WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy gull generator

  1. Energy generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osburn, L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Current perceptions conjure images of photovoltaic panels and wind turbines when green building or sustainable development is discussed. How energy is used and how it is generated are core components of both green building and sustainable...

  2. Gulls Are Not "Seagulls"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, Maxwell Corydon, Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The word "seagull" is included in the dictionary because the term is so often applied by the lay persons to almost any gull they notice. However, this is a generalized term which ignores the wide and facinating variety of the species. This article discusses some of the species of gulls. (NQ)

  3. High energy neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjon, R.; Breynat, G.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a generator of fast neutrons only slightly contaminated by neutrons of energy less than 15 MeV, comprising a source of charged particles of energy equal to at least 15 MeV, a target made of lithium deuteride, and means for cooling the target. The target comprises at least two elements placed in series in the path of the charged particles and separated from each other, the thickness of each of the elements being selected as a function of the average energy of the charged particles emitted from the source and the energy of the fast neutrons to be generated such that neutrons of energy equal to at least 15 MeV are emitted in the forward direction in response to the bombardment of the target from behind by the charged particles. The target cooling means comprises means for circulating between and around the elements a gas which does not chemically react with lithium deuteride

  4. Electrochemical energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreysa, G.; Juettner, K.

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings encompass 40 conference papers belonging to the following subject areas: Baseline and review papers; electrochemical fuel cells; batteries: Primary and secondary cells; electrochemical, regenerative systems for energy conversion; electrochemical hydrogen generation; electrochemistry for nuclear power plant; electrochemistry for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; energy efficiency in electrochemical processes. There is an annex listing the authors and titles of the poster session, and compacts of the posters can be obtained from the office of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, Abteilung Tagungen. (MM) [de

  5. Energy generation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takashi; Tatsumi, Masami; Tada, Koji.

    1990-01-01

    In a reaction estimated as nuclear fusion, a portion near of electrode is heated locally to a high temperature by the heat of the reaction generated on the electrode, by which the electrode is melted or heavy water is boiled. Then, Continuous reaction is difficult and not practical. In view of the above, a cathode made of deuterium absorbing materials is put into heavy water and electric current is supplied, to continuously take place the reaction and an anode is disposed in a cylindrical cathode to cause reaction of energy generation therein in order to continuously take out the generated energy to the outside safely. Further, heavy water is circulated inside the cylindrical cathode to externally take out heavy water the temperature of which is elevated by the generated energy, and fresh heavy water is supplied to the inside of the cylindrical cathode. Thus, heavy water does not boil on the electrode, temperature elevation can be suppressed and melting of the electrode itself can be prevented. (N.H.)

  6. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Lotsch, H.K.V; U.Hoffmann, Volker; Rhodes, William T; Asakura, Toshimitsu; Brenner, Karl-Heinz; Hänsch, Theodor W; Kamiya, Takeshi; Krausz, Ferenc; Monemar, Bo; Venghaus, Herbert; Weber, Horst; Weinfurter, Harald

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive description and discussion of photovoltaics (PV) is presented at a level that makes it accessible to the interested academic. Starting with an historical overview, the text outlines the relevance of photovoltaics today and in the future. Then follows an introduction to the physical background of solar cells and the most important materials and technologies, with particular emphasis placed on future developments and prospects. The book goes beyond technology by also describing the path from the cell to the module to the system, proceeding to important applications, such as grid-connected and stand-alone systems. The composition and development of the markets and the role of PV in future energy systems are also considered. Finally, the discussion turns to the future structure of energy supplies, expected to comprise more distributed generation, and addresses synergies and competition from other carbon-free energy sources.

  7. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  8. Renewable energies for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freris, L.; Infield, D.

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

  9. Energy demand of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, M.

    1992-01-01

    The complex energy balance method was applied to selected electricity generation subsystems. The hydroelectric, brown coal based, and nuclear based subsystems are defined. The complex energy balance basically consists in identifying the mainstream and side-stream energy inputs and outputs for both the individual components and the entire electricity generation subsystem considered. Relationships for the complete energy balance calculation for the i-th component of the subsystem are given, and its side-stream energy inputs and outputs are defined. (J.B.). 4 figs., 4 refs

  10. Biomass Energy Generation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olthoff, Edward [Cedar Falls Utilities, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    The Municipal Electric Utility of the City of Cedar Falls (dba Cedar Fals Utilities or CFU) received a congressionally directed grant funded through DOE-EERE to run three short (4 hour) duration test burns and one long (10 days) duration test burn to test the viability of renewable fuels in Streeter Station Boiler #6, a stoker coal fired electric generation unit. The long test burn was intended to test supply chain assumptions, optimize boiler combustion and assess the effects of a longer duration burn of biomass on the boiler.

  11. DDT-induced feminization of gull embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.M.; Toone, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    Injection of DDT [1, 1, 1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] into gull eggs at concentrations comparable to those found in contaminated seabird eggs in 1970 induces abnormal development of ovarian tissue and oviducts in male embryos. Developmental feminization of males is associated with inability to breed as adults and may explain the highly skewed sex ratio and reduced number of male gulls breeding on Santa Barbara Island in southern California

  12. Energy generation x environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Thalles Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This work aims: to analyze the various sources of energy giving a general idea of the good and bad points for each power generation model, and its impact in the environment, with the purpose of considering the best available options; research on alternative sources of energy production as well as Brazil's resources in a particular source of energy and point out their strengths and weaknesses; report the best options to take advantage of the available resources for energy production in Triangulo Mineiro, a region within Minas Gerais state

  13. Inductive line energy storage generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, P [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1997-12-31

    The inductive energy storage (IES) generator has long been considered to be the most efficient system for energy usage in large pulsed power system at the MA level. A number of parameters govern the efficiency of energy transfer between the storage capacitors and the load, and the level of current deliverable to the load. For high power system, the energy storage capacitors are arranged as a Marx generator. The primary constraints are the inductances in the various parts of the circuit, in particular, the upstream inductance between the Marx and the POS, and the downstream inductance between the POS and the load. This paper deals with the effect of replacing part of the upstream inductance with a transmission line and introduces the new concept of an inductive line for energy storage (ILES). Extensive parametric scans were carried out on circuit simulations to investigate the effect of this upstream transmission line. A model was developed to explain the operation of the ILES design based on the data obtained. Comparison with an existing IES generator shows that the ILES design offers a significant improvement in the maximum current and hence energy delivered to an inductive load. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref.

  14. Steam generation from solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozzi, M.

    2001-01-01

    The vapor for thermoelectric use is one of the most promoted methods for electric power generation from solar energy. The new plants are becoming more and more safe, and anyway in some cases the natural gas makes easy the production of electricity [it

  15. Micromotor-based energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra V; Soto, Fernando; Kaufmann, Kevin; Wang, Joseph

    2015-06-01

    A micromotor-based strategy for energy generation, utilizing the conversion of liquid-phase hydrogen to usable hydrogen gas (H2), is described. The new motion-based H2-generation concept relies on the movement of Pt-black/Ti Janus microparticle motors in a solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) fuel. This is the first report of using NaBH4 for powering micromotors. The autonomous motion of these catalytic micromotors, as well as their bubble generation, leads to enhanced mixing and transport of NaBH4 towards the Pt-black catalytic surface (compared to static microparticles or films), and hence to a substantially faster rate of H2 production. The practical utility of these micromotors is illustrated by powering a hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell car by an on-board motion-based hydrogen and oxygen generation. The new micromotor approach paves the way for the development of efficient on-site energy generation for powering external devices or meeting growing demands on the energy grid. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Aerial estimation of the size of gull breeding colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.A.; Drury, W.H.

    1968-01-01

    Counts on photographs and visual estimates of the numbers of territorial gulls are usually reliable indicators of the number of gull nests, but single visual estimates are not adequate to measure the number of nests in individual colonies. To properly interpret gull counts requires that several islands with known numbers of nests be photographed to establish the ratio of gulls to nests applicable for a given local census. Visual estimates are adequate to determine total breeding gull numbers by regions. Neither visual estimates nor photography will reliably detect annual changes of less than about 2.5 percent.

  17. Can agriculture generate clean energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeijts, H.; Oosterveld, E.B.; Timmerman, E.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fossil fuels meet a large part of the energy requirements in Europe. The carbon dioxide produced by using these fuels contributes to the greenhouse effect. By generating energy from vegetable fibres (biomass) the emission of greenhouse gasses can be reduced. As well as an ecological advantage, the cultivation of crops for the supply of energy could also improve the moderate to bad economical results of Dutch arable farms. So far research into the use of biomass as a source of energy has been mainly concerned with its technical and economic feasibility. Our research also assesses the ecological sustainability of the cultivation and use of energy crops. The principal questions we have answered are: how harmful to the environment is the cultivation of energy crops?; what are the direct and indirect environmental effects of fitting energy crops into the cropping plan?; what indirect effects are to be expected at a regional and national level?; on balance, how much energy is produced in the entire cultivation, transport and processing chain?; What effect does this have on the emission of greenhouse gases?; what is the overall conclusion for the various crops with regard to sustainability? The conclusions of this research could help policy makers answer the question whether it is useful from the point of view of sustainability to stimulate the generation of energy from biomass. We have assessed the effects of the cultivation and use of energy crops on: the emission of minerals and pesticides; the use of energy and the emission of greenhouse gases; the fixation of carbon from CO2; the use of by-products and waste products; dehydration; erosion; the contribution to natural values; the contribution to scenic values; and use of space. In the overall assessment each criterion was given equal weight. This choice is arbitrary: in practice, the ratios are different in each situation. We have studied nine crops and their processing chains. Rape is converted into bio-diesel oil by

  18. Effects of herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on breeding piping plovers, South Monomoy Island, Massachusetts. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, S.E.; Fraser, J.D.; Buckley, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The large population of breeding herring gulls and great black-backed gulls on South Monomoy Island, Cape Cod, Massachusetts has been thought to negatively affect the breeding success of the threatened piping plover. Following the Piping Plover Recovery Plan's call for gull colonies to be removed from piping plover breeding sites, in 1996, the USFWS conducted gull removal on part of South Monomoy Island. We determined relative gull abundance on South Monomoy Island from 1998-2000 by counting gulls within 100-m radius plots located on the shoreline. We quantified piping plover behavior and habitat use by conducting instantaneous and 5-minute behavioral observations. We quantified characteristics of piping plover nesting habitat by measuring characteristics along random transects. We measured gull abundance, beach width, and prey abundance, and then used logistic regression to determine what habitat characteristics influenced piping plover nesting area selection. We monitored piping plover reproductive success and population fluctuations on South Monomoy Island. Gull abundance in the gull-removal area was lower than gull abundance in the reference area throughout the piping plover breeding season. The difference in gull abundance between the areas did not affect piping plover behavior, nest success, chick survival, or productivity. We found that gull removal did not result in an increased piping plover population on the island. In both management areas, prenesting plovers preferred to forage in moist substrate habitats. Wide backshore and open vegetation habitats characterized nesting areas. Broods spent most of their time foraging and preferred moist substrate habitats when available. Plovers were not prevented from occupying more suitable habitat by large gulls. Fewer large gulls were observed near prenesting plovers, plover nests, and plover broods than near random plots. Fewer large gulls were observed in plover nesting areas than in unused areas when the nesting

  19. Energy generated for you : Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro 2003 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a consolidated review of the operations of Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro (Hydro) with focus on energy production, energy sales, and environmental commitment. The utility, a Crown Corporation owned by the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador, generates, transmits and distributes electricity to utility, industrial and residential customers. It is the parent company of the Hydro Group of Companies which includes Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro, Churchill Falls Corp. Ltd., Lower Churchill Development Corp. Ltd., Gull Island Power Co. Ltd., and Twin Falls Power Co. Ltd.. The installed generating capacity of the Hydro Group of Companies is the fourth largest in Canada. The generating assets include 10 operating hydroelectric plants, 1 oil-fired plant, 4 gas turbines, 28 diesel plants, and the Churchill Falls Hydroelectric generating station. The utility also maintains 4,800 km of transmission lines and more than 3,600 km of lower voltage distribution lines. The utility is isolated from the North American grid. Energy sales in 2003 were one per cent above 2002. The Holyrood thermal generating station had a gross production of 2061 GWh in 2003, an 18 per cent reduction from 2002. The 40 MW Granite Canal Hydroelectric generating station was completed in 2003. The utility also purchased electricity from Corner Brook Pulp and Paper and the Exploits River Partnership in order to meet the demand for capacity and energy on the island. The Hydro Group's net income decreased by 24 per cent in 2003, while there was a 3 per cent increase in revenue. Earnings are expected to be higher in 2004 due to a projected increase in rates. This annual report presented the company's financial performance, executive changes, rural rate inquiry, and reorganization. Financial statements included a thorough review and analysis of financial transactions, the auditor's report, and the customary notes to the consolidated financial statement including balance sheets, assets

  20. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to ... of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances....

  1. Estimates of numbers of kelp gulls and Kerguelen and Antarctic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four species are regular breeders at the islands: Subantarctic skua Catharacta antarctica, kelp gull Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern Sterna vittata and Kerguelen tern S. virgata. The latter three species currently each have populations of below 150 breeding pairs at the islands. Kelp gull numbers appear to be relatively ...

  2. Seasonal patterns in numbers of Kelp Gulls Larus dominicanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between 66% and 80% of Kelp Gulls recorded around Port Elizabeth were in adult plumage. It is assumed that adults breeding outside of the Port Elizabeth area move into the area after breeding. During their first year Kelp Gulls showed distinct periods of influx — thought to be due to the fledging of local birds — followed ...

  3. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  4. Renewable energy: Solution of energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Baracaldo, Rodolfo; Jimenez, Fabian Andres

    2002-01-01

    The negative environmental effects caused by the fossil fuels and their future exhaustion, have originated a new study field: the renewable energies. This paper expresses under informative way, the basic concepts of these energies and the possibility of their development inside the Colombian context

  5. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  6. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienen, E.W.M.; Desmet, P.; Aelterman, B.; Courtens, W.; Feys, S.; Vanermen, N.; Verstraete, H.; Van de Walle, M.; Deneudt, K.; Hernandez, F.; Houthoofdt, R.; Vanhoorne, B.; Bouten, W.; Buijs, R.-J.; Kavelaars, M.M.; Müller, W.; Herman, D.; Matheve, H.; Sotillo, A.; Lens, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5

  7. Energy War Is Generating Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    Describes various energy-related projects and legislation, with new job estimates, to improve or design buildings and methods to reduce the annual growth in energy consumption by reducing gasoline consumption, cutting oil imports, increasing coal production, insulating buildings, and installing solar energy devices. (MF)

  8. Breeding success of Oystercatcher, terns and gulls in the Danish Wadden Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Thorup, Ole; Jensen, Peter Emil

    2015-01-01

    breeding of Sandwich Terns was recorded on Langli in most of the years during 2006-2010. The Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls that nested on Langli were fairly successful in raising young to fledging during 2009-2013, whereas Common Gulls suffered from predation by Herring Gulls and they hardly...

  9. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina F Marón

    Full Text Available At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680 and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192 in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five, but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000.

  10. Energy and environmental evaluation of tri-generation energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, G.; Mancarella, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tri generation facilities manufactured with various technologies represent an important alternative solution for the development more efficient energy systems and low environmental impact. Are described the issues related to modelling and energy and environmental evaluation [it

  11. Photovoltaic energy generation in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the current state of the art regarding photovoltaic research and demonstration programmes in the Federal Republic of Germany. Also attention is paid to the companies and research institutes involved, and the long-term economical and technical prospects of photovoltaic energy. 13 figs., 4 tabs., 10 refs

  12. Alternative energy and distributed generation: thinking generations ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Alternative Energy will be discussed in the context of Distributed Generation, which is defined as a delivery platform for micro-power generation, close to the end-users, that can also supplement regional electricity grids. Many references in the paper pertain to Alberta. This is for two reasons: First, familiarity by the author, and more importantly, Alberta is the first region in Canada that has de-regulated it's electricity sector. De-regulation allows independent and smaller power generators to enter the market. Focussing on Alberta, with some references to other Canadian provinces and USA, electricity consumption trends will be reviewed and the pressures to decentralize electricity generation discussed. Re-structuring of the electricity sector, convergence of power generation and natural gas industries, advances in technologies, and environmental concerns are collectively contributing to the creation of a new business called 'Distributed Generation'. Efficiency benefits of combined heat and power associated with the more prominent emerging distributed generation technologies like micro-turbines and fuel cells, will be highlighted. Areas of research, development and demonstration that will enable the successful deployment of Distributed Generation will be suggested with respect to Generation Technologies, Systems Controls, Supporting Infrastructure, and Socio-Political Barriers. Estimates of investments in the various alternative energy technologies will be presented. Using current trends and emerging technologies the Paper will conclude with some predictions of future scenarios. (author)

  13. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  14. Metal photonics and plasmonics for energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Prashant

    Energy generation from renewable sources and conservation of energy are important goals for reducing our carbon footprint on the environment. Important sources of renewable energy like sun and geothermal energy are difficult to harness because of their energetically broad radiation. Most of our current energy requirements are met through consumption of fossil fuels, and more than 60% of this energy is released to the environment as "waste heat". Thus, converting heat from sun, or inefficient furnaces and automobiles can provide an important source of energy generation. In the present work, I describe design, fabrication, and characterization two and three dimensional patterned metals. These nanofabricated structures can be used as selective emitters to tailor the glow of hot objects. The tailored radiation can then be converted efficiently into electricity using an infrared photocell. This thermophotovoltaic conversion can be very efficient, and useful for converting heat-to-electricity from a wide variety of sources.

  15. "Social Capitalism" in Renewable energy generation:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Woodrow W; Li, Xing

    2010-01-01

    to develop a wide range of renewable energy generation including solar, wind, geothermal and run of the river. Because China practices “social capitalism” as expressed in it's recurrent Five Year National Plans since 1999, the national government and all the provinces have programs, unlike many western......With a population of over 1.3 billion people, demand for renewable energy is expected to grow to a USD $12 billion market in the near term. Under Renewable Energy Law (REL) in February 2005 in the People's Republic of China (PRC) passed by the National Congress, renewable energy projects...... will be able to receive a range of financial incentives starting in 2006, which will more than double the PRC current renewable energy generation from 7% to 15% by 2020. Most of the increase will be in hydroelectric generated power. Nonetheless, the nation and especially the provinces are moving rapidly...

  16. Distributed generation - customer owned generation - Duke Energy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iung, Anderson M. [Duke Energy International, Geracao Paranapanema S.A., SP (Brazil). Market Analysis Dept.; Ribeiro, Paulo F. [Calvin College, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Oliveira, A.R. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Distributed generation (DG) is getting more attractive. Although unit costs show strong economies of scale for all generation technology types, there is a potential niche market for DG technology to drive growth in addition to environmental concern issues. Duke Energy encourages the installation of cost effective small scale costumer owned generation. The objective of this article is to evaluate some aspects of DG connection in the Duke's distribution system regarding power quality, voltage stability, system protection, power balance control policy and the economical viability. (author)

  17. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, A.L.R. [Wind Energy Group, Recife (Brazil); Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J. [DEE, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  18. Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)

  19. RESGen: Renewable Energy Scenario Generation Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    studies remains. Consequently, our aim here is to propose an open-source platform for space-time probabilistic forecasting of renewable energy generation (wind and solar power). This document covers both methodological and implementation aspects, to be seen as a companion document for the open......-source scenario generation platform. It can generate predictive densities, trajectories and space-time interdependencies for renewable energy generation. The underlying model works as a post-processing of point forecasts. For illustration, two setups are considered: the case of day-ahead forecasts to be issued......Space-time scenarios of renewable power generation are increasingly used as input to decision-making in operational problems. They may also be used in planning studies to account for the inherent uncertainty in operations. Similarly using scenarios to derive chance-constraints or robust...

  20. Distribution and diet of Ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea) in the North Water polynya

    OpenAIRE

    Karnovsky, NJ; Hobson, KA; Brown, ZW; Hunt, GL

    2009-01-01

    Ivory gulls (Pagophila eburnea, Phipps, 1774), one of the world's least-known species, have declined throughout their range in recent years. This study describes the patterns of ivory gull use of the North Water polynya, a large polynya that occurs every year near ivory gull breeding sites on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada. We conducted at-sea surveys from Canadian icebreakers during the summers of 1997-99. In 1998, stomach contents of five ivory gulls were analyzed. We measured stable iso...

  1. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  2. Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.

  3. Wind energy generation and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohibullah; Mohd Nishat Anwar

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In India, power generation from wind has emerged as one of the most successful programme. It is making meaningful contributions to the overall power requirements in some of the states. India is emerging as fifth nation in wind power generation. As per the projections made by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India, 10 % of the total capacity of power generation will come from renewable energy sources by the year 2012. It is envisaged that 50 % of this capacity may come from wind power alone. The paper describes a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) structure implemented in the MATLAB-Simulink simulation environment by using the specialized PSB toolbox, designed for modeling and simulation of electrical equipment. A study is made to show effectiveness in pollution control. An analytical study is also made regarding the potential of wind energy in limiting the amount of green house gases added into the atmosphere per year in different states in India. The amount of green house gases which are saved in the process are calculated for nine wind potential sites in India. The amount of green house gases saved is considerable to reduce environmental pollution and saving in carbon credit. Approximately an amount of 70681 Euro per year may be saved if the scheme is implemented and use of wind energy known in India is fully utilized for power generation. (author)

  4. Distribution and numbers of breeding ivory gulls Pagophila eburnea in Severnaja Zemlja, Russian Arctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkov, AE; de Korte, J.

    The ivory gull Pagophila eburnea has a semi-circumpolar distribution with breeding sites in the High Arctic. Data about ivory gulls in the Severnaja Zemlja Archipelago (Siberia) were collected from 1991 to 1995. The numbers of breeding ivory gulls and their egg-laying period are correlated with the

  5. Health evaluation of energy-generating sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The American Medical Association's House of Delegates, at its December 1976 Clinical Convention, requested that an evaluation be made of the health hazards of nuclear, fossil, and alternative energy-generating sources, for employees of energy-producing facilities as well as for the general population. This report is a summary evaluation of such hazards prepared in response to that request. This report, which was adopted by the House of Delegates on June 21, 1978, appears here in a revised and corrected version

  6. Hydrogen generator characteristics for storage of renewably-generated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Bartela, Łukasz; Węcel, Daniel; Dubiel, Klaudia

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a methodology for determining the efficiency of a hydrogen generator taking the power requirements of its auxiliary systems into account. Authors present results of laboratory experiments conducted on a hydrogen generator containing a PEM water electrolyzer for a wide range of device loads. On the basis of measurements, the efficiency characteristics of electrolyzers were determined, including that of an entire hydrogen generator using a monitored power supply for its auxiliary devices. Based on the results of the experimental tests, the authors have proposed generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency. These characteristics were used for analyses of a Power-to-Gas system cooperating with a 40 MW wind farm with a known yearly power distribution. It was assumed that nightly-produced hydrogen is injected into the natural gas transmission system. An algorithm for determining the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a Power-to-Gas installation is proposed. These characteristics were determined as a function of the degree of storage of the energy produced in a Renewable Energy Sources (RES) installation, defined as the ratio of the amount of electricity directed to storage to the annual amount of electricity generated in the RES installation. Depending on the degree of storage, several quantities were determined. - Highlights: • The efficiency characteristics of PEM electrolyzer are determined. • Generalized characteristics of hydrogen generator efficiency are proposed. • Method of choice of electrolyser nominal power for Power-to-Gas system was proposed. • Development of Power-to-Gas systems requires implementation of support mechanisms.

  7. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienen, Eric W M; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  8. Capacitive Neutralization Dialysis for Direct Energy Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Yi; Ou-Yang, Wei; Bastos Sales, Bruno; Sun, Zhuo; Liu, Fei; Zhao, Ran

    2017-08-15

    Capacitive neutralization dialysis energy (CNDE) is proposed as a novel energy-harvesting technique that is able to utilize waste acid and alkaline solutions to produce electrical energy. CNDE is a modification based on neutralization dialysis. It was found that a higher NaCl concentration led to a higher open-circuit potential when the concentrations of acid and alkaline solutions were fixed. Upon closing of the circuit, the membrane potential was used as a driving force to move counter ions into the electrical double layers at the electrode-liquid interface, thereby creating an ionic current. Correspondingly, in the external circuit, electrons flow through an external resistor from one electrode to the other, thereby generating electrical energy directly. The influence of external resistances was studied to achieve greater energy extraction, with the maximum output of 110 mW/m 2 obtained by employing an external resistance of 5 Ω together with the AC-coated electrode.

  9. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-01

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  10. High energy multi-cycle terahertz generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahr, Frederike Beate

    2017-10-15

    Development of compact electron accelerators and free-electron lasers requires novel acceleration schemes at shorter driving wavelengths. The Axsis project seeks to develop terahertz based electron acceleration as well as the high energy terahertz sources required. This thesis explores the methods and optical material required for the generation of highenergy multi-cycle terahertz pulses. Two experimental concepts to generate high energy terahertz radiation are presented. In addition the theoretical background and the optical properties of pertinent optical materials in the terahertz range are discussed. Investigations of the materials are performed with a terahertz time domain spectrometer and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate as well as other crystals suitable for the terahertz generation and in addition polymers and other radiation attenuators are characterized in the range from 0.2 to 1 THz. The theory describing the generation of narrowband terahertz radiation is evaluated. The experimental setups to generate terahertz radiation and to characterize its properties are described. The specific crystals - periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) - used in the experiments to generate the multi-cycle terahertz radiation are examined to determine e.g. the poling period. The first experimental concept splits the ultra fast, broadband pump pulses into a pulse train in order to pump the PPLN at a higher fluence while increasing the damage limit. The measurements confirm that a pulse train of ultra short, broadband pump pulses increases not only the terahertz energy but also the energy conversion efficiency. The second experimental concept utilizes chirped and delayed infrared laser pulses. This pulse format makes it possible to pump the crystal with high energy pulses resulting in high energy terahertz radiation. The concept is optimized to reach energies up to 127 μJ exceeding the existing results of narrowband

  11. Next generation of energy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Carre, F.

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides that have been presented at the Gedepeon conference. Gedepeon is a research group involving scientists from Cea (French atomic energy commission), CNRS (national center of scientific research), EDF (electricity of France) and Framatome that is devoted to the study of new energy sources and particularly to the study of the future generations of nuclear systems. The contributions have been classed into 9 topics: 1) gas cooled reactors, 2) molten salt reactors (MSBR), 3) the recycling of plutonium and americium, 4) reprocessing of molten salt reactor fuels, 5) behavior of graphite under radiation, 6) metallic materials for molten salt reactors, 7) refractory fuels of gas cooled reactors, 8) the nuclear cycle for the next generations of nuclear systems, and 9) organization of research programs on the new energy sources

  12. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  13. Is nuclear energy power generation more dangerous than power generation by wind and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y

    1979-03-01

    Since the occurrence of the petroleum crisis, many countries have devoted a great deal of effort to search for substitute energy sources. Aside from nuclear energy, forms of power generation with wind, solar energy, and geothermal energy have all been actually adopted in one place or another. Most recently, a research report was published by the Canadian Bureau of Nuclear Energy Management stating that the use of wind and solar energy to generate electricity is much more dangerous than power generation with nuclear energy. When mining, transportation, machine manufacturing, etc. are included in the process of producing unit power, i.e. kilowatt/year, the data of various risks of death, injury, and diseases are computed in terms of man/day losses by the bureau. They indicate that of the ten forms of power generation, the danger is the least with natural gas, only about a 6 man/day, and nuclear energy is the next least dangerous, about 10 man/day. The danger of using temperature differential of sea water to generate electricity is about 25 man/day, and the most dangerous form of power generation is coal, amounting to three thousand man/day.

  14. Correlation energy generating potentials for molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.S.; Thakkar, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of local correlation energy functionals are currently in use. All of them depend, to some extent, on modeling the correlation energy of a homogeneous electron fluid. Since atomic and molecular charge densities are neither uniform nor slowly varying, it is important to attempt to use known high accuracy wave functions to learn about correlation energy functionals appropriate to such systems. We have extended the definition of the correlation energy generating potentials V/sub c/ introduced by Ros. A charge density response to correlation has been allowed for by inclusion of an electron--nuclear component V/sup e/n/sub c/ in addition to the electron--electron component V/sup e/e/sub c/. Two different definitions of V/sup e/n/sub c/ are given. We present the first calculations of V/sub c/ for a molecular system: H 2 . The results show that V/sup e/n/sub c/, in either definition, is by no means negligible. Moreover, V/sup e/e/sub c/ and both forms of V/sup e/n/sub c/ show significant nonlocal dependence on the charge density. Calculations with ten different model correlation energy functionals show that none of them is particularly sensitive to the charge density. However, they are quite sensitive to the parametrization of the electron fluid correlation energy. The schemes which include self-interaction corrections (SIC) are found to be superior to those of Kohn--Sham type. The correlation energy generating potentials implied by the SIC type and empirical correlation energy functionals are found to correspond roughly to averages of one of the accurate potentials

  15. Turbulent energy generated by accelerations and shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaelian, K.O.

    1986-01-01

    The turbulent energy generated at the interface between two fluids undergoing a constant acceleration or a shock is calculated. Assuming linear density profiles in the mixed region we find E/sub turbulent//E/sub directed/ = 2.3A 2 % (constant acceleration) and 9.3A 2 % (shock), where A is the Atwood number. Diffusion models predict somewhat less turbulent energy and a density profile with a tail extending into the lower density fluid. Eddy sizes are approximately 27% (constant acceleration) and 17% (shock) of the mixing depth into the heavier fluid. 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. Energy-storage technologies and electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Peter J.; Bain, Euan J.

    2008-01-01

    As the contribution of electricity generated from renewable sources (wind, wave and solar) grows, the inherent intermittency of supply from such generating technologies must be addressed by a step-change in energy storage. Furthermore, the continuously developing demands of contemporary applications require the design of versatile energy-storage/power supply systems offering wide ranges of power density and energy density. As no single energy-storage technology has this capability, systems will comprise combinations of technologies such as electrochemical supercapacitors, flow batteries, lithium-ion batteries, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and kinetic energy storage. The evolution of the electrochemical supercapacitor is largely dependent on the development of optimised electrode materials (tailored to the chosen electrolyte) and electrolytes. Similarly, the development of lithium-ion battery technology requires fundamental research in materials science aimed at delivering new electrodes and electrolytes. Lithium-ion technology has significant potential, and a step-change is required in order to promote the technology from the portable electronics market into high-duty applications. Flow-battery development is largely concerned with safety and operability. However, opportunities exist to improve electrode technology yielding larger power densities. The main barriers to overcome with regard to the development of SMES technology are those related to high-temperature superconductors in terms of their granular, anisotropic nature. Materials development is essential for the successful evolution of flywheel technology. Given the appropriate research effort, the key scientific advances required in order to successfully develop energy-storage technologies generally represent realistic goals that may be achieved by 2050

  17. Solar energy for steam generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carvalho, Jr, A V; Orlando, A DeF; Magnoli, D

    1979-05-01

    Steam generation is a solar energy application that has not been frequently studied in Brazil, even though for example, about 10% of the national primary energy demand is utilized for processing heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C. On the other hand, substitution of automotive gasoline by ethanol, for instance, has received much greater attention even though primary energy demand for process heat generation in the range of 100 to 125/sup 0/C is of the same order of magnitude than for total automotive gasoline production. Generation of low-temperature steam is analyzed in this article using distributed systems of solar collectors. Main results of daily performance simulation of single flat-plate collectors and concentrating collectors are presented for 20/sup 0/S latitude, equinox, in clear days. Flat plate collectors considered are of the aluminum roll-bond absorber type, selective surface single or double glazing. Considering feedwater at 20/sup 0/C, saturated steam at 120/sup 0/C and an annual solar utilization factor of 50%, a total collector area of about 3,000 m/sup 2/ is necessary for the 10 ton/day plant, without energy storage. A fuel-oil back-up system is employed to complement the solar steam production, when necessary. Preliminary economic evaluation indicates that, although the case-study shows today a long payback period relative to subsidized fuel oil in the domestic market (over 20 years in the city of Rio de Janeiro), solar steam systems may be feasible in the medium term due to projected increase of fuel oil price in Brazil.

  18. Energy Generation in the Human Body by the Human Cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We adapted the thermodynamics equation for energy generation in a diesel engine in modeling energy generation in human body by the human cells by doing a thorough study on both systems and saw that the process of energy generation is the same in them. We equally saw that the stages involved in energy generation ...

  19. Raw materials for energy generation in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, D S

    1976-03-01

    Canada is self-sufficient in energy. The energy demand in Canada up to the end of the century is predicted, and the present and future of the oil, gas, coal and uranium industries are considered. Since it is now Canadian policy to restrict export of energy sources, in the future Canada will probably make more domestic use of its coal reserves. An increase is forecast in the use of coal for electricity generation and as a feedstock for synthetic gas. A long lead time and large capital expenditure will be needed before coal can be transported from western Canada to markets in the east of the country. A relatively small amount of the coal reserves are extractable by surface mining, and new underground mining techniques will be needed to extract the extremely friable coal from the deformed seams in the mountains.

  20. modelling of hydropower reservoir variables for energy generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    the River Niger (Kainji and Jebba dams) in Nigeria for energy generation using multilayer ... coefficient showed that the networks are reliable for modeling energy generation as a function of ... through turbines and electric generator system.

  1. Structure of the New England herring gull population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, J.A.; Drury, W.H.

    1968-01-01

    Measurements of the rates of population increase, reproduction, and mortality together with an observed age ratio, were used to analyze the population of the Herring Gull in New England. Data from sporadic censuses prior to this study, aerial censuses by the authors, and National Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count indicated that the New England breeding population has been doubling every 12 to 15 years since the early 1900's. This increase has involved founding new colonies and expanding the breeding range There is evidence that 15 to 30% of the adults do not breed in any given year. Sixty-one productivity measurements on 43 islands from 1963 through 1966, involving almost 13,000 nests, showed that from 0.8 to 1.4 young/breeding pair/year is the usual range of rate of production. The age distribution in the population was determined by classifying Herring Gulls by plumage category on an aerial census of the coast from Tampico, Mexico, to Cape Sable, Nova Scotia. Of the 622,000 gulls observed, 68% were adults, 17% were second- and third-year birds, and 15% were first-year birds. Mortality rates derived from band recovery data were too high to be consistent with the observed rate of population growth, productivity, and age structure. Loss of bands increasing to the rate of about 20%/year 5 years after banding eliminates most of the discrepancy. The age structure and rate of population increase indicate a mortality rate of 4 to 9% for gulls 2 years old or older, compared with the 25 to 30% indicated by band recoveries. The population structure we have developed fits everything we have observed about Herring Gull population dynamics, except mortality based on band recoveries.

  2. Urges use of renewable energy sources to generate electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of generation of electric power through renewable energy sources like geothermal and wind energy. The author that is the actual Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines explains the needs of Guatemala in the sector of energy in promoting the renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal energy because Guatemala has a potential generation by this sources

  3. Development of generation IV nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Oka, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Ichimiya, Masakazu; Noda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The fifth 'Generation IV International Forum (GIF), Policy Group Meetings' was held at the Zen-Nikku Hotel in Tokyo, on September 19-20, 2002, under participations of Abraham, Secretary of DOE in U.S.A., Columbani, Secretary of CEA in France, Fujiie, Chairman of CAE in Japan, Kano, Parliamental Minister of MIS in Japan, and so on. Ten nations entering GIF (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Switzerland, U.K., and U.S.A.) selected six next generation nuclear energy concepts for objects of international cooperative research and development aiming at its practice by 2030. These concepts applicable to not only power generation, but also hydrogen production, sea water purification, and so on, are sodium liquid metal cooled reactor (Japan), high temperature gas cooled reactor (France), Super-critical pressure water cooled reactor (SCWR: Canada), Lead metal cooled reactor (Switzerland), Gas cooled fast reactor (U.S.A.), and molten salts reactor. On the generation IV nuclear reactor systems aiming to further upgrade their sustainability, safety, economical efficiency, and nuclear non proliferation, the 'Plans on Technical Development' (Road-map) to decide priority of their R and Ds has been cooperatively discussed under frameworks of international research cooperation by the GIF members nations. Here were shared descriptions on nuclear fuel cycle as a remise of technical evaluation and adopted concepts by Japanese participants contributing to making up the Road-map. (G.K.)

  4. Renewable energy technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    The output of electricity supplied by some renewable sources cannot be easily predicted in advance because of their dependence on naturally varying phenomena (e.g. wind or sunshine). To accommodate this variability within the grid, additional amounts of conventional plant might be maintained in reserve, which would add to the overall system cost. This paper examines some aspects of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation as well as factors to be considered in the incorporation of renewables within a grid. 7 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  6. Fish waste as an alternative resource for gulls along the Patagonian coast: availability, use, and potential consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorio, Pablo; Caille, Guillermo

    2004-04-01

    We evaluated the volumes of waste from fish processing plants in Chubut Province, Argentina, and discuss its potential consequences for Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) population dynamics and coastal management. Mean volume of waste produced between 1989 and 2001 in three coastal cities was 49.8 {+-} 10.9 thousand tons y{sup -1}. The amount of waste varied between years and cities, being larger at Puerto Madryn and Comodoro Rivadavia than at Rawson (24.1, 19.3 and 6.4 thousand tons y{sup -1}, respectively). Waste was disposed at the three cities during all months of the sampled years. Large numbers of Kelp Gulls have been recorded taking advantage of fish waste disposed at these waste sites throughout the year. Considering its energetic content, waste generated at processing plants may support a population of between 101 000 and 209 000 Kelp Gulls. Fish waste could be contributing to their population expansion through increased survival and breeding success. Conflicts due to the use of waste and derived effects on other coastal species and human populations could be minimized by adequate fish waste management.

  7. Fish waste as an alternative resource for gulls along the Patagonian coast: availability, use, and potential consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorio, Pablo; Caille, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the volumes of waste from fish processing plants in Chubut Province, Argentina, and discuss its potential consequences for Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) population dynamics and coastal management. Mean volume of waste produced between 1989 and 2001 in three coastal cities was 49.8 ± 10.9 thousand tons y -1 . The amount of waste varied between years and cities, being larger at Puerto Madryn and Comodoro Rivadavia than at Rawson (24.1, 19.3 and 6.4 thousand tons y -1 , respectively). Waste was disposed at the three cities during all months of the sampled years. Large numbers of Kelp Gulls have been recorded taking advantage of fish waste disposed at these waste sites throughout the year. Considering its energetic content, waste generated at processing plants may support a population of between 101 000 and 209 000 Kelp Gulls. Fish waste could be contributing to their population expansion through increased survival and breeding success. Conflicts due to the use of waste and derived effects on other coastal species and human populations could be minimized by adequate fish waste management

  8. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verreault, Jonathan; Bech, Claus; Letcher, Robert J.; Ropstad, Erik; Dahl, Ellen; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress by affecting functions related to maintenance energy requirements. Effects on basal metabolic rate (BMR) have been suggested to be, in part, mediated through interactions with the thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of major organochlorines, PBDEs, hydroxylated (OH)- and methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs and OH-PCBs, circulating TH levels and BMR in breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Negative associations were found between BMR and concentrations of ΣPCB, ΣDDT and particularly Σchlordane, which combined made up 91% of the total contaminant burden. Levels of THs (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were not associated significantly with variation of BMR or concentrations of any of the compounds determined. The present study suggests that BMR may be altered in glaucous gulls exposed to high loadings of persistent contaminants in the Norwegian Arctic environment. - Basal metabolic rate in glaucous gulls was negatively associated with plasma organochlorine concentrations, but not with circulating thyroid hormone levels

  9. Fine-scale flight strategies of gulls in urban airflows indicate risk and reward in city living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Williamson, Cara; Windsor, Shane P

    2016-09-26

    Birds modulate their flight paths in relation to regional and global airflows in order to reduce their travel costs. Birds should also respond to fine-scale airflows, although the incidence and value of this remains largely unknown. We resolved the three-dimensional trajectories of gulls flying along a built-up coastline, and used computational fluid dynamic models to examine how gulls reacted to airflows around buildings. Birds systematically altered their flight trajectories with wind conditions to exploit updraughts over features as small as a row of low-rise buildings. This provides the first evidence that human activities can change patterns of space-use in flying birds by altering the profitability of the airscape. At finer scales still, gulls varied their position to select a narrow range of updraught values, rather than exploiting the strongest updraughts available, and their precise positions were consistent with a strategy to increase their velocity control in gusty conditions. Ultimately, strategies such as these could help unmanned aerial vehicles negotiate complex airflows. Overall, airflows around fine-scale features have profound implications for flight control and energy use, and consideration of this could lead to a paradigm-shift in the way ecologists view the urban environment.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Organohalogen contamination in breeding glaucous gulls from the Norwegian Arctic: Associations with basal metabolism and circulating thyroid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreault, Jonathan [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway) and Department of Aquatic BioSciences, University of Tromso, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: jonathan@npolar.no; Bech, Claus [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Letcher, Robert J. [Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Ropstad, Erik [Department of Reproduction and Forensic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., NO-0033 Oslo (Norway); Dahl, Ellen [Department of Reproduction and Forensic Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., NO-0033 Oslo (Norway); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2007-01-15

    Exposure to organohalogens in endotherms has been suggested to impose chemically induced stress by affecting functions related to maintenance energy requirements. Effects on basal metabolic rate (BMR) have been suggested to be, in part, mediated through interactions with the thyroid hormones (THs). We investigated the relationships between plasma concentrations of major organochlorines, PBDEs, hydroxylated (OH)- and methoxylated (MeO)-PBDEs and OH-PCBs, circulating TH levels and BMR in breeding glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) from the Norwegian Arctic. Negative associations were found between BMR and concentrations of {sigma}PCB, {sigma}DDT and particularly {sigma}chlordane, which combined made up 91% of the total contaminant burden. Levels of THs (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) were not associated significantly with variation of BMR or concentrations of any of the compounds determined. The present study suggests that BMR may be altered in glaucous gulls exposed to high loadings of persistent contaminants in the Norwegian Arctic environment. - Basal metabolic rate in glaucous gulls was negatively associated with plasma organochlorine concentrations, but not with circulating thyroid hormone levels.

  11. Pec power generation system using pure energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K; Sonai, A; Kano, A [Toshiba International Fuel Cells Corp. (Japan). Cell Technology Development Dept.; Yatake, T [Toshiba International Fuel Cells Corp. (Japan). Plant Engineering Dept.

    2002-07-01

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) power generation system using pure hydrogen was developed by Toshiba International Fuel Cells (TIFC), Japan, under the sponsorship of the World Energy Network (WE-NET) Project. The goals of the project consist of the construction of 30 kilowatt power generation plant for stationary application and target electrical efficiency of over 50 per cent. Two critical technologies were investigated for high utilization stack, as high hydrogen utilization operation represents one of the most important items for the achievement of target efficiency. The first technology examined was the humidification method from cathode side, while the second was the two-block configuration, which is arranged in series in accordance with the flow of hydrogen. Using these technologies as a basis for the work, a 5 kilowatt short stack was developed, and a steady performance was obtained under high hydrogen utilization of up to 98 per cent. It is expected that by March 2003 the design of the hydrogen fueled 30 kilowatt power generation plant will be completed and assembled. 1 ref., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  12. Method and system of nuclear energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, W.

    1975-01-01

    The method is based on the nuclear reaction Li 6 (n,α)H 3 . Thermal neutrons, whose generation require a power reactor, are fed to a lithium deuterite target in such a manner that part of the tritons produced in this reaction undergo nuclear fusion of the kind d(T,n)α with the deuterons of the target. The remaining tritons are reacted with additional deuterons. The tritium produced in this reaction is processed and fed back to the lithium target over a triton source. It is also possible to process the tritium to a target, feed deuterons to it, and in addition to give the neutrons produced from the T(d,n)α reaction after slowing down to thermal energy to the lithium target. (DG/LH) [de

  13. Compressed beam directed particle nuclear energy generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the generation of energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei which are caused to travel towards each other along collision courses, orbiting in common paths having common axes and equal radii. High velocity fusible ion beams are directed along head-on circumferential collision paths in an annular zone wherein beam compression by electrostatic focusing greatly enhances head-on fusion-producing collisions. In one embodiment, a steady radial electric field is imposed on the beams to compress the beams and reduce the radius of the spiral paths for enhancing the particle density. Beam compression is achieved through electrostatic focusing to establish and maintain two opposing beams in a reaction zone

  14. Improvements to thermal plants for generating energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacault, P.H.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a procedure for superheating steam intended for steam cycled thermal plants of energy production, and particularly nuclear power plants. Said procedure combines two different working modes. According to the first working mode, the live steam is taken from the steam generator, mechanically compressed and the heat is partly transferred to the working fluid. According to the second working mode the heat is taken from an auxiliary fluid heated by an independent thermal source, distinct from the principal thermal source of the plant and this heat is partly transferred to the working fluid. A combination of both working modes enables the superheating of the working fluid to be obtained before it inflows the turbine and/or between two stages of said turbine [fr

  15. modelling of hydropower reservoir variables for energy generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    the River Niger (Kainji and Jebba dams) in Nigeria for energy generation using multilayer ... coefficient showed that the networks are reliable for modeling energy generation as a function of ... water, like wind and sun, is a renewable resource.

  16. Turbulence generation through intense kinetic energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin F.; Donzis, Diego A.

    2016-06-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to systematically study the development and establishment of turbulence when the flow is initialized with concentrated regions of intense kinetic energy. This resembles both active and passive grids which have been extensively used to generate and study turbulence in laboratories at different Reynolds numbers and with different characteristics, such as the degree of isotropy and homogeneity. A large DNS database was generated covering a wide range of initial conditions with a focus on perturbations with some directional preference, a condition found in active jet grids and passive grids passed through a contraction as well as a new type of active grid inspired by the experimental use of lasers to photo-excite the molecules that comprise the fluid. The DNS database is used to assert under what conditions the flow becomes turbulent and if so, the time required for this to occur. We identify a natural time scale of the problem which indicates the onset of turbulence and a single Reynolds number based exclusively on initial conditions which controls the evolution of the flow. It is found that a minimum Reynolds number is needed for the flow to evolve towards fully developed turbulence. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, velocity as well as spectral dynamics and anisotropy measures is presented to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence.

