WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy efficient technologies

  1. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  2. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  3. New energy technologies 4. Energy management and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Caire, R.; Raison, B.; Quenard, D.; Verneau, G.; Zissis, G.

    2007-01-01

    This forth tome of the new energy technologies handbook is devoted to energy management and to the improvement of energy efficiency. The energy management by decentralized generation insertion and network-driven load control, analyzes the insertion and management means of small power generation in distribution networks and the means for load management by the network with the aim of saving energy and limiting peak loads. The second part, devoted to energy efficiency presents in a detailed way the technologies allowing an optimal management of energy in buildings and leading to the implementation of positive energy buildings. A special chapter treats of energy saving using new lighting technologies in the private and public sectors. Content: 1 - decentralized power generation - impacts and solutions: threat or opportunity; deregulation; emerging generation means; impact of decentralized generation on power networks; elements of solution; 2 - mastery of energy demand - loads control by the network: stakes of loads control; choice of loads to be controlled; communication needs; measurements and controls for loads control; model and algorithm needs for loads control. A better energy efficiency: 3 - towards positive energy buildings: key data for Europe; how to convert fossil energy consuming buildings into low-energy consuming and even energy generating buildings; the Minergie brand; the PassivHaus or 'passive house' label; the zero-energy house/zero-energy home (ZEH); the zero-energy building (ZEB); the positive energy house; comparison between the three Minergie/PassivHaus/ZEH types of houses; beyond the positive energy building; 4 - light sources and lighting systems - from technology to energy saving: lighting yesterday and today; light sources and energy conversion; energy saving in the domain of lighting: study of some type-cases; what future for light sources. (J.S.)

  4. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliott, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorn, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    For this study, we identified about 175 emerging energy-efficient technologies in industry, of which we characterized 54 in detail. While many profiles of individual emerging technologies are available, few reports have attempted to impose a standardized approach to the evaluation of the technologies. This study provides a way to review technologies in an independent manner, based on information on energy savings, economic, non-energy benefits, major market barriers, likelihood of success, and suggested next steps to accelerate deployment of each of the analyzed technologies. There are many interesting lessons to be learned from further investigation of technologies identified in our preliminary screening analysis. The detailed assessments of the 54 technologies are useful to evaluate claims made by developers, as well as to evaluate market potentials for the United States or specific regions. In this report we show that many new technologies are ready to enter the market place, or are currently under development, demonstrating that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The study shows that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity. Several technologies have reduced capital costs compared to the current technology used by those industries. Non-energy benefits such as these are frequently a motivating factor in bringing technologies such as these to market. Further evaluation of the profiled technologies is still needed. In particular, further quantifying the non-energy benefits based on the experience from technology users in the field is important. Interactive effects and inter-technology competition have not been accounted for and ideally should be included in any type of integrated technology scenario, for it may help to better evaluate market

  5. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  6. Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan Hemachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320 to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house objects.

  7. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  8. Emerging Energy-Efficient Technologies in Buildings Technology Characterizations for Energy Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, SW

    2004-10-11

    The energy use in America's commercial and residential building sectors is large and growing. Over 38 quadrillion Btus (Quads) of primary energy were consumed in 2002, representing 39% of total U.S. energy consumption. While the energy use in buildings is expected to grow to 52 Quads by 2025, a large number of energy-related technologies exist that could curtail this increase. In recent years, improvements in such items as high efficiency refrigerators, compact fluorescent lights, high-SEER air conditioners, and improved building shells have all contributed to reducing energy use. Hundreds of other technology improvements have and will continue to improve the energy use in buildings. While many technologies are well understood and are gradually penetrating the market, more advanced technologies will be introduced in the future. The pace and extent of these advances can be improved through state and federal R&D. This report focuses on the long-term potential for energy-efficiency improvement in buildings. Five promising technologies have been selected for description to give an idea of the wide range of possibilities. They address the major areas of energy use in buildings: space conditioning (33% of building use), water heating (9%), and lighting (16%). Besides describing energy-using technologies (solid-state lighting and geothermal heat pumps), the report also discusses energy-saving building shell improvements (smart roofs) and the integration of multiple energy service technologies (CHP packaged systems and triple function heat pumps) to create synergistic savings. Finally, information technologies that can improve the efficiency of building operations are discussed. The report demonstrates that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The five technology areas alone can potentially result in total primary energy savings of between 2 and

  9. On the economics of technology diffusion and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor that fuels economic growth and serves human well-being. World energy use has grown enormously since the middle of the 19th century. This increase in the scale of energy demand comes at a certain price, including environmental externalities, such as the enhanced greenhouse effect. Notwithstanding the need for renewable energy sources, these environmental problems also necessitate further improvements in energy efficiency. Technological change plays a crucial role in realizing energy efficiency improvements and, hence, in ameliorating the conflict between economic growth and environmental quality. At the same time, it is known that not only innovation, but also diffusion of new technologies is a costly and lengthy process, and that many firms do not invest in best-practice technologies. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the inter. play between economic growth, energy use and technological change, with much emphasis on the adoption and diffusion of energy-saving technologies. The thesis presents a mix of theoretical and empirical analyses inspired by recent developments in economic theorizing on technological change that stress the role of accumulation and distribution of knowledge (learning), uncertainty, path dependency and irreversibility. The theoretical part of the study examines how several characteristics of technological change as well as environmental policy affect the dynamics of technology choice. The empirical part of the study explores long-run trends in energy- and labour productivity performance across a range of OECD countries at a detailed sectoral level

  10. Integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochieng, E.G.; Jones, N.; Price, A.D.F.; Ruan, X.; Egbu, C.O; Zuofa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to determine if the integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets can determine consumer behaviour, and to establish if such activities can help satisfying the environmental elements of the clients corporate social responsibilities (CSR) in an attempt to create a competitive advantage. A literature review of existing material considered the history and drivers of sustainability, the types of energy efficient technologies and factors concerning CSR and consumer behaviour in relation to the supermarket industry. Interviews with 15 senior store managers were recorded and transcribed. The opinions of the senior store managers were then sought and analysed using qualitative research software NVivo software. Validity of the data was achieved at a later stage through workshops. The results of this paper suggested that there is a definite lack of awareness and knowledge amongst customers regarding energy efficient technologies. From the findings, it was further established that the key driver for retailers who integrate energy efficient technologies is fiscal incentives, although it was suggested some retailers use CSR strategies to report there are environmental achievements it was ultimately found that cost savings were the primary driver. - Highlights: • The effect of sustainability towards consumer behaviour was explored. • Majority of consumers are unaware of energy efficient technologies. • Energy efficient technologies do not determine or create shifts in paradigm in consumer actions. • Stores are driven to integrate energy efficient technologies more by government legislation. • Participants were clear in making the point that their image and reputation was based on trust

  11. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2014-04-13

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group\\'s contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, NorEddine; Lattemann, Sabine; Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3-4 kW h_e/m3). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h_e/m3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of RE without the need for energy storage. This paper highlights the use of RE for desalination in KSA with a focus on our group's contribution in developing innovative low energy-driven desalination technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Renewable energy-driven innovative energy-efficient desalination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaffour, Noreddine; Lattemann, Sabine; Missimer, Thomas; Ng, Kim Choon; Sinha, Shahnawaz; Amy, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable energy-driven desalination technologies are highlighted. • Solar, geothermal, and wind energy sources were explored. • An innovative hybrid approach (combined solar–geothermal) has also been explored. • Innovative desalination technologies developed by our group are discussed. • Climate change and GHG emissions from desalination are also discussed. - Abstract: Globally, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) desalinates the largest capacity of seawater but through energy-intensive thermal processes such as multi-stage flash (MSF) distillation (>10 kW h per m 3 of desalinated water, including electrical and thermal energies). In other regions where fossil energy is more expensive and not subsidized, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) is the most common desalination technology but it is still energy-intensive (3–4 kW h e /m 3 ). Both processes therefore lead to the emission of significant amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Moreover, MSF and SWRO technologies are most often used for large desalination facilities serving urban centers with centralized water distribution systems and power grids. While renewable energy (RE) sources could be used to serve centralized systems in urban centers and thus provide an opportunity to make desalination greener, they are mostly used to serve rural communities off of the grid. In the KSA, solar and geothermal energy are of most relevance in terms of local conditions. Our group is focusing on developing new desalination processes, adsorption desalination (AD) and membrane distillation (MD), which can be driven by waste heat, geothermal or solar energy. A demonstration solar-powered AD facility has been constructed and a life cycle assessment showed that a specific energy consumption of <1.5 kW h e /m 3 is possible. An innovative hybrid approach has also been explored which would combine solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle to reduce the probability of depleting the heat source

  14. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  15. Deployment of energy efficient technologies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient and reliable power generation and power distribution represent the engine for economic growth in developing countries. A vast majority of the population in these countries does not have access to electricity, and those that do are often faced with an unreliable power distribution system. Now is the ideal time to transfer efficient energy technologies which also adhere to environmental standards. There are a myriad of inexpensive ways to avoid energy losses, such as cogeneration, the addition of natural gas turbines to coal-fired heating boilers. Even power generation itself can be more efficient. These improvements would encourage the financing world to pay closer attention and invest more rapidly in projects aimed at improving efficient power generation. The International Energy Agency was created in 1974 with the participation of 25 countries, and its mandate was expanded to include the deployment of clean and efficient energy technologies in developing countries. Technology transfer involves more than the shipping of equipment combined with some expert assistance. It involves the active participation of several partners, from the private sector, governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), and academic institutions. The objective is to empower the recipient population, thereby reducing the need for imports. It is a joint international effort where the results benefit all participants. The author also discussed the Climate Technology Initiative (CTI) with the aim of disseminating information concerning climate change in the hope of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. Discussions to assist countries in the examination of avenues open to them in the field of energy are also fostered. Training in energy efficient technologies represents an important aspect of the role of CTI. It applies to decision makers to help them establish appropriate guidelines and regulations with regard to these technologies. Sustainable development can be achieved

  16. Technology utilization and energy efficiency: Lessons learned and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of energy efficiency within the context of economic and environmental policy making is quite complex. Relatively poor economic performance ratings can weaken the validity of some energy supply systems which tend to reduce energy inputs for specific volumes of output, but don't minimize total cost per unit product; and industry is often slow to adopt new technologies, even those proven to reduce total costs. In this paper, the problems connected with growth in energy requirements in relation to product are first examined within the context of world economic performance history. Three key elements are shown to explain the differences in energy intensity and consumption typology among various countries, i.e., availability of energy sources, prices and government policies. Reference is made to the the role of recent energy prices and policies in the United States whose industrialization has been directly connected with the vast availability of some energy sources. In delineating possible future energy scenarios, the paper cites the strong influence of long term capital investment on the timing of the introduction of energy efficient technologies into industrial process schemes. It illustrates the necessity for flexibility in new energy strategies which are to take advantage the opportunities offered by a wide range of alternative energy sources now being made available through technological innovation

  17. Diffusion of energy efficient technologies in the German steel industry and their impact on energy consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arens, M.; Worrell, E.

    2014-01-01

    We try to understand the role of technological change and diffusion of energy efficient technologies in order to explain the trend of energy intensity developments in the German steel industry. We selected six key energy efficient technologies and collected data to derive their diffusion since their

  18. Towards energy efficient distillation technologies – Making the right choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Anton A.; Flores Landaeta, Servando J.; Infante Ferreira, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of claiming around half of the operational costs of chemical plants, distillation is still the most popular separation technology. Distillation has low thermodynamic efficiency, requiring the input of high quality energy in the reboiler – while rejecting a similar amount of heat at lower temperature, in the condenser. Several heat pump concepts have been proposed to upgrade that thermal energy and reduce the consumption of valuable utilities. Under certain conditions, the energy savings of heat pump assisted distillation is usually around 20–50%. This study proposes a novel selection scheme of energy efficient distillation technologies, with a special focus on heat pumps. The most promising technologies selected are vapor compression, mechanical or thermal vapor recompression, absorption, compression–resorption and thermo-acoustic heat pumps, multi-effect distillation, heat integrated distillation column, cyclic distillation, Kaibel and dividing-wall column. The scheme considers as the main selection criteria the type of separation tasks, product flow and specifications, operating pressure, difference in boiling points, reboiler duty and its temperature level. Moreover, this scheme is very practical, allowing major time and resources savings in the design of eco-efficient processes. -- Highlights: ► Heat pump assisted distillation with energy savings of 20–50%. ► Novel and practical selection scheme of energy efficient distillation technologies. ► Evaluation of promising technologies: VC, MVR, TVR, AHP, CHRP, TAHP, HIDiC, DWC, CyDist. ► Selection criteria include: ΔT b , ΔT lift , P, T reb , Q reb , volatility. ► Design of eco-efficient processes with high COP, and lower TIC and TAC.

  19. Towards energy efficient distillation technologies - Making the right choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Landaeta, S.J. Flores; Ferreira, C.A.I.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of claiming around half of the operational costs of chemical plants, distillation is still the most popular separation technology. Distillation has low thermodynamic efficiency, requiring the input of high quality energy in the reboiler – while rejecting a similar amount of heat at lower

  20. Magnetic Refrigeration – an Energy Efficient Technology for the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders; Pryds, Nini

    2009-01-01

    . This magnetocaloric effect is inherent to all magnetic materials, but manifests itself stronger in some materials. The thermodynamically reversible nature of the magnetocaloric effect holds out the promise of a more energy efficient method of refrigeration compared to conventional compressor technology. Coupling...

  1. Technology Roadmaps: Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Buildings account for almost a third of final energy consumption globally and are an equally important source of CO2 emissions. Currently, both space heating and cooling as well as hot water are estimated to account for roughly half of global energy consumption in buildings. Energy-efficient and low/zero-carbon heating and cooling technologies for buildings have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 2 gigatonnes (Gt) and save 710 million tonnes oil equivalent (Mtoe) of energy by 2050. Most of these technologies -- which include solar thermal, combined heat and power (CHP), heat pumps and thermal energy storage -- are commercially available today. The Energy-Efficient Buildings: Heating and Cooling Equipment Roadmap sets out a detailed pathway for the evolution and deployment of the key underlying technologies. It finds that urgent action is required if the building stock of the future is to consume less energy and result in lower CO2 emissions. The roadmap concludes with a set of near-term actions that stakeholders will need to take to achieve the roadmap's vision.

  2. Diffusion of energy-efficient technologies in industry. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, S.Y.

    1979-01-01

    United States energy policies aim at cutting down dependence on foreign oil in two ways: by energy conservation and by finding new domestic supplies. The study investigates how the first goal can be achieved in the industrial sector (manufacturing) of the economy, which accounts for about 40% (about 7.3 million barrels per day) of the total energy consumption in the US. It is noted that industry is able to conserve as much as 25 to 30% of its energy consumption by adopting simple conservation measures and energy-efficient technologies. These technologies can be implemented without major alterations of the original equipment. The schools of thought on innovative processes are discussed; these will serve as the conceptual and methodological base of the project. (MCW)

  3. Demand for Clean Energies Efficient Development in Buildings Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa Omer, Abdeen

    2017-01-01

    Aims/Purpose: The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. This article discusses the potential for such integrated systems in the stationary and portable power market in response to the critical need for a cleaner energy technology. Throughout the theme several issues relating to renewable energies, environment, and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. It is concluded that green energies like wind, solar, ground source heat pumps, and biomass must be promoted, implemented, and demonstrated from the economic and/or environmental point view. Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. Study design: Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (acid precipitation, ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect or global warming) are comprehensively discussed in this article. Place and Duration of Study: National Centre for Research, Energy Research Institute (ERI), between January 2014 and July 2015. (author)

  4. Energy Technology Investments: Maximizing Efficiency Through a Maritime Energy Portfolio Interface and Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    Investment (ROI) and Break Even Point ( BEP ). These metrics are essential for determining whether an initiative would be worth pursuing. Balanced...is Unlimited Energy Decision Framework Identify Inefficiencies 2. Perform Analyses 3. Examine Technology Candidates 1. Improve Energy...Unlimited Energy Decision Framework Identify Inefficiencies 2. Perform Analyses 3. Examine Technology Candidates 1. Improve Energy Efficiency 4

  5. Stimulating R and D of industrial energy-efficient technology. Policy lessons--impulse technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiten, Esther; Blok, Kornelis

    2004-01-01

    Stimulating research and development (R and D) of innovative energy-efficient technologies for industry is an attractive option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Impulse technology, an innovative papermaking technology, is always included in studies assessing the long-term potential of industrial energy efficiency. Aim of this article is to analyse the R and D trajectory of impulse technology in order to explore how government can stimulate the development of industrial energy-efficient technology. The concept of 'momentum' is used to characterise the network of actors and to understand the effect of government R and D support in this particular case study. The network analysis convincingly shows that although marketed as an energy-efficient technology, other benefits were in fact driving forces. Researchers at various national pulp and paper research institutes were successful in attracting government R and D support by claiming an improved energy efficiency. The momentum of the technology network was modest between 1980 and 1990. Therefore, government R and D support accelerated the development of impulse technology in this period. However, when the perspectives of the technology deteriorated--momentum decreased--researchers at national research institutes continued to attract government R and D support successfully. But 25 years of R and D--and over 15 years government R and D support--have not yet resulted in a proven technology. The case study illustrates the risk of continuing R and D support too long without taking into account actors' drivers to invest in R and D. Once momentum decreased, government should have been more circumspect in evaluating the (energy efficiency) promise of impulse technology. The major policy lesson is that government has to look beyond claimed energy efficiencies; government has to value (qualitative) information on (changing) technology networks in deciding upon starting, continuing or pulling out financial R and D support to

  6. Residential Energy Efficiency Demonstration: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rutter, A. [Sustainability Solutions LLC (Guam); Briggs, D. [Naval Base Guam, Santa Rita (Guam)

    2014-03-01

    In order to meet its energy goals, the Department of Defense (DOD) has partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy-efficiency technologies. The scope of this project was to demonstrate tools and technologies to reduce energy use in military housing, with particular emphasis on measuring and reducing loads related to consumer electronics (commonly referred to as 'plug loads'), hot water, and whole-house cooling.

  7. 1991-92 Canadian directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 1991-1992 Canadian Directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies. The three main sections cover Alternative Energy Companies, Energy Efficiency Companies and Energy Service Companies. Contact and company information is provided

  8. 1991-92 Canadian directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The 1991-1992 Canadian Directory of efficiency and alternative energy technologies. The three main sections cover Alternative Energy Companies, Energy Efficiency Companies and Energy Service Companies. Contact and company information is provided.

  9. Residential energy-efficient technology adoption, energy conservation, knowledge, and attitudes: An analysis of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Relationships between measures of household energy use behavior and household characteristics are estimated using a unique dataset of approximately 5000 households in 10 EU countries and Norway. Family age-composition patterns are found to have a distinct impact on household energy use behavior. Households with young children are more likely to adopt energy-efficient technologies and energy conservation practices and place primary importance on energy savings for environmental reasons. By contrast, households with a high share of elderly members place more importance on financial savings, and have lower levels of technology adoption, energy conservation practice use, and knowledge about household energy use. Education levels also matter, with higher levels associated with energy-efficient technology adoption and energy conservation practice use. Similarly, university education increases the stated importance of energy savings for greenhouse gas reductions and decreases the stated importance for financial reasons. Education impacts also vary greatly across survey countries and there is some evidence of an Eastern–Western European divide with respect to attitudes towards energy savings. These cross-country differences highlight the need to balance a common EU energy-efficiency policy framework with flexibility for country specific policies to address unique constraints to energy-efficient technology and conservation practice adoption. - Highlights: ► Household energy use behavior is explored with data from 11 European countries. ► Household age structure and education influence household energy use behavior and attitudes. ► Significant country differences in household energy use behavior exist. ► The EU needs to balance a common energy-efficiency policy framework with country specific policies.

  10. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Barriers to and strategies for promoting energy-efficient lift and escalator technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetschke, Elisabeth; Hirzel, Simon

    2010-02-25

    According to prior findings of the E4 project, considerable savings potential exists both for lifts and escalators that could be realized if appropriate technology is implemented. However, energy-efficient technology is slowly diffusing the market - a phenomenon that could be explained by barriers present in the market. A barrier is defined as a mechanism that inhibits a decision or behavior that appears to be both energy-efficient and economically efficient and thereby prevents investment in energy-efficient technologies. This document has two aims. First, it will identify influential barriers in the European lift and escalator market. This analysis is based on the literature as well as a study including interviews as well as group discussions with relevant stakeholders. Second, strategies and measures to overcome the barriers identified in the first step are outlined. Major barriers to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies identified in this paper include a lack of monitoring energy consumption of installations and a lack of awareness of as well as knowledge about energy-efficient technology. Thus, installations and components are usually chosen without a (comprehensive) assessment of their energy consumption and without considering life-cycle approaches. On top of this, split incentives are a regularly occurring barrier. Various stakeholders are influential in the decisionmaking process about an installation or its components. However, those who will later pay for the energy consumption often are not involved in this process. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that the number of new lifts and escalators installed each year is relatively low compared to the existing stock. Thus, it is very important to discuss enhancement of energy efficiency also for the existing stock. Based on our analyses, several recommendations are developed in this paper that could contribute to a market transformation in the lift and escalator market. First of all, a

  11. Accelerating the deployment of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shickman, Kurt [Trust for Conservation Innovation, San Francisco, CA (United States). Global Cool Cities Alliance (GCCA)

    2017-02-13

    Purpose of the project was to accelerate the deployment of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies in South Africa. Activities were undertaken to reduce barriers to deployment by improving product awareness for the South African market; market and policy intelligence for U.S. manufacturers; product/service availability; local technical capacity at the workforce, policymaker and expert levels; and ease of conducting business for these technologies/services in the South African market.

