseline for Chemical Industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong-mei Yao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available According to the requirements and structure of ISO 50001 energy management system, this study proposes an energy efficiency evaluation method based on energy baseline for chemical industry. Using this method, the energy plan implementation effect in the processes of chemical production can be evaluated quantitatively, and evidences for system fault diagnosis can be provided. This method establishes the energy baseline models which can meet the demand of the different kinds of production processes and gives the general solving method of each kind of model according to the production data. Then the energy plan implementation effect can be evaluated and also whether the system is running normally can be determined through the baseline model. Finally, this method is used on cracked gas compressor unit of ethylene plant in some petrochemical enterprise; it can be proven that this method is correct and practical.
Economic consequences assessment for scenarios and actual accidents do the same methods apply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brenot, J.
1991-01-01
Methods for estimating the economic consequences of major technological accidents, and their corresponding computer codes, are briefly presented with emphasis on the basic choices. When applied to hypothetic scenarios, those methods give results that are of interest for risk managers with a decision aiding perspective. Simultaneously the various costs, and the procedures for their estimation are reviewed for some actual accidents (Three Mile Island, Chernobyl,..). These costs are used in a perspective of litigation and compensation. The comparison of the methods used and cost estimates obtained for scenarios and actual accidents shows the points of convergence and discrepancies that are discussed
Non-invasive imaging methods applied to neo- and paleontological cephalopod research
Hoffmann, R.; Schultz, J. A.; Schellhorn, R.; Rybacki, E.; Keupp, H.; Gerden, S. R.; Lemanis, R.; Zachow, S.
2013-11-01
Several non-invasive methods are common practice in natural sciences today. Here we present how they can be applied and contribute to current topics in cephalopod (paleo-) biology. Different methods will be compared in terms of time necessary to acquire the data, amount of data, accuracy/resolution, minimum-maximum size of objects that can be studied, of the degree of post-processing needed and availability. Main application of the methods is seen in morphometry and volumetry of cephalopod shells in order to improve our understanding of diversity and disparity, functional morphology and biology of extinct and extant cephalopods.
Power System Oscillation Modes Identifications: Guidelines for Applying TLS-ESPRIT Method
Gajjar, Gopal R.; Soman, Shreevardhan
2013-05-01
Fast measurements of power system quantities available through wide-area measurement systems enables direct observations for power system electromechanical oscillations. But the raw observations data need to be processed to obtain the quantitative measures required to make any inference regarding the power system state. A detailed discussion is presented for the theory behind the general problem of oscillatory mode indentification. This paper presents some results on oscillation mode identification applied to a wide-area frequency measurements system. Guidelines for selection of parametes for obtaining most reliable results from the applied method are provided. Finally, some results on real measurements are presented with our inference on them.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masera, D; Bocca, P; Grazzini, A
2011-01-01
In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a 'damage-gauge' for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masera, D; Bocca, P; Grazzini, A, E-mail: davide.masera@polito.it [Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering - Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)
2011-07-19
In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a 'damage-gauge' for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.
Applying consequential LCA to support energy policy: Land use change effects of bioenergy production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vázquez-Rowe, Ian, E-mail: ian.vazquez@tudor.lu; Marvuglia, Antonino; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico
2014-02-01
Luxembourg aims at complying with the EU objective of attaining a 14% use of bioenergy in the national grid by 2020. The increase of biomethane production from energy crops could be a valuable option in achieving this objective. However, the overall environmental benefit of such option is yet to be proven. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) has shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental suitability of future energy scenarios and policies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the environmental consequences of modifying the Luxembourgish agricultural system to increase maize production for biomethane generation. A total of 10 different scenarios were modelled using a partial equilibrium (PE) model to identify changes in land cultivation based on farmers' revenue maximisation, which were then compared to the baseline scenario, i.e. the state of the agricultural sector in 2009. The results were divided into three different consequential decision contexts, presenting differing patterns in terms of land use changes (LUCs) but with minor shifts in environmental impacts. Nevertheless, energy from maize production would imply substantially higher environmental impacts when compared with the current use of natural gas, mainly due to increases in climate change and agricultural land occupation impacts. The results are discussed based on the consequences they may generate on the bioenergy policy, the management of arable land, the changes in import–export flows in Luxembourg and LUCs in the domestic agricultural system. In addition, the specific PE + LCA method presented intends to be of use for other regional studies in which a high level of site-specific data is available. - Highlights: • Partial equilibrium (PE) model created for the agricultural sector in Luxembourg • PE model combined with a consequential LCA approach to support energy policy • The impact of LUCs due to the additional production of maize for energy was
Applying consequential LCA to support energy policy: Land use change effects of bioenergy production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Marvuglia, Antonino; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico
2014-01-01
Luxembourg aims at complying with the EU objective of attaining a 14% use of bioenergy in the national grid by 2020. The increase of biomethane production from energy crops could be a valuable option in achieving this objective. However, the overall environmental benefit of such option is yet to be proven. Consequential Life Cycle Assessment (CLCA) has shown to be a useful tool to evaluate the environmental suitability of future energy scenarios and policies. The objective of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the environmental consequences of modifying the Luxembourgish agricultural system to increase maize production for biomethane generation. A total of 10 different scenarios were modelled using a partial equilibrium (PE) model to identify changes in land cultivation based on farmers' revenue maximisation, which were then compared to the baseline scenario, i.e. the state of the agricultural sector in 2009. The results were divided into three different consequential decision contexts, presenting differing patterns in terms of land use changes (LUCs) but with minor shifts in environmental impacts. Nevertheless, energy from maize production would imply substantially higher environmental impacts when compared with the current use of natural gas, mainly due to increases in climate change and agricultural land occupation impacts. The results are discussed based on the consequences they may generate on the bioenergy policy, the management of arable land, the changes in import–export flows in Luxembourg and LUCs in the domestic agricultural system. In addition, the specific PE + LCA method presented intends to be of use for other regional studies in which a high level of site-specific data is available. - Highlights: • Partial equilibrium (PE) model created for the agricultural sector in Luxembourg • PE model combined with a consequential LCA approach to support energy policy • The impact of LUCs due to the additional production of maize for energy was
Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods
Hammerstrom, Donald J.
2016-05-03
Thermal energy storage apparatus, controllers and thermal energy storage control methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage apparatus controller includes processing circuitry configured to access first information which is indicative of surpluses and deficiencies of electrical energy upon an electrical power system at a plurality of moments in time, access second information which is indicative of temperature of a thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time, and use the first and second information to control an amount of electrical energy which is utilized by a heating element to heat the thermal energy storage medium at a plurality of moments in time.
Household energy studies: the gap between theory and method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Crosbie, T.
2006-09-15
At the level of theory it is now widely accepted that energy consumption patterns are a complex technical and socio-cultural phenomenon and to understand this phenomenon, it must be viewed from both engineering and social science perspectives. However, the methodological approaches taken in household energy studies lag behind the theoretical advances made in the last ten or fifteen years. The quantitative research methods traditionally used within the fields of building science, economics, and psychology continue to dominate household energy studies, while the qualitative ethnographic approaches to examining social and cultural phenomena traditionally used within anthropology and sociology are most frequently overlooked. This paper offers a critical review of the research methods used in household energy studies which illustrates the scope and limitations of both qualitative and quantitative research methods in this area of study. In doing so it demonstrates that qualitative research methods are essential to designing effective energy efficiency interventions. [Author].
An approach for evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakae, Nobuo; Ozawa, Takayuki; Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari; Sekimoto, Hiroshi
2014-01-01
One of the important issues in the study of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems is evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems. An approach for evaluating the integrity of the fuel is discussed here based on the procedure currently used in the integrity evaluation of fast reactor fuel. The fuel failure modes determining fuel life time were reviewed and fuel integrity was analyzed and compared with the failure criteria. Metal and nitride fuels with austenitic and ferritic stainless steel (SS) cladding tubes were examined in this study. For the purpose of representative irradiation behavior analyses of the fuel for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems, the correlations of the cladding characteristics were modeled based on well-known characteristics of austenitic modified 316 SS (PNC316), ferritic–martensitic steel (PNC–FMS) and oxide dispersion strengthened steel (PNC–ODS). The analysis showed that the fuel lifetime is limited by channel fracture which is a nonductile type (brittle) failure associated with a high level of irradiation-induced swelling in the case of austenitic steel cladding. In case of ferritic steel, on the other hand, the fuel lifetime is controlled by cladding creep rupture. The lifetime evaluated here is limited to 200 GW d/t, which is lower than the target burnup value of 500 GW d/t. One of the possible measures to extend the lifetime may be reducing the fuel smeared density and ventilating fission gas in the plenum for metal fuel and by reducing the maximum cladding temperature from 650 to 600 °C for both metal and nitride fuel
An approach for evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakae, Nobuo, E-mail: nakae-nobuo@jnes.go.jp [Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy System, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-19, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ozawa, Takayuki [Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken 319-1194 (Japan); Ohta, Hirokazu; Ogata, Takanari [Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1, Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Sekimoto, Hiroshi [Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy System, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-19, Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)
2014-03-15
One of the important issues in the study of Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems is evaluating the integrity of fuel applied in Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems. An approach for evaluating the integrity of the fuel is discussed here based on the procedure currently used in the integrity evaluation of fast reactor fuel. The fuel failure modes determining fuel life time were reviewed and fuel integrity was analyzed and compared with the failure criteria. Metal and nitride fuels with austenitic and ferritic stainless steel (SS) cladding tubes were examined in this study. For the purpose of representative irradiation behavior analyses of the fuel for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems, the correlations of the cladding characteristics were modeled based on well-known characteristics of austenitic modified 316 SS (PNC316), ferritic–martensitic steel (PNC–FMS) and oxide dispersion strengthened steel (PNC–ODS). The analysis showed that the fuel lifetime is limited by channel fracture which is a nonductile type (brittle) failure associated with a high level of irradiation-induced swelling in the case of austenitic steel cladding. In case of ferritic steel, on the other hand, the fuel lifetime is controlled by cladding creep rupture. The lifetime evaluated here is limited to 200 GW d/t, which is lower than the target burnup value of 500 GW d/t. One of the possible measures to extend the lifetime may be reducing the fuel smeared density and ventilating fission gas in the plenum for metal fuel and by reducing the maximum cladding temperature from 650 to 600 °C for both metal and nitride fuel.
Target injection methods for inertial fusion energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petzoldt, R.W.; Moir, R.W.
1994-06-01
We have studied four methods to inject IFE targets: the gas gun, electrostatic accelerator, induction accelerator, and rail gun. We recommend a gas gun for indirect drive targets because they can support a gas pressure load on one end and can slide along the gun barrel without damage. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable; for other types of targets, a sabot would be necessary. A cam and poppet valve arrangement is recommended for gas flow control. An electrostatic accelerator is attractive for use with lightweight spherical direct drive targets. Since there is no physical contact between the target and the injector, there will be no wear of either component during the injection process. An induction accelerator has an advantage of no electrical contact between the target and the injector. Physical contact is not even necessary, so the wear should be minimal. It requires a cylindrical conductive target sleeve which is a substantial added mass. A rail gun is a simpler device than an electrostatic accelerator or induction accelerator. It requires electrical contact between the target and the rails and may have a significant wear rate. The wear in a vacuum could be reduced by use of a solid lubricant such as MoS 2 . The total required accuracy of target injection, tracking and beam pointing of ±0.4 mm appears achievable but will require development and experimental verification
The development of a curved beam element model applied to finite elements method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bento Filho, A.