  17. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  18. Distributed coordination of energy storage with distributed generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Tao; Wu, Di; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    With a growing emphasis on energy efficiency and system flexibility, a great effort has been made recently in developing distributed energy resources (DER), including distributed generators and energy storage systems. This paper first formulates an optimal DER coordination problem considering

  19. Species differences in total mercury concentration in gulls from the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumiło-Pilarska, Emilia; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Falkowska, Lucyna; Hajdrych, Julia; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Frączek, Tomasz; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bzoma, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic birds occupy a high position in the trophic pyramid of the Baltic Sea. This means that they accumulate the greatest amount of harmful substances, including mercury, in their bodies. This element penetrates into their systems mainly via the alimentary canal. The amount of mercury absorbed from food depends on how badly the environment is polluted with this metal. The aim of this study was to discover the concentrations of total mercury (HgT) in the contour feathers, muscles, brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, heart and blood of four gull species Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Common Gull (Larus canus), Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) and organic mercury (Hgorg) in the liver and brain of Herring Gull. The most important characteristic of the results obtained for the studied gulls was the statistically significant differences between the four species, probably resulting from their different diets-confirmed by stable-isotopes analysis (δ(15)N and δ(13)C). A logarithmic dependence was found between HgT in the blood and HgT in the brain of the Herring Gull. The authors suggest that among gulls burdened with the greatest mercury load, it is possible that the brain is protected by higher Hg accumulation in the muscles. The percentage share of Hgorg in the brain and liver of the Herring Gull depended on the concentration of HgT in these tissues and was always higher in the brain. In none of the cases, did the mercury levels assayed in the internal gulls' tissues exceed values associated with adverse health effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of wind characteristics for energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koray Ulgen [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Institute; Asir Genc [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Statistics; Arif Hepbasli [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Galip Oturanc [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mathematics

    2004-11-15

    Wind technology in Turkey has gained considerable maturity over the last five years, and wind energy projects are becoming commercially attractive in the country. In practice, it is essential to describe the variation of wind speeds for optimizing the design of the systems resulting in less energy generating costs. The wind variation for a typical site is usually described using the so-called Weibull distribution. In this study, the two Weibull parameters of the wind speed distribution function, the shape parameter k (dimensionless) and the scale parameter c (m/s), were computed from the wind speed data for Aksehir in Konya, located in Central Anatolia in Turkey (latitude: 38.35{sup o} and longitude: 31.42{sup o}). Wind data, consisting of hourly wind speed records over a 6 year period, 1997-2002, were obtained from the Aksehir State Meteorological Station. Based on the experimental data, it was found that the numerical values of both Weibull parameters (k and c) for Aksehir vary over a wide range. The yearly values of k range from 1.756 to 2.076, while those of c are in the range of 2.956 to 3.444. Average seasonal Weibull distributions for Aksehir are given. The wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull distribution and also by Rayleigh distribution with a special case of the Weibull distribution for k = 2. The Rayleigh distribution is found to be suitable to represent the actual probability of wind speed data for the site studied. (author)

  1. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  2. Generators for gearless wind energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauers, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-01

    This paper discusses some design alternatives for directly driven generators, and one specific generator type is investigated for a wide range of rated power. First, the specification for a directly driven generator is presented, then different design alternatives are discussed. A radial-flux permanent magnet generator for frequency converter connection has been chosen for a more detailed investigation. The design, optimization and performance of that generator type are presented. Generators from 30 kW to 3 MW are designed and compared with conventional four-pole generators with gear. It is found that a directly driven generator can be more efficient than a conventional generator and gear and have a rather small diameter and a low active weight. 8 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Smart campus: Data on energy generation costs from distributed generation systems of electrical energy in a Nigerian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua O. Okeniyi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents comparisons of energy generation costs from gas-fired turbine and diesel-powered systems of distributed generation type of electrical energy in Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria, a smart university campus driven by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Cumulative monthly data of the energy generation costs, for consumption in the institution, from the two modes electric power, which was produced at locations closed to the community consuming the energy, were recorded for the period spanning January to December 2017. By these, energy generation costs from the turbine system proceed from the gas-firing whereas the generation cost data from the diesel-powered generator also include data on maintenance cost for this mode of electrical power generation. These energy generation cost data that were presented in tables and graphs employ descriptive probability distribution and goodness-of-fit tests of statistical significance as the methods for the data detailing and comparisons. Information details from this data of energy generation costs are useful for furthering research developments and aiding energy stakeholders and decision-makers in the formulation of policies on energy generation modes, economic valuation in terms of costing and management for attaining energy-efficient/smart educational environment. Keywords: Smart campus, Energy consumption, Energy efficiency, Load forecasting, Energy management, Learning analytics, Nigerian university, Education data mining

  4. 75 FR 29574 - Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park AGENCY... Impact Statement for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by the Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National... Environmental Impact Statement (LEIS) for the harvest of glaucous-winged gull eggs by the Huna Tlingit in...

  5. Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

  6. Distributed Energy Generation for Climate Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, Sherry; Hotchkiss, Eliza

    2017-05-24

    Distributed generation can play a critical role in supporting climate adaptation goals. This infographic style poster will showcase the role of distributed generation in achieving a wide range of technical and policy goals and social services associated with climate adaptation.

  7. Urban energy generation and the role of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Niels Boje; Fertner, Christian; Große, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Although a major part of energy consumption happens in cities, contemporary energy generation is less obviously connected to the urban structure. Energy based on fossil fuels and consumed in transportation is produced at global scale; energy for electricity is usually distributed through a national...... or continental grid; energy for heating, if related to district heating systems or the use of local/regional resources for its generation (e.g. biomass, waste), has a more local or at least regional character. In the latter case, electricity might be a by-product of combined-heat-power plants, but still feeding...... on energy generation and distribution. However, contemporary focus on sustainable and efficient use of resources and energy at local level, mainstreaming of renewable energy production and ideas of urban energy harvesting put energy generation again on the local agenda. The role of cities can be twofold: (1...

  8. Performance of cryogenic thermoelectric generators in LNG cold energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Hu Peng; Chen Zeshao; Jia Lei

    2005-01-01

    The cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally wasted when the LNG is extracted for utilization. This paper proposes cryogenic thermoelectric generators to recover this cold energy. The theoretical performance of the generator has been analyzed. An analytical method and numerical method of calculation of the optimum parameters of the generator have been demonstrated

  9. The Efficiency of an Integrated Program Using Falconry to Deter Gulls from Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Thiériot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gulls are commonly attracted to landfills, and managers are often required to implement cost-effective and socially accepted deterrence programs. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive program that integrated the use of trained birds of prey, pyrotechnics, and playback of gull distress calls at a landfill located close to a large ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis colony near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. We used long-term survey data on bird use of the landfill, conducted behavioral observations of gulls during one season and tracked birds fitted with GPS data loggers. We also carried out observations at another landfill located farther from the colony, where less refuse was brought and where a limited culling program was conducted. The integrated program based on falconry resulted in a 98% decrease in the annual total number of gulls counted each day between 1995 and 2014. A separate study indicated that the local breeding population of ring-billed gulls increased and then declined during this period but remained relatively large. In 2010, there was an average (±SE of 59 ± 15 gulls/day using the site with falconry and only 0.4% ± 0.2% of these birds were feeding. At the other site, there was an average of 347 ± 55 gulls/day and 13% ± 3% were feeding. Twenty-two gulls tracked from the colony made 41 trips towards the landfills: twenty-five percent of the trips that passed by the site with falconry resulted in a stopover that lasted 22 ± 7 min compared to 85% at the other landfill lasting 63 ± 15 min. We concluded that the integrated program using falconry, which we consider more socially acceptable than selective culling, was effective in reducing the number of gulls at the landfill.

  10. Comparison of Gull Feces-specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Gene of Catellicoccus Marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two novel gull-specific qPCR assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR-green-based assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (i.e., gull3) and a TaqMan qPCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (i.e., gull4). The main objectives ...

  11. Smart campus: Data on energy generation costs from distributed generation systems of electrical energy in a Nigerian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua O; Atayero, Aderemi A; Popoola, Segun I; Okeniyi, Elizabeth T; Alalade, Gbenga M

    2018-04-01

    This data article presents comparisons of energy generation costs from gas-fired turbine and diesel-powered systems of distributed generation type of electrical energy in Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria, a smart university campus driven by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Cumulative monthly data of the energy generation costs, for consumption in the institution, from the two modes electric power, which was produced at locations closed to the community consuming the energy, were recorded for the period spanning January to December 2017. By these, energy generation costs from the turbine system proceed from the gas-firing whereas the generation cost data from the diesel-powered generator also include data on maintenance cost for this mode of electrical power generation. These energy generation cost data that were presented in tables and graphs employ descriptive probability distribution and goodness-of-fit tests of statistical significance as the methods for the data detailing and comparisons. Information details from this data of energy generation costs are useful for furthering research developments and aiding energy stakeholders and decision-makers in the formulation of policies on energy generation modes, economic valuation in terms of costing and management for attaining energy-efficient/smart educational environment.

  12. Assessment of wind energy potential for electricity generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wind energy is proposed as an alternative source of electricity to fossil fuel generators .... can be connected to the national grid line to supplement the shortfall that arises during the dry ... systems are environmentally friendly. By generating ...

  13. Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Sueda, T.; Katschinski, U.; Katsuki, S.; Maeda, S.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. The reliable and repetitively operated opening switch is necessary to realize the inductive pulsed power generator. Here, the pulsed power generators using the inductive energy storage system, which have been developed in Kumamoto University, are summarized. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. IEA Energy Technology Essentials: Biomass for Power Generation and CHP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The IEA Energy Technology Essentials series offers concise four-page updates on the different technologies for producing, transporting and using energy. Biomass for Power Generation and CHP is the topic covered in this edition.

  15. Concrete thermal energy storage for steam generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Sørensen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Establishing enhancement methods to develop cost-effective thermal energy storage technology requires a detailed analysis. In this paper, a numerical investigation of the concrete based thermal energy storage system is carried out. The storage system consists of a heat transfer fluid flowing inside...

  16. Optimization of airborne wind energy generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiano, L.; Milanese, M.; Piga, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel results related to an innovative airborne wind energy technology, named Kitenergy, for the conversion of high-altitude wind energy into electricity. The research activities carried out in the last five years, including theoretical analyses, numerical simulations, and

  17. Embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leanez, Frank J.; Drayton, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty in the electrical energy market is expected to increase with growth in the percentage of generation using renewable resources. Demand response can play a key role in giving stability to system operation. This paper discusses the embedded generation for industrial demand response in renewable energy markets. The methodology of the demand response is explained. It consists of long-term optimization and stochastic optimization. Wind energy, among all the renewable resources, is becoming increasingly popular. Volatility in the wind energy sector is high and this is explained using examples. Uncertainty in the wind market is shown using stochastic optimization. Alternative techniques for generation of wind energy were seen to be needed. Embedded generation techniques include co-generation (CHP) and pump storage among others. These techniques are analyzed and the results are presented. From these results, it is seen that investment in renewables is immediately required and that innovative generation technologies are also required over the long-term.

  18. Conceptual study on deep-underground energy generation base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, M.; Okawa, T.

    1992-01-01

    Mitsubishi Atomic Power Industries, Inc. (MAPI) and Taisei Corporation have started a conceptual study on a deep-underground energy generation base for future cities in the 21st century around the metropolitan area, which will be increasingly important from viewpoints of the autonomy and sharing of the energy supply to the future cities. The energy generation base consists of a gas cooled reactor with naturally safety features as the energy source, an electric generation base using the Alkali Metal Thermo-electric Converter (AMTEC), a hydrogen production plant with the Solid Polymer Electrolyte (SPE), a hydrogen storage plant with the Metal Hydride (MH), and a desalination plant. This paper describes a concept of the energy generation base and the structure in the deep-underground, in soft soil, then the basic system of each plant, and finally discusses the feasibility of the deep-underground energy generation base. (author)

  19. Probabilistic generation assessment system of renewable energy in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonchan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes probabilistic generation assessment system introduction of renewable energy generators. This paper is focused on wind turbine generator and solar cell generator. The proposed method uses an assessment model based on probabilistic model considering uncertainty of resources (wind speed and solar radiation. Equivalent generation function of the wind and solar farms are evaluated. The equivalent generation curves of wind farms and solar farms are assessed using regression analysis method using typical least square method from last actual generation data for wind farms. The proposed model is applied to Korea Renewable Generation System of 8 grouped 41 wind farms and 9 grouped around 600 solar farms in South Korea.

  20. Risks of energy generation in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    Life expectancy reduction (LER) figures due to various risks are given. The example, air pollution from coal burning gives an LER of 12 days, and nuclear power, by government estimates, gives an LER of 0.04 days. The 25-day LER from all our use of energy is placed in perspective by comparing equivalent risks from everday hazards. The logical assumsption that reducing energy consumption reduces the LER figure is shown to be false because lower energy consumption lowers per capita income, which in turn greatly reduces life expectancy of the population. Energy shortage also ultimately leads to greater unemployment which increases the rate of suicide and murder and so, again, decreases life expectancy. (J.T.A.)

  1. Characterization of Escherichia coli populations from gulls, landfill trash, and wastewater using ribotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M; Jones, S H; Edwards, C; Ellis, J C

    2008-08-19

    Due to their opportunistic and gregarious nature, gulls may be important reservoirs and vectors for anthropogenically derived fecal pathogens in coastal areas. We used ribotyping, a genotypic bacterial source tracking method, to compare populations of Escherichia coli among herring gulls Larus argentatus, great black-backed gulls L. marinus, wastewater, and landfill trash in New Hampshire and Maine, USA. Concentrations of E. coli in gull feces varied widely among individuals, but were generally high (6.0 x 10(1) to 2.5 x 10(9) g(-1) wet weight). Of 39 E. coli isolates from L. argentatus, 67% had banding patterns that were > or = 90% similar to those from wastewater and trash, whereas only 39% of 36 L. marinus isolates exhibited > or = 90% similarity to these sources. Strains of E. coli from gulls matched (> or = 90% similarity) more strains from wastewater (39% matching) than from trash (15% matching). E. coli isolates from L. marinus feces exhibited a greater diversity of banding patterns than did isolates from L. argentatus. There were more unique E. coli banding patterns in trash samples than in wastewater, and higher diversity indices in the former compared to the latter. These findings suggest that both species of gulls, especially L. argentatus, obtain fecal bacteria from wastewater and landfill trash, which they may transport to recreational beaches and waters. Our results also indicate that E. coli populations may vary widely between gull species, and between the anthropogenic habitats that they frequent, i.e. landfills and wastewater treatment facilities.

  2. Environmental evaluation of different forms of electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2007-01-01

    The development and implementation of other forms of energy generation caused local changes, where they were installed, giving rise to environmental impacts. This work presents an evaluation about different forms of electrical energy generation and the environmental impacts relative to each one of them. Five forms of electric energy generation were considered: thermoelectric, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. The implementation and the development of the petroleum industry in the world and in Brazil are presented. The geology of the oil, its extraction and quality improvement, besides details of the functioning of three types of thermoelectric power plants - coal, gas and oil - are also discussed. The specific as well as the environmental impacts they have in common are highlighted. The impacts originated from the deactivation of each one of them are also pointed out. Once outlined the environmental impacts from each form of electric energy generation, they were correlated and compared considering the area of the power plant implantation, the generation capacity, the efficiency, the power and the cost per kW. There is no totally clean form of electric energy generation. There is, however, generation without emission of gases responsible for the green house effect. Therefore, all forms of energy generation are important for a country; in other words, the best situation is the diversity of the energy matrix. (author)

  3. Biomass production for direct generation of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In continuing its activities for the formation of public opinion the Deutsche Farming Association) held a colloquium in 1991 on the issue of biomass production and combustion. Its aim was to gather all current knowledge on this issue and, for the first time, to make a comprehensive appraisal of it. The following aspects were dealt with: Abatement of atmospheric pollution, ecologically oriented production, nature conservation, organisation of decentralized power plant operating corporations, state of the art in combustion technology, operational calculations and, not least, agrarin-political framework conditions. The meeting yielded important statements on remarkable innovations in the area of ecological biomass production and for its utilization as an energy source together with the conventional energy sources of oil, gas, coal and nuclear energy. (orig.) [de

  4. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  5. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    OpenAIRE

    Frid, C.; Andonegi, E.; Depestele, J.; Judd, A.; Rihan, D.; Rogers, S.I.; Kenchington, E.

    2012-01-01

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other...

  6. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  7. Robust Control of Aeronautical Electrical Generators for Energy Management Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Canciello; Alberto Cavallo; Beniamino Guida

    2017-01-01

    A new strategy for the control of aeronautical electrical generators via sliding manifold selection is proposed, with an associated innovative intelligent energy management strategy used for efficient power transfer between two sources providing energy to aeronautical loads, having different functionalities and priorities. Electric generators used for aeronautical application involve several machines, including a main generator and an exciter. Standard regulators (PI or PID-like) are normally...

  8. Intelligent control of energy-saving power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Zhizhong [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Highway power generation system which is environmentally friendly and sustainable provides an innovative method of energy conversion. It is also as a kind of city science and technology innovation, which has the characteristics of environmental protection and sustainable utilization. Making full use of vehicle impact speed control humps, we design a new kind of highway speed control humps combined with solar electric generation system integration. Developing green energy, energy saving and environment protection can be achieved.

  9. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  10. Dynamic modeling, simulation and control of energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    Vepa, Ranjan

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the core issues involved in the dynamic modeling, simulation and control of a selection of energy systems such as gas turbines, wind turbines, fuel cells and batteries. The principles of modeling and control could be applied to other non-convention methods of energy generation such as solar energy and wave energy.A central feature of Dynamic Modeling, Simulation and Control of Energy Generation is that it brings together diverse topics in thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, electro-chemistry, electrical networks and electrical machines and focuses on their appli

  11. Plasma generator utilizing dielectric member for carrying microwave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aklufi, M.E.; Brock, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a system in which electromagnetic energy is used to generate a plasma from a gas. It comprises a reaction chamber which is evacuated to less than ambient pressure and into which the gas is introduced; and a nonconductive member for carrying the electromagnetic energy and for emitting the electromagnetic energy so that a plasma is formed from the gas

  12. Examination of spent fuel radiation energy conversion for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung, E-mail: msyim@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Utilizing conversion of radiation energy of spent fuel to electric energy. • MCNPX modeling and experiment were used to estimate energy conversion. • The converted energy may be useful for nuclear security applications. • The converted energy may be utilized for safety applications through energy storage. - Abstract: Supply of electricity inside nuclear power plant is one of the most important considerations for nuclear safety and security. In this study, generation of electric energy by converting radiation energy of spent nuclear fuel was investigated. Computational modeling work by using MCNPX 2.7.0 code along with experiment was performed to estimate the amount of electric energy generation. The calculation using the developed modeling work was validated through comparison with an integrated experiment. The amount of electric energy generation based on a conceptual design of an energy conversion module was estimated to be low. But the amount may be useful for nuclear security applications. An alternative way of utilizing the produced electric energy could be considered for nuclear safety application through energy storage. Further studies are needed to improve the efficiency of the proposed energy conversion concept and to examine the issue of radiation damage and economic feasibility.

  13. Nonlinear sound generation by high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westervelt, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with Project DUMAND, the proposal to utilize the ocean as a giant acoustic detector of neutrinos, the applicability of a recent theory of thermoacoustic arrays [Peter J. Westervelt and Richard S. Larson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 121 (1973)] is studied. In the static case or at very low frequencies, about 10% of the coefficient of thermal expansion for water at 20 0 C can be attributed to Debye-like modes. Debye-like modes generate sound via the nonlinear mechanism responsible for the operation of the parametric acoustic array [Peter J. Westervelt, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 535 (1963)]. The contribution of the Debye-like modes to the thermal expansion coefficient and thus to the sound pressure is essentially independent of the ambient water temperature. Hence if the Debye-like modes are not fully excited as is postulated to be the case at high frequencies, then the thermal expansion coefficient will be less than the static value by an amount that causes it to vanish at about 6 0 C instead of at 4 0 C, the temperature of maximum water density. This theory is in agreement with recent measurements of the temperature dependence of sound generated by proton deposition in water [L. Sulak, et al., Proceedings of the La Jolla Workshop on Acoustic Detection of Neutrinos, 25--29 July 1977, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, U.C.L.A., San Diego, Hugh Bradner, Ed.

  14. An innovative approach for energy generation from waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Habaibeh, A. [Advanced Design and Manufacturing Engineering Centre, School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom); Su, D. [School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment, Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom); McCague, J. [Technical Director, Ocean Navitas Ltd., Lincolnshire (United Kingdom); Knight, A. [Marketing and Communications Manager, Ocean Navitas Ltd., Lincolnshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Sustainable energy generation is becoming increasingly important due to the expected limitations in current energy resources and to reduce pollution. Wave energy generation has seen significant development in recent years. This paper describes an innovative system for generating energy from wave power. A complete description of the system is presented including the general concept, configurations, mechanical design, electrical system, simulation techniques and expected power output of the system. The results from the hydraulic linear wave simulator, using a real wave profiles captured at a location in the UK using an ultrasound system, it was seen that a {+-}0.8 m wave at 10 s time period, produced a conditioned power output of approximately 22 kW at optimum load conditions for the tested 3-phase 44 kW permanent magnet generator type STK500. The results indicate that this new technology could provide an efficient and low cost method of generating electricity from waves. (author)

  15. An innovative approach for energy generation from waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Habaibeh, A.; Su, D.; McCague, J.; Knight, A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable energy generation is becoming increasingly important due to the expected limitations in current energy resources and to reduce pollution. Wave energy generation has seen significant development in recent years. This paper describes an innovative system for generating energy from wave power. A complete description of the system is presented including the general concept, configurations, mechanical design, electrical system, simulation techniques and expected power output of the system. The results from the hydraulic linear wave simulator, using a real wave profiles captured at a location in the UK using an ultrasound system, it was seen that a ±0.8 m wave at 10 s time period, produced a conditioned power output of approximately 22 kW at optimum load conditions for the tested 3-phase 44 kW permanent magnet generator type STK500. The results indicate that this new technology could provide an efficient and low cost method of generating electricity from waves.

  16. Nuclear energy resources for electrical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alder, K.F.

    1974-01-01

    'Nuclear Energy Resources' is interpreted as the nuclear power systems currently available commercially and those at an advanced stage of development, together with full and associated resources required to implement large-scale nuclear programs. Technical advantages and disadvantages of the established power reactor systems are reviewed, and the uranium fuel situation is outlined in terms of supply and demand, the relationship of resources to the requiremnts of current reactor types, and the likely future implications of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). Because of its importance for the future, the problems, status, and likely time scale of the FBR are discussed in some detail. It is concluded that the most important areas for nearterm attention in Australia are the criteria and conditions that would apply to nuclear installations, and the possible development of uranium fuel cycle industries. The pattern of development of reactor and fuel cycle strategies overseas is important for uranium industry planning, and in the long term plutonium availability may be a key factor in power and energy planning. Finally, acceptance of nuclear power includes acceptance that its radioactive wastes will have to be stored on earth, and recent developments to demonstrate that this can be done safely and economically are very important in terms of longterm public attitudes. (author)

  17. Promoting nuclear energy: meeting with new generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, George; Neves, Maria A.; Pedron, Marilene Quinaud; Guimaraes, Regia R. Ramirez; Filgueiras, Sergio A. Cunha

    2000-01-01

    The VII General Congress on Nuclear Energy (VII CGEN) decided on another approach, in order to promote nuclear energy (NE) for the average public. Instead of promoting an event for the nuclear area, the VII CGEN was open to the general public, aiming at high schools of the city of Belo Horizonte, where the meeting was held. The papers submitted were classified to two poster sessions, one called journalistic, open to the public, and technical, for the congressmen. The authors of the former session were asked to make their posters understandable for an average person. The present article shows the strategies used in dealing with local high schools, which includes the preparation of two series of posters, one dealing with the history of NE until 1945, and the other with applications of NE, due to the lack of this kind of material in Portuguese. The results of these efforts are shown and discussed, in terms of a better public image for NE and her community in Brazil. The public response showed that there is more than enough public for this kind of event, but not events enough. (author)

  18. Energy Harvesting Cycles of Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Energy harvesting via Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generators has attracted much of the scientific interest over the past few years, mainly due to the advantages that these smart materials offer against competing technologies, as electromagnetic generators and piezoelectrics. Their hig......Energy harvesting via Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generators has attracted much of the scientific interest over the past few years, mainly due to the advantages that these smart materials offer against competing technologies, as electromagnetic generators and piezoelectrics....... Their higher energy density, superior low-speed performance, light-weighted nature as well as their shapely structure have rendered DEAPs candidate solutions for various actuation and energy harvesting applications. In this paper, a thoroughly analysis of all energy harvesting operational cycles of a DEAP...

  19. Energy system analysis of fuel cells and distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    This chapter introduces Energy System Analysis methodologies and tools, which can be used for identifying the best application of different Fuel Cell (FC) technologies to different regional or national energy systems. The main point is that the benefits of using FC technologies indeed depend...... on the energy system in which they are used. Consequently, coherent energy systems analyses of specific and complete energy systems must be conducted in order to evaluate the benefits of FC technologies and in order to be able to compare alternative solutions. In relation to distributed generation, FC...... technologies are very often connected to the use of hydrogen, which has to be provided e.g. from electrolysers. Decentralised and distributed generation has the possibility of improving the overall energy efficiency and flexibility of energy systems. Therefore, energy system analysis tools and methodologies...

  20. A multifunctional energy-saving magnetic field generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hui; Sun, Wanpeng; Liu, Jinzhen; Shi, Jinhua

    2018-03-01

    To improve the energy utilization of magnetic field generators for biological applications, a multifunctional energy-saving magnetic field generator (ESMFG) is presented. It is capable of producing both an alternating magnetic field (AMF) and a bipolar pulse magnetic field (BPMF) with high energy-saving and energy-reuse rates. Based on a theoretical analysis of an RLC second-order circuit, the energy-saving and energy-reuse rates of both types of magnetic fields can be calculated and are found to have acceptable values. The results of an experimental study using the proposed generator show that for the BPMF, the peak current reaches 130 A and the intensity reaches 70.3 mT. For the AMF, the intensity is 11.0 mT and the RMS current is 20 A. The energy-saving and energy-reuse rates for the AMF generator are 61.3% and 63.5%, respectively, while for the BPMF generator, the energy-saving rate is 33.6%. Thus, the proposed ESMFG has excellent potential for use in biomedical applications.

  1. Comparison of the dielectric electroactive polymer generator energy harvesting cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2013-01-01

    The Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer (DEAP) generator energy harvesting cycles have been in the spotlight of the scientific interest for the past few years. Indeed, several articles have demonstrated thorough and comprehensive comparisons of the generator fundamental energy harvesting cycles......, namely Constant Charge (CC), Constant Voltage (CV) and Constant E-field (CE), based on averaged theoretical models. Yet, it has not been possible until present to validate the outcome of those comparisons via respective experimental results. In this paper, all three primary energy harvesting cycles...... are experimentally compared, based upon the coupling of a DEAP generator with a bidirectional non-isolated power electronic converter, by means of energy gain, energy harvesting efficiency and energy conversion efficiency....

  2. Molecular characterization of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from wild kelp gulls in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liakopoulos, Apostolos; Olsen, Björn; Geurts, Yvon; Artursson, Karin; Berg, Charlotte; Mevius, Dik J.; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a public health concern due to limited treatment options. Here, we report on the occurrence and the molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae recovered from wild birds (kelp gulls).

  3. Generating Community, Generating Justice? The production and circulation of value in community energy initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Chase Dotson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the potentialities and interconnections between existing and hypothetical community energy systems and the concept of generative justice. New York State’s more recent official energy plan, for instance, includes provisions for community-scale microgrids, and several European nations offer significant financial support to citizens interested in building micro and intermediate-scale renewable energy systems. Such efforts and technologies appear to promise some degree of generative justice, returning much of the value generated by distributed renewable energy back to the community producing it. However, most currently conceived and implemented community energy systems recirculate value in very narrow and limited ways. Building upon an analysis of New York energy policy and on-the-ground cases, we explore community energy’s potential. What kinds of value are being generated by community energy systems and for whom? How could such efforts be more generative of justice across a broad range of values, not just electrons and dollars? Through the attempt to broaden thinking not only about community energy systems but also the concept of generative justice, we connect technological and organizational configurations of community energy systems and the forms of value they have the potential to generate: including, the production of grassroots energy and organizational expertise, the capacity for local and personal autonomy in energy planning and decision-making, and the enhancement of an affective sense and embodied experience of community. Finally, we examine some of the barriers to realizing more generatively just community energy systems. 

  4. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in Swedish gulls-A case of environmental pollution from humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Atterby

    Full Text Available ESBL-producing bacteria are present in wildlife and the environment might serve as a resistance reservoir. Wild gulls have been described as frequent carriers of ESBL-producing E. coli strains with genotypic characteristics similar to strains found in humans. Therefore, potential dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria between the human population and wildlife need to be further investigated. Occurrence and characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish wild gulls were assessed and compared to isolates from humans, livestock and surface water collected in the same country and similar time-period. Occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is about three times higher in gulls compared to Swedish community carriers (17% versus 5% and the genetic characteristics of the ESBL-producing E. coli population in Swedish wild gulls and Swedish human are similar. ESBL-plasmids IncF- and IncI1-type carrying ESBL-genes blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-14 were most common in isolates from both gulls and humans, but there was limited evidence of clonal transmission. Isolates from Swedish surface water harbored similar genetic characteristics, which highlights surface waters as potential dissemination routes between wildlife and the human population. Even in a low-prevalence country such as Sweden, the occurrence of ESBL producing E. coli in wild gulls and the human population appears to be connected and the occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is likely a case of environmental pollution.

  5. Geographic, temporal, and age-specific variation in diets of Glaucous Gulls in western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, J.A.; Hobson, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    We collected boluses and food remains of adult Glaucous Gulls (Larus hyperboreus) at or near nests and chicks, and digestive tracts from adults at three sites on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska that differed in proximity to marine and terrestrial foods. We observed both geographic and temporal variation in diet; gulls consumed proportionately more terrestrial prey after peak hatch in late June, and gulls near the coast consumed proportionately more marine prey than gulls at two inland areas. Goslings occurred in > 60% of all samples from these inland areas. We compared these data to those from a previous study in western Alaska and found no marked differences. Evidence for similar patterns of geographic and temporal variation in diet was found using measurements of stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes in gull and prey tissues. Stable isotope analysis further revealed that adult gulls consumed proportionately more marine prey (saffron cod, Eleginus gracilis) than they fed to their young. Using isotopic models, we estimated that 7-22% and 10-23% of the diet of adult and juvenile Glaucous Gulls, respectively, was comprised of terrestrial species. In addition to significant age-related variation, dietary estimates varied among geographic areas and between pre- and post-hatch periods. Overall, our isotopic estimates of the contribution of terrestrial prey to the diet of Glaucous Gulls was less than what may be inferred from conventional methods of diet analysis. Our study emphasizes the benefit of combining stable-isotope and conventional analyses to infer temporal and geographic changes in diet of wild birds and other organisms.

  6. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in Swedish gulls-A case of environmental pollution from humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterby, Clara; Börjesson, Stefan; Ny, Sofia; Järhult, Josef D; Byfors, Sara; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    ESBL-producing bacteria are present in wildlife and the environment might serve as a resistance reservoir. Wild gulls have been described as frequent carriers of ESBL-producing E. coli strains with genotypic characteristics similar to strains found in humans. Therefore, potential dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria between the human population and wildlife need to be further investigated. Occurrence and characterization of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish wild gulls were assessed and compared to isolates from humans, livestock and surface water collected in the same country and similar time-period. Occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is about three times higher in gulls compared to Swedish community carriers (17% versus 5%) and the genetic characteristics of the ESBL-producing E. coli population in Swedish wild gulls and Swedish human are similar. ESBL-plasmids IncF- and IncI1-type carrying ESBL-genes blaCTX-M-15 or blaCTX-M-14 were most common in isolates from both gulls and humans, but there was limited evidence of clonal transmission. Isolates from Swedish surface water harbored similar genetic characteristics, which highlights surface waters as potential dissemination routes between wildlife and the human population. Even in a low-prevalence country such as Sweden, the occurrence of ESBL producing E. coli in wild gulls and the human population appears to be connected and the occurrence of ESBL-producing E. coli in Swedish gulls is likely a case of environmental pollution.

  7. Use of non-conventional energy sources for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umapathaiah, R.; Sharma, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    India being a developing country, cannot afford to meet the power and energy demand only from conventional sources. Power generation can be augmented by using non-conventional energy sources. Sufficient importance must be given for recovery of energy from industrial/urban waste. Solar heating system must replace industrial and domestic sectors. Solar photovoltaic, biogas plant, biomass based gasified system must also be given sufficient place in energy sector. More thrust has to be given for generation of power by using sugar cane which is a perennial source

  8. Hydrolysis Batteries: Generating Electrical Energy during Hydrogen Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Chen, Jun; Fu, Kai; Zheng, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2018-02-19

    The hydrolysis reaction of aluminum can be decoupled into a battery by pairing an Al foil with a Pd-capped yttrium dihydride (YH 2 -Pd) electrode. This hydrolysis battery generates a voltage around 0.45 V and leads to hydrogen absorption into the YH 2 layer. This represents a new hydrogen absorption mechanism featuring electrical energy generation during hydrogen absorption. The hydrolysis battery converts 8-15 % of the thermal energy of the hydrolysis reaction into usable electrical energy, leading to much higher energy efficiency compared to that of direct hydrolysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. In Situ Magnetohydrodynamic Energy Generation for Planetary Entry Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. K.; Braun, R. D.

    2014-06-01

    This work aims to study the suitability of multi-pass entry trajectories for harnessing of vehicle kinetic energy through magnetohydrodynamic power generation from the high temperature entry plasma. Potential mission configurations are analyzed.

  10. The sound of danger: threat sensitivity to predator vocalizations, alarm calls, and novelty in gulls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A MacLean

    Full Text Available The threat sensitivity hypothesis predicts that organisms will evaluate the relative danger of and respond differentially to varying degrees of predation threat. Doing so allows potential prey to balance the costs and benefits of anti-predator behaviors. Threat sensitivity has undergone limited testing in the auditory modality, and the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is difficult to infer across populations when variables such as background risk and experience are not properly controlled. We experimentally exposed a single population of two sympatric gull species to auditory stimuli representing a range of potential threats in order to compare the relative threat of heterospecific alarm calls, conspecific alarms calls, predator vocalizations, and novel auditory cues. Gulls were able to discriminate among a diverse set of threat indicators and respond in a graded manner commensurate with the level of threat. Vocalizations of two potential predators, the human voice and bald eagle call, differed in their threat level compared to each other and to alarm calls. Conspecific alarm calls were more threatening than heterospecfic alarm calls to the larger great black-backed gull, but the smaller herring gull weighed both equally. A novel cue elicited a response intermediate between known threats and a known non-threat in herring gulls, but not great black-backed gulls. Our results show that the relative threat level of auditory cues from different sources is highly species-dependent, and that caution should be exercised when comparing graded and threshold threat sensitive responses.

  11. Quantifying fall migration of Ross's gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) past Point Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Davis, Shanti E.; Maftei, Mark; Gesmundo, Callie; Suydam, R.S.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) is a poorly known seabird of the circumpolar Arctic. The only place in the world where Ross's gulls are known to congregate is in the near-shore waters around Point Barrow, Alaska where they undertake an annual passage in late fall. Ross's gulls seen at Point Barrow are presumed to originate from nesting colonies in Siberia, but neither their origin nor their destination has been confirmed. Current estimates of the global population of Ross's gulls are based largely on expert opinion, and the only reliable population estimate is derived from extrapolations from previous counts conducted at Point Barrow, but these data are now over 25 years old. In order to update and clarify the status of this species in Alaska, our study quantified the timing, number, and flight direction of Ross's gulls passing Point Barrow in 2011. We recorded up to two-thirds of the estimated global population of Ross's gulls (≥ 27,000 individuals) over 39 days with numbers peaking on 16 October when we observed over 7,000 birds during a three-hour period.

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodewes, R.; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Schapendonk, C.M.E.; Leeuwen, M. van; Boheemen, S. van; Jong, A.A.W. de; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Smits, S.L.; Kuiken, T.

    2013-01-01

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. - Highlights: ► Lesions typical for adenovirus infection detected in cloacal bursa of dead gulls. ► Confirmation of adenovirus infection by electron microscopy and deep sequencing. ► Sequence analysis indicates that it is a novel adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. ► The novel (Gull) adenovirus was detected in multiple organs of two species of gulls

  13. Behaviours, transmissions, generations: why is energy efficiency not enough?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabuau-Moussaoui, Isabelle (Electricite de France, Research and Development (France))

    2009-07-01

    Energy use is nowadays a very important question, in the context of global warming and expensive prices of energy. 'Energy conservation' is a paradox: environmental awareness increases, but also energy demand. Sociological knowledge concerning energy uses and energy savings remains important to understand the possible evolutions of practices and values and thus the possible future energy policies. Can the 'consumer society' become a 'less energy-intensive' society? This paper proposes to innovate with a 'new' way to analyse behaviours and to help policy makers to break the walls of 'the behavioural complexity'. We argue that energy efficiency, energy-using products and activities are socially embedded. More specifically, they depend on the 'social age' of people (children, teenagers, young adults, parents, old age people) and on their generation (events, experiences that people did live). The demonstration is based on the analysis of several qualitative studies carried out in France, showing that the generational and social ages analysis could be very efficient and innovative to understand: How are information, policies and energy-efficient technologies understood and embodied by people according to their age and their 'life story'? What kind of 'energy-related material culture' have people, and how does it evolve during the life? In a context of increasing energy demand, is it possible to change the energy-intensive 'socio-technical' mainstream towards a more sustainable way of life? What are the best moments during life for a behavioural change towards a less energy intensive way of life? Can we count on the new generation, to be more aware and less 'energy-intensive'?

  14. An innovative simulation tool for waste to energy generation opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Abderezzak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new world energy policies encourage the use of renewable energy sources with clean technologies, and abandon progressively the fossil fuel dependence. Another energy generation trend called commonly the “Waste-to-Energy” solution, uses organic waste as a response for two major problems: energy generation and waste management. Thanks to the anaerobic digestion, the organic waste can provide a biogas composed essentially from Carbone dioxide (CO2 and Methane (CH4. This work aims essentially to help students, researchers and even decision makers to consider the importance of biogas generation. The proposed tool is the last version of our previous tool which is enhanced and completed. It presents the potential to produce biogas of any shortlisted kind of waste, including also some energy valorization ways. A technical economical data are introduced for eventual feasibility studies.

  15. Experimental power reactor dc generator energy storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.; Smeltzer, G.S.; Myers, E.H.; Kilgore, L.

    1978-01-01

    This study covers the use of dc generators for meeting the Experimental Power Reactor Ohmic Heating Energy Storage Requirements. The dc generators satisfy these requirements which are the same as defined in WFPS-TME-038 which covered the use of ac generators and homopolar generators. The costs of the latter two systems have been revised to eliminate first-of-a-kind factors. The cost figures for dc generators indicate a need to develop larger machines in order to take advantage of the economy-of-scale that the large ac machines have. Each of the systems has its own favorable salient features on which to base a system selection

  16. Energy intensities, EROIs (energy returned on invested), and energy payback times of electricity generating power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weißbach, D.; Ruprecht, G.; Huke, A.; Czerski, K.; Gottlieb, S.; Hussein, A.

    2013-01-01

    The energy returned on invested, EROI, has been evaluated for typical power plants representing wind energy, photovoltaics, solar thermal, hydro, natural gas, biogas, coal and nuclear power. The strict exergy concept with no “primary energy weighting”, updated material databases, and updated technical procedures make it possible to directly compare the overall efficiency of those power plants on a uniform mathematical and physical basis. Pump storage systems, needed for solar and wind energy, have been included in the EROI so that the efficiency can be compared with an “unbuffered” scenario. The results show that nuclear, hydro, coal, and natural gas power systems (in this order) are one order of magnitude more effective than photovoltaics and wind power. - Highlights: ► Nuclear, “renewable” and fossil energy are comparable on a uniform physical basis. ► Energy storage is considered for the calculation, reducing the ERoEI remarkably. ► All power systems generate more energy than they consume. ► Photovoltaics, biomass and wind (buffered) are below the economical threshold

  17. Resonant wave energy harvester based on dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Giacomo; Pietro Rosati Papini, Gastone; Righi, Michele; Forehand, David; Ingram, David; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are a class of capacitive solid-state devices that employ highly stretchable dielectrics and conductors to convert mechanical energy into high-voltage direct-current electricity. Their promising performance in terms of convertible energy and power density has been mostly proven in quasi-static experimental tests with prescribed deformation. However, the assessment of their ability in harvesting energy from a dynamic oscillating source of mechanical energy is crucial to demonstrate their effectiveness in practical applications. This paper reports a first demonstration of a DEG system that is able to convert the oscillating energy carried by water waves into electricity. A DEG prototype is built using a commercial polyacrylate film (VHB 4905 by 3M) and an experimental campaign is conducted in a wave-flume facility, i.e. an artificial basin that makes it possible to generate programmed small-scale waves at different frequencies and amplitudes. In resonant conditions, the designed system demonstrates the delivery of a maximum of 0.87 W of electrical power output and 0.64 J energy generated per cycle, with corresponding densities per unit mass of dielectric elastomer of 197 W kg-1 and 145 J kg-1. Additionally, a notable maximum fraction of 18% of the input wave energy is converted into electricity. The presented results provide a promising demonstration of the operation and effectiveness of ocean wave energy converters based on elastic capacitive generators.

  18. Energy dissipation through wind-generated breaking waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuwen; CAO Ruixue; XIE Lingling

    2012-01-01

    Wave breaking is an important process that controls turbulence properties and fluxes of heat and mass in the upper oceanic layer.A model is described for energy dissipation per unit area at the ocean surface attributed to wind-generated breaking waves,in terms of ratio of energy dissipation to energy input,windgenerated wave spectrum,and wave growth rate.Also advanced is a vertical distribution model of turbulent kinetic energy,based on an exponential distribution method.The result shows that energy dissipation rate depends heavily on wind speed and sea state.Our results agree well with predictions of previous works.

  19. Net energy analysis of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document is a report on the net energy analysis of nuclear power and other electricity generation systems. The main objectives of this document are: To provide a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge on net energy analysis of nuclear and other energy systems for electricity generation; to address traditional questions such as whether nuclear power is a net energy producer or not. In addition, the work in progress on a renewed application of the net energy analysis method to environmental issues is also discussed. It is expected that this work could contribute to the overall comparative assessment of different energy systems which is an ongoing activity at the IAEA. 167 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  20. ALGORITHM TO CHOOSE ENERGY GENERATION MULTIPLE ROLE STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STĂNESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an algorithm that is based on a complex analysis method that is used for choosing the configuration of a power station. The station generates electric energy and hydrogen, and serves a "green" highway. The elements that need to be considered are: energy efficiency, location, availability of primary energy sources in the area, investment cost, workforce, environmental impact, compatibility with existing systems, meantime between failure.

  1. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steven Konkel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW by January 2012. Method . This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1. (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984. It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results . Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion . State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: a. changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska

  2. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R Steven

    2013-01-01

    In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. This article reviews data and conclusions presented in "Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment" (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards--$202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding--along with numerous energy conservation programs--are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages, impacts associated with climate change on human health, progress in

  3. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  4. Axial Permanent Magnet Generator for Wearable Energy Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, Stig; Sødahl, Jakob Wagner; Mijatovic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    An increasing demand for battery-free electronics is evident by the rapid increase of wearable devices, and the design of wearable energy harvesters follows accordingly. An axial permanent magnet generator was designed to harvest energy from human body motion and supplying it to a wearable......W, respectively) with an iron yoke is subject to losses that exceed the realistic input power, and was therefore deemed infeasible. A generator without the iron yoke was concluded to perform well as a wearable energy harvester. An experimental investigation of a prototype revealed an output power of almost 1 m...

  5. San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential (City Energy: From Data to Decisions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-09-29

    This fact sheet "San Jose, California: Evaluating Local Solar Energy Generation Potential" explains how the City of San Jose used data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Cities Leading through Energy Analysis and Planning (Cities-LEAP) and the State and Local Energy Data (SLED) programs to inform its city energy planning. It is one of ten fact sheets in the "City Energy: From Data to Decisions" series.

  6. VO2 thermochromic smart window for energy savings and generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiadong; Gao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zongtao; Luo, Hongjie; Cao, Chuanxiang; Chen, Zhang; Dai, Lei; Liu, Xinling

    2013-10-01

    The ability to achieve energy saving in architectures and optimal solar energy utilisation affects the sustainable development of the human race. Traditional smart windows and solar cells cannot be combined into one device for energy saving and electricity generation. A VO2 film can respond to the environmental temperature to intelligently regulate infrared transmittance while maintaining visible transparency, and can be applied as a thermochromic smart window. Herein, we report for the first time a novel VO2-based smart window that partially utilises light scattering to solar cells around the glass panel for electricity generation. This smart window combines energy-saving and generation in one device, and offers potential to intelligently regulate and utilise solar radiation in an efficient manner.

  7. Analysis of the energy portfolio for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.; Esquivel E, J.

    2016-09-01

    The planning of electricity generation systems considers several factors that must be taken into account in order to design systems that are economical, reliable and sustainable. For this purpose, the Financial Portfolio Theory is applicable to the energy portfolio or the diversification of electricity generation technologies, such as is the combined cycle, wind, thermoelectric and nuclear. This paper presents an application of the Portfolio Theory to the national energy system, based on the total generation costs for each technology, which allows determining the average variance portfolio and the respective share of each of the electricity generation technologies considered, obtaining a portfolio of electricity generation with the maximum possible return for the risk taken in the investments. This paper describes the basic aspects of the Portfolio Theory and its methodology, in which matrices are implemented for the solution of the resulting Lagrange system. (Author)

  8. Environmental evaluation of different forms of electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Electric energy has an important function in the modem world; it is fundamental for progress and development. The electricity discovery allowed improvements in several areas: health, water and food supply, quality of life and sanitary conditions, and contributed also to the establishment of the capitalist and consumption society. The use of oil as an energy generation source was the impulse for the industrial revolution and machines, motors and generators were developed contributing to the progress This also brought the pollutant gases emission (CO 2 , CO, SO x and NO x ) and other substances that had contributed to the greenhouse effect, the ozone hole and the acid rain, modifying the balance of the planet. The development and implementation of other forms of energy generation caused local changes, where they were installed, giving rise to environmental impacts. This work presents an evaluation about different forms of electrical energy generation and the environmental impacts relative to each one of them. Five forms of electric energy generation were considered: thermoelectric, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. The implementation and the development of the petroleum industry in the world and in Brazil are presented. The geology of the oil, its extraction and quality improvement, besides details of the functioning of three types of thermoelectric power plants - coal, gas and oil - are also discussed. The specific as well as the environmental impacts they have in common are highlighted. The impacts originated from the deactivation of each one of them are also pointed out. The discovery and the development of nuclear energy in Brazil and in the world as well as the functioning of a nuclear power plant, the impacts generated by its operation and decommissioning are presented. The history, functioning and development of hydroelectric energy generation in Brazil, characterized by the great plants, are related to environmental aspects The environmental

  9. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration. PMID:25243201

  10. Global renewable energy-based electricity generation and smart grid system for energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M A; Hasanuzzaman, M; Rahim, N A; Nahar, A; Hosenuzzaman, M

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  11. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for future energy security is presented. Results show that renewable energy resources are becoming more prevalent as more electricity generation becomes necessary and could provide half of the total energy demands by 2050. To satisfy the future energy demand, the smart grid system can be used as an efficient system for energy security. The smart grid also delivers significant environmental benefits by conservation and renewable generation integration.

  12. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  13. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull

  14. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmen, Tuula; Rudbaeck, Eeva

    2004-02-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed. - Elevated DDE/PCB ratio correlates with a high rate of chick diseases in the endangered nominate lesser black-backed gull.