  12. Problems of Technology of Energy-Saving Buildings and Their Impact on Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnowski, Pawel; Fedorczak-Cisak, Malgorzata; Knap, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    Introduction of EPBD in legislation of the EU member states caused that buildings must meet very stringent requirements of thermal protection and energy efficiency. On the basis of EPBD provisions, EU Member States introduce standard of NZEB (Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings). Such activities cause a need for new, innovative materials and technologies, and new approaches to design, construction and retrofitting of buildings. Indispensable is the precise coordination of the design of structure and technical installations of building, which may be provided in an integrated design process in the system BIM. Good coordination and cooperation of all contractors during the construction phase is also necessary. The article presents the problems and the new methodology for the design, construction and use of energy efficient buildings in terms of energy saving technologies, including discussion of the significant impact of the automation of technical installations on the building energy efficiency.

  13. Micro-relay technology for energy-efficient integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Kam, Hei

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the design of relay-based circuit systems from device fabrication to circuit micro-architectures. This book is ideal for both device engineers as well as circuit system designers and highlights the importance of co-design across design hierarchies when optimizing system performance (in this case, energy-efficiency). This book is ideal for researchers and engineers focused on semiconductors, integrated circuits, and energy efficient electronics. This book also: ·         Covers microsystem fabrication, MEMS device design, circuit design, circuit micro-architecture, and CAD ·         Describes work previously done in the field and also lays the groundwork and criteria for future energy-efficient device and system design ·         Maximizes reader insights into the design and modeling of micro-relay, micro-relay reliability, integrated circuit design with micro-relays, and more

  14. Climate-smart technologies. Integrating renewable energy and energy efficiency in mitigation and adaptation responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Mannke, Franziska; Schulte, Veronika [Hamburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Faculty of Life Sciences; Mohee, Romeela; Surroop, Dinesh (eds.) [Mauritius Univ., Reduit (Mauritius). Chemical and Environmental Engineering Dept.

    2013-11-01

    Explores the links between climate change and technologies. Relates to the links between renewable energy and climate change. Documents and promotes a collection of experiences from island nations. Has a strong international focus and value to developing countries. The book addresses the perceived need for a publication with looks at both, climate smart technologies and the integration of renewable energy and energy efficiency in mitigation and adaptation responses. Based on a set of papers submitted as part of the fifth on-line climate conference (CLIMATE 2012) and a major conference on renewable energy on island States held in Mauritius in 2012, the book provides a wealth of information on climate change strategies and the role of smart technologies. The book has been produced in the context of the project ''Small Developing Island Renewable Energy Knowledge and Technology Transfer Network'' (DIREKT), funded by the ACP Science and Technology Programme, an EU programme for cooperation between the European Union and the ACP region.

  15. Energy efficiency technologies in cement and steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoli, Silvia Maria; Cocchioni, Francesco; Pepe, Crescenzo

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, Advanced Process Control strategies aimed at energy efficiency achievement and improvement in cement and steel industry are proposed. A flexible and smart control structure constituted by several functional modules and blocks has been developed. The designed control strategy is based on Model Predictive Control techniques, formulated on linear models. Two industrial control solutions have been developed, oriented to energy efficiency and process control improvement in cement industry clinker rotary kilns (clinker production phase) and in steel industry billets reheating furnaces. Tailored customization procedures for the design of ad hoc control systems have been executed, based on the specific needs and specifications of the analysed processes. The installation of the developed controllers on cement and steel plants produced significant benefits in terms of process control which resulted in working closer to the imposed operating limits. With respect to the previous control systems, based on local controllers and/or operators manual conduction, more profitable configurations of the crucial process variables have been provided.

  16. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvillet, Ch.; Tochon, P.; Mercier, P.

    2004-01-01

    World energy demand is constantly rising. This is a legitimate trend, insofar as access to energy enables enhanced quality of life and sanitation levels for populations. On the other hand, such increased consumption generates effects that may be catastrophic for the future of the planet (climate change, environmental imbalance), should this growth conform to the patterns followed, up to recent times, by most industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, development of new energy sources and energy efficiency are seen as the major challenges to be taken up for the world of tomorrow. In France, the National Energy Debate indeed emphasized, in 2003, the requirement to control both demand for, and offer of, energy, through a strategic orientation law for energy. The French position corresponds to a slightly singular situation - and a privileged one, compared to other countries - owing to massive use of nuclear power for electricity generation. This option allows France to be responsible for a mere 2% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Real advances can nonetheless still be achieved as regards improved energy efficiency, particularly in the transportation and residential-tertiary sectors, following the lead, in this respect, shown by industry. These two sectors indeed account for over half of the country CO 2 emissions (26% and 25% respectively). With respect to transportation, the work carried out by CEA on the hydrogen pathway, energy converters, and electricity storage has been covered by the preceding chapters. As regards housing, a topic addressed by one of the papers in this chapter, investigations at CEA concern integration of the various devices enabling value-added use of renewable energies. At the same time, the organization is carrying through its activity in the extensive area of heat exchangers, allowing industry to benefit from improved understanding in the modeling of flows. An activity evidenced by advances in energy efficiency for

  17. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  18. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  19. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important...... and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption...

  20. Improving Energy Efficiency Through Technology. Trends, Investment Behaviour and Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florax, R.J.G.M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); De Groot, H.L.F. [VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, P. [Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    This innovative book explores the adoption of energy-saving technologies and their impact on energy efficiency improvements. It contains a mix of theoretical and empirical contributions, and combines and compares economic and physical indicators to monitor and analyse trends in energy efficiency. The authors pay considerable attention to empirical research on the determinants of energy-saving investment including uncertainty, energy-price volatility and subsidies. They also discuss the role of energy modelling in policy design and the potential effect of energy policies on technology diffusion in energy-extensive sectors. Written from a multi-disciplinary perspective, this book will appeal to academics and graduates in the areas of energy-saving technologies, energy economics and natural resource economics, as well as policy makers - particularly those in energy policy.

  1. Eco-development and energy efficient technologies in Russia: prospects and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakova, Oksana

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the concept of eco-standards in Russia, and discusses new technologies that allow to build energy-efficient houses in the form of countryside real estate. Special attention is given to the principle of heat production based on the use of individual facilities, power centers mini thermal power plants, as well as to ways to reduce water consumption at home. Presents analysis of the advantages projects “built-to-suit” for the introduction of the energy efficient technologies. Justified idea and principles of “green construction” in Russia in the real estate market. Conclusion about the effectiveness of the use, opportunities and development of energy efficient technologies.

  2. Technology Paths in Energy-Efficient and Sustainable Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jesper; Lund Sørensen, Runa Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Various tehcnology paths and regimes, Building codes and standards in energy, eco and sustainable housing......Various tehcnology paths and regimes, Building codes and standards in energy, eco and sustainable housing...

  3. Research of corporate social responsibility in an energy efficient technologies development section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyashenko O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considered the concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR and its components. The Jevons paradox is examined, the mechanism of rebound effect on the example of energy efficient technologies is analyzed.

  4. Engineering management technologies of increasing energy efficiency processes in the investment and construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisovich Zelentsov, Leonid; Dmitrievna Mailyan, Liya; Sultanovich Shogenov, Murat

    2017-10-01

    The article deals with the problems of using the energy-efficient materials and engineering technologies during the construction of buildings and structures. As the analysis showed, one of the most important problems in this sphere is the infringement of production technologies working with energy-efficient materials. To improve the given situation, it is offered to set a technological normal at the design stage by means of working out the technological maps studying the set and the succession of operations in details, taking in mind the properties of energy-efficient materials. At Don State Technical University (DSTU) the intelligent systems of management are being developed providing organizational and technological and also informational integration of design and production stages by means of creating the single database of technological maps, volumes of work and resources.

  5. Long-term Energy Efficiency Improvement for Transport, Technology Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Binsbergen, A.J.; Erkens, A.; Hamel, B.

    1994-01-01

    In part one of this report, general transport and transport-flow measures are described. By using other modes of transport than road-vehicles, it is possible to save energy. An advanced park-and-ride system can lead to a 27% reduction in energy use per passengerkilometre; in 2040 at most 10% of the

  6. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world and in California. Successful implementation of applicable emerging technologies not only may help advance productivities, improve environmental impacts, or enhance industrial competitiveness, but also can play a significant role in climate-mitigation efforts by saving energy and reducing the associated GHG emissions. Developing new information on costs and savings benefits of energy efficient emerging technologies applicable in California market is important for policy makers as well as the industries. Therefore, provision of timely evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies applicable to California is the focus of this report. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select a set of emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. Specifically, this report contains the results from performing Task 3 Technology Characterization for California Industries for the project titled Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies, sponsored by

  7. Measuring energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies using a latent class stochastic frontier approach: An application to Chinese energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Kerui

    2014-01-01

    The importance of technology heterogeneity in estimating economy-wide energy efficiency has been emphasized by recent literature. Some studies use the metafrontier analysis approach to estimate energy efficiency. However, for such studies, some reliable priori information is needed to divide the sample observations properly, which causes a difficulty in unbiased estimation of energy efficiency. Moreover, separately estimating group-specific frontiers might lose some common information across different groups. In order to overcome these weaknesses, this paper introduces a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency under heterogeneous technologies. An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. Results show that the overall energy efficiency of China's provinces is not high, with an average score of 0.632 during the period from 1997 to 2010. - Highlights: • We introduce a latent class stochastic frontier approach to measure energy efficiency. • Ignoring technological heterogeneity would cause biased estimates of energy efficiency. • An application of the proposed model to Chinese energy economy is presented. • There is still a long way for China to develop an energy efficient regime

  8. A manual for the economic evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Packey, D.J.; Holt, T.

    1995-03-01

    This manual is a guide for analyzing the economics of energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE) technologies and projects. It is intended (1) to help analysts determine the appropriate approach or type of analysis and the appropriate level of detail and (2) to assist EE analysts in completing consistent analyses using standard assumptions and bases, when appropriate. Included are analytical techniques that are commonly required for the economic analysis of EE technologies and projects. The manual consists of six sections: Introduction, Fundamentals, Selection Criteria Guide, Economic Measures, Special Considerations for Conservation and Renewable Energy Systems, and References. A glossary and eight appendices are also included. Each section has a brief introductory statement, a presentation of necessary formulae, a discussion, and when appropriate, examples and descriptions of data and data availability. The objective of an economic analysis is to provide the information needed to make a judgment or a decision. The most complete analysis of an investment in a technology or a project requires the analysis of each year of the life of the investment, taking into account relevant direct costs, indirect and overhead costs, taxes, and returns on investment, plus any externalities, such as environmental impacts, that are relevant to the decision to be made. However, it is important to consider the purpose and scope of a particular analysis at the outset because this will prescribe the course to follow. The perspective of the analysis is important, often dictating the approach to be used. Also, the ultimate use of the results of an analysis will influence the level of detail undertaken. The decision-making criteria of the potential investor must also be considered.

  9. The Global Experience of Deployment of Energy-Efficient Technologies in High-Rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potienko, Natalia D.; Kuznetsova, Anna A.; Solyakova, Darya N.; Klyueva, Yulia E.

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research is to examine issues related to the increasing importance of energy-efficient technologies in high-rise construction. The aim of the paper is to investigate modern approaches to building design that involve implementation of various energy-saving technologies in diverse climates and at different structural levels, including the levels of urban development, functionality, planning, construction and engineering. The research methodology is based on the comprehensive analysis of the advanced global expertise in the design and construction of energy-efficient high-rise buildings, with the examination of their positive and negative features. The research also defines the basic principles of energy-efficient architecture. Besides, it draws parallels between the climate characteristics of countries that lead in the field of energy-efficient high-rise construction, on the one hand, and the climate in Russia, on the other, which makes it possible to use the vast experience of many countries, wholly or partially. The paper also gives an analytical review of the results arrived at by implementing energy efficiency principles into high-rise architecture. The study findings determine the impact of energy-efficient technologies on high-rise architecture and planning solutions. In conclusion, the research states that, apart from aesthetic and compositional interpretation of architectural forms, an architect nowadays has to address the task of finding a synthesis between technological and architectural solutions, which requires knowledge of advanced technologies. The study findings reveal that the implementation of modern energy-efficient technologies into high-rise construction is of immediate interest and is sure to bring long-term benefits.

  10. Using Smart Grids to Enhance Use of Energy-Efficiency and Renewable-Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Paget, Maria L.; Secrest, Thomas J.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Orrell, Alice C.; Bloyd, Cary N.

    2011-05-10

    This report addresses the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) organization’s desire to minimize the learning time required to understand the implications of smart-grid concepts so APEC members can advance their thinking in a timely manner and advance strategies regarding smart approaches that can help meet their environmental-sustainability and energy-efficiency policy goals. As significant investments are needed to grow and maintain the electricity infrastructure, consideration needs to be given to how information and communications technologies can be applied to electricity infrastructure decisions that not only meet traditional needs for basic service and reliability, but also provide the flexibility for a changing the mix of generation sources with sensitivity to environmental and societal impacts.

  11. Emerging Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Technologies for the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Lingbo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); South China Univ. of Technology (SCUT), Guangzhou (China); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The pulp and paper industry ranks fourth in terms of energy consumption among industries worldwide. Globally, the pulp and paper industry accounted for approximately 5 percent of total world industrial final energy consumption in 2007, and contributed 2 percent of direct carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from industry. Worldwide pulp and paper demand and production are projected to increase significantly by 2050, leading to an increase in this industry’s absolute energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and GHG mitigation technologies and their deployment in the market will be crucial for the pulp and paper industry’s mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report describes the industry’s processes and compiles available information on the energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for 36 emerging technologies to reduce the industry’s energy use and GHG emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies that have already been commercialized for the pulp and paper industry, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. The purpose of this report is to provide engineers, researchers, investors, paper companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured resource of information on these technologies.

  12. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, K. [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, A.C. Meyers Vaenge 15, 2450 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-08-15

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important, both for understanding why some households consume much more energy than others, and when looking for relevant approaches to a future low-carbon society. The paper uses several sources to explore this question, most of them from a Danish context, including results from the researcher's own projects and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption in Denmark. In the conclusion, these results are discussed in a broader international perspective and it is concluded that more research in this field is necessary. In relation to energy policy, it is argued that it is not a question of technology efficiency or behaviour, as both have to be included in future policy if energy demand is actually to be reduced. Furthermore, it is also argued that not only individual behaviour is relevant, but also a broader perspective on collectively shared low-carbon practices has to be promoted.

  13. Energy analysis of an original steering technology that saves fuel and boosts efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daher, Naseem; Ivantysynova, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel energy-saving steer-by-wire technology is introduced, dubbed “DC SbW”. • A prototype vehicle is retrofitted with “DC SbW” and tested for overall efficiency. • Energy analysis is conducted to compare “DC SbW” against state-of-the-art. • “DC SbW” achieves more work while consuming less fuel → higher efficiency. - Abstract: Stemmed by ever-increasing demand on fossil fuels and increased environmental awareness to reduce carbon emissions, improving the efficiency of components and systems has been receiving paramount attention in most industries during the past few years. This is especially true in the mobile machinery industry, which produces high power equipment with relatively low energy efficiency for the most part. Mobile machines strictly employ fluid power systems owing to the superlative power density of hydraulic components. Nevertheless, no major breakthrough technologies to significantly boost the efficiency of fluid power systems have emerged, except for the recent development of a throttle-less actuation technology, known as pump displacement control (DC), which has been proven to be an energy efficient alternative and a serious contender to state-of-the-art technologies. This paper deals with analyzing the energy efficiency of a DC steering system versus a more conventional valve controlled counterpart, which conveys how effectively the two systems convert the chemical energy stored in the diesel fuel into useful mechanical energy. Experimental testing on a prototype test vehicle showed that DC steering results in 14.5% fuel savings, 22.6% productivity gain, and a grand total of 43.5% fuel usage efficiency increase

  14. Information inefficiency and willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient technology: A stated preference approach for China Energy Label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hui; Bukenya, James O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which consumers' willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient room air conditioners may be altered by correcting the information inefficiency on the China Energy Label. The data are collected from a discrete choice experiment with two alternatives (variable-speed and constant-speed room air conditioners) characterized by attributes of brand, purchase price and energy grade. Three versions of the questionnaires with choice sets differing only in energy consumption indicators were distributed randomly to 1602 potential consumers in Nanjing, China and a sample of 1569 was obtained after dropping missing data. The analysis with multinomial and mixed logit models reveal that the price premium that consumers are willing to pay for a variable-speed room AC over a constant-speed room AC increases significantly when energy consumption information becomes comparable and additional energy-related information is provided. Furthermore, the impact of information on WTP varies under different energy-saving scenarios. It is suggested that China Energy Label should correct information inefficiency by adopting same energy indicators for room ACs with different technologies and providing energy consumption information based on different climate zones. - Highlights: • Choice experiments were carried out to examine the effect of information on WTP. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if information is comparable. • WTP for energy efficient technology increases if more information is provided. • The impact of information on WTP is significant when energy saving is considerable. • Some demographics influence people's WTP.

  15. Innovation and adoption of energy efficient technologies: An exploratory analysis of Italian primary metal manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Additional efforts will be needed by European countries to improve the energy efficiency, as with current trends the 20% objective will be missed. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) manufacturing sector is a promising field, as SMEs are less energy-efficient than larger enterprises. Several studies investigated the barriers to the diffusion of technologies and practices for industrial energy efficiency, but little attention has been paid to understand the factors affecting the perception of such barriers by SMEs. In this multiple case-study, we have investigated 20 Primary Metal manufacturing SMEs in Northern Italy. Economic and information barriers are perceived as the major issues. Interestingly, firm's size, innovativeness of the market in which enterprises operate, as well as product and process innovation are factors affecting barriers to energy efficiency. Differences have been observed within SMEs, especially for information and competence-related barriers. In particular, a more innovative external context in which enterprises operate and a greater production process complexity seem to reduce barriers. Moreover, more product innovative enterprises seem to have a lower perception of behavioral and technology-related barriers. The results of this exploratory investigation provide useful suggestions for policy design and further research on industrial energy efficiency. - highlights: • Economic and Information emerge as the most relevant barriers to energy efficiency. • Market, product and process innovation seem relevant factors affecting barriers. • Firm's size is a factor affecting barriers' perception

  16. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  17. Efficient thermal desalination technologies with renewable energy systems: A state-of-the-art review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esfahani, Iman Janghorban; Rashidi, Jouan; Ifaei, Pouya; Yoo, ChangKyoo [Center for Environmental Studies, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Due to the current fossil fuel crisis and associated adverse environmental impacts, renewable energy sources (RES) have drawn interest as alternatives to fossil fuels for powering water desalination systems. Over the last few decades the utility of renewable energy sources such as solar, geothermal, and wind to run desalination processes has been explored. However, the expansion of these technologies to larger scales is hampered by techno-economic and thermo-economic challenges. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of renewable energy-powered thermal desalination systems (RE-PTD) to compare their productivity and efficiency through thermodynamic, economic, and environmental analyses. We performed a comparative study using published data to classify RE-PTD systems technologies on the basis of the energy collection systems that they use. Among RE-PTD systems, solar energy powered-thermal desalination systems demonstrate high thermo-environ-economic efficiency to produce fresh water to meet various scales of demand.

  18. Full report: Assessment and opportunity identification of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    US industry produces about 12 billion tons of waste a year, or two-thirds of the waste generated in the US. The costs of handling and disposing of these wastes are significant, estimated to be between $25 and $43 billion in 1991, and represent an increase of 66% since 1986. US industry also uses about one-third of all energy consumed in the nation, which adds to the environmental burden. Industrial wastes affect the environmental well-being of the nation and, because of their growing costs, the competitive abilities of US industry. As part of a national effort to reduce industrial wastes, the US Congress passed the Energy Policy Act (EPAct, P.L. 102-486). Section 2108, subsections (b) and (c), of EPAct requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to identify opportunities to demonstrate energy efficient pollution prevention technologies and processes; to assess their availability and the energy, environmental, and cost effects of such technologies; and to report the results. Work for this report clearly pointed to two things, that there is insufficient data on wastes and that there is great breadth and diversity in the US industrial sector. This report identifies: information currently available on industrial sector waste streams, opportunities for demonstration of energy efficient pollution prevention technologies in two industries that produce significant amounts of waste--chemicals and petroleum, characteristics of waste reducing and energy saving technologies identifiable in the public literature, and potential barriers to adoption of waste reducing technologies by industry.