1980-01-01
A procedure for the evaluation of the stiffness matrix for a thick curved beam element is developed, by means of the minimum potential energy principle, applied to finite elements. The displacement field is prescribed through polynomial expansions, and the interpolation model is determined by comparison of results obtained by the use of a sample of different expansions. As a limiting case of the curved beam, three cases of straight beams, with different dimensional ratios are analised, employing the approach proposed. Finally, an interpolation model is proposed and applied to a curved beam with great curvature. Desplacements and internal stresses are determined and the results are compared with those found in the literature. (Author) [pt
Control Methods Utilizing Energy Optimizing Schemes in Refrigeration Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, L.S; Thybo, C.; Stoustrup, Jakob
2003-01-01
The potential energy savings in refrigeration systems using energy optimal control has been proved to be substantial. This however requires an intelligent control that drives the refrigeration systems towards the energy optimal state. This paper proposes an approach for a control, which drives th...... the condenser pressure towards an optimal state. The objective of this is to present a feasible method that can be used for energy optimizing control. A simulation model of a simple refrigeration system will be used as basis for testing the control method....
Bruckner, B.; Roth, D.; Goebl, D.; Bauer, P.; Primetzhofer, D.
2018-05-01
Electronic stopping measurements in chemically reactive targets, e.g., transition and rare earth metals are challenging. These metals often contain low Z impurities, which contribute to electronic stopping. In this article, we present two ways how one can correct for the presence of impurities in the evaluation of proton and He stopping in Ni for primary energies between 1 and 100 keV, either considering or ignoring the contribution of the low Z impurities to multiple scattering. We find, that for protons either method leads to concordant results, but for heavier projectiles, e.g. He ions, the influence on multiple scattering must not be neglected.
Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Fourth annual report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazelrigg, G.A. Jr.
1980-01-01
The current study reported here has involved three separate tasks. The first task deals with the development of expected utility analysis techniques for economic evaluation of fusion research. A decision analytic model is developed for the incorporation of market uncertainties, as well as technological uncertainties in an economic evaluation of long-range energy research. The model is applied to the case of fusion research. The second task deals with the potential effects of long-range energy RD and D on fossil fuel prices. ECON's previous fossil fuel price model is extended to incorporate a dynamic demand function. The dynamic demand function supports price fluctuations such as those observed in the marketplace. The third task examines alternative uses of fusion technologies, specifically superconducting technologies and first wall materials to determine the potential for alternative, nonfusion use of these technologies. In both cases, numerous alternative uses are found
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alagoz, B. Baykant; Kaygusuz, Asim; Akcin, Murat; Alagoz, Serkan
2013-01-01
Future smart grids will require a flexible, observable, and controllable network for reliable and efficient energy delivery under uncertain generation and demand conditions. One of the mechanisms for efficient and reliable energy generation is dynamic demand-responsive generation management based on energy price adjustments that creates a balance in energy markets. This study presents a closed-loop PID (proportional–integral–derivative) controller-based price control method for autonomous and real-time balancing of energy demand and generation in smart grid electricity markets. The PID control system can regulate energy prices online to respond dynamically and instantaneously to the varying energy demands of grid consumers. Independent energy suppliers in the smart grid decide whether to sell their energy to the grid according to the energy prices declared by the closed-loop PID controller system. Energy market simulations demonstrate that PID-controlled energy price regulation can effectively maintain an energy balance for hourly demand fluctuations of consumers. - Highlights: • This study presents a control theoretic approach for management of energy balance. • A closed-loop PID controller-based price controlling method is used in smart grid. • The simulation results demonstrate advantages of PID-based energy price control. • This method is appropriate for demand responsive management of smart grid markets
Multigrid method applied to the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alchalabi, R.M. [BOC Group, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Turinsky, P.J. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
1996-12-31
The work presented in this paper is concerned with the development of an efficient MG algorithm for the solution of an elliptic, generalized eigenvalue problem. The application is specifically applied to the multigroup neutron diffusion equation which is discretized by utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The underlying relaxation method is the Power Method, also known as the (Outer-Inner Method). The inner iterations are completed using Multi-color Line SOR, and the outer iterations are accelerated using Chebyshev Semi-iterative Method. Furthermore, the MG algorithm utilizes the consistent homogenization concept to construct the restriction operator, and a form function as a prolongation operator. The MG algorithm was integrated into the reactor neutronic analysis code NESTLE, and numerical results were obtained from solving production type benchmark problems.
2012-05-30
...-AC46 Energy Conservation Program: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods and Alternative Rating... regulations authorizing the use of alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption... alternative methods of determining energy efficiency or energy consumption of various consumer products and...
Virial-statistic method for calculation of atom and molecule energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, Yu.A.
1977-01-01
A virial-statistical method has been applied to the calculation of the atomization energies of the following molecules: Mo(CO) 6 , Cr(CO) 6 , Fe(CO) 5 , MnH(CO) 5 , CoH(CO) 4 , Ni(CO) 4 . The principles of this method are briefly presented. Calculation results are given for the individual contributions to the atomization energies together with the calculated and experimental atomization energies (D). For the Mo(CO) 6 complex Dsub(calc) = 1759 and Dsub(exp) = 1763 kcal/mole. Calculated and experimental combination heat values for carbonyl complexes are presented. These values are shown to be adequately consistent [ru
Measurement of ion energy by a calorimetric method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Bunak, Suwat
1996-12-01
In calorimetric method, ion energy is determined based on the temperature changes during radiation of an absorbing material, radiation current and heat capacity of the calorimeter. This method is convenient and its measuring procedures are simple as well as the measuring apparatus. Here, the temperature changes of the calorimeter during {sup 14}N ion beam radiation were determined. The temperature increased linearly when irradiated with {sup 14}N{sup 3+}, 8.3 MeV or {sup 14}N{sup 2+}, 6 MeV, but not linearly for {sup 14}N{sup 1+}, 3.6 MeV, resulting in a comparatively large error. Thus, the measurement of ion energy by calorimetric method was found available as a convenient method for an accelerator having an energy stability less than 10{sup -3}. Especially this method seems to be useful for low-energy ion accelerator or ion injecting apparatus. (M.N.)
Least Square NUFFT Methods Applied to 2D and 3D Radially Encoded MR Image Reconstruction
Song, Jiayu; Liu, Qing H.; Gewalt, Sally L.; Cofer, Gary; Johnson, G. Allan
2009-01-01
Radially encoded MR imaging (MRI) has gained increasing attention in applications such as hyperpolarized gas imaging, contrast-enhanced MR angiography, and dynamic imaging, due to its motion insensitivity and improved artifact properties. However, since the technique collects k-space samples nonuniformly, multidimensional (especially 3D) radially sampled MRI image reconstruction is challenging. The balance between reconstruction accuracy and speed becomes critical when a large data set is processed. Kaiser-Bessel gridding reconstruction has been widely used for non-Cartesian reconstruction. The objective of this work is to provide an alternative reconstruction option in high dimensions with on-the-fly kernels calculation. The work develops general multi-dimensional least square nonuniform fast Fourier transform (LS-NUFFT) algorithms and incorporates them into a k-space simulation and image reconstruction framework. The method is then applied to reconstruct the radially encoded k-space, although the method addresses general nonuniformity and is applicable to any non-Cartesian patterns. Performance assessments are made by comparing the LS-NUFFT based method with the conventional Kaiser-Bessel gridding method for 2D and 3D radially encoded computer simulated phantoms and physically scanned phantoms. The results show that the LS-NUFFT reconstruction method has better accuracy-speed efficiency than the Kaiser-Bessel gridding method when the kernel weights are calculated on the fly. The accuracy of the LS-NUFFT method depends on the choice of scaling factor, and it is found that for a particular conventional kernel function, using its corresponding deapodization function as scaling factor and utilizing it into the LS-NUFFT framework has the potential to improve accuracy. When a cosine scaling factor is used, in particular, the LS-NUFFT method is faster than Kaiser-Bessel gridding method because of a quasi closed-form solution. The method is successfully applied to 2D and
Evaluation of binding energies by using quantum mechanical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Postolache, Carmen
2002-01-01
Evaluation of binding energies (BE) in molecular structure is needed for modelling chemical and radiochemical processes by quantum-chemical methods. An important field of application is evaluation of radiolysis and autoradiolysis stability of organic and inorganic compounds as well as macromolecular structures. The current methods of calculation do not allow direct determination of BE but only of total binding energies (TBE) and enthalpies. BEs were evaluated indirectly by determining the homolytic dissociation energies. The molecular structures were built and geometrically optimized by the molecular mechanics methods MM+ and AMBER. The energy minimizations were refined by semi-empirical methods. Depending on the chosen molecular structure, the CNDO, INDO, PM3 and AM1 methods were used. To reach a high confidence level the minimizations were done for gradients lower than 10 -3 RMS. The energy values obtained by the difference of the fragment TBLs, of the transition states and initial molecular structures, respectively, were associated to the hemolytic fragmentation energy and BE, respectively. In order to evaluate the method's accuracy and to establish the application fields of the evaluation methods, the obtained values of BEs were compared with the experimental data taken from literature. To this goal there were built, geometrically optimized by semi-empirical methods and evaluated the BEs for 74 organic and inorganic compounds (alkanes, alkene, alkynes, halogenated derivatives, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, nitrogen and sulfur compounds, water, hydrogen peroxide, ammonia, hydrazine, etc. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Straten, Marcel van; Schaap, Michiel; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Greuter, Marcel J.; Lugt, Aad van der; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Niessen, Wiro J.