  15. Field Metabolic Rate Is Dependent on Time-Activity Budget in Ring-Billed Gulls (Larus delawarensis Breeding in an Anthropogenic Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Marteinson

    Full Text Available Environmental and behavioral factors have long been assumed to affect variation in avian field metabolic rate (FMR. However, due to the difficulties in measuring continuous behavior of birds over prolonged periods of time, complete time-activity budgets have rarely been examined in relation to FMR. Our objective was to determine the effect of activity (measured by detailed time-activity budgets and a series of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on FMR of the omnivorous ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis. The experiment was conducted during the incubation period when both members of the pair alternate between attending the nest-site and leaving the colony to forage in aquatic and anthropogenic environments (city, agricultural. FMR was determined using the doubly labeled water method. Time-activity budgets were extrapolated from spatio-temporal data (2-5 days obtained from bird-borne GPS data loggers. Gulls had low FMRs compared to those predicted by allometric equations based on recorded FMRs from several seabird species. Gulls proportioned their time mainly to nest-site attendance (71% of total tracking time, which reduced FMR/g body mass, and was the best variable explaining energy expenditure. The next best variable was the duration of foraging trips, which increased FMR/g; FMR/g was also elevated by the proportion of time spent foraging or flying (17% and 8% of tracking time respectively. Most environmental variables measured did not impact FMR/g, however, the percent of time birds were subjected to temperatures below their lower critical temperature increased FMR. Time-activity budgets varied between the sexes, and with temperature and capture date suggesting that these variables indirectly affected FMR/g. The gulls foraged preferentially in anthropogenic-related habitats, which may have contributed to their low FMR/g due to the high availability of protein- and lipid-rich foods. This study demonstrates that activities were the best

  16. Effects of distributing wind energy generation over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Using data from 60 meteorological stations distributed all over Europe in conjunction with the National Grid Model (NGM) from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the effects of the large-scale distribution of wind energy generation are studied. In some regions of Europe, wind energy already covers a significant proportion of the electricity demand. But the intermittence of the wind resource is always a limiting factor when penetration levels are high. Studies for single countries have shown that distributing the generation over a large area reduces the variability of the output and hence makes wind energy more appealing to utilities, since the stability requirement of the network are easier to fulfil. The data are analysed in terms of absolute highs and lows, temporal and spatial correlations. To assess the financial benefits, the NGM is used to evaluate the match of electricity demand and generation as well as the possibel savings of fossil fuel in an electricity grid incorporating various capacities of wind energy generation. To assess the value of wind energy on a trans-national scale, the European plant mix is modelled, and the NGM is used to simulate the scheduling of these plants in the presence of different penetrations of wind energy. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 11 refs.

  17. Piezoelectric Energy Generation from Vehicle Traffic with Technoeconomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba Najini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical simulation based system to support the concept of generating energy from road traffic using piezoelectric materials. The simulation based system design replicates a real life system implementation. It investigates practicality and feasibility using a real-time simulation platform known as MATLAB-Simulink. The system design structure was proposed considering factors involved with the field of material sciences for piezoelectric generator modeling and field of power electronics for additional components in producing a realist outcome. It also ensures ease of vehicle performance, as this system utilizes energy source derived as kinetic energy released from vehicles into electrical power output, that is, obtained by harnessing kinetic energy due to strain of vehicles over asphalt road surface. Due to the real-time simulation platform, the system simulation predicts the effective global carbon footprint. In addition to evaluating technical viability, a technoeconomical business analysis provides a strategic perspective. By using the simulation based power generation results, an estimation of implementation cost and payback time in real life (for United Arab Emirates was derived, hence validating and predicting real-time economic outcome. This is followed by a comparative study with other sources of renewable energy based on levelized energy cost factor that justifies the performance of the proposed system over other renewable energy sources, in support of providing an economical solution on reducing global carbon footprint.

  18. Confab - Systematic generation of diverse low-energy conformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Boyle Noel M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many computational chemistry analyses require the generation of conformers, either on-the-fly, or in advance. We present Confab, an open source command-line application for the systematic generation of low-energy conformers according to a diversity criterion. Results Confab generates conformations using the 'torsion driving approach' which involves iterating systematically through a set of allowed torsion angles for each rotatable bond. Energy is assessed using the MMFF94 forcefield. Diversity is measured using the heavy-atom root-mean-square deviation (RMSD relative to conformers already stored. We investigated the recovery of crystal structures for a dataset of 1000 ligands from the Protein Data Bank with fewer than 1 million conformations. Confab can recover 97% of the molecules to within 1.5 Å at a diversity level of 1.5 Å and an energy cutoff of 50 kcal/mol. Conclusions Confab is available from http://confab.googlecode.com.

  19. Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Duic, Neven; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2016-01-01

    scientific understanding on how we can design and implement a suitable and least-cost transformation into a sustainable energy future. The concept of Smart Energy Systems emphasizes the importance of being coherent and cross-sectoral when the best solutions are to be found and how this also calls......This editorial gives an introduction to the important relationship between Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating and presents a number of selected papers from the 1st International Conference on the topic. All of the papers elaborate on or otherwise contribute to the theoretical...... for the active inclusion of the heating and cooling sectors. The concept of 4th Generation District Heating emphasizes that district heating and cooling are both important elements but also technologies that have to be developed further into a 4th generation version to be able to fulfil their roles in future...

  20. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  1. Claw-pole Synchronous Generator for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVEL Valentina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a claw-poles generator for compressed air energy storage systems. It is presented the structure of such a system used for compensating of the intermittency of a small wind energy system. For equipping of this system it is chosen the permanent magnet claw pole synchronous generator obtained by using ring NdFeB permanentmagnets instead of excitation coil. In such a way the complexity of the scheme is reduced and the generator become maintenance free. The new magnetic flux density in the air-gap is calculated by magneticreluctance method and by FEM method and the results are compared with measured values in the old and new generator.

  2. Review—Organic Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cowen, Lewis M.; Atoyo, Jonathan; Carnie, Matthew J.; Baran, Derya; Schroeder, Bob C.

    2017-01-01

    Organic semiconductor materials have been promising alternatives to their inorganic counterparts in several electronic applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, field effect transistors as well as thermoelectric generators. Their low cost, light weight and flexibility make them appealing in future applications such as foldable electronics and wearable circuits using printing techniques. In this report, we present a mini-review on the organic materials that have been used for thermoelectric energy generation.

  3. Review—Organic Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cowen, Lewis M.

    2017-01-29

    Organic semiconductor materials have been promising alternatives to their inorganic counterparts in several electronic applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, field effect transistors as well as thermoelectric generators. Their low cost, light weight and flexibility make them appealing in future applications such as foldable electronics and wearable circuits using printing techniques. In this report, we present a mini-review on the organic materials that have been used for thermoelectric energy generation.

  4. Generation of a bubble universe using a negative energy bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a model for a bubble universe using buildable false vacuum bubbles. We study the causal structures of collapsing false vacuum bubbles using double-null simulations. False vacuum bubbles violate the null energy condition and emit negative energy along the outgoing direction through semi-classical effects. If there are a few collapsing false vacuum bubbles and they emit negative energy to a certain region, then the region can be approximated by a negative energy bath, which means that the region is homogeneously filled by negative energy. If a false vacuum bubble is generated in the negative energy bath and the tension of the bubble effectively becomes negative in the bath, then the bubble can expand and form an inflating bubble universe. This scenario uses a set of assumptions different from those in previous studies because it does not require tunneling to unbuildable bubbles.

  5. Robust Control of Aeronautical Electrical Generators for Energy Management Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Canciello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy for the control of aeronautical electrical generators via sliding manifold selection is proposed, with an associated innovative intelligent energy management strategy used for efficient power transfer between two sources providing energy to aeronautical loads, having different functionalities and priorities. Electric generators used for aeronautical application involve several machines, including a main generator and an exciter. Standard regulators (PI or PID-like are normally used for the rectification of the generator voltage to be used to supply a high-voltage DC bus. The regulation is obtained by acting on a DC/DC converter that imposes the field voltage of the exciter. In this paper, the field voltage is fed to the generator windings by using a second-order sliding mode controller, resulting into a stable, robust (against disturbances action and a fast convergence to the desired reference. By using this strategy, an energy management strategy is proposed that dynamically changes the voltage set point, in order to intelligently transfer power between two voltage busses. Detailed simulation results are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy in different scenarios.

  6. The influence of distributed generation penetration levels on energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahl, Fabrício Peter; Rüther, Ricardo; Casarotto Filho, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Planning of national energy policies brings new dilemmas with the introduction of distributed generators (DG). Economic theory suggests that a perfectly competitive market would lead to efficient pricing. In the absence of competition, regulators play a fundamental role in attracting reasonably priced finance in order to maintain, refurbish and increase the infrastructure and provide services at a reasonable cost. Energy market price equilibrium is mainly dependent on suppliers, generators, energy sources and demand, represented by conventional utility grid users. Its behavior is similar to that of other commodities. As generation becomes less centralized with the increasing economic viability of renewable energy sources, new suppliers are being connected to the grid. Such evolution means the transition from a monopolistic market to a broader and more open environment, with an increasing number of competitors. We make use of variational inequalities to model a hypothetical DG market in different scenarios, from monopoly, to oligopoly, to open market. Such an approach enables different equilibrium outcomes due to different DG penetration levels. Based on these findings, we argue that energy policies for such markets must be developed according to each specific stage of the grid's lifecycle. We show how energy policies and market regulations may affect such a transition, which may be catastrophic if not managed properly, and which is dependent on the energy mix. -- Highlights: •DG affects energy markets depending on technologies, penetration and infrastructure. •Energy prices vary when the market moves from centralized to several suppliers. •Variational inequalities are presented to simulate a market under such transitions. •The increase of DG penetration level may present different energy prices variation. •If technical and political issues of smart grids are not improved, markets may crash

  7. A robust optimization approach for energy generation scheduling in microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ran; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Gaoxi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new uncertainty model is proposed for better describing unstable energy demands. • An optimization problem is formulated to minimize the cost of microgrid operations. • Robust optimization algorithms are developed to transform and solve the problem. • The proposed scheme can prominently reduce energy expenses. • Numerical results provide useful insights for future investment policy making. - Abstract: In this paper, a cost minimization problem is formulated to intelligently schedule energy generations for microgrids equipped with unstable renewable sources and combined heat and power (CHP) generators. In such systems, the fluctuant net demands (i.e., the electricity demands not balanced by renewable energies) and heat demands impose unprecedented challenges. To cope with the uncertainty nature of net demand and heat demand, a new flexible uncertainty model is developed. Specifically, we introduce reference distributions according to predictions and field measurements and then define uncertainty sets to confine net and heat demands. The model allows the net demand and heat demand distributions to fluctuate around their reference distributions. Another difficulty existing in this problem is the indeterminate electricity market prices. We develop chance constraint approximations and robust optimization approaches to firstly transform and then solve the prime problem. Numerical results based on real-world data evaluate the impacts of different parameters. It is shown that our energy generation scheduling strategy performs well and the integration of combined heat and power (CHP) generators effectively reduces the system expenditure. Our research also helps shed some illuminations on the investment policy making for microgrids.

  8. The future of energy generation sector in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, Gino de

    2000-01-01

    The importance of energy on the life of modern man is evaluated considering environmental and strategic issues. Energetic crisis that happened on the recent past of Brazil and United States of America are reviewed and analysed in the light of the particular strategic matters of each country. A tentative projection of the profile of the electrical energy generator industry of Brazil is done based on the past experiences, on the present scenario and on the future potentials. (author)

  9. Dependability of wind energy generators with short-term energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B

    1976-11-26

    Power fluctuations and power duration curves for wind energy generators, including energy storage facilities of a certain capacity, are compared to those of typical nuclear reactors. A storage system capable of delivering the yearly average power output for about 10 hours already makes the dependability of the wind energy system comparable to that of a typical nuclear plant.

  10. Generator Requirements For Rural Electrification From Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzune Mipoung, Olivare; Pragasen, Pillay

    2010-09-15

    This paper addresses the issue of rural electrification from renewable energy. A brief introduction on biomass and wind electrical systems is given. The aim of this research is to propose optimal electrification system design for rural areas. This requires suitable generators selection as a starting point. Some generator types for rural electrification systems are introduced, followed by a discussion on the selection criteria. Simulation results of a typical electrification system for remote areas are obtained to support the safety aspect related to the individual generator types, in the event of accidental rotor motion. All simulations are done in Matlab-Simulink.

  11. 75 FR 71731 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve... availability of the Record of Decision for the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by Huna Tlingit in Glacier... Impact Statement (LEIS) on the Harvest of Glaucous-Winged Gull Eggs by Huna Tlingit in Glacier Bay...

  12. Challenges of deploying nuclear energy for power generation in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Mohd Zamzam; Nazaruddin, Nurul Huda; Lye, Jonathan Tan Thiam

    2017-01-01

    Under the 10th Malaysia Plan (2010-2015) and the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP), nuclear energy was identified as a potential long-term option to be explored for electricity generation in Peninsular Malaysia. The energy sector in Malaysia currently faces several concerns including depleting domestic gas supply which will affect security and reliability of supply as well as overdependance on fossil fuels - mainly gas and imported coal, and nuclear energy may offer a possible solution to these issues as well as global climate change concern. Pursuing the nuclear option, Malaysia Nuclear Power Corporation (MNPC) is undertaking a series of comprehensive studies to facilitate an informed Government decision on the matter. This paper aims to discuss the many challenges towards the peaceful use of nuclear energy for electricity generation in the context of the New Energy Policy 2010 to achieve a balanced and sustainable energy mix. This effort will continue in the 11th Malaysia Plan (2016-2020) with emphasis on implementing a comprehensive communications plan and public awareness programme for the potential use of nuclear energy in the future. In analysing the challenges for the development of nuclear energy in Malaysia, the traditional triple bottom line (TBL) framework for sustainability, encompassing economic, social and environmental objectives is utilized. An additional factor, technical, is also included in the analysis to provide a more holistic view. It is opined that the main challenges of developing nuclear energy for electricity generation in a newcomer country like Malaysia can be attributed primarily to domestic non-technical factors compared to the technical factor.

  13. Novel ocean energy permanent magnet linear generator buoy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhinefrank, K.; Agamloh, E.B.; Jouanne, A. von; Wallace, A.K.; Prudell, J.; Kimble, K.; Aills, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schacher, A. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3211 (United States); Chan, P.; Sweeny, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-3211 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    This paper describes the research, design, construction and prototype testing process of a novel ocean energy direct drive permanent magnet linear generator buoy. The buoy employs the vertical component of the motion of ocean waves to power a linear generator. The generator consists of a permanent magnet field system (mounted on the central translator shaft) and an armature, in which the power is generated (mounted on the buoy). The translator shaft is anchored to the sea floor, and the buoy/floater moves armature coils relative to the permanent magnet translator to induce voltages. The electrical and mechanical structures of the buoy generator are provided, along with performance characteristics, including voltage, current and developed power. (author)

  14. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, Chris; Andonegi, Eider; Depestele, Jochen; Judd, Adrian; Rihan, Dominic; Rogers, Stuart I.; Kenchington, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: ► We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. ► Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. ► Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. ► Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.

  15. Integrating sustainable generation technologies in the Canadian energy portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saulnier, B.

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the energy industry and the planning of electrical networks are experiencing rapid changes under the combined action of social, technico-economical, environmental and trade pressures. Given the widening diversity of competing (demand and supply) options being offered to consumers, energy policy makers must establish a fair and consistent technico-economic methodology to compare the sustainability and natural synergies of energy options. Such an approach towards energy issues should allow renewable energies, energy efficiency and storage technologies to build strong alliances with information technology and take a major place in the long-term energy portfolio of societies. With examples of recent projects involving significant penetration of wind energy in electrical grids in Canada and abroad, the author presents the rationale for technico-economic comparison indicators that canadian policy makers need to take into account so as to bring the full advantage and value of promising renewable energy technologies to the canadian energy market. The merits of expanding the pace of the current Canadian GHG reduction program by granting all provinces, irrespective of their electricity market structure or generation mix, an equal opportunity to invest in RE projects contributing to the national goal are presented. In this regard, the limitations of the prevailing accounting rules found in the Canadian GHG reduction program are analysed and corrections are proposed. (author)

  16. Nocturnal feeding under artificial light conditions by Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in Puerto Madryn harbour (Chubut Province, Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Yorio, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes nocturnal, marine feeding behaviour in the Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis) in November 2009. The gulls assembled at night at the end of a long pier, running 800 m offshore into the Golfo Nuevo, at Puerto Madryn, Chubut Province, Argentina. Powerful lights predictably

  17. Plastic and Non-plastic Debris Ingestion in Three Gull Species Feeding in an Urban Landfill Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, S; Provencher, J F; Avery-Gomm, S; Daoust, P-Y; Mallory, M L; Smith, P A

    2018-04-01

    Plastic debris is recognized as a widespread, common and problematic environmental pollutant. An important consequence of this pollution is the ingestion of plastic debris by wildlife. Assessing the degree to which different species ingest plastics, and the potential effects of these plastics on their health are important research needs for understanding the impacts of plastic pollution. We examined debris (plastic and other types) ingestion in three sympatric overwintering gull species (Herring gulls Larus smithsonianus, Great Black-backed Gulls Larus marinus, and Iceland Gulls Larus glaucoides) to understand how debris ingestion differs among species, age classes and sexes in gulls. We also assessed how plastic burdens were associated with body condition to investigate how gulls may be affected by debris ingestion. There were no differences among the species, age classes or sexes in the incidence of debris ingestion (plastic or otherwise), the mass or number of debris pieces ingested. We found no correlation between ingested plastics burdens and individual condition. Gulls ingested plastic debris, but also showed high levels of other debris types as well, including metal, glass and building materials, including a metal piece of debris found within an abscess in the stomach. Thus, when the health effects of debris ingestion on gulls, and other species that ingest debris, is of interest, either from a physical or chemical perspective, it may be necessary to consider all debris types and not just plastic burdens as is often currently done for seabirds.

  18. Energy of auroral electrons and Z mode generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss-Varban, D.; Wong, H. K.

    1990-01-01

    The present consideration of Z-mode radiation generation, in light of observational results indicating that the O mode and second-harmonic X-mode emissions can prevail over the X-mode fundamental radiation when suprathermal electron energy is low, gives attention to whether the thermal effect on the Z-mode dispersion can be equally important, and whether the Z-mode can compete for the available free-energy source. It is found that, under suitable circumstances, the growth rate of the Z-mode can be substantial even for low suprathermal auroral electron energies. Growth is generally maximized for propagation perpendicular to the magnetic field.

  19. ''Social capitalism'' in renewable energy generation: China and California comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W. II.; Li, Xing

    2010-01-01

    With a population of over 1.3 billion people, demand for renewable energy is expected to grow to a USD $12 billion market in the near term. Under Renewable Energy Law (REL) in February 2005 in the People's Republic of China (PRC) passed by the National Congress, renewable energy projects will be able to receive a range of financial incentives starting in 2006, which will more than double the PRC current renewable energy generation from 7% to 15% by 2020. Most of the increase will be in hydroelectric generated power. Nonetheless, the nation and especially the provinces are moving rapidly to develop a wide range of renewable energy generation including solar, wind, geothermal and run of the river. Because China practices ''social capitalism'' as expressed in it's recurrent Five Year National Plans since 1999, the national government and all the provinces have programs, unlike many western and industrialized nations, to ''plan'' and provide for infrastructures. This paper concerns only the energy infrastructure sector and renewable energy generation in particular. The planning process includes financial incentives and investments which are a major part of the Chinese law focused on ''encouraging foreign investment industries''. The key part of the law is to guarantee long-term power purchase agreements with state owned and controlled ''utilities''. In short, China may have gotten the economics of the energy sector correct in its concern for planning and finance. The paper develops these energy infrastructure ideas along with the legal and financial requirements as ''lessons'' learned from the USA and especially California. These lessons now apply to China and allow it to learn from the American mistakes. Empirical data will be drawn from work done in China that examine the renewable energy generation and infrastructures and hence allow the RPC and its Provinces to ''leap frog ''the mistakes of other developed nations. Further lessons will be learned from provinces and

  20. Energy expenditure in adolescents playing new generation computer games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Lee; Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, N D; Cable, N T

    2008-07-01

    To compare the energy expenditure of adolescents when playing sedentary and new generation active computer games. Cross sectional comparison of four computer games. Setting Research laboratories. Six boys and five girls aged 13-15 years. Participants were fitted with a monitoring device validated to predict energy expenditure. They played four computer games for 15 minutes each. One of the games was sedentary (XBOX 360) and the other three were active (Wii Sports). Predicted energy expenditure, compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mean (standard deviation) predicted energy expenditure when playing Wii Sports bowling (190.6 (22.2) kl/kg/min), tennis (202.5 (31.5) kl/kg/min), and boxing (198.1 (33.9) kl/kg/min) was significantly greater than when playing sedentary games (125.5 (13.7) kl/kg/min) (Pgames. Playing new generation active computer games uses significantly more energy than playing sedentary computer games but not as much energy as playing the sport itself. The energy used when playing active Wii Sports games was not of high enough intensity to contribute towards the recommended daily amount of exercise in children.

  1. Clean energy generation using capacitive electrodes in reverse electrodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, David; Bajracharya, S.; Bastos Sales, B.; Saakes, Michel; Hamelers, B.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2013-01-01

    Capacitive reverse electrodialysis (CRED) is a newly proposed technology to generate electricity from mixing of salt water and fresh water (salinity gradient energy) by using a membrane pile as in reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive electrodes. The salinity difference between salt water and

  2. Low energy supersymmetric models for several generations and proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, B.B.; Sarkar, U.

    1983-08-01

    It is found that by invoking additional horizontal gauge symmetries required to explain the generational structure the low energy standard supersymmetric unified theories avoid the renormalizable unsuppressed baryon number violating interactions in a natural way. Theories considered here are anomaly-free by construction. (author)

  3. Generating energy dependent neutron flux maps for effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For activation analysis and irradiation scheme of miniature neutron source reactor, designers or engineers usually require information on thermal neutron flux levels and other energy group flux levels (such as fast, resonance and epithermal). A methodology for readily generating such flux maps and flux profiles for any ...

  4. Next-generation reactors in the national energy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGoff, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    In February 1991, the Bush Administration released the National Energy Strategy designed to provide an adequate and balanced energy supply. The strategy provides for major increases in energy efficiency and conservation. Even with these savings, however, there will be a need for substantial increases in base-load electrical generating capacity to sustain economic growth. The strategy identifies the actions required to allow nuclear power to cleanly and safely meet a substantial portion of this needed additional base-load capacity after the turn of the century. On June 27, 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) transmitted to Congress the Strategic Plan for Civilian Reactor Development, which reflects the initiative identified in the National Energy Strategy. The strategic plan identifies the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) as the basis for expanded use of nuclear power. The second advanced reactor concept that is being pursued is the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR)

  5. Combined generation of electric and heating energy in future development of Yugoslav energy sector until 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djajic, Nenad; Zivanovic, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    Development of the district heating system in the FR Yugoslavia, beside the combined generation of electric and heating energy presents a necessity for energy, economic and ecological reasons. Although the structure of energy reserves is rather unfavourable considering that the lignite is being predominantly used, available reserves of energy raw material are able to ensure the long-term development of Yugoslav energy sector, and to offer real possibilities for considerable substitution of foreign good quality fuels, especially in district heating systems. Their further development will depend, among other things: on the implementation of new technological solutions for the exploitation of local energy resources; need of reconstruction, revitalisation and transformation of old condensing thermal power plants into the cogeneration plants; installation of remote controlled transmission of heating energy as well as on development of heating plants and smaller co-generation plants based on local energy resources. (Authors)

  6. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  7. Renewable energy and decentralized power generation in Russia: an opportunity for German-Russian energy cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Chukanov, Denis; Opitz, Petra; Pastukhova, Maria; Piani, Gianguido; Westphal, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Renewable and decentralized power generation are a centerpiece of Germany's domestic energy transition (Energiewende) and a major element of its international efforts to promote this goal. Recently, the renewables sector has also been advancing in Russia, albeit from a lower level. Thus, it is time to explore the status quo and analyze the potential for sustainable energy cooperation. In the context of the current deterioration in EURussian (energy) relations, crafting a sustainable energy pa...

  8. Complete breeding failures in ivory gull following unusual rainy storms in North Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Yannic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural catastrophic events such as heavy rainfall and windstorms may induce drastic decreases in breeding success of animal populations. We report the impacts of summer rainfalls on the reproductive success of ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea in north-east Greenland. On two occasions, at Amdrup Land in July 2009 and at Station Nord in July 2011, we observed massive ivory gull breeding failures following violent rainfall and windstorms that hit the colonies. In each colony, all of the breeding birds abandoned their eggs or chicks during the storm. Juvenile mortality was close to 100% at Amdrup Land in 2009 and 100% at Station Nord in 2011. Our results show that strong winds associated with heavy rain directly affected the reproductive success of some Arctic bird species. Such extreme weather events may become more common with climate change and represent a new potential factor affecting ivory gull breeding success in the High Arctic.

  9. Development of net energy ratio for quad-generation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Kumar, Amit

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to four different outputs via gasification and catalytic methanation is a renewable technology that could reduce the use of fossil fuels and GHG emissions. This study investigates the energy aspects of producing electricity, heat, methanol and methane. The Gas Technology...... Institute (GTI) gasifier and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) technologies are used for this quad generation process. Three different biomass feedstocks are considered in this study. The net energy ratio for six different pathways having the range of between 1.3–9.3. The lowest limit corresponds to the straw......-based power, heat, methanol and methane production pathway using GTI technology. Since more efficient alternatives exist for the generation of heat and electricity from biomass, it is argued that syngas is best used for methanol production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy performance...

  10. Emerging technologies in electricity generation : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) monitors the supply of electricity as well as its demand in both domestic and export markets. It monitors the main drivers affecting current trends in generation, demand, prices, infrastructure additions, and inter-regional and international trade. This document presented an assessment of renewable and other emerging technologies that are considered to have significant promise and increased application in Canada over the longer term. It provided comprehensive information on the status and prospects for these technologies, related issues and regional perspectives. Alternative and renewable resources and demand management are becoming more important in addressing air quality issues and supply adequacy. In preparation of this report, staff at the NEB participated in a series of informal meetings with electric utilities, independent power producers, provincial energy regulators, power system operators and those engaged in technology development. The report involved on-site information gathering at wind farms, small hydro facilities, biomass, solar and geothermal operations and other facilities associated with emerging energy technologies such as fuel cells and ocean energy. Clean coal technologies that refer to methods by which emissions from coal-fired generation can be reduced were also evaluated. It was noted that the prospects for emerging technologies vary among the provinces and territories depending on regional resources, provincial government policies and strategies regarding fuel preferences. It was noted that currently in Canada, only 3 per cent of the installed generating capacity consists of emerging technologies. This low penetration is due to the low cost of electricity derived from conventional sources and to the structure of the industry in which large publicly owned utilities have historically opted for large central generating stations. It was suggested that the large increase in fossil fuel prices, public concern

  11. 75 FR 66008 - Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... the fossil fuel- generated energy consumption [[Page 66009

  12. Multi-objective generation scheduling with hybrid energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Manas

    In economic dispatch (ED) of electric power generation, the committed generating units are scheduled to meet the load demand at minimum operating cost with satisfying all unit and system equality and inequality constraints. Generation of electricity from the fossil fuel releases several contaminants into the atmosphere. So the economic dispatch objective can no longer be considered alone due to the environmental concerns that arise from the emissions produced by fossil fueled electric power plants. This research is proposing the concept of environmental/economic generation scheduling with traditional and renewable energy sources. Environmental/economic dispatch (EED) is a multi-objective problem with conflicting objectives since emission minimization is conflicting with fuel cost minimization. Production and consumption of fossil fuel and nuclear energy are closely related to environmental degradation. This causes negative effects to human health and the quality of life. Depletion of the fossil fuel resources will also be challenging for the presently employed energy systems to cope with future energy requirements. On the other hand, renewable energy sources such as hydro and wind are abundant, inexhaustible and widely available. These sources use native resources and have the capacity to meet the present and the future energy demands of the world with almost nil emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The costs of fossil fuel and renewable energy are also heading in opposite directions. The economic policies needed to support the widespread and sustainable markets for renewable energy sources are rapidly evolving. The contribution of this research centers on solving the economic dispatch problem of a system with hybrid energy resources under environmental restrictions. It suggests an effective solution of renewable energy to the existing fossil fueled and nuclear electric utilities for the cheaper and cleaner production of electricity with hourly

  13. Organochlorine concentrations in diseased vs. healthy gull chicks from the northern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hario, Martti; Hirvi, Juha-Pekka; Hollmén, Tuula; Rudbäck, Eeva

    2004-01-01

    The population decline of the nominate lesser black-backed gull Larus fuscus fuscus in the Gulf of Finland (northern Baltic) is caused by an exceedingly high chick mortality due to diseases. The chick diseases include degeneration in various internal organs (primarily liver), inflammations (mainly intestinal), and sepsis, the final cause of death. The hypothesis of starvation causing intestinal inflammations (leading to sepsis) was tested by attempting to reproduce lesions in apparently healthy herring gull L. argentatus chicks in captivity. The herring gull chicks were provided a similar low food-intake frequency as observed for the diseased chicks in the wild. However, empty alimentary tract per se did not induce the intestinal inflammations and therefore, inflammations seem to be innate or caused by other environmental factors in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks. They had very high concentrations of PCB in their liver; but the concentrations were not significantly higher than those of the healthy herring gull chicks, indicating a common exposure area for both species (i.e. the Baltic Sea). When compared to NOEL and LOEL values for TEQs in bird eggs our TEQ levels clearly exceed most or all of the values associated with effects. Compared with published data on fish-eating waterbirds, the DDE concentrations in the diseased lesser black-backed chicks were well above the levels previously correlated with decreased reproduction, while the residues in apparently healthy herring gulls were below those levels. The DDE/PCB ratio in lesser black-backs was significantly elevated, indicating an increased exposure to DDTs as compared with most other Baltic and circumpolar seabirds. The possible exposure areas of DDT in relation to differential migration habits of the two gull species are discussed.

  14. An entropy generation metric for non-energy systems assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekulic, Dusan P.

    2009-01-01

    Processes in non-energy systems have not been as frequent a subject of sustainability studies based on Thermodynamics as have processes in energy systems. This paper offers insight into thermodynamic thinking devoted to selection of a sustainability energy-related metric based on entropy balancing of a non-energy system. An underlying objective in this sustainability oriented study is product quality involving thermal processing during manufacturing vs. resource utilization (say, energy). The product quality for the considered family of materials processing for manufacturing is postulated as inherently controlled by the imposed temperature non-uniformity margins. These temperature non-uniformities can be converted into a thermodynamic metric which can be related to either destruction of exergy of the available resource or, on a more fundamental level of process quality, to entropy generation inherent to the considered manufacturing system. Hence, a manufacturing system can be considered as if it were an energy system, although in the later case the system objective would be quite different. In a non-energy process, a metric may indicate the level of perfection of the process (not necessarily energy efficiency) and may be related to the sustainability footprint or, as advocated in this paper, it may be related to product quality. Controlled atmosphere brazing (CAB) of aluminum, a state-of-the-art manufacturing process involving mass production of compact heat exchangers for automotive, aerospace and process industries, has been used as an example.

  15. Energy efficiency resource modeling in generation expansion planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, A.; Parsa Moghaddam, M.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency plays an important role in mitigating energy security risks and emission problems. In this paper, energy efficiency resources are modeled as efficiency power plants (EPP) to evaluate their impacts on generation expansion planning (GEP). The supply curve of EPP is proposed using the production function of electricity consumption. A decision making framework is also presented to include EPP in GEP problem from an investor's point of view. The revenue of EPP investor is obtained from energy cost reduction of consumers and does not earn any income from electricity market. In each stage of GEP, a bi-level model for operation problem is suggested: the upper-level represents profit maximization of EPP investor and the lower-level corresponds to maximize the social welfare. To solve the bi-level problem, a fixed-point iteration algorithm is used known as diagonalization method. Energy efficiency feed-in tariff is investigated as a regulatory support scheme to encourage the investor. Results pertaining to a case study are simulated and discussed. - Highlights: • An economic model for energy efficiency programs is presented. • A framework is provided to model energy efficiency resources in GEP problem. • FIT is investigated as a regulatory support scheme to encourage the EPP investor. • The capacity expansion is delayed and reduced with considering EPP in GEP. • FIT-II can more effectively increase the energy saving compared to FIT-I

  16. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  17. Integrated O&M for energy generation and exchange facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Ingeteam Service, part of the Ingeteam Group, is a leading company in the provision of integrated O&M services at energy generation and exchange facilities worldwide. From its head office in the Albacete Science and Technology Park, it manages the work of the 1,300 employees that make up its global workforce, rendering services to wind farms, PV installations and power generation plants. In addition, it maintains an active participation strategy in a range of R&D+i programmes that improve the existing technologies and are geared towards new production systems and new diagnostic techniques, applied to renewables installation maintenance. (Author)

  18. The generation IV nuclear reactor systems - Energy of future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Jianu, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Ten nations joined within the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), agreeing on a framework for international cooperation in research. Their goal is to develop future-generation nuclear energy systems that can be licensed, constructed, and operated in an economically competitive way while addressing the issues of safety, proliferation, and other public perception concerns. The objective is for the Gen IV systems to be available for deployment by 2030. Using more than 100 nuclear experts from its 10 member nations, the GIF has developed a Gen IV Technology Roadmap to guide the research and development of the world's most advanced, efficient and safe nuclear power systems. The Gen IV Technology Roadmap calls for extensive research and development of six different potential future reactor systems. These include water-cooled, gas-cooled, liquid metal-cooled and nonclassical systems. One or more of these reactor systems will provide the best combination of safety, reliability, efficiency and proliferation resistance at a competitive cost. The main goals for the Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems are: - Provide sustainable energy generation that meets clean air objectives and promotes long-term availability of systems and effective fuel use for worldwide energy production; - Minimize and manage their nuclear waste and noticeably reduce the long-term stewardship burden in the future, improving the protection of public health and the environment; - Increase the assurance that these reactors are very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased protection against acts of terrorism; - Have a clear life-cycle cost advantage over other energy sources; - Have a level of financial risk comparable to other energy projects; - Excel in safety and reliability; - Have a low likelihood and degree of reactor core damage. (authors)

  19. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  20. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions.

  1. Regenesys utility scale energy storage. Overview report of combined energy storage and renewable generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The first part of the paper briefly discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various forms of renewable energy sources with respect to the United Kingdom. It discusses the intermittent nature of wind and solar power and the less intermittent nature of hydro power and energy from biomass. The need to store energy generated, particularly from the intermittent sources, is discussed with special reference to electric batteries and pumped storage. If the energy cannot be stored and delivered when required, then the commercial viability of the source will be adversely affected - the economics and how this fits with NETA are discussed briefly. The second part of the paper is an overview of some relevant literature discussing (a) how the problems of fluctuating supplies may be managed, (b) an analytical assessment of the contribution from wind farms, (c) how fluctuations in wind power can be smoothed using sodium-sulfur batteries, (d) how small generators can get together and reduce trading costs and imbalance exposure under NETA, (e) the benefits of large-scale energy storage to network management and embedded generation, (f) distribution networks, (g) embedded generation and network management issues and (h) costs and benefits of embedded generation. The work was carried out as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme managed by Future Energy Solutions

  2. Investments in electricity generation in Croatian liberalized market: energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androcec, I.; Viskovic, A.; Slipac, G.

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia should have enough capacities built on its own territory to cover system's peak load at any time for ensuring a long-term reliability of its operation. According to annual increasing of electricity consumption and progressive shutdown of the oldest generating plants, the security of future electricity supply depends on new investments. The market, i.e. a competitive generation, is the driving force in the construction of new power plants. The main stimulus for the construction is the possibility of definite return of invested capital and enabling potential investors to realize the expected revenues (profit). The construction of generating capacities is subject of authorisation procedure or tendering procedure, by approval of the Energy Regulatory Council. The electricity market opening in Croatia is parallel process with establishment of regional energy market in South East Europe where the decision of investment in new power plant will be defined by regional investment priorities, all in the aspect of European Union enlargement. In those liberalisation conditions it is necessary to realize all possible energy options according to the Strategy of Energy Development of Republic of Croatia and to the regional energy market requirements or European Union Directives. New power plant will be realized, because of objective circumstances, through construction of gas power plant or coal power plant and possible nuclear power plant, and in much smaller size through construction of hydro power plants or power plants on renewable energy sources. The possibility of any energy option will be considered in view of: investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel price, external costs, public influence, and through investor's risk. This paper is aiming to analyse the possibility of nuclear power plant construction in Croatia as well as in other small and medium electricity grids. Nuclear option will be comprehensively considered in technical

  3. Second generation wave energy device - the clam concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, N.W.

    1981-01-01

    A device concept is presented which has arisen from a system approach adopted by a research group with considerable experience in the discipline of wave energy. The Clam, which can be classified as a spine-based pneumatic terminator, is deemed to be a second generation wave energy device in that it tries to utilize system components already identified as attractive, while at the same time avoiding known problem areas. A working model of this wave power device at an engineering scale is discussed for trials in real waves. 3 refs.

  4. Generating heavy particles with energy and momentum conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereš, Michal; Melo, Ivan; Tomášik, Boris; Balek, Vladimír; Černý, Vladimír

    2011-12-01

    We propose a novel algorithm, called REGGAE, for the generation of momenta of a given sample of particle masses, evenly distributed in Lorentz-invariant phase space and obeying energy and momentum conservation. In comparison to other existing algorithms, REGGAE is designed for the use in multiparticle production in hadronic and nuclear collisions where many hadrons are produced and a large part of the available energy is stored in the form of their masses. The algorithm uses a loop simulating multiple collisions which lead to production of configurations with reasonably large weights. Program summaryProgram title: REGGAE (REscattering-after-Genbod GenerAtor of Events) Catalogue identifier: AEJR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1523 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 9608 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: PC Pentium 4, though no particular tuning for this machine was performed. Operating system: Originally designed on Linux PC with g++, but it has been compiled and ran successfully on OS X with g++ and MS Windows with Microsoft Visual C++ 2008 Express Edition, as well. RAM: This depends on the number of particles which are generated. For 10 particles like in the attached example it requires about 120 kB. Classification: 11.2 Nature of problem: The task is to generate momenta of a sample of particles with given masses which obey energy and momentum conservation. Generated samples should be evenly distributed in the available Lorentz-invariant phase space. Solution method: In general, the algorithm works in two steps. First, all momenta are generated with the GENBOD algorithm. There, particle production is modeled as a sequence of two

  5. The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, Chris, E-mail: c.l.j.frid@liv.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool, L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Andonegi, Eider, E-mail: eandonegi@azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Txatxarramendi ugartea, z/g E-48395 Sukarrieta (Bizkaia) (Spain); Depestele, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.depestele@ilvo.vlaanderen.be [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Ankerstraat 1, B-8400 Oostende (Belgium); Judd, Adrian, E-mail: Adrian.Judd@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science , Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft NR33 0HT United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Rihan, Dominic, E-mail: Dominic.RIHAN@ec.europa.eu [Irish Sea Fisheries Board, P.O. Box 12 Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Rogers, Stuart I., E-mail: stuart.rogers@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science , Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft NR33 0HT United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Kenchington, Ellen, E-mail: Ellen.Kenchington@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, P.O. Box 1006, Dartmouth Canada, NS B2Y 4A2 (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.

  6. Energy sources and energy generation in the future; Fuentes de energia y la generacion del futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Pelegry, E.

    2001-07-01

    With this article, that gathers the conference imparted inside of the cycle Technologies and Power Supply Development: Gas or Coal, complementary alternatives, organized by the Spanish Club of the Energy (ENERCLUB), the author plants a series of questions over the sources of energy and the its generation in the future, in order to wake the reflections over the theme. (Author)

  7. Small Distributed Renewable Energy Generation for Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindris M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the existing energy policies, the use of renewable energy has increased considerably all over the world in order to respond to the increasing energy consumption and to reduce the environmental impact of the electricity generation. Although most policy makers and companies are focusing on large applications, the use of cheap small generation units, based on local renewable resources, has become increasingly attractive for the general public, small farms and remote communities. The paper presents several results of a research project aiming to identify the power quality issues and the impact of RES based distributed generation (DG or other non-linear loads on low voltage (LV distribution networks in Romania; the final goal is to develop a Universal Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC able to diminish the existing disturbances. Basically, the work analyses the existing DG technologies and identifies possible solutions for their integration in Romania; taking into account the existent state of the art, the attention was paid on small systems, using wind and solar energy, and on possibility to integrate them into suburban and rural LV distribution networks. The presence of DG units at distribution voltage level means the transition from traditional passive to active distribution networks. In general, the relatively low penetration levels of DG does not produce problems; however, the nowadays massive increase of local power generation have led to new integration challenges in order to ensure the reliability and quality of the power supply. Power quality issues are identified and their assessment is the key element in the design of measures aiming to diminish all existing disturbances.

  8. Heat savings in energy systems with substantial distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2004-01-01

    The integration of flutuating wind power is an important issue for the future development of sustainable energy systems. In Denmark, the integration is affected by a large amount of cogeneration of heat and power. This gives possibilities as well as sets restraints. The paper shows that with anci...... that with ancillary services supplied by large-scale condensation and CHP-plants, a certain degree of large-scale generation is required regardless of momentary wind input....

  9. Rainier Biogas Manure Management and Renewable Energy Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, John [King County, WA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    The Rainier Biogas project is a community manure processing and renewable energy generation facility. Construction was completed and operation initiated in 2012. It is owned and operated by Rainier Biogas, LLC in collaboration with local dairy farmers, Washington State University, and the King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks. The project receives manure from three to four partner dairy farms mostly by underground pipe. The project is located at 43218 208th Ave SE; Enumclaw, WA 98022.

  10. Wind energy-hydrogen storage hybrid power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenjei Yang; Orhan Aydin [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2001-07-01

    In this theoretical investigation, a hybrid power generation system utilizing wind energy and hydrogen storage is presented. Firstly, the available wind energy is determined, which is followed by evaluating the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system. A revised model of windmill is proposed from which wind power density and electric power output are determined. When the load demand is less than the output of the generation, the excess electric power is relayed to the electrolytic cell where it is used to electrolyse the de-ionized water. Hydrogen thus produced can be stored as hydrogen compressed gas or liquid. Once the hydrogen is stored in an appropriate high-pressure vessel, it can be used in a combustion engine, fuel cell, or burned in a water-cooled burner to produce a very high-quality steam for space heating, or to drive a turbine to generate electric power. It can also be combined with organic materials to produce synthetic fuels. The conclusion is that the system produces no harmful waste and depletes no resources. Note that this system also works well with a solar collector instead of a windmill. (author)

  11. COMBINED SYSTEMS OF ENERGY GENERATION – A CHARACTERISATION AND CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gilewski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents issues concerning technical solutions of combined systems of energy generation which can be used primarily in low-level power plants, installed in various types of public utility sites. A detailed description is given of selected ways of powering combined energy generation systems, presenting conceptual outlines of their operation and information on their advantages, disadvantages and applications. The following systems are introduced: gas-steam, back-pressure steam turbine, extraction-condensing steam turbine, gas turbine, gas microturbine, Stirling engine, fuel cells and internal combustion piston engine. Moreover, the study addresses economic aspects of energy generation in combined systems, discussing different methodologies of cost calculation, including the one used by the European Union. The article also gives a detailed review of piston engine combined-system aggregates available in the Polish market. Type series of associated systems designed for low-power appliances are shown, produced by Polish and foreign companies such as Viessmann, Centrum Elektroniki Stosowanej CES, H. Cegielski – Poznań, KWE Technika Energetyczna, TEDOM Poland or the EPS System.

  12. A third generation mobile high energy radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.A.; Valdez, J.E.; Johnson, C.S.; Kimerly, H.J.; Vananne, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A third generation mobile high energy radiographic capability has been completed and put into service by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The system includes a 6 MeV linac x-ray generator, Co-60 gamma source, all-terrain transportation, on-board power, real-time radiography (RTR), a control center, and a complete darkroom capability. The latest version includes upgraded and enhanced portability, flexibility, all-terrain operation, all-weather operation, and ease of use features learned from experience with the first and second generation systems. All systems were required to have the following characteristics; all-terrain, all-weather operation, self-powered, USAF airlift compatible, reliable, simple to setup, easy to operate, and all components two-person portable. The systems have met these characteristics to differing degrees, as is discussed in the following section, with the latest system being the most capable

  13. Co-generation: Increasing energy efficiency in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekić Alija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main sources for power generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina are domestic coals, mainly lignite and brown coals, which are relatively characterized with a high content of sulphur (3-5% and incombustibles (˜30%. From the 70’s, use of this type of fuels was not allowed in the city of Sarajevo due to very unfavorable emissions to the atmosphere, during the heating period, and since then Sarajevo has been supplied with natural gas. All the heating installations in the city were reconstructed and adapted. The district heating system Toplane Sarajevo is supplied with electrical energy from the Public electrical distribution network (Elektrodistribucija Sarajevo at low voltage (0.4 kV. The boiler-house Dobrinja III-2 (KDIII-2, from the district heating system of Sarajevo Suburb Dobrinja, which was not in use after the war 1992-1995, had a lot of advantages for the reconstruction into the co-generation plant. The Government of Canton Sarajevo financially supported this proposal. An analysis of co-generations for the district heating system and a selection of most appropriate co-generation systems were made. In the proposed conceptual design, the co-generation KDIII-2 was located in the existing boiler-house KDIII-2, connected with the heating system in Dobrinja. The operating costs of production of electricity and heat were evaluated in the study and compared with the costs of conventional energy supply to the district heating system. This analysis resulted in economic indicators, which showed that this investment was economically viable, and it also determined the payback period of the investment. In this paper results of the mentioned study and an overview of co-generation in Bosnia and Herzegovina are presented.

  14. Technologies for power and thermal energy generation. Bring our energies together

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    On behalf of ADEME, the DREAL and the Region of Brittany and produced by ENEA, consulting company in energy and sustainable development, this brochure presents main technologies for power and thermal energy generation in an effort to maintain objectivity (efficiency, intrinsic features of each technology and key figures as regards power and energy). If most of the technologies are operational or in development in Brittany, such as ocean energy, the scope has been extended to encompass all existing technologies in France in order to give useful references. The French Brittany is a peninsula, with regards to both its geographic situation and its energy context. The region has decided to investigate energy and climate issue through the Brittany Energy Conference and to commit for energy transition. Discussions which have taken place since 2010 at the regional level as well as the national debate on energy transition in 2013 have highlighted the need for educational tools for the main energy generation technologies. Thus, the purpose of this brochure is to share energy stakes with a broad audience

  15. Numerical study on design for wave energy generation of a floater for energy absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kui Ming; Parthasarathy, Nanjundan; Choi, Yoon Hwan; Lee, Yeon Won

    2012-01-01

    In order to design a wave energy generating system of a floater type, a 6 DOF motion technique was applied to the three Dimensional CFD analysis on a floating body and the behavior was interpreted according to the nature of the incoming waves. Waves in a tank model were generated using a single floater comparing with that of a Pelamis wave energy converter. In this paper, we focus on four variables, namely the wave height, angular velocity, diameter and length of the floater. The process was carried out in three stages and it was found that there are energy absorption differences in different parameters of wave height, length and the diameter of a floater during simulation, thus leading for the necessity of an optimal design for wave energy generation

  16. Exploring the potential uptake of distributed energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, John; Ashworth, Peta; Carr-Cornish, Simone

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Global warming has been identified as an energy problem (Klare 2007). With a predicted increase in fossil fuel use for many years to come (IEA 2004) there is a need to find a future energy path that will meet our basic requirements for energy but also help to mitigate climate change (CSIRO 2006). Currently there are a range of technological solutions available, with each representing a different value proposition. Distributed Energy (DE) is one such technological solution, which involves the widespread use of small local power generators, located close to the end user. Such generators can be powered by a range of low emission and/or renewable sources. Until now, cheap electricity, existing infrastructure and reluctance for change both at a political and individual level has meant there has been little prospect for DE to be considered in Australia, except in some remote communities. However, with the majority of Australians now rating climate change as an issue of strategic importance to Australia (Ashworth, Pisarski and Littleboy 2006), it can be inferred that Australia's tolerance for generating greenhouse gas emissions has reduced, and that potential support for DE is increasing. It is therefore important to understand what factors might influence the potential adoption of DE. As part of a research project called the Intelligent Grid, CSIRO's Energy Transformed Flagship is aiming to identify the conditions under which Distributed Energy might be effectively implemented in Australia. One component of this project involves social research, which aims to understand the drivers and barriers to the uptake of DE technology by the community. This paper presents findings from two large-scale surveys (one of householders and one of businesses), designed to assess beliefs and knowledge about environmental issues, and about traditional and renewable energy sources. The surveys also assess current energy use, and identify preferences regarding DE technology. The

  17. Reduction of garbage in the diet of nonbreeding glaucous gulls corresponding to a change in waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Powell, Abby N.