  19. New developments in illumination, heating and cooling technologies for energy-efficient buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, H.J.; Jeon, Y.I.; Lim, S.H.; Kim, W.W.; Chen, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a concise review of new designs and developments of illumination, heating and air-conditioning systems and technologies for energy-efficient buildings. Important breakthroughs in these areas include high-efficiency and/or reduced cost solar system components, LED lamps, smart windows, computer-controlled illumination systems, compact combined heat-power generation systems, and so on. To take advantage of these new technologies, hybrid or cascade energy systems have been proposed and/or investigated. A survey of innovative architectural and building envelope designs that have the potential to considerably reduce the illumination and heating and cooling costs for office buildings and residential houses is also included in the review. In addition, new designs and ideas that can be easily implemented to improve the energy efficiency and/or reduce greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts of new or existing buildings are proposed and discussed.

  20. Science and technology for a sustainable energy future: Accomplishments of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Vaughan, K.H.

    1995-03-01

    Accomplishments of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Included are activities performed in the utilities, transportation, industrial, and buildings technology areas.

  1. Use of modern information technologies for making budgetary sectors of the economy more energy-efficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Bobryakov, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    A strategy of administrative management and technological control of heat consumption and energy conservation processes in budgetary sectors of the economy is described together with a system of integrated indicators for estimating the efficiency of these processes and the main results obtained from putting the strategy in use in the system of the Russian Federal Agency for Education are presented.

  2. Perspectives of energy efficient technologies penetration in the Greek domestic sector, through the analysis of Energy Performance Certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelegenis, J.; Diakoulaki, D.; Lampropoulou, H.; Giannakidis, G.; Samarakou, M.; Plytas, N.

    2014-01-01

    The building sector in Greece presents a huge energy saving potential, the largest part of which is remaining unexploited. The recently enacted legislation for the energy performance of buildings, in combination with the financial support provided by funding programmes to low income families is expected to significantly boost the deployment of energy efficient technologies in the Greek domestic sector. The exploitation of these legal and financial instruments follows a formalised process of energy audits, resulting in buildings classification and in the submission of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs) including suggestions to improve the dwellings' energy performance. The paper aims at an ex-ante evaluation of the market trends revealed by EPCs in Greece, in order to identify the perspectives of individual technologies and to assess the degree to which the certification procedure helps in improving the energy performance of buildings. The results indicate a strong trend towards less cost-effective technologies, revealing a sub-optimal allocation of financial resources and putting into risk the path towards the achievement of EU targets for 2020. - Highlights: • Energy Performance Certificates reveal market trends of energy efficient technologies. • SWH, replacement of windows and walls/roof insulation are most often recommended. • Other measures are controls, switch to NG; low cost measures are rarely recommended. • Cost-effectiveness is not the main factor explaining technology recommendations. • Amendment of EPC document and inspection process may enhance its effectiveness

  3. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  4. Investment inefficiency and the adoption of eco-innovations: The case of household energy efficiency technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Rainey, Ivan; Ashton, John K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors determining household adoption of energy efficiency eco-innovations. We do so by testing hypotheses grounded in diffusion and finance theory and the literature on the barriers to energy efficiency. Using two large surveys of UK households, we explore the adoption of nine technologies. Our results indicate ‘investment inefficiency’ amongst household adopters occurs for two reasons. First, contrary to notions of rational choice, we find a negative relationship between the investment return of technologies and their level of diffusion. Second, we show adopters of these technologies display characteristics broadly consistent with diffusion theory, contradicting the prediction of finance theory that investment return, not individual characteristics, should drive adoption. We also find that policy has played a role in inducing the diffusion of these technologies and that tenure and spill-over effects are important in adoption. Finally, adoption is motivated more by a desire to save money than by environmental concern. We conclude by giving examples of how our research can lead to better policy timing and targeting. -- Highlights: •We explore the factors driving household adoption of energy efficiency technologies. •We employ two high quality nationally representative cross sectional surveys. •There is a negative relationship between investment return and level of diffusion. •Adopters display characteristics broadly consistent with diffusion theory. •Policy interventions, tenure effects and spill-over effects also influence adoption

  5. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  6. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  7. Does energy efficiency improve technological change and economic growth in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Calì, Massimiliano; Velde, Dirk Willem te

    2016-01-01

    Does a trade-off exist between energy efficiency and economic growth? This question underlies some of the tensions between economic and environmental policies, especially in developing countries that often need to expand their industrial base to grow. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing the relationship between energy efficiency and economic performance at the micro- (total factor productivity) and macro-level (countries' economic growth). It uses data on a large sample of manufacturing firms across 29 developing countries to find that lower levels of energy intensity are associated with higher total factor productivity for the majority of these countries. The results are robust to a variety of checks. Suggestive cross-country evidence points towards the same relation measured at the macro-level as well. - Highlights: •Total factor productivity is an accurate proxy of technological change. •Energy efficiency triggers total factor productivity especially in manufacturing. •Technological change via energy efficiency in manufacturing is an engine of growth.

  8. Novel Material Integration for Reliable and Energy-Efficient NEM Relay Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ru

    Energy-efficient switching devices have become ever more important with the emergence of ubiquitous computing. NEM relays are promising to complement CMOS transistors as circuit building blocks for future ultra-low-power information processing, and as such have recently attracted significant attention from the semiconductor industry and researchers. Relay technology potentially can overcome the energy efficiency limit for conventional CMOS technology due to several key characteristics, including zero OFF-state leakage, abrupt switching behavior, and potentially very low active energy consumption. However, two key issues must be addressed for relay technology to reach its full potential: surface oxide formation at the contacting surfaces leading to increased ON-state resistance after switching, and high switching voltages due to strain gradient present within the relay structure. This dissertation advances NEM relay technology by investigating solutions to both of these pressing issues. Ruthenium, whose native oxide is conductive, is proposed as the contacting material to improve relay ON-state resistance stability. Ruthenium-contact relays are fabricated after overcoming several process integration challenges, and show superior ON-state resistance stability in electrical measurements and extended device lifetime. The relay structural film is optimized via stress matching among all layers within the structure, to provide lower strain gradient (below 10E-3/microm -1) and hence lower switching voltage. These advancements in relay technology, along with the integration of a metallic interconnect layer, enable complex relay-based circuit demonstration. In addition to the experimental efforts, this dissertation theoretically analyzes the energy efficiency limit of a NEM switch, which is generally believed to be limited by the surface adhesion energy. New compact (electronic device technology.

  9. Governance, technology, and equity: An integrated policy framework for energy efficient housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg; Deda, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Transforming the housing stock to a low energy performance is a key priority in the context of sustainable development and a post-carbon transition. However, in terms of its practical implementation it, firstly, faces a number of complex institutional barriers, while, secondly, involves a risk of being dominated by a narrow technocratic agenda for energy/carbon reduction that may overtake the socially progressive pursuits of housing policy. Energy efficiency strategies for the residential sector must, therefore, be multidimensional, fully synergised with housing policy, and incorporating the principles of equity, access and a balanced geographical development. This paper discusses a strategic policy framework, which was designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to address those important needs in international policy. The document – Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE Region – outlines a number of goals, targets and actions structured at three dimensions: (i) governance and finance, (ii) technological advancement, and (iii) access and affordability. The Action Plan provides a comprehensive and integrated framework, based on which governments can shape their own pathways towards a sustainable low-energy residential sector. - Highlights: ► Residential sector has a large potential for energy and carbon reduction. ► Energy efficiency for housing must be reconciled with socially oriented housing policy. ► Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE region is presented. ► The Plan offers an integrated framework for sustainable transition to low-energy housing. ► Governance, technology, and equitable access are three key elements of the framework.

  10. Achieving better energy-efficient air conditioning – A review of technologies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, K.J.; Chou, S.K.; Yang, W.M.; Yan, J.

    2013-01-01

    Air conditioning is essential for maintaining thermal comfort in indoor environments, particularly for hot and humid climates. Today, air conditioning, comprising cooling and dehumidification, has become a necessity in commercial and residential buildings and industrial processes. It accounts for a major share of the energy consumption of a building or facility. In tropical climates, the energy consumed by heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) can exceed 50% of the total energy consumption of a building. This significant figure is primarily due to the heavy duty placed on cooling technologies to remove both sensible and latent heat loads. Therefore, there is tremendous potential to improve the overall efficiency of the air-conditioning systems in buildings. Based on today’s practical technology for cooling, the major components of a chiller plant are (1) compressors, (2) cooling towers, (3) pumps (chilled and cooling water) and (4) fans in air handling units. They all consume mainly electricity to operate. When specifying the kW/R ton of a plant, there are two levels of monitoring cooling efficiency: (1) at the efficiency of the chiller machines or the compressors which consume a major amount of electricity; and (2) at the overall efficiency of cooling plants which include the cooling towers, pumps for moving coolant (chilled and cooling water) to all air-handling units. Pragmatically, a holistic approach is necessary towards achieving a low energy input per cooling achieved such as 0.6 kW/R ton cooling or lower by considering all aspects of the cooling plant. In this paper, we present a review of recent innovative cooling technology and strategies that could potentially lower the kW/R ton of cooling systems – from the existing mean of 0.9 kW/R ton towards 0.6 kW/R ton or lower. The paper, broadly divided into three key sections (see Fig. 2), begins with a review of the recent novel devices that enhances the energy efficiency of cooling systems at

  11. Grid Load Shifting and Performance Assessments of Residential Efficient Energy Technologies, a Case Study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable energy decreases grid flexibility; thus, decentralized energy management or demand response are emerging as the main approaches to resolve this limitation and to provide flexibility of resources. This research investigates the performance of high energy efficiency appliances and grid-integrated distributed generators based on real monitored data from a social demonstration project. The analysis not only explores the potential cost savings and environmental benefits of high energy efficiency systems in the private sector, but also evaluates public grid load leveling potential from a bottom-up approach. This research provides a better understanding of the behavior of high decentralized efficient energy and includes detailed scenarios of monitored power generation and consumption in a social demonstration project. The scheduled heat pump effectively lifts valley load via transforming electricity to thermal energy, its daily electricity consumption varies from 4 kWh to 10 kWh and is concentrated in the early morning over the period of a year. Aggregated vehicle to home (V2H brings flexible resources to the grid, by discharging energy to cover the residential night peak load, with fuel cost savings attributed to 90% of profit. The potential for grid load leveling via integrating the power utility and consumer is examined using a bottom-up approach. Five hundred thousand contributions from scheduled electrical vehicles (EVs and fuel cells provide 5.0% of reliable peak power capacity at 20:00 in winter. The outcome illustrates the energy cost saving and carbon emission reduction scenarios of each of the proposed technologies. Relevant subsidies for heat pump water heater systems and cogeneration are essential customers due to the high initial capital investment. Optimal mixes in structure and coordinated control of high efficiency technologies enable customers to participate in grid load leveling in terms of

  12. Ensuring Energy Efficient 5G User Equipment by Technology Evolution and Reuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Berardinelli, Gilberto; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    the features’ pros and cons in achieving high performance in terms of data rate and/or latency while limiting their effect on the UE power consumption. Based on the discussion we give general recommendations for an energy efficient 5G design in the context of a previously proposed RAT concept.......Research on fifth generation (5G) radio access technology (RAT) is ramping up, with the goal of significantly improving user data rates and latency compared to previous radio generations. While energy efficiency (EE) of the user equipment (UE) was not a key optimization parameter for the current...... standards, it is anticipated to become a distinguishing factor for 5G. In this paper, we analyze established and emerging technological solutions for features such as waveform, frame structure, duplexing and multiple antenna transmission from an EE perspective. Our contribution is to identify and discuss...

  13. Polymer and Concentrator Photovoltaic Technologies - Energy Return Factors and Area Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Birger; Gustaf Zettergren

    2006-12-20

    Market diffusion of flat plate crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) technology has been induced by economical support schemes and has lead to reduced cost per produced kWh electricity. For further market penetration of the PV technology, a continued reduction of production cost is required. Two alternative approaches to achieve this are using less expensive materials or changing the active materials. The technologies of concentrator PV (CPV) systems and polymer PV (PPV) devices represent these two strategies. The potential energy performance of these technologies is studied in terms of the process primary energy requirements for manufacturing, how many times this energy is paid back during its lifetime and as the required land area for electricity generation. The study is an energy analysis incorporating the inherent uncertainties in technology development. Uncertainties are identified in data acquisition, in design choices, as induced by development and improvement, in performance and by different application scenarios. The future technology alternatives are defined in different ways for CPV and PPV. CPV parameters are derived from existing products and ideas for improvements and PPV parameters from the directions of research. This study shows that the invested energy in future CPV and PPV is potentially paid back up to about 90 and 170 times, respectively, under Arizona (CPV) and average European (PPV) solar irradiation conditions. However the result is highly dependent on configuration, inventory data and device performance. Thus, for certain design alternatives, data and performance, PPV production energy is far from paid back during its lifetime. For CPV the energy return factor is decreased to about 13 in the least beneficial case. Area efficiency is studied as the land area requirements for producing a net output electricity of 1 MWh during 25 years. With device efficiencies from 1 to 5 per cent and lifetimes from 1 to 5 years a PPV device requires from 2

  14. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  15. Integrating the Technology Acceptance Model and Diffusion of Innovation: Factors Promoting Interest in Energy Efficient and Renewable Energy Technologies at Military Installations, Federal Facilities and Land-Grant Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, C. E. Jane

    2017-01-01

    Energy managers are tasked with identifying energy savings opportunities and promoting energy independence. Energy-efficient (EE) and renewable-energy (RE) technology demonstrations enable energy managers to evaluate new energy technologies and adopt those that appear most effective. This study examined whether energy technology demonstrations…

  16. A Measurement Management Technology for Improving Energy Efficiency in Data Centers and Telecommunication Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrik Hamann, Levente Klein

    2012-06-28

    Data center (DC) electricity use is increasing at an annual rate of over 20% and presents a concern for the Information Technology (IT) industry, governments, and the society. A large fraction of the energy use is consumed by the compressor cooling to maintain the recommended operating conditions for IT equipment. The most common way to improve the DC efficiency is achieved by optimally provisioning the cooling power to match the global heat dissipation in the DC. However, at a more granular level, the large range of heat densities of today's IT equipment makes the task of provisioning cooling power optimized to the level of individual computer room air conditioning (CRAC) units much more challenging. Distributed sensing within a DC enables the development of new strategies to improve energy efficiency, such as hot spot elimination through targeted cooling, matching power consumption at rack level with workload schedule, and minimizing power losses. The scope of Measurement and Management Technologies (MMT) is to develop a software tool and the underlying sensing technology to provide critical decision support and control for DC and telecommunication facilities (TF) operations. A key aspect of MMT technology is integration of modeling tools to understand how changes in one operational parameter affect the overall DC response. It is demonstrated that reduced ordered models for DC can generate, in less than 2 seconds computational time, a three dimensional thermal model in a 50 kft{sup 2} DC. This rapid modeling enables real time visualization of the DC conditions and enables 'what if' scenarios simulations to characterize response to 'disturbances'. One such example is thermal zone modeling that matches the cooling power to the heat generated at a local level by identifying DC zones cooled by a specific CRAC. Turning off a CRAC unit can be simulated to understand how the other CRAC utilization changes and how server temperature responds

  17. Impact of technical and technological changes on energy efficiency of production company - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedzka, K.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union for rational energy economy. To make efforts to improve energy efficiency have been obliged both small and large end-users. This article aims to show the possibilities of improving energy efficiency by introducing technical and technological process changes of pine lumber drying. The object of the research is process of drying lumber implemented in a production company, which is a key supplier of large furniture manufacturer. Pine lumber drying chamber consume about 45% of total electricity in sawmill. According to various sources, drying of 1m3 of lumber uses about 3060kWh and is dependent of inter alia: the drying process itself, the factors affecting the processing time and the desired output moisture content of the timber. The article proposals for changes in the process of drying lumber pine have been positively validated in the company, and as a result their energy consumption per 1 m3 of product declined by 18%.

  18. Technical fact sheets on the impacts of new energy efficiency technologies and measures in ice rinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents energy efficiency facts on ice rinks and arenas to advise and inform refrigeration and building professionals. The aim of the paper was to facilitate estimation and compare impacts of various energy efficiency measures and new technologies on the consumption of energy and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A computer-based tool modelling ice rink energy consumption was constructed based on DOE-2.1E software. The simulation tool was developed to study the sensitivity of various eco-energetic technologies applied to arenas. Results of the simulations have made it possible to construct 8 facts sheets, including information on simulated heat exchange; calculation of energy consumption for heating and refrigeration; the incorporation of several types of Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems; and to show various strategies of operation. To account for the effects of ice within a building, calculation routines in the form of functional values were added. The model addressed the following parameters: climate; characteristics of the envelope; lighting power and intensity; temperature of the resurfacing water; ice sheet temperature; humidity level of the ice rink; fresh air intake; emissivity index of the ceiling above the ice sheet; refrigeration systems according to type, capacity, output and operation mode; capacity output and operation mode of the air heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system; and capacity, output and operation mode of the domestic and resurfacing hot water heating system, including heat recovery from the refrigeration system. Fact sheets were presented for the type of technology; description; direct or indirect benefits; energy-savings potential; environmental impacts; specific comments from specialists; and a set of charts to facilitate comprehension. tabs., figs.

  19. Program for Energy Research and Technologies 1977--1980. Annual report 1977 on efficient uses of energy fossil sources of primary energy new sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The main objectives within the policy of the Federal Government Program for Energy Research and Technologies 1977--1980 can be summarized as follows: guaranteeing the continuity of energy supply in the medium to long term in the Federal Republic at economically favourable costs considering the requirements necessary for the protection of the environment and population. The financial support is effected under the general headings of Development of Energy Resources, Energy Conservation and Efficient Use of Energy. An additional aspect of the support policy is the development of technologies which are of importance for other countries, specifically for the developing countries. Support of a project is effected through a research and development grant from the Federal Government and this can range from less than 50% to 100%. For this the Government receives an irrevocable, free of charge and non-exclusive right to make use of research and development results. In special cases full repayment is agreed subject to commercial success. Based on agreements signed by the Federal Minister of Research and Technology and the Federal Minister of Economic Affairs on the one hand and the Juelich Nuclear Research Establishment (KFA) on the other, the Project Management for Energy Research (PLE) in KFA Juelich is acting on behalf of these Ministries. The Project Management's activities in non-nuclear energy research in general (for the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology) and development and innovation in coal mining and preparation (for the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs) have the following general objectives: to improve the efficiency of Government support; to ensure that projects are efficiently handled; and to reduce the workload of the Ministries. The individual projects are listed and described briefly.

  20. The adoption of energy efficiency enhancing technologies. Market Performance and Policy Strategies in Case of Heterogeneous Firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoef, E.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics, Free University Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-07-01

    The adoption of energy-efficiency enhancing technologies by heterogeneous firms is analyzed. The fact that energy use does not only cause external environmental costs through pollution, but also directly affects the profitability of the firm and hence its behaviour on input and output markets is taken for granted. It is demonstrated that the consideration of such market processes may have important implications for the efficiency of environmental policies concerned with energy use. The analysis focuses in particular on the efficiency of the market-led adoption and diffusion process under various policy regimes. It is shown that the promotion of energy-efficiency enhancing technologies might have unexpected effects in that it could lead to an increase in energy use, while the use of energy taxes might actually reduce the attractiveness of energy-saving technologies. 22 refs.

  1. Dimensions of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this address the author describes three dimensions of energy efficiency in order of increasing costs: conservation, resource and technology substitution, and changes in economic structure. He emphasizes the importance of economic rather than environmental rationales for energy efficiency improvements in developing countries. These countries do not place high priority on the problems of global climate change. Opportunities for new technologies may exist in resource transfer, new fuels and, possibly, small reactors. More research on economic and social impacts of technologies with greater sensitivity to user preferences is needed

  2. Evaluating the Economic Performance of High-Technology Industry and Energy Efficiency: A Case Study of Science Parks in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available High-technology industries provide opportunities for economic growth, but also raise concerns because of their energy-demanding nature. This paper provides an integrated evaluation of both economic benefits and energy efficiency of high-technology industries based on the real data from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters, the national science parks in Taiwan. A nation-wide industrial Input-Output Analysis is conducted to demonstrate the positive effects of science parks on national economic developments and industrial upgrades. The concept of energy intensity and an energy-efficient economy index are applied to an integrated assessment of the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption. The proposed case study suggests that economic and energy efficiency objectives can be simultaneously achieved by the development of high-technology industries, while three energy policy implications are considered. First, a nation-wide macro viewpoint is needed and high-technology industries should be considered as parts of the national/regional economies by governmental agencies. Second, a proper industrial clustering mechanism and the shared environmental facilities supported by the government, such as planned land and road usage, electricity and water supply, telecommunications system, sewerage system and wastewater treatments, can improve energy efficiency of high-technology industries. Third, the governmental policies on the taxing and management system in science parks would also direct energy-efficient economy of high-technology industries.