2011-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate dual energy based methods for bone removal in computed tomography angiography (CTA) images and compare these with single energy based methods that use an additional, nonenhanced, CT scan. Methods: Four different bone removal methods were applied to CT scans of an anthropomorphic thorax phantom, acquired with a second generation dual source CT scanner. The methods differed by the way information on the presence of bone was obtained (either by using an additional, nonenhanced scan or by scanning with two tube voltages at the same time) and by the way the bone was removed from the CTA images (either by masking or subtracting the bone). The phantom contained parts which mimic vessels of various diameters in direct contact with bone. Both a quantitative and qualitative analysis of image quality after bone removal was performed. Image quality was quantified by the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) normalized to the square root of the dose (CNRD). At locations where vessels touch bone, the quality of the bone removal and the vessel preservation were visually assessed. The dual energy based methods were assessed with and without the addition of a 0.4 mm tin filter to the high voltage x-ray tube filtration. For each bone removal method, the dose required to obtain a certain CNR after bone removal was compared with the dose of a reference scan with the same CNR but without automated bone removal. The CNRD value of the reference scan was maximized by choosing the lowest tube voltage available. Results: All methods removed the bone completely. CNRD values were higher for the masking based methods than for the subtraction based methods. Single energy based methods had a higher CNRD value than the corresponding dual energy based methods. For the subtraction based dual energy method, tin filtration improved the CNRD value with approximately 50%. For the masking based dual energy method, it was easier to differentiate between iodine and bone when tin filtration
Compatibility of global environmental assessment methods of buildings with an Egyptian energy code
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amal Kamal Mohamed Shamseldin
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Several environmental assessment methods of buildings had emerged over the world to set environmental classifications for buildings, such as the American method “Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design” (LEED the most widespread one. Several countries decided to put their own assessment methods to catch up with the previous orientation, such as Egypt. The main goal of putting the Egyptian method was to impose the voluntary local energy efficiency codes. Through a local survey, it was clearly noted that many of the construction makers in Egypt do not even know the local method, and whom are interested in the environmental assessment of buildings seek to apply LEED rather than anything else. Therefore, several questions appear about the American method compatibility with the Egyptian energy codes – that contain the most exact characteristics and requirements and give the outmost credible energy efficiency results for buildings in Egypt-, and the possibility of finding another global method that gives closer results to those of the Egyptian codes, especially with the great variety of energy efficiency measurement approaches used among the different assessment methods. So, the researcher is trying to find the compatibility of using non-local assessment methods with the local energy efficiency codes. Thus, if the results are not compatible, the Egyptian government should take several steps to increase the local building sector awareness of the Egyptian method to benefit these codes, and it should begin to enforce it within the building permits after a proper guidance and feedback.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knut, Ronny; Lindblad, Rebecka [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Gorgoi, Mihaela [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Rensmo, Håkan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Karis, Olof, E-mail: olof.karis@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)
2013-10-15
Highlights: •We demonstrate how hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to investigate interface properties of multilayers. •By combining HAXPES and statistical methods we are able to provide quantitative analysis of the interface diffusion process. •We show how photoionization cross sections can be used to map partial density of states contributions to valence states. •We use HAXPES to provide insight into the valence electronic structure of e.g. multiferroics and dye-sensitized solar cells. -- Abstract: With the access of new high-performance electron spectrometers capable of analyzing electron energies up to the order of 10 keV, the interest for photoelectron spectroscopy has grown and many new applications of the technique in areas where electron spectroscopies were considered to have limited use have been demonstrated over the last few decades. The technique, often denoted hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES or HAXPES), to distinguish the experiment from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy performed at lower energies, has resulted in an increasing interest in photoelectron spectroscopy in many areas. The much increased mean free path at higher kinetic energies, in combination with the elemental selectivity of the core level spectroscopies in general has led to this fact. It is thus now possible to investigate the electronic structure of materials with a substantially enhanced bulk sensitivity. In this review we provide examples from our own research using HAXPES which to date has been performed mainly at the HIKE facility at the KMC-1 beamline at HZB, Berlin. The review exemplifies the new opportunities using HAXPES to address both bulk and interface electronic properties in systems relevant for applications in magnetic storage, energy related research, but also in purely curiosity driven problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knut, Ronny; Lindblad, Rebecka; Gorgoi, Mihaela; Rensmo, Håkan; Karis, Olof
2013-01-01
Highlights: •We demonstrate how hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to investigate interface properties of multilayers. •By combining HAXPES and statistical methods we are able to provide quantitative analysis of the interface diffusion process. •We show how photoionization cross sections can be used to map partial density of states contributions to valence states. •We use HAXPES to provide insight into the valence electronic structure of e.g. multiferroics and dye-sensitized solar cells. -- Abstract: With the access of new high-performance electron spectrometers capable of analyzing electron energies up to the order of 10 keV, the interest for photoelectron spectroscopy has grown and many new applications of the technique in areas where electron spectroscopies were considered to have limited use have been demonstrated over the last few decades. The technique, often denoted hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HX-PES or HAXPES), to distinguish the experiment from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy performed at lower energies, has resulted in an increasing interest in photoelectron spectroscopy in many areas. The much increased mean free path at higher kinetic energies, in combination with the elemental selectivity of the core level spectroscopies in general has led to this fact. It is thus now possible to investigate the electronic structure of materials with a substantially enhanced bulk sensitivity. In this review we provide examples from our own research using HAXPES which to date has been performed mainly at the HIKE facility at the KMC-1 beamline at HZB, Berlin. The review exemplifies the new opportunities using HAXPES to address both bulk and interface electronic properties in systems relevant for applications in magnetic storage, energy related research, but also in purely curiosity driven problems
SEMIC: an efficient surface energy and mass balance model applied to the Greenland ice sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Krapp
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We present SEMIC, a Surface Energy and Mass balance model of Intermediate Complexity for snow- and ice-covered surfaces such as the Greenland ice sheet. SEMIC is fast enough for glacial cycle applications, making it a suitable replacement for simpler methods such as the positive degree day (PDD method often used in ice sheet modelling. Our model explicitly calculates the main processes involved in the surface energy and mass balance, while maintaining a simple interface and requiring minimal data input to drive it. In this novel approach, we parameterise diurnal temperature variations in order to more realistically capture the daily thaw–freeze cycles that characterise the ice sheet mass balance. We show how to derive optimal model parameters for SEMIC specifically to reproduce surface characteristics and day-to-day variations similar to the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional, version 2 and its incorporated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT (Soil Ice Snow Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer. A validation test shows that SEMIC simulates future changes in surface temperature and surface mass balance in good agreement with the more sophisticated multilayer snowpack model SISVAT included in MAR. With this paper, we present a physically based surface model to the ice sheet modelling community that is general enough to be used with in situ observations, climate model, or reanalysis data, and that is at the same time computationally fast enough for long-term integrations, such as glacial cycles or future climate change scenarios.
Applying Mathematical Optimization Methods to an ACT-R Instance-Based Learning Model.
Said, Nadia; Engelhart, Michael; Kirches, Christian; Körkel, Stefan; Holt, Daniel V
2016-01-01
Computational models of cognition provide an interface to connect advanced mathematical tools and methods to empirically supported theories of behavior in psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience. In this article, we consider a computational model of instance-based learning, implemented in the ACT-R cognitive architecture. We propose an approach for obtaining mathematical reformulations of such cognitive models that improve their computational tractability. For the well-established Sugar Factory dynamic decision making task, we conduct a simulation study to analyze central model parameters. We show how mathematical optimization techniques can be applied to efficiently identify optimal parameter values with respect to different optimization goals. Beyond these methodological contributions, our analysis reveals the sensitivity of this particular task with respect to initial settings and yields new insights into how average human performance deviates from potential optimal performance. We conclude by discussing possible extensions of our approach as well as future steps towards applying more powerful derivative-based optimization methods.
Chen, Xinxian; Tan, Zhenyu; Liu, Yadi; Li, Xiaotong; Pan, Jie; Wang, Xiaolong
2017-08-01
This work presents a systematical investigation on the spatiotemporal evolution of the energy spectrum of electrons in atmospheric pressure argon plasma jets and its dependence on the applied voltage. The investigations are carried out by means of the numerical simulation based on a particle-in-cell Monte-Carlo collision model. The characteristics of the spatiotemporal evolution of the energy spectrum of electrons (ESE) in the discharge space have been presented, and especially the mechanisms of inducing these characteristics have also been revealed. The present work shows the following conclusions. In the evolution of ESE, there is a characteristic time under each applied voltage. Before the characteristic time, the peak value of ESE decreases, the peak position shifts toward high energy, and the distribution of ESE becomes wider and wider, but the reverse is true after the characteristic time. The formation of these characteristics can be mainly attributed to the transport of electrons toward a low electric field as well as a balance between the energy gained from the electric field including the effect of space charges and the energy loss due to inelastic collisions in the process of electron transport. The characteristic time decreases with the applied voltage. In addition, the average energy of electrons at the characteristic time can be increased by enhancing the applied voltage. The results presented in this work are of importance for regulating and controlling the energy of electrons in the plasma jets applied to plasma medicine.
A novel dual energy method for enhanced quantitative computed tomography
Emami, A.; Ghadiri, H.; Rahmim, A.; Ay, M. R.
2018-01-01
Accurate assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) is critically important in clinical practice, and conveniently enabled via quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Meanwhile, dual-energy QCT (DEQCT) enables enhanced detection of small changes in BMD relative to single-energy QCT (SEQCT). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the accuracy of QCT methods, with particular emphasis on a new dual-energy approach, in comparison to single-energy and conventional dual-energy techniques. We used a sinogram-based analytical CT simulator to model the complete chain of CT data acquisitions, and assessed performance of SEQCT and different DEQCT techniques in quantification of BMD. We demonstrate a 120% reduction in error when using a proposed dual-energy Simultaneous Equation by Constrained Least-squares method, enabling more accurate bone mineral measurements.
Developing energy forecasting model using hybrid artificial intelligence method
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shahram Mollaiy-Berneti
2015-01-01
An important problem in demand planning for energy consumption is developing an accurate energy forecasting model. In fact, it is not possible to allocate the energy resources in an optimal manner without having accurate demand value. A new energy forecasting model was proposed based on the back-propagation (BP) type neural network and imperialist competitive algorithm. The proposed method offers the advantage of local search ability of BP technique and global search ability of imperialist competitive algorithm. Two types of empirical data regarding the energy demand (gross domestic product (GDP), population, import, export and energy demand) in Turkey from 1979 to 2005 and electricity demand (population, GDP, total revenue from exporting industrial products and electricity consumption) in Thailand from 1986 to 2010 were investigated to demonstrate the applicability and merits of the present method. The performance of the proposed model is found to be better than that of conventional back-propagation neural network with low mean absolute error.
Research on Operation Assessment Method for Energy Meter
Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng
2018-03-01
The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.
A Method of Evaluating Operation of Electric Energy Meter
Chen, Xiangqun; Li, Tianyang; Cao, Fei; Chu, Pengfei; Zhao, Xinwang; Huang, Rui; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Chenglin
2018-05-01
The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.
Statistical learning methods in high-energy and astrophysics analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimmermann, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Zentrallabor fuer Elektronik, 52425 Juelich (Germany) and Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: zimmerm@mppmu.mpg.de; Kiesling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)
2004-11-21
We discuss several popular statistical learning methods used in high-energy- and astro-physics analysis. After a short motivation for statistical learning we present the most popular algorithms and discuss several examples from current research in particle- and astro-physics. The statistical learning methods are compared with each other and with standard methods for the respective application.
Statistical learning methods in high-energy and astrophysics analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, J.; Kiesling, C.
2004-01-01
We discuss several popular statistical learning methods used in high-energy- and astro-physics analysis. After a short motivation for statistical learning we present the most popular algorithms and discuss several examples from current research in particle- and astro-physics. The statistical learning methods are compared with each other and with standard methods for the respective application
Applied ecosystem analysis - a primer; the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lestelle, L.C.; Mobrand, L.E.; Lichatowich, J.A.; Vogel, T.S.