    2011-01-01

    Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) are major predators in the Arctic and may benefit from human development. We studied use of garbage by glaucous gulls in Barrow, Alaska, in 2007, when municipal waste was disposed of in a landfill, and in 2008, when it was incinerated. In both years, diet samples from breeding adult gulls contained less garbage than those from loafing nonbreeding gulls (mostly subadults of less than four years), possibly because the breeding colony was more distant than many loafing sites from the landfills. Although breeding gull samples showed no change, garbage in regurgitated pellets and food remains of nonbreeding gulls was significantly less prevalent in 2008 than in 2007 (28% vs. 43% occurrence in diet samples), and this reduction could be explained by the switch from landfill to waste incineration. Yet garbage remained a substantial part of nonbreeding gull diet after the management change. Other aspects of waste management, such as storage prior to disposal, may also be important in limiting scavengers’ access to garbage and thus reducing the indirect impact of human development on prey species of conservation concern.

  18. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  19. A new type of hydrogen generator-HHEG (high-compressed hydrogen energy generator)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, H.; Tojima, K.; Takeda, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' We have developed a new type of hydrogen generator named HHEG (High-compressed Hydrogen Energy Generator). HHEG can produce 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle without any mechanical compressor. HHEG is a kind of PEM(proton exchange membrane)electrolysis. It was well known that compressed hydrogen could be generated by water electrolysis. However, the conventional electrolysis could not generate 35 MPa or higher pressure that is required for fuel cell vehicle, because electrolysis cell stack is destroyed in such high pressure. In HHEG, the cell stack is put in high-pressure vessel and the pressure difference of oxygen and hydrogen that is generated by the cell stack is always kept at nearly zero by an automatic compensator invented by Mitsubishi Corporation. The cell stack of HHEG is not so special one, but it is not broken under such high pressure, because the automatic compensator always offsets the force acting on the cell stack. Hydrogen for fuel cell vehicle must be produce by no emission energy such as solar and atomic power. These energies are available as electricity. So, water electrolysis is the only way of producing hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen fuel is also 35 MPa high-compressed hydrogen and will become 70 MPa in near future. But conventional mechanical compressor is not useful for such high pressure hydrogen fuel, because of the short lifetime and high power consumption. Construction of hydrogen station network is indispensable in order to come into wide use of fuel cell vehicles. For such network contraction, an on-site type hydrogen generator is required. HHEG can satisfy above these requirements. So we can conclude that HHEG is the only way of realizing the hydrogen economy. (author)

  20. Agricultural and forestry residues for decentralized energy generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missagia, Bruna

    2011-10-11

    Regular electricity access is a key element for the economic development and social welfare of rural areas. Decentralized energy generation has the advantage of using local resources, increasing employment and reducing transmission and distribution losses. Brazil is a tropical country, endowed with vast arable land, plentiful precipitation levels, and a large supply of human labour. Furthermore, it has strong regional distinctions with geographical, cultural and economical differences. Forestry and agriculture, important activities in the Brazilian economy, are dependent on local people and are deeply connected to traditions, nature and culture. Furthermore, these activities generate a significant amount of residues that could be used in conversion technologies for biomass, based on type, availability and market demand. When biomass were used to generate energy locally, community members could have business opportunities, improving local economy and life quality of individuals while diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix, which is mostly based on hydropower. Alternatives for implementing small-scale decentralized biomass schemes are dependent on the screening of the existing biomass supply chains, the implementation of adapted technologies for local conditions and the exploration of local resources. The present research carried out a detailed field work in order to evaluate the potential of Brazilian biomass in different regions. The author identified crucial needs, usual constraints and possible challenges of rural electrification and economic development in Brazil. Several case studies and social groups were investigated in the Federal States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Para to identify different resource management strategies, which biomass technology was applied and the needs of the local population. It was concluded that the compaction of biomass to generate solid biofuels with uniform properties could be a cost-effective alternative for communities

  1. Kelp gulls prey on the eyes of juvenile Cape fur seals in Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kelp gull Larus dominicanus is an abundant and highly successful avian predator and scavenger that breeds along the coastline in the Southern Hemisphere, ranging from Antarctica to the tropics. On account of its dietary breadth, wide-ranging foraging strategies, and acclimation to modified landscapes, this species ...

  2. Effects of testosterone on growth, plumage pigmentation, and mortality in Black-headed Gull chicks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, A.F.H.

    In the Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus, sibling chicks defend small territories against conspecifics with testosterone-dependent aggressive behaviour. The energetic requirements for the performance of this behaviour may trade off against the energetic requirements for growth. There are

  3. Nuclear energy in medium and long term energy generation of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarici, L. E.; Yilmaz, S.; Guray, B. S.

    2001-01-01

    In this study; objectives and activities of Nuclear Power Plants Department and Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Corporation is briefly mentioned. A brief history of electricity generation, development of Turkish electrical energy sector and development of the installed capacity of country is presented. The history and future perspectives of AKZuyu Nuclear Power Plant Project is sharply outlined. In the light of the current situation in electricity generation and demand projections, importance of nuclear power among the other future electricity generation alternatives of Turkey is underlined

  4. Potential of Livestock Generated Biomass: Untapped Energy Source in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern economies run on the backbone of electricity as one of major factors behind industrial development. India is endowed with plenty of natural resources and the majority of electricity within the country is generated from thermal and hydro-electric plants. A few nuclear plants assist in meeting the national requirements for electricity but still many rural areas remain uncovered. As India is primarily a rural agrarian economy, providing electricity to the remote, undeveloped regions of the country remains a top priority of the government. A vital, untapped source is livestock generated biomass which to some extent has been utilized to generate electricity in small scale biogas based plants under the government's thrust on rural development. This study is a preliminary attempt to correlate developments in this arena in the Asian region, as well as the developed world, to explore the possibilities of harnessing this resource in a better manner. The current potential of 2600 million tons of livestock dung generated per year, capable of yielding 263,702 million m3 of biogas is exploited. Our estimates suggest that if this resource is utilized judiciously, it possesses the potential of generating 477 TWh (Terawatt hour of electrical energy per annum.

  5. Simulation of energy use in buildings with multiple micro generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmacharya, S.; Putrus, G.; Underwood, C.P.; Mahkamov, K.; McDonald, S.; Alexakis, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detailed modelling of micro combined heat and power (mCHP) modules and their interaction with other renewable micro generators in domestic applications based on an integrated modular modelling approach. The simulation model has been developed using Matlab/Simulink and incorporates a Stirling engine mCHP module embedded in a lumped-parameter domestic energy model, together with contributions from micro wind and photovoltaic modules. The Stirling cycle component model is based on experimental identification of a domestic-scale system which includes start up and shut down characteristics. The integrated model is used to explore the interactions between the various energy supply technologies and results are presented showing the most favourable operating conditions that can be used to inform the design of advanced energy control strategies in building. The integrated model offers an improvement on previous models of this kind in that a fully-dynamic approach is adopted for the equipment and plant enabling fast changing load events such as switching on/off domestic loads and hot water, to be accurately captured at a minimum interval of 1 min. The model is applied to two typical 3- and 4-bedroom UK house types equipped with a mCHP module and two other renewable energy technologies for a whole year. Results of the two cases show that the electrical contribution of a Stirling engine type mCHP heavily depends on the thermal demand of the building and that up to 19% of the locally-generated electricity is exported whilst meeting a similar percentage of the overall annual electricity demand. Results also show that the increased number of switching of mCHP module has an impact on seasonal module efficiency and overall fuel utilisation. The results demonstrate the need for the analysis of equipment design and optimal sizing of thermal and electrical energy storage. -- Highlights: • Dynamic modelling of a building along with its space heating and hot

  6. Photovoltaic energy mini-generation: Future perspectives for Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Duarte; Wemans, Joao; Lima, Joao; Malico, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the benefits of developing the mini-generation PV market in Portugal. It presents the legal framework and current status of the Portuguese PV electricity sector, and compares the country to other European nations: France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. A model that combines PVGIS with a self-developed financial tool is used to assess the feasibility of a 150 kW mini-generation system using five different technologies: fixed mount, single-axis tracking, double-axis tracking, low concentration and medium concentration (MCPV). The profitability of the mini-generation systems in the seven countries studied is calculated and compared. According to this analysis, MCPV and, of the conventional technologies, the single-axis tracking systems are the most profitable technologies. Despite the attractiveness of the current Portuguese feed-in tariffs and of the abundant solar resource, investors are discouraged and the country's PV market is far from mature. Specific mini-generation regulations should focus on a fast and transparent licensing procedure and should promote the access to financing. This would attract new investments, which would result in the growth of the PV electricity produced, and would help Portugal to meet its European Union Renewable Energy targets. - Highlights: → This work promotes the development of a mini-generation PV market in Portugal. → The Portuguese current status and legal framework is compared to other EU countries. → The profitability of 5 different PV technologies is compared for 7 European countries. → The Portuguese growth potential for PV energy is still big. → Portugal, due to its radiation levels, presents excellent investment opportunities.

  7. Input energy measurement toward warm dense matter generation using intense pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ito, T.; Ishitani, T.; Tamura, F.; Kudo, T.; Takakura, N.; Kashine, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, W.; Tokuchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate properties of warm dense matter (WDM) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), evaluation method for the WDM with isochoric heating on the implosion time-scale using an intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II (∼1 TW, ∼50 ns) has been considered. In this study, the history of input energy into the sample is measured from the voltage and the current waveforms. To achieve isochoric heating, a foamed aluminum with pore sizes 600 μm and with 90% porosity was packed into a hollow glass capillary (ø 5 mm × 10 mm). The temperature of the sample is calculated from the numerical calculation using the measured input power. According to the above measurements, the input energy into a sample and the achievable temperature are estimated to be 300 J and 6000 K. It indicates that the WDM state is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion time-scale.

  8. Study of energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakim Amer A. Agll

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The energy requirement pattern of world is growing up and developing technology. The available sources, while exhausting and not friendly to the environment, are highly used. Looking at partial supply and different options of environment problems associated with usage, renewable energy sources are getting attention. MSW (Municipal solid waste composition data had been collected from 1997 to 2009, in Benghazi Libya, to evaluate the waste enthalpy. An incinerator with capacity of 47,250 kg/h was confirmed to burn all the quantity of waste generated by the city through the next 15 years. Initial study was performed to investigate energy flow and resource availability to insure sustainable MSW required by the incinerator to work at its maximum capacity during the designated period. The primary purpose of the paper is to discuss the design of Rankin steam cycle for the generation of both power (PG and combined heat power (CHP. In the power generation case, the system was found to be able to generate electrical power of 13.1 MW. Including the combined heat power case, the results showed that the system was able to produce 6.8 million m3/year of desalinated water and generate 11.33 MW of electricity. In conclusion, the CHP designed system has the greatest potential to maximize energy saving, due to the optimal combination of heat production and electricity generation.

  9. Offshore Hydrokinetic Energy Conversion for Onshore Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Design comparisons have been performed for a number of different tidal energy systems, including a fully submerged, horizontal-axis electro-turbine system, similar to Verdant Tidal Turbines in New York's East River, a platform-based Marine Current Turbine, now operating in Northern Ireland's Strangford Narrows, and the Rotech Lunar Energy system, to be installed off the South Korean Coast. A fourth type of tidal energy system studied is a novel JPL/Caltech hydraulic energy transfer system that uses submerged turbine blades which are mechanically attached to adjacent high-pressure pumps, instead of to adjacent electrical turbines. The generated highpressure water streams are combined and transferred to an onshore hydroelectric plant by means of a closed-cycle pipeline. The hydraulic energy transfer system was found to be cost competitive, and it allows all electronics to be placed onshore, thus greatly reducing maintenance costs and corrosion problems. It also eliminates the expenses of conditioning and transferring multiple offshore power lines and of building offshore platforms embedded in the sea floor.

  10. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO2/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H2 generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g−1 at 0.5 A g−1 and 287 F g−1 at 1 A g−1 are obtained with TiO2/Ni(OH)2 nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application. PMID:23248745

  11. Integrated photoelectrochemical energy storage: solar hydrogen generation and supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xinhui; Luo, Jingshan; Zeng, Zhiyuan; Guan, Cao; Zhang, Yongqi; Tu, Jiangping; Zhang, Hua; Fan, Hong Jin

    2012-01-01

    Current solar energy harvest and storage are so far realized by independent technologies (such as solar cell and batteries), by which only a fraction of solar energy is utilized. It is highly desirable to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy. Here, we construct an integrated photoelectrochemical device with simultaneous supercapacitor and hydrogen evolution functions based on TiO(2)/transition metal hydroxides/oxides core/shell nanorod arrays. The feasibility of solar-driven pseudocapacitance is clearly demonstrated, and the charge/discharge is indicated by reversible color changes (photochromism). In such an integrated device, the photogenerated electrons are utilized for H(2) generation and holes for pseudocapacitive charging, so that both the reductive and oxidative energies are captured and converted. Specific capacitances of 482 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 287 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) are obtained with TiO(2)/Ni(OH)(2) nanorod arrays. This study provides a new research strategy for integrated pseudocapacitor and solar energy application.

  12. Role of energy policy in renewable energy accomplishment: The case of second-generation bioethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Kok Tat; Lee, Keat Teong; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Renewable energy has been in the limelight ever since the price of crude petroleum oil increases to the unprecedented height of US$96 per barrel recently. This is due to the diminishing oil reserves in the world and political instabilities in some oil-exporting countries. The advantages of renewable energy compared to fossil fuels are enormous in terms of environment and availability. Biofuels like bioethanol and biodiesel are currently being produced from agricultural products such as sugarcane and rapeseed oil, respectively. Collectively, these biofuels from food sources are known as first-generation biofuels. Although first-generation biofuels have the potential to replace fossil fuels as the main source of energy supply, its production is surrounded by certain issues like tropical forests' destruction. Instead, second-generation bioethanol, which utilizes non-edible sources such as lignocellulose biomass to produce ethanol, has been shown to be more suitable as the source of renewable energy. However, there are challenges and obstacles such as cost, technology and environmental issues that need to be overcome. Hence, the introduction of energy policy is crucial in promoting and implementing second-generation bioethanol effectively and subsequently become a major source of renewable energy

  13. Turbulence generation through intense localized sources of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqui, Agustin; Donzis, Diego

    2015-11-01

    Mechanisms to generate turbulence in controlled conditions have been studied for nearly a century. Most common methods include passive and active grids with a focus on incompressible turbulence. However, little attention has been given to compressible flows, and even less to hypersonic flows, where phenomena such as thermal non-equilibrium can be present. Using intense energy from lasers, extreme molecule velocities can be generated from photo-dissociation. This creates strong localized changes in both the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the flow, which may perturb the flow in a way similar to an active grid to generate turbulence in hypersonic flows. A large database of direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to study the feasibility of such an approach. An extensive analysis of single and two point statistics, as well as spectral dynamics is used to characterize the evolution of the flow towards realistic turbulence. Local measures of enstrophy and dissipation are studied to diagnose the main mechanisms for energy exchange. As commonly done in compressible flows, dilatational and solenoidal components are separated to understand the effect of acoustics on the development of turbulence. Further results for cases that assimilate laboratory conditions will be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of AFOSR.

  14. Transition to distributed energy generation in Finland: Prospects and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Salvatore; Varho, Vilja; Rikkonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale distributed energy generation is expected to play an important role in helping Finland increase its energy self-sufficiency. However, the overall strategy to date for promoting distributed energy remains unclear. It is not yet well understood which factors promote the growth of the distributed energy sector and what barriers need to be removed. In this article we present the results of a questionnaire directed at a panel of 26 experts from the distributed energy value chain and 15 semi-structured interviews with industry and non-industry representatives. We investigated, from a sociotechnical transition perspective, the possibilities and challenges of the transition to distributed energy in Finland through 2025. The results show that a shift to a prosperous future for distributed energy is possible if permit procedures, ease of grid connection, and taxation laws are improved in the electricity sector and new business concepts are introduced in the heat sector. In contrast to other European countries, the transition in Finland is expected to take place through a market-based approach favoring investment-focused measures. We conclude that incentive-based schemes alone, whatever they may be, will be insufficient to create significant growth in Finland without institutional change, removal of barriers, and the engagement of key actors. - Highlights: • We examine the possibilities and challenges of the transition to DE in Finland. • Technological niches are emerging both in the heat and electricity sector. • Business model innovation is evident only in the electricity sector. • Removing barriers and developing new business models will accelerate the transition.

  15. Energy scavenging strain absorber: application to kinetic dielectric elastomer generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Beaune, M.; Vu-Cong, T.; Sylvestre, A.

    2014-03-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEGs) are light, compliant, silent energy scavengers. They can easily be incorporated into clothing where they could scavenge energy from the human kinetic movements for biomedical applications. Nevertheless, scavengers based on dielectric elastomers are soft electrostatic generators requiring a high voltage source to polarize them and high external strain, which constitutes the two major disadvantages of these transducers. We propose here a complete structure made up of a strain absorber, a DEG and a simple electronic power circuit. This new structure looks like a patch, can be attached on human's wear and located on the chest, knee, elbow… Our original strain absorber, inspired from a sailing boat winch, is able to heighten the external available strain with a minimal factor of 2. The DEG is made of silicone Danfoss Polypower and it has a total area of 6cm per 2.5cm sustaining a maximal strain of 50% at 1Hz. A complete electromechanical analytical model was developed for the DEG associated to this strain absorber. With a poling voltage of 800V, a scavenged energy of 0.57mJ per cycle is achieved with our complete structure. The performance of the DEG can further be improved by enhancing the imposed strain, by designing a stack structure, by using a dielectric elastomer with high dielectric permittivity.

  16. Living on the edge: demography of the slender-billed gull in the Western Mediterranean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sanz-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Small and peripheral populations are typically vulnerable to local extinction processes but important for the metapopulation dynamics of species. The Slender-billed gull (Chroicocephalus genei is a long-lived species breeding in unstable ephemeral coastal habitats. Their Western Mediterranean populations are relatively small and represent the edge of their global geographical distribution. At a local scale, using long-term data (14 years on annual breeding success and capture-resights of marked individuals, we estimated and compared the vital rates and evaluated the connectivity of two Spanish populations (Ebro Delta and Doñana varying in their local environmental conditions. At a metapopulation scale, we analyzed 22 years of data on breeding numbers to predict their future prospects by means of population demographic models. Local survival and breeding success of gulls from the Ebro Delta was lower than those from Doñana, which is likely the result of higher permanent emigration and/or winter mortality in the former. Gulls from the Ebro Delta wintered mostly in Mediterranean areas whereas those from Doñana did so in Atlantic coasts, where food availability is higher. Whereas adult local survival was constant, juvenile local survival showed temporal parallel variations between colonies, probably related to natal dispersal to other breeding colonies. Our results suggested that dispersal was higher at the Ebro Delta and gulls emigrating from their natal colonies settled preferentially in close patches. We found large fluctuations in breeding numbers among local populations probably related to the fact that the Slender-billed gull is a species adapted to unstable and unpredictable habitats with high abilities to disperse between suitable patches depending on environmental stochastic conditions during breeding.

  17. Next generation solar energy. From fundamentals to applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the International Conference between 12th and 14th December, 2011 in Erlangen (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were presented: (1) The opto-electronic physics required to approach the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit (E. Yablonovitch); (2) The Shockley-Queisser-limit and beyond (G.H. Bauer); (3) Designing composite nanomaterials for photovoltaic devices (B. Rech); (4) Light-Material interactions in energy conversion (H. Atwater); (5) Functional imaging of hybrid nanostructures - Visualizing mechanisms of solar energy utilization (L. Lauhon); (6) Are photosynthetic proteins suitable for PV applications (Y. Rosenwaks); (7) Detailed balance limit in photovoltaic systems (U. Rau); (8) Plasmonics and nanophotonics for next generation photovoltaics (E. Garnett); (9) Dispersion, wave propagation and efficiency analysis of nanowire solar cells (B. Witzigmann); (10) Application of nanostructures to next generation photovoltaics - Opportunities and challenges from an industrial research perspective (L. Tsakalakos); (11) Triplet states in organic and organometallic photovoltaic cells (K.S. Schanze); (12) New photoelectrode architectures (J.T. Hupp); (13) Dendrimers for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications (P. Ceroni); (14) Photon management with luminescent materials (J. Goldschmidt); (15) Economical aspects of next generation solar cell technologies (W. Hoffmann); (16) Scalability in solar energy conversion - First-row transition metal-based chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cells (J. McCusker); (17) Designing organic materials for photovoltaic devices (A. Harriman); (18) Molecular photovoltaics - What can we learn from model studies (B. Albinsson); (19) Porphyrin-sensitised titanium dioxide solar cells (D. Officer); (20) Light-harvesting: Charge separation, and charge-transportation properties of novel materials for organic photovoltaics (H. Imahori); (21) Phthalocyanines for molecular photovoltaics (T. Torres); (22) Photophysics of

  18. Motility, Force Generation, and Energy Consumption of Unicellular Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetter, Axel; Pfohl, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Motility is a key factor for pathogenicity of unicellular parasites, enabling them to infiltrate and evade host cells, and perform several of their life-cycle events. State-of-the-art methods of motility analysis rely on a combination of optical tweezers with high-resolution microscopy and microfluidics. With this technology, propulsion forces, energies, and power generation can be determined so as to shed light on the motion mechanisms, chemotactic behavior, and specific survival strategies of unicellular parasites. With these new tools in hand, we can elucidate the mechanisms of motility and force generation of unicellular parasites, and identify ways to manipulate and eventually inhibit them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Future of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Carajlescov, Pedro, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: pedro.carajlescov@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    We discuss in this paper the medium- and long- terms evolution of nuclear power in Brazil considering official governmental studies and reports prepared by research groups. The documents reviewed include the national energy balance (BEN, 2014), the short-term planning (PDEE, 2023) and long-term planning (PNE-2030) documents emitted by EPE, and studies conducted by independent institutions and researchers. The studies consider different scenarios regarding gross national product growth and institutional development for the country and conclude that nuclear power should increase its role in Brazil. The generation matrix should diversity by 2030 and 2040 with hydropower decreasing its share from today's 70 % to values between 47 and 57 %. Nuclear power is considered a viable alternative for base load electricity generation in Brazil; to reduce generation risks during dry seasons, and to facilitate the operation of the whole power generation system. The share of nuclear power may reach values between 8 % and 15 % by 2040 according to different scenarios. To meet such growth and facilitate new investments, it is necessary to change the legal framework of the sector, and allow private ownership of enterprises to build and operate nuclear power plants in the country. (author)

  20. Future of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Carajlescov, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We discuss in this paper the medium- and long- terms evolution of nuclear power in Brazil considering official governmental studies and reports prepared by research groups. The documents reviewed include the national energy balance (BEN, 2014), the short-term planning (PDEE, 2023) and long-term planning (PNE-2030) documents emitted by EPE, and studies conducted by independent institutions and researchers. The studies consider different scenarios regarding gross national product growth and institutional development for the country and conclude that nuclear power should increase its role in Brazil. The generation matrix should diversity by 2030 and 2040 with hydropower decreasing its share from today's 70 % to values between 47 and 57 %. Nuclear power is considered a viable alternative for base load electricity generation in Brazil; to reduce generation risks during dry seasons, and to facilitate the operation of the whole power generation system. The share of nuclear power may reach values between 8 % and 15 % by 2040 according to different scenarios. To meet such growth and facilitate new investments, it is necessary to change the legal framework of the sector, and allow private ownership of enterprises to build and operate nuclear power plants in the country. (author)

  1. Sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitalas, R.

    1981-01-01

    The sensitivity to temperature of nuclear energy generation by hydrogen burning is discussed. The complexity of the sensitivity is due to the different equilibration time-scales of the constituents of the p-p chain and CN cycle and the dependence of their abundances and time-scales on temperature. The time-scale of the temperature perturbation, compared to the equilibrium time-scale of a constituent, determines whether the constituent is in equilibrium and affects the sensitivity. The temperature sensitivity of the p-p chain for different values of hydrogen abundance, when different constituents come into equilibrium is presented, as well as its variation with 3 He abundance. The temperature sensitivity is drastically different from n 11 , the temperature sensitivity of the proton-proton reaction, unless the time-scale of temperature perturbation is long enough for 3 He to remain in equilibrium. Even in this case the sensitivity of the p-p chain differs significantly from n 11 , unless the temperature is so low that PP II and PP III chains can be neglected. The variation of the sensitivity of CN energy generation is small for different time-scales of temperature variation, because the temperature sensitivities of individual reactions are so similar. The combined sensitivity to temperature of energy generation by hydrogen burning is presented and shown to have a maximum of 16.4 at T 6 = 24.5. For T 6 > 25 the temperature sensitivity is given by the sensitivity of 14 N + p reaction. (author)

  2. Generation and energy utilization of methane form industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebek, M.

    2009-01-01

    At the production site of a natural ingredients manufacturer for the food industry was necessary the adjustment of the WWTP to the enlargement of the production and its complement with a pre-treatment. The core of the treatment plan tis an UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor where the wastewater is removed under anaerobic conditions. The main advantages of this treatment ar the operation stability and the high methane production. The biogas generated is cleaned before it is used during the production process as an energy resource. (Author)

  3. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  4. Electromagnetic-implosion generation of pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.; Broderick, N.F.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Kloc, D.A.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports on the experimental and theoretical investigation of the generation of pulsed high-energy-density plasmas by electromagnetic implosion of cylindrical foils (i.e., imploding liners or hollow Z-pinches) at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Presents a comparison of experimental data with one-dimensional MHD and two-dimensional calculations. Points out that the study is distinct from other imploding liner efforts in that the approach is to produce a hot, dense plasma from the imploded liner itself, rather than to compress a magnetic-field-performed plasma mixture. The goal is to produce an intense laboratory pulsed X-ray source

  5. Energy Efficient Glass Melting - The Next Generation Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Rue

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate a high intensity glass melter, based on the submerged combustion melting technology. This melter will serve as the melting and homogenization section of a segmented, lower-capital cost, energy-efficient Next Generation Glass Melting System (NGMS). After this project, the melter will be ready to move toward commercial trials for some glasses needing little refining (fiberglass, etc.). For other glasses, a second project Phase or glass industry research is anticipated to develop the fining stage of the NGMS process.

  6. Energy concentration on S-300 pulsed power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakshaev, Yu Z; Chernenko, A S; Korolev, V D; Mizhiritskij, V I; Zazhivikhin, V V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Energy concentration in fast Z-pinch investigation experiments on an 8-module 10 TW pulsed power S-300 generator (1.3 MV, 45 ns FWHM, 0.15 Ohm) is realized by a 3-d vacuum energy concentrator. The concentrator was constructed on the basis of triplate MITLs connected in parallel at the central unit where the Z-pinch is formed. At some start-up experiments on the 8-module installation version at 700 kV incident wave amplitude on concentrator for a gas puff load current of 4 MA with rise time of about 60 ns was obtained. The efficiency or current transfer from the concentrator input to the load for both a gas liner and a short-circuited case was practically the same. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  7. Energy Management Optimization for Cellular Networks under Renewable Energy Generation Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2017-03-28

    The integration of renewable energy (RE) as an alternative power source for cellular networks has been deeply investigated in literature. However, RE generation is often assumed to be deterministic; an impractical assumption for realistic scenarios. In this paper, an efficient energy procurement strategy for cellular networks powered simultaneously by the smart grid (SG) and locally deployed RE sources characterized by uncertain processes is proposed. For a one-day operation cycle, the mobile operator aims to reduce its total energy cost by optimizing the amounts of energy to be procured from the local RE sources and SG at each time period. Additionally, it aims to determine the amount of extra generated RE to be sold back to SG. A chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the RE generation uncertainty. Then, two convex approximation approaches: Chernoff and Chebyshev methods, characterized by different levels of knowledge about the RE generation, are developed to determine the energy procurement strategy for different risk levels. In addition, their performances are analyzed for various daily scenarios through selected simulation results. It is shown that the higher complex Chernoff method outperforms the Chebyshev one for different risk levels set by the operator.

  8. Energy Management Optimization for Cellular Networks under Renewable Energy Generation Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy (RE) as an alternative power source for cellular networks has been deeply investigated in literature. However, RE generation is often assumed to be deterministic; an impractical assumption for realistic scenarios. In this paper, an efficient energy procurement strategy for cellular networks powered simultaneously by the smart grid (SG) and locally deployed RE sources characterized by uncertain processes is proposed. For a one-day operation cycle, the mobile operator aims to reduce its total energy cost by optimizing the amounts of energy to be procured from the local RE sources and SG at each time period. Additionally, it aims to determine the amount of extra generated RE to be sold back to SG. A chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the RE generation uncertainty. Then, two convex approximation approaches: Chernoff and Chebyshev methods, characterized by different levels of knowledge about the RE generation, are developed to determine the energy procurement strategy for different risk levels. In addition, their performances are analyzed for various daily scenarios through selected simulation results. It is shown that the higher complex Chernoff method outperforms the Chebyshev one for different risk levels set by the operator.

  9. Controlled energy generation from nuclear fusion. 60th year atw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Georg [Pintsch Bamag AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Prospects increase, that with a controlled process of nuclear fusion one day an additional nuclear energy source will be commercially exploitable. In what follows, scientific principles according to the most recent research will be presented. Since approximately 30 years we are aware of the fact, that energy in form of light and heat provided by the sun and other fixed stars since over four billions years resulted from reactions of atomic nuclei. A series of such reactions became known which are considered for 'thermonuclear' processes, for example the carbon cycle by Bethe, where hydrogen is converted into helium. Most of the reflections and experiments dealt until 1938 with the reaction between nuclei of light elements. The possibility of splitting heavy nuclei was not anticipated. Its discovery by Hahn and Strassmann was a complete surprise - so to speak a rash reaction to release energy at the end of the element row. This 'way out' captured the interest of nuclear physicist for more than a decade. Only today, by starting to construct big nuclear power plants - only today, being able to assess the possibilities and limitations of this technology, the idea of energy generation through nuclear fusion steps into the foreground of nuclear research.

  10. Geothermal energy used in a cooling generation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzaoui, A.; El Gharbi, N.; Merabti, L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the geothermal energy recovery and use. It is available in an important water reservoir at 1800 m deep. Some drilled wells deliver each one about 200 1/s at 75-95 degree centigrade for agricultural use. It is necessarily cooled to be in irrigation conditions at 20-25 degree centigrade. Our purpose is to install the adequate sized heat exchangers to recover this important energy and to use it in different needs. Furthermore, a systematic survey is made, on the basis od Lindal Diagram, about different possibilities to use this geothermal reservoir available in arid area. Several applications are experimented and presented to farmers: air conditioning, domestic space heating, bathing, fruits and products drying, aqua fishing, etc.. In this report we present the study including scientific and technical questions (heat and mass transfer, absorption cooling generating, energy and mass balances, etc..). The available heat must be upgraded.The solar energy is used for this need. The total experimental cooled space is: 4 rooms X 210 m 3 . The coefficient of performance of the set up is 44% and could be enhanced. Inhabitants could use this fresh atmosphere to stock their products and to pay some home comfort. All calculations and theoretical simulations will be presented and commented.(Author)

  11. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  12. Experimental Research on the Characteristic of a Generator Used in Wave Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhongyue; Shang, Jianzhong; Luo, Zirong; Sun, Chongfei; Wu, Guoheng

    2018-01-01

    Due to the environmental issues like global warming and pollution, the exploration for ocean energy becomes important. Selecting the suitable generator for wave energy generation system is essential to improve the efficiency of power generation system. Thus, the object of the research is the generator of a self-adaptation inversion type wave energy absorption device. The major focus of this paper is the characteristics and the technique of the generator used in prototype. By setting up the generator performance test platform, the output voltage, efficiency and performance of the generator are tested to select the suitable generator for the wave energy generating system.

  13. Matching of renewable source of energy generation graphs and electrical load in local energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhniuk, Petro; Komar, Vyacheslav; Sobchuk, Dmytro; Kravchuk, Sergiy; Kacejko, Piotr; Zavidsky, Vladislav

    2017-08-01

    The paper contains the method of matching generation graph of photovoltaic electric stations and consumers. Characteristic feature of this method is the application of morphometric analysis for assessment of non-uniformity of the integrated graph of energy supply, optimal coefficients of current distribution, that enables by mean of refining the powers, transferring in accordance with the graph , to provide the decrease of electric energy losses in the grid and transport task, as the optimization tool.

  14. Very Short-term Nonparametric Probabilistic Forecasting of Renewable Energy Generation - with Application to Solar Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestaneh, Faranak; Pinson, Pierre; Gooi, Hoay Beng

    2016-01-01

    Due to the inherent uncertainty involved in renewable energy forecasting, uncertainty quantification is a key input to maintain acceptable levels of reliability and profitability in power system operation. A proposal is formulated and evaluated here for the case of solar power generation, when only...... approach to generate very short-term predictive densities, i.e., for lead times between a few minutes to one hour ahead, with fast frequency updates. We rely on an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) as a fast regression model, trained in varied ways to obtain both point and quantile forecasts of solar power...... generation. Four probabilistic methods are implemented as benchmarks. Rival approaches are evaluated based on a number of test cases for two solar power generation sites in different climatic regions, allowing us to show that our approach results in generation of skilful and reliable probabilistic forecasts...

  15. Demographics and chronology installation nests of Yellow-legged Gull (Larus ridibundus) in the region of Jijel (Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougaham, A. F.; Moulai, R.

    2013-01-01

    During the 2007 breeding season, the population of Yellow-legged Gull in the region of Jijel has experienced a growth of 4,06% from 1978. The annual average increaseλ observed is 1,02 for Grand Cavallo Island and 1,10 for Petit Cavallo Island. The mean density of Yellow-legged Gull for one coastal kilometer is 18, 4 pairs. Nests installation of Yellow-legged Gull is early and staggered at the traditional nesting sites, namely Grand and Petit Cavallo Islands. In contrast, it is quite late and synchronous at Grand Cavallo and the cliffs of Pointe Thamakrent. Yellow-legged Gulls in the region of Jijel have a large growing population, including the colonization of new nesting sites. (author)

  16. Prospective thorium fuels for future nuclear energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O.

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of the Nuclear Era, many countries were interested on thorium, particularly during the 1950 1970 periods. Nevertheless, since its discovery almost two centuries ago, the use of thorium has been restricted to gas mantles employed in gas lighting. The future world energy needs will increase and, even if we assumed a conservative contribution of nuclear generation, it will be occur a significant increasing in the uranium prices, taking into account that uranium, as used in the present thermal reactors, is a finite resource. Nowadays approximately the worldwide yearly requirement of uranium for about 435 nuclear reactors in operation is 65,000 metric t. Therefore, alternative solutions for future must be developed. Thorium is nearly three times more abundant than uranium in The Earth's crust. Despite thorium is not a fissile material, 232 Th can be converted to 233 U (fissile) more efficiently than 238 U to 239 Pu. Besides this, thorium is an environment alternative energy source and also inherently resistant to proliferation.. Many countries had initiated research on thorium in the past, Nevertheless, the interest evanesced due new uranium resources discoveries and availability of enriched uranium at low prices from obsolete weapons. Some papers evaluate the thorium resources in Brazil over 1.200.000 metric t. Then, the thorium alternative must be seriously considered in Brazil for strategic reasons. A brief history of thorium and its utilization are presented, besides a very short discussion about prospective thorium nuclear fuels for the next generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  17. Tidal Energy System for On-Shore Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, Allan J

    2012-06-26

    Addressing the urgent need to develop LCOE competitive renewable energy solutions for US energy security and to replace fossil-fuel generation with the associated benefits to environment impacts including a reduction in CO2 emissions, this Project focused on the advantages of using hydraulic energy transfer (HET) in large-scale Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) systems for harvesting off-shore tidal energy in US waters. A recent DOE resource assessment, identifies water power resources have a potential to meet 15% of the US electric supply by 2030, with MHK technologies being a major component. The work covered a TRL-4 laboratory proof-in-concept demonstration plus modeling of a 15MW full scale system based on an approach patented by NASA-JPL, in which submerged high-ratio gearboxes and electrical generators in conventional MHK turbine systems are replaced by a submerged hydraulic radial pump coupled to on-shore hydraulic motors driving a generator. The advantages are; first, the mean-time-between-failure (MTBF), or maintenance, can be extended from approximately 1 to 5 years and second, the range of tidal flow speeds which can be efficiently harvested can be extended beyond that of a conventional submerged generator. The approach uses scalable, commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components, facilitating scale-up and commercialization. All the objectives of the Project have been successfully met (1) A TRL4 system was designed, constructed and tested. It simulates a tidal energy turbine, with a 2-m diameter blade in up to a 2.9 m/sec flow. The system consists of a drive motor assembly providing appropriate torque and RPM, attached to a radial piston pump. The pump circulates pressurized, environmentally-friendly, HEES hydraulic fluid in a closed loop to an axial piston motor which drives an electrical generator, with a resistive load. The performance of the components, subsystems and system were evaluated during simulated tidal cycles. The pump is contained in a tank for

  18. Wing/kite-based wind energy generation: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, M.

    2013-06-01

    Several technologies, aimed at converting high-altitude wind into electricity, are actually being investigated by companies, research centers and universities worldwide, and the community of people working in this field has coined the term airborne wind energy (AWE) as a common umbrella for these concepts. Indeed, many basic ideas that are now being developed in the context of AWE were already present in patents and publications since the '70s. Then, these ideas remained somehow silent, until more recent years, when several research groups and companies started to carry out theoretical, numerical and experimental analyses, made possible by important advances in diverse fields like materials, aerodynamics, sensors, computation and control. In this lecture, the basic AWE concepts and results that have been up to date accomplished are overviewed, with a focus on a particular class of AWE generators, namely with flexible wings and ground level generators, and emphasis on optimization and control aspects. Finally, we delineate what challenges are still to be faced, in order to fully demonstrate the viability of airborne wind energy.

  19. Renewable Energy Power Generation Estimation Using Consensus Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jehanzeb; Najm-ul-Islam, M.; Ahmed, Salman

    2017-08-01

    At the small consumer level, Photo Voltaic (PV) panel based grid tied systems are the most common form of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Unlike wind which is suitable for only selected locations, PV panels can generate electricity almost anywhere. Pakistan is currently one of the most energy deficient countries in the world. In order to mitigate this shortage the Government has recently announced a policy of net-metering for residential consumers. After wide spread adoption of DERs, one of the issues that will be faced by load management centers would be accurate estimate of the amount of electricity being injected in the grid at any given time through these DERs. This becomes a critical issue once the penetration of DER increases beyond a certain limit. Grid stability and management of harmonics becomes an important consideration where electricity is being injected at the distribution level and through solid state controllers instead of rotating machinery. This paper presents a solution using graph theoretic methods for the estimation of total electricity being injected in the grid in a wide spread geographical area. An agent based consensus approach for distributed computation is being used to provide an estimate under varying generation conditions.

  20. Nuclear power generation alternative for a clean energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simionov, V; Ibadula, R.; Popescu, Ion.; Bobric, Elena

    2001-01-01

    World Energy Council stated that to raise the efficiency in which energy is provided is a huge challenge for power engineering. Over 60% of primary energy is in effect, wasted. At present 63% of the world's electricity comes from thermal power (coal, oil and gas), 19% from hydro, 17% from nuclear, 0.5% from geothermal and 0.1% from solar, wind and biomass. Nuclear power almost completely avoids all the problems associated within fossil fuels: no greenhouse effect, no acid rain, no air pollution with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, no oil spills, etc. Its impact on health and environment is related to radiation and is relatively minor. Without pretending a high accuracy of numbers, if the first Romanian nuclear power reactor will be replaced by a coal plant of equivalent capacity, about 5 millions tons of CO 2 and large quantities of associated sulfur and nitrous oxides, would be discharged to the atmosphere each year. However, the acceptance of nuclear power is largely an emotional issue. Based on the environmental monitoring program this paper tries to demonstrate that the routine radioactive emissions of Cernavoda NPP, which are limited by competent national authority, constitutes an insignificant risk increase. The concept of sustainable development was elaborated in the late 1980s and defined as a development that fulfil the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development incorporates equity within and across countries as well as across generations, and integrates economic growth, environmental protection and social welfare. To analyze nuclear energy from a sustainable development perspective it is necessary to consider its economic, environmental and social impacts characteristics, both positive and negative. It is obvious that the development of nuclear energy broadens the natural resource base usable for energy production, and increases human and man-made capital. There are also

  1. Electromagnetic Energy Converters - Rotating Motors and Linear Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekergaard, Boel

    2011-07-01

    This licentiate thesis presents a study of the electromagnetic properties of linear synchronous permanent magnet generators, utilized in wave energy converters, and a two pole permanent magnet motor for an electrical vehicle. Both machine topologies are presented, designed with a numerical simulation tool, based on a model derived from Maxwell's equations. Full scale prototypes of both the machines are under construction. A continued study about the impact on the magnetic circuit caused by the longitudinal ends of a linear generator is performed. The results present significant core losses in the translator and an increased cogging force caused by the longitudinal ends. Further, a new electric conversion circuit based on the electric resonance phenomena is presented. Experimental results indicate that a successful electric resonance between the generator and external circuit has been achieved. Finally, detailed analytical and numerical methods are utilized to investigate the losses in the two pole permanent magnet motor over a wide frequency interval. The results indicate that the efficiency of electrical motors in electrical vehicle system can be increased relative existing designs and argue for limiting of the gearbox. The system total efficiency and mechanical stability can thereby be increased. The work concerning the wave energy converter is a part of a larger project, the so called Lysekil Wave Power Project, whereas the work concerning the electric motor so far has been carried out as an individual project. However, a future goal is to integrate the research on the electric motor for electrical vehicle with closely related ongoing research regarding a flywheel based electric driveline for an All Electric Propulsion System

  2. Technology data for energy plants. Generation of electricity and district heating, energy storage and energy carrier generation and conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-15

    The Danish Energy Agency and Energinet.dk, the Danish electricity transmission and system operator, have at regular intervals published a catalogue of energy producing technologies. The previous edition was published in June 2010. This report presents the results of the most recent update. The primary objective of publishing a technology catalogue is to establish a uniform, commonly accepted and up-to-date basis for energy planning activities, such as future outlooks, evaluations of security of supply and environmental impacts, climate change evaluations, and technical and economic analyses, e.g. on the framework conditions for the development and deployment of certain classes of technologies. With this scope in mind, it has not been the intention to establish a comprehensive catalogue, including all main gasification technologies or all types of electric batteries. Only selected, representative, technologies are included, to enable generic comparisons of e.g. thermal gasification versus combustion of biomass and electricity storage in batteries versus hydro-pumped storage. It has finally been the intention to offer the catalogue for the international audience, as a contribution to similar initiatives aiming at forming a public and concerted knowledge base for international analyses and negotiations. A guiding principle for developing the catalogue has been to rely primarily on well-documented and public information, secondarily on invited expert advice. Since many experts are reluctant in estimating future quantitative performance data, the data tables are not complete, in the sense that most data tables show several blank spaces. This approach has been chosen in order to achieve data, which to some extent are equivalently reliable, rather than to risk a largely incoherent data set including unfounded guesstimates. The current update has been developed with an unbalanced focus, i.e. most attention to technologies which are most essential for current and short

  3. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramis , Antonio; van Amerongen , Geert; van de Bildt , Marco; Leijten , Loneke; Vanderstichel , Raphael; Osterhaus , Albert; Kuiken , Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Historically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental HPAIV H5N1 infection of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) to determine their susceptibility to infection and disease from this virus, pattern of viral shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes a...

  4. Spatio-temporal trends in the predation of large gulls by peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus in an insular breeding population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Luke J.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual diet specialization occurs in many populations of generalist predators, with specific individuals developing specialist strategies in their feeding behaviour. Intraspecific resource partitioning is hypothesised to be common amongst species in higher trophic levels where competition for resources is intense, and a key driver in breeding success and community structure. Though well-studied in other predators, there is sparse data on ecological specialization in raptors, which are important drivers of community and trophic structure. In this study, the breeding season diet of an insular population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus was determined from indirect analysis of prey remains collected over three years. An unexpected result was the high proportion of large gulls (Laridae, of the genus Larus, in the diet of two breeding pairs of peregrines. Large gulls made up 18.44% by frequency of total prey recorded and 30.81% by biomass. Herring gulls (Larus argentatus were the most common large gull prey, with immatures most frequent (67.95% compared to adults (19.23%. Overall, most gulls predated were immatures (80.77%. Frequency of predation varied between breeding pairs and months, but was consistent over the three years. Most gulls were taken in April (37.17%, followed by May (19.23%, with a smaller peak of immature herring gulls taken in August and September. The pattern of regular predation by peregrines on large gulls is a new observation with important implications for understanding individual diet specialization in raptors, and its effect on bird populations and community structure.

  5. Linear magnetic motor/generator. [to generate electric energy using magnetic flux for spacecraft power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, P. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A linear magnetic motor/generator is disclosed which uses magnetic flux to provide mechanical motion or electrical energy. The linear magnetic motor/generator includes an axially movable actuator mechanism. A permament magnet mechanism defines a first magnetic flux path which passes through a first end portion of the actuator mechanism. Another permament magnet mechanism defines a second magnetic flux path which passes through a second end portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil defines a third magnetic flux path passing through a third central portion of the actuator mechanism. A drive coil selectively adds magnetic flux to and subtracts magnetic flux from magnetic flux flowing in the first and second magnetic flux path.

  6. Biophysical studies related to energy generation: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1988-01-01

    This report covers work subsequent to our previous report of December 24, 1986. At that time we were groping to find relationships between vibrational and rotational electron impact cross sections in the vapor and liquid phases of water. Having reached an impass within the radiological literature, we drew upon the atmospheric, oceanographic and flame radiation literatures. Here a much broader body of excitation energy and intensity data related to the vibrational and rotational excitation of water in the vapor phases and liquid phases enabled us to identify certain ''big bands'' of H 2 O. These bands account for the major infrared absorption features observed in atmospheric transmission studies as well as important spectral radiation features observed in hydrocarbon combustion. Related liquid phase-gas phase involvement also entered our work on co-combustion of biomass and waste, and natural gas in studies directed toward contributing to the solution of national energy-environmental and economic problems. Attachments to this report include our published works, submitted works, and in complete studies related to radiological, atmospheric, and combustion studies which encompass biophysical studies related to energy generation and which have a common thread involving water in liquid and vapor form. These works are tied together in this brief report, along with some comments on trends in science and technology which they might illustrate

  7. Jet Streams as Power Generating Electrical Energy in Libya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibani, Abdelfatah H.