  3. Energy Savings Through Thermally Efficient Crucible Technology: Fundamentals, Process Modeling, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenwu; Pinto, Brian

    2017-12-01

    Melting and holding molten metals within crucibles accounts for a large portion of total energy demand in the resource-intensive nonferrous foundry industry. Multivariate mathematical modeling aided by detailed material characterization and advancements in crucible technologies can make a significant impact in the areas of cost-efficiency and carbon footprint reduction. Key thermal properties such as conductivity and specific heat capacity were studied to understand their influence on crucible furnace energy consumption during melting and holding processes. The effects of conductivity on thermal stresses and longevity of crucibles were also evaluated. With this information, accurate theoretical models using finite element analysis were developed to study total energy consumption and melting time. By applying these findings to recent crucible developments, considerable improvements in field performance were reported and documented as case studies in applications such as aluminum melting and holding.

  4. Energy-efficient technologies and policies can help us win the race to save the planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A.H.; Price, L.

    1994-01-01

    Past achievements in energy efficiency in the residential sector are reviewed and policy mechanisms for continuing such savings are discussed. Between 1973 and 1985, the efficiency of most new individual energy-using products doubled, and this occurred with minimal investments; the price difference between the existing and the more efficient product was typically recovered through reduced energy bills in three years or less. This is illustrated with examples including automobiles, refrigerators, windows, and lighting. With the recent decline in oil prices, energy use per unit of gross national product in the USA has risen slightly and high energy prices no longer provide the main motivation for further energy efficiency improvements. Other considerations that promote energy efficiency include the economic growth that results from using energy efficient products, environmental protection, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Further energy efficiency improvements can be made using effective policies, such as establishment of energy-use labels for appliances and equipment, imposing energy efficiency standards, providing incentives for appliance and equipment manufacturers to produce energy efficient products, using fees and rebates to reduce energy use, building automobile insurance costs into gasoline prices, integrated resource planning and demand side management by energy utilities, and mortgage rates based on energy efficiency and conservation considerations. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future: Interlaboratory Working Group on Energy-Efficient and Clean-Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2000-12-18

    This study estimates the potential for public policies and R and D programs to foster clean energy technology solutions to the energy and environmental challenges facing the nation. These challenges include global climate change, air pollution, oil dependence, and inefficiencies in the production and use of energy. The study uses a scenario-based approach to examine alternative portfolios of public policies and technologies. Although the report makes no policy recommendations, it does present policies that could lead to impressive advances in the development and deployment of clean energy technologies without significant net economic impacts. Appendices are available electronically at: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/29379appendices.pdf (6.4 MB).

  6. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio‐degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser‐print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running‐in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  7. New Material Development for Surface Layer and Surface Technology in Tribology Science to Improve Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, R.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Jamari, Jamari; Schipper, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of new material and surface technology in tribology and its contribution to energy efficiency. Two examples of the economic benefits, resulted from the optimum tribology in the transportation sector and the manufacturing industry are discussed. The new materials are proposed to modify the surface property by laminating the bulk material with thin layer/coating. Under a suitable condition, the thin layer on a surface can provide a combination of good wear, a low friction and corrosion resistance for the mechanical components. The innovation in layer technology results molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), diamond like carbon (DLC), cubic boron nitride (CBN) and diamond which perform satisfactory outcome. The application of the metallic coatings to carbon fibre reinforced polymer matrix composites (CFRP) has the capacity to provide considerable weight and power savings for many engineering components. The green material for lubricant and additives such as the use of sunflower oil which possesses good oxidation resistance and the use of mallee leaves as bio-degradable solvent are used to answer the demand of the environmentally friendly material with good performance. The tribology research implementation for energy efficiency also touches the simple things around us such as: erasing the laser-print in a paper with different abrasion techniques. For the technology in the engineering surface, the consideration for generating the suitable surface of the components in running-in period has been discussed in order to prolong the components life and reduce the machine downtime. The conclusion, tribology can result in reducing manufacturing time, reducing the maintenance requirements, prolonging the service interval, improving durability, reliability and mechanical components life, and reducing harmful exhaust emission and waste. All of these advantages will increase the energy efficiency and the economic benefits.

  8. New energy efficiency technologies associated with increased natural gas demand in delivery and consumption sectors of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghalandis, Saeid Mansouri

    2010-09-15

    Increasing population and economic growth in developing countries has changed their energy consumption patterns. So, the conventional systems of energy supply have become inadequate to deal with rising energy demand. Iran has great reservoirs of natural gas and its natural gas usage is far more than average international standard. Dominance of natural gas share in energy basket in Iran, make it necessary to consider energy efficient technologies and solutions for this domain. In this study new technologies for increasing energy efficiency (EE) in natural gas delivery and consumption sub sectors are discussed and evaluated according to available infrastructures in Iran.

  9. Energy Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Reviewed are technological problems faced in energy production including locating, recovering, developing, storing, and distributing energy in clean, convenient, economical, and environmentally satisfactory manners. The energy resources of coal, oil, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, winds, tides,…

  10. High-efficiency heat pump technology using metal hydrides (eco-energy city project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Y.; Harada, T.; Niikura, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, J. [Human Environmental Systems Development Center, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan); Gamo, T. [Corporate Environmental Affairs Div., Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    Metal hybrides are effective materials for utilizing hydrogen as a clean energy medium. That is, when the metal hydrides absorb or desorb the hydrogen, a large heat output of reaction occurs. So, the metal hydrides can be applied to a heat pump. We have researched on a high efficiency heat pump technology using their metal hydrides. In this report, a double effect type metal hydride heat pump configuration is described in which the waste heat of 160 C is recovered in a factory cite and transported to areas far distant from the industrial district. In the heat recovery unit, a low pressure hydrogen is converted into highly effective high pressure hydrogen by applying the metal hydrides. Other metal hydrides perform the parts of heating by absorbing the hydrogen and cooling by desorbing the hydrogen in the heat supply unit. One unit scale of the system is 3 kW class as the sum of heating and cooling. This system using the hydrogen absorbing alloy also has good energy storage characteristics and ambient hydrogen pressure self-safety control ability. Furthermore, this heating and cooling heat supply system is not harmful to the natural environment because it is a chlorofluorocarbon-free, and low noise type system. We have developed in the following element technologies to attain the above purposes, that is development of hydrogen absorbing alloys with high heat outputs and technologies to construct the heat pump system. This study is proceeded at present as one of the programs in New Sunshine Project, which aims for development of ingenious energy utilization technology to achieve reduction of primary energy consumption with keeping cultural and wealthy life and preventing deterioration of global environment. (orig.)

  11. Diffusion of new automotive technologies for improving energy efficiency in Brazil's light vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, Cristina; Szklo, Alexandre; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    2010-01-01

    Historically, Brazil has promoted the development and sales of light duty vehicles running on ethanol (firstly, ethanol-dedicated cars, and recently flexfuel cars). In the 1990s, the country also favored the sales of compact cars to middle and low-income classes. However, in the last years, the profile of vehicles sold in Brazil has converged towards larger and less-efficient vehicles. In 2008, Brazil launched the vehicle labeling program. Based on the outcomes of the historical programs oriented towards the development of automotive innovations, and on a survey conducted with the country's main auto makers, this article evaluates whether the vehicle labeling program will both improve the energy efficiency of light vehicles, and introduce new technologies. Our results indicate that, despite its virtuous intentions, the program will not control the tendency of rising fuel consumption of passenger cars sold in Brazil. Therefore, other policies are needed to boost innovations in Brazil's automotive industry. (author)

  12. Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government...

  13. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  14. Enabling renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Opportunities in Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnsley, Ingrid; Blank, Amanda; Brown, Adam

    2015-06-01

    The increased deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies (RE&EET) in the South Eastern Mediterranean (SEMED) region and in the Early Transition Countries (ETC) could bring a host of benefits, including enhanced energy security, increased national revenues and environmental gains. A new IEA Insights paper considers policy options for supporting the deployment of RE&EET, as well as the surrounding factors that can enable – or indeed impede – the successful implementation of such support policies in both regions. Drawing on a wealth of IEA analyses and policy experiences globally, the paper: provides a summary of the energy profiles of the ETC and SEMED regions; highlights overarching, ''enabling'' factors that can help to set the necessary foundations for the successful implementation of policy to support RE&EET deployment; analyses policy options for both RE and EE, drawing on practical examples and highlighting indicative policies that correspond with varying levels of market maturity; and provides a checklist for assessing the level of supportiveness of national policy frameworks for RE&EET. The paper concludes by pointing to the significant potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy gains in both regions.

  15. Efficiency and cost advantages of an advanced-technology nuclear electrolytic hydrogen-energy production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donakowski, T. D.; Escher, W. J. D.; Gregory, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The concept of an advanced-technology (viz., 1985 technology) nuclear-electrolytic water electrolysis facility was assessed for hydrogen production cost and efficiency expectations. The facility integrates (1) a high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (HTGR) operating a binary work cycle, (2) direct-current (d-c) electricity generation via acyclic generators, and (3) high-current-density, high-pressure electrolyzers using a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE). All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced for hydrogen production alone (i.e., without separate production of electrical power). Pipeline-pressure hydrogen and oxygen are produced at 6900 kPa (1000 psi). We found that this advanced facility would produce hydrogen at costs that were approximately half those associated with contemporary-technology nuclear electrolysis: $5.36 versus $10.86/million Btu, respectively. The nuclear-heat-to-hydrogen-energy conversion efficiency for the advanced system was estimated as 43%, versus 25% for the contemporary system.

  16. Energy Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Petrichenko, Ksenia; Farrell, Timothy Clifford; Thorsch Krader, Thomas; Tsakiris, Aristeidis

    2016-01-01

    This report was commissioned by REN21 and produced in collaboration with a global network of research partners. Financing was provided by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the Government of South Africa, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Bank Group. A large share of the research for this report was conducted on a v...

  17. Learning energy efficiency: experience curves for household appliances and space heating, cooling, and lighting technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Improving demand side energy efficiency is an important strategy for establishing a sustainable energy system. Large potentials for energy efficiency improvements exist in the residential and commercial buildings sector. This sector currently accounts for almost 40% of the European Union’s (EU)

  18. Audit Report "Department of Energy Efforts to Manage Information Technology Resources in an Energy-Efficient and Environmentally Responsible Manner"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 emphasizes energy efficiency and conservation as critical to the Nation's economic vitality; its goal of reducing dependence on foreign energy sources; and, related efforts to improve the environment. The Act highlights the significant use of various forms of energy in the Federal sector and promotes efforts to improve the energy efficiency of Federal operations. One specific area of interest is the increasing demand for Federal sector computing resources and the corresponding increase in energy use, with both cost and environmental implications. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that, without aggressive conservation measures, data center energy consumption alone is expected to double over the next five years. In our report on Management of the Department's Data Centers at Contractor Sites (DOE/IG-0803, October 2008) we concluded that the Department of Energy had not always improved the efficiency of its contractor data centers even when such modifications were possible and practical. Despite its recognized energy conservation leadership role, the Department had not always taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption associated with its information technology resources. Nor, had it ensured that resources were managed in a way that minimized impact on the environment. In particular: (1) The seven Federal and contractor sites included in our review had not fully reduced energy consumption through implementation of power management settings on their desktop and laptop computers; and, as a consequence, spent $1.6 million more on energy costs than necessary in Fiscal Year 2008; (2) None of the sites reviewed had taken advantage of opportunities to reduce energy consumption, enhance cyber security, and reduce costs available through the use of techniques, such as 'thin-client computing' in their unclassified environments; and, (3) Sites had not always taken the

  19. Area- and energy-efficient CORDIC accelerators in deep sub-micron CMOS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnoi, U.; Noll, T. G.

    2012-09-01

    The COordinate Rotate DIgital Computer (CORDIC) algorithm is a well known versatile approach and is widely applied in today's SoCs for especially but not restricted to digital communications. Dedicated CORDIC blocks can be implemented in deep sub-micron CMOS technologies at very low area and energy costs and are attractive to be used as hardware accelerators for Application Specific Instruction Processors (ASIPs). Thereby, overcoming the well known energy vs. flexibility conflict. Optimizing Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers to reduce the hardware complexity is an important research topic at present. In such receivers CORDIC accelerators can be used for digital baseband processing (fixed-point) and in Position-Velocity-Time estimation (floating-point). A micro architecture well suited to such applications is presented. This architecture is parameterized according to the wordlengths as well as the number of iterations and can be easily extended for floating point data format. Moreover, area can be traded for throughput by partially or even fully unrolling the iterations, whereby the degree of pipelining is organized with one CORDIC iteration per cycle. From the architectural description, the macro layout can be generated fully automatically using an in-house datapath generator tool. Since the adders and shifters play an important role in optimizing the CORDIC block, they must be carefully optimized for high area and energy efficiency in the underlying technology. So, for this purpose carry-select adders and logarithmic shifters have been chosen. Device dimensioning was automatically optimized with respect to dynamic and static power, area and performance using the in-house tool. The fully sequential CORDIC block for fixed-point digital baseband processing features a wordlength of 16 bits, requires 5232 transistors, which is implemented in a 40-nm CMOS technology and occupies a silicon area of 1560 μm2 only. Maximum clock frequency from circuit

  20. Homeland security: safeguarding America's future with energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-08-01

    The State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) presents this 10th annual report following the one-year anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. This event has had profound impacts on all segments of American society, not the least of which is this country’s energy sector. Long before September 11, a number of energy issues grabbed the nation’s attention, including opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil and natural gas exploration, the power crisis in California, nationwide natural gas and gasoline price increases, and the administration’s May 2001 National Energy Policy. However, the events of September 11 refocused attention on the prominent role energy plays in the country’s homeland security. For the most part, the energy aspects of homeland security have focused on the physical security of critical energy emergency planning and energy infrastructure, such as power plants, refineries, and power and fuel transmission systems. While STEAB recognizes the importance of protecting our existing energy infrastructure, this should not be the sole focus of homeland security as it relates to energy.

  1. National energy efficiency programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focusses on energy conservation and specifically on energy efficiency which includes efficiency in the production, delivery and utilisation of energy as part of the total energy system of the economy. A National Energy Efficiency Programme is being launched in the Eighth Plan that will take into account both macro level and policy and planning considerations as well as micro level responses for different category of users in the industry, agriculture, transport and domestic sectors. The need for such a National Energy Efficiency Programme after making an assessment of existing energy conservation activities in the country is discussed. The broad framework and contents of the National Energy Efficiency Programme have been outlined and the Eighth Plan targets for energy conservation and their break-up have been given. These targets, as per the Eighth Plan document are 5000 MW in electricity installed capacity and 6 million tonnes of petroleum products by the terminal year of the Eighth Plan. The issues that need to be examined for each sector for achieving the above targets for energy conservation in the Eighth Plan are discussed briefly. They are: (a) policy and planning, (b) implementation arrangements which include the institutional setup and selective legislation, (c) technological requirements, and (d) resource requirements which include human resources and financial resources. (author)

  2. Energy Efficiency Center - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obryk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Energy Efficiency Center (EEC) activities have been concentrated on Energy Efficiency Network (SEGE), education and training of energy auditors. EEC has started studies related to renewable fuels (bio fuel, wastes) and other topics related to environment protection. EEC has continued close collaboration with Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. It has been organized and conducted Seminar and Workshop on ''How to Reduce Energy and Water Cost in Higher Education Buildings'' for general and technical managers of the higher education institutions. This Seminar was proceeded by the working meeting on energy efficiency strategy in higher education at the Ministry of National Education. EEC has worked out proposal for activities of Cracow Regional Agency for Energy Efficiency and Environment and has made offer to provide services for this Agency in the field of training, education and consulting. The vast knowledge and experiences in the field of energy audits have been used by the members of EEC in lecturing at energy auditors courses authorized by the National Energy Efficiency Agency (KAPE). Altogether 20 lectures have been delivered. (author)

  3. Feasibility survey on international cooperation for high efficiency energy conversion technology in fiscal 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.

  4. Energy efficiency in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Finland a significant portion of energy originates from renewable sources and cogeneration, that is, combined production of electricity and heat. Combined heat and electricity production is typical in the Finnish industry and in the district heating sector. One third of all electricity and 15 % of district heating is produced by cogeneration. District heating schemes provide about 45 % of heat in buildings. Overall efficiency in industry exceeds 80 % and is even higher in the district heating sector. In 1996 25 % of Finland`s primary energy was produced from renewable energy sources which is a far higher proportion than the European Union average of 6 %. Finland is one of the leading users of bioenergy. Biomass including peat, provides approximately 50 % of fuel consumed by industry and is utilised in significant amounts in combined heat and electricity plants. For example, in the pulp and paper industry, by burning black liquor and bark during the production of chemical pulp, significant amounts of energy are generated and used in paper mills. Conservation and efficient use of energy are central to the Finnish Government`s Energy Strategy. The energy conservation programme aims to increase energy efficiency by 10-20 % by the year 2010. Energy saving technology plays a key role in making the production and use of energy more efficient. In 1996 of FIM 335 million (ECU 57 million) spent on funding research, FIM 120 million (ECU 20 million) was spent on research into energy conservation

  5. Current On-Campus Attitudes toward Energy Usage, Efficiency, and Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennon, Liz [Manhattan College NY, NY 10471; Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030; Manhattan College NY, NY 10471; Sintov, Nicole [USC Information Sciences Institute Marina del Rey, CA 90292; Orosz, Michael [USC Information Sciences Institute Marina del Rey, CA 90292

    2016-10-01

    Context & Background for Energy Survey Methods & Survey Overview Respondent Demographics Results Demand Response Current Environmental Comfort Perceptions Smart Meters Perceived Smart Meter Benefits Motivators of Energy Efficient Practices Summary & Implications

  6. Disseminating energy-efficient technologies: a case study of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arun; Jain, Sudhir K.; Bansal, N.K.

    2003-01-01

    Disseminating energy-efficient technologies, even when they may appear to be technically perfect, is always a tough task, more so in economies with low purchasing power and educational levels. The compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) is one such well-known product that consumes only 20% electricity for the same light output as given out by the ubiquitous incandescent lamp and which, if adopted in a big way, has the potential of reducing peak electric power loads very significantly. However, in India, the CFL sales are still not growing in the expected manner. The current study was accordingly undertaken to investigate the underlying reasons and to determine the most effective ways in which an efficient technology like this could be popularized. The task involved the designing and administering of questionnaires to some 900 respondents from 100 locations representing various socio-economic, educational and professional backgrounds in and around Delhi, and analysing the results in terms of an importance index. Based on this feedback, the authors recommend an aggressive implementation of the formula standing for EDucation, POlicy support, STAandards, Demonstrations and INdustry involvement (EDPOSTADIN) at least for popularizing CFLs

  7. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  8. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian; Koeln Univ.

    2015-01-01

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  9. How technological potentials are undermined by economic and behavioural responses. The treatment effect of endogenous energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Helena; Tode, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2015-06-15

    Governments worldwide spend increasing amounts of money on policy schemes to reduce energy consumption and related carbon emissions. We investigate the actual treatment effect of energy efficiency measures and therein compare actual demand responses to technological potentials. Based on a demand system analysis of household data and by approximating unobserved energy awareness, we find economic and behavioural responses that counteract expected savings from energy efficiency. Results show strong rebound and even back ring effects but also suggest heterogeneity of the effectiveness driven by behavioural concepts, such as sunk cost fallacy or habit formation. Understanding these can contribute to target-oriented policy designs and increased effectiveness and efficiency of policies.

  10. Transition Management: Case Study of an Energy Efficiency Technology Roadmap in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şiir Kilkiş

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates several streams of literature in transition management and proposes a holistic framework for its application in policy-making. Separate fields of study, such as motors of change and strategic intelligence tools, are unified in a single analytical process. The process involves five steps that may be repeated until a desired policy objective is achieved. The pilot, integrated technology roadmap process that has been launched in Turkey is analyzed as a case study. The Energy Efficiency Technology Roadmap has been completed with the participation of over 160 experts in 5 different stages. It involved the collection of over 349 Delfi statements, their consolidation for a Delfi survey with 16 statements, the analysis of the results, a focal group meeting to develop roadmaps for the 7 selected goals, and the consultation of the roadmaps to the sector. The paper concludes that an integrated technology roadmap process, as described in the pilot case study, provides an advanced version of transition management, which is needed to mobilize research, development, and innovation for sustainable development.

  11. Transport Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Technology: Transmission Performance and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-wireless technology has been actively researched as a potential candidate for next generation broadband wireless signal distribution. Despite the popularity, this hybrid scheme has many technical challenges that impede the uptake and commercial deployment. One of the inherent issues is the transport of the wireless signals over a predominantly digital optical network in today’s telecommunication infrastructure. Many different approaches have been introduced and demonstrated with digitized RF transport of the wireless signals being the most compatible with the existing optical fiber networks. In this paper, we review our work in the area of digitized RF transport to address the inherent issues related to analog transport in the fiber-wireless links and compare the transmission performance and energy efficiency with the other transport strategies.