1996-05-01
The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual
An Ultrasonic Guided Wave Method to Estimate Applied Biaxial Loads (Preprint)
2011-11-01
VALIDATION A fatigue test was performed with an array of six surface-bonded PZT transducers on a 6061 aluminum plate as shown in Figure 4. The specimen...direct paths of propagation are oriented at different angles. This method is applied to experimental sparse array data recorded during a fatigue test...and the additional complication of the resulting fatigue cracks interfering with some of the direct arrivals is addressed via proper selection of
Accuracy of the Adomian decomposition method applied to the Lorenz system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashim, I.; Noorani, M.S.M.; Ahmad, R.; Bakar, S.A.; Ismail, E.S.; Zakaria, A.M.
2006-01-01
In this paper, the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) is applied to the famous Lorenz system. The ADM yields an analytical solution in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series with easily computable terms. Comparisons between the decomposition solutions and the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4) numerical solutions are made for various time steps. In particular we look at the accuracy of the ADM as the Lorenz system changes from a non-chaotic system to a chaotic one
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filyushkina, Anna; Strange, Niels; Löf, Magnus
2018-01-01
This study applied a structured expert elicitation technique, the Delphi method, to identify the impacts of five forest management alternatives and several forest characteristics on the preservation of biodiversity and habitats in the boreal zone of the Nordic countries. The panel of experts...... as a valuable addition to on-going empirical and modeling efforts. The findings could assist forest managers in developing forest management strategies that generate benefits from timber production while taking into account the trade-offs with biodiversity goals....
Modified Method of Simplest Equation Applied to the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vitanov Nikolay K.
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We consider an extension of the methodology of the modified method of simplest equation to the case of use of two simplest equations. The extended methodology is applied for obtaining exact solutions of model nonlinear partial differential equations for deep water waves: the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the methodology works also for other equations of the nonlinear Schrödinger kind.
Modified Method of Simplest Equation Applied to the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation
Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Dimitrova, Zlatinka I.
2018-03-01
We consider an extension of the methodology of the modified method of simplest equation to the case of use of two simplest equations. The extended methodology is applied for obtaining exact solutions of model nonlinear partial differential equations for deep water waves: the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the methodology works also for other equations of the nonlinear Schrödinger kind.
Applied Ecosystem Analysis - - a Primer : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Mobrand, Lars E.
1996-05-01
The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual.
The LTSN method used in transport equation, applied in nuclear engineering problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borges, Volnei; Vilhena, Marco Tulio de
2002-01-01
The LTS N method solves analytically the S N equations, applying the Laplace transform in the spatial variable. This methodology is used in determination of scalar flux for neutrons and photons, absorbed dose rate, buildup factors and power for a heterogeneous planar slab. This procedure leads to the solution of a transcendental equations for effective multiplication, critical thickness and the atomic density. In this work numerical results are reported, considering multigroup problem in heterogeneous slab. (author)
Machine Learning Method Applied in Readout System of Superheated Droplet Detector
Liu, Yi; Sullivan, Clair Julia; d'Errico, Francesco
2017-07-01
Direct readability is one advantage of superheated droplet detectors in neutron dosimetry. Utilizing such a distinct characteristic, an imaging readout system analyzes image of the detector for neutron dose readout. To improve the accuracy and precision of algorithms in the imaging readout system, machine learning algorithms were developed. Deep learning neural network and support vector machine algorithms are applied and compared with generally used Hough transform and curvature analysis methods. The machine learning methods showed a much higher accuracy and better precision in recognizing circular gas bubbles.
Translation Methods Applied in Translating Quotations in “the Secret” by Rhonda
FEBRIANTI, VICKY
2014-01-01
Keywords: Translation Methods, The Secret, Quotations.Translation helps human to get information written in any language evenwhen it is written in foreign languages. Therefore translation happens in printed media. Books have been popular printed media. The Secret written by Rhonda Byrne is a popular self-help book which has been translated into 50 languages including Indonesian (“The Secret”, n.d., para.5-6).This study is meant to find out the translation methods applied in The Secret. The wr...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McClelland, L
1980-10-01
Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)
Development of a tracking method for augmented reality applied to nuclear plant maintenance work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimoda, Hiroshi; Maeshima, Masayuki; Nakai, Toshinori; Bian, Zhiqiang; Ishii, Hirotake; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu
2005-01-01
In this paper, a plant maintenance support method is described, which employs the state-of-the-art information technology, Augmented Reality (AR), in order to improve efficiency of NPP maintenance work and to prevent from human error. Although AR has a great possibility to support various works in real world, it is difficult to apply it to actual work support because the tracking method is the bottleneck for the practical use. In this study, a bar code marker tracking method is proposed to apply AR system for a maintenance work support in NPP field. The proposed method calculates the users position and orientation in real time by two long markers, which are captured by the user-mounted camera. The markers can be easily pasted on the pipes in plant field, and they can be easily recognized in long distance in order to reduce the number of pasted markers in the work field. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory and plant field to evaluate the proposed method. The results show that (1) fast and stable tracking can be realized, (2) position error in camera view is less than 1%, which is almost perfect under the limitation of camera resolution, and (3) it is relatively difficult to catch two markers in one camera view especially in short distance
Coordinated Optimal Operation Method of the Regional Energy Internet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rishang Long
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The development of the energy internet has become one of the key ways to solve the energy crisis. This paper studies the system architecture, energy flow characteristics and coordinated optimization method of the regional energy internet. Considering the heat-to-electric ratio of a combined cooling, heating and power unit, energy storage life and real-time electricity price, a double-layer optimal scheduling model is proposed, which includes economic and environmental benefit in the upper layer and energy efficiency in the lower layer. A particle swarm optimizer–individual variation ant colony optimization algorithm is used to solve the computational efficiency and accuracy. Through the calculation and simulation of the simulated system, the energy savings, level of environmental protection and economic optimal dispatching scheme are realized.
Applying the response matrix method for solving coupled neutron diffusion and transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sibiya, G.S.
1980-01-01
The numerical determination of the flux and power distribution in the design of large power reactors is quite a time-consuming procedure if the space under consideration is to be subdivided into very fine weshes. Many computing methods applied in reactor physics (such as the finite-difference method) require considerable computing time. In this thesis it is shown that the response matrix method can be successfully used as an alternative approach to solving the two-dimension diffusion equation. Furthermore it is shown that sufficient accuracy of the method is achieved by assuming a linear space dependence of the neutron currents on the boundaries of the geometries defined for the given space. (orig.) [de
Garcia, Diego; Moro, Claudia Maria Cabral; Cicogna, Paulo Eduardo; Carvalho, Deborah Ribeiro
2013-01-01
Clinical guidelines are documents that assist healthcare professionals, facilitating and standardizing diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas. Computerized guidelines as decision support systems (DSS) attempt to increase the performance of tasks and facilitate the use of guidelines. Most DSS are not integrated into the electronic health record (EHR), ordering some degree of rework especially related to data collection. This study's objective was to present a method for integrating clinical guidelines into the EHR. The study developed first a way to identify data and rules contained in the guidelines, and then incorporate rules into an archetype-based EHR. The proposed method tested was anemia treatment in the Chronic Kidney Disease Guideline. The phases of the method are: data and rules identification; archetypes elaboration; rules definition and inclusion in inference engine; and DSS-EHR integration and validation. The main feature of the proposed method is that it is generic and can be applied toany type of guideline.
Lessons learned applying CASE methods/tools to Ada software development projects
Blumberg, Maurice H.; Randall, Richard L.
1993-01-01
This paper describes the lessons learned from introducing CASE methods/tools into organizations and applying them to actual Ada software development projects. This paper will be useful to any organization planning to introduce a software engineering environment (SEE) or evolving an existing one. It contains management level lessons learned, as well as lessons learned in using specific SEE tools/methods. The experiences presented are from Alpha Test projects established under the STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable and Reliable Systems) project. They reflect the front end efforts by those projects to understand the tools/methods, initial experiences in their introduction and use, and later experiences in the use of specific tools/methods and the introduction of new ones.
Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making
Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw
2015-01-27
Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.
Perturbation method for calculating impurity binding energy in an ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Nilanjan Sil
2017-12-18
Dec 18, 2017 ... Abstract. In the present paper, we have studied the binding energy of the shallow donor hydrogenic impurity, which is confined in an inhomogeneous cylindrical quantum dot (CQD) of GaAs-AlxGa1−xAs. Perturbation method is used to calculate the binding energy within the framework of effective mass ...
Least-cost model predictive control of residential energy resources when applying ?mCHP
Houwing, M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Heijnen, P.W.; De Schutter, B.; Hellendoorn, H.
2007-01-01
With an increasing use of distributed energy resources and intelligence in the electricity infrastructure, the possibilities for minimizing costs of household energy consumption increase. Technology is moving toward a situation in which households manage their own energy generation and consumption,
Unfolding methods in high-energy physics experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blobel, V.
1985-01-01
Distributions measured in high-energy physics experiments are often distorted or transformed by limited acceptance and finite resolution of the detectors. The unfolding of measured distributions is an important, but due to inherent instabilities a very difficult problem. Methods for unfolding, applicable for the analysis of high-energy physics experiments, and their properties are discussed. An introduction is given to the method of regularization. (orig.)
Unfolding methods in high-energy physics experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blobel, V.
1984-12-01
Distributions measured in high-energy physics experiments are often distorted or transformed by limited acceptance and finite resolution of the detectors. The unfolding of measured distributions is an important, but due to inherent instabilities a very difficult problem. Methods for unfolding, applicable for the analysis of high-energy physics experiments, and their properties are discussed. An introduction is given to the method of regularization. (orig.)