    2014-01-01

    The supreme wind sources are extremely huge, and according to estimations, these winds can supply Libya with great quantity of electrical energy. Among the examples of contemporary engineering technologies in this field, is to create a new generation of Airborne Wind Turbines. Scientists realized that winds near the Earth's surface are too weak to provide a regular source of energy due to the presence of aerobic swirls and obstacles, which represent a source of ground friction being the cause of weakening wind power. Some consider that the Earth's surface is a totally inappropriate place for investing wind energy. As an alternative solution, we start to think about the establishment of wind farms in another place away from the Earth's surface by developing a new type that can run within the upper-air layers, precisely at jet streams areas. In comparison with fluctuating winds blowing gently near the Earth's surface, scientists estimate that the energy of jet streams increases a thousand times than that can be gathered from the most powerful winds on high hills. To be able to provide a clear picture of the possibility of energy investment of jet streams, we shall present, across the pages of this paper, an explanation of the topic through the following aspects: How do Airborne Wind Turbines' trip start, their advantages and difficulties faced, benefits and economic feasibility, General Atmospheric Circulation and jet streams. Since Libya is among the fortunate countries in the world, through which subtropical jet streams pass, we made an analysis and follow-up of daily synoptic charts, which show jet winds' speed, direction and their altitudes for a period of 60 consecutive months starting from January 1, 2003 until December 31, 2007. Also, an analysis was made of daily observational data of jet winds recorded by Tripoli Upper-air Station during the period from the beginning of March 1987 until the end of February 1989. The paper's results summarized that jet

  8. Stabilization of Wind Energy Conversion System with Hydrogen Generator by Using EDLC Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Seiji; Takahashi, Rion; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji; Sugimasa, Masatoshi; Komura, Akiyoshi; Futami, Motoo; Ichinose, Masaya; Ide, Kazumasa

    The spread of wind power generation is progressed hugely in recent years from a viewpoint of environmental problems including global warming. Though wind power is considered as a very prospective energy source, wind power fluctuation due to the random fluctuation of wind speed has still created some problems. Therefore, research has been performed how to smooth the wind power fluctuation. This paper proposes Energy Capacitor System (ECS) for the smoothing of wind power which consists of Electric Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC) and power electronics devices and works as an electric power storage system. Moreover, hydrogen has received much attention in recent years from a viewpoint of exhaustion problem of fossil fuel. Therefore it is also proposed that a hydrogen generator is installed at the wind farm to generate hydrogen. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed system is verified by the simulation analyses using PSCAD/EMTDC.

  9. Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 S. Observatory St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 (Canada); Basu, Niladri, E-mail: niladri@umich.ed [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 S. Observatory St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 {mu}g/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 {mu}g/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor {alpha}-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. - Spatial trends in brain mercury exist in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes though levels are not associated with neurochemical biomarkers.

  10. Investigation of spatial trends and neurochemical impacts of mercury in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkiewicz, Jennifer; Scheuhammer, Anton; Crump, Doug; Jagla, Magdalena; Basu, Niladri

    2010-01-01

    Herring gulls (Larus argentatus) bioaccumulate mercury (Hg) but it is unknown whether they are exposed at levels of neurological concern. Here we studied brain tissues from gulls at five Great Lakes colonies and one non-Great Lakes colony during spring of 2001 and 2003. Total brain Hg concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.0 μg/g (dry weight) with a mean of 0.54 μg/g. Gulls from Scotch Bonnet Island, on the easternmost edge of the Great Lakes, had significantly higher brain Hg than other colonies. No association was found between brain Hg concentration and [3H]-ligand binding to neurochemical receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate, muscarinic cholinergic, nicotinic cholinergic) or nicotinic receptor α-7 relative mRNA expression as previously documented in other wildlife. In conclusion, spatial trends in Hg contamination exist in herring gulls across the Great Lakes basin, and herring gulls accumulate brain Hg but not at levels associated with sub-clinical neurochemical alterations. - Spatial trends in brain mercury exist in herring gulls across the Laurentian Great Lakes though levels are not associated with neurochemical biomarkers.

  11. Environmental pollutants in endangered vs. increasing subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull on the Norwegian Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Helberg, Morten; Strann, Karl-Birger; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) residues were measured in eggs and blood of different subspecies of the lesser black-backed gull, Larus fuscus, on the Norwegian coast: a) increasing L. f. intermedius in the North Sea; b) endangered L. f. fuscus near the Arctic Circle; c) L. f. fuscus and greyish-mantled gulls, with a L. f. intermedius appearance, in the Barents Sea region. The dominating OCs in lesser black-backed gulls were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). DDE and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) residues were higher in L. f. fuscus compared to L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds in the Barents Sea region. In the latter area, blood residues of PCB and DDE in lesser black-backed gulls were as high as in great black-backed gulls, Larus marinus, while in the other regions they were lower. The higher DDE residues in endangered L. f. fuscus compared to increasing L. f. intermedius and greyish-mantled birds, which are invading northern Norway, suggest that OCs may have played a role in the population decline of L. f. fuscus, possibly in combination with nutrient stress. - DDE and β-HCH residues were higher in an endangered compared to an increasing subspecies of lesser black-backed gulls in Norway

  12. MINI-THESAURUS, Energy Data Base Subject Thesaurus Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulk, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINI-THESAURUS allows the user to subset into highly-specialized 'mini-thesauri' the Energy Data Base (EDB) Subject Thesaurus, which contains the standard vocabulary of indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) for the building and maintenance of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) energy information databases. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of DOE's research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation. Entire word blocks may be copied from the primary Subject Thesaurus, from another mini-thesaurus, or both, and subsequently modified through the addition of new terms, the deletion of existing terms, and changes to the internal relationships among the word blocks within the mini-thesaurus to create a new, special-purpose thesaurus. MINI-THESAURUS also provides the ability to copy the entire Subject Thesaurus and to treat the copy as a mini-thesaurus, thus allowing one to examine the effects of major changes to the thesaurus structure without having to modify the primary, on-line Thesaurus. The copy operation also optimizes the Subject Thesaurus structure. An interactive user having update privileges for a specific mini-thesaurus and access to the TeX and PostScript proprietary software can produce the mini-thesaurus in printed publication format. Once the mini-thesaurus has been published, periodic supplements may be generated based on date of entry or change maintained by the Thesaurus software. 2 Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The system enforces the OSTI rules for Thesaurus development

  13. Building generation four: results of Canadian research program on generation IV energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.; Leung, L.K.H.; Guzonas, D.; Brady, D.; Poupore, J.; Zheng, W.

    2014-01-01

    A collaborative grant program has been established between Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada, Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to support research and development (R&D) for the Canadian SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) concept, which is one of six advanced nuclear reactor systems being studied under the Generation-IV International Forum (GIF). The financial support for this grant program is provided by NSERC and NRCan. The grant fund has supported university research investigating the neutronic, fuel, thermal-hydraulics, chemistry and material properties of the Canadian SCWR concept. Twenty-two universities have actively collaborated with experts from AECL Nuclear Laboratories and NRCan's CanmetMATERIALS (CMAT) Laboratory to advance the technologies, enhance their infrastructure, and train highly qualified personnel. Their R&D findings have been contributed to GIF fulfilling Canada's commitments. The unique collaborative structure and the contributions to Canada's nuclear science and technology of the NSERC/NRCan/AECL Generation IV Energy Technologies Program are presented. (author)

  14. EDF energy generation UK transport of irradiated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R. [EDF Energy, London, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    This paper give an overview of irradiated fuel transport in the UK. It describes the design of irradiated fuel flask used by EDF Energy; operational experience and good practices learnt from over 50 years of irradiated fuel transport. The AGRs can store approximately 9 months generation of spent fuel, hence the ability to transport irradiated fuel is vital. Movements are by road to the nearest railhead, typically less than 2 miles and then by rail to Sellafield, up to 400 miles, for reprocessing or long term storage. Road and rail vehicles are covered. To date in the UK: over 30,000 Magnox flask journeys and over 15,000 AGR A2 flask journeys have been carried out.

  15. Hipse: an event generator for nuclear collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D.

    2003-11-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. Based on the sudden approximation and on geometrical hypothesis, it can conveniently simulate heavy-ion interactions at all impact parameters and thus can constitute a valuable tool for the understanding of processes such as neck emission or multifragmentation in peripheral or/and central collisions. After a detailed description of the ingredients of the model, first comparisons with experimental data collected by the INDRA collaboration are shown. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles observed at all impact parameters for Xe+Sn reactions at 25 and 50 MeV/u and Ni + Ni at 82 MeV/u. (authors)

  16. Progress in energy generation for Canadian remote sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Y.; Younes, R.; Abboudi, S.; Ilinca, A.; Nohra, C.

    2016-07-01

    Many remote areas around the world are isolated, for various reasons, from electricity networks. They are usually supplied with electricity through diesel generators. The cost of operation and transportation of diesel fuel in addition to its price have led to the procurement of a more efficient and environmentally greener method of supply. Various studies have shown that a wind-diesel hybrid system with compressed air storage (WDCAS) seems to be one of the best solutions, and presents itself as an optimal configuration for the electrification of isolated sites. This system allows significant fuel savings to be made because the stored compressed air is used to supercharge the engine. In order to optimize system performance and minimize fuel consumption, installation of a system for recovering and storing the heat of compression (TES) seems necessary. In addition, the use of hydro-pneumatic energy storage systems that use the same machine as the hydraulic pump and turbine allow us to store energy in tight spaces and, if possible, contribute to power generation. The scrupulous study of this technical approach will be the focus of our research which will validate (or not) the use of such a system for the regulation of frequency of electrical networks. In this article we will skim through the main research that recently examined the wind-diesel hybrid system which addressed topics such as adiabatic compression and hydro-pneumatic storage. Instead, we will offer (based on existing studies) a new ACP-WDCAS (wind-diesel hybrid system with adiabatic air compression and storage at constant pressure), which combines these three concepts in one system for the optimization of wind-diesel hybrid system.

  17. Prospective thorium fuels for future nuclear energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O., E-mail: lainetti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In the beginning of the Nuclear Era, many countries were interested on thorium, particularly during the 1950 1970 periods. Nevertheless, since its discovery almost two centuries ago, the use of thorium has been restricted to gas mantles employed in gas lighting. The future world energy needs will increase and, even if we assumed a conservative contribution of nuclear generation, it will be occur a significant increasing in the uranium prices, taking into account that uranium, as used in the present thermal reactors, is a finite resource. Nowadays approximately the worldwide yearly requirement of uranium for about 435 nuclear reactors in operation is 65,000 metric t. Therefore, alternative solutions for future must be developed. Thorium is nearly three times more abundant than uranium in The Earth's crust. Despite thorium is not a fissile material, {sup 232}Th can be converted to {sup 233}U (fissile) more efficiently than {sup 238}U to {sup 239}Pu. Besides this, thorium is an environment alternative energy source and also inherently resistant to proliferation.. Many countries had initiated research on thorium in the past, Nevertheless, the interest evanesced due new uranium resources discoveries and availability of enriched uranium at low prices from obsolete weapons. Some papers evaluate the thorium resources in Brazil over 1.200.000 metric t. Then, the thorium alternative must be seriously considered in Brazil for strategic reasons. A brief history of thorium and its utilization are presented, besides a very short discussion about prospective thorium nuclear fuels for the next generation of nuclear reactors. (author)

  18. Wind energy research activities of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halberg, N.

    1990-01-01

    The varying degrees of penetration of wind energy conversion systems (WECs) into the Dutch electricity generating system has been examined. A simulation has been carried out using wind data recorded at 6 sites spread across the area of interest in the Netherlands. The recorded wind data has been used in conjunction with a production costing model normally used by Sep (the Dutch Electricity Generating Board) for planning purposes. This model was modified to give a correct assessment of the quantity and value of fuel savings made by WECs. System studies were carried out for the year 2000 for zero wind penetration and for three distinctive penetration degrees of WECs, namely 5%, 10% and 15%. After incorporation of the WECS capacity, adjustments were made to the basic plant mix to allow the capacity credit WECs. Separate production cost simulations were executed for each distinct WECS capacity factor. Economic assessments were carried out using standard procedures. Except for the unpredictable development of fuel prices, the capital costs of the WECs proved to be the determinant for the economic viability of wind power. Significant improvements in costs and performance, as may be achieved through additional technological advances, are needed to made wind power competitive in widespread utility applications. (Author)

  19. Design, fabrication, and testing of energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Velimir; Ghamaty, Saeid

    2006-03-01

    An energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG) is being developed to provide power for wireless sensors used in health monitoring of Navy machinery. TEGs are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity without any moving parts. In this application, the TEGs utilize the heat transfer between shipboard waste heat sources and the ambient air to generate electricity. In order to satisfy the required small design volume of less than one cubic inch, Hi-Z is using its innovative thin-film Quantum Well (QW) thermoelectric technology that will provide a factor of four increase in efficiency and a large reduction in the device volume over the currently used bulk Bi IITe 3 based thermoelectics. QWs are nanostructured multi-layer films. These wireless sensors can be used to detect cracks, corrosion, impact damage, and temperature and vibration excursions as part of the Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of the Navy ship machinery. The CBM of the ship machinery can be significantly improved by automating the process with the use of self-powered wireless sensors. These power-harvesting TEGs can be used to replace batteries as electrical power sources and to eliminate power cables and data lines. The first QW TEG module was fabricated and initial tests were successful. It is planned to conduct performance tests the entire prototype QW TEG device (consisting of the TEG module, housing, thermal insulation and the heat sink) in a simulated thermal environment of a Navy ship.

  20. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  1. Relationship between people's awareness of environmental capabilities of saving energy, photovoltaic power generation and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiba, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    In this research, relationship between people's awareness of environmental capabilities of saving energy, photovoltaic power generation (PV) and nuclear power generation was investigated using questionnaire method. The results showed that saving energy is conducted without reference to its environment preservation effect. However the older people tend to regard saving energy as contribution to environment preservation. The attitude toward usage of PV has a close relationship to awareness of energy environmental concerns. Acceptance of cost sharing for the introducing of wide-scale PV systems to society is related to environment protection image of PV and the attitude toward loss of social convenience lost as a result of saving energy activities. The older people become, the more priority people put on environment protection before the social convenience. There is little relationship between environmental capabilities of nuclear power generation, that never discharge CO 2 on generation, and awareness of energy environmental concerns. (author)

  2. Relationship between people's awareness of environmental capabilities of saving energy, photovoltaic power generation and nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashiba, Takashi [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In this research, relationship between people's awareness of environmental capabilities of saving energy, photovoltaic power generation (PV) and nuclear power generation was investigated using questionnaire method. The results showed that saving energy is conducted without reference to its environment preservation effect. However the older people tend to regard saving energy as contribution to environment preservation. The attitude toward usage of PV has a close relationship to awareness of energy environmental concerns. Acceptance of cost sharing for the introducing of wide-scale PV systems to society is related to environment protection image of PV and the attitude toward loss of social convenience lost as a result of saving energy activities. The older people become, the more priority people put on environment protection before the social convenience. There is little relationship between environmental capabilities of nuclear power generation, that never discharge CO{sub 2} on generation, and awareness of energy environmental concerns. (author)

  3. Combined power generation and desalination using renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Akbarzadeh, A.; Andrews, J. [RMIT Univ., Bundoora, Victoria (Australia). School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Australia is facing a severe fresh water shortage in addition to the decline of forests in western Victoria. Grass lands have been degraded by the salting, which is due to the withdrawing of underground water for farms and hence causing the deposition of salt. At the same time, with the development of the industry and increasing demand, more fresh water and power are needed, with limited resources. Finding a sustainable method to satisfy the demand for fresh water and energy is important. Combined power generation with desalination using solar energy (CPD) is a prospective way to solve the problems of fresh water shortage, the energy crisis and farm land degradation in Northern Victoria. This paper recorded the process of calculating the performance of the nozzle applying a homogenous equilibrium model and tested the prototype of CPD using a stationary nozzle system. Data were theoretically analyzed and presented. Based on the experimental figures, the next stage for the practical CPD was proposed and the preliminary design was finished. The principle concept of the theory was that when the hot salt water heated by the solar pond was passed through the rotary nozzles due the difference of pressures between atmosphere and the vacuumed chamber, it would vaporize and then condense into the fresh water, and the mixture rushing out the nozzles at high velocity would exert an antiforce to the nozzles to make them rotate. In addition, when the nozzles rotate, the pressure would increase, so the velocity would increase further and could produce more power. It was concluded that using CPD to prevent the deterioration of saline water to farm land in Australia is a promising technology. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Impact of Generator Stroke Length on Energy Production for a Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Lysekil wave energy converter (WEC, developed by the wave energy research group of Uppsala University, has evolved through a variety of mechanical designs since the first prototype was installed in 2006. The hundreds of engineering decisions made throughout the design processes have been based on a combination of theory, know-how from previous experiments, and educated guesses. One key parameter in the design of the WECs linear generator is the stroke length. A long stroke requires a taller WEC with associated economical and mechanical challenges, but a short stroke limits the power production. The 2-m stroke of the current WECs has been an educated guess for the Swedish wave climate, though the consequences of this choice on energy absorption have not been studied. When the WEC technology is considered for international waters, with larger waves and challenges of energy absorption and survivability, the subject of stroke length becomes even more relevant. This paper studies the impact of generator stroke length on energy absorption for three sites off the coasts of Sweden, Chile and Scotland. 2-m, 4-m, and unlimited stroke are considered. Power matrices for the studied WEC prototype are presented for each of the studied stroke lengths. Presented results quantify the losses incurred by a limited stroke. The results indicate that a 2-m stroke length is likely to be a good choice for Sweden, but 4-m is likely to be necessary in more energetic international waters.

  5. The impacts of renewable energy policies on renewable energy sources for electricity generating capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bryan Bonsuk

    Electricity generation from non-hydro renewable sources has increased rapidly in the last decade. For example, Renewable Energy Sources for Electricity (RES-E) generating capacity in the U.S. almost doubled for the last three year from 2009 to 2012. Multiple papers point out that RES-E policies implemented by state governments play a crucial role in increasing RES-E generation or capacity. This study examines the effects of state RES-E policies on state RES-E generating capacity, using a fixed effects model. The research employs panel data from the 50 states and the District of Columbia, for the period 1990 to 2011, and uses a two-stage approach to control endogeneity embedded in the policies adopted by state governments, and a Prais-Winsten estimator to fix any autocorrelation in the panel data. The analysis finds that Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) and Net-metering are significantly and positively associated with RES-E generating capacity, but neither Public Benefit Funds nor the Mandatory Green Power Option has a statistically significant relation to RES-E generating capacity. Results of the two-stage model are quite different from models which do not employ predicted policy variables. Analysis using non-predicted variables finds that RPS and Net-metering policy are statistically insignificant and negatively associated with RES-E generating capacity. On the other hand, Green Energy Purchasing policy is insignificant in the two-stage model, but significant in the model without predicted values.

  6. Effects of gull predation and weather on survival of emperor goose goslings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.; Manly, Bryan F.J.; Dau, Christian P.

    2001-01-01

    Numbers of emperor geese (Chen canagica) have remained depressed since the mid-1980s. Despite increases in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), a primary predator of goslings, little information existed to assess whether recent patterns of gosling survival have been a major factor affecting population dynamics. We used observations of known families of emperor geese to estimate rates of gosling survival during 1993-96 on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. Survival of goslings to 30 days of age varied among years from 0.332 during 1994 to 0.708 during 1995. Survival was lowest during 1993-94, which corresponded with the years of highest frequency of disturbance of goose broods by glaucous gulls. Rainfall during early brood rearing was much higher in 1994 than other years, and this corresponded to low survival among goslings ≤5 days of age. Numbers of juveniles in families during fall staging were negatively related to rainfall during early brood rearing (n = 23 yr). Although there are no data to assess whether gosling survival in emperor geese has declined from some previous level, current survival rates of emperor goose goslings are as high as or higher than those observed in other goose species that are rapidly increasing. A proposed reduction of glaucous gull numbers by managers may not be the most effective means for increasing population growth in emperor geese.

  7. Dioxins and dl-PCBs in gull eggs from Spanish Natural Parks (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Laura; Gene'rosa Martrat, Ma; Parera, Jordi; Bertolero, Albert; Ábalos, Manuela; Santos, Francisco Javier; Lacorte, Silvia; Abad, Esteban

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), concretely those so-called as dioxin-like PCBs, in yellow-legged gull eggs (Larus michahellis) collected from five Natural Parks (some of them National Parks) in Spain during the period 2010-2013. PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were detected in all the samples. Due to the proximity to important urban and industrial areas higher concentrations were determined in colonies located in the Northern Mediterranean coast than those found in the Southern Mediterranean or Atlantic colonies where a softer anthropogenic impact occurs. Mean ∑PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 49 to 223pg/g lipid weight (lw) and ∑dl-PCB concentrations varied from 146 to 911ng/g lw. In the Natural Park of the Ebro Delta (Northern Mediterranean coast) two gull species share habitat: yellow-legged and Audouin gull (Larus audouinii). Eggs from both species were collected and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels compared. The species that feeds exclusively on pelagic fish (L. audouinii) had significantly higher PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels than the scavenger L. michahellis, pointing out the diet-dependent differences in the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants between similar cohabitant breeding species. Finally, mean TEQ values were in general below those considered as critical for toxicological effects in birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anthropogenic debris in the nests of kelp gulls in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Ryan, Peter G

    2017-01-30

    Anthropogenic debris results in detrimental interactions with many marine species. Several seabirds include debris items in their nests, which can lead to entanglement of chicks and adults, resulting in injury or death. Anthropogenic debris was found in 4-67% of kelp gull Larus dominicanus nests in seven colonies in the Western Cape, South Africa. Nests contained two types of litter: items included in the nest structure during construction (mainly ropes and straps), and regurgitated items (mainly bags and food wrappers) that probably accumulate primarily during the chick-rearing period. Debris used in nest construction was more likely to injure gulls, and was found mainly at coastal sites where there was little natural vegetation for construction. Distance to the nearest urban waste landfill significantly affected the occurrence of debris items in nests, especially dietary-derived items. The amount of debris in kelp gull nests highlights the need for improved debris management in South Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and parasites in the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) on Spitsbergen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagerup, Kjetil, E-mail: kjetil.sagerup@uit.n [Tromso University Museum, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway); Savinov, Vladimir; Savinova, Tatiana [Akvaplan-niva, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Kuklin, Vadim [Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Kola Scientific Centre, Russian Academy of Sciences, Murmansk (Russian Federation); Muir, Derek C.G. [Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington ON L7R 4A6 (Canada); Gabrielsen, Geir W. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway)

    2009-08-15

    The prediction of a higher parasite infection as a consequence of an impaired immune system with increasing persistent organic pollution (POP) and heavy metal levels were investigated in adult glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard. The levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in liver. Cupper, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc were measured in kidney samples. An elevated ratio of PCB-118 was found, suggesting that local contamination from the settlement was detectable in the glaucous gull. Eight cestodes, four nematodes, two acanthocephalan and three trematode helminth species were found in the intestine. A positive correlation was found between cestode intensities and selenium levels and between acanthocephalan intensities and mercury levels. No correlation was found between parasite intensities and POP concentrations. It is concluded that the contaminant levels found in glaucous gulls do not cause immune suppression severe enough to affect parasite intensity. - Consistent relationships between contaminant level and parasite intensity, as an immunotoxic endpoint unit, were not found in the present study.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and parasites in the glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) on Spitsbergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagerup, Kjetil; Savinov, Vladimir; Savinova, Tatiana; Kuklin, Vadim; Muir, Derek C.G.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2009-01-01

    The prediction of a higher parasite infection as a consequence of an impaired immune system with increasing persistent organic pollution (POP) and heavy metal levels were investigated in adult glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus) from Svalbard. The levels of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), toxaphenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in liver. Cupper, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc were measured in kidney samples. An elevated ratio of PCB-118 was found, suggesting that local contamination from the settlement was detectable in the glaucous gull. Eight cestodes, four nematodes, two acanthocephalan and three trematode helminth species were found in the intestine. A positive correlation was found between cestode intensities and selenium levels and between acanthocephalan intensities and mercury levels. No correlation was found between parasite intensities and POP concentrations. It is concluded that the contaminant levels found in glaucous gulls do not cause immune suppression severe enough to affect parasite intensity. - Consistent relationships between contaminant level and parasite intensity, as an immunotoxic endpoint unit, were not found in the present study.

  11. Planning for seven generations: Energy planning of American Indian tribes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookshire, Daniel; Kaza, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of energy resources on American Indian lands, the links between energy management and tribal sovereignty, and recent federal government incentives make tribal energy planning an interesting case study for community energy planning in the US. This paper studies the strategic energy planning efforts, energy resource development, and energy efficiency policies established by tribes within the continental US. The paper analyzes the results of a survey of various tribes′ energy resource development and planning efforts and supplements the responses with publicly available information on resources, economics, and demographics. We find that incentives and advisory services from the federal government are key to developing the capacity of the tribes to pursue energy planning and energy resource development. These incentives largely avoid the misdeeds of past federal policy by promoting tribal control over energy planning and energy resource development efforts. Tribes with formal energy plans or visions are more likely to develop energy resources than tribes without them and are engaged in a more comprehensive and sustainable approach to energy resource development and energy efficiency. - Highlights: • American Indian tribal energy planning is an understudied topic. • Tribal energy planning is interconnected with tribal sovereignty and sustainability. • We report the results of a survey of energy planning and development efforts. • Federal Government assistance is critical to the efforts of the tribes. • Tribes with energy plans take a more comprehensive approach to energy resource development

  12. The Participation Triangle : Involving Generation Y in energy strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, I.C.O.

    2017-01-01

    The liberalization of the Dutch energy market has led to a change of relation between energy companies and their customers. At the same time, the Dutch energy policy expects energy companies to contribute to an energy supply that is cleaner, smarter and more varied, and available at any time at

  13. Low-carbon energy generates public health savings in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Christina B.; Yang, Chris; Yeh, Sonia; Ogden, Joan; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    California's goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a level that is 80 % below 1990 levels by the year 2050 will require adoption of low-carbon energy sources across all economic sectors. In addition to reducing GHG emissions, shifting to fuels with lower carbon intensity will change concentrations of short-lived conventional air pollutants, including airborne particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). Here we evaluate how business-as-usual (BAU) air pollution and public health in California will be transformed in the year 2050 through the adoption of low-carbon technologies, expanded electrification, and modified activity patterns within a low-carbon energy scenario (GHG-Step). Both the BAU and GHG-Step statewide emission scenarios were constructed using the energy-economic optimization model, CA-TIMES, that calculates the multi-sector energy portfolio that meets projected energy supply and demand at the lowest cost, while also satisfying scenario-specific GHG emissions constraints. Corresponding criteria pollutant emissions for each scenario were then spatially allocated at 4 km resolution to support air quality analysis in different regions of the state. Meteorological inputs for the year 2054 were generated under a Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 future climate. Annual-average PM2.5 and O3 concentrations were predicted using the modified emissions and meteorology inputs with a regional chemical transport model. In the final phase of the analysis, mortality (total deaths) and mortality rate (deaths per 100 000) were calculated using established exposure-response relationships from air pollution epidemiology combined with simulated annual-average PM2.5 and O3 exposure. Net emissions reductions across all sectors are -36 % for PM0.1 mass, -3.6 % for PM2.5 mass, -10.6 % for PM2.5 elemental carbon, -13.3 % for PM2.5 organic carbon, -13.7 % for NOx, and -27.5 % for NH3. Predicted deaths associated with air

  14. Thorium and its future importance for nuclear energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O.

    2015-01-01

    Thorium was discovered in 1828 by the Swedish chemist Jons J. Berzelius. Despite some advantages over uranium for use in nuclear reactors, its main use, in the almost two centuries since its discovery, the use of thorium was restricted to use for gas mantles, especially in the early twentieth century. In the beginning of the Nuclear Era, many countries had interested on thorium, particularly during the 1950-1970 period. There are about 435 nuclear reactors in the world nowadays. They need more than 65.000 tons of uranium yearly. The future world energy needs will increase and, even if we assumed a conservative contribution of nuclear generation, it will be occur a significant increasing in the uranium prices, taking into account that uranium, as used in the present thermal reactors, is a finite resource. Thorium is nearly three times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust. Despite thorium is not a fissile material, 232 Th can be converted to 233 U (fissile) more efficiently than 238 U to 239 Pu. Besides this, since it is possible to convert thorium waste into nonradioactive elements, thorium is an environment-friendly alternative energy source. Thorium fuel cycle is also inherently resistant to proliferation. Some papers evaluate the thorium resources in Brazil over 1.200.000 metric t. Then, the thorium alternative must be seriously considered in Brazil for strategic reasons. In this paper a brief history of thorium is presented, besides a review of the world thorium utilization and a discussion about advantages and restrictions of thorium use. (author)

  15. Micro Hydro-Electric Energy Generation- An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    S. O. Anaza; M. S. Abdulazeez; Y. A. Yisah; Y. O. Yusuf; B. U. Salawu; S. U. Momoh

    2017-01-01

    Energy is required now more than ever due to population growth, industrialization and modernization. Challenges such as carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and depletion of conventional source of energy necessitate for renewable sources, of which hydro energy seems to be the most predictable. Micro-hydro which is hydro energy in a “small” scale provides electricity to small communities by converting hydro energy into electrical energy. This paper is an overview of micro-hydro system by reviewing s...

  16. The expansion of electricity generation from renewable energies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesgen, Uwe; Duerrschmidt, Wolfhart

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of electricity generation from renewable sources in Germany is promoted by the Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), which was last amended in June 2008. In a review of the EEG the political parameters, the progress achieved, and the impacts of the Act itself are set out. This Progress Report addresses cross-sectoral aspects, notably CO 2 emissions reduction, job creation, investment and turnover in the renewables industry, and that industry's prospects for the future. Trends in the individual renewables sectors are described and policy recommendations formulated, as appropriate, on this basis. The policy recommendations have been incorporated into the new EEG from 6 June 2008. The overarching goal of the new EEG is to achieve a renewables share of at least 30% in Germany's electricity consumption in 2020. This underlines the need for radical modernisation of the energy system as a whole. This article presents an overview of the content of the Progress Report and supplements it with current statistical data and research findings contained in other publications from the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU). It also highlights the points on which the new EEG diverges from the policy recommendations contained in the Progress Report.

  17. Innovative Approaches to Knowledge Management in EDF Energy Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.; Robinson, P.; Roberts, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Organizational learning is a key discipline in the safe, sustainable operation of civil nuclear fleet. In order to have an effective organizational learning culture a free flow of information is required. To facilitate this free flow of information and ideas EDF Energy Nuclear Generation created the concept of the Organizational Learning Portal (OLP). The OLP was created to remove existing barriers to knowledge sharing and allow easy exchange of information and ideas. To transfer existing data from legacy systems onto the OLP required a considerable effort, to ensure that information and knowledge was preserved and available to recall easily for future use. The OLP, was designed using the latest ‘App’ design to promote accessibility, in line with contemporary information portals and applications sites to ensure a positive and intuitive user journey. A key operational use of the OLP is for accelerated learning, after significant events, e.g., reactor Trips or SCRAM. Additional functionality within the OLP allows implementation of video OPEX and cataloguing of information sources. The OLP was recognized in the 2015 Operational and Safety Assessment Readiness Team as a Best Practice. (author

  18. Low-carbon energy generates public health savings in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Zapata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available California's goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions to a level that is 80 % below 1990 levels by the year 2050 will require adoption of low-carbon energy sources across all economic sectors. In addition to reducing GHG emissions, shifting to fuels with lower carbon intensity will change concentrations of short-lived conventional air pollutants, including airborne particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 and ozone (O3. Here we evaluate how business-as-usual (BAU air pollution and public health in California will be transformed in the year 2050 through the adoption of low-carbon technologies, expanded electrification, and modified activity patterns within a low-carbon energy scenario (GHG-Step. Both the BAU and GHG-Step statewide emission scenarios were constructed using the energy–economic optimization model, CA-TIMES, that calculates the multi-sector energy portfolio that meets projected energy supply and demand at the lowest cost, while also satisfying scenario-specific GHG emissions constraints. Corresponding criteria pollutant emissions for each scenario were then spatially allocated at 4 km resolution to support air quality analysis in different regions of the state. Meteorological inputs for the year 2054 were generated under a Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 8.5 future climate. Annual-average PM2.5 and O3 concentrations were predicted using the modified emissions and meteorology inputs with a regional chemical transport model. In the final phase of the analysis, mortality (total deaths and mortality rate (deaths per 100 000 were calculated using established exposure-response relationships from air pollution epidemiology combined with simulated annual-average PM2.5 and O3 exposure. Net emissions reductions across all sectors are −36 % for PM0.1 mass, −3.6 % for PM2.5 mass, −10.6 % for PM2.5 elemental carbon, −13.3 % for PM2.5 organic carbon, −13.7 % for NOx, and −27.5 % for NH3

  19. Power generation assets. Energy constraints, upper bounds and hedging strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enge, Thomas

    2010-09-20

    The overall topic of this thesis is the valuation of power generation assets under energy and risk constraints. Our focus is on the modeling aspect i.e. to find the right balance between accuracy and computational feasibility. We define a new not yet investigated unit commitment problem that introduces an energy constraint to a thermal power plant. We define a continuous stochastic dynamic program with a nested mixed integer program (MIP). We introduce a fast implementation approach by replacing the MIP with an efficient matrix calculation and use principal component analysis to reduce the number of risk factors. We also provide a fast heuristic valuation approach for comparison. As both models can only provide lower bounds of the asset value, we investigate the theory of upper bounds for a proper validation of our power plant results. We review the primal dual algorithm for swing options by Meinshausen and Hambly and in particular clarify their notation and implementation. Then we provide an extension for swing options with multiple exercises at the same stage that we developed together with Prof. Bender, University of Braunschweig. We outline Prof. Bender's proof and describe the implementation in detail. Finally we provide a risk analysis for our thermal power plant. In particular we investigate strategies to reduce spot price risk to which power plants are significantly exposed. First, we focus on the measurement of spot price risk and propose three appropriate risk figures (Forward delta as opposed to Futures delta, synthetic spot delta and Earnings-at-Risk) and illustrate their application using a business case. Second we suggest risk mitigation strategies for both periods, before and in delivery. The latter tries to alter the dispatch policy i.e. pick less risky hours and accept a (desirably only slightly) smaller return. We introduce a benchmark that weighs risk versus return and that we will call EaR-efficient option value. We propose a mitigation

  20. Generation IV nuclear energy systems: road map and concepts. 2. Generation II Measurement Systems for Generation IV Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Don W.

    2001-01-01

    , humidity, smoke, and high temperature). Reference 4 describes the use of a Fabry-Perot fiber-optic temperature sensor that was selected for performance evaluation and for potential application in nuclear power plants because of its unique interferometric mechanism and data processing technique and its commercial availability. In the past several years, the use of acoustic methods, either transmission timing or correlation methods, have been developed to the point that they are being introduced as a back-fit in operating plants. The advantage these methods offer is increased accuracy, which translates into increased reactor power. A new method for local measurement of reactor power is being developed at Ohio State. This power sensor concept is based on maintaining a constant temperature in a small mass of actual reactor fuel or fuel analogue by adding heat through resistive dissipation of input electrical energy. Sensors of this type can provide a direct measurement of the nuclear energy deposition rather than neutron flux. Holcomb at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is proposing to develop a combined optical-based neutron flux/temperature sensor for in-core measurements in high-temperature gas reactors. The current status of I and C systems in nuclear power plants was reviewed, and it was concluded that the fundamental measuring systems had not changed substantially since the early nuclear plants. New methods and advanced measuring systems were discussed. Advanced systems of the type discussed should be considered in the design of next-generation I and C systems. However, they should be considered along with the sensors and systems currently being used, which have served their functions very well for the past 40 yr. (authors)

  1. Energy and Pitch Distribution of Spontaneously-generated High-energy Bulk Ions in the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungha; Anderson, Jay; Reusch, Joshua; Eilerman, Scott; Capecchi, William

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection events in the reversed field pinch (RFP) are known to heat bulk and impurity ions. Runaway due to a parallel electric field has recently been confirmed as an important acceleration mechanism for high energy test ions supplied by a neutral beam. This effect does not, however, explain the change in distribution of nearly Maxwellian bulk ions at a reconnection event. By operating MST near maximum current and low electron density, significant fusion neutron flux can be generated without neutral beam injection. The bulk ion distribution created in these plasmas is well-confined, non-Maxwellian, and can be measured by the Advanced Neutral Particle Analyzer (ANPA) placed at a radial or tangential porthole. Data show a high energy tail up to 25 keV with a relatively higher signal in the low energy channels (8-15 keV) at the radial port following a reconnection event. Analysis of the energy dependence of trapped orbits sampled by the ANPA at the radial view implies an abundance of lower energy particles in regions of higher neutral density. This mandates a careful deconvolution of the measured ANPA signal to compute the fast ion distribution. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  2. Optimized Energy Procurement for Cellular Networks with Uncertain Renewable Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.

    2017-02-07

    Renewable energy (RE) is an emerging solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cellular networks. One of the challenges of using RE sources is to handle its inherent uncertainty. In this paper, a RE powered cellular network is investigated. For a one-day operation cycle, the cellular network aims to reduce energy procurement costs from the smart grid by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from their locally deployed RE sources as well as from the smart grid. In addition to that, it aims to determine the extra amount of energy to be sold to the electrical grid at each time period. Chance constrained optimization is first proposed to deal with the randomness in the RE generation. Then, to make the optimization problem tractable, two well- know convex approximation methods, namely; Chernoff and Chebyshev based-approaches, are analyzed in details. Numerical results investigate the optimized energy procurement for various daily scenarios and compare between the performances of the employed convex approximation approaches.

  3. Efficient unstructured mesh generation for marine renewable energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avdis, A.; Candy, A.S.; Hill, J.; Kramer, SC; Piggott, M.D.

    2018-01-01

    Renewable energy is the cornerstone of preventing dangerous climate change whilst main- taining a robust energy supply. Tidal energy will arguably play a critical role in the renewable energy portfolio as it is both predictable and reliable, and can be put in place across the globe. However,

  4. Generation of Electric Energy and Desalinating Water from Solar Energy and the Oceans Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfikky, Niazi

    Brief.All warnings and fears about the environment in our Earth planet due to the serious effects of the industrial revolution were certainly predicted early. But the eager contest and the powerful desire for more profits beside the human interest for welfare and development closed all minds about the expected severe destuctive impacts on our earth planet. Also, we have to remember that the majority of the African, Asian and Latin American countries are still in the first stage of their development and if they will be left to generate all their demand of energy by the conventional machine e.g (Fossil Fuel, Biofuel and Nuclear Fuel), then our Earth planet will confront an endless and ceasless severe destructive impacts due to the encroach of the released hot Carbon Doxide and hot vapours of Acids which will never forgive any fruitful aspect in our Earth Planet from destruction. 1. Importance of the New Project. Building the Extra cheap, clean Power plants with safe and smooth Operation in addition to the long life time in service for generating enough and plentiful electric energy the sustainable renwable resources will invigorate the foresaking of all Nuclear, Fossil and Biofuel power plants to avoide the nuclear hazards and stop releasing the hot carbon doxide, hot acids for the recovery of our ill environment. Also, the main sustainable, renewable, and cheap resources for generating the bulky capacity of the electric energy in our project are the Sun and the Oceans in addition to all Seas Surrounding all Continents in our Earth planet. Therefore, our recourses are so much enormous plentiful, clean, and renewable. 2. .Generation of Electricity from Solar Energy by Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs) or Concentrated Solar Power (CSP). Characteristics of Photovoltiac Cells (PVCs). It is working only by Sun's Light (Light photons) and its efficiency will decrease as the Solar Thermal Radiation will increase, i.e. as the temerature of the Solar Voltiac will increase, its output

  5. Marine energy generation systems and related monitoring and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liu, Hui; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Energy is very important to the world as a driver of the modern society. According to estimations done by the International Energy Agency (IEA), the total global energy consumption is about 17 500 TW·h/yr [1]. In the past, fossil fuels like coal, oil and natural gas supplied the biggest part...... of this global consumption, and they were far larger than those of the renewable energy sources as Fig. 1 shows for 1973 [2]. In 2011, the production of renewable energy and global energy consumption increased, even though renewable energy was still much smaller than fossil fuels as Fig. 1 shows. [2]....

  6. Diets of nesting laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) at the Virginia Coast Reserve: observations from stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoff, A.J.; Macko, S.A.; Erwin, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Food web studies often ignore details of temporal, spatial, and intrapopulation dietary variation in top-level consumers. In this study, intrapopulation dietary variation of a dominant carnivore, the Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), was examined using carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope analysis of gull tissues as well as their prey (fish, invertebrates, and insects) from the Virginia Coast Reserve estuarine system. As earlier traditional diet studies found evidence of individual dietary specialization within gull populations, this study used stable isotope analysis to assess specialization in a coastal Laughing Gull population. Specifically, blood, muscle, and feather isotope values indicated significant intrapopulation dietary specialization. Some gulls relied more heavily on estuarine prey (mean blood δ13C = -17.5, δ15N = 12.6, and δ34S = 9.3), whereas others appeared to consume more foods of marine origin (mean blood δ13C = -19.4, δ15N = 14.8, and δ34S = 10.4). It is important to account for such dietary variability when assessing trophic linkages in dynamic estuarine systems.

  7. Productivity of "Collisions Generate Heat" for Reconciling an Energy Model with Mechanistic Reasoning: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2015-01-01

    We observe teachers in professional development courses about energy constructing mechanistic accounts of energy transformations. We analyze a case in which teachers investigating adiabatic compression develop a model of the transformation of kinetic energy to thermal energy. Among their ideas is the idea that thermal energy is generated as a…

  8. Design and Implementation of a Control Strategy for Microgrid Containing Renewable Energy Generations and Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchao Xia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amount of such renewable energy generations as wind/photovoltaic generations directly connected to grid acting as distributed generations will cause control, protection, security, and safety problems. Microgrid, which has advantages in usage and control of distributed generations, is a promising approach to coordinate the conflict between distributed generations and the grid. Regarded as mobile power storages, batteries of electric vehicles can depress the fluctuation of power through the point of common coupling of microgrid. This paper presents a control strategy for microgrid containing renewable energy generations and electric vehicles. The control strategy uses current control for renewable energy generations under parallel-to-grid mode, and uses master-slave control under islanding mode. Simulations and laboratory experiments prove that the control strategy works well for microgrid containing renewable energy generations and electric vehicles and provides maximum power output of renewable energy and a stable and sustainable running under islanding mode.

  9. Energy Autonomous Wireless Sensing System Enabled by Energy Generated during Human Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yang; Ruan, Tingwen; Chew, Zheng Jun; Zhu, Meiling

    2016-11-01

    Recently, there has been a huge amount of work devoted to wearable energy harvesting (WEH) in a bid to establish energy autonomous wireless sensing systems for a range of health monitoring applications. However, limited work has been performed to implement and test such systems in real-world settings. This paper reports the development and real-world characterisation of a magnetically plucked wearable knee-joint energy harvester (Mag-WKEH) powered wireless sensing system, which integrates our latest research progresses in WEH, power conditioning and wireless sensing to achieve high energy efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that with walking speeds of 3∼7 km/h, the Mag-WKEH generates average power of 1.9∼4.5 mW with unnoticeable impact on the wearer and is able to power the wireless sensor node (WSN) with three sensors to work at duty cycles of 6.6%∼13%. In each active period of 2 s, the WSN is able to measure and transmit 482 readings to the base station.

  10. Energy Autonomous Wireless Sensing System Enabled by Energy Generated during Human Walking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Yang; Ruan, Tingwen; Chew, Zheng Jun; Zhu, Meiling

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been a huge amount of work devoted to wearable energy harvesting (WEH) in a bid to establish energy autonomous wireless sensing systems for a range of health monitoring applications. However, limited work has been performed to implement and test such systems in real-world settings. This paper reports the development and real-world characterisation of a magnetically plucked wearable knee-joint energy harvester (Mag-WKEH) powered wireless sensing system, which integrates our latest research progresses in WEH, power conditioning and wireless sensing to achieve high energy efficiency. Experimental results demonstrate that with walking speeds of 3∼7 km/h, the Mag-WKEH generates average power of 1.9∼4.5 mW with unnoticeable impact on the wearer and is able to power the wireless sensor node (WSN) with three sensors to work at duty cycles of 6.6%∼13%. In each active period of 2 s, the WSN is able to measure and transmit 482 readings to the base station. (paper)

  11. Main influence factors on the final energy generation cost of a nuclear power plant in comparison with other energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de; Glardon, C.; Schmidt, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    The main factors in the construction and in the operation of nuclear power plants that affect the final energy generation cost are presented. The structure of the energy generation cost, of the nuclear fuel cost and the total investment are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  12. Determination of recoverable wind energy for electricity generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of renewable energy source, essentially the wind energy, has been growing rapidly in the whole world due to environmental pollution, consumption of the limited fossil fuels and global warming. Moreover, wind resource determination is a fundamental step in planning a wind energy project and exhaustive ...

  13. Modeling of an Integrated Electromagnetic Generator for Energy Scavenging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquitous deploying of wireless electronic devices due to pervasive computing results in the idea of Energy Scavenging, i.e., harvesting ambient energy from surroundings of the electronic devices. As an approach to possible practical realization of such an energy scavenger, we aim at the

  14. Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2016-01-01

    of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The editorial and the volume presents work on district heating system scenarios in Austria, grid optimisation using genetic algorithms and finally design of energy scenarios for the Italian Alpine town Bressanone-Brixen from a smart energy approach. © 2016, Aalborg...

  15. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  16. Provincial panel: addressing emerging energy constraints and new strategies to meet future generation demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses emerging energy constraints and new strategies to meet future generation demand in the Province of Manitoba. The focus is to reduce reliance on energy sources that emit greenhouse gases such as petroleum, natural gas and coal, and increase clean and green electricity. The current plan is to double hydro generation, achieve 1000 MW wind power and utilize bio energy

  17. Exhaust energy conversion by thermoelectric generator: Two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karri, M.A.; Thacher, E.F.; Helenbrook, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports predictions of the power and fuel savings produced by thermoelectric generators (TEG) placed in the exhaust stream of a sports utility vehicle (SUV) and a stationary, compressed-natural-gas-fueled engine generator set (CNG). Results are obtained for generators using either commercially-available bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) or quantum-well (QW) thermoelectric material. The simulated tests are at constant speed in the SUV case and at constant AC power load in the CNG case. The simulations make use of the capabilities of ADVISOR 2002, the vehicle modeling system, supplemented with code to describe the thermoelectric generator system. The increase in power between the QW- and Bi 2 Te 3 -based generators was about three times for the SUV and seven times for the CNG generator under the same simulation conditions. The relative fuel savings for the SUV averaged around -0.2% using Bi 2 Te 3 and 1.25% using QW generators. For the CNG case the fuel savings was around 0.4% using Bi 2 Te 3 and around 3% using QW generators. The negative fuel gains in the SUV were caused by parasitic losses. The power to transport the TEG system weight was the dominant parasitic loss for the SUV but was absent in the CNG generator. The lack of space constraint and the absence of parasitic loss from the TEG system weight in the CNG case allowed an increase in the TEG system size to generate more power.

  18. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  19. Training the next generation of energy efficiency evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LBNL and California Institute for Energy and Environment, Berkeley, CA (United States); Saxonis, W. [New York Department of Public Service, Albany, NY (United States); Peters, J. [Research Into Action, Portland, OR (United States); Tannenbaum, B. [Research Into Action, Madison, WI (United States); Wirtshafter, B. [Wirstshafter Associates, Rydal, PA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    The energy efficiency services sector is an increasingly important part of the global economy, with an increased need for trained evaluators to foster energy efficiency program accountability and improvement. Organizations are experiencing difficulty in finding people who are knowledgeable about and experienced in the evaluation of energy efficiency programs. Accordingly, there is a need to assess the training needs of the energy efficiency evaluation community (for both new and 'experienced' evaluators). This paper presents the results of a recent survey conducted by the International Energy Program Evaluation Conference (IEPEC) on energy efficiency evaluation training needs and contrasts those findings with the findings from a survey conducted by the American Evaluation Association on young evaluators (those people in the field <5 years) and another by the Association of Energy Services Professionals. This analysis is also complemented by a brief survey of members of the 2012 Rome Conference IEPEC Planning Committee on international needs.