  12. The Role of Emerging Technologies in Improving Energy Efficiency:Examples from the Food Processing Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, Robert Bruce; Masanet, Eric; McKane, Aimee

    2006-05-01

    For over 25 years, the U.S. DOE's Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) has championed the application of emerging technologies in industrial plants and monitored these technologies impacts on industrial energy consumption. The cumulative energy savings of more than 160 completed and tracked projects is estimated at approximately 3.99 quadrillion Btu (quad), representing a production cost savings of $20.4 billion. Properly documenting the impacts of such technologies is essential for assessing their effectiveness and for delivering insights about the optimal direction of future technology research. This paper analyzes the impacts that several emerging technologies have had in the food processing industry. The analysis documents energy savings, carbon emissions reductions and production improvements and assesses the market penetration and sector-wide savings potential. Case study data is presented demonstrating the successful implementation of these technologies. The paper's conclusion discusses the effects of these technologies and offers some projections of sector-wide impacts.

  13. Energy efficient information and communication technology (ICT); Energie-efficiente ICT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siderius, H.P.

    2001-04-01

    Attention is paid to the energy consumption of and options to save energy with ICT equipment (personal computers, monitors, printers, copiers, faxing machines) [Dutch] ICT - informatie en communicatietechnologie - apparatuur is de snelst groeiende verbruiker van energie in de utiliteitsbouw. Redenen hiervoor zijn de toenemende penetratie van PCs, het feit dat vrijwel al deze PCs en steeds meer andere apparaten op een netwerk zijn aangesloten, en de trend om steeds meer processen volledig digitaal uit te voeren. De toename van het energieverbruik heeft dus een reden, maar is voor Novem aanleiding om aandacht te besteden aan het energieverbruik van ICT apparatuur, en aan de mogelijkheden om het verbruik te beperken. Dit uiteraard zonder functionaliteit en gebruiksgemak te verminderen. Voordat in de volgende paragraaf het energieverbruik en de besparingsmogelijkheden van afzonderlijke apparaten aan de orde komt, allereerst een kort overzicht van het energieverbruik in een kantoor en het aandeel van apparatuur hierin. Daarna volgt een aantal redenen om aandacht te besteden aan energie-efficieante ICT apparatuur.

  14. Monitoring of energy efficiency of technological modes of gas transport using modern gas-turbine equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golik, V. V.; Zemenkova, M. Yu; Shipovalov, A. N.; Akulov, K. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents calculations and an example of energy efficiency justification of the regimes of the equipment used. The engineering design of the gas pipeline in the part of monitoring the energy efficiency of a gas compressor unit (GCU) is considered. The results of the GCU characteristics and its components evaluation are described. The evaluation results of the energy efficiency indicators of the gas pipeline are presented. As an example of the result of the analysis, it is proposed to use gas compressor unit GCU-32 "Ladoga" because of its efficiency and cost effectiveness, in comparison with analogues.

  15. Formation of the Integral Ecological Quality Index of the Technological Processes in Machine Building Based on Their Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Sergey B.; Kapitanov, Alexey V.; Mitrofanov, Vladimir G.; Shvartsburg, Leonid E.; Ivanova, Natalia A.; Ryabov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of article is to provide development of a unified assessment methodology in relation to various technological processes and the actual conditions of their implementation. To carry the energy efficiency analysis of the technological processes through comparison of the established power and the power consumed by the actual technological…

  16. R and D 2005-2015. Energy efficient technologies - analysis; F og U 2005 - 2015. Energieffektive teknologier - analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Danish Energy Authority has initiated the making of a strategy that includes research and development efforts within energy efficient technologies in a 10-year perspective. The strategy prioritizes and describes the research and development efforts with a view to obtain the largest possible effect from public funds. Furthermore, the objective is to create synergy between activities and players. This report is part of the second phase of the strategy project. The objective of this phase is to: 1. Lay the groundwork for prioritization, 2. Perform overall priorities, and 3. Draw up road maps for future R and D efforts within energy efficient technologies. (BA)

  17. Energy Efficiency of Technological Equipment at the Economic Agent by Identifying the Points with Recoverable Heat Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoiţescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For an energy-efficient future, the EU needs to step up its efforts to maximize energy savings. In this context, the paper addresses the steps needed to establish energy efficiency measures and proposes effective measures to reduce consumption by recovering large amounts of energy lost to industrial consumers. The points with the highest recoverable energy potential have been identified and it is proposed to install the heat recovery systems on the flue gas exhaust circuits and polluted air from Industrial Technological Equipment (ITE such as dyeing/drying cabins (DDC. Therefore, whenever possible and as small as energy saving, energy recovery solutions at any level, but especially at local level, need to be applied. In conclusion, by concentrating all the energy-saving efforts that are still being wasted, Europe can contribute, by saving energy, to ensuring a sustainable energy future

  18. Simulating the effect on the energy efficiency of smart grid technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2009-01-01

    The awareness of the greenhousegas effect and rising energy prices lead to initiatives to improve energy ef��?ciency. These initiatives range from micro-generation, energy storage and ef��?cient appliances to controllers with optimization objectives. Although these technologies are promising, their

  19. Stimulating R and D of industrial energy-efficient technology; the effect of government intervention on the development of strip casting technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiten, E.E.M.; Blok, Kornelis

    2003-01-01

    Strip casting technology in steel-making is known as an innovative energy-efficient technology. Stimulating the development (R and D) of such industrial process technologies is an appealing government intervention strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this article, we analyse (a) the R and D trajectory of strip casting technology and (b) the effect of government intervention on the development of this particular energy-efficient technology. For this purpose we made a detailed investigation of the networks within which the technology was developed. The huge capital cost advantages of strip casting technology were already notified back in the 19th century. However, only after 1975 a robust technology network emerged. There is no single, simple determinant explaining the slow emergence of the technology network: the innovative technology had to become a more incremental improvement to the conventional production facilities before R and D was seriously pursued. Once the technology network emerged, it proved to have a strong momentum of itself. Steel firms maintained their confidence in the strategic cost advantages of the technology and persistently invested in up-scaling the technology. The effect of government intervention was minimal, because the technology network had its own strong momentum. All in all, R and D was only loosely influenced by energy-efficiency considerations or by government intervention. The major policy lesson is that information on technology networks and its momentum--in addition to classic information on energy-efficiency improvements and investments costs--is required to improve the effect of government intervention in the field of industrial energy-efficiency R and D and innovation

  20. A study on intensifying efficiency for international collaborative development of advanced nuclear energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Hahn, D. H.; Song, K. C.; Chang, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, Y. J. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The objective of the study was to participate the GIF for the efficient propulsion of future nuclear system development. For achieving the objective of this study, the followings were carried out. {Omicron} Analyze the international/domestic trends in the future nuclear energy system {Omicron} Analyze the domestic long-term R and D program for the future nuclear system and assist its implementation - Review the agenda of the executive committee, the technical committee, and sub-technical committee - Assist the committee meetings and workshops related to the future nuclear energy system {Omicron} Develop the participation strategy for the collaborative development of Gen-IV technology and conducting the international cooperation activities - Support the delegation by reviewing the agenda of GIF meetings in the technical and legal perspective - Research the system R and D arrangement and report its progress - Participate in the SFR SIA PA negotiation meeting and report its progress {Omicron} Support the activities related to I-NERI between Korea and U.S. - Support a delegation by reviewing the agenda in the technical/legal point of view - Participate in the BINERIC meetings and Support the related activities The result of this study may be used for 1) contribution to establishing the effective foundation and broadening the cooperation activities between the advanced countries and Korea and 2) contribution effective management of Gen IV international collaboration by technical/legal supporting

  1. A study on intensifying efficiency for international collaborative development of advanced nuclear energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Hahn, D. H.; Song, K. C.; Chang, J. H.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. J.; Lim, C. Y.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, Y. J.

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to participate the GIF for the efficient propulsion of future nuclear system development. For achieving the objective of this study, the followings were carried out. Ο Analyze the international/domestic trends in the future nuclear energy system Ο Analyze the domestic long-term R and D program for the future nuclear system and assist its implementation - Review the agenda of the executive committee, the technical committee, and sub-technical committee - Assist the committee meetings and workshops related to the future nuclear energy system Ο Develop the participation strategy for the collaborative development of Gen-IV technology and conducting the international cooperation activities - Support the delegation by reviewing the agenda of GIF meetings in the technical and legal perspective - Research the system R and D arrangement and report its progress - Participate in the SFR SIA PA negotiation meeting and report its progress Ο Support the activities related to I-NERI between Korea and U.S. - Support a delegation by reviewing the agenda in the technical/legal point of view - Participate in the BINERIC meetings and Support the related activities The result of this study may be used for 1) contribution to establishing the effective foundation and broadening the cooperation activities between the advanced countries and Korea and 2) contribution effective management of Gen IV international collaboration by technical/legal supporting

  2. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Dept.. China Energy Group; Arens, Marlene [Fraunhofer Inst. for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-01-31

    Iron and steel manufacturing is among the most energy-intensive industries and accounts for the largest share, approximately 27 percent, of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the manufacturing sector. The ongoing increase in world steel demand means that this industry’s energy use and CO2 emissions continue to grow, so there is significant incentive to develop, commercialize and adopt emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emissions-reduction technologies for steel production. Although studies from around the world have identified a wide range of energy-efficiency technologies applicable to the steel industry that have already been commercialized, information is limited and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on 56 emerging iron and steel industry technologies, with the intent of providing a well-structured database of information on these technologies for engineers, researchers, investors, steel companies, policy makers, and other interested parties. For each technology included, we provide information on energy savings and environmental and other benefits, costs, and commercialization status; we also identify references for more information.

  3. Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Lin, Elina

    2012-04-06

    Globally, the cement industry accounts for approximately 5 percent of current anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. World cement demand and production are increasing significantly, leading to an increase in this industry's absolute energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Development of new energy-efficiency and CO{sub 2} emission-reduction technologies and their deployment in the market will be key for the cement industry's mid- and long-term climate change mitigation strategies. This report is an initial effort to compile available information on process description, energy savings, environmental and other benefits, costs, commercialization status, and references for emerging technologies to reduce the cement industry's energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Although studies from around the world identify a variety of sector-specific and cross-cutting energy-efficiency technologies for the cement industry that have already been commercialized, information is scarce and/or scattered regarding emerging or advanced energy-efficiency and low-carbon technologies that are not yet commercialized. This report consolidates available information on nineteen emerging technologies for the cement industry, with the goal of providing engineers, researchers, investors, cement companies, policy makers, and other interested parties with easy access to a well-structured database of information on these technologies.

  4. Socio-technical barriers to the use of energy-efficient timber drying technology in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Martha; Carrington, Gerry; Lawson, Rob; Stephenson, Janet

    2014-01-01

    This study of industrial energy behaviours identifies barriers to the use of energy-efficient drying technology in the New Zealand timber industry, and explores these barriers through the “energy cultures” lens. Vented kiln dryers were preferred by larger firms and heat pump kiln dryers were used by smaller firms. Although few firms could specify all their costs, we found no significant differences in the average operating costs, drying costs or commercial success of the larger and smaller firms. We found that socio-technical barriers create “energy cultures” at the level of both the firm and the sector, supporting the dominance of vented kiln dryers. The prevailing technologies, practices and norms at the sector level strongly support vented kilns, the status quo being embedded in the socio-technical context, hindering technological learning, improved energy efficiency and innovation. Influential stakeholders in the industry were thus part of, and locked into, the industry-wide energy culture, and were not in a position to effect change. We conclude that actors external to the prevailing industry energy culture need to leverage change in the industry norms, practices and/or technologies in order to reap the advantages of energy-efficient drying technology, assist its continued evolution and avoid the risks of path-dependency. - Highlights: • Firms processing timber in New Zealand use two main drying technologies. • Relatively inefficient vented dryers dominate over energy-efficient heat pumps. • Operating costs are similar but the socio-technical regime supports vented dryers. • Stasis is created by fixed energy cultures both within firms and across the sector. • Stasis hampers technical development in heat pump drying and business innovation

  5. Generating power at high efficiency combined cycle technology for sustainable energy production

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, E

    2008-01-01

    Combined cycle technology is used to generate power at one of the highest levels of efficiency of conventional power plants. It does this through primary generation from a gas turbine coupled with secondary generation from a steam turbine powered by primary exhaust heat. Generating power at high efficiency thoroughly charts the development and implementation of this technology in power plants and looks to the future of the technology, noting the advantages of the most important technical features - including gas turbines, steam generator, combined heat and power and integrated gasification com

  6. Using qualitative methods to understand non-technological aspects of domestic energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Aimee Rebecca

    The overall aim of the collected published works is to investigate how different policy interventions in the field of energy efficiency (including zero carbon homes, low carbon heat networks, and domestic energy efficiency schemes) are experienced and made sense of by a range of key actors. A further aim is to understand these interventions in the context of existing theories within the field of domestic energy efficiency including socio-technical theory and Actor Network Theory. More specifically, this research advances existing knowledge in the following areas: The nature of the socio-technical challenges encountered in the introduction of more energy efficient buildings, and the importance of achieving a balance between socially acceptable and technically optimal environments. (Papers 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8). The value of qualitative research in gaining a more nuanced understanding of our relationship with the home and the implications of this for domestic energy efficiency interventions and the design of low energy buildings (all papers). The influence of tenure as determinant of access to a more energy efficient home and in particular, the stubborn and complex barriers to achieving higher standards of energy performance within the private rented sector. (Papers 1, 2, 3 and 4). The significance of identity, setting and notions of home in the context of domestic energy efficiency interventions. (Papers 1 and 4). As these themes suggest, this PhD is not just concerned with carbon reduction and energy saving as technical objects, but as a way of life. More specifically, it considers the interactions between the two and contends that technical or policy instruments, no matter how sophisticated, cannot succeed if they are not compatible with our ways of life (and ways of doing businesss) or if our ways of life cannot be reasonably adapted to acoomodate them.

  7. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  8. Energy efficient recovery and dehydration of ethanol from fermentation broths by Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillation combined with molecular sieve dehydration is the current state of the art for fuel grade ethanol production from fermentation broths. To improve the sustainability of bioethanol production, energy efficient separation alternatives are needed, particularly for lower ...

  9. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Xu, T.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-08-15

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models.

  10. Ressource efficient IT in schools. Options of an energie-efficient and material-efficient use in information technology; Ressourceneffiziente IT in Schulen. Optionen des energie- und materialeffizienten Einsatzes von Informationstechnik (IT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, Jens; Fichter, Klaus [Borderstep Insitut, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The number of computers in schools increases continuously. This requires a use of material-efficient and energy-efficient IT technologies. As an alternative to traditional large desktop personal computers (PC), there are three types of computer solutions with a significant improvement: Mini PCs, notebooks and Thin Client and Server Based Computing. Schools need to reflect fundamentally on more material-efficient and more energy-efficient IT solutions and consider the system change to server-based computing as an alternative. Thus, the information and training of IT personnel in schools plays as a central role such as the expansion of the competence of advising and supervising system houses. This is the only way to reduce material costs, energy consumption and administration costs despite an increasing number of computer devices and to exploit existing potentials for resource efficiency.

  11. Energy and spectrum efficiency in rural areas based on cognitive radio technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available spectrum scarcity in the most energy efficient manner. In this paper, researchers present the proposed work to be carried out as part of a doctoral thesis to address the spectrum scarcity and transmission power in energy constrained rural areas....

  12. Sustaining high energy efficiency in existing processes with advanced process integration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Smith, Robin; Bulatov, Igor; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Process integration with better modelling and more advanced solution methods. ► Operational changes for better environmental performance through optimisation. ► Identification of process integration technology for operational optimisation. ► Systematic implementation procedure of process integration technology. ► A case study with crude oil distillation to demonstrate the operational flexibility. -- Abstract: To reduce emissions in the process industry, much emphasis has been put on making step changes in emission reduction, by developing new process technology and making renewable energy more affordable. However, the energy saving potential of existing systems cannot be simply ignored. In recent years, there have been significant advances in process integration technology with better modelling techniques and more advanced solution methods. These methods have been applied to the new design and retrofit studies in the process industry. Here attempts are made to apply these technologies to improve the environmental performance of existing facilities with operational changes. An industrial project was carried out to demonstrate the importance and effectiveness of exploiting the operational flexibility for energy conservation. By applying advanced optimisation technique to integrate the operation of distillation and heat recovery in a crude oil distillation unit, the energy consumption was reduced by 8% without capital expenditure. It shows that with correctly identified technology and the proper execution procedure, significant energy savings and emission reduction can be achieved very quickly without major capital expenditure. This allows the industry to improve its economic and environment performance at the same time.

  13. Technology intervention to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of silk reeling sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhingra, Sunil; Mande, Sanjay; Raman, P.; Srinivas, S.N.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2004-01-01

    The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) has been actively involved in development of biomass gasifier system for thermal and power generation use. Though the basic science of gasification is well established, there have not many efforts in the past on product development. By continuous interaction with users, silk experts and consultants, TERI could able to develop a gasifier based silk reeling oven. A major thrust on this development work was to evolve marketable product by continued efforts to gain an insight of the actual process and user feedback through an extended presence and interaction at field level, and then translating this experience in product design. The present paper gives a summary of design, development and testing of gasifier based cottage basin system for cocoon cooking in silk reeling industry in order to achieve higher fuel efficiency and increase productivity of the process. The paper describes in detail the approach of different technology development stages, its testing both at laboratory and field and economic viability of the system

  14. The impact of DOE building technology energy efficiency programs on U.S. employment, income, and investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schultz, Robert W.; Anderson, David M.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) analyzes the macroeconomic impacts of its programs that are designed to increase the energy efficiency of the U.S. residential and commercial building stock. The analysis is conducted using the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model, a special-purpose 188-sector input-output model of the U.S. economy designed specifically to evaluate the impacts of energy efficiency investments and saving. For the analysis described in the paper, ImSET was amended to provide estimates of sector-by-sector capital requirements and investment. In the scenario of the Fiscal Year (FY) 2005 Building Technologies (BT) program, the technologies and building practices being developed and promoted by the BT program have the potential to save about 2.9 x 10 15 Btu in buildings by the year 2030, about 27% of the expected growth in building energy consumption by the year 2030. The analysis reported in the paper finds that, by the year 2030, these savings have the potential to increase employment by up to 446,000 jobs, increase wage income by $7.8 billion, reduce needs for capital stock in the energy sector and closely related supporting industries by about $207 billion (and the corresponding annual level of investment by $13 billion), and create net capital savings that are available to grow the nation's future economy

  15. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1

  16. Energy-efficient technology in the iron and steel industry: Simulation of new technology adoption with items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roop, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Industrial Technology and Energy Modeling System (ITEMS)(referred to as ISTUM in Jaccard and Roop, 1990) is an end-use industrial modeling system that is technology based. Because it includes technologies in the process description of industry, it is possible to introduce new technologies to determine, based on economic and performance data, how rapidly these new technologies will penetrate the market (Hyman and Roop, 1996). As these new technologies penetrate the market, energy savings and, possibly, emissions reductions occur that can be tracked with the model as well. This report documents the use of ITEMS to investigate the impact of three new technologies under development with funding from the Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), that apply to the iron and steel industry. While the results of this application are interesting, this exercise points out how important it is to understand how the technologies work and how they make a difference. This report shows that ITEMS can be a useful tool in estimating market penetration of new technologies and the resulting energy savings, but these results are only as reliable as the data. If the model is to be used to compare technologies, the technical data concerning these technologies must be collected using the same set of assumptions and with the same vision of what characterizes a technology. While an effort has been made to understand how these technologies work, there is no assurance that the data used for this analysis were, indeed, collected using the same vision and the same set of assumptions. The report is organized into five additional sections. The next provides a brief overview of ITEMS and describes how the technical information about OIT projects is used in the model. The third section describes the three technologies that were introduced into ITEMS and reports the relevant data for those projects. The fourth section describes the iron and steel industry, as characterized

  17. Improving the efficiency of R&D and the market diffusion of energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bradke, Harald; Som, Oliver; Mannsbar, Wilhelm; Cremer, Clemens; Dreher, Carsten; Edler, Jakob; Ebersberger, Bernd; Radgen, Peter; Ruhland, Sascha; Krebs, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Is there a chance that public or private research and development institutions can improve the efficiency of the R&D process? This book gives a positive answer by designing an integrated concept of the science technology cycle and the innovation system of each technology. The position of a new technology in the sciencetechnology cycle is identified by several indicators from patent analysis, citations and market information data. The innovation system supports the search for a comprehensive understanding of all important stakeholders of an innovation, possible obstacles and related policies. T

  18. Using learning curves on energy-efficient technologies to estimate future energy savings and emission reduction potentials in the U.S. iron and steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karali, Nihan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-18

    Increasing concerns on non-sustainable energy use and climate change spur a growing research interest in energy efficiency potentials in various critical areas such as industrial production. This paper focuses on learning curve aspects of energy efficiency measures in the U.S iron and steel sector. A number of early-stage efficient technologies (i.e., emerging or demonstration technologies) are technically feasible and have the potential to make a significant contribution to energy saving and CO2 emissions reduction, but fall short economically to be included. However, they may also have the cost effective potential for significant cost reduction and/or performance improvement in the future under learning effects such as ‘learning-by-doing’. The investigation is carried out using ISEEM, a technology oriented, linear optimization model. We investigated how steel demand is balanced with/without the availability learning curve, compared to a Reference scenario. The retrofit (or investment in some cases) costs of energy efficient technologies decline in the scenario where learning curve is applied. The analysis also addresses market penetration of energy efficient technologies, energy saving, and CO2 emissions in the U.S. iron and steel sector with/without learning impact. Accordingly, the study helps those who use energy models better manage the price barriers preventing unrealistic diffusion of energy-efficiency technologies, better understand the market and learning system involved, predict future achievable learning rates more accurately, and project future savings via energy-efficiency technologies with presence of learning. We conclude from our analysis that, most of the existing energy efficiency technologies that are currently used in the U.S. iron and steel sector are cost effective. Penetration levels increases through the years, even though there is no price reduction. However, demonstration technologies are not economically

  19. Energy efficiency in Swedish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lundgren, Tommy; Zhou, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO_2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO_2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We use DEA to estimate firm-level energy efficiency in Swedish industry. • We examine impacts of climate and energy policies on energy efficiency. • The analyzed policies are Swedish carbon and energy taxes and the EU ETS. • Carbon tax and EU ETS did not have significant influences on energy efficiency. • The energy tax had a positive relation with energy efficiency.