Intestinal colic in newborn babies: incidence and methods of proceeding applied by parents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Lewandowska
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal colic is one of the more frequent complaints that a general practitioner and paediatrician deal with in their work. 10-40% of babies formula fed and 10-20% breast fed are stricken by this complaint. A colic attack appears suddenly and very quickly causes energetic, squeaky cry or even scream. Colic attacks last for a few minutes and appear every 2-3 hours usually in the evenings. Specialist literature provides numerous definitions of intestinal colic. The concept was introduced for the first time to paediatric textbooks over 250 years ago. One of the most accurate definitions describe colic as recurring attacks of intensive cry and anxiety lasting for more than 3 hours a day, 3 days a week within 3 weeks. Care of a baby suffering from an intestinal colic causes numerous problems and anxiety among parents, therefore knowledge of effective methods to combat this complaint is a challenge for contemporary neonatology and paediatrics. The aim of the study is to estimate the incidence of intestinal colic in newborn babies formula and breast fed as well as to assess methods of proceeding applied by parents and analyze their effectiveness. Material and methods: The research involved 100 newborn babies breast fed and 100 formula fed, and their parents. The research method applied in the study was a diagnostic survey conducted by use of a questionnaire method. Results: Among examined newborn babies that were breast fed, 43% have experienced intestinal colic, while among those formula fed 30% have suffered from it. The study involved 44% new born female babies and 56% male babies. 52% of mothers were 30-34 years old, 30% 35-59 years old, and 17% 25-59 years old. When it comes to families, the most numerous was a group in good financial situation (60%. The second numerous group was that in average financial situation (40%. All the respondents claimed that they had the knowledge on intestinal colic and the main source of knowledge
Should methods of correction for multiple comparisons be applied in pharmacovigilance?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenza Scotti
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose. In pharmacovigilance, spontaneous reporting databases are devoted to the early detection of adverse event ‘signals’ of marketed drugs. A common limitation of these systems is the wide number of concurrently investigated associations, implying a high probability of generating positive signals simply by chance. However it is not clear if the application of methods aimed to adjust for the multiple testing problems are needed when at least some of the drug-outcome relationship under study are known. To this aim we applied a robust estimation method for the FDR (rFDR particularly suitable in the pharmacovigilance context. Methods. We exploited the data available for the SAFEGUARD project to apply the rFDR estimation methods to detect potential false positive signals of adverse reactions attributable to the use of non-insulin blood glucose lowering drugs. Specifically, the number of signals generated from the conventional disproportionality measures and after the application of the rFDR adjustment method was compared. Results. Among the 311 evaluable pairs (i.e., drug-event pairs with at least one adverse event report, 106 (34% signals were considered as significant from the conventional analysis. Among them 1 resulted in false positive signals according to rFDR method. Conclusions. The results of this study seem to suggest that when a restricted number of drug-outcome pairs is considered and warnings about some of them are known, multiple comparisons methods for recognizing false positive signals are not so useful as suggested by theoretical considerations.
Statistical homogeneity tests applied to large data sets from high energy physics experiments
Trusina, J.; Franc, J.; Kůs, V.
2017-12-01
Homogeneity tests are used in high energy physics for the verification of simulated Monte Carlo samples, it means if they have the same distribution as a measured data from particle detector. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, χ 2, and Anderson-Darling tests are the most used techniques to assess the samples’ homogeneity. Since MC generators produce plenty of entries from different models, each entry has to be re-weighted to obtain the same sample size as the measured data has. One way of the homogeneity testing is through the binning. If we do not want to lose any information, we can apply generalized tests based on weighted empirical distribution functions. In this paper, we propose such generalized weighted homogeneity tests and introduce some of their asymptotic properties. We present the results based on numerical analysis which focuses on estimations of the type-I error and power of the test. Finally, we present application of our homogeneity tests to data from the experiment DØ in Fermilab.
Tuning the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne by applying strain and electric field
Yang, Hang; Wu, Wen-Zhi; Jin, Yu; Wan-Lin, Guo
2016-02-01
Our density functional theory calculations show that the energy gap of bilayer α-graphyne can be modulated by a vertically applied electric field and interlayer strain. Like bilayer graphene, the bilayer α-graphyne has electronic properties that are hardly changed under purely mechanical strain, while an external electric field can open the gap up to 120 meV. It is of special interest that compressive strain can further enlarge the field induced gap up to 160 meV, while tensile strain reduces the gap. We attribute the gap variation to the novel interlayer charge redistribution between bilayer α-graphynes. These findings shed light on the modulation of Dirac cone structures and potential applications of graphyne in mechanical-electric devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB932604 and 2012CB933403), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51472117 and 51535005), the Research Fund of State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, China (Grant No. 0414K01), the Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (NUAA) Fundamental Research Funds, China (Grant No. NP2015203), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tumelero, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.tumelero@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana, E-mail: claudiopeteren@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: gleniogoncalves@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: luana-lazzari@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (DME/UFPEL), Capao do Leao, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Matematica
2015-07-01
In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)
Power secant method applied to natural frequency extraction of Timoshenko beam structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C.A.N. Dias
Full Text Available This work deals with an improved plane frame formulation whose exact dynamic stiffness matrix (DSM presents, uniquely, null determinant for the natural frequencies. In comparison with the classical DSM, the formulation herein presented has some major advantages: local mode shapes are preserved in the formulation so that, for any positive frequency, the DSM will never be ill-conditioned; in the absence of poles, it is possible to employ the secant method in order to have a more computationally efficient eigenvalue extraction procedure. Applying the procedure to the more general case of Timoshenko beams, we introduce a new technique, named "power deflation", that makes the secant method suitable for the transcendental nonlinear eigenvalue problems based on the improved DSM. In order to avoid overflow occurrences that can hinder the secant method iterations, limiting frequencies are formulated, with scaling also applied to the eigenvalue problem. Comparisons with results available in the literature demonstrate the strength of the proposed method. Computational efficiency is compared with solutions obtained both by FEM and by the Wittrick-Williams algorithm.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tumelero, Fernanda; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Goncalves, Glenio A.; Lazzari, Luana
2015-01-01
In this work, we present a solution of the Neutron Point Kinetics Equations with temperature feedback effects applying the Polynomial Approach Method. For the solution, we consider one and six groups of delayed neutrons precursors with temperature feedback effects and constant reactivity. The main idea is to expand the neutron density, delayed neutron precursors and temperature as a power series considering the reactivity as an arbitrary function of the time in a relatively short time interval around an ordinary point. In the first interval one applies the initial conditions of the problem and the analytical continuation is used to determine the solutions of the next intervals. With the application of the Polynomial Approximation Method it is possible to overcome the stiffness problem of the equations. In such a way, one varies the time step size of the Polynomial Approach Method and performs an analysis about the precision and computational time. Moreover, we compare the method with different types of approaches (linear, quadratic and cubic) of the power series. The answer of neutron density and temperature obtained by numerical simulations with linear approximation are compared with results in the literature. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vianna Filho, Alfredo Marques
2009-01-01
The economic equipment replacement problem is a central question in Nuclear Engineering. On the one hand, new equipment are more attractive given their best performance, better reliability, lower maintenance cost etc. New equipment, however, require a higher initial investment. On the other hand, old equipment represent the other way around, with lower performance, lower reliability and specially higher maintenance costs, but in contrast having lower financial and insurance costs. The weighting of all these costs can be made with deterministic and probabilistic methods applied to the study of equipment replacement. Two types of distinct problems will be examined, substitution imposed by the wearing and substitution imposed by the failures. In order to solve the problem of nuclear system substitution imposed by wearing, deterministic methods are discussed. In order to solve the problem of nuclear system substitution imposed by failures, probabilistic methods are discussed. The aim of this paper is to present a methodological framework to the choice of the most useful method applied in the problem of nuclear system substitution.(author)
Energy loss optimization of run-off-road wheels applying imperialist competitive algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hamid Taghavifar
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The novel imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA has presented outstanding fitness on various optimization problems. Application of meta-heuristics has been a dynamic studying interest of the reliability optimization to determine idleness and reliability constituents. The application of a meta-heuristic evolutionary optimization method, imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA, for minimization of energy loss due to wheel rolling resistance in a soil bin facility equipped with single-wheel tester is discussed. The required data were collected thorough various designed experiments in the controlled soil bin environment. Local and global searching of the search space proposed that the energy loss could be reduced to the minimum amount of 15.46 J at the optimized input variable configuration of wheel load at 1.2 kN, tire inflation pressure of 296 kPa and velocity of 2 m/s. Meanwhile, genetic algorithm (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO and hybridized GA–PSO approaches were benchmarked among the broad spectrum of meta-heuristics to find the outperforming approach. It was deduced that, on account of the obtained results, ICA can achieve optimum configuration with superior accuracy in less required computational time.
Biomass Residues to Renewable Energy: A Life Cycle Perspective Applied at a Local Scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Esmeralda Neri
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Italy, like every country member of the European Union (EU, will have to achieve the objectives required by the Energy Roadmap 2050. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of residue recovery arising from the management of public and private green feedstocks, activity of the cooperative “Green City” in the Bologna district, and usage in a centralized heating system to produce thermal energy for public buildings. Results, obtained using the ReCipe impact assessment method, are compared with scores achieved by a traditional methane boiler. The study shows some advantages of the biomass-based system in terms of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions and consumption of non-renewable fuels, which affect climate change (−41% and fossil resources depletion (−40%, compared to the use of natural gas (NG. Moreover, scores from network analysis denote the great contribution of feedstock transportation (98% of the cumulative impact. The main reason is attributable to all requirements to cover distances, in particular due to stages involved in the fuel supply chains. Therefore, it is clear that greater environmental benefits could be achieved by reducing supply transport distances or using more sustainable engines.
Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varman, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.
2006-01-01
The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification
Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2006-10-15
The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.
Ferreira, H.L.; Staňková, K.; Peças Lopes, J.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.
2017-01-01
This paper deals with integration of energy storage systems into electricity markets. We explain why the energy storage systems increase flexibility of both power systems and energy markets and why such flexibility is desirable, particularly when variable renewable energy sources are being used in
A New Method for Local Energy Planning in Developing Countries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Beeck, N.
2001-01-01
Energy planning is an essential tool in the economic development of industrialized as well as developing countries. Energy planning in this paper is restricted to the selection of new energy systems for the production of proper energy forms in order to meet increased energy demand. This demand is actually the desire for certain energy services, which are the starting point of the new decision support method for local energy planning presented in this paper. In the decision making process concerning energy planning at the local level it is important to include context-related issues because the context determines for a large part the viability of the technologies or systems used. The context, in turn, is represented by the aims of the relevant actors, which are translated into measurable indicators to compare the different options. The impact assessment must allow for inclusion of all the indicators, either quantitative or qualitative in order to find the most appropriate technology for a region rather than the technically best or economically most optimal one. Appropriateness is defined by the context and is thus case specific, but the framework described in this paper is generally applicable within the given limitations. Note that the new method described in this paper is a decision support tool, implying that it does not decide for the energy planner which actions to take. The ultimate decision must be made by the planners themselves
Solution and study of nodal neutron transport equation applying the LTSN-DiagExp method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauser, Eliete Biasotto; Pazos, Ruben Panta; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de; Barros, Ricardo Carvalho de
2003-01-01
In this paper we report advances about the three-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of neutron transport equation for Cartesian geometry. We use the combined collocation method of the angular variables and nodal approach for the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the iterated transverse integration of the S N equations. This procedure leads to the set of one-dimensional averages angular fluxes in each spatial variable. The resulting system of equations is solved with the LTS N method, first applying the Laplace transform to the set of the nodal S N equations and then obtained the solution by symbolic computation. We include the LTS N method by diagonalization to solve the nodal neutron transport equation and then we outline the convergence of these nodal-LTS N approximations with the help of a norm associated to the quadrature formula used to approximate the integral term of the neutron transport equation. (author)
Artificial intelligence methods applied for quantitative analysis of natural radioactive sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Medhat, M.E.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Basic description of artificial neural networks. ► Natural gamma ray sources and problem of detections. ► Application of neural network for peak detection and activity determination. - Abstract: Artificial neural network (ANN) represents one of artificial intelligence methods in the field of modeling and uncertainty in different applications. The objective of the proposed work was focused to apply ANN to identify isotopes and to predict uncertainties of their activities of some natural radioactive sources. The method was tested for analyzing gamma-ray spectra emitted from natural radionuclides in soil samples detected by a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry based on HPGe (high purity germanium). The principle of the suggested method is described, including, relevant input parameters definition, input data scaling and networks training. It is clear that there is satisfactory agreement between obtained and predicted results using neural network.