  20. Environmentally acquired lead, cadmium, and manganese in the cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis, and the laughing gull, Larus atricilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulse, M; Mahoney, J S; Schroder, G D; Hacker, C S; Pier, S M

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and manganese in the tissues of cattle egrets and laughing gulls gathered from the Galveston Bay region of Texas were compared to determine if different patterns of accumulation exist. Lead, cadmium, and manganese levels in these species were within the range reported for other bird species. Lead levels in bones were comparable, but gulls had more lead in brain, liver, and kidney tissues than egrets had, which suggested a higher rate of accumulation or exposure. Because of their high abundance and comparable positions in the estuarine and terrestrial food webs, cattle egrets and laughing gulls may serve as convenient biological indicators to monitor potentially toxic substances in these ecosystems. (29 references, 7 tables)

  1. Power generation, energy management and environmental source book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The 14th World Energy Engineering Congress (WEEC) and the companion World Environmental Engineering Congress, October 23-25, 1991, Georgia World Congress Center, Atlanta, reflect the myriad of forces impacting on our industry. Energy conservation is once again in vogue. To reflect how the industry is changing, the Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) conducted its 1991 member survey. Fifty-six percent of the 762 responses revealed that energy awareness has increased over the last year. Purchasing activities for energy products will be brisk in the next twelve months: 78% plan to upgrade controls for efficiency improvement, 72% plan to install lighting efficiency products, and 63% plan to add or install energy management systems. Issues causing these energy conversation activities as well as solution are presented in this report. This year's WEEC prepares attendees for the energy and environmental challenges ahead. This current, document is a comprehensive up-to-the-minute reference. Based on the WEEC, it includes the latest methodologies used to improve efficiency and lower operating costs, plus new factors such as indoor air quality. CFC reduction and emission control technologies which must be addressed to stay competitive in the 1990s. For fourteen years, the World Energy Engineering Congress has provided the essential forum for industry. The sharing of information is important to the continued growth of the energy engineering profession. The 100 papers in this reference are abstracted and entered individually into EDB

  2. Estimation of energy potential and power generation from tidal basin in coastal area of malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazri Nazani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the potential of tidal energy in Malaysia. Malaysia is heavily depending on the fossil fuel to satisfy the energy demand. However, this reserve energy is reported will be depleted. The population growth also caused the demand on energy increase over the year. This situation can lead to the global warming and climate change that be a major concern around the world. As an alternative, renewable energy become a solution in order to reduce the usage of conventional energy such as fossil fuel, coal and gas. One of the renewable energy that can be used is from ocean energy. Since the tidal energy is not study thoroughly in Malaysia and Malaysia has a potential sites that can implement this tidal energy for electricity generation to meet the local demand. This tidal energy can be harnessed in several approach such as by using tidal barrage single basin with single mode generation consist ebb-mode and flood-mode of generation and the other approach of single mode is double-mode of generation. In order to meet the local demand, single-mode generation and double-mode generation was studied by getting the number of population at that area, the electricity demand then from that data the basin area is estimated for power generation. The result shows that double-mode generation is one of the approaches that meet the local demand for electricity.

  3. Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in gulls sampled in southcentral Alaska is associated with urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterby, Clara; Ramey, Andrew M.; Gustafsson Hall, Gabriel; Jarhult, Josef; Borjesson, Stefan; Bonnedahl, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAntibiotic-resistant bacteria pose challenges to healthcare delivery systems globally; however, limited information is available regarding the prevalence and spread of such bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in large-bodied gulls (Larus spp.) at urban and remote locations in Southcentral Alaska to gain inference into the association between antibiotic resistance in wildlife and anthropogenically influenced habitats.MethodsEscherichia coli was cultured (n=115 isolates) from fecal samples of gulls (n=160) collected from a remote location, Middleton Island, and a more urban setting on the Kenai Peninsula.ResultsScreening of E. coli from fecal samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) at Middleton Island revealed 8% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 2% of the isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In contrast, 55% of E. coli isolates derived from fecal samples collected from large-bodied gulls (i.e. glaucous, herring [Larus argentatus], and potentially hybrid gulls) on the Kenai Peninsula were resistant to one or more antibiotics and 22% were resistant to three or more antibiotics. In addition, total of 16% of the gull samples from locations on the Kenai Peninsula harbored extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant E. coli isolates (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBL] and plasmid-encoded AmpC [pAmpC]), in contrast to Middleton Island where no ESBL- or pAmpC-producing isolates were detected.ConclusionOur findings indicate that increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is associated with urban environments in Southcentral Alaska and presumably influenced by anthropogenic impacts. Further investigation is warranted to assess how migratory birds may maintain and spread antimicrobial-resistant bacteria of relevance to human and animal health.

  4. The 'Energy transition' generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedossa, Bastien; Boutignon, Gregoire; Sivy, Corentin; Bercault, Florian; Cage, Agathe; Mahammedi-Bouzina, Mehdi; Potton, Gregoire

    2015-11-01

    The 'Cartes sur table' think tank aims at leveraging the opinion of young French people (from 20 to 35 years old) politically leaning to the left, in order to let them become actors in French debates, such as the one on the energy transition policy for a 'green growth'. This paper explains the origins and the context of the energy transition policy (the dangers of nuclear power, the high potential of renewable energies, etc.), how to finance the energy transition policy, how to promote energy transition in the daily life (notably in transports and through the struggle against wastage), create a Europe of energy, and so on

  5. Hybridization among Arctic white-headed gulls (Larus spp.) obscures the genetic legacy of the Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Chesser, R. Terry; Bell, Douglas A.; Dove, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the influence of glacial oscillations on the genetic structure of seven species of white-headed gull that breed at high latitudes (Larus argentatus, L. canus, L. glaucescens, L. glaucoides, L. hyperboreus, L. schistisagus, and L. thayeri). We evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia in other Arctic vertebrates using molecular data from 11 microsatellite loci, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and six nuclear introns for 32 populations across the Holarctic. Moderate levels of genetic structure were observed for microsatellites (FST= 0.129), introns (ΦST= 0.185), and mtDNA control region (ΦST= 0.461), with among-group variation maximized when populations were grouped based on subspecific classification. Two haplotype and at least two allele groups were observed across all loci. However, no haplotype/allele group was composed solely of individuals of a single species, a pattern consistent with recent divergence. Furthermore, northernmost populations were not well differentiated and among-group variation was maximized when L. argentatus and L. hyberboreus populations were grouped by locality rather than species, indicating recent hybridization. Four populations are located in putative Pleistocene glacial refugia and had larger t estimates than the other 28 populations. However, we were unable to substantiate these putative refugia using coalescent theory, as all populations had genetic signatures of stability based on mtDNA. The extent of haplotype and allele sharing among Arctic white-headed gull species is noteworthy. Studies of other Arctic taxa have generally revealed species-specific clusters as well as genetic structure within species, usually correlated with geography. Aspects of white-headed gull behavioral biology, such as colonization ability and propensity to hybridize, as well as their recent evolutionary history, have likely played a large role in the limited genetic structure observed.

  6. Small Distributed Energy Russia: Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astafev Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues and current trends of research in the field of decentralized energy supply for the period up to 2030 were considered. The analysis of the cogeneration market in Russia was done. The questions of gasification and hydrogen technologies as applied to the market of cogeneration plants were elucidated. Promising technologies for autonomous decentralized energy supply and the evaluation of their applicability to small energy were presented.

  7. Exhaust energy conversion by thermoelectric generator: Two case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karri, M.A.; Thacher, E.F.; Helenbrook, B.T. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, PO Box 5725, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    This study reports predictions of the power and fuel savings produced by thermoelectric generators (TEG) placed in the exhaust stream of a sports utility vehicle (SUV) and a stationary, compressed-natural-gas-fueled engine generator set (CNG). Results are obtained for generators using either commercially-available bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) or quantum-well (QW) thermoelectric material. The simulated tests are at constant speed in the SUV case and at constant AC power load in the CNG case. The simulations make use of the capabilities of ADVISOR 2002, the vehicle modeling system, supplemented with code to describe the thermoelectric generator system. The increase in power between the QW- and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-based generators was about three times for the SUV and seven times for the CNG generator under the same simulation conditions. The relative fuel savings for the SUV averaged around -0.2% using Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 1.25% using QW generators. For the CNG case the fuel savings was around 0.4% using Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and around 3% using QW generators. The negative fuel gains in the SUV were caused by parasitic losses. The power to transport the TEG system weight was the dominant parasitic loss for the SUV but was absent in the CNG generator. The lack of space constraint and the absence of parasitic loss from the TEG system weight in the CNG case allowed an increase in the TEG system size to generate more power. (author)

  8. Clean energy for a new generation. Steam generator life cycle management and Bruce restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    In the mid to late 1990s, Ontario Hydro decided to lay-up and write-down the Bruce A Nuclear Reactors. Upon transition to Bruce Power L.P., Canada's first and only private nuclear operator, new life and prospects were injected into the site, local economy and the provincial energy portfolio. The first step in this provincial power recovery initiative involved restart of Bruce Units 3 and 4 in the 2003/04 time-frame. Units 3 and 4 have performed beyond expectation during the last five-year operating interval. A combination of steam generator and fuel channel issues precluded a similar restart of Units 1 and 2. Enter the refurbishment of Bruce Units 1 and 2. This first-of-a-kind undertaking within the Canadian nuclear power industry is testament to the demonstrated industry leadership by Bruce Power L.P., their investors and the significant vendor community contribution that is supporting this major power infrastructure enhancement. Initiated as a 'turn-key' project solution separated from the operating units, this major refurbishment project has evolved to a fully managed in-house refurbishment project with the continued support from the broader vendor community. As part of this first-of-kind undertaking, Bruce Power L.P. is in the process of accomplishing such initiatives as a complete fuel channel re-tube (i.e. full core calandria and pressure tube replacement), replacement of all boilers (i.e. 16 in total) and the majority of feeder pipe replacement. Complimentary major upgrades and replacement of the remainder of plant equipment including both nuclear and non-nuclear valves, heat exchangers, electrical infrastructure, service water systems and components, all while meeting a parallel evolving/maturing regulatory environment related to achieving compliance with IAEA derived modern codes and standards. Returning to ground level, boiler replacement is a key part of the refurbishment undertaking and this further reflected a meeting of the 'old' and the 'new'. Pre

  9. Nuclear energy perspectives for electric power generation. 2004 vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marcio Soares; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Jordao, Elizabete

    2004-01-01

    This document is based on the forecasting of the Energy Information Administration/US Department of Energy (EIA/DOE) for the period of 2001-2025 which indicates a growing of 9,800 billions of kWh (73.6 per cent) in the world electric power consumption in that period

  10. Renewable energy systems for distributed generation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available by the CSIR and its international partners, Garrad Hassan of the UK and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation into the development of an analytical tool that could be used to assist in identifying viable renewable energy opportunities in areas...

  11. Radio-frequency energy in fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.Q.; Becraft, W.R.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The history of radio-frequency (rf) energy in fusion experiments is reviewed, and the status of current efforts is described. Potential applications to tasks other than plasma heating are described, as are the research and development needs of rf energy technology

  12. Design and Experiment Analysis of a Direct-Drive Wave Energy Converter with a Linear Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Haitao Yu; Zhenchuan Shi

    2018-01-01

    Coastal waves are an abundant nonpolluting and renewable energy source. A wave energy converter (WEC) must be designed for efficient and steady operation in highly energetic ocean environments. A direct-drive wave energy conversion (D-DWEC) system with a tubular permanent magnet linear generator (TPMLG) on a wind and solar photovoltaic complementary energy generation platform is proposed to improve the conversion efficiency and reduce the complexity and device volume of WECs. The operating pr...

  13. Role of Non-Renewable and Renewable Energy for Sustainable Electricity Generation in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Ali Bekhet; Nor Hamisham Harun

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive review of non-renewable energy and renewable energy utilization in Malaysia, including hydropower, solar photovoltaic, biomass and biogas technologies. Malaysia mainly depends on non-renewable energy (natural gas, coal and crude oil) for electricity generation. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive review of the energy sector and discusses diversification of electricity generation as a strategy for providing sustainable ener...

  14. Scaling Up Renewable Energy Generation: Aligning Targets and Incentives with Grid Integration Considerations, Greening The Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-27

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, provides power system planners with tips to help secure and sustain investment in new renewable energy generation by aligning renewable energy policy targets and incentives with grid integration considerations.

  15. Analysis of Solar Energy Generation Capacity Using Hesitant Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Coban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is an important and reliable source of energy. Better understanding the concepts and relationships of the factors that affect solar energy generation capacity can enhance the usage of solar energy. This understanding can lead investors and governors in their solar power investments. However, solar power generation process is complicated, and the relations among the factors are vague and hesitant. In this paper, a hesitant fuzzy cognitive map for solar energy generation is developed and used for modeling and analyzing the ambiguous relations. The concepts and the relationships among them are defined by using expertsr opinions. Different scenarios are formed and evaluated with the proposed model.

  16. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson (eds.)

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  17. Composites in energy generation and storage systems - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, R. W.

    Applications of glass-fiber reinforced composites (GER) in renewable and high-efficiency energy systems which are being developed to replace interim, long-term unacceptable energy sources such as foreign oil are reviewed. GFR are noted to have design flexibility, high strength, and low cost, as well as featuring a choice of fiber orientation and type of reinforcement. Blades, hub covers, nacelles, and towers for large and small WECS are being fabricated and tested and are displaying satisfactory strength, resistance to corrosion and catastrophic failure, impact tolerance, and light weight. Promising results have also been shown in the use of GFR as flywheel material for kinetic energy storage in conjunction with solar and wind electric systems, in electric cars, and as load levellers. Other applications are for heliostats, geothermal power plant pipes, dam-atoll tidal wave energy systems, and intake pipes for OTECs.

  18. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  19. Photonic microstructures for energy-generating clear glass and net-zero energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Mikhail; Alghamedi, Ramzy; Nur-E-Alam, Mohammad; Alameh, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Transparent energy-harvesting windows are emerging as practical building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), capable of generating electricity while simultaneously reducing heating and cooling demands. By incorporating spectrally-selective diffraction gratings as light deflecting structures of high visible transparency into lamination interlayers and using improved spectrally-selective thin-film coatings, most of the visible solar radiation can be transmitted through the glass windows with minimum attenuation. At the same time, the ultraviolet (UV) and a part of incident solar infrared (IR) radiation energy are converted and/or deflected geometrically towards the panel edge for collection by CuInSe2 solar cells. Experimental results show power conversion efficiencies in excess of 3.04% in 10 cm × 10 cm vertically-placed clear glass panels facing direct sunlight, and up to 2.08% in 50 cm × 50 cm installation-ready framed window systems. These results confirm the emergence of a new class of solar window system ready for industrial application. PMID:27550827

  20. Review of Comprehensive Evaluation Methods for Power Quality and Its Trend in New Generation Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruihua; Wang, Rong; Liu, Qunying; Yang, Li; Xi, Chuan; Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzhou; Zhao, Zhoufang; Zhou, Ying

    2018-02-01

    With China’s new energy generation grid connected capacity being in the forefront of the world and the uncertainty of new energy sources, such as wind energy and solar energy, it is be of great significance to study scientific and comprehensive assessment of power quality. On the foundation of analysizing the current power quality index systematically and objectively, the new energy grid power quality analysis method and comprehensive evaluation method, this paper tentatively explored the trend of the new generation of energy system power quality comprehensive evaluation.

  1. Heat savings in energy systems with substantial distributed generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, PA

    2003-01-01

    In Denmark, the integration of wind power is affected by a large amount of cogeneration of heat and power. With ancillary services supplied by large-scale condensation and combined heat and power (CHP) plants, a certain degree of large-scale generation is required regardless of momentary wind input......, if a certain production is required regardless of whether over-all electricity generation is sufficient. This article analyses this and although heat savings do have a negative impact on the amount of wind power the system may integrate a given moment in certain cases, associated fuel savings are notable...

  2. Comparison of approximate electrical energy generating costs in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Bertel, E.

    1996-01-01

    Costs of power generating in nuclear power plants have been predicted taking into account all factors connected with investment, maintenance, exploitation and decommissioning, basing on last OECD report. The costs have been compared with alternative solutions. In majority of OECD countries the direct costs of electricity generation are very close for nuclear fossil-fuel and gas power plants. All indirect costs such as environmental impact, public health hazard, waste management, accident risk and also public acceptance for nuclear power have been discussed. 13 refs, 5 tabs

  3. Questionnaire Study for The Use of Solar Energy and Wind Energy for The Generation of Electricity in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarawneh, Sultan; Rireh, Mohmd; Al-Razzi, Met'eb

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to study the acceptance of real management of designing electrical generation plants that work using solar energy and wind energy, to explain the benefits for the decision makers of the use of the solar energy and wind energy, and to define the most important obstacles that hinder the use of solar energy in generating electricity in spite of fulfilling the environmental conditions as clean energy and renewing energy contribute to sustainability of natural resources. The descriptive methodology was used by going back to reference material including books, and scientific journals and periodicals as well as scientific researches to identify the real management and design of electrical plant generation using solar energy and wind energy. A questionnaire was distributed among the study sample that was composed of the engineers working in energy field and electrical generation plants, the general institute for environment, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, and Kuwait Society of Engineers. 203 responses were received from the study sample. Results of the study showed the presence of obstacles and special problems related to the use of solar energy that face the decision makers with regard to the ability for acquiring important advanced technology and the huge financial support and the partnership of the private sector and training of unskilled human resources. And it was declared that there is a huge focus and attention in generation electrical energy from fossil fuel because of its presence and sustainability in investment in this field and the ability to fulfill the needs of the local market from energy.(author)

  4. Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Navarro

    Full Text Available Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis. In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.

  5. Maternal transfer of organohalogen contaminants and metabolites to eggs of Arctic-breeding glaucous gulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verreault, Jonathan; Villa, Rosa A.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.; Skaare, Janneche U.; Letcher, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Eggs of seabirds have routinely been used as indicators of environmental pollution in the Arctic. However, the variability in organohalogen concentration and composition associated with the laying sequence, have not been defined. We examined a suite of PCBs, organochlorine (OC) pesticides and by-products, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and methylsulfonyl- (MeSO 2 ) PCBs in complete 3-egg clutches of glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), and plasma samples of the laying females collected from the Norwegian Arctic. ΣPCB, ΣOC and ΣPBDE, but not ΣMeSO 2 -PCB, concentrations in eggs were positively associated, with increasing magnitude and significance from the first through the last-laid egg, with concentrations in female plasma. However, the concentrations of these organohalogen classes fluctuated irrespective of the laying order in the clutch. In general, maternal transfer favored low K ow and/or less persistent compounds, whereas the recalcitrant and/or higher-halogenated compounds were less readily transferred, and consequently more selectively retained in the mother. - Concentrations of organohalogen contaminants and metabolites in eggs of glaucous gulls do not fluctuate with the laying order in a three-egg clutch

  6. Relationships between reproductive performance and organochlorine contaminants in great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helberg, Morten; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Kristiansen, Kai Ove; Skaare, Janneche Utne

    2005-01-01

    The great black-backed gull Larus marinus is a top predator in subarctic and temperate marine ecosystems, and the aim of this study was to investigate if organochlorines (OCs) were related to reproductive performance in this species at the subarctic parts of the Norwegian Coast. We measured blood levels of various OCs in 53 breeding birds. The OC levels were relatively low compared to levels found in nearby arctic areas. In females, however, there was a significant positive relationship between blood concentrations of OCs, especially hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), and egg laying date, and a positive relationship between the probability of nest predation and blood concentration of β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), oxychlordane, and DDE. In females with high levels of OCs, especially persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), there was also a decline in egg volume as egg laying progressed; i.e. the second and third laid egg were relatively smaller, compared to females with low OC levels. No relationships between reproductive parameters and OC levels were found in males. - Elevated blood concentrations of organochlorine contaminants correlate with poor reproductive performance in female great black-backed gulls

  7. Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Generation in Bangladesh: Possible Scenarios to Generate Renewable Electricity in Dhaka and Chittagong City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Nazmul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased generation of methane (CH4 from municipal solid wastes (MSW alarms the world to take proper initiative for the sustainable management of MSW, because it is 34 times stronger than carbon dioxide (CO2. Mounting land scarcity issue around the world brands the waste to energy (WtE strategy for MSW management in urban areas as a promising option, because WtE not only reduces the land pressure problem, but also generates electricity, heat, and green jobs. The goal of this study is to evaluate the renewable electricity generation potential and associated carbon reduction of MSW management in Bangladesh using WtE strategies. The study is conducted in two major cities of Bangladesh: Dhaka and Chittagong. Six different WtE scenarios are evaluated consisting of mixed MSW incineration and landfill gas (LFG recovery system. Energy potential of different WtE strategy is assessed using standard energy conversion model and subsequent GHGs emissions models. Scenario A1 results in highest economic and energy potential and net negative GHGs emission. Sensitivity analysis by varying MSW moisture content reveals higher energy potential and less GHGs emissions from MSW possessing low moisture content. The study proposes mixed MSW incineration that could be a potential WtE strategy for renewable electricity generation in Bangladesh.

  8. Thermodynamic, energy efficiency, and power density analysis of reverse electrodialysis power generation with natural salinity gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yip, N.Y.; Vermaas, D.A.; Nijmeijer, K.; Elimelech, M.

    2014-01-01

    Reverse electrodialysis (RED) can harness the Gibbs free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for sustainable power generation. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of RED power generation, and assess the membrane power density. First, we

  9. Kinematic method for beam energy determination at electrostatic generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, H.J.; Gersch, H.U.; Hentschel, E.; Wohlfahrt, D.

    1975-06-01

    The applicability of the kinematics of nuclear reactions to the energy determination of a particle beam is discussed. Most favourable conditions are obtained for the kinematic cross over of particles elastically and inelastically scattered at targets with different masses. At tandem energies between 4 and 15 MeV this method permits an exact determination with a precision of about 1 keV. The scattered particles must be measured at about 170 0 with a precision of the scattering angle of 0.1 0 . For the energy determination of a proton beam the compounds LiF, LiCl, or deuterium enriched hydrocarbons are found to be proper target materials. Experimental results with a LiF-target are described. (author)

  10. Generating Excitement: Build Your Own Generator to Study the Transfer of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kurt; Rommel-Esham, Katie; Farthing, Dori; Sheldon, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of energy from one form to another can be difficult to understand. The electrical energy that turns on a lamp may come from the burning of coal, water falling at a hydroelectric plant, nuclear reactions, or gusts of wind caused by the uneven heating of the Earth. The authors have developed and tested an exciting hands-on activity to…

  11. The Energy Revolution Age - Africa's Opportunity to Generate its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, 54 million Americans use electricity equivalent to that of 109 million Europeans or 950 million Africans. This article evaluates the possibility of supplying electricity to all Africans by 2030, generated from renewable resources. Furthermore, it evaluates the opportunity to export “green” electricity to Europe ...

  12. Renewable Energy Generation in India: Present Scenario and Future Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Singh, Bharat; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is necessary for the sustainable development of any country due to depleting fossil fuel level, climbing fossil fuel prices across the world and more recently pressure for reduction emission level. In India, several schemes and policies are launched...... by the government to support the use of RES to achieve energy security and self-sufficiency. This paper discusses the present scenario and future prospects of RES in India. Various schemes such as financial assistance, tax holiday etc for promoting RESs development and utilization are also discussed. The present...

  13. Study on generation investment decision-making considering multi-agent benefit for global energy internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pai; Huang, Yuehui; Jia, Yanbing; Liu, Jichun; Niu, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Abstract . This article has studies on the generation investment decision in the background of global energy interconnection. Generation investment decision model considering the multiagent benefit is proposed. Under the back-ground of global energy Interconnection, generation investors in different clean energy base not only compete with other investors, but also facing being chosen by the power of the central area, therefor, constructing generation investment decision model considering multiagent benefit can be close to meet the interests demands. Using game theory, the complete information game model is adopted to solve the strategies of different subjects in equilibrium state.

  14. Prediction of combustible waste generation and estimate of potential energy by applying waste to energy technologies in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Cho, Sung-Jin; Jung, Hae-Young; Lee, Ki-Bae; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 total waste generation rate in Korea was 318,670 ton,day. In general waste generation rate shows rising trend since 2000. Wastes are composed of municipal waste 14.9 % industrial waste 34.1 % and construction waste 51.0 %. Treatment of wastes by recycling was 81.1 % landfill 11.1 % incineration 5.3 % and ocean dumping 2.4 %. National waste energy policies have been influenced by various factors such as environmental problem economy technology level (could be made energy), and so on. Korea has the worlds third dense population density environmental pollution load per unit land area is the highest in OECD countries caused due to the fast development in economy, industrialization and urbanization in recent. Also, land area per person is just 2,072 m 2 . Landfill capacity reaches the upper limit, industrial waste generation is increasing. Searching new-renewable energy is vital to substitute fossil fuel considering its increasing price. Korea is the world's 10th biggest energy consuming country and 97% of energy depends on importing. Korea aims to increases supply of new-renewable energy by 5% until the 2011. In this study, we computed the amount of combustible waste from municipality generated by the multiple regression analysis. The existing technologies for converting waste to energy were surveyed and the technologies under development or utilizing in future were also investigated. Based on the technology utilization, the amount of energy using waste to energy technology could be estimated in future. (author)

  15. The comparative study on the environmental impact for various energy generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J. T.; Ha, J. J.; Jung, H. S.

    2002-01-01

    The concern about environmental problem due to electricity generation is increasing. And the current debate about the environmental and socioeconomic effects of energy use is now turning towards the internalization of externalities imposed on society and the environment that are not accounted by the producers and consumers of energy. The result of internalization of externalities are to be used in the decision making of selecting available options. Therefore, the environmental impact analysis for various energy generating systems were made by using Life Cycle Assessment(LCA). According to the results, the environmental burden due to nuclear power generating systems is low comparing with other energy generating systems due to low usage of resources. The results will be used in the comparative study on the environmental impacts for various energy generating systems

  16. Control of hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed generation system against voltage sag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajizadeh, Amin; Golkar, Masoud Aliakbar [Electrical Engineering Department, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Seyedkhandan, Dr. Shariati Ave, P.O. Box 16315-1355, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-06-15

    Fuel cell (FC) and energy storage (ES) based hybrid distributed power generation systems appear to be very promising for satisfying high energy and high power requirements of power quality problems in distributed generation (DG) systems. In this study, design of control strategy for hybrid fuel cell/energy storage distributed power generation system during voltage sag has been presented. The proposed control strategy allows hybrid distributed generation system works properly when a voltage disturbance occurs in distribution system and hybrid system stays connected to the main grid. Hence, modeling, controller design, and simulation study of a hybrid distributed generation system are investigated. The physical model of the fuel cell stack, energy storage and the models of power conditioning units are described. Then the control design methodology for each component of the hybrid system is proposed. Simulation results are given to show the overall system performance including active power control and voltage sag ride-through capability of the hybrid distributed generation system. (author)

  17. Vibration Energy Harvesting on Vehicle Suspension Using Rotary and Linear Electromagnetic Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Indro Sultoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss comparation of vehicle vibration energy harvesting between rotary and linear electromagnetic generator. We construct the two model of energy harvester mechanism and then analyze both of energy absorbtion and vehicle comfortability. Furthermore, we analyze both of energy absorbtion and vehicle comfortability. Vehicle is modeled as quarter car. Rotarty generator harvests 2.5 x 10-4 Watt. The other hand, linear generator has viscous characteristic and capable to generates 90 Watts with 12 Volt power supply for 0.03 m amplitude of bumpy road input. Linear generator reduces oscillation with 1.2 sec settling time. It is more comfort than the angular which has 3 sec in settling time. With unnevenees road input, mean power of this generator is 64 Watt.

  18. Molecular evidence for extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the Black-headed Gull

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ležalová-Piálková, Radka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 2 (2011), s. 291-295 ISSN 0021-8375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Black-headed Gull * genetic mating system * extra-pair paternity * intraspecific brood parasitism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.636, year: 2011

  19. Kelp and dolphin gulls cause perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) at Guafo Island, Chilean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, Mauricio; Muñoz, Francisco; Montalva, Felipe; Perez-Venegas, Diego; Pavés, Héctor; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-07-01

    During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups ( Arctocephalus australis ) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms ( Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies. In 2015 and 2017, kelp gulls ( Larus dominicanus ) and dolphin gulls ( Leucophaeus scoresbii ) were observed picking and wounding the perineal area of marked pups. This behaviour occurred more frequently after the pups' defecation, when sea gulls engaged in consumption of pups' faeces. The affected pups usually had moderate to marked hookworm infections along with bloody diarrhoea and anaemia. Pups with severe wounds (23% of affected animals) had swollen perineal areas and signs of secondary systemic bacterial infection. We propose that seagulls on Guafo Island have learned to consume remains of blood and parasites in the faeces of pups affected by hookworm infection, causing perineal wounds during this process. We conclude that this perineal wounding is an unintentional, occasional negative effect of an otherwise commensal gull-fur seal relationship.

  20. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ramis (Antonio); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); R. Vanderstichel (R.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractHistorically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental

  1. Monitoring organic contaminants in eggs of glaucous and glaucous-winged gulls (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) from Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Becker, Paul R.; Ellisor, Michael B.; Moors, Amanda J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Roseneau, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Gull eggs have been used to monitor contaminants in many parts of the world. The Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) is a long-term program designed to track trends in pollutants in northern marine environments using seabird eggs. Glaucous and glaucous-winged gull (Larus hyperboreus and Larus glaucescens) eggs collected in 2005 from seven Alaskan colonies were analyzed for organic contaminants. Concentrations ranged from below detection limits to 322 ng g -1 wet mass in one egg for 4,4'-DDE and differed among the samples collected in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering and Chukchi Seas. Chick growth and survival rates may be affected by the contaminant levels found in the eggs, but the eggs should be safe for human consumption if they are eaten in small quantities. STAMP plans to continue collecting and banking gull eggs for future real-time and retrospective analyses. - Organic contaminant concentrations in Alaskan gull eggs could possibly be affecting chick growth and survival rates, but the eggs should be safe for humans to eat in small quantities

  2. On the Ontogeny of Display Behaviour in the Black-Headed Gull : I. The Gradual Emergence of the Adult Forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Ton

    1989-01-01

    The central question in this paper concerns the mechanism by which displays develop their species-specific sterotyped form. To this end the ontogeny of display behaviour in the black-headed gull was studied in birds kept and raised in aviaries. First it was analyzed whether the complete adult form

  3. Experience modulates both aromatase activity and the sensitivity of agonistic behaviour to testosterone in black-headed gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, Albert F. H.; Franco, Aldina M. A.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2009-01-01

    In young black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), exposure to testosterone increases the sensitivity of agonistic behaviour to a subsequent exposure to this hormone. The aim of this paper is twofold: to analyze whether social experience, gained during testosterone exposure, mediates this increase in

  4. Results from the first GPS tracking of roof-nesting Herring Gulls Larus argentatus in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rock, P.; Camphuysen, C.J.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; Ross-Smith, V.; Vaughan, I.P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in GPS tracking technology allow the movements of bird species to be followed in ever-greater detail. Seabird research is benefiting greatly, due to the challenges of tracking species that often roam widely out at sea. Amongst the gulls, one of the pressing issues is to

  5. The relationship between carbon stable isotope ratios of hatchling down and egg yolk in Black-headed Gulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Baarspul, T.; Dekkers, T.; Van Tienen, P.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstructed the nutrient source for egg synthesis by sampling Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) eggs for yolk, analyzing their carbon stable isotope ratio, and comparing that to hatchling down. Most of the variation in carbon stable isotope ratio was explained by differences between nests,

  6. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  7. The Implications of Changing Power Generation Mix on Energy Pricing and Security in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Acheampong, Theophilus

    2016-01-01

    Despite almost a decade of strong economic growth, Ghana still lags behind in its ability to generate enough power to catalyse this growth. The rapid deceleration in economic activity over the past three years has been primarily due to persistent energy supply constraints and rising energy-related input costs to production. This article analyses the implications of the changing power generation mix for electricity pricing in Ghana taking into account new capacity additions to the generation m...

  8. MC generator HARDPING 2.0: hadron production in lepton-nuclei interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdnikov, Ya.A.; Ivanov, A.E.; Kim, V.T.; Murzin, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hadron production in lepton-nucleus interactions at high-energies is considered in framework of developing Monte Carlo (MC) generator HARDPING (HARD Probe INteraction Generator). Such effects as formation length, energy loss and multiple rescattering for produced hadrons are implemented into the HARPING. Available data from HERMES on hadron production in lepton-nucleus collisions are described by the current version of the HARDPING generator in a reasonable agreement.

  9. Mercury and other metals in eggs and feathers of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in the Aleutians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Burke, Sean; Volz, Conrad D.; Snigaroff, Ronald; Snigaroff, Daniel; Shukla, Tara; Shukla, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Levels of mercury and other contaminants should be lower in birds nesting on isolated oceanic islands and at high latitudes without any local or regional sources of contamination, compared to more urban and industrialized temperate regions. We examined concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in the eggs, and the feathers of fledgling and adult glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) nesting in breeding colonies on Adak, Amchitka, and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska in the Bering Sea/North Pacific. We tested the following null hypotheses: 1) There were no differences in metal levels among eggs and feathers of adult and fledgling glaucous-winged gulls, 2) There were no differences in metal levels among gulls nesting near the three underground nuclear test sites (Long Shot 1965, Milrow 1969, Cannikin 1971) on Amchitka, 3) There were no differences in metal levels among the three islands, and 4) There were no gender-related differences in metal levels. All four null hypotheses were rejected at the 0.05 level, although there were few differences among the three test sites on Amchitka. Eggs had the lowest levels of cadmium, lead, and mercury, and the feathers of adults had the lowest levels of selenium. Comparing only adults and fledglings, adults had higher levels of cadmium, chromium, lead and mercury, and fledglings had higher levels of arsenic, manganese and selenium. There were few consistent interisland differences, although levels were generally lower for eggs and feathers from gulls on Amchitka compared to the other islands. Arsenic was higher in both adult feathers and eggs from Amchitka compared to Adak, and chromium and lead were higher in adult feathers and eggs from Adak compared to Amchitka. Mercury and arsenic, and chromium and manganese levels were significantly correlated in the feathers of both adult and fledgling gulls. The feathers of males had significantly higher levels of chromium and

  10. Control of the DC-DC Converter used into Energy Generation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizon, Nicu; Oproescu, Mihai

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the DC-DC Converter controller used into Energy Generation System. The full bridge is used into an Energy Generation System (EGS) as second power interface between the energy source and the high DC bus. The simulation results show that the DC-DC Converter behavior can be improved using a well designed PI control surface. The used Simulink models for the EGS blocks and some design considerations are presented, too. (authors)

  11. Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    installation of natural gas generation or cogeneration plants to increase their energy security from the typical three days using diesel supplies to weeks-to...better quantify the regional impact of natural gas for energy security. Modeling and simulation could identify those regions and DoD installations that...Interdependence of the Electricity Generation System and the Natural Gas System and Implications for Energy Security N. Judson 15 May 2013 Prepared for the

  12. Aspects of using biomass as energy source for power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tîrtea Raluca-Nicoleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass represents an important source of renewable energy in Romania with about 64% of the whole available green energy. Being a priority for the energy sector worldwide, in our country the development stage is poor compared to solar and wind energy. Biomass power plants offer great horizontal economy development, local and regional economic growth with benefic effects on life standard. The paper presents an analysis on biomass to power conversion solutions compared to fossil fuels using two main processes: combustion and gasification. Beside the heating value, which can be considerably higher for fossil fuels compared to biomass, a big difference between fossil fuels and biomass can be observed in the sulphur content. While the biomass sulphur content is between 0 and approximately 1%, the sulphur content of coal can reach 4%. Using coal in power plants requires important investments in installations of flue gas desulfurization. If limestone is used to reduce SO2 emissions, then additional carbon dioxide moles will be released during the production of CaO from CaCO3. Therefore, fossil fuels not only release a high amount of carbon dioxide through burning, but also through the caption of sulphur dioxide, while biomass is considered CO2 neutral. Biomass is in most of the cases represented by residues, so it is a free fuel compared to fossil fuels. The same power plant can be used even if biomass or fossil fuels is used as a feedstock with small differences. The biomass plant could need a drying system due to high moisture content of the biomass, while the coal plant will need a desulfurization installation of flue gas and additional money will be spent with fuel purchasing.

  13. Toxicity of systems for energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    This section contains summaries of research on assessment of health and environmental effects of electric storage systems, and the metabolism and toxicity of metal compounds associated with energy production and storage. The first project relates to the production and use of electric storage battery systems. The second project deals with the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the gastrointestinal absorption, tissue distribution, and toxic effects of metals (Cd). Also included in this study is work on the absorption of actinides ( 239 Pu)

  14. Generation of low-energy muons with laser resonant ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Bakule, P.; Iwasaki, M.; Matsuzaki, T.; Miyake, Y.; Ikedo, Y.; Strasser, P.; Shimomura, K.; Makimura, S.; Nagamine, K.

    2006-01-01

    We have constructed a low-energy muSR spectrometer at RIKEN-RAL muon facility in ISIS, the UK. With low-background of pulsed muon beam, and short pulse width from laser resonant ionization method, it is hoped this instrument will open new possibilities for studies of material sciences with muon beam. It is enphasized that this method is well suited to the facility where intense pulsed proton beam is available

  15. Topological energy storage of work generated by nanomotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weysser, Fabian; Benzerara, Olivier; Johner, Albert; Kulić, Igor M

    2015-01-28

    Most macroscopic machines rely on wheels and gears. Yet, rigid gears are entirely impractical on the nano-scale. Here we propose a more useful method to couple any rotary engine to any other mechanical elements on the nano- and micro-scale. We argue that a rotary molecular motor attached to an entangled polymer energy storage unit, which together form what we call the "tanglotron" device, is a viable concept that can be experimentally implemented. We derive the torque-entanglement relationship for a tanglotron (its "equation of state") and show that it can be understood by simple statistical mechanics arguments. We find that a typical entanglement at low packing density costs around 6kT. In the high entanglement regime, the free energy diverges logarithmically close to a maximal geometric packing density. We outline several promising applications of the tanglotron idea and conclude that the transmission, storage and back-conversion of topological entanglement energy are not only physically feasible but also practical for a number of reasons.

  16. Analysis Of Functional Stability Of The Triphased Asynchronous Generator Used In Conversion Systems Of A Eolian Energy Into Electric Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion VONCILA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the influence of the main perturbation agent over the functional stability of the triphased asynchronous generator (for the two alternative: with coiled and short circuit rotor, used for the conversion systems from a eolian energy into electric energy.

  17. Global Renewable Energy-Based Electricity Generation and Smart Grid System for Energy Security

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. A.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N. A.; Nahar, A.; Hosenuzzaman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy is an indispensable factor for the economic growth and development of a country. Energy consumption is rapidly increasing worldwide. To fulfill this energy demand, alternative energy sources and efficient utilization are being explored. Various sources of renewable energy and their efficient utilization are comprehensively reviewed and presented in this paper. Also the trend in research and development for the technological advancement of energy utilization and smart grid system for fu...

  18. Wave Energy Converters based on Dielectric Elastomer generators: Status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Marco; Vertechy, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric Elastomers (DEs) are a very promising technology for the development of energy harvesting devices based on the variable-capacitance electrostatic generator principle. This paper discusses the potentialities of DE technology for advancing the ocean wave energy sector. In particular, three innovative concepts of wave energy converters with DE-based power take-off system are introduced and described.

  19. Online Energy Management System for Distributed Generators in a Grid-Connected Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2015-01-01

    A microgrid is an energy subsystem composed of generation units, energy storage, and loads that requires power management in order to supply the load properly according to defined objectives. This paper proposes an online energy management system for a storage based grid-connected microgrid...

  20. A50-kW(el) solar energy thermionic power generator for spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.

    1978-01-01

    The technical limits of thermionic reactors in space craft and the potentials of solar energy thermionic converters are discussed. The technical design of a solar energy thermionic generator for 50 kW(el) as a secondary energy source in unmanned space craft is presented. (GG) [de

  1. Effects of Energy Chirp on Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation Free-Electron Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    We study effects of energy chirp on echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG). Analytical expressions are compared with numerical simulations for both harmonic and bunching factors. We also discuss the EEHG free-electron laser bandwidth increase due to an energy-modulated beam and its pulse length dependence on the electron energy chirp

  2. Quantum mechanical energy-based screening of combinatorially generated library of tautomers. TauTGen: a tautomer generator program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harańczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    We describe a procedure of finding low-energy tautomers of a molecule. The procedure consists of (i) combinatorial generation of a library of tautomers, (ii) screening based on the results of geometry optimization of initial structures performed at the density functional level of theory, and (iii) final refinement of geometry for the top hits at the second-order Möller-Plesset level of theory followed by single-point energy calculations at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations. The library of initial structures of various tautomers is generated with TauTGen, a tautomer generator program. The procedure proved to be successful for these molecular systems for which common chemical knowledge had not been sufficient to predict the most stable structures.

  3. Mercury levels in herring gulls and fish: 42 years of spatio-temporal trends in the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blukacz-Richards, E Agnes; Visha, Ariola; Graham, Matthew L; McGoldrick, Daryl L; de Solla, Shane R; Moore, David J; Arhonditsis, George B

    2017-04-01

    Total mercury levels in aquatic birds and fish communities have been monitored across the Canadian Great Lakes by Environment and Climate Change Canada (ECCC) for the past 42 years (1974-2015). These data (22 sites) were used to examine spatio-temporal variability of mercury levels in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), walleye (Sander vitreus), and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax). Trends were quantified with dynamic linear models, which provided time-variant rates of change of mercury concentrations. Lipid content (in both fish and eggs) and length in fish were used as covariates in all models. For the first three decades, mercury levels in gull eggs and fish declined at all stations. In the 2000s, trends for herring gull eggs reversed at two sites in Lake Erie and two sites in Lake Ontario. Similar trend reversals in the 2000s were observed for lake trout in Lake Superior and at a single station in Lake Ontario. Mercury levels in lake trout continued to slowly decline at all of the remaining stations, except for Lake Huron, where the levels remained stable. A post-hoc Bayesian regression analysis suggests strong trophic interactions between herring gulls and rainbow smelt in Lake Superior and Lake Ontario, but also pinpoints the likelihood of a trophic decoupling in Lake Huron and Lake Erie. Continued monitoring of mercury levels in herring gulls and fish is required to consolidate these trophic shifts and further evaluate their broader implications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Flame retardants in eggs of four gull species (Laridae) from breeding sites spanning Atlantic to Pacific Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Da; Letcher, Robert J.; Burgess, Neil M.; Champoux, Louise; Elliott, John E.; Hebert, Craig E.; Martin, Pamela; Wayland, Mark; Chip Weseloh, D.V.; Wilson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    To compare legacy and emerging flame retardant (FR) contamination in Canadian marine and freshwater ecosystems, eggs of four gull species (Laridae) were collected from 26 colonies spanning Pacific to Atlantic Canada, including in the Great Lakes basin. Fourteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and 20 non-PBDE FRs were analyzed, but BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154 and -209, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) syn- and anti-isomers were common, and where concentrations of ∑PBDEs (37–610 ng/g wet weight, ww) ≫ HBCD (0.5–12 ng/g ww) > ∑DP (not quantifiable-5.5 ng/g ww). All other FRs were generally not detectable. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes used as dietary tracers provided insights into the diet choice influences on the exposure sources and contamination patterns (e.g., PBDE congener compositions) for individual gulls from the same colony. Eggs from gulls breeding near metropolitan regions of higher human densities showed greater PBDE burdens than from other ecosystems. - Highlights: ► We investigated flame retardants in eggs of four gull species spanning Canada. ► Concentrations of ∑PBDE ≫ hexabromocyclododecane > ∑Dechlorane Plus in eggs. ► Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes revealed diet sources of flame retardants. ► Human density near breeding sites influenced flame retardant burdens in eggs. - Various flame retardants were found in eggs of four gull species from sites across Canada, and levels were influenced by location, ecosystem, diet and proximity to human populations.

  5. Low energy proton beams from laser-generated plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Giuffrida, L.; Margarone, Daniele; Caridi, F.; Di Bartolo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 653, č. 1 (2011), s. 140-144 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP205/11/1165; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser-generated plasma * proton acceleration * hydrogenated targets * proton yield * doped polymers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  6. Asian market plants for thermo-electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antognazza, E.; Cozzi, G.

    1998-01-01

    This article synthesizes the analysis results carried out by IEFE (Bocconi University of Milan) on the evolution (1980-1997) and the present situation of industrial equipment orders for power generation in East and South Asia markets. At present these markets are the most important, on world scale, of the analyzed sector. Competitive positions changes have been analyzed, in every market and the whole Asian area, of the most important firms operating on international scale, as well as of the major local makers [it

  7. Regulatory actions to expand the offer of distributed generation from renewable energy sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepitone da Nóbrega, André; Cabral Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the Brazilian electric energy matrix has undergone transformations in recent years. However, it has still maintained significant participation of renewable energy sources, in particular hydropower plants of various magnitudes. Reasons for the growth of other renewable sources of energy, such as wind and solar, include the fact that the remaining hydropower capacity is mainly located in the Amazon, which is far from centers of consumption, the necessity of diversifying the energy mix and reducing dependence on hydrologic regimes, the increase in environmental restrictions, the increase of civil construction and land costs.Wind power generation has grown most significantly in Brazil. Positive results in the latest energy auctions show that wind power generation has reached competitive pricing. Solar energy is still incipient in Brazil, despite its high potential for conversion into electric energy. This energy source in the Brazilian electric energy matrix mainly involves solar centrals and distributed generation. Biomass thermal plants, mainly the ones that use bagasse of sugar cane, also have an important role in renewable generation in Brazil.This paper aims to present an overview of the present situation and discuss the actions and the regulations to expand the offer of renewable distributed generation in Brazil, mainly from wind power, solar and biomass energy sources. (full text)

  8. Photosynthetic Energy Storage for the Built Environment: Modeling Energy Generation and Storage for Net-Zero Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter-Marck, Eli Morris

    There is a growing need to address the energy demand of the building sector with non-polluting, renewable energy sources. The Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) mandate seeks to reduce the impact of building sector energy consumption by encouraging on-site energy generation as a way to offset building loads. However, current approaches to designing on-site generation fail to adequately match the fluctuating load schedules of the built environment. As a result, buildings produce highly variable and often-unpredictable energy import/export patterns that create stress on energy grids and increase building dependence on primary energy resources. This research investigates the potential of integrating emerging photo-electrochemical (PEC) technologies into on-site generation systems as a way to enable buildings to take a more active role in collecting, storing and deploying energy resources according to their own demand schedules. These artificially photosynthetic systems have the potential to significantly reduce variability in hour-to-hour and day-to-day building loads by introducing high-capacity solar-hydrogen into the built environment context. The Building Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis (BIAP) simulation framework presented here tests the impact of hydrogen based energy storage on NZEB performance metrics with the goal of developing a methodology that makes on-site energy generation more effective at alleviating excessive energy consumption in the building sector. In addition, as a design performance framework, the BIAP framework helps guide how material selection and scale up of device design might tie photo-electrochemical devices into parallel building systems to take full advantage of the potential outputs of photosynthetic building systems.

  9. A normative price for energy from an electricity generation system: An Owner-dependent Methodology for Energy Generation (system) Assessment (OMEGA). Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; McMaster, K. M.

    1981-10-01

    The utility owned solar electric system methodology is generalized and updated. The net present value of the system is determined by consideration of all financial benefits and costs (including a specified return on investment). Life cycle costs, life cycle revenues, and residual system values are obtained. Break even values of system parameters are estimated by setting the net present value to zero. While the model was designed for photovoltaic generators with a possible thermal energy byproduct, it applicability is not limited to such systems. The resulting owner-dependent methodology for energy generation system assessment consists of a few equations that can be evaluated without the aid of a high-speed computer.