  20. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology: Melting Efficiency in Die Casting Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Schwam

    2012-12-15

    This project addressed multiple aspects of the aluminum melting and handling in die casting operations, with the objective of increasing the energy efficiency while improving the quality of the molten metal. The efficiency of melting has always played an important role in the profitability of aluminum die casting operations. Consequently, die casters need to make careful choices in selecting and operating melting equipment and procedures. The capital cost of new melting equipment with higher efficiency can sometimes be recovered relatively fast when it replaces old melting equipment with lower efficiency. Upgrades designed to improve energy efficiency of existing equipment may be well justified. Energy efficiency is however not the only factor in optimizing melting operations. Melt losses and metal quality are also very important. Selection of melting equipment has to take into consideration the specific conditions at the die casting shop such as availability of floor space, average quantity of metal used as well as the ability to supply more metal during peaks in demand. In all these cases, it is essential to make informed decisions based on the best available data.

  1. Comparative efficiency of technologies for conversion and transportation of energy resources of Russia's eastern regions to NEA countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, Aleksandr; Tyurina, Elina; Mednikov, Aleksandr

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents perspective technologies for combined conversion of fossil fuels into synthetic liquid fuels and electricity. The comparative efficiency of various process flows of conversion and transportation of energy resources of Russia's east that are aimed at supplying electricity to remote consumers is presented. These also include process flows based on production of synthetic liquid fuel.

  2. A Study on intensifying efficiency for international collaborative development of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Dohee; Park, Seongwon; Chang, Moonhee

    2013-08-15

    All the countries of the world are promoting the use of atomic energy to provide against high oil prices, climatic changes, and energy security initiative. A domestic and foreign environment for nuclear energy is changing rapidly and 13 leading countries including Korea are trying to develop advanced technologies on Gen IV nuclear energy system through Gen IV International Forum (GIF). To enhance the effectiveness of the future nuclear energy system development plan, a strategic approach is necessary for GIF program and the connection process with the 4th Nuclear Energy Promotion Program and Nuclear Energy R and D Medium and Long Term 5 year Plan for 2012 ∼ 2016 needs to be prepared. This study was to analyze the global nuclear trends of 2012 and the status of GIF program which is international cooperation activities. Also we examined the domestic R and D status of future nuclear energy systems for developing core technology and commercialization of Gen-IV nuclear energy system. A successful performance of this project enables the effective national cooperation with GIF and promotes the public acceptance by suggesting the technical alternatives for the nuclear safety and the spent fuel management.

  3. Development of Ultrafiltration Membrane-Separation Technology for Energy-Efficient Water Treatment and Desalination Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Woosoon [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Bae, Chulsung [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The growing scarcity of fresh water is a major political and economic challenge in the 21st century. Compared to thermal-based distillation technique of water production, pressure driven membrane-based water purification process, such as ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), can offer more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly solution to clean water production. Potential applications also include removal of hazardous chemicals (i.e., arsenic, pesticides, organics) from water. Although those membrane-separation technologies have been used to produce drinking water from seawater (desalination) and non-traditional water (i.e., municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater) over the last decades, they still have problems in order to be applied in large-scale operations. Currently, a major huddle of membrane-based water purification technology for large-scale commercialization is membrane fouling and its resulting increases in pressure and energy cost of filtration process. Membrane cleaning methods, which can restore the membrane properties to some degree, usually cause irreversible damage to the membranes. Considering that electricity for creating of pressure constitutes a majority of cost (~50%) in membrane-based water purification process, the development of new nano-porous membranes that are more resistant to degradation and less subject to fouling is highly desired. Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) block copolymer is one of the best known block copolymers that induces well defined morphologies. Due to the polarity difference of aromatic styrene unit and saturated ethylene/butylene unit, these two polymer chains self-assemble each other and form different phase-separated morphologies depending on the ratios of two polymer chain lengths. Because the surface of SEBS is hydrophobic which easily causes fouling of membrane, incorporation of ionic group (e,g, sulfonate) to the polymer is necessary to reduces fouling

  4. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.J.; Skytte, K.

    2004-01-01

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies....

  5. Investigation of the charge boost technology for the efficiency increase of closed sorption thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohringer, C.; Engel, G.; Köll, R.; Wagner, W.; van Helden, W.

    2017-10-01

    The inclusion of solar thermal energy into energy systems requires storage possibilities to overcome the gap between supply and demand. Storage of thermal energy with closed sorption thermal energy systems has the advantage of low thermal losses and high energy density. However, the efficiency of these systems needs yet to be increased to become competitive on the market. In this paper, the so-called “charge boost technology” is developed and tested via experiments as a new concept for the efficiency increase of compact thermal energy storages. The main benefit of the charge boost technology is that it can reach a defined state of charge for sorption thermal energy storages at lower temperature levels than classic pure desorption processes. Experiments are conducted to provide a proof of principle for this concept. The results show that the charge boost technology does function as predicted and is a viable option for further improvement of sorption thermal energy storages. Subsequently, a new process application is developed by the author with strong focus on the utilization of the advantages of the charge boost technology over conventional desorption processes. After completion of the conceptual design, the theoretical calculations are validated via experiments.

  6. The role of technology, product lifetime, and energy efficiency in climate mitigation: A case study of air conditioners in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishijima, Daisuke

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact on the life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from a specific durable good (i.e., household air conditioners in this study) of industrial technology changes, product lifetime changes, and energy efficiency improvements. I proposed a comprehensive structural decomposition analysis including two factors of average lifetime and energy efficiency trend of household air conditioners and applied the decomposition method to the Japanese environmental input-output tables of 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. The empirical results show that “Household air-conditioner sector” itself contributed to reducing life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from household air conditioners, while other sectors such as “On-site power generation sector” and “Retail trade sector” contributed to increasing life-cycle CO_2 emissions derived from household air conditioners. I also conducted combined scenario analysis about reduction potential of product lifetime and energy efficiency of air conditioners and the results showed the reduction rate of energy efficiency necessary for maintain CO_2 emissions in 2005 at 1990 level on each average lifetime scenario. (e.g. if average lifetime of air conditioners is shortened by 1 year, energy efficiency of air conditioners have to be further improved by 20.6% from current level. - Highlights: • This study provides a decomposition framework for air conditioner’s CO_2 emissions. • Technology, product lifetime and energy efficiency are considered in the framework. • “Household air conditioner” sector contributed to reducing CO_2 emissions largely. • “On-site power generation” indirectly contributed to increasing CO_2 emissions. • I showed the improvement rates of energy efficiency to achieve a reduction target.

  7. Energy and Water Efficiency on Campus | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy and Water Efficiency on Campus Energy and Water Efficiency on Campus NREL ensures the resiliency of our future energy and water systems through energy efficiency strategies and technologies , renewable energy, and water efficiency on the NREL campus. FY17 Energy Intensity. The South Table Mountain

  8. Using energy efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipkow, J.; Brunner, C. U.

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive article discusses the perspectives for reducing electricity consumption in Switzerland. The increase in consumption is discussed that has occurred in spite of the efforts of the Swiss national energy programmes 'Energy 2000' and 'SwissEnergy'. The fact that energy consumption is still on the increase although efficient and economically-viable technology is available is commented on. The authors are of the opinion that the market alone cannot provide a complete solution and that national and international efforts are needed to remedy things. In particular, the external costs that are often not included when estimating costs are stressed. Several technical options available, such as the use of fluorescent lighting, LCD monitors and efficient electric motors, are looked at as are other technologies quoted as being a means of reducing power consumption. Ways of reducing stand-by losses and system optimisation are looked at as are various scenarios for further development and measures that can be implemented in order to reduce power consumption

  9. Fuel-efficiency of hydrogen and heat storage technologies for integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of analysing the use of different energy storage technologies in the task of integration of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity supply. The analysis is done on the complete electricity system including renewable energy...... sources as well as power plants and CHP (Combined heat and power production). Emphasis is put on the need for ancillary services. Devices to store electricity as well as devices to store heat can be used to help the integration of fluctuating sources. Electricity storage technologies can be used...... to relocate electricity production directly from the sources, while heat storage devices can be used to relocate the electricity production from CHP plants and hereby improve the ability to integrate RES. The analyses are done by advanced computer modelling and the results are given as diagrams showing...

  10. Web technology to support work processes in energy policy research - A case study with energy efficiency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenson, Peter; McMahon, James E.; Brown, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on a process to design and build a web-based system to assist staff in day-to-day management and contemporaneous documentation of their work. Other groups that want to use web technology to support their work could apply the approach presented here, but the design itself pertains to a particular set of issues in a unique context. Each user must apply the approach to identify their objectives and design a site to meet them. The main question that the Energy Efficiency Standards Group addressed was: ''How can we facilitate documentation of interim results and final products while conducting a complex, interdependent set of analyses by multiple authors under time pressures for delivering a final product?'' The approach to address this question includes categorization of the components of the work, discussions with staff, development of infrastructure support for documentation, implementation of the documentation process and integration with the workflow, and follow- up with staff. The search for a solution raised a number of issues such as the need for a thorough understanding of the work, consensus building by inclusion of key staff, and deliverable scheduling to allow for contemporaneous documentation. Documentation results vary among the product analyses, from extensive internal and external use to much slower adoption. Complaints include the length of the input forms and pressure from clients to deliver results. But with repeated demand for interim output, the need for thorough contemporaneous documentation still remains. Accordingly, as problems arise there is continued commitment among the staff to address them

  11. Emission Control Research to Enable Fuel Efficiency: Department of Energy Heavy Vehicle Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurpreet Singh; Ronald L. Graves; John M. Storey; William P. Partridge; John F. Thomas; Bernie M. Penetrante; Raymond M. Brusasco; Bernard T. Merritt; George E. Vogtlin; Christopher L. Aardahl; Craig F. Habeger; M.L. Balmer

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies supports research to enable high-efficiency diesel engines to meet future emissions regulations, thus clearing the way for their use in light trucks as well as continuing as the most efficient powerplant for freight-haulers. Compliance with Tier 2 rules and expected heavy duty engine standards will require effective exhaust emission controls (after-treatment) for diesels in these applications. DOE laboratories are working with industry to improve emission control technologies in projects ranging from application of new diagnostics for elucidating key mechanisms, to development and tests of prototype devices. This paper provides an overview of these R and D efforts, with examples of key findings and developments

  12. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 2. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the R and D of the high efficiency energy effective utilization technology, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the energy transportation/storage technology, the R and D were made on the following: methanol/energy system, non-equilibrium high efficiency methanol decomposition reaction technology, development of multiple functions of catalyst, high efficiency heat pump technology using hydrogen storage alloys, heat-hydrogen recovery/transportation/utilization technology, vacuum insulated heat transport piping system, surfactant used for high density heat transport, high density latent heat transportation technology, etc. Concerning the energy supply/utilization technology, the R and D were made of the heat supply system using high efficient heat pump corresponding to multiple fuels. Relating to the environmental load reduction technology, the energy conserved heat pump system using natural coolant. As to the optimum system design technology, the comprehensive preparation of element technology, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Basic survey for promoting energy efficiency in developing countries. Database development project directory of energy conservation technology in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    In order to promote energy conservation in developing countries, the gist of Japanese energy saving technologies was edited into a database. The Asian territory is expected of remarkable economic development and increased energy consumption including that for fossil fuels. Therefore, this project of structuring a database has urgent importance for the Asian countries. New and wide-area discussions were given to revise the 1995 edition. The committee was composed of members from high energy consuming areas such as iron and steel, paper and pulp, chemical, oil refining, cement, electric power, machinery, electric devices, and industrial machinery industries. Technical literatures and reports were referred to, and opinions were heard from specialists and committee members representing the respective areas. In order to reflect the current status and particular conditions in specific industrial areas, additions were given under the assistance and guidance from the specialists. The energy saving technologies recorded in the database may be called small to medium scale technologies, with the target placed on saving energy by 10% or more. Small-scale energy saving technologies were omitted. Flow charts for manufacturing processes were also added. (NEDO)

  14. Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Spanish version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Powering commercial lawn equipment with alternative fuels or advanced engine technology is an effective way to reduce U.S. dependence on petroleum, reduce harmful emissions, and lessen the environmental impacts of commercial lawn mowing. Numerous alternative fuel and fuel-efficient advanced technology mowers are available. Owners turn to these mowers because they may save on fuel and maintenance costs, extend mower life, reduce fuel spillage and fuel theft, and demonstrate their commitment to sustainability.

  15. Climate technology and energy efficiency. From ''best practice'' experiences to policy diffusion. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald [eds.; Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael; Grashof, Katharina [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    The seminar proceedings cover the following contributions following the opening address: Germany's climate protection program - a step by step approach; the renewable energy act in Germany; CTI's activities for technology transfer on climate change; the climate protection programs of the Federal states: the example of Bavaria; UNECE energy efficiency market formation activities and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in economies in transition; energy efficiency - policy designs and implementation in PEEREA countries; environmental fiscal reform in Germany; instruments to overcome existing barriers to energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria; proposal to establish a testing ground facility for JI projects in the Baltic sea region testing ground; the Baltic sea region joint implementation testing ground, the Estonian perspective; policy instrumentation; financing international market penetration of renewable energies: a report on the German export initiative; the Dutch ERUPT and CERUPT programs - lessons and outlook; co-operation between Austrian and Central and Eastern Europe in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy; biomass and pellet market:: implementation strategies in Slovakia; results of monitoring of the German biomass ordinance; developing RES strategy for the Czech republic; building retrofit and renewable energy; energy conversion; between economics and environment - energy saving in German housing sector; implementation and performance contracting in Slovenia; sustainable institutional mechanisms of efficient energy use in Rostov oblast health care and educational facilities; towards sustainable housing management in Lithuania; emissions trading will accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the markets; Energy efficiency in residential and public buildings; international climate protection policy; long-term perspectives for as sustainable energy future in Germany, the Danish program Energy 21; the Japanese

  16. Evaluating games console electricity use : technologies and policy options to improve energy efficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Amanda E.

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency regulations and standards are increasingly being used as an approach to reduce the impact of appliances on climate change. Each new generation of games consoles is significantly different to the last and their cumulative electricity use has risen due to improved performance and functionality and increasing sales. As a result, consoles have been identified in the EU, US and Australia as a product group with the potential for significant electricity savings. However, there is ...

  17. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  18. Energy efficiency through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Energy is an essential factor to economic and social development and improved standards of living in developing countries. Nigeria in particular. There is a strong need for greater energy efficiency in every sector of economy in order to reduce costs. enhance competitiveness, conserve energy resources and reduce environmental impacts associated with production, distribution and use of energy. Energy auditing and monitoring has a significant role in any energy management and conservation project. Energy auditing as an important part of industrial energy management on plant level, represents a complex of activities aiming at the efficient use of energy. The activities are undertaken by a team of experts who use a set of measuring instruments to monitor and evaluate all the necessary data to elaborate a package of recommendations on improvements in the field of energy efficiency and possible product quality. The inefficient conversion and use of energy have been identified as a central problem for all developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, since they all consume significantly higher amounts of energy per unit of GDP than OECD countries. This aggravates energy-related environmental problems and is also a burden on domestic resources and foreign exchange. Energy prices have risen drastically in many developing countries, while energy intensities remain high. Price changes alone are not rapidly translating energy efficiency improvements. Identifying and removing the obstacles to greater energy efficiency should be priority for government in developing countries. This is why the Energy Commission, an apex organ of government on Energy matters in all its ramifications is out to encourage relatively low-cost energy audits for the Textile industries - such audits can identify ''good house-keeping's' measures, such as simply process improvements, that reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This will be followed by the training of plant workers/energy managers

  19. Integrated assessment of energy efficiency technologies and CO_2 abatement cost curves in China’s road passenger car sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Bin-Bin; Fan, Ying; Xu, Jin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency technologies in Chinese passenger cars are classified in detail. • CO_2-reduction potential and abatement cost are analyzed for technology bundles. • Marginal abatement cost curve is established from both micro and macro perspectives. • Spark ignition, diesel and hybrid electric vehicle paths should be firstly promoted. • Technology promotion should start from the area of taxies and high-performance cars. - Abstract: Road transport is one of the main sources of energy consumption and CO_2 emissions. It is essential to conserve energy and reduce emissions by promoting energy efficiency technologies (EETs) in this sector. This study first identifies EETs for the passenger cars and then classifies them into various technology bundles. It then analyzes the CO_2-reduction potentials and emissions abatement costs of 55 type-path, 246 type-path-technology, and 465 type-path-subtechnology bundles from micro-vehicular and macro-industrial perspectives during 2010–2030, based on which marginal abatement cost (MAC) curve for China’s road passenger car sector is established. Results show that the cumulative CO_2-reduction potential of EETs on passenger cars in China during 2010–2030 is about 2698.8 Mt, but only 4% is cost-effective. The EETs with low emissions abatement costs are mainly available in the spark ignition (SI), diesel, and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) paths on the taxis and high-performance cars, and also in the transmission, vehicle body and SI technologies on the private cars, which could be promoted at present. The technologies with large emissions reduction potential are mainly available in the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and electric vehicle (EV) paths, which would be the main channels for reducing carbon emissions in the long run.

  20. Frontier technologies to improve efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalhammer, F.R.

    1992-01-01

    The author discusses conservation technology to improve the efficiency of energy production. Although coal is seen as the largest source of fuel for producing electricity until the year 2040, the heating value of coal is expected to be increased by using Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology. Use of fuel cells to produce electricity will be a viable option only if costs can be reduced to make the technology competitive. By coupling IGCC with fuel cells it may be possible to increase total conversion efficiency of coal to electricity at 50%. Photovoltaics technology is more likely to be used in developing countries. Electric utilities target power electronics, lighting fixtures, heat pumps, plasma processing, freeze concentration and application of superconductivity as electricity end use technologies that have the most potential for efficiency improvement. The impact of these technologies in coping with the greenhouse effect was not addressed

  1. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  2. Many-core technologies: The move to energy-efficient, high-throughput x86 computing (TFLOPS on a chip)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    With Moore's Law alive and well, more and more parallelism is introduced into all computing platforms at all levels of integration and programming to achieve higher performance and energy efficiency. Especially in the area of High-Performance Computing (HPC) users can entertain a combination of different hardware and software parallel architectures and programming environments. Those technologies range from vectorization and SIMD computation over shared memory multi-threading (e.g. OpenMP) to distributed memory message passing (e.g. MPI) on cluster systems. We will discuss HPC industry trends and Intel's approach to it from processor/system architectures and research activities to hardware and software tools technologies. This includes the recently announced new Intel(r) Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture for highly-parallel workloads and general purpose, energy efficient TFLOPS performance, some of its architectural features and its programming environment. At the end we will have a br...

  3. Results of expert response when forming an exhaustive list of potential risks of constructions projects using energy efficient technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryzhkova Anastasiya Igorevna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the most widely used methods of risk events identification. The expert response method is most applicable for construction projects using energy efficient technologies. The article presents the results of an opinion poll of the professional expert community using expert response method, which is aimed to identify the most likely potential “pure” risk of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use. 74 experts representing different levels of the construction process were polled: customers and directors of construction companies, project managers, risk managers, advisors. The answers were collected during private talks and also using a special website Survey Monkey. Experts from different countries took part: Russia, Great Britain, Austria, Luxemburg, Switzerland and Norway. Also the article presents the expert evaluation of the “effect” of risk implementation on the cost of a project, implementation time, the product quality, the environment and safety on the construction site.