A reflective lens: applying critical systems thinking and visual methods to ecohealth research.
Cleland, Deborah; Wyborn, Carina
2010-12-01
Critical systems methodology has been advocated as an effective and ethical way to engage with the uncertainty and conflicting values common to ecohealth problems. We use two contrasting case studies, coral reef management in the Philippines and national park management in Australia, to illustrate the value of critical systems approaches in exploring how people respond to environmental threats to their physical and spiritual well-being. In both cases, we used visual methods--participatory modeling and rich picturing, respectively. The critical systems methodology, with its emphasis on reflection, guided an appraisal of the research process. A discussion of these two case studies suggests that visual methods can be usefully applied within a critical systems framework to offer new insights into ecohealth issues across a diverse range of socio-political contexts. With this article, we hope to open up a conversation with other practitioners to expand the use of visual methods in integrated research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Mitsutoshi; Hori, Masato; Asou, Ryoji; Usuda, Shigekazu
2006-01-01
The multiscale statistical process control (MSSPC) method is applied to clarify the elements of material unaccounted for (MUF) in large scale reprocessing plants using numerical calculations. Continuous wavelet functions are used to decompose the process data, which simulate batch operation superimposed by various types of disturbance, and the disturbance components included in the data are divided into time and frequency spaces. The diagnosis of MSSPC is applied to distinguish abnormal events from the process data and shows how to detect abrupt and protracted diversions using principle component analysis. Quantitative performance of MSSPC for the time series data is shown with average run lengths given by Monte-Carlo simulation to compare to the non-detection probability β. Recent discussion about bias corrections in material balances is introduced and another approach is presented to evaluate MUF without assuming the measurement error model. (author)
The reduction method of statistic scale applied to study of climatic change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernal Suarez, Nestor Ricardo; Molina Lizcano, Alicia; Martinez Collantes, Jorge; Pabon Jose Daniel
2000-01-01
In climate change studies the global circulation models of the atmosphere (GCMAs) enable one to simulate the global climate, with the field variables being represented on a grid points 300 km apart. One particular interest concerns the simulation of possible changes in rainfall and surface air temperature due to an assumed increase of greenhouse gases. However, the models yield the climatic projections on grid points that in most cases do not correspond to the sites of major interest. To achieve local estimates of the climatological variables, methods like the one known as statistical down scaling are applied. In this article we show a case in point by applying canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to the Guajira Region in the northeast of Colombia
Parallel Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods Applied to Coupled Orbit/Attitude Propagation
Hatten, Noble; Russell, Ryan P.
2017-12-01
A variable-step Gauss-Legendre implicit Runge-Kutta (GLIRK) propagator is applied to coupled orbit/attitude propagation. Concepts previously shown to improve efficiency in 3DOF propagation are modified and extended to the 6DOF problem, including the use of variable-fidelity dynamics models. The impact of computing the stage dynamics of a single step in parallel is examined using up to 23 threads and 22 associated GLIRK stages; one thread is reserved for an extra dynamics function evaluation used in the estimation of the local truncation error. Efficiency is found to peak for typical examples when using approximately 8 to 12 stages for both serial and parallel implementations. Accuracy and efficiency compare favorably to explicit Runge-Kutta and linear-multistep solvers for representative scenarios. However, linear-multistep methods are found to be more efficient for some applications, particularly in a serial computing environment, or when parallelism can be applied across multiple trajectories.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SABOU FELICIA
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF APPLYING EVOLVED METHODS IN MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING PRACTICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SABOU FELICIA
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The evolved methods of management accounting have been developed with the purpose of removing the disadvantages of the classical methods, they are methods adapted to the new market conditions, which provide much more useful cost-related information so that the management of the company is able to take certain strategic decisions. Out of the category of evolved methods, the most used is the one of standard-costs due to the advantages that it presents, being used widely in calculating the production costs in some developed countries. The main advantages of the standard-cost method are: in-advance knowledge of the production costs and the measures that ensure compliance to these; with the help of the deviations calculated from the standard costs, one manages a systematic control over the costs, thus allowing the making of decision in due time, in as far as the elimination of the deviations and the improvement of the activity are concerned and it is a method of analysis, control and cost forecast; Although the advantages of using standards are significant, there are a few disadvantages to the employment of the standard-cost method: sometimes there can appear difficulties in establishing the deviations from the standard costs, the method does not allow an accurate calculation of the fixed costs. As a result of the study, we can observe the fact that the evolved methods of management accounting, as compared to the classical ones, present a series of advantages linked to a better analysis, control, and foreseeing of costs, whereas the main disadvantage is related to the large amount of work necessary for these methods to be applied
Energy Smart Schools--Applied Research, Field Testing, and Technology Integration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nebiat Solomon; Robin Vieira; William L. Manz; Abby Vogen; Claudia Orlando; Kimberlie A. Schryer
2004-12-01
The National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) in conjunction with the California Energy Commission, the Energy Center of Wisconsin, the Florida Solar Energy Center, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, and the Ohio Department of Development's Office of Energy Efficiency conducted a four-year, cost-share project with the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy to focus on energy efficiency and high-performance technologies in our nation's schools. NASEO was the program lead for the MOU-State Schools Working group, established in conjunction with the USDOE Memorandum of Understanding process for collaboration among state and federal energy research and demonstration offices and organizations. The MOU-State Schools Working Group included State Energy Offices and other state energy research organizations from all regions of the country. Through surveys and analyses, the Working Group determined the school-related energy priorities of the states and established a set of tasks to be accomplished, including the installation and evaluation of microturbines, advanced daylighting research, testing of schools and classrooms, and integrated school building technologies. The Energy Smart Schools project resulted in the adoption of advanced energy efficiency technologies in both the renovation of existing schools and building of new ones; the education of school administrators, architects, engineers, and manufacturers nationwide about the energy-saving, economic, and environmental benefits of energy efficiency technologies; and improved the learning environment for the nation's students through use of better temperature controls, improvements in air quality, and increased daylighting in classrooms. It also provided an opportunity for states to share and replicate successful projects to increase their energy efficiency while at the same time driving down their energy costs.
Accelerated weight histogram method for exploring free energy landscapes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lindahl, V.; Lidmar, J.; Hess, B. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Swedish e-Science Research Center, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
2014-07-28
Calculating free energies is an important and notoriously difficult task for molecular simulations. The rapid increase in computational power has made it possible to probe increasingly complex systems, yet extracting accurate free energies from these simulations remains a major challenge. Fully exploring the free energy landscape of, say, a biological macromolecule typically requires sampling large conformational changes and slow transitions. Often, the only feasible way to study such a system is to simulate it using an enhanced sampling method. The accelerated weight histogram (AWH) method is a new, efficient extended ensemble sampling technique which adaptively biases the simulation to promote exploration of the free energy landscape. The AWH method uses a probability weight histogram which allows for efficient free energy updates and results in an easy discretization procedure. A major advantage of the method is its general formulation, making it a powerful platform for developing further extensions and analyzing its relation to already existing methods. Here, we demonstrate its efficiency and general applicability by calculating the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate for both a single dimension and multiple dimensions. We make use of a non-uniform, free energy dependent target distribution in reaction coordinate space so that computational efforts are not wasted on physically irrelevant regions. We present numerical results for molecular dynamics simulations of lithium acetate in solution and chignolin, a 10-residue long peptide that folds into a β-hairpin. We further present practical guidelines for setting up and running an AWH simulation.
A Laplace transform method for energy multigroup hybrid discrete ordinates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segatto, C.F.; Vilhena, M.T.; Barros, R.C.
2010-01-01
In typical lattice cells where a highly absorbing, small fuel element is embedded in the moderator, a large weakly absorbing medium, high-order transport methods become unnecessary. In this work we describe a hybrid discrete ordinates (S N) method for energy multigroup slab lattice calculations. This hybrid S N method combines the convenience of a low-order S N method in the moderator with a high-order S N method in the fuel. The idea is based on the fact that in weakly absorbing media whose physical size is several neutron mean free paths in extent, even the S 2 method (P 1 approximation), leads to an accurate result. We use special fuel-moderator interface conditions and the Laplace transform (LTS N ) analytical numerical method to calculate the two-energy group neutron flux distributions and the thermal disadvantage factor. We present numerical results for a range of typical model problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stocker, Andrea; Grossmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo
2011-01-01
This paper reports on the Austrian research project 'Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020'. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006-2020, using the integrated environment-energy-economy model 'e3.at'. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. - Highlights: → Together with stakeholders three renewable energy scenarios for Austria were defined. → The scenarios were simulated using an integrated environment-energy-economy model. → Increasing the share of renewables in total energy use is important but insufficient. → Efficiency and a cut of energy use are also essential for a sustainable energy system.
Green close-quote s function method with energy-independent vertex functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsay Tzeng, S.Y.; Kuo, T.T.; Tzeng, Y.; Geyer, H.B.; Navratil, P.
1996-01-01
In conventional Green close-quote s function methods the vertex function Γ is generally energy dependent. However, a model-space Green close-quote s function method where the vertex function is manifestly energy independent can be formulated using energy-independent effective interaction theories based on folded diagrams and/or similarity transformations. This is discussed in general and then illustrated for a 1p1h model-space Green close-quote s function applied to a solvable Lipkin many-fermion model. The poles of the conventional Green close-quote s function are obtained by solving a self-consistent Dyson equation and model space calculations may lead to unphysical poles. For the energy-independent model-space Green close-quote s function only the physical poles of the model problem are reproduced and are in satisfactory agreement with the exact excitation energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djemaa, A.