  10. A normative price for energy from an electricity generation system: An Owner-dependent Methodology for Energy Generation (system) Assessment (OMEGA). Volume 1: Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Mcmaster, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The utility owned solar electric system methodology is generalized and updated. The net present value of the system is determined by consideration of all financial benefits and costs (including a specified return on investment). Life cycle costs, life cycle revenues, and residual system values are obtained. Break even values of system parameters are estimated by setting the net present value to zero. While the model was designed for photovoltaic generators with a possible thermal energy byproduct, it applicability is not limited to such systems. The resulting owner-dependent methodology for energy generation system assessment consists of a few equations that can be evaluated without the aid of a high-speed computer.

  11. Carbon dioxide based power generation in renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pramod; Srinivasan, Kandadai

    2016-01-01

    After a substantial impact on refrigeration, carbon dioxide (CO_2) is gaining considerable attention as a working fluid for thermal power generation. This can be attributed mainly to its excellent heat transfer properties and compactness of components arising from its high density. It has the merit of being amenable to operation in sub-, trans- or super-critical Brayton cycle modes. However, inhibiting factors are high pressures needed when operated in trans- or supercritical cycles and the work of compression eroding most of the work of expansion in sub-critical cycle operation. Some of the lacunae of CO_2 such as high work of compression can be alleviated by using non-mechanical means such as thermal compression using the adsorption technique either for partial compression in high pressure Brayton cycles or for total compression in low pressure cycles. CO_2 has also been proposed as an additive to flammable hydrocarbons such that their flammability can be suppressed and yet retaining their other desirable thermodynamic qualities. This review explores the potential and limitations of thermodynamic cycles where either CO_2 is used alone or as a component in mixture of working fluids. Inter alia, it also highlights the issues of regulation of load management using the efficiency-specific power output plane. When used as a blending component, pinch point in the regenerators affects the cycle performance. The objective is to identify research and developmental challenges involving CO_2 as a working fluid specifically for solar power generation.

  12. Restructuring and generation of electrical energy in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, E. Fernandez; Bernat, J. Xiberta

    2007-01-01

    Portugal and Spain are on the threshold of the creation of an Iberian electricity market. In order to help its development, the power of the electric interconnection between the countries has been increased and market mechanisms designed to resolve congestion, should it arise. A system of joint supply for the Iberian Peninsula will lead to single price for the whole area except at times when the interconnection is saturated, in which case prices will be somewhat higher in the importing zone. In the medium term, the hope is that both systems will have very similar generating equipment and that their variable costs will equalize due to the substitution of the most obsolete equipment with combined cycle power stations, and to the increase of exchange capacity. The coming into effect of this market will bring about improvements in the security and efficiency of supply in both countries. There will also be some obstacles to overcome, such as, for example, the current regulatory frame deficiencies on power generation, the contacts which exist at present in Portugal between the producers and the National Electricity Network, the asymmetry of the distribution channels in each country, the differences in rates and the limited capacity for exchange. (author)

  13. Highly efficient distributed generation and high-capacity energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmes, Kas; Guerrero, Josep M.; Zhelev, Toshko

    2012-01-01

    With the growing amount of decentralized power production the design and operation of the grid has to be reconsidered. New problems include the two-way flow of electricity and maintaining the power balance given the increased amount of uncertain and fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind...... and solar that deliver electricity to the grid. Solution directions are the development of smart grids, demand side management, virtual power plants and storage of electricity. These are directions that, rightly so, are already attracting a lot of attention and R&D funding. In this paper critical issues...... and fuel that can also fulfill a storage function....

  14. Analysis of the Dynamic Performance of Self-Excited Induction Generators Employed in Renewable Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. A. Farrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Incentives, such as the Feed-in-tariff are expected to lead to continuous increase in the deployment of Small Scale Embedded Generation (SSEG in the distribution network. Self-Excited Induction Generators (SEIG represent a significant segment of potential SSEG. The quality of SEIG output voltage magnitude and frequency is investigated in this paper to support the SEIG operation for different network operating conditions. The dynamic behaviour of the SEIG resulting from disconnection, reconnection from/to the grid and potential operation in islanding mode is studied in detail. The local load and reactive power supply are the key factors that determine the SEIG performance, as they have significant influence on the voltage and frequency change after disconnection from the grid. Hence, the aim of this work is to identify the optimum combination of the reactive power supply (essential for self excitation of the SEIG and the active load (essential for balancing power generation and demand. This is required in order to support the SEIG operation after disconnection from the grid, during islanding and reconnection to the grid. The results show that the generator voltage and speed (frequency can be controlled and maintained within the statuary limits. This will enable safe disconnection and reconnection of the SEIG from/to the grid and makes it easier to operate in islanding mode.

  15. Microwave generation for magnetic fusion energy applications, Task A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L.; Levush, B.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Singh, A.

    1990-05-01

    This report details progress over the past year in the research program ''Free Electron Lasers with Short Period Wigglers.'' The work is performed jointly by the laboratory for Plasma Research and the Electrical Engineering Department of the University of Maryland and is funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy. The goal of the work is the development of an electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) scheme for magnetic fusion plasmas such as the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). Our approach is the development of a free electron laser using a sheet electron beam and a short period wiggler magnet. The specific requirements for the heating method include 10 to 30 MW of average power with pulse durations of several seconds to CW at a frequency near 300 GHz (∼600 GHz) in the case of second harmonic (ECRH). Compatible with the experimental nature of the program, radiation frequency flexibility of 30% total bandwidth and 5% rapid dynamic (approx-lt 10 ms) bandwidth is desirable. As the source will eventually be applied to a reactor, priority is placed upon high system efficiency and reliability. Use of established technologies is encouraged where possible

  16. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  17. Energy price spread as a driving force for combined generation investments: A view on Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavvadias, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Combined generation of heat, cooling and power has a large potential to increase its share in distributed generation of energy. Such investments are driven by energy savings which result to operational profits. These profits are very sensitive to the prices of the competitive energy products: electricity and gas. In this work a theoretical indicator is developed between energy prices, the technical characteristics of cogeneration and conventional generation equipment and the investment viability. Through this indicator, the operational profitability of cogeneration equipment is mapped and discussed. Empirical rules are extracted which can give a clear view of the sensitivity of energy prices on energy efficiency investments. The European cogeneration status quo is analyzed in terms of energy prices and market share. The developed indicator is also used, to analyze market related barriers and highlight the importance of energy pricing policy as a tool to minimize the risk exposure of energy efficiency investments. - Highlights: • Energy price spread of competitive fuels affects combined generation profitability. • Its uncertainty is the most important barrier for new investments. • The minimum energy price spread had been generalized and mathematically justified. • Can be used as a tax-based mechanism to hedge the risk of fuel price fluctuations. • For a typical installation, power has to be at least 2 times more expensive than gas.

  18. Characterization of AhR agonists reveals antagonistic activity in European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muusse, Martine; Christensen, Guttorm; Gomes, Tânia; Kočan, Anton; Langford, Katherine; Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Vaňková, Lenka; Thomas, Kevin V

    2015-05-01

    European herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from two Norwegian islands, Musvær in the south east and Reiaren in Northern Norway, were screened for dioxins, furans, and dioxin-like and selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and subjected to non-target analysis to try to identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, responsible for elevated levels measured using the dioxin responsive chemically activated luciferase expression (DR-CALUX) assay. Eggs from Musvær contained chemically calculated toxic equivalent (WHO TEQ) levels of between 109 and 483 pg TEQ/g lw, and between 82 and 337 pg TEQ/g lw was determined in eggs from Reiaren. In particular PCB126 contributed highly to the total TEQ (69-82%). In 19 of the 23 samples the calculated WHO TEQ was higher than the TEQCALUX. Using CALUX specific relative effect potencies (REPs), the levels were lower at between 77 and 292 pg/g lw in eggs from Musvær and between 55 and 223 pg/g lw in eggs from Reiaren, which was higher than the TEQCALUX in 16 of the 23 samples. However, the means of the REP values and the TEQCALUX were not significantly different. This suggests the presence of compounds that can elicit antagonist effects, with a low binding affinity to the AhR. Non-target analysis identified the presence of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (quantified at 9.6-185 pg/g lw) but neither this compound nor high concentrations of PCB126 and non-dioxin-like PCBs could explain the differences between the calculated TEQ or REP values and the TEQCALUX. Even though, for most AhR agonists, the sensitivity of herring gulls is not known, the reported levels can be considered to represent a risk for biological effects in the developing embryo, compared to LC50 values in chicken embryos. For human consumers of herring gull eggs, these eggs contain TEQ levels up to four times higher than the maximum tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inductive energy store (IES) technology for multi-terrawatt generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sincerny, P.S.; Ashby, S.R.; Childers, F.K.; Deeney, C.; Kortbawi, D.; Goyer, J.R.; Riordan, J.C.; Roth, I.S.; Stallings, C.; Schlitt, L.

    1993-01-01

    An IES pulsed power machine has been built at Physics International Company that serves as a prototype demonstration of IES technology that is scaleable to very large TW generators. The prototype module utilizes inductive store opening switch technology for the final stage of pulse compression and is capable of driving both electron beam Bremsstrahlung loads or imploding plasma loads. Each module consists of a fast discharge Marx driving a water dielectric transfer capacitor which is command triggered to drive the inductive store section of the machine. The inductive store is discharged into the load using a plasma erosion opening switch. Data demonstrating 22% efficient operation into an electron beam diode load are presented. The system issues addressing the combining of these modules into a very large pulsed power machine are discussed

  20. Coastal and offshore wind energy generation: is it environmentally benign?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J. C.; Elliott, M.; Cutts, N. D.; Mander, L.; Mendao, V.; Perez-Dominguez, R.; Phelps, A. [Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Wilson, J. C. [Amec, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford, Cheshire, WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Mendao, V. [Projecto Delfim, Centro Portugues de Estudo dos Mamiferos Marinhos, Rua Alto do Duque, 45, 1400-009 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-15

    Offshore and coastal wind power is one of the fastest growing industries in many areas, especially those with shallow coastal regions due to the preferable generation conditions available in the regions. As with any expanding industry, there are concerns regarding the potential environmental effects which may be caused by the installation of the offshore wind turbines and their associated infrastructure, including substations and subsea cables. These include the potential impacts on the biological, physical and human environments. This review discusses in detail the potential impacts arising from offshore wind farm construction, and how these may be quantified and addressed through the use of conceptual models. It concludes that while not environmentally benign, the environmental impacts are minor and can be mitigated through good siting practices. In addition, it suggests that there are opportunities for environmental benefits through habitat creation and conservation protection areas. (authors)

  1. Renewable energy distributed power system with photovoltaic/ thermal and bio gas power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, M.U.; Rehman, S.U.

    2011-01-01

    The energy shortage and environmental pollution is becoming an important problem in these days. Hence it is very much important to use renewable power technologies to get rid of these problems. The important renewable energy sources are Bio-Energy, Wind Energy, Hydrogen Energy, Tide Energy, Terrestrial Heat Energy, Solar Energy, Thermal Energy and so on. Pakistan is rich in all these aspects particularly in Solar and Thermal Energies. In major areas of Pakistan like in South Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan the weather condition are very friendly for these types of Renewable Energies. In these areas Solar Energy can be utilized by solar panels in conjunction with thermal panels. The Photovoltaic cells are used to convert Solar Energy directly to Electrical Energy and thermal panels can be uses to convert solar energy into heat energy and this heat energy will be used to drive some turbine to get Electrical Energy. The Solar Energy can be absorbed more efficiently by any given area of Solar Panel if these two technologies can be combined in such a way that they can work together. The first part of this paper shows that how these technologies can be combined. Furthermore it is known to all that photovoltaic/thermal panels depend entirely on weather conditions. So in order to maintain constant power a biogas generator is used in conjunction with these. (author)

  2. Quantum dot as spin current generator and energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szukiewicz, Barbara; Wysokiński, Karol I.

    2015-05-01

    The thermoelectric transport in the device composed of a central nanoscopic system in contact with two electrodes and subject to the external magnetic field of Zeeman type has been studied. The device can support pure spin current in the electrodes and may serve as a source of the temperature induced spin currents with possible applications in spintronics. The system may also be used as an energy harvester. We calculate its thermodynamic efficiency η and the power output P. The maximal efficiency of the device reaches the Carnot value when the device works reversibly but with the vanishing power. The interactions between carriers diminish the maximal efficiency of the device, which under the constant load drops well below the Carnot limit but may exceed the Curzon-Ahlborn limit. While the effect of intradot Coulomb repulsion on η depends on the parameters, the interdot/interlevel interaction strongly diminishes the device efficiency.

  3. An Energy Dense-AI-NaBH4-PEMFC Based Power Generator for Unmanned Undersea Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    From- To) 03/01/2016 Final 01/28/2013-12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER An Energy-Dense AI-NaBH4- PEMFC Based Power Generator for...combination of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell ( PEMFC ) with a compact hydrogen generator util izing AI-NaBH4 composite fuel. The conditions...ANSI Std. Z39.18 FLORIDA SOLAR ENERGY CENTER. Crl’nrmg EnPrgy lnrll’pendrnr£’ An Energy-Dense Al-NaBH4- PEMFC Based Power Generator for Unmanned

  4. There is need in new generation smart grid for the space and ground energy systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageev Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to considerate the opportunities of synchronization of the space and ground systems that generate and transfer energy on the basis of new generation smart grid using. The authors substantiate the necessity of new intellectual monitoring services that assess the processes took place in "generation-transportation-distribution-consumption" space and ground systems. This is made in order to improve the dynamic indicators of the energy system and to avoid the emergencies. The authors also give a prognosis of the dynamic indicators of the electric power super-system in analyzing metastable conditions in different energy modes.

  5. The Opportunity of Using Wind to Generate Power as a Renewable Energy:"Case of Kuwait”

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkarim J.Ibreik; Humoud A. Alqatta

    2015-01-01

    The demand ofsustainable energy is increased daily by expanding our cities and creating new cities and suburbswith huge towers besides increasing in population,moreover the environment and human life is threatening by the pollutions resulted from energy generation. For this reason the researchersattracted todevelop renewable energy and explore its large benefits and unit capacity. Wind power is one of the clean renewable energy resources.Therefore the importance of implementing th...

  6. Energy assessment of second generation (2G) ethanol production from wheat straw in Indian scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Kumar, Akash; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2018-03-01

    Impact of second-generation ethanol (2G) use in transportation sector mainly depends upon energy efficiency of entire production process. The objective of present study was to determine energy efficiency of a potential lignocellulosic feedstock; wheat straw and its conversion into cellulosic ethanol in Indian scenario. Energy efficiency was determined by calculating Net energy ratio (NER), i.e. ratio of output energy obtained by ethanol and input energy used in ethanol production. Energy consumption and generation at each step is calculated briefly (11,837.35 MJ/ha during Indian dwarf irrigated variety of wheat crop production and 7.1148 MJ/kg straw during ethanol production stage). Total energy consumption is calculated as 8.2988 MJ/kg straw whereas energy generation from ethanol is 15.082 MJ/kg straw; resulting into NER > 1. Major portion of agricultural energy input is contributed by diesel and fertilisers whereas refining process of wheat straw feedstock to ethanol and by-products require mainly in the form of steam and electricity. On an average, 1671.8 kg water free ethanol, 930 kg lignin rich biomass (for combustion), and 561 kg C5-molasses (for fodder) per hectare are produced. Findings of this study, net energy ratio (1.81) and figure of merit (14.8028 MJ/nil kg carbon) proves wheat straw as highest energy efficient lignocellulosic feedstock for the country.

  7. Investigation of the Energy Balance in the Spark Discharge Generator for Nanoparticles Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylnikov, D. A.; Efimov, A. A.; Ivanov, V. V.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the balance of energy in the discharge circuit of a spark discharge generator (SDG) for nanoparticles synthesis. The released energy consists of several parts: the energy in a discharge gap and the energy dissipated in the other elements of the circuit. In turn, in the gap a one part of the energy releases in preanode and precathode regions and the other part in an arc between electrodes. We measured these parts and proposed ways to optimize energy efficiency of the nanoparticles production.

  8. Damping-tunable energy-harvesting vehicle damper with multiple controlled generators: Design, modeling and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Longhan; Li, Jiehong; Li, Xiaodong; Huang, Ledeng; Cai, Siqi

    2018-01-01

    Hydraulic dampers are used to decrease the vibration of a vehicle, where vibration energy is dissipated as heat. In addition to resulting in energy waste, the damping coefficient in hydraulic dampers cannot be changed during operation. In this paper, an energy-harvesting vehicle damper was proposed to replace traditional hydraulic dampers. The goal is not only to recover kinetic energy from suspension vibration but also to change the damping coefficient during operation according to road conditions. The energy-harvesting damper consists of multiple generators that are independently controlled by switches. One of these generators connects to a tunable resistor for fine tuning the damping coefficient, while the other generators are connected to a control and rectifying circuit, each of which both regenerates electricity and provides a constant damping coefficient. A mathematical model was built to investigate the performance of the energy-harvesting damper. By controlling the number of switched-on generators and adjusting the value of the external tunable resistor, the damping can be fine tuned according to the requirement. In addition to the capability of damping tuning, the multiple controlled generators can output a significant amount of electricity. A prototype was built to test the energy-harvesting damper design. Experiments on an MTS testing system were conducted, with results that validated the theoretical analysis. Experiments show that changing the number of switched-on generators can obviously tune the damping coefficient of the damper and simultaneously produce considerable electricity.

  9. The role of nuclear energy in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, G.; Marothy, L.; Tallosy, J.

    1980-01-01

    The brief history of nuclear power production is given, with special regard to the energy demand in Hungary. The design and operation of the Paks Nuclear Power Station are described. The first four units will be WWER-440 type pressurized water reactors. The main components of the nuclear steam-producing apparatus and the process of fuel handling are presented. The secondary circuit and the main electric systems are shortly described. The safety of the plant is analysed. The safeguard engineering systems are discussed. The operation of the reactor control system, the emergency cooling and the pressure supression systems are analysed for the case of a design base accident (DBA). The DBA consists in an internal fracture of the main primary cooling pipeline. Based on the stations safety report and the Basmussen report the environmental risk of the station is estimated. It is concluded that even in the case of the DBA, the radiation burden of the population is under the permissable limits. (R.J.)

  10. Audouin's gull chicks as bioindicators of mercury pollution at different breeding locations in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanpera, Carolina; Moreno, Roci'o; Ruiz, Xavier; Jover, Lluis

    2007-01-01

    Mercury levels of Audouin's gull are amongst the highest for Mediterranean seabirds, and have been mainly attributed to its piscivorous habits in these naturally Hg rich waters. Moreover, two additional factors could enhance its mercury intake: the consumption of discarded fish (which attain higher concentrations) and/or feeding in areas receiving Hg anthropogenic inputs. In order to differentiate the relevance of both sources we analysed Hg and stable isotopes of chick feathers from different breeding locations in western Mediterranean: one in its northern part (Ebro Delta) and two southern (Chafarinas Isl. and Alboran Isl.). The results from stable isotopes indicate that consumption of discards is higher at Alboran Isl., followed by the Ebro Delta and Chafarinas Isl. Thus, the higher mercury levels found in the Ebro Delta cannot be explained uniquely by the contribution of discarded fish to diet, but local pollution caused by the river Ebro waters accounts for Hg differences observed

  11. Plastic consumption and diet of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindborg, Valerie A; Ledbetter, Julia F; Walat, Jean M; Moffett, Cinamon

    2012-11-01

    We analyzed dietary habits and presence of plastic in 589 boluses of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) as one of two studies on the impact of plastics on marine life in the US Salish Sea. Volunteers dissected boluses collected (2007-2010) from Protection Island, Washington. Components were separated into 23 food and non-food categories. Plastic was found in 12.2% of boluses, with plastic film being the most common plastic form. No diet specialization was observed. Vegetation was the most abundant component, found in 91.3% of boluses. No relationship was observed between any dietary items and occurrence or type of plastic found. Load and potential ecological impact in the marine environment can be expected to increase concurrently with increasing plastic use and number and variety of plastic sources. Future studies are necessary to understand the impacts of plastic ingestion on this species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Kelp gulls, Larus dominicanus (Aves: Laridae, breeding in Keller Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the distribution, abundance and density of the Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823, at Keller Peninsula on two occasions during the breeding season of 2007-2008 (once for incubation and once for chick stages and compared our results with previously published data. We present information on the number of eggs, incubation success, and initial development of L. dominicanus chicks in the studied sites. The abundance and density of the species has remained statistically similar in Keller Peninsula over the last 30 years (since 1978-1979. Although the abundance and density were almost unchanged, we recorded alterations in the occupation of the breeding areas by L. dominicanus, mainly the abandonment of breeding sites in the eastern portion of Keller Peninsula. The results of the present study compared with similar previous investigations on the abundance of L. dominicanus indicate that the populations have been in equilibrium over the years.

  13. Spatial and temporal variation in lead and cadmium in the Laughing Gull, Larus atricilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, M; Hacker, C S

    1982-11-01

    Lead and cadmium concentrations were measured in eggs and in bone, kidney, liver and stomach contents of downy young, prefledgling, and adult Laughing Gulls collected from Matagorda Bay and Galveston Bay, Texas. Matagorda Bay drains a rural, moderately industrialized region while the Galveston Bay area is heavily urbanized and industrialized. Lead levels were lower in birds from Matagorda Bay and decreased in birds from Galveston Bay between 1977 and 1980. Cadmium levels were also lower in birds from Matagorda Bay but increased over the three-year period in those from Galveston Bay. The temporal decrease in lead may be associated with such environmental control efforts as reduced point source emissions and substitution of unleaded gasoline.

  14. Energetic and exergoeconomic assessment of a multi-generation energy system based on indirect use of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrami, Ehsan; Chitsaz, Ata; Nami, Hossein; Mahmoudi, S.M.S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a geothermal based multi-generation energy system, including organic Rankine cycle, domestic water heater, absorption refrigeration cycle and proton exchange membrane electrolyzer, is developed to generate electricity, heating, cooling and hydrogen. For this purpose, energetic, exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis are undertaken upon proposed system. Also, the effects of some important variables, i.e. geothermal water temperature, turbine inlet temperature and pressure, generator temperature, geothermal water mass flow rate and electrolyzer current density on the several parameters such as energy and exergy efficiencies of the proposed system, heating and cooling load, net electrical output power, hydrogen production, unit cost of each system products and total unit cost of the products are investigated. For specified conditions, the results show that energy and exergy efficiencies of the proposed multi-generation system are calculated about 34.98% and 49.17%, respectively. The highest and lowest total unit cost of the products estimated approximately 23.18 and 22.73 $/GJ, respectively, by considering that geothermal water temperature increases from 185 °C to 215 °C. - Highlights: • A multigeneration energy system based on geothermal energy is developed. • The energetic, exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis are undertaken upon proposed system. • The influences of several significant parameters are investigated. • The energy and exergy efficiencies of the entire system are calculated around 34.98% and 49.17%.

  15. High-energy infrared femtosecond pulses generated by dual-chirped optical parametric amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuxi; Takahashi, Eiji J; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate high-energy infrared femtosecond pulse generation by a dual-chirped optical parametric amplification (DC-OPA) scheme [Opt. Express19, 7190 (2011)]. By employing a 100 mJ pump laser, a signal pulse energy exceeding 20 mJ at a wavelength of 1.4 μm was achieved before dispersion compensation. A total output energy of 33 mJ was recorded. Under a further energy scaling condition, the signal pulse was compressed to an almost transform-limited duration of 27 fs using a fused silica prism compressor. Since the DC-OPA scheme is efficient and energy scalable, design parameters for obtaining 100 mJ level infrared pulses are presented, which are suitable as driver lasers for the energy scaling of high-order harmonic generation with sub-keV photon energy.

  16. Tri-generation based hybrid power plant scheduling for renewable resources rich area with energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazheri, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Involves scheduling of the tri-generation based hybrid power plant. • Utilization of renewable energy through energy storage is discussed. • Benefits of the proposed model are illustrated. • Energy efficient and environmental friendly dispatch is analyzed. • Modeled scheduling problem is applicable to any fuel enriched area. - Abstract: Solving power system scheduling is crucial to ensure smooth operations of the electric power industry. Effective utilization of available conventional and renewable energy sources (RES) by tri-generation and with the aid of energy storage facilities (ESF) can ensure clean and energy efficient power generation. Such power generation can play an important role in countries, like Saudi Arabia, where abundant fossil fuels (FF) and renewable energy sources (RES) are available. Hence, effective modeling of such hybrid power systems scheduling is essential in such countries based on the available fuel resources. The intent of this paper is to present a simple model for tri-generation based hybrid power system scheduling for energy resources rich area in presence of ESF, to ensure optimum fuel utilization and minimum pollutant emissions while meeting the power demand. This research points an effective operation strategy which ensure a clean and energy efficient power scheduling by exploiting available energy resources effectively. Hence, it has an important role in current and future power generation. In order to illustrate the benefits of the presented approach a clean and energy efficient hybrid power supply scheme for King Saud University (KSU), Saudi Arabia, is proposed and analyzed here. Results show that the proposed approach is very suitable for KSU since adequate solar power is available during its peak demand periods

  17. Super- and Transcritical Fluid Expansions for Next-Generation Energy Conversion Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, J.

    2010-01-01

    The next generation of thermodynamic power cycles offers great potential as the conceptual basis for sustainable energy converters. Examples are the supercritical and superheated Organic Rankine cycle, the transcritical condensation cycle, the supercritical Brayton cycle, the Organic Stirling cycle

  18. Workshop on Hydrogen Storage and Generation for Medium-Power and -Energy Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the Workshop on Hydrogen Storage and Generation Technologies for Medium-Power and -Energy Applications which was held on April 8-10, 1997 at the Radisson Hotel Orlando Airport in Orlando, Florida...

  19. Biomechanical energy harvesting: generating electricity during walking with minimal user effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, J M; Li, Q; Naing, V; Hoffer, J A; Weber, D J; Kuo, A D

    2008-02-08

    We have developed a biomechanical energy harvester that generates electricity during human walking with little extra effort. Unlike conventional human-powered generators that use positive muscle work, our technology assists muscles in performing negative work, analogous to regenerative braking in hybrid cars, where energy normally dissipated during braking drives a generator instead. The energy harvester mounts at the knee and selectively engages power generation at the end of the swing phase, thus assisting deceleration of the joint. Test subjects walking with one device on each leg produced an average of 5 watts of electricity, which is about 10 times that of shoe-mounted devices. The cost of harvesting-the additional metabolic power required to produce 1 watt of electricity-is less than one-eighth of that for conventional human power generation. Producing substantial electricity with little extra effort makes this method well-suited for charging powered prosthetic limbs and other portable medical devices.

  20. Optimal number of energy generators for biogas utilization in wastewater treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2007-01-01

    A technoeconomic analysis has been undertaken considering the optimum number of energy producing generators using biogas coming from anaerobic digestion. Inputs for this analysis originate from available data on the first generator for energy production from biogas, installed in Greece at the wastewater treatment facility of Iraklio city. The data spans a period of 5.5 years of operation. It is concluded that the cost per kWh produced is 0.0876 Euro /kWh if one generator is used covering 15.9% of the facility's needs. If two generators are used, more biogas is utilized contributing 32.6% of the facility's needs at a marginal production cost of 0.0886 Euro /kWh. Similar estimations have been made for scenarios involving up to six generators. In contrast, the marginal cost of conventionally produced energy is 0.1383-0.2483 Euro /kWh

  1. Future trends in electrical energy generation economics in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. W.; Fox, G. R.; Shah, R. P.; Stewart, P. J.; Vermilyea, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Developments related to the economics of coal-fired systems in the U.S. are mainly considered. The historical background of the U.S. electric generation industry is examined and the U.S. electrical generation characteristics in the year 1975 are considered. It is pointed out that coal-fired power plants are presently the largest source of electrical energy generation in the U.S. Questions concerning the availability and quality of coal are investigated. Currently there are plans for converting some 50 large oil and gas-fired generating plants to coal, and it is expected that coal will be the fuel used in almost all fossil-fired base load additions to generating capacity. Aspects of advanced energy conversion from coal are discussed, taking into account the performance and economic potential of the energy conversion systems.

  2. Presence of renewable sources of energy, cogeneration, energy efficiency and distributed generation in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pares Ferrer, Marianela; Oviedo Rivero, Irayda; Gonzalez Garcia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) it was created in 1970 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (OIEA) with the objective of propitiating the exchange of scientific information and technique on the peaceful uses of the energy atomic. INIS processes most of scientific literature and technique in engineering matters nuclear, safeguard and non proliferation and applications in agriculture and health that it generates in the world and it contributes to create a repository of nuclear information for present and future generations. Additionally it includes economic aspects and environmental of other energy sources that facilitate comparative studies for the taking of decisions. The database INIS, is its main informative product and it counts with more than 3 million registrations. One of the services that lends the Center of Administration of the Information and Development of the Energy (CUBAENERGIA), like center INIS in Cuba, is the search of information on the peaceful use of the science and nuclear technology in the Countries Members and the registration of information on their applications in Cuba. More recently, it extends this service to the Renewable Sources application of Energy in the country; as part of the works of administration of the information that it carries out for the National Group of Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Saving and Energy Efficiency, created in the 2007 and coordinated by the MINBAS with the participation of institutions belonging to Organisms of the Administration Central of the State. In this work the results of a preliminary study are presented on the witnesses in the INIS of the Renewable Sources of Energy, the Cogeneration, Energy Efficiency, and the Distributed Generation. As well as of the application of metric tools to the opposing registrations for the case of the Distributed generation, that which allowed to characterize their historical evolution, the participation for countries in their development and

  3. Trends of world energy consumption and possibilities of environment protective power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischengruber, K.

    1991-01-01

    The population of the world will duplicate within the next three to four decades. The primary energy consumption will increase accordingly. Considering the limited reach of our fossil energy resources and their negative impact on the global climate, alternative strategies for the power generation have to be developed. The contribution of the renewable energy sources will be important, but not sufficient, due to their high generation costs. The nuclear power, which already today participates essentially in the energy supply, will remain one of the most important options for environment protecting energy generation. Especially for the developing countries, which -in general- have currently a not covered energy demand, the build up of reasonable energy generation structures means enormous volumes of investments, which can only be financed with the assistance of the industrialized countries. Those, on the other hand, have to economize their energy consumption and have to undertake any effort in continuing with the development of clean, safe and competitive renewable resources. To provide increasing world population with sufficient energy and at the same time to reduce CO 2 emissions is one of the biggest challenges that mankind has ever faced. (Author)

  4. A Motor/Generator for Flywheel Energy Storage System Levitated by Bulk Superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, C.S.; Yeon, J.U.; Jeoung, H.M.; Choi, J.H. [Chungbuk National University (Korea); Lee, H.J; Hong, G.W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The energy storage systems are being widely researched for the high quality of the electric power. The FES(flywheel energy storage system)is especially, on the center of the research because it does not make any pollution and its life is long. The FES converts the electrical energy into the mechanical kinetic energy of the flywheel and reconverts the mechanical energy into the electrical energy, In order to store as much energy as possible, the flywheel is supposed to be rotated with very high speed. The motor/generator of the FES should be high efficient at high speed, and generate constant torque with respect to the rotation. In this paper, a motor/generator employing a Halbach array of permanent magnets is designed and constructed to meet the requirements, and its characteristics are examined. The magnetic field is analysed by using the magnetic surface charge method. The armature winding is designed for the harmonic components to be minimized by using the FFT. The sinusoidal currents for the motor driving are generated by the hysteresis current controller. A sample superconducting flywheel energy storage system is constructed with a duralumin flywheel which has a maximum rotating speed of 40,000[rpm] and a stored energy of 240[Wh] and its validity is examined through the experiment. (author). 15 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Classification of methods for annual energy harvesting calculations of photovoltaic generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rus-Casas, C.; Aguilar, J.D.; Rodrigo, P.; Almonacid, F.; Pérez-Higueras, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents a novel classification of methods for annual energy harvesting calculation of grid-connected PV systems. • The methods are classified in direct and indirect methods. • Direct methods directly calculate the energy. Indirect methods calculate the energy from the power. • The classification can help the PV professionals in order to choose the most suitable method for each application. - Abstract: Estimating the energy provided by the generators of grid-connected photovoltaic systems is important in order to analyze their economic viability and supervise their operation. The energy harvesting calculation of a photovoltaic generator is not trivial; there are a lot of methods for this calculation. The aim of this paper is to develop a novel classification of methods for annual energy harvesting calculation of a generator of a grid-connected photovoltaic system. The methods are classified in two groups: (1) those that indirectly calculate the energy, i.e. they first calculate the power and from this, they calculate the energy, and (2) those that directly calculate the energy. Furthermore, the indirect methods are grouped in two categories: those that first calculate the I–V curve of the generator and from this, they calculate the power, and those that directly calculate the power. The study has shown that the existing methods differ in simplicity and accuracy, so that the proposed classification is useful in order to choose the most suitable method for each specific application

  6. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2005-01-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R and D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R and D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan

  7. Risk and cost comparison of energy technologies for central electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterrett, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of nuclear energy as it relates to alternative sources of electric power generation is presented. Citing Duke Power Company's Oconee Nuclear Station, the nuclear option in the past was the obvious choice. Today it is still the preferred alternative both economically and because of increasing environmental concerns over other energy alternatives. Public acceptance of nuclear generation, following Three Mile Island, remains a significant hurdle in its path

  8. Influence of the characteristic and installation site of wind generator on quantity of produced energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palge, V.; Lepa, J.; Tamm, T.

    2002-01-01

    In Estonia, especially in inland the wind speed is rather low. According to the Master thesis of Tonis Tamm the opportunities of use of several types of wind generators are analysed. It is found out, that the wind generator, beginning to produce energy at wind speed 2 m/s can in such conditions produce about four times more electricity energy than such having 'cut-in' wind speed 4 m/s. (author)

  9. The role of nuclear energy in the generation of electricity in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative calculation of the potential of conventional electricity-generating energy sources-hydroelectric, coal, nuclear - according to different cost levels of generated energy is presented. Assuming a plausible estimate of the demand increase for electricity in the country, calculations show that nuclear energy will have an important role in Brazil only in the second decade of the next century. The potential of some other alternative electricity generating sources is calculated - shale and biomass (bagasse and biogas of vinhoto are discussed) - indicating that by that time nuclear energy will indeed be an option, but not necessarily the only one or the best. Finally a chronological table has been worked out indicating a construction schedule for the reactors in case the option is for nuclear energy - keeping in mind that this option does not depend exclusively on technical and economic but also political criteria and therefore requires a democratic decision-making process. (Author) [pt

  10. Generation 4 International Forum. 2009 GIF R and D outlook for generation 4 nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the state, at mid 2009, of research and development of the 6 reactor types that were selected in the framework of the GIF (Generation 4 International Forum): VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor), SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), SCWR (Super-Critical Water Reactor), GFR (Gas-cooled Fast Reactor), LFR (Lead-cooled reactor), and MSR (Molten Salt Reactor). Regarding each type of reactors, the state of advancement is reported for the reactor itself, its specific components and materials, its nuclear fuel, and its fuel cycle. The outlook of development and research work is also given for the next 5 years for the 6 types of reactors. (A.C.)

  11. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel) and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 m s-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  12. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieniek Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 ms-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  13. Urban energy generation: The added value of photovoltaics in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahaj, A.S.; James, P.A.B.

    2007-01-01

    Social housing offers an alternative for low-to-medium income families and keyworkers (teachers, nurses, and police). In the United Kingdom (UK), this fairly priced, rental accommodation is normally owned by housing associations. This paper explores urban energy generation (micro-generation) focussing on photovoltaics (PV) and how its generated electricity can be used to provide added value in terms of demand reduction and contribute to a reduction in fuel poverty. It presents the results associated from in-depth monitoring of nine low-energy social housing units equipped with PV systems commissioned in 2004 in the South of England, UK. We report on energy load profiles and relate these to occupier behaviour and any changes in consumption that occur. The results highlight the impact of micro-generation showing a close correlation between occupant behaviour and energy consumption. Increased energy awareness can lead to changes in the way energy is used, reducing overall consumption but 'education' must be sustained to ensure long-term energy reductions. The financial benefit of operating high demand electrical appliances at the peak of the solar day as opposed to in the evening when overall demand on the central grid is higher is highlighted. The paper also draws conclusions allied to the challenges that PV micro-generation technology presents in the social housing context. (author)

  14. Dependence of hydropower energy generation on forests in the Amazon Basin at local and regional scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Claudia M; Coe, Michael T; Costa, Marcos H; Nepstad, Daniel C; McGrath, David G; Dias, Livia C P; Rodrigues, Hermann O; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S

    2013-06-04

    Tropical rainforest regions have large hydropower generation potential that figures prominently in many nations' energy growth strategies. Feasibility studies of hydropower plants typically ignore the effect of future deforestation or assume that deforestation will have a positive effect on river discharge and energy generation resulting from declines in evapotranspiration (ET) associated with forest conversion. Forest loss can also reduce river discharge, however, by inhibiting rainfall. We used land use, hydrological, and climate models to examine the local "direct" effects (through changes in ET within the watershed) and the potential regional "indirect" effects (through changes in rainfall) of deforestation on river discharge and energy generation potential for the Belo Monte energy complex, one of the world's largest hydropower plants that is currently under construction on the Xingu River in the eastern Amazon. In the absence of indirect effects of deforestation, simulated deforestation of 20% and 40% within the Xingu River basin increased discharge by 4-8% and 10-12%, with similar increases in energy generation. When indirect effects were considered, deforestation of the Amazon region inhibited rainfall within the Xingu Basin, counterbalancing declines in ET and decreasing discharge by 6-36%. Under business-as-usual projections of forest loss for 2050 (40%), simulated power generation declined to only 25% of maximum plant output and 60% of the industry's own projections. Like other energy sources, hydropower plants present large social and environmental costs. Their reliability as energy sources, however, must take into account their dependence on forests.

  15. Energy and luminosity requirements for the next generation of linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.

    1987-01-01

    In order to gain new knowledge ('new physics') from 'next generation' linear colliders energy and luminosity are important variables when considering the design of these new elementary particle probes. The standard model of the electroweak interaction is reviewed and stipulations for postulated Higgs particle, a new neutral Z particle, and a new quark and a neutral lepton searches with next generation colliders are given

  16. Improved cost of energy comparison of permanent magnet generators for large offshore wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, K.; McDonald, A.; Polinder, H.; Corr, E.; Carroll, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates geared and direct-drive permanent magnet generators for a typical offshore wind turbine, providing a detailed comparison of various wind turbine drivetrain configurations in order to minimise the Cost of Energy. The permanent magnet generator topologies considered include a

  17. Design considerations for permanent magnet direct drive generators for wind energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jassal, A.K.; Polinder, H.; Damen, M.E.C.; Versteegh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Permanent Magnet Direct Drive (PMDD) generators offer very high force density, high efficiency and low number of components. Due to these advantages, PMDD generators are getting popular in the wind energy industry especially for offshore application. Presence of permanent magnets gives magnetic

  18. Development of water demand coefficients for power generation from renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for renewable power generation were developed. • Six renewable energy sources (biomass, nuclear, solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal) were studied. • Life cycle water footprints for 60 electricity generation pathways were considered. • Impact of cooling systems for some power generation pathways was assessed. - Abstract: Renewable energy technology-based power generation is considered to be environmentally friendly and to have a low life cycle greenhouse gas emissions footprint. However, the life cycle water footprint of renewable energy technology-based power generation needs to be assessed. The objective of this study is to develop life cycle water footprints for renewable energy technology-based power generation pathways. Water demand is evaluated through consumption and withdrawals coefficients developed in this study. Sixty renewable energy technology-based power generation pathways were developed for a comprehensive comparative assessment of water footprints. The pathways were based on the use of biomass, nuclear, solar, wind, hydroelectricity, and geothermal as the source of energy. During the complete life cycle, power generation from bio-oil extracted from wood chips, a biomass source, was found to have the highest water demand footprint and wind power the lowest. During the complete life cycle, the water demand coefficients for biomass-based power generation pathways range from 260 to 1289 l of water per kilowatt hour and for nuclear energy pathways from 0.48 to 179 l of water per kilowatt hour. The water demand for power generation from solar energy-based pathways ranges from 0.02 to 4.39 l of water per kilowatt hour, for geothermal pathways from 0.04 to 1.94 l of water per kilowatt hour, and for wind from 0.005 to 0.104 l of water per kilowatt hour. A sensitivity analysis was conducted with varying conversion efficiencies to evaluate the impact of power plant performance on

  19. Design and development of hybrid energy generator (photovoltaics) with solar tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Sabarudin, Mohamad Syabil Bin; Khan, Ahsan Ali; Izan Ihsan, Sany

    2017-03-01

    This paper is the outcome of a small scale hybrid energy generator (hydro and photovoltaic) project. It contains the photovoltaics part of the project. The demand of energy resources is increasing day by day. That is why people nowadays tend to move on and changes their energy usage from using fossil fuels to a cleaner and green energy like hydro energy, solar energy etc. Nevertheless, energy is hard to come by for people who live in remote areas and also campsites in the remote areas which need continuous energy sources to power the facilities. Thus, the purpose of this project is to design and develop a small scale hybrid energy generator to help people that are in need of power. This main objective of this project is to develop and analyze the effectiveness of solar trackers in order to increase the electricity generation from solar energy. Software like Solidworks and Arduino is used to sketch and construct the design and also to program the microcontroller respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the designed solar tracker sytem.

  20. Can Dutch co-generation survive threats of the liberalisation of the energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battjes, J.J.; Rijkers, F.A.M.

    2000-07-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the effects of liberalisation of the Dutch energy markets on the future development of combined heat and power generation (co-generation) in the Netherlands. First, it reviews the historical growth in co-generation in the Netherlands and the supportive policy measures that have contributed to this growth. Second, the liberalisation process of the Dutch electricity market and the Dutch gas market is described. Subsequently, we discuss the impacts of these new market structures on co-generation by using two scenarios for the Dutch energy markets. Our assessment of the impacts is mainly focused on the cost-effectiveness of co-generation projects. We determine the key aspects that influence the cost-effectiveness of a co-generation project and analyse some of the calculations for different small-scale and large-scale co-generation projects. Based on the results, we conclude that investments in new co-generation plants are unlikely in the short term and the existing plants can barely produce with a positive cash flow. As many parties have an interest in reducing the negative effects of a liberalised energy market on co-generation, approaches are sought to improve the cost-effectiveness of co-generation in the Netherlands. We describe several optional supportive measures for co-generation mainly resulting from the determination of the barriers for co-generation. Moreover, Dutch authorities have already responded to these barriers by preparing policy measures such as investment subsidies and exemption from the energy tax. 2 refs

  1. Enhancing the utilization of photovoltaic power generation by superconductive magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.S.; Kumar, P.; Foreman, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) system can enhance large scale utilization of PV generation. With SMES support, power generated from PV arrays van be fully utilized under different weather conditions and PV penetrations can be increased to significant levels without causing adverse effects to the power system. Coupled with PV generation, a SMES system is even more effective in performing diurnal load leveling. A coordinated PV/SMES operation scheme is proposed and demonstrated under different weather conditions

  2. Supervisory Control of Loads and Energy Storage in Next-Generation Zero Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, Feitau [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bernal Heredia, Willy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A zero energy building (ZEB)—also known as a net zero energy or zero net energy building—is a building that exports as much renewable energy as the total energy it imports from other sources on an annual basis (DOE 2015). Large-scale and commercially viable ZEBs are now in the marketplace, and they are expected to become a larger share of the commercial building footprint as government and private sector policies continue to promote the development of buildings that produce more on-site energy than they use. However, the load profiles of ZEBs are currently perceived by electric utilities to be unfavorable and unpredictable. As shown in Figure ES-1, ZEB load profiles can have abrupt changes in magnitude, at times switching rapidly between exporting and importing electricity. This is a challenge for utilities, which are responsible for constantly balancing electricity supply and demand across the grid. Addressing these concerns will require new strategies and tools.

  3. 38th MPA-Seminar 2012. Power generation and energy efficiency. Materials and component behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This conference paper contains the abstracts of lectures and posters. On the accompanying CD-ROM are the manuscripts of the lectures and posters. The four main topics of this paper are: Nuclear Energy; Alternative energy generation; Sealing technology; and Power Plants. 17 of the papers are separately analyzed for this database.

  4. Countervailing inequality effects of globalization and renewable energy generation in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vaona

    2013-01-01

    The present paper assesses the impacts of renewable energy generation and globalization on income inequality in Argentina. We make use of vector autoregression models. We find that globalization and hydroelectric power increase inequality, while the opposite holds true for other renewable energy sources. Several robustness checks are considered. Policy implications are discussed keeping into account the specific Argentinean context.

  5. Coordinated operation of a neighborhood of smart households comprising electric vehicles, energy storage and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinc, O.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal operation of a neighborhood of smart households in terms of minimizing the total energy procurement cost is analyzed. Each household may comprise several assets such as electric vehicles, controllable appliances, energy storage and distributed generation. Bi-directional

  6. Autonomous Active Power Control for Islanded AC Microgrids with Photovoltaic Generation and Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    In an islanded AC microgrid with distributed energy storage system (ESS), photovoltaic (PV) generation and loads, a coordinated active power regulation is required to ensure efficient utilization of renewable energy, while keeping the ESS from overcharge and over discharge conditions. In this paper...

  7. Modeling of damage generation mechanisms in silicon at energies below the displacement threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Ivan; Marques, Luis A.; Pelaz, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulation techniques to study the generation of damage in Si within the low-energy deposition regime. We have demonstrated that energy transfers below the displacement threshold can produce a significant amount of damage, usually neglected in traditional radiation damage calculations. The formation of amorphous pockets agrees with the thermal spike concept of local melting. However, we have found that the order-disorder transition is not instantaneous, but it requires some time to reach the appropriate kinetic-potential energy redistribution for melting. The competition between the rate of this energy redistribution and the energy diffusion to the surrounding atoms determines the amount of damage generated by a given deposited energy. Our findings explain the diverse damage morphology produced by ions of different masses

  8. Economic and Environmental Considerations for Zero-emission Transport and Thermal Energy Generation on an Energy Autonomous Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontina Petrakopoulou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The high cost and environmental impact of fossil-fuel energy generation in remote regions can make renewable energy applications more competitive than business-as-usual scenarios. Furthermore, energy and transport are two of the main sectors that significantly contribute to global greenhouse gas emissions. This paper focuses on the generation of thermal energy and the transport sector of a fossil fuel-based energy independent island in Greece. We evaluate (1 technologies for fully renewable thermal energy generation using building-specific solar thermal systems and (2 the replacement of the vehicle fleet of the island with electric and hydrogen-fueled vehicles. The analysis, based on economic and environmental criteria, shows that although solar thermal decreases greenhouse gases by 83%, when compared to the current diesel-based situation, it only becomes economically attractive with subsidy scenarios equal to or higher than 50%. However, in the transport sector, the sum of fuel and maintenance costs of fuel-cell and electric vehicles is found to be 45% lower than that of the current fleet, due to their approximately seven times lower fuel cost. Lastly, it will take approximately six years of use of the new vehicles to balance out the emissions of their manufacturing phase.

  9. A PROTOTYPICAL HYDRODYNAMIC MINI GENERATOR OF ELECTRIC ENERGY TO BE USED IN THE CHANNEL FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman KACZYŃSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the numerical analysis and scientific research of prototypical solutions for mini generators of electric energy to be assembled in small diameter pipelines. Additionally, this papers presents the construction of a test stand stimulating similar flow to the actual flow allowing testing various geometry of impellers at variable conditions. In order to optimize the impellers geometry of hydro generators the cfd analysis has been used. The characteristics of miniature stepper motors working as electric energy generators have also been assigned.

  10. Stored Energy Balance for Distributed PV-Based Active Generators in an AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed for balancing the state of charge of the energy storage units for distributed PV-based active generators. The proposed method, weights the action of conventional droop control loops for privileging the charge of the energy...... expandable and can be applied to a several number of power generators interconnected in a microgrid. Frequency and voltage bus signaling is used in order to coordinate the control operation mode between units. Simulation results in a low-voltage, three-phase, islanded AC microgrid show the feasibility...... of the proposed method and its applicability even for several active generators....