  4. Barriers to Investment in Energy-Saving Technologies in Small Firms: The Energy-Efficiency Paradox Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; de Groot, H.L.F.; Nijkamp, P.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that energy-saving technologies are considered profitable using standard net-present-value calculations, their adoption rates have been low, particularly in small firms. This study reviews the theoretical and empirical literature that explains this phenomenon, generally known as the

  5. Reconsidering energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Energy and environmental policies are reconsidering energy efficiency. In a perfect market, rational and well informed consumers reach economic efficiency which, at the given prices of energy and capital, corresponds to physical efficiency. In the real world, market failures and cognitive frictions distort the consumers from perfectly rational and informed choices. Green incentive schemes aim at balancing market failures and directing consumers toward more efficient goods and services. The problem is to fine tune the incentive schemes [it

  6. A Study on intensifying efficiency for international collaborative development of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H. J.; Chang, J. H.; Hahn, D. H.; Bae, Y. Y.; Kim, W. W.; Jeong, I.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    Generation IV International Forum(GIF), where 13 countries including Korea collaborate to develop future nuclear energy systems, put into force 'Generation IV International Forum Project Arrangement' in 2007 for the international research and development of Gen IV Systems, following the entry into force of Framework Agreement in 2005. The International Nuclear Research Initiative(I-NERI) between Korea and United States and the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Fuel Cycles(INPRO) of IAEA are continued in this year, produced lots of visible outcomes. These international activities have a common goal of the collaborative development of advanced nuclear system technologies but differ in the main focusing areas and aspects, so Korea needs to establish the integrated strategy based on the distinguished and complementary approach for the participation of each international programs, as examples the GIF for the advanced system technology development, INPRO for the set-up of institution and infra-structure, and I-NERI for the access of the core technologies and acquisition of the transparency of nuclear R and D.

  7. A Study on intensifying efficiency for international collaborative development of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H. J.; Chang, J. H.; Hahn, D. H.; Bae, Y. Y.; Kim, W. W.; Jeong, I.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, J. H.

    2008-06-01

    Generation IV International Forum(GIF), where 13 countries including Korea collaborate to develop future nuclear energy systems, put into force 'Generation IV International Forum Project Arrangement' in 2007 for the international research and development of Gen IV Systems, following the entry into force of Framework Agreement in 2005. The International Nuclear Research Initiative(I-NERI) between Korea and United States and the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems and Fuel Cycles(INPRO) of IAEA are continued in this year, produced lots of visible outcomes. These international activities have a common goal of the collaborative development of advanced nuclear system technologies but differ in the main focusing areas and aspects, so Korea needs to establish the integrated strategy based on the distinguished and complementary approach for the participation of each international programs, as examples the GIF for the advanced system technology development, INPRO for the set-up of institution and infra-structure, and I-NERI for the access of the core technologies and acquisition of the transparency of nuclear R and D

  8. The dynamic efficiency of instruments for stimulating the dissemination of renewable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, M.L.; Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.

    2002-06-01

    In this paper the authors examine the efficiency of the different incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources, both from a theoretical point of view by comparing price-based approaches with quantity-based approaches, and from a practical point of view by looking at concrete examples of how these different instruments have been implemented. The main focus is on the dynamic efficiency of the different instruments taking as an illustration the recent experience of stimulating wind power development in European countries. Theoretically, price-based or quantity-based approaches should be comparable methods for achieving renewable energy targets but uncertainty and implementing conditions may modify the symmetry of the two approaches. Accordingly, fixed feed in tariffs have clearly been superior to competitive bidding as far as installed capacity or industrial development are concerned. Finally the paper also examines the possibility that the price versus quantity issue could be reactivated with the emergence of the green certificate markets which present theoretical advantages of quota-based approaches without the limitations of competitive bidding systems. (author)

  9. HEAT PUMP TECHNOLOGY – POTENTIAL IMPACT ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROBLEM AND CLIMATE ACTION GOALS WITHIN UKRAINIAN ENERGY SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ostapenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand of energy sources for urban, household and industrial facilities requires strategies development for seeking new energy sources. In recent years an important problem is to have energy storage, energy production and energy consumption which fulfill the environment friendly expectations. A lot of attention is devoted to renewable energy sources. One of the most attracting among them is energy production form geothermal sources. At a few meters below the earth’s surface the underground maintains a constant temperature in an approximation through the year allowing to withdraw heat in winter for heating needs and to surrender heat during summer for air-conditioning purposes. Heat pump is a rapidly developing technology for heating and domestic hot water production. Using ground as a heat source, heat exchange is carried out with heat pumps compound to vertical ground heat exchanger tubes that allows the heating and cooling of the buildings utilizing a single unit installation. Heat pump unit provides a high degree of productivity with moderate electric power consumption. In this paper a theoretical performance study of a vapor compression heat pump system with various natural and synthetic refrigerants (HFCs is presented. Operation mode of the heat pump unit was chosen according to European Standard EN14511-2:2007 and EN255-2. An influence of discharge temperature on system performance was evaluated at different boiling temperatures. The comparison of mass flow rate and coefficient of performance for considered refrigerants at constant cooling capacity and condensation temperature was performed.

  10. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  11. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  12. A Study on intensifying efficiency for international collaborative development of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Moon Hee; Kim, H. R.; Kim, H. J.

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the study was to participate the GIF for the efficient propulsion of future nuclear system development. For achieving the objective of this study, the followings were carried out. · Investigation and analysis of the international and domestic trends related to future nuclear system · To maximize the national interests by the strategic participation of GIF meeting - To participate of GIF meeting and to support of relative work - To investigate the System R and D Arrangement and to inform its progress situation · To maximize the propulsion results of Korea/U.S nuclear energy joint research(I-NERI) - To support a delegation by the review of agenda in aspect of the technical/legal point - To participate of BINERIC meeting and to support of relative work · Streamline the nuclear energy R and D due to the effective connection between domestic R and D and international collaboration The result of this study may be used for 1) contribution to establishing the effective foundation and broadening the cooperation activities between the advanced countries and Korea and 2) contribution effective management of Gen IV international collaboration by technical/legal supporting

  13. Energy production and reactor efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Doubts have been raised in relation to the economic and energetic efficiency of nuclear reactors. Some economists are questioning whether, when all the capital and material inputs to fission technology are considered, nuclear reactors yield sufficiently large amounts of energy to show a nett gain of energy. (author)

  14. Economical and Energy Efficiency of Iron and Steel Industry Reindustrialisation in Russia Based on Implementation of Breakthrough Energy-Saving Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelev, L. N.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates were given of economical and energy efficiency of breakthrough energy-saving technologies, which increase competitive advantages and provide energy efficiency of production while reducing negative impact on the environment through reduction of emissions of harmful substances and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Among these technologies, preference is given to the following: pulverized coal fuel, blast-furnace gas recycling, gasification of non-coking coal in bubble-type gas-generators, iron-ore concentrate briquetting with steam coal with further use of ore-coal briquettes in electric furnace steel making. Implementation of these technologies at iron and steel works will significantly reduce the energy intensity of production through reduction of expensive coking coal consumption by means of their substitution by less expensive non-coking (steam) coal, and natural gas substitution by own secondary energy resource, which is the reducing gas. As the result, plants will get an opportunity to become self-sufficient in energy-resources and free themselves entirely from expensive purchased energy resources (natural gas, electric power, and partially coking coals), and cross over to low-carbon development.

  15. The importance of learning when supporting emergent technologies for energy efficiency-A case study on policy intervention for learning for the development of energy efficient windows in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Bernadett; Neij, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The role of policy instruments to promote the development and diffusion of energy efficient technologies has been repeatedly accentuated in the context of climate change and sustainable development. To better understand the impact of policy instruments and to provide insights into technology change, assessments of various kinds are needed. This study analyzes the introduction and development of energy efficient windows in Sweden and the policy incentives applied to support this process. The study focuses on the assessment of technology and market development of energy efficient windows in Sweden; and by applying the concept of learning, it assesses how conditions for learning-by-searching, learning-by-doing, learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting have been supported by different policies. The results show successful progress in technology development and an improvement in best available technology of Swedish windows from 1.8 W/m 2 K in the 1970s to 0.7 W/m 2 K in 2010; in the same time period the market share of energy efficient windows increased from 20% in 1970 (average U-value of 2.0 W/m 2 K) to 80-85% in 2010 (average U-value of 1.3-1.2 W/m 2 K). The assessment shows that various policy instruments have facilitated all four learning processes resulting in the acknowledged slow but successful development of energy efficient windows. - Highlights: → Policy instruments for learning and technology change are assessed. → The development and diffusion of energy efficient windows (EEWs) in Sweden is taken as showcase. → Learning has been supported by various policies resulting in successful development of EEWs. → The thermal performance of EEWs improved with 2/3 and their market share increased by 3/5 in 40 years. → Main policies for learning are RD and D, technology procurement, testing and voluntary initiatives.

  16. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar: best practice in climate technology and energy efficiency in central and eastern Europe. Seminar Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, P [ed.

    2000-08-01

    The Capacity Building Seminar on 'Best Practice in Climate Technology and Energy Efficiency in Central and Eastern Europe', held 6-10 December 1999 in Marienthal/Ostritz in Germany, was a very successful event in the framework of the CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE (CTI). One reason for that is that the seminar allowed delegates from 22 nations, from Kazakhstan to Estonia, come together for an exchange of opinions about 'Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection' and all related issues. A reason is that this seminar provided an excellent starting point for future networking in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia. The colleagues who got to know each other at the seminar will meet again in future workshops and seminars. They can now contact a colleague from abroad to get information about special questions of Energy Efficiency when they need it. A third reason - and the most important one for the entire co-operation within the CTI organisation - is the special character of the seminar as a starting point for multitude of activities on Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection. At the end of the Ostritz seminar eleven delegations stated that they would organise follow up workshops in their own countries to go deeper into the details and to co-operate on a higher level. It may be that these workshops will be followed by others in other European regions. (orig./GL)

  17. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar: best practice in climate technology and energy efficiency in central and eastern Europe. Seminar Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichl, P. [ed.

    2000-08-01

    The Capacity Building Seminar on 'Best Practice in Climate Technology and Energy Efficiency in Central and Eastern Europe', held 6-10 December 1999 in Marienthal/Ostritz in Germany, was a very successful event in the framework of the CLIMATE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE (CTI). One reason for that is that the seminar allowed delegates from 22 nations, from Kazakhstan to Estonia, come together for an exchange of opinions about 'Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection' and all related issues. A reason is that this seminar provided an excellent starting point for future networking in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia. The colleagues who got to know each other at the seminar will meet again in future workshops and seminars. They can now contact a colleague from abroad to get information about special questions of Energy Efficiency when they need it. A third reason - and the most important one for the entire co-operation within the CTI organisation - is the special character of the seminar as a starting point for multitude of activities on Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection. At the end of the Ostritz seminar eleven delegations stated that they would organise follow up workshops in their own countries to go deeper into the details and to co-operate on a higher level. It may be that these workshops will be followed by others in other European regions. (orig./GL)

  18. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  19. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technologies in Residential Building Codes: June 15, 1998 to September 15, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortman, D.; Echo-Hawk, L.

    2005-02-01

    This report is an attempt to describe the building code requirements and impediments to the application of EE and RE technologies in residential buildings. Several modern model building codes were reviewed. These are representative of the codes that will be adopted by most locations in the coming years. The codes reviewed for this report include: International Residential Code, First Draft, April 1998; International Energy Conservation Code, 1998; International Mechanical Code, 1998; International Plumbing Code, 1997; International Fuel Gas Code, 1997; National Electrical Code, 1996. These codes were reviewed as to their application to (1) PV systems in buildings and building-integrated PV systems and (2) active solar domestic hot water and space-heating systems. A discussion of general code issues that impact these technologies is also included. Examples of this are solar access and sustainability.

  20. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    separate key aspects hinders strategic energy efficiency planning. For this reason, the PLEEC project – “Planning for Energy Efficient Cities” – funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme uses an integrative approach to achieve the sus‐ tainable, energy– efficient, smart city. By coordinating strategies...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...... of the European Union’s 20‐20‐20 plan is to improve energy efficiency by 20% in 2020. However, holistic knowledge about energy efficiency potentials in cities is far from complete. Currently, a WP4 location in PLEEC project page 3 variety of individual strategies and approaches by different stakeholders tackling...

  1. Effects of economies of scale and experience on the costs of energy-efficient technologies. Case study of electric motors in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardot, D.; Eichhammer, W.; Fleiter, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI), Breslauer Str. 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Increasing energy efficiency is discussed as an effective way to protect the climate, even though this is frequently associated with additional (investment) costs when compared to standard technologies. However, the investment costs of emerging energy-efficient technologies can be reduced by economies of scale and experience curve effects. This also brings about higher market penetration by lowering market barriers. Experience curves have already been analyzed in detail for renewable energy technologies, but are not as well documented for energy-efficient technologies despite their significance for energy and climate policy decisions. This work provides empirical evidence for effects of economies of scale and experience on the costs of energy-efficient electric motors. We apply a new methodology to the estimation of learning effects that is particularly promising for energy-efficient technologies where the very low data availability did not allow calculations of learning rates so far. Energy-efficient electric motors are a highly relevant energy technology that is responsible for about 55% of German electricity consumption. The analysis consists of three main steps. First, the calculation of composite price indices based on gross value added statistics for Germany which show the changes in cost components of electric motors over the period 1995 to 2006; second, an estimation of the corresponding learning rate which is, in a third step, compared with learning rates observed for other energy-efficient technologies in a literature review. Due to restrictions of data availability, it was not possible to calculate a learning rate for the differential costs of energy-efficient motors compared to standard motors. Still, we estimated a learning rate of 9% for 'Eff2' motors in a period when they penetrated the market and replaced the less efficient 'Eff3' motors. Furthermore, we showed the contribution of different effects to these cost reductions, like

  2. Energy efficient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Solar Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building Design and Town Planning (RER/87/006) is a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project of the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, France, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Turkey, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia. The project began in 1988 and comes to a conclusion at the end of 1991. It is to enhance the professional skills of practicing architects, engineers and town planners in European countries to design energy efficient buildings which reduce energy consumption and make greater use of passive solar heating and natural cooling techniques. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is the Executing Agency of the project which is implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Energy, General Energy Programme of Work for 1990-1994, sub-programme 5 Energy Conservation and Efficiency (ECE/ENERGY/15). The project has five main outputs or results: an international network of institutions for low energy building design; a state-of-the-art survey of energy use in the built environment of European IPF countries; a simple computer program for energy efficient building design; a design guide and computer program operators' manual; and a series of international training courses in participating European IPF countries. Energy Efficient Design is the fourth output of the project. It comprises the design guide for practicing architects and engineers, for use mainly in mid-career training courses, and the operators' manual for the project's computer program

  3. An Integrated Surface Engineering Technology Development for Improving Energy Efficiency of Engine Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Hsu; Liming Chang; Huan Zhan

    2009-05-31

    Frictional losses are inherent in most practical mechanical systems. The ability to control friction offers many opportunities to achieve energy conservation. Over the years, materials, lubricants, and surface modifications have been used to reduce friction in automotive and diesel engines. However, in recent years, progress in friction reduction technology has slowed because many of the inefficiencies have been eliminated. A new avenue for friction reduction is needed. Designing surfaces specifically for friction reduction with concomitant enhanced durability for various engine components has emerged recently as a viable opportunity due to advances in fabrication and surface finishing techniques. Recently, laser ablated dimples on surfaces have shown friction reduction properties and have been demonstrated successfully in conformal contacts such as seals where the speed is high and the load is low. The friction reduction mechanism in this regime appears to depend on the size, patterns, and density of dimples in the contact. This report describes modeling efforts in characterizing surface textures and understanding their mechanisms for enhanced lubrication under high contact pressure conditions. A literature survey is first presented on the development of descriptors for irregular surface features. This is followed by a study of the hydrodynamic effects of individual micro-wedge dimples using the analytical solution of the 1-D Reynolds equation and the determination of individual components of the total friction resistance. The results obtained provide a better understanding of the dimple orientation effects and the approach which may be used to further compare the friction reduction provided by different texture patterns.

  4. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  5. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  6. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren't always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation

  7. Development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system in fiscal 1998. Pt. 3. Research on highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology (Research on design technology for optimal system); 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu. 3. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper summarizes achievements during fiscal 1998 on researching part of the energy transportation and storage technologies, energy supply and utilization technologies, environmental load reducing technologies, and optimal system design in the 'research on highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology'. With regard to energy transportation and storage technologies, researches and developments were performed on a vacuum adiabatic transportation piping system, surfactants used for high-density heat transportation and high-density latent heat transportation technologies. In the field of energy supply and utilization technologies, researches and developments were carried out on a heat supply system using high-performance heat pumps capable of using multiple kinds of fuels, and a compression and absorption type hybrid heat utilization system. For the environmental load reducing technologies, research and development were performed on a power saving heat pump system utilizing natural coolant. In researching the optimal system design technologies, overall adjustment was made on the element technologies, whereas technological discussions and site surveys were executed by the committees at the same time. The latest achievements accomplished to date was published in a book. (NEDO)

  8. Energy efficient technology - from this all will benefit; Energieeffiziente Technik - davon profitieren alle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-02-15

    Within the International Trade Fair of Craft between 11th and 17th March, 2009 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany) the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) presented the following lectures: (1) The handicraft in context to demography - The demography in the east German federal states (Thomas Satzmann); (2) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (3) The transformation of the service regulation (Thomas Ernst); (4) Future handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (5) Journalist Special: Use of electronic media such as podcast and internet-TV for public relations in the handicraft (Michael Bachmann); (6) Standardization at small and medium-sized enterprises (Thomas Ernst); (7) Crafts and tourism (Evelin Friedrich); (8) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (9) Activation of facades in existing buildings in combination with air heat and solar thermal power - Theory and reports from the practice (Jens Wolfensteller, Volker Drexel); (10) Fiscal reform in favour of the handicraft (Joachim Garrecht, Johannes Hoefer); (11) The transformation of the service regulation (Thomas Ernst); (12) Mould fungus, dangerous subtenant - General aspects to mould fungi, recognition, health aspects and removal (Sabine Hoer); (13) The energy competency centre of the Chamber of Commerce Potsdam (Herbert Pape); (14) The handicraft in the financial crisis (Joachim Garrecht); (15) Standardization at small and medium-sized enterprises (Thomas Ernst); (16) Reformation of the inheritance tax (Joachim Garrecht, Johannes Hoefer); (17) Amendment of the law for chimneysweepers (Joachim Garrecht); (18) Future handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (19) Handicraft and tourism (Evelin Friedrich); (20) Politics in favour of the handicraft (Joachim Garrecht); (21) Reformation of the inheritance tax (Joachim Garrecht); (22) Challenges of the demography in the handicraft (Evelin Friedrich); (23) The handicraft in the financial crisis

  9. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  10. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  11. Efficient use of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dryden, IGC

    2013-01-01

    The Efficient Use of Energy, Second Edition is a compendium of papers discussing the efficiency with which energy is used in industry. The collection covers relevant topics in energy handling and describes the more important features of plant and equipment. The book is organized into six parts. Part I presents the various methods of heat production. The second part discusses the use of heat in industry and includes topics in furnace design, industrial heating, boiler plants, and water treatment. Part III deals with the production of mechanical and electrical energy. It tackles the principles o

  12. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  13. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  14. Characteristics of networks in energy efficiency research, development and demonstration – a comparison of actors, technological domains and network structure in seven research areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    2013-01-01

    efficiency research and development. The results show how certain knowledge institutions that connect the scientific knowledge with specific applications seem to be especially important for progress in the field. Overall the study enriches the understanding of RD&D in energy efficiency with a new view......The need for more energy efficient products and technologies has increased recently in connection with meeting today’s energy and environmental issues. Research, development and demonstration (RD&D) is one way of supporting technological innovation and knowledge diffusion...

  15. Public R and D and commercialization of energy-efficient technology: A case study of Japanese projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Osamu, E-mail: o-kimura@criepi.denken.or.j [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwatokita, Komae City, 201-8511 Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Are public R and D programs really effective in developing innovative technologies? How many technologies developed in these programs have been successfully commercialized? What are the key factors for successful commercialization and diffusion in the market? This paper tries to answer these questions by examining the Japanese experience of public R and D in demand-side energy efficiency, focusing on two major projects conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. It is found that of the 34 technologies developed in the two projects, only seven have been commercialized so far, four of those seven have only a very limited number of installations, and only one has a growing market. The results show that, while public R and D investments have a high risk of failure, they can bring new technologies to the market after a certain lead time. In addition, several factors resulting in the success or failure of commercialization/diffusion are identified, such as long-term R and D support by the government, a marketing strategy to respond to and influence market demand, and combination of R and D and deployment policy.