2009-01-01
Among the energy users in France and Europe, some industrial sectors are very important and should have a key role when assessing the final energy demand patterns in the future. The aim of our work is to apply a prospective model for the long range analysis of energy/technology choices in the industrial sector, focussing on the energy-intensive sectors. The modelling tool applied in this study is the TIMES model (family of best known MARKAL model). It is an economic linear programming model generator for local, national or multi regional energy systems, which provides a technology-rich basis for estimating energy dynamics over a long term, multi period time. We illustrate our work with nine energy-intensive industrial sectors: paper, steel, glass, cement, lime, tiles, brick, ceramics and plaster. It includes a detailed description of the processes involved in the production of industrial products, providing typical energy uses in each process step. In our analysis, we identified for each industry, several commercially available state-of-the-art technologies, characterized and chosen by the Model on the basis of cost effectiveness. Furthermore, we calculated potential energy savings, carbon dioxide emissions' reduction and we estimated the energy impact of a technological rupture. This work indicates that there still exists a significant potential for energy savings and carbon dioxide emissions' reduction in all industries. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
May, Gökan; Barletta, Ilaria; Stahl, Bojan; Taisch, Marco
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We propose a 7-step methodology to develop firm-tailored energy-related KPIs (e-KPIs). • We provide a practical guide for companies to identify their most important e-KPIs. • e-KPIs support identification of energy efficiency improvement areas in production. • The method employs an action plan for achieving energy saving targets. • The paper strengthens theoretical base for energy-based decision making in manufacturing. - Abstract: Measuring energy efficiency performance of equipments, processes and factories is the first step to effective energy management in production. Thus, enabled energy-related information allows the assessment of the progress of manufacturing companies toward their energy efficiency goals. In that respect, the study addresses this challenge where current industrial approaches lack the means and appropriate performance indicators to compare energy-use profiles of machines and processes, and for the comparison of their energy efficiency performance to that of competitors’. Focusing on this challenge, the main objective of the paper is to present a method which supports manufacturing companies in the development of energy-based performance indicators. For this purpose, we provide a 7-step method to develop production-tailored and energy-related key performance indicators (e-KPIs). These indicators allow the interpretation of cause-effect relationships and therefore support companies in their operative decision-making process. Consequently, the proposed method supports the identification of weaknesses and areas for energy efficiency improvements related to the management of production and operations. The study therefore aims to strengthen the theoretical base necessary to support energy-based decision making in manufacturing industries
The Fractional Step Method Applied to Simulations of Natural Convective Flows
Westra, Douglas G.; Heinrich, Juan C.; Saxon, Jeff (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
This paper describes research done to apply the Fractional Step Method to finite-element simulations of natural convective flows in pure liquids, permeable media, and in a directionally solidified metal alloy casting. The Fractional Step Method has been applied commonly to high Reynold's number flow simulations, but is less common for low Reynold's number flows, such as natural convection in liquids and in permeable media. The Fractional Step Method offers increased speed and reduced memory requirements by allowing non-coupled solution of the pressure and the velocity components. The Fractional Step Method has particular benefits for predicting flows in a directionally solidified alloy, since other methods presently employed are not very efficient. Previously, the most suitable method for predicting flows in a directionally solidified binary alloy was the penalty method. The penalty method requires direct matrix solvers, due to the penalty term. The Fractional Step Method allows iterative solution of the finite element stiffness matrices, thereby allowing more efficient solution of the matrices. The Fractional Step Method also lends itself to parallel processing, since the velocity component stiffness matrices can be built and solved independently of each other. The finite-element simulations of a directionally solidified casting are used to predict macrosegregation in directionally solidified castings. In particular, the finite-element simulations predict the existence of 'channels' within the processing mushy zone and subsequently 'freckles' within the fully processed solid, which are known to result from macrosegregation, or what is often referred to as thermo-solutal convection. These freckles cause material property non-uniformities in directionally solidified castings; therefore many of these castings are scrapped. The phenomenon of natural convection in an alloy under-going directional solidification, or thermo-solutal convection, will be explained. The
Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia
2016-01-01
Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bailing Liu
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.
The Inverse System Method Applied to the Derivation of Power System Non—linear Control Laws
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DonghaiLI; XuezhiJIANG; 等
1997-01-01
The differential geometric method has been applied to a series of power system non-linear control problems effectively.However a set of differential equations must be solved for obtaining the required diffeomorphic transformation.Therefore the derivation of control laws is very complicated.In fact because of the specificity of power system models the required diffeomorphic transformation may be obtained directly,so it is unnecessary to solve a set of differential equations.In addition inverse system method is equivalent to differential geometric method in reality and not limited to affine nonlinear systems,Its physical meaning is able to be viewed directly and its deduction needs only algebraic operation and derivation,so control laws can be obtained easily and the application to engineering is very convenient.Authors of this paper take steam valving control of power system as a typical case to be studied.It is demonstrated that the control law deduced by inverse system method is just the same as one by differential geometric method.The conclusion will simplify the control law derivations of steam valving,excitation,converter and static var compensator by differential geometric method and may be suited to similar control problems in other areas.
Comparison of Heuristic Methods Applied for Optimal Operation of Water Resources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alireza Borhani Dariane
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Water resources optimization problems are usually complex and hard to solve using the ordinary optimization methods, or they are at least not economically efficient. A great number of studies have been conducted in quest of suitable methods capable of handling such problems. In recent years, some new heuristic methods such as genetic and ant algorithms have been introduced in systems engineering. Preliminary applications of these methods in water resources problems have shown that some of them are powerful tools, capable of solving complex problems. In this paper, the application of such heuristic methods as Genetic Algorithm (GA and Ant Colony Optimization (ACO have been studied for optimizing reservoir operation. The Dez Dam reservoir inIranwas chosen for a case study. The methods were applied and compared using short-term (one year and long-term models. Comparison of the results showed that GA outperforms both DP and ACO in finding true global optimum solutions and operating rules.
Boundary element methods applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itagaki, Masafumi
1985-01-01
The Boundary element method (BEM) has been applied to two-dimensional neutron diffusion problems. The boundary integral equation and its discretized form have been derived. Some numerical techniques have been developed, which can be applied to critical and fixed-source problems including multi-region ones. Two types of test programs have been developed according to whether the 'zero-determinant search' or the 'source iteration' technique is adopted for criticality search. Both programs require only the fluxes and currents on boundaries as the unknown variables. The former allows a reduction in computing time and memory in comparison with the finite element method (FEM). The latter is not always efficient in terms of computing time due to the domain integral related to the inhomogeneous source term; however, this domain integral can be replaced by the equivalent boundary integral for a region with a non-multiplying medium or with a uniform source, resulting in a significant reduction in computing time. The BEM, as well as the FEM, is well suited for solving irregular geometrical problems for which the finite difference method (FDM) is unsuited. The BEM also solves problems with infinite domains, which cannot be solved by the ordinary FEM and FDM. Some simple test calculations are made to compare the BEM with the FEM and FDM, and discussions are made concerning the relative merits of the BEM and problems requiring future solution. (author)
Methodical basis of training of cadets for the military applied heptathlon competitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.V. Anatskyi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop methodical bases of training of cadets for the military applied heptathlon competitions. Material and methods: Cadets of 2-3 courses at the age of 19-20 years (n=20 participated in researches. Cadets were selected by the best results of exercises performing included into the program of military applied heptathlon competitions (100 m run, 50 m freestyle swimming, Kalashnikov rifle shooting, pull-up, obstacle course, grenade throwing, 3000 m run. Preparation took place on the basis of training center. All trainings were organized and carried out according to the methodical basics: in a week preparation microcycle five days cadets had two trainings a day (on Saturday was one training, on Sunday they had rest. The selected exercises with individual loads were performed, Results : Sport scores demonstrated top results in the performance of 100 m run, 3000 m run and pull-up. The indices of performing exercise "obstacle course" were much lower than expected. Rather low results were demonstrated in swimming and shooting. Conclusions . Results of researches indicate the necessity of quality improvement: cadets’ weapons proficiency; physical readiness to perform the exercises requiring complex demonstration of all physical qualities.
On the method of calibration of the energy dispersive EXAFS ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
samples, whose absorption edge energies are well-established. .... bend the crystal to take shape of an ellipse (Lee et al 1994). ..... Kelly S D, Hesterberg D and Ravel B 2008 Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 5, Mineralogical Methods,. Chapter ...
Nutrient Runoff Losses from Liquid Dairy Manure Applied with Low-Disturbance Methods.
Jokela, William; Sherman, Jessica; Cavadini, Jason
2016-09-01
Manure applied to cropland is a source of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) in surface runoff and can contribute to impairment of surface waters. Tillage immediately after application incorporates manure into the soil, which may reduce nutrient loss in runoff as well as N loss via NH volatilization. However, tillage also incorporates crop residue, which reduces surface cover and may increase erosion potential. We applied liquid dairy manure in a silage corn ( L.)-cereal rye ( L.) cover crop system in late October using methods designed to incorporate manure with minimal soil and residue disturbance. These include strip-till injection and tine aerator-band manure application, which were compared with standard broadcast application, either incorporated with a disk or left on the surface. Runoff was generated with a portable rainfall simulator (42 mm h for 30 min) three separate times: (i) 2 to 5 d after the October manure application, (ii) in early spring, and (iii) after tillage and planting. In the postmanure application runoff, the highest losses of total P and dissolved reactive P were from surface-applied manure. Dissolved P loss was reduced 98% by strip-till injection; this result was not statistically different from the no-manure control. Reductions from the aerator band method and disk incorporation were 53 and 80%, respectively. Total P losses followed a similar pattern, with 87% reduction from injected manure. Runoff losses of N had generally similar patterns to those of P. Losses of P and N were, in most cases, lower in the spring rain simulations with fewer significant treatment effects. Overall, results show that low-disturbance manure application methods can significantly reduce nutrient runoff losses compared with surface application while maintaining residue cover better than incorporation by tillage. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density: effects on daily energy intake
Williams, Rachel A.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.
2013-01-01
Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for four weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either sta...
Assessment of Cultivation Method for Energy Beet Based on LCA Method
Zhang, Chunfeng; Liu, Feng; Zu, Yuangang; Meng, Qingying; Zhu, Baoguo; Wang, Nannan
2014-01-01
In order to establish a supply system for energy resource coupled with the environment, the production technology of sugar beets was explored as a biological energy source. The low-humic andosol as the experimental soil, the panting method was direct planting, and cultivation technique was minimum tillage direct planting method. The control was conventional tillage transplant and no tillage direct planting. The results demonstrated that data revealed that the energy cost of no tillage and a d...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aly, Omar Fernandes; Andrade, Arnaldo Paes de; MattarNeto, Miguel; Aoki, Idalina Vieira
2002-01-01
This paper aims to collect information and to discuss the electrochemical noise measurements and the reversing dc potential drop method, applied to stress corrosion essays that can be used to evaluate the nucleation and the increase of stress corrosion cracking in Alloy 600 and/or Alloy 182 specimens from Angra I Nuclear Power Plant. Therefore we will pretend to establish a standard procedure to essays to be realized on the new autoclave equipment on the Laboratorio de Eletroquimica e Corrosao do Departamento de Engenharia Quimica da Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo - Electrochemical and Corrosion Laboratory of the Chemical Engineering Department of Polytechnical School of Sao Paulo University, Brazil. (author)
Making Design Decisions Visible: Applying the Case-Based Method in Designing Online Instruction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heng Luo,
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The instructional intervention in this design case is a self-directed online tutorial that applies the case-based method to teach educators how to design and conduct entrepreneurship programs for elementary school students. In this article, the authors describe the major decisions made in each phase of the design and development process, explicate the rationales behind them, and demonstrate their effect on the production of the tutorial. Based on such analysis, the guidelines for designing case-based online instruction are summarized for the design case.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, R.S.; Thompson, D.A.; Poehlman, S.W.