  11. Hybrid mini-grid systems - distributed generation systems for communities based on renewable energy resources

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available agricultural products as the basis for new economic activities for the communities adjacent to the Hluleka Nature Reserve and Lucingweni village. To increase the demand for energy and electricity, from not only the domestic sector from the various villages... and clean forms of energy to enable productive economic activities to generate much needed income. However, the provision of energy must be cognisant of Africa's primary needs of also delivering potable drinking water and sanitation. Hence...

  12. Generating a positive energy balance from using rice straw for anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    The net energy of the rice straw supply chain for biogas generation through AD is 3,500 MJ per ton of straw. This rice straw management option can provide a 70% net output energy benefit. The research highlighted the potential of rice straw as a clean fuel source with a positive energy balance, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with the existing practice of burning it in the field.

  13. Allocation of energy resources for power generation in India: Business as usual and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallah, Subhash; Bansal, N.K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with MARKAL allocations for various energy sources, in India, for Business As Usual (BAU) scenario and for the case of exploitation of energy saving potential in various sectors of economy. In the BAU scenario, the electrical energy requirement will raise up to 5000 bKwh units per year or 752 GW of installed capacity with major consumers being in the industry, domestic and service sectors. This demand can be met by a mix of coal, hydro, nuclear and wind technologies. Other reneawbles i.e. solar and biomass will start contributing from the year 2040 onwards. By full exploitation of energy saving potential, the annual electrical energy demand gets reduced to 3061 bKwh (or 458 GW), a reduction of 38.9%.The green house gas emissions reduce correspondingly. In this scenario, market allocations for coal, gas and large hydro become stagnant after the year 2015.

  14. The viability of balancing wind generation with large scale energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of combining wind generation and dedicated large scale energy storage on the conventional thermal plant mix and the CO 2 emissions of a power system. Different strategies are proposed here in order to explore the best operational strategy for the wind and storage system in terms of its effect on the net load. Furthermore, the economic viability of combining wind and large scale storage is studied. The empirical application, using data for the Irish power system, shows that combined wind and storage reduces the participation of mid-merit plants and increases the participation of base-load plants. Moreover, storage negates some of the CO 2 emissions reduction of the wind generation. It was also found that the wind and storage output can significantly reduce the variability of the net load under certain operational strategies and the optimal strategy depends on the installed wind capacity. However, in the absence of any supporting mechanism none of the storage devices were economically viable when they were combined with the wind generation on the Irish power system. - Research Highlights: → Energy storage would displace the peaking and mid-merit plants generations by the base-load plants generations. Energy storage may negate the CO 2 emissions reduction that is due to the increased wind generations. →Energy storage reduces the variation of the net load. →Under certain market conditions, merchant type energy storage is not viable.

  15. A Vertical Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Based Oscillating Wave Power Generator with Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an effective low-speed oscillating wave power generator and its energy storage system have been proposed. A vertical flux-switching permanent magnet (PM machine is designed as the generator while supercapacitors and batteries are used to store the energy. First, the overall power generation system is established and principles of the machine are introduced. Second, three modes are proposed for the energy storage system and sliding mode control (SMC is employed to regulate the voltage of the direct current (DC bus, observe the mechanical input, and feedback the status of the storage system. Finally, experiments with load and sinusoidal mechanical inputs are carried out to validate the effectiveness and stability of power generation for wave energy. The results show that the proposed power generation system can be employed in low-speed environment around 1 m/s to absorb random wave power, achieving over 60% power efficiency. The power generation approach can be used to capture wave energy in the future.

  16. Co-provision in sustainable energy systems: the case of micro-generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Electricity generation by individual households (known as micro-generation) is attracting an increasing amount of interest within government, industry and the research community. This paper focuses on the potential for micro-generation to contribute to a more active role for household energy consumers in the development and operation of the energy system. The paper applies the concept of energy service co-provision to aid an understanding of this more active role. It considers a number of alternative models for micro-generation investment that imply different kinds of co-provision by consumers and energy companies. The analysis focuses in particular on the economics of these models in the UK, the associated barriers to micro-generation investment, and the scope for overcoming these barriers through changes in fiscal rules. Having conducted this economic analysis, the paper concludes with a brief discussion of the wider implications of these models for consumer behaviour. In particular, it considers the impact of IT and control systems that might be employed to facilitate energy service co-provision that includes micro-generation

  17. A novel method for energy harvesting simulation based on scenario generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Li, Taoshen; Xiao, Nan; Ye, Jin; Wu, Min

    2018-06-01

    Energy harvesting network (EHN) is a new form of computer networks. It converts ambient energy into usable electric energy and supply the electrical energy as a primary or secondary power source to the communication devices. However, most of the EHN uses the analytical probability distribution function to describe the energy harvesting process, which cannot accurately identify the actual situation for the lack of authenticity. We propose an EHN simulation method based on scenario generation in this paper. Firstly, instead of setting a probability distribution in advance, it uses optimal scenario reduction technology to generate representative scenarios in single period based on the historical data of the harvested energy. Secondly, it uses homogeneous simulated annealing algorithm to generate optimal daily energy harvesting scenario sequences to get a more accurate simulation of the random characteristics of the energy harvesting network. Then taking the actual wind power data as an example, the accuracy and stability of the method are verified by comparing with the real data. Finally, we cite an instance to optimize the network throughput, which indicate the feasibility and effectiveness of the method we proposed from the optimal solution and data analysis in energy harvesting simulation.

  18. At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Cruz

    Full Text Available Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

  19. At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proaño, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

  20. Improving the network infeed accuracy of non-dispatchable generators with energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppel, Gaudenz; Korpaas, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    The power output of generators based on renewable energy sources is often difficult to predict due to the non-deterministic behaviour of the energy source. Particularly in the case of wind turbines this leads to unpredicted line loading and requires balancing energy, at relatively high costs, depending on market structures. Consequently, the income from the production from such non-dispatchable generators can be significantly reduced by the penalty costs incurred. This paper investigates the potential of operating an energy storage device in parallel with the non-dispatchable generator in order to compensate the inaccuracies of the forecasted infeed and to avoid infeed deviations. A time series based simulation methodology is discussed, suitable for any type of non-dispatchable generator. The methodology contains a procedure for simulating different forecast errors, applying an exponentially weighted moving average approach. Analysis procedures and system performance indices are introduced for the evaluation of the configuration's performance. The applicability is shown in two case studies, using measurement data from a wind turbine and from a photovoltaic system. Both case studies show that the suggested configuration considerably improves the reliability or dependability of the network infeed, in turn reducing the demand for balancing energy and back-up generation. The relation between forecast error magnitude and required energy capacity is identified and the coherence of the time series analysis is discussed. (author)

  1. Co-Generation and Renewables: Solutions for a Low-Carbon Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Co-generation and renewables: solutions for a low-carbon energy future shows that powerful synergies exist when co-generation and renewables work together. The report documents, for the first time, some of the little-known complementary aspects of the two technologies. It also re-emphasises the stand-alone benefits of each technology. Thus, decision makers can use the report as a 'one-stop shop' when they need credible information on co-generation, renewables and the possible synergies between the two. It also provides answers to policy makers' questions about the potential energy and environmental benefits of an increased policy commitment to both co-generation and renewables. Secure, reliable, affordable and clean energy supplies are fundamental to economic and social stability and development. Energy and environmental decision-makers are faced with major challenges that require action now in order to ensure a more sustainable future. More efficient use of, and cleaner primary energy sources can help to achieve this goal. Co-generation -- also known as combined heat and power (CHP) -- represents a proven, cost-effective and energy-efficient solution for delivering electricity and heat. Renewable sources provide clean and secure fuels for producing electricity and heat.

  2. Biomass for generation of electrical energy in the Bolivariana Republic of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Peraza, Alejandro; Perez Matos, Richard; Robles Guillen, Charlee

    2009-01-01

    In Venezuela, the MENPET (Ministry of Popular Power for Energy and Oil), advances a project to national level with the general objective to consider the potential of Biomass with power aims, in sugar plants and the following specific objectives: to determine the autogeneration of energy with cane bagasse used like fuel in the boilers that generate the steam, that needs the turbines to drive the generator ELTs, mills, centrifugal pumps, ventilators, etc. and the steam, destined to the process of sugar manufacture; To determine the leftover bagasse with possibility for co-generation of electrical energy in plant. The pressure and temperature of the steam generated in the boilers it is relatively low, but sufficient to obtain balance, between driving force and steam for processes. Increasing pressure and temperature of the steam, a turbine with a generator ELT can be driven, of greater power to cover needs with energy in factory and to have surpluses to inject to the distribution network, without increase of fuel costs; To determine the interchange of energy with the network of distribution, located in the surroundings of the plants. Energy to fortify the communities that inhabit the rural areas of the surroundings; To have a diagnosis, of the state of the distribution, communications nets, substation and circuit in these areas of rural development. (author)

  3. 风能、光伏发电与储能%Wind energy,photovoltaic generation and energy-storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金良

    2009-01-01

    发展可再生能源对满足能源需求、减少环境污染和促进经济可持续发展具有重大意义.总结了全球风能、太阳能发电产业的发展:详细分析了中国风能和光伏发电的现状、市场分布和发展目标.储能是风能、光伏发电系统的重要组成部分,阐述了储能电源的技术要求,蓄电池储能仍是目前最成熟、最可靠的储能技术;风能、太阳能发电产业的高速发展将为储能电池和储能技术的发展带来新的市场和机会:开发新型储能电源和技术将成为今后电池业界的研究热点.%It's significant that developing the renewable energy to meet the energy demands, reducing environmental pollution and accelerating the sustainable economic development. The global progresses of power generation industry with wind energy and solar energy were summarized in this paper. The status market distribution and development goal of wind energy and solar energy in China were analyzed in detail. Energy-storage is an important part of power generation systems in wind energy and solar energy. The technical demands of energy-storage power sources were represented. At present, energy-storage with secondary batteries was the most mature and credible ways. The rapid development of power generation industry with wind energy and solar energy would bring new markets and opportunities for energy-storage batteries and technique. The development of new type of storage power sources and techniques would be the research hotspots in the field of battery industries in the future.

  4. Electricity generation: regulatory mechanisms to incentive renewable alternative energy sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao; Silva, E.P. da

    2005-01-01

    The dissemination of renewable alternative energy sources for electricity generation has always being done through regulatory mechanisms, created and managed by the government of each country. Since these sources are more costly to generate, they have received incentives in response to worldwide environmental concerns, above all with regard to the reduction of CO 2 emissions. In Brazil, the electricity generation from renewable alternative sources is experiencing a new phase of growth. Until a short time ago, environmental appeal was the strongest incentive to these sources in Brazil but it was insufficient to attain its objective. With the electricity crisis and the rationing imposed in 2001, another important factor gained awareness: the need to diversify energy sources. Within this context, this work has the objective of analyzing the regulatory mechanisms recently developed to stimulate electricity generation from renewable alternative energy sources in Brazil by following the experience of other countries such as the United States, United Kingdom and Germany

  5. Modelling of Diesel Generator Sets That Assist Off-Grid Renewable Energy Micro-grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Salazar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on modelling diesel generators for off-grid installations based on renewable energies. Variations in Environmental Variables (for example, Solar Radiation and Wind Speed make necessary to include these auxiliary systems in off-grid renewable energy installations, in order to ensure minimal services when the produced renewable energy is not sufficient to fulfill the demand. This paper concentrates on modelling the dynamical behaviour of the diesel generator, in order to use the models and simulations for developing and testing advanced controllers for the overall off-grid system. The Diesel generator is assumed to consist of a diesel motor connected to a synchronous generator through an electromagnetic clutch, with a flywheel to damp variations. Each of the components is modelled using physical models, with the corresponding control systems also modelled: these control systems include the speed and the voltage regulation (in cascade regulation.

  6. Water withdrawal and consumption reduction analysis for electrical energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Narjes

    There is an increasing concern over shrinking water resources. Water use in the energy sector primarily occurs in electricity generation. Anticipating scarcer supplies, the value of water is undoubtedly on the rise and design, implementation, and utilization of water saving mechanisms in energy generation systems are becoming inevitable. Most power plants generate power by boiling water to produce steam to spin electricity-generating turbines. Large quantities of water are often used to cool the steam in these plants. As a consequence, most fossil-based power plants in addition to consuming water, impact the water resources by raising the temperature of water withdrawn for cooling. A comprehensive study is conducted in this thesis to analyze and quantify water withdrawals and consumption of various electricity generation sources such as coal, natural gas, renewable sources, etc. Electricity generation for the state of California is studied and presented as California is facing a serious drought problem affecting more than 30 million people. Integrated planning for the interleaved energy and water sectors is essential for both water and energy savings. A linear model is developed to minimize the water consumption while considering several limitations and restrictions. California has planned to shut down some of its hydro and nuclear plants due to environmental concerns. Studies have been performed for various electricity generation and water saving scenarios including no-hydro and no-nuclear plant and the results are presented. Modifications to proposed different scenarios have been applied and discussed to meet the practical and reliability constraints.

  7. The Influence of Output Variability from Renewable Electricity Generation on Net Energy Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Kunz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One key approach to analyzing the feasibility of energy extraction and generation technologies is to understand the net energy they contribute to society. These analyses most commonly focus on a simple comparison of a source’s expected energy outputs to the required energy inputs, measured in the form of energy return on investment (EROI. What is not typically factored into net energy analysis is the influence of output variability. This omission ignores a key attribute of biological organisms and societies alike: the preference for stable returns with low dispersion versus equivalent returns that are intermittent or variable. This biologic predilection for stability, observed and refined in academic financial literature, has a direct relationship to many new energy technologies whose outputs are much more variable than traditional energy sources. We investigate the impact of variability on net energy metrics and develop a theoretical framework to evaluate energy systems based on existing financial and biological risk models. We then illustrate the impact of variability on nominal energy return using representative technologies in electricity generation, with a more detailed analysis on wind power, where intermittence and stochastic availability of hard-to-store electricity will be factored into theoretical returns.

  8. Potential for wind energy generation and conversion for rural application: a case study for Ada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayensu, A.; Lawluv, H.

    2001-01-01

    One major indicator of achieving the goals of Vision 2020 is an increased energy use per head, which had a 1993 value of 93 koe (kilograms of oil equivalent) as compared to 299 koe for the least developed middle income nation, and 5,563 koe for Singapore. To satisfy this energy requirement, all potential sources of energy must be harnessed and most importantly, the private sector's involvement in off-grid electric power generation must be encouraged. A cost-benefit analysis, energy payback time and energy ratios have been determined to assess the potential of wind energy generation and conversation at Ada; which has a mean monthly wind speed of 6.23 m/s at a height of 30 m and considered to be adequate to run a small to medium sized wind turbine to generate about 28 kW. The proposal is to install a prototype aero generation system for a small community isolated from the national grid line, and is aimed at demonstrating how a renewable, non-pollutant and independent power source, transformed by means of advanced technology can achieve energy self sufficiency for the community, while avoiding negative impacts on the environment and ensuring cost-effectiveness. The system will consist of an aero-generation unit, storage system and demand electric consumption. The generator will supply the power to batteries through a load rectifier/governor for storage. The demand in electric consumption can be supplied in DC by accumulators or AC by current inverter. The technical features proposed for the aero generation system is a 20 - 30 kW maximum power turbine, a 24 V capacity battery delivery 1625 Ah in 100 h, two charger inverter units connected in parallel with AC synchronized outlet for consumption. The outlet power of each inverter will be 2400 W DC and the estimated time to complete battery load power unit will be 12 h. The projected cost of electricity generated by an optimized scheme is estimated to be 9 cents/kWh, as compared with photovoltaic generation at 5 - 14

  9. Egg production in a coastal seabird, the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, declines during the last century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K Blight

    Full Text Available Seabirds integrate information about oceanic ecosystems across time and space, and are considered sensitive indicators of marine conditions. To assess whether hypothesized long-term foodweb changes such as forage fish declines may be reflected in a consumer's life history traits over time, I used meta-regression to evaluate multi-decadal changes in aspects of egg production in the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens, a common coastal bird. Study data were derived from literature searches of published papers and unpublished historical accounts, museum egg collections, and modern field studies, with inclusion criteria based on data quality and geographic area of the original study. Combined historical and modern data showed that gull egg size declined at an average of 0.04 cc y(-1 from 1902 (108 y, equivalent to a decline of 5% of mean egg volume, while clutch size decreased over 48 y from a mean of 2.82 eggs per clutch in 1962 to 2.25 in 2009. There was a negative relationship between lay date and mean clutch size in a given year, with smaller clutches occurring in years where egg laying commenced later. Lay date itself advanced over time, with commencement of laying presently (2008-2010 7 d later than in previous studies (1959-1986. This study demonstrates that glaucous-winged gull investment in egg production has declined significantly over the past ∼50-100 y, with such changes potentially contributing to recent population declines. Though gulls are generalist feeders that should readily be able to buffer themselves against food web changes, they are likely nutritionally constrained during the early breeding period, when egg production requirements are ideally met by consumption of high-quality prey such as forage fish. This study's results suggest a possible decline in the availability of such prey, and the incremental long-term impoverishment of a coastal marine ecosystem bordering one of North America's rapidly growing urban areas.

  10. Egg Production in a Coastal Seabird, the Glaucous-Winged Gull (Larus glaucescens), Declines during the Last Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blight, Louise K.

    2011-01-01

    Seabirds integrate information about oceanic ecosystems across time and space, and are considered sensitive indicators of marine conditions. To assess whether hypothesized long-term foodweb changes such as forage fish declines may be reflected in a consumer's life history traits over time, I used meta-regression to evaluate multi-decadal changes in aspects of egg production in the glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens), a common coastal bird. Study data were derived from literature searches of published papers and unpublished historical accounts, museum egg collections, and modern field studies, with inclusion criteria based on data quality and geographic area of the original study. Combined historical and modern data showed that gull egg size declined at an average of 0.04 cc y−1 from 1902 (108 y), equivalent to a decline of 5% of mean egg volume, while clutch size decreased over 48 y from a mean of 2.82 eggs per clutch in 1962 to 2.25 in 2009. There was a negative relationship between lay date and mean clutch size in a given year, with smaller clutches occurring in years where egg laying commenced later. Lay date itself advanced over time, with commencement of laying presently (2008–2010) 7 d later than in previous studies (1959–1986). This study demonstrates that glaucous-winged gull investment in egg production has declined significantly over the past ∼50–100 y, with such changes potentially contributing to recent population declines. Though gulls are generalist feeders that should readily be able to buffer themselves against food web changes, they are likely nutritionally constrained during the early breeding period, when egg production requirements are ideally met by consumption of high-quality prey such as forage fish. This study's results suggest a possible decline in the availability of such prey, and the incremental long-term impoverishment of a coastal marine ecosystem bordering one of North America's rapidly growing urban areas. PMID

  11. Experimental infection of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, Antonio; van Amerongen, Geert; van de Bildt, Marco; Leijten, Loneke; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Osterhaus, Albert; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-08-19

    Historically, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) rarely resulted in infection or clinical disease in wild birds. However, since 2002, disease and mortality from natural HPAIV H5N1 infection have been observed in wild birds including gulls. We performed an experimental HPAIV H5N1 infection of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) to determine their susceptibility to infection and disease from this virus, pattern of viral shedding, clinical signs, pathological changes and viral tissue distribution. We inoculated sixteen black-headed gulls with 1 × 10(4) median tissue culture infectious dose HPAIV H5N1 (A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005) intratracheally and intraesophageally. Birds were monitored daily until 12 days post inoculation (dpi). Oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected daily to detect viral shedding. Necropsies from birds were performed at 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 12 dpi. Sampling from selected tissues was done for histopathology, immunohistochemical detection of viral antigen, PCR, and viral isolation. Our study shows that all inoculated birds were productively infected, developed systemic disease, and had a high morbidity and mortality rate. Virus was detected mainly in the respiratory tract on the first days after inoculation, and then concentrated more in pancreas and central nervous system from 4 dpi onwards. Birds shed infectious virus until 7 dpi from the pharynx and 6 dpi from the cloaca. We conclude that black-headed gulls are highly susceptible to disease with a high mortality rate and are thus more likely to act as sentinel species for the presence of the virus than as long-distance carriers of the virus to new geographical areas.

  12. Multi-laboratory evaluations of the performance of Catellicoccus marimammalium PCR assays developed to target gull fecal sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Ervin, Jared S.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C.; Badgley, Brian D.; Ballestée, Elisenda; Bartkowiaka, Jakob; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Gourmelon, Michèle; Griffith, John; Holden, Patricia A.; Jay, Jenny; Layton, Blythe; Lee, Cheonghoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Meijer, Wim G.; Noble, Rachel; Raith, Meredith; Ryu, Hodon; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Schriewer, Alexander; Wang, Dan; Wanless, David; Whitman, Richard; Wuertz, Stefan; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report results from a multi-laboratory (n = 11) evaluation of four different PCR methods targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium originally developed to detect gull fecal contamination in coastal environments. The methods included a conventional end-point PCR method, a SYBR® Green qPCR method, and two TaqMan® qPCR methods. Different techniques for data normalization and analysis were tested. Data analysis methods had a pronounced impact on assay sensitivity and specificity calculations. Across-laboratory standardization of metrics including the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), target detected but not quantifiable (DNQ), and target not detected (ND) significantly improved results compared to results submitted by individual laboratories prior to definition standardization. The unit of measure used for data normalization also had a pronounced effect on measured assay performance. Data normalization to DNA mass improved quantitative method performance as compared to enterococcus normalization. The MST methods tested here were originally designed for gulls but were found in this study to also detect feces from other birds, particularly feces composited from pigeons. Sequencing efforts showed that some pigeon feces from California contained sequences similar to C. marimammalium found in gull feces. These data suggest that the prevalence, geographic scope, and ecology of C. marimammalium in host birds other than gulls require further investigation. This study represents an important first step in the multi-laboratory assessment of these methods and highlights the need to broaden and standardize additional evaluations, including environmentally relevant target concentrations in ambient waters from diverse geographic regions.

  13. The role of phantom and treatment head generated bremsstrahlung in high-energy electron beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorcini, B.B.; Hyoedynmaa, S.; Brahme, A.

    1996-01-01

    An analytical expression has been derived for the phantom generated bremsstrahlung photons in plane-parallel monoenergetic electron beams normally incident on material of any atomic number (Be, H 2 O, Al, Cu and U). The expression is suitable for the energy range from 1 to 50 MeV and it is solely based on known scattering power and radiative and collision stopping power data for the material at the incident electron energy. The depth dose distribution due to the bremsstrahlung generated by the electrons in the phantom is derived by convolving the bremsstrahlung energy fluence produced in the phantom with a simple analytical energy deposition kernel. The kernel accounts for both electrons and photons set in motion by the bremsstrahlung photons. The energy loss by the primary electrons, the build-up of the electron fluence and the generation, attenuation and absorption of bremsstrahlung photons are all taken into account in the analytical formula. The longitudinal energy deposition kernel is derived analytically and it is consistent with both the classical biexponential relation describing the photon depth dose distribution and the exponential attenuation of the primary photons. For comparison Monte Carlo calculated energy deposition distributions using ITS3 code were used. Good agreement was found between the results with the analytical expression and the Monte Carlo calculation. For tissue equivalent materials, the maximum total energy deposition differs by less than 0.2% from Monte Carlo calculated dose distributions. The result can be used to estimate the depth dependence of phantom generated bremsstrahlung in different materials in therapeutic electron beams and the bremsstrahlung production in different electron absorbers such as scattering foils, transmission monitors and photon and electron collimators. By subtracting the phantom generated bremsstrahlung from the total bremsstrahlung background the photon contamination generated in the treatment head can be

  14. Harnessing Alternative Energy Sources to Enhance the Design of a Wave Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, A.

    2017-12-01

    Wave energy has the power to replace a non-renewable source of electricity for a home near the ocean. I built a small-scale wave generator capable of producing approximately 5 volts of electricity. The generator is an array of 16 small generators, each consisting of 200 feet of copper wire, 12 magnets, and a buoy. I tested my design in the Pacific Ocean and was able to power a string of lights I had attached to the generator. While the waves in the ocean moved my buoys, my design was powered by the vertical motion of the waves. My generator was hit with significant horizontal wave motion, and I realized I wasn't taking advantage of that direction of motion. To make my generator produce more electricity, I experimented with capturing the energy of the horizontal motion of water and incorporated that into my generator design. My generator, installed in the ocean, is also exposed to sun and wind, and I am exploring the potential of solar and wind energy collection in my design to increase the electricity output. Once I have maximized my electricity output, I would like to explore scaling up my design.

  15. Analysis of the energy portfolio for electricity generation; Analisis del portafolio energetico para la generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.; Esquivel E, J., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2016-09-15

    The planning of electricity generation systems considers several factors that must be taken into account in order to design systems that are economical, reliable and sustainable. For this purpose, the Financial Portfolio Theory is applicable to the energy portfolio or the diversification of electricity generation technologies, such as is the combined cycle, wind, thermoelectric and nuclear. This paper presents an application of the Portfolio Theory to the national energy system, based on the total generation costs for each technology, which allows determining the average variance portfolio and the respective share of each of the electricity generation technologies considered, obtaining a portfolio of electricity generation with the maximum possible return for the risk taken in the investments. This paper describes the basic aspects of the Portfolio Theory and its methodology, in which matrices are implemented for the solution of the resulting Lagrange system. (Author)

  16. Composition Modeling and Equivalence of an Integrated Power Generation System of Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haohuai; TANG Yong; HOU Junxian; ZOU Jiangfeng; LIANGShuang; SU Feng

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic of wind and solar generation is random and fluctuant. In order to improve their generation performance, the integrated power generation of wind, photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage is a focus in the study. In this paper,

  17. Explosive magnetic flux compression plate generators as fast high-energy power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Garn, W.B.; Fowler, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    A type of explosive driven generator, called a plate generator, is described. It is capable of delivering electrical energies in the MJ range at TW power levels. Plane wave detonated explosive systems accelerate two large-area metal plates to high opposing velocities. An initial magnetic field is compressed and the flux transferred to an external load. The characteristics of the plate generator are described and compared with those of other types of generators. Methods of load matching are discussed. The results of several high-power experiments are also given

  18. A CAD model for energy efficient offshore structures for desalination and energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rahul Dev,

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a ‘Computer Aided Design (CAD’ model for energy efficient design of offshore structures. In the CAD model preliminary dimensions and geometric details of an offshore structure (i.e. semi-submersible are optimized to achieve a favorable range of motion to reduce the energy consumed by the ‘Dynamic Position System (DPS’. The presented model allows the designer to select the configuration satisfying the user requirements and integration of Computer Aided Design (CAD and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The integration of CAD with CFD computes a hydrodynamically and energy efficient hull form. Our results show that the implementation of the present model results into an design that can serve the user specified requirements with less cost and energy consumption.

  19. Optimized Energy Procurement for Cellular Networks with Uncertain Renewable Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Rached, Nadhir B.; Ghazzai, Hakim; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is an emerging solution for reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from cellular networks. One of the challenges of using RE sources is to handle its inherent uncertainty. In this paper, a RE powered cellular network

  20. Performance of Generating Plant: Managing the Changes. Part 3: Renewable energy plant: reports on wind, photovoltaics and biomas energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoha, Bruno; Cohen, Martin [Electricite de France (France)

    2008-05-15

    The WEC Committee on the Performance of Generating Plant (PGP) has been collecting and analysing power plant performance statistics worldwide for more than 30 years and has produced regular reports, which include examples of advanced techniques and methods for improving power plant performance through benchmarking. A series of reports from the various working groups was issued in 2008. This reference presents the results of Working Group 3 (WG3). WG3 will promote the introduction of performance indicators for renewable energy generating plant (wind, geothermal, solar and biomass) developed by the Committee. It will also assess selected transitional technology issues and environmental factors related to non-conventional technologies. The WG3 report includes sections on Wind Energy Today, Photovoltaics Energy Today, Biomass Electricity Today and appendices.

  1. Climate variability and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in the arctic: a study of glaucous gulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan O; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Verreault, Jonathan

    2010-04-15

    The impact of climate variability on temporal trends (1997-2006) of persistent organic pollutants (POPs; polychlorinated biphenyls [PCB], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], and oxychlordane) was assessed in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) breeding in the Norwegian Arctic (n = 240). The Arctic Oscillation (AO: an index of sea-level pressure variability in the Northern Hemisphere above 20 degrees N) with different time lags was used as a climate proxy. The estimated concentrations of POPs in glaucous gull blood/plasma declined substantially (16-60%) over the time period. Multiple regression analyses showed that the rates of decline for POPs were correlated to climate variation when controlling for potential confounding variables (sex and body condition). More specifically AO in the current winter showed negative associations with POP concentrations, whereas the relationships with AO measurements from the year preceding POP measurements (AO preceding summer and AO preceding winter) were positive. Hence, gulls had relatively higher POP concentrations in breeding seasons following years with high air transport toward the Arctic. Furthermore, the impact of AO appeared to be stronger for HCB, a relatively volatile compound with high transport potential, compared to heavy chlorinated PCB congeners. This study thus suggests that predicted climate change should be considered in assessments of future temporal trends of POPs in Arctic wildlife.

  2. The Kelp Gull as bioindicator of environmental chemicals in the Magellan region. A comparison with other coastal sites in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Muñoz

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available During the breeding seasons 1994/5 and 1995/6 we collected Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus eggs from five locations in central to south Chile to study the contamination with mercury and organochlorine compounds. The sites were Algarrobo, Concepción, Maiquillahue Bay, Doña Sebastiana Island (Chalcao channel at Chiloé and Magdalena Island (Straits of Magellan. We found differences among the sites: Kelp Gull eggs from Chiloé and Algarrobo had the greatest concentrations of mercury (about 170 ng g-1 fresh weight. Residues of DDT were greatest in eggs from Algarrobo and Maiquillahue Bay, those of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls greatest at Algarrobo and Concepción. HCB had highest levels at Concepción. Considering all organochlorines, samples from Algarrobo had the highest concentrations, those from Chiloé the lowest. In consequence we found a geographical pattern from north to south, i.e., from areas with greater to lesser human impact. In comparison with other studies, the levels of environmental chemicals found in Kelp Gulls from Chile are much lower than those known to cause adverse effects on reproductive success.

  3. The GULLS project: a comparison of vulnerabilities across selected ocean hotspots and implications for adaptation to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, K.; Hobday, A. J.; Aswani, S.; Byfield, V.; Dutra, L.; Gasalla, M.; Haward, M.; Paytan, A.; Pecl, G.; Plaganyi-Lloyd, E.; Popova, K.; Salim, S. S.; Savage, C.; Sauer, W.; van Putten, I. E.; Visser, N.; Team, T G

    2016-12-01

    The GULLS project, `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' has been underway since October 2014. The project has been investigating six regional `hotspots': marine areas experiencing rapid warming. These are south-east Australia, Brazil, India, Solomon Islands, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and Madagascar. Rapid warming could be expected to have social, cultural and economic impacts that could affect these countries in different ways and may already be doing so. GULLS has focused on contributing to assessing and reducing the vulnerability of coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources and to facilitate adaptation to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. It includes participants from Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The research programme has been divided into six inter-linked components: ocean models, biological and ecological sensitivity analyses, system models, social vulnerability, policy mapping, and communication and education. This presentation will provide a brief overview of each of these components and describe the benefits that have resulted from the collaborative and transdisciplinary approach of GULLS. Following the standard vulnerability elements of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, the vulnerabilities of coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources in the five hotspots will be compared using a set of indicators derived and populated from results of the research programme. The implications of similarities and differences between the hotspots for adaptation planning and options will be described.

  4. Amino acid specific stable nitrogen isotope values in avian tissues: Insights from captive American kestrels and wild herring gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Craig E.; Popp, B.N.; Fernie, K.J.; Ka'apu-Lyons, C.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Wallsgrove, N.

    2016-01-01

    Through laboratory and field studies, the utility of amino acid compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis (AA-CSIA) in avian studies is investigated. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed an isotopically characterized diet and patterns in δ15N values of amino acids (AAs) were compared to those in their tissues (muscle and red blood cells) and food. Based upon nitrogen isotope discrimination between diet and kestrel tissues, AAs could mostly be categorized as source AAs (retaining baseline δ15N values) and trophic AAs (showing 15N enrichment). Trophic discrimination factors based upon the source (phenylalanine, Phe) and trophic (glutamic acid, Glu) AAs were 4.1 (muscle) and 5.4 (red blood cells), lower than those reported for metazoan invertebrates. In a field study involving omnivorous herring gulls (Larus argentatus smithsonianus), egg AA isotopic patterns largely retained those observed in the laying female’s tissues (muscle, red blood cells, and liver). Realistic estimates of gull trophic position were obtained using bird Glu and Phe δ15N values combined with β values (difference in Glu and Phe δ15N in primary producers) for aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Egg fatty acids were used to weight β values for proportions of aquatic and terrestrial food in gull diets. This novel approach can be applied to generalist species that feed across ecosystem boundaries.

  5. Optimal balance between energy demand and onsite energy generation for robust net zero energy buildings considering future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotireddy, R.R.; Hoes, P.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Net-zero energy buildings have usually very low energy demand, and consequently heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems are designed and controlled to meet this low energy demand. However, a number of uncertainties in the building use, operation and external conditions such as

  6. Community Renewable Energy: The Potential for Energy Generation on Public Land In Cedar City, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Betsy

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population rises and becomes increasingly more urbanized, there is a greater demand on our resources. Current energy production practices are based on resources with finite supplies and are associated with environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas and particulate emissions, water resource use, and resource extraction. In contrast, renewable energy production is based on free, continually replenished sources with relatively few environmental impacts. Distributed renewable ene...

  7. Book of abstracts: International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , which takes a sole focus on the electricity sector, the smart energy systems approach includes the entire energy system in its identification of suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. Focusing solely on the smart electricity grid often leads to the definition of transmission......It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the first International Conference on Smart Energy Systems and 4th Generation District Heating at Aalborg University, Copenhagen Campus on 25-26 August 2015. The conference is organised by the 4DH Strategic Research Centre in collaboration with Aalborg...... University and offers more than 70 presentations in 3 parallel sessions with more than 180 participants from 25 countries around the world. The aim is to present and discuss scientific findings and industrial experiences related to the development of Smart Energy Systems and future 4th Generation District...

  8. Electromechanical conversion efficiency for dielectric elastomer generator in different energy harvesting cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian-Bo; E, Shi-Ju; Guo, Zhuang; Gao, Zhao; Luo, Han-Pin

    2017-11-01

    In order to improve electromechanical conversion efficiency for dielectric elastomer generators (DEG), on the base of studying DEG energy harvesting cycles of constant voltage, constant charge and constant electric field intensity, a new combined cycle mode and optimization theory in terms of the generating mechanism and electromechanical coupling process have been built. By controlling the switching point to achieve the best energy conversion cycle, the energy loss in the energy conversion process is reduced. DEG generating test bench which was used to carry out comparative experiments has been established. Experimental results show that the collected energy in constant voltage cycle, constant charge cycle and constant electric field intensity energy harvesting cycle decreases in turn. Due to the factors such as internal resistance losses, electrical losses and so on, actual energy values are less than the theoretical values. The electric energy conversion efficiency by combining constant electric field intensity cycle with constant charge cycle is larger than that of constant electric field intensity cycle. The relevant conclusions provide a basis for the further applications of DEG.

  9. Synthetic wind speed scenarios generation for probabilistic analysis of hybrid energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jun; Rabiti, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid energy systems consisting of multiple energy inputs and multiple energy outputs have been proposed to be an effective element to enable ever increasing penetration of clean energy. In order to better understand the dynamic and probabilistic behavior of hybrid energy systems, this paper proposes a model combining Fourier series and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) to characterize historical weather measurements and to generate synthetic weather (e.g., wind speed) data. In particular, Fourier series is used to characterize the seasonal trend in historical data, while ARMA is applied to capture the autocorrelation in residue time series (e.g., measurements with seasonal trends subtracted). The generated synthetic wind speed data is then utilized to perform probabilistic analysis of a particular hybrid energy system configuration, which consists of nuclear power plant, wind farm, battery storage, natural gas boiler, and chemical plant. Requirements on component ramping rate, economic and environmental impacts of hybrid energy systems, and the effects of deploying different sizes of batteries in smoothing renewable variability, are all investigated. - Highlights: • Computational model to synthesize artificial wind speed data with consistent characteristics with database. • Fourier series to capture seasonal trends in the database. • Monte Carlo simulation and probabilistic analysis of hybrid energy systems. • Investigation of the effect of battery in smoothing variability of wind power generation.

  10. Productivity of "collisions generate heat" for reconciling an energy model with mechanistic reasoning: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Robertson, Amy D.

    2015-06-01

    We observe teachers in professional development courses about energy constructing mechanistic accounts of energy transformations. We analyze a case in which teachers investigating adiabatic compression develop a model of the transformation of kinetic energy to thermal energy. Among their ideas is the idea that thermal energy is generated as a byproduct of individual particle collisions, which is represented in science education research literature as an obstacle to learning. We demonstrate that in this instructional context, the idea that individual particle collisions generate thermal energy is not an obstacle to learning, but instead is productive: it initiates intellectual progress. Specifically, this idea initiates the reconciliation of the teachers' energy model with mechanistic reasoning about adiabatic compression, and leads to a canonically correct model of the transformation of kinetic energy into thermal energy. We claim that the idea's productivity is influenced by features of our particular instructional context, including the instructional goals of the course, the culture of collaborative sense making, and the use of certain representations of energy.

  11. Enhanced Control for a Direct-driven Permanent Synchronous Generator Wind-power Generation System with Flywheel Energy Storage Unit Under Unbalanced Grid Fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Jun; Zhou, Te; Hu, Weihao

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an enhanced control strategy for a direct-driven permanent synchronous generator based wind-power generation system with a flywheel energy storage unit. The behaviors of the direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator system with a flywheel energy storage unit under......, the DC-link voltage oscillations can be effectively suppressed during the unbalanced grid fault by controlling the flywheel energy storage unit. Furthermore, a proportional–integral-resonant controller is designed for the flywheel motor to eliminate the oscillations in the DC-link voltage. Finally......, the proposed coordinated control strategy for the direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator system with a flywheel energy storage unit has been validated by the simulation results of a 1-MW direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator wind power generation system with a flywheel energy...

  12. Implementing China's national energy conservation policies at state-owned electric power generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaofan; Ortolano, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Guideline identified energy conservation as one of the country's fundamental policies and established a mandatory target: 20% reduction in national average energy intensity by 2010. Despite the various policies, laws, and administrative reforms to support energy conservation, China fell behind schedule for meeting its conservation targets in 2006 and 2007. Using a combination of available literature and an interview-based case study, this paper examines the implementation of energy conservation and investigates impediments to achieving China's conservation goal in the electric power generation sector. Three key impediments are detailed: (1) municipal governments' incentives to overlook conservation-related central directives primarily because of budget pressures linked to financial decentralization, (2) procedural obstacles in the form of time required to obtain project approvals for high-efficiency power generation units, and (3) financial obstacles making it difficult for power generation enterprises to raise capital for energy conservation projects. An interview-based case study of a state-owned coal-fired electric power generation company demonstrates the influence of the aforementioned obstacles. While procedural obstacles are notable, they can be managed. However, electricity pricing reforms and/or stronger subsidy programs will be needed to address the financial obstacles facing Chinese power generation companies.

  13. Design of wearable hybrid generator for harvesting heat energy from human body depending on physiological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Kim, Min-Ki; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2017-09-01

    We developed a prototype of a wearable hybrid generator (WHG) that is used for harvesting the heat energy of the human body. This WHG is constructed by integrating a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in a circular mesh polyester knit fabric, circular-shaped pyroelectric generator (PEG), and quick sweat-pickup/dry-fabric. The fabric packaging enables the TEG part of the WHG to generate energy steadily while maintaining a temperature difference in extreme temperature environments. Moreover, when the body sweats, the evaporation heat of the sweat leads to thermal fluctuations in the WHG. This phenomenon further leads to an increase in the output power of the WHG. These characteristics of the WHG make it possible to produce electrical energy steadily without reduction in the conversion efficiency, as both TEG and PEG use the same energy source of the human skin and the ambient temperature. Under a temperature difference of ˜6.5 °C and temperature change rate of ˜0.62 °C s-1, the output power and output power density of the WHG, respectively, are ˜4.5 nW and ˜1.5 μW m-2. Our hybrid approach will provide a framework to enhance the output power of the wearable generators that harvest heat energy from human body in various environments.

  14. External costs from electricity generation of China up to 2030 in energy and abatement scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qingyu; Weili, Tian; Yumei, Wei; Yingxu, Chen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents estimated external costs of electricity generation in China under different scenarios of long-term energy and environmental policies. Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) software is used to develop a simple model of electricity demand and to estimate gross electricity generation in China up to 2030 under these scenarios. Because external costs for unit of electricity from fossil fuel will vary in different government regulation periods, airborne pollutant external costs of SO 2 , NO x , PM 10 , and CO 2 from fired power plants are then estimated based on emission inventories and environmental cost for unit of pollutants, while external costs of non-fossil power generation are evaluated with external cost for unit of electricity. The developed model is run to study the impact of different energy efficiency and environmental abatement policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement and also reduce external costs of electricity generation. It is shown that external costs of electricity generation may reduce 24-55% with three energy policies scenarios and may further reduce by 20.9-26.7% with two environmental policies scenarios. The total reduction of external costs may reach 58.2%. (author)

  15. Renewable energy adoption in an ageing population: Heterogeneity in preferences for micro-generation technology adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, Ken, E-mail: Ken.Willis@ncl.ac.uk [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Scarpa, Riccardo [Department of Economics, Waikato School of Management, University of Waikato, Hamilton (New Zealand); Gilroy, Rose; Hamza, Neveen [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Newcastle, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Many countries are endeavouring to supply more of their energy from renewable resources. Such countries are also experiencing an aging population with a greater proportion of people aged {>=}65 years. This demographic shift may reduce the uptake of renewable energy, if older person households are less inclined to accept change and adopt new technologies. This paper assesses whether such households have different behavioural responses to energy efficiency compared to the rest of society and investigates whether micro-generation renewable energy technologies are less likely to be adopted by these households. It uses conditional logit and mixed logit models to investigate the impact of age of household on primary heating adoption, and also to assess the impact of older households on the installation of discretionary micro-generation technologies (solar thermal, solar voltaic, and wind power) to supplement existing heating and lighting systems. Results indicate that primary heating choice is not affected but that older person households are less inclined to adopt micro-generation technologies. - Highlights: > Heterogeneity exists in decisions on micro-generation technology installation. > Older person households are less inclined to adopt micro-generation technologies. > Micro-generation technologies fail a social cost-benefit analysis test.

  16. Renewable energy adoption in an ageing population: Heterogeneity in preferences for micro-generation technology adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, Ken; Scarpa, Riccardo; Gilroy, Rose; Hamza, Neveen

    2011-01-01

    Many countries are endeavouring to supply more of their energy from renewable resources. Such countries are also experiencing an aging population with a greater proportion of people aged ≥65 years. This demographic shift may reduce the uptake of renewable energy, if older person households are less inclined to accept change and adopt new technologies. This paper assesses whether such households have different behavioural responses to energy efficiency compared to the rest of society and investigates whether micro-generation renewable energy technologies are less likely to be adopted by these households. It uses conditional logit and mixed logit models to investigate the impact of age of household on primary heating adoption, and also to assess the impact of older households on the installation of discretionary micro-generation technologies (solar thermal, solar voltaic, and wind power) to supplement existing heating and lighting systems. Results indicate that primary heating choice is not affected but that older person households are less inclined to adopt micro-generation technologies. - Highlights: → Heterogeneity exists in decisions on micro-generation technology installation. → Older person households are less inclined to adopt micro-generation technologies. → Micro-generation technologies fail a social cost-benefit analysis test.

  17. An infrared-driven flexible pyroelectric generator for non-contact energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tingting; Jiang, Weitao; Liu, Hongzhong; Niu, Dong; Li, Xin; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xuan; Chen, Bangdao; Shi, Yongsheng; Yin, Lei; Lu, Bingheng

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, energy harvesting technologies, which can scavenge many kinds of energies from our living environment to power micro/nanodevices, have attracted increasing attention. However, remote energy transmission, flexibility and electric waveform controllability remain the key challenges for wireless power supply by an energy harvester. In this paper, we design a new infrared-driven non-contact pyroelectric generator for harvesting heat energy, which avoids direct contact between the pyroelectric generator and heat source and realizes remote energy transfer exploiting the photothermal and penetrability of infrared light. The output voltage (under the input impedance of 100 MOhm) and short-circuit current of the pyroelectric generator consisting of a CNT/PVDF/CNT layer (20 mm × 5 mm × 100 μm) can be as large as 1.2 V and 9 nA, respectively, under a 1.45 W cm-2 near-infrared laser (808 nm). We also demonstrate the means by which the pyroelectric generator can modulate square waveforms with controllable periods through irradiation frequency, which is essential for signal sources and medical stimulators. The overshoot of square waveforms are in a range of 9.0%-13.1% with a rise time of 120 ms. The prepared pyroelectric generator can light a liquid crystal display (LCD) in a vacuum chamber from outside. This work paves the way for non-contact energy harvesting for some particular occasions where near-field energy control is not available.In recent years, energy harvesting technologies, which can scavenge many kinds of energies from our living environment to power micro/nanodevices, have attracted increasing attention. However, remote energy transmission, flexibility and electric waveform controllability remain the key challenges for wireless power supply by an energy harvester. In this paper, we design a new infrared-driven non-contact pyroelectric generator for harvesting heat energy, which avoids direct contact between the pyroelectric generator and heat

  18. System for energy harvesting and/or generation, storage, and delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, John T. (Inventor); Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); DeGreeff, Jenniffer Leigh (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A device and method for harvesting, generating, storing, and delivering energy to a load, particularly for remote or inaccessible applications. The device preferably comprises one or more energy sources, at least one supercapacitor, at least one rechargeable battery, and a controller. The charging of the energy storage devices and the delivery of power to the load is preferably dynamically varied to maximize efficiency. A low power consumption charge pump circuit is preferably employed to collect power from low power energy sources while also enabling the delivery of higher voltage power to the load. The charging voltage is preferably programmable, enabling one device to be used for a wide range of specific applications.

  19. Development, Demonstration, and Field Testing of Enterprise-Wide Distributed Generation Energy Management System: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, S.; Cooley, C.

    2005-01-01

    This report details progress on subcontract NAD-1-30605-1 between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RealEnergy (RE), the purpose of which is to describe RE's approach to the challenges it faces in the implementation of a nationwide fleet of clean cogeneration systems to serve contemporary energy markets. The Phase 2 report covers: utility tariff risk and its impact on market development; the effect on incentives on distributed energy markets; the regulatory effectiveness of interconnection in California; a survey of practical field interconnection issues; trend analysis for on-site generation; performance of dispatch systems; and information design hierarchy for combined heat and power.

  20. Good use of the resources natural fossils in the energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Jimmy; Rodriguez, Claudia; Pinilla, Elcy; Torres, Jorge; Boneth, Manuel

    1997-01-01

    The present document is based on the analysis of the different scenarios that shorten and medium term will have the energy generation by means of the use of these fuels. The true reason of the growing energy demand is the continuous demographic growth, what bears to an increase in the degradation of the environment, to short and medium term is expected that the world population is duplicated with the consequent demand of energy and ecological resources, the biggest rat of growth will have in the developing countries. An insufficient energy supply would worsen more the economic situation increasing social tensions and with the consequent detriment of the environment