  16. Public R and D and commercialization of energy-efficient technology. A case study of Japanese projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Osamu [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwatokita, Komae City, 201-8511 Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    Are public R and D programs really effective in developing innovative technologies? How many technologies developed in these programs have been successfully commercialized? What are the key factors for successful commercialization and diffusion in the market? This paper tries to answer these questions by examining the Japanese experience of public R and D in demand-side energy efficiency, focusing on two major projects conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. It is found that of the 34 technologies developed in the two projects, only seven have been commercialized so far, four of those seven have only a very limited number of installations, and only one has a growing market. The results show that, while public R and D investments have a high risk of failure, they can bring new technologies to the market after a certain lead time. In addition, several factors resulting in the success or failure of commercialization/diffusion are identified, such as long-term R and D support by the government, a marketing strategy to respond to and influence market demand, and combination of R and D and deployment policy. (author)

  17. Public R and D and commercialization of energy-efficient technology: A case study of Japanese projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Are public R and D programs really effective in developing innovative technologies? How many technologies developed in these programs have been successfully commercialized? What are the key factors for successful commercialization and diffusion in the market? This paper tries to answer these questions by examining the Japanese experience of public R and D in demand-side energy efficiency, focusing on two major projects conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. It is found that of the 34 technologies developed in the two projects, only seven have been commercialized so far, four of those seven have only a very limited number of installations, and only one has a growing market. The results show that, while public R and D investments have a high risk of failure, they can bring new technologies to the market after a certain lead time. In addition, several factors resulting in the success or failure of commercialization/diffusion are identified, such as long-term R and D support by the government, a marketing strategy to respond to and influence market demand, and combination of R and D and deployment policy.

  18. 7. Kassel symposium on energy systems technology: Renewable energy sources and efficient utilization of energy; 7. Kasseler Symposium Energie-Systemtechnik: Erneuerbare Energien und rationelle Energieverwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselitz, P. (comp.)

    2002-07-01

    This proceedings volume comprises 17 papers on the following subjects: Methane hydrates, compounds of gas and water; Compressed air stroage gas turbine power plants / Scheduled application for load levelling between varying wind power production and power demand; Modern pumped storage power stations in the GW range - the PSW Goldisthal example; Lead batteries - new developments and future applications; Alkaline battery systems for hybrid electric road vehicles; Lighium systems and their applications; Zinc/air cells; Hydrogen storage - metal hydride storage, compressed gas storage, LNG storage; Carbon nanofibres for hydrogen storage; Double-layer condensers - technology, cost, perslpectives; Supercondensers in motor vehicles; Superconducting magnetic energy stores; Flywheel storage - status report; Decentralized energy storage in the European integrated supply grid - the EU project DISPOWER; Intercontinental integration of power supply - perspectives of full-scale power supply on the basis of renewable energy sources in Europe; High-volgate direct-current transmission in the European power suppply grid; Superconductivity and energy transport - status and perspectives. [German] Dieser Tagungsband enthaelt 17 Vortraege mit folgenden Themen: Methanhydrate: Verbindung aus Gas und Wasser (Erwin Suess); Druckluftspeicher-Gasturbinen-Kraftwerke / Geplanter Einsatz beim Ausgleich flukturierender Windenergie-Produktion und aktuellem Strombedarf (Fritz Crotogino); Moderne Pumpspeicherwerke im Gigawattbereich - PSW Goldisthal (Wolfgang Bogenrieder); Bleibatterien - neue Entwicklungen und zukuenftige Einsatzbereiche (Reiner Wagner); Alkalische Batteriesysteme fuer Hybrid-Elektrostrassenfahrzeuge (Detlef Ohms, Gunter Schaedlich); Lithiumsysteme - Einsatzbereiche (Dietmar Rahner); Zink/Luft-Zellen (Michael Bruesewitz); Wasserstoffspeicher - Metallhydridspeicher, Druckgasspeicher, Fluessiggasspeicher (Andreas Otto); Kohlenstoff-Nanofasern zur Wasserstoffspeicherung (Juergen Garche

  19. Energy efficiency in the foreground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baettig, I.

    2006-01-01

    In this interview with Eberhard Jochem, professor at the Centre for Energy Policy and Economics at the Federal Institute of Science and Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland, several energy-relevant topics are discussed. These include high oil prices, possible power shortages and binding commitments in the climate-protection area. The question is asked, how, in consideration of such general conditions, energy use and energy supply should develop in Switzerland. Options for increasing efficiency or the tapping of new energy sources is discussed, as is Switzerland's increasing energy consumption. The '2000 Watt' concept being worked on at the ETH and the activities needed for its realisation are discussed. The effects of this concept on economical and business development are discussed. The potential of renewable forms of energy and the possibility of building combined gas and steam power stations are looked at. Ways of promoting renewable energy and questions concerning the extent of the state intervention in the energy business are considered

  20. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Wireless Link for Farms based on IoT technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszczyk, tomasz; Lynggaard, Per

    2016-01-01

    There is a huge demand for automation infrastructures that increase the efficiency and the commercial potential for the agricultural sector. One approach to achieve these objectives is deploying Internet of Things including its embedded wireless sensor network platform. However, deploying wireles...

  1. An Energy Efficient Adaptive Wireless Link for Farms based on IoT technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaszczyk, Tomasz; Lynggaard, P.

    2015-01-01

    There is a huge demand for automation infrastructures that increase the efficiency and the commercial potential for the agricultural sector. One approach to achieve these objectives is deploying Internet of Things including its embedded wireless sensor network platform. However, deploying wireles...

  2. A study on feasibility of super adobe technology –an energy efficient building system using natural resources in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Razia; Saifur Rahman, Md.

    2018-04-01

    The inspiration and concept for the Superadobe system originates not from the modern architecture design experience, but from the influence of traditional rural buildings and landscape, together with a 13th century Persian poet named Jala Ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi, Rumi. The poetry sprit of Rumi, connects and enlightens the architectural theme of Nader Khalili with natural resources that anybody in the world should be able to build a home for his or her family with the simplest of elements: Earth, Water, Air and Fire. Therefore, to build a human shelter that will give maximum safety with low financial budget and minimum environmental impact with natural disaster resilient a Superadobe Technology has been adopted. The Superadobe, a form of earth bag construction using sandbag and barbed wire technology, is an economical, time efficient, energy efficient and ecologically friendly system developed by Iranian-born architect “Nader Khalili”. The system connects the natural materials and rural traditions to create a new way to use natural materials such as mud, water, air and fire which can be finished in a short time without any large construction equipment. The goal of this study is to introduce the building system, analyse the ventilation, lighting and insulation of the prototype of Superadobe system replacing the contextual earth house in Bangladesh.

  3. Technological ways for the efficient use of energy in the Mexican petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar T, C.

    1991-01-01

    Several analysis have shown that soon after the year 2000, all around the world there will be a deficit of the supply of energy with respect to the demand, specially the one related to hydrocarbons. This deficit will not be able to continue, and therefore, the real demand will decrease until it equals the existing supply. Thus, the urgent need to continue, as in other countries, with a program destined to save energy. For this reason, it has been developed a theory of conservation that combines thermodynamics with different studies of manufacturing costs, products and services, that are necessary for our society. (Author)

  4. Use of Energy-Efficient Technologies: U.S. Marine Corps Perceptions to Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Postgraduate School PFT Physical Fitness Tests PME Professional Military Education RDT&E Research Development Test & Evaluation SOCOM Special...individual demographic information including age, rank, highest education attained, number of completed deployments within the previous four years...what this is. It is not just part of what we are doing. I think it is comical that we try and use the word efficiency when we start thinking about

  5. Energy efficient drive technologies. Hybridization - downsizing - software and IT; Energieeffiziente Antriebstechnologien. Hybridisierung - Downsizing - Software und IT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebenpfeiffer, Wolfgang (ed.)

    2013-02-01

    The prior two years were characterized by enormous advances in the development of automobiles. The editor of the book under consideration reports on the most exciting contributions from the journal ATZ, MTZ and ATZelektronik. New approaches in the development of components (especially of drives, ventilation systems and aerodynamics) of electric-powered vehicles as well as hybrid electric-powered vehicles are presented. Simultaneously, the author considers the rapid developments in the conventional motorization: actual downsizing engines for passenger cars as well as the potential of new concepts of combustion with regard to the conservation of CO{sub 2} emissions are considered. The new fuel saving developments in the motorization overcompensate the increasing consumption of current consuming components. Information technology and communication technology discover the automobile. Car-to-X themes take o a concrete shape. Since 2012 it is clear that the dual-voltage network formerly being reputed to be dead with an electric power of 48 Volt will appear.

  6. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  7. New energy technologies. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report on the new energy technologies has been written by a working group on request of the French ministry of economy, finances and industry, of the ministry of ecology and sustainable development, of the ministry of research and new technologies and of the ministry of industry. The mission of the working group is to identify goals and priority ways for the French and European research about the new technologies of energy and to propose some recommendations about the evolution of research incentive and sustain systems in order to reach these goals. The working group has taken into consideration the overall stakes linked with energy and not only the climatic change. About this last point, only the carbon dioxide emissions have been considered because they represent 90% of the greenhouse gases emissions linked with the energy sector. A diagnosis is made first about the present day context inside which the new technologies will have to fit with. Using this diagnosis, the research topics and projects to be considered as priorities for the short-, medium- and long-term have been identified: energy efficiency in transports, in dwellings/tertiary buildings and in the industry, development for the first half of the 21. century of an energy mix combining nuclear, fossil-fuels and renewable energy sources. (J.S.)

  8. AISI/DOE Technology Roadmap Program: Development of Cost-effective, Energy-efficient Steel Framing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nader R. Elhajj

    2003-01-06

    Steel members in wall construction form a thermal bridge that interrupts the insulation layer of a wall. This causes higher rate of heat transfer by conduction through the wall framing than through other parts of the wall. One method to reduce the thermal bridging effect is to provide a break, such as insulating sheathing. A thermally efficient slit-web and stud was developed in this program to mitigate the conductivity of steel. The thermal performance of the slit-web stud was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using hotbox testing. The thermal test results showed that the prototype slit-web stud performed 17% better than the solid-web stud, using R-13 fiber glass batts with exterior OSB sheathing and interior drywall. The structural behavior of this slit-web stud was evaluated in axial, bending, shear, shearwall, and stub-column tests. Test results indicated that the slitweb stud performed similarly or better than the solid-web stud in most structural performance characteristics investigated. Thus, the prototype slit-web stud has been shown to be thermally efficient, economiexecy viable, structurally sound, easily manufactured and usable in a range of residential installations.

  9. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation...

  10. ICT applications enhancing energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Matani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers, laptops and mobile devices – information technology (IT accounts for 2% of human greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, as evidenced in a study by Global Action Plan, a UK based environmental organization. This figure can be reduced if the green segment, or Green IT, continues to grow. Energy can also be saved through cloud computing, namely the principle of outsourcing the programs and functions of one’s own computer to service providers over the internet. This also means sharing storage capacity with others. This paper highlights the impact of information technology applications towards enhancing energy efficiency of the systems.

  11. Relative benefits of technology and occupant behaviour in moving towards a more energy efficient, sustainable housing paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkington, Brian; Roach, Richard; Perkins, James

    2011-01-01

    Much focus is given to the energy efficiency of dwellings, in policy and regulation, in pursuance of reduced CO 2 emissions for sustainability. This article examines a terrace of 6 similar, passive solar dwellings with sunspaces and the effects that occupants' behaviours have on their energy efficiency. It was found that average annual space heating demand was less than expected, indicating potential benefits from measuring passive solar gains as a form of renewable energy. Space heating demand per person varied by a factor of up to 14 between dwellings dependent on occupant behaviour. Further evidence showed a factor of 45 possible. Significant behaviours in this dwelling type were identified. A second study used 31 personal ecological footprint (PEF) accounts to assess the significance of dwelling energy efficiency in terms of environmental sustainability. A comparison was made between residents of contemporary eco-homes and practising permaculturists occupying a range of traditional house types. It was found that the PEF of the average eco-home dweller was 1.6 times higher than that of the permaculturists. It is argued that improved education for sustainability would be a more efficient way to reduce domestic energy demand than currently recognised. - Highlights: → Quantifies improvements to dwelling energy efficiency from behaviour and education. → Assesses balance of dwelling energy efficiency and sustainability. → Suggests education for sustainability be used more to reduce energy demand. → Indicates research directions to assess budgets for education in sustainability. → Identifies significant behaviour affecting energy efficiency with sunspace use.

  12. Relative benefits of technology and occupant behaviour in moving towards a more energy efficient, sustainable housing paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilkington, Brian, E-mail: bpilkington@plymouth.ac.uk [Energy and Sustainability in the Built Environment, Reynolds Building, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Roach, Richard, E-mail: richard.roach@interserve.com [Interserve Project Services Ltd. (United Kingdom); Perkins, James, E-mail: artsresearch@plymouth.ac.uk [C/O Environmental Building Group, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Much focus is given to the energy efficiency of dwellings, in policy and regulation, in pursuance of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions for sustainability. This article examines a terrace of 6 similar, passive solar dwellings with sunspaces and the effects that occupants' behaviours have on their energy efficiency. It was found that average annual space heating demand was less than expected, indicating potential benefits from measuring passive solar gains as a form of renewable energy. Space heating demand per person varied by a factor of up to 14 between dwellings dependent on occupant behaviour. Further evidence showed a factor of 45 possible. Significant behaviours in this dwelling type were identified. A second study used 31 personal ecological footprint (PEF) accounts to assess the significance of dwelling energy efficiency in terms of environmental sustainability. A comparison was made between residents of contemporary eco-homes and practising permaculturists occupying a range of traditional house types. It was found that the PEF of the average eco-home dweller was 1.6 times higher than that of the permaculturists. It is argued that improved education for sustainability would be a more efficient way to reduce domestic energy demand than currently recognised. - Highlights: > Quantifies improvements to dwelling energy efficiency from behaviour and education. > Assesses balance of dwelling energy efficiency and sustainability. > Suggests education for sustainability be used more to reduce energy demand. > Indicates research directions to assess budgets for education in sustainability. > Identifies significant behaviour affecting energy efficiency with sunspace use.

  13. A fuzzy analytic hierarchy/data envelopment analysis approach for measuring the relative efficiency of hydrogen R and D programs in the sector of developing hydrogen energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seongkon; Kim, Jongwook [Korea Institute of Energy Research (Korea, Republic of). Energy Policy Research Center; Mogi, Gento [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering; Hui, K.S. [Hong Kong City Univ. (China). Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management

    2010-07-01

    list of evaluation criteria for assessing and prioritize hydrogen energy technologies in the sector of hydrogen ETRM with finite resources and R and D funds. The criteria are composed of economic impact, commercial potential, inner capacity, and technical spin-off. Hydrogen ETRM supplies primary energy technologies to be developed with a long-term view for the low carbon green growth. We suggest Korea's long-term direction and strategy for developing hydrogen energy technologies in the sector of hydrogen ETRM with the hydrogen economy. The main purpose of this research is to assess the priority of hydrogen energy technologies in the sector of hydrogen ETRM since we allocate and invest R and D budgets strategically as an extended research [1]. In this paper, we focus on the assessment of hydrogen energy technologies econometrically by using an integrated 2- stage approach, which is fuzzy analytic hierarchy (Fuzzy AHP) process and the data envelopment analysis (DEA) in the sector of hydrogen energy technologies. The research results suggest the most efficient hydrogen energy technology is selected by the multi-criteria decision making approach. In addition it also provides Korean hydrogen energy technology policymakers and decision makers with the right hydrogen energy technologies econometrically as they implement a strategic R and D plan. This extended abstract is composed as follows: Section 2 presents the fuzzy sets and numbers, Section 3 includes the Fuzzy AHP concepts. Section 4 presents the DEA approach. Section 5 shows the numerical examples. Finally, Section 6 presents the conclusions. (orig.)

  14. Efficiency of environmental policies aiming at fostering the adoption of new technologies: the case of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, M.L.

    2004-10-01

    This thesis aims to study the efficiency of promotion policies of renewable energies in electric power production taking into account the environment economy problems. The techniques at a commercial scale are particularly discussed. The first part deals with the incitement to technical progress in favor of the environmental protection. The second part proposes an empirical analysis based on the efficiency economical parameters and the last part analyses theoretically the efficiency of promotion tools of renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  16. Energy efficiency in pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin; Yigit, K. Suleyman; Kilic, Fatma Canka; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 'energy efficiency' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems

  17. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  18. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  19. Energy Efficiency: Finding Leadership Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rosehart

    2014-01-01

    buildings, and by issuing an annual “premier’s report card,” making public the progress on province-wide efficiency efforts. For a province that continues to enjoy growth in business and population, updated guidelines around new building codes have been proven to improve energy efficiency. And there remains a significant opportunity for Alberta to improve efficiency in its commercial and industrial sectors, the largest users of energy, by providing government incentives to replace ageing equipment with more efficient technology. Alberta is also well suited for a shift toward more combined heat and power generation plants, which can repurpose generated heat that is otherwise wasted, significantly reducing energy demand and costs. And in a province awash in natural gas, incentives to encourage travel using compressed or liquefied natural gas vehicles could serve to boost energy efficiency in the transportation sector as well. Alberta is fortunate in that it has abundant energy and prosperity, making improved energy efficiency a matter of choice, rather than — as in some jurisdictions — one of urgent necessity. It is, however, a choice that Alberta has enough reasons, and resources, to make. All it requires is the will.

  20. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  1. Energy Efficiency Policy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beravs, F.

    1998-01-01

    When Slovenia gained its independence in 1991, its energy sector was characterised by largely centralised state planning and artificially low prices maintained by widespread subsidies. Supply side considerations tended to dominate the energy policy and sectoral planning. As a result the final energy intensity in Slovenia was (still albeit declining) considerably higher than the EU average. In order to support economic growth and transition to a modern market economy, integrated and competitive in the European and world market structures, the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia adopted a resolution on the Strategy of Energy Use and Supply of Slovenia in early 1996. In the field of energy use, the long-term strategic orientation is to increase energy efficiency in all sectors of energy consumption. The main objective can be summarised as to secure the provision of reliable and environmentally friendly energy services at least costs. In quantitative terms the Strategy attaches a high priority to energy efficiency and environmental protection and sets the target of improving the overall energy efficiency by 2% p.a. over the next 10 to 15 years. To achieve the target mentioned above the sectoral approach and a number of policy instruments have been foreseen. Besides market based energy prices which will, according to the European Energy Charter, gradually incorporate the cost of environment and social impacts, the following policy instruments will be intensified and budget-supported: education and awareness building, energy consultation, regulations and agreements, financial incentives, innovation and technology development. The ambitious energy conservation objectives represent a great challenge to the whole society. (author)

  2. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  3. Industrial energy efficiency: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    Policies that promote energy efficiency can work; but potential energy savings are unlikely to be realized without effective policy leadership. This article discusses the opportunities in several countries for increasing energy efficiency. Both ''open'' and centrally planned economies could be much more energy efficient. In the United States, for example, the government needs to stimulate energy efficiency. This could be done by sponsoring research to develop new processes, creating favourable financial conditions for investment in efficiency, and making the advantages of energy efficiency technologies better known. International collaboration in sponsoring research and transfer technologies could be of the greatest importance in improving energy efficiency in countries with centrally planned economies, including the Soviet Union, as well as in developing countries. Favourable conditions for achieving both economic development and environmental protection can be created through cooperation on the international level. (author). 24 refs, 4 tabs

  4. Technology computer aided design of 29.5% efficient perovskite/interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction mechanically stacked tandem solar cell for energy-efficient applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Chaujar, Rishu

    2017-04-01

    A 29.5% efficient perovskite/SiC passivated interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SiHJ) mechanically stacked tandem solar cell device has been designed and simulated. This is a substantial improvement of 40% and 15%, respectively, compared to the transparent perovskite solar cell (21.1%) and Si solar cell (25.6%) operated individually. The perovskite solar cell has been used as a top subcell, whereas 250- and 25-μm-thick IBC-SiHJ solar cells have been used as bottom subcells. The realistic technology computer aided design analysis has been performed to understand the physical processes in the device and to make reliable predictions of the behavior. The performance of the top subcell has been obtained for different acceptor densities and hole mobility in Spiro-MeOTAD along with the impact of counter electrode work function. To incorporate the effect of material quality, the influence of carrier lifetimes has also been studied for perovskite top and IBC-SiHJ bottom subcells. The optical and electrical behavior of the devices has been obtained for both standalone as well as tandem configuration. Results reported in this study reveal that the proposed four-terminal tandem device may open a new door for cost-effective and energy-efficient applications.

  5. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  6. State-level benefits of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Peretz, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20% and 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20-year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies. Energy efficiency programs are cost-effective; typical benefit-cost ratios exceed 3:1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. (author)

  7. CEE Energy Efficiency Report - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecl, V.

    2005-01-01

    A review of future trends of energy consumption shows that, in the absence of an active energy policy which promotes energy efficiency, energy consumption will increase as a whole by approximately 6.8% by 2012 continuing to raise after this period.. This result hides large differences between the different sources of energy (mainly heat, fuels