1977-01-01
The application of single, plural or multiple scattering theories to the determination of defect dechanneling in channeling-backscattering disorder measurements is re-examined. A semiempirical modification to the method is described that results in making the extracted disorder and disorder distribution relatively insensitive to the scattering model employed. The various models and modifications have been applied to the 1 to 2 MeV He + channeling-backscatter data obtained from 20 to 80 keV H + to Ne + bombarded Si, GaP and GaAs at 50 K and 300 K. (author)
Zoltàn Dörnyei, Research Methods in Applied Linguistics
Marie-Françoise Narcy-Combes
2012-01-01
Research Methods in Applied Linguistics est un ouvrage pratique et accessible qui s’adresse en priorité au chercheur débutant et au doctorant en linguistique appliquée et en didactique des langues pour lesquels il représente un accompagnement fort utile. Son style clair et son organisation sans surprise en font une lecture facile et agréable et rendent les différents concepts aisément compréhensibles pour tous. Il présente un bilan de la méthodologie de la recherche en linguistique appliquée,...
Cork-resin ablative insulation for complex surfaces and method for applying the same
Walker, H. M.; Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
A method of applying cork-resin ablative insulation material to complex curved surfaces is disclosed. The material is prepared by mixing finely divided cork with a B-stage curable thermosetting resin, forming the resulting mixture into a block, B-stage curing the resin-containing block, and slicing the block into sheets. The B-stage cured sheet is shaped to conform to the surface being insulated, and further curing is then performed. Curing of the resins only to B-stage before shaping enables application of sheet material to complex curved surfaces and avoids limitations and disadvantages presented in handling of fully cured sheet material.
Perturbative methods applied for sensitive coefficients calculations in thermal-hydraulic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrade Lima, F.R. de
1993-01-01
The differential formalism and the Generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) are applied to sensitivity analysis of thermal-hydraulics problems related to pressurized water reactor cores. The equations describing the thermal-hydraulic behavior of these reactors cores, used in COBRA-IV-I code, are conveniently written. The importance function related to the response of interest and the sensitivity coefficient of this response with respect to various selected parameters are obtained by using Differential and Generalized Perturbation Theory. The comparison among the results obtained with the application of these perturbative methods and those obtained directly with the model developed in COBRA-IV-I code shows a very good agreement. (author)
CO2 (carbon dioxide) fixation by applying new chemical absorption-precipitation methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Sangwon; Lee, Min-Gu; Park, Jinwon
2013-01-01
CO 2 (carbon dioxide) is the most common greenhouse gas and most of it is emitted from human activities. The methods for CO 2 emission reduction can be divided into physical, chemical, and biochemical methods. Among the physical and chemical methods, CCS (carbon capture and storage) is a well-known reducing technology. However, this method has many disadvantages including the required storage area. In general, CCS requires capture and storage processes. In this study, we propose a method for reusing the absorbed CO 2 either in nature or in industry. The emitted CO 2 was converted into CO 3 2− using a conversion solution, and then made into a carbonate by combining the conversion solution with metal ions at normal temperature and pressure. The resulting carbonate was analyzed using FT-IR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffraction). We verified the formation of a solid consisting of calcite and vaterite. In addition, the conversion solution that was used could be reused in the same process of CCS technology. Our study demonstrates a successful method of reducing and reusing emitted CO 2 , thereby making CO 2 a potential future resource. - Highlights: • This study focused on a new CO 2 fixation process method. • In CCS technology, the desorption process requires high thermal energy consumption. • This new method does not require a desorption process because the CO 2 is accomplished through CaCO 3 crystallization. • A new absorption method is possible instead of the conventional absorption-desorption process. • This is not only a rapid reaction for fixing CO 2 , but also economically feasible
Generalized ensemble method applied to study systems with strong first order transitions
Małolepsza, E.; Kim, J.; Keyes, T.
2015-09-01
At strong first-order phase transitions, the entropy versus energy or, at constant pressure, enthalpy, exhibits convex behavior, and the statistical temperature curve correspondingly exhibits an S-loop or back-bending. In the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles, with temperature as the control variable, the probability density functions become bimodal with peaks localized outside of the S-loop region. Inside, states are unstable, and as a result simulation of equilibrium phase coexistence becomes impossible. To overcome this problem, a method was proposed by Kim, Keyes and Straub [1], where optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling was combined with replica exchange, and denoted generalized replica exchange method (gREM). This new technique uses parametrized effective sampling weights that lead to a unimodal energy distribution, transforming unstable states into stable ones. In the present study, the gREM, originally developed as a Monte Carlo algorithm, was implemented to work with molecular dynamics in an isobaric ensemble and coded into LAMMPS, a highly optimized open source molecular simulation package. The method is illustrated in a study of the very strong solid/liquid transition in water.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jang-Soo; Cho, Sung-Jin; Jung, Hae-Young; Lee, Ki-Bae; Seo, Yong-Chil
2010-01-01
In 2007 total waste generation rate in Korea was 318,670 ton,day. In general waste generation rate shows rising trend since 2000. Wastes are composed of municipal waste 14.9 % industrial waste 34.1 % and construction waste 51.0 %. Treatment of wastes by recycling was 81.1 % landfill 11.1 % incineration 5.3 % and ocean dumping 2.4 %. National waste energy policies have been influenced by various factors such as environmental problem economy technology level (could be made energy), and so on. Korea has the worlds third dense population density environmental pollution load per unit land area is the highest in OECD countries caused due to the fast development in economy, industrialization and urbanization in recent. Also, land area per person is just 2,072 m 2 . Landfill capacity reaches the upper limit, industrial waste generation is increasing. Searching new-renewable energy is vital to substitute fossil fuel considering its increasing price. Korea is the world's 10th biggest energy consuming country and 97% of energy depends on importing. Korea aims to increases supply of new-renewable energy by 5% until the 2011. In this study, we computed the amount of combustible waste from municipality generated by the multiple regression analysis. The existing technologies for converting waste to energy were surveyed and the technologies under development or utilizing in future were also investigated. Based on the technology utilization, the amount of energy using waste to energy technology could be estimated in future. (author)
Basic and applied research related to the technology of space energy conversion systems, 1982 - 1983
Hertzberg, A.
1983-01-01
Topics on solar energy conversion concepts and applications are discussed. An overview of the current status and future utilization of radiation receivers for electrical energy generation, liquid droplet radiation systems, and liquid droplet heat exchangers is presented.
Brezina, Tadej; Graser, Anita; Leth, Ulrich
2017-04-01
Space, and in particular public space for movement and leisure, is a valuable and scarce resource, especially in today's growing urban centres. The distribution and absolute amount of urban space—especially the provision of sufficient pedestrian areas, such as sidewalks—is considered crucial for shaping living and mobility options as well as transport choices. Ubiquitous urban data collection and today's IT capabilities offer new possibilities for providing a relation-preserving overview and for keeping track of infrastructure changes. This paper presents three novel methods for estimating representative sidewalk widths and applies them to the official Viennese streetscape surface database. The first two methods use individual pedestrian area polygons and their geometrical representations of minimum circumscribing and maximum inscribing circles to derive a representative width of these individual surfaces. The third method utilizes aggregated pedestrian areas within the buffered street axis and results in a representative width for the corresponding road axis segment. Results are displayed as city-wide means in a 500 by 500 m grid and spatial autocorrelation based on Moran's I is studied. We also compare the results between methods as well as to previous research, existing databases and guideline requirements on sidewalk widths. Finally, we discuss possible applications of these methods for monitoring and regression analysis and suggest future methodological improvements for increased accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ismael de Moura Costa
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Paper to presentation the MAIA Method for Architecture of Information Applied evolution, its structure, results obtained and three practical applications.Objective: Proposal of a methodological constructo for treatment of complex information, distinguishing information spaces and revealing inherent configurations of those spaces. Metodology: The argument is elaborated from theoretical research of analitical hallmark, using distinction as a way to express concepts. Phenomenology is used as a philosophical position, which considers the correlation between Subject↔Object. The research also considers the notion of interpretation as an integrating element for concepts definition. With these postulates, the steps to transform the information spaces are formulated. Results: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Conclusions: This article explores not only how the method is structured to process information in its contexts, starting from a succession of evolutive cicles, divided in moments, which, on their turn, evolve to transformation acts. Besides that, the article presents not only possible applications as a cientific method, but also as configuration tool in information spaces, as well as generator of ontologies. At last, but not least, presents a brief summary of the analysis made by researchers who have already evaluated the method considering the three aspects mentioned.
A Review of Auditing Methods Applied to the Content of Controlled Biomedical Terminologies
Zhu, Xinxin; Fan, Jung-Wei; Baorto, David M.; Weng, Chunhua; Cimino, James J.
2012-01-01
Although controlled biomedical terminologies have been with us for centuries, it is only in the last couple of decades that close attention has been paid to the quality of these terminologies. The result of this attention has been the development of auditing methods that apply formal methods to assessing whether terminologies are complete and accurate. We have performed an extensive literature review to identify published descriptions of these methods and have created a framework for characterizing them. The framework considers manual, systematic and heuristic methods that use knowledge (within or external to the terminology) to measure quality factors of different aspects of the terminology content (terms, semantic classification, and semantic relationships). The quality factors examined included concept orientation, consistency, non-redundancy, soundness and comprehensive coverage. We reviewed 130 studies that were retrieved based on keyword search on publications in PubMed, and present our assessment of how they fit into our framework. We also identify which terminologies have been audited with the methods and provide examples to illustrate each part of the framework. PMID:19285571
Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words: Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.
Complex Method Mixed with PSO Applying to Optimization Design of Bridge Crane Girder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
He Yan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In engineer design, basic complex method has not enough global search ability for the nonlinear optimization problem, so it mixed with particle swarm optimization (PSO has been presented in the paper,that is the optimal particle evaluated from fitness function of particle swarm displacement complex vertex in order to realize optimal principle of the largest complex central distance.This method is applied to optimization design problems of box girder of bridge crane with constraint conditions.At first a mathematical model of the girder optimization has been set up,in which box girder cross section area of bridge crane is taken as the objective function, and its four sizes parameters as design variables, girder mechanics performance, manufacturing process, border sizes and so on requirements as constraint conditions. Then complex method mixed with PSO is used to solve optimization design problem of cane box girder from constrained optimization studying approach, and its optimal results have achieved the goal of lightweight design and reducing the crane manufacturing cost . The method is reliable, practical and efficient by the practical engineer calculation and comparative analysis with basic complex method.
New energy replacement method for resonant power supplies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.
1989-01-01
The Resonant Power Supply is an economically and technically advanced solution for Rapid Cycling Accelerators. Several papers dealt with the design and operation of these power supplies, however, the energy replacement methods were not discussed in the past. This paper analyzes different energy-replacement methods and presents a new method. This method uses a 24-pulse converter to regulate the magnet current during flat-top and injection periods and replaces the energy loss by charging the accelerator capacitor bank during the flat-top, reset and injection periods, charge is injected in the circuit during the acceleration period, when it replaces the energy loss. This paper compares the new method with the existing ones. The analyses proved the feasibility of the proposed method. The operation of the proposed method was verified by a model experiment, which showed that the new circuit can be controlled accurately and operates with smaller disturbances to the power line than the existing systems. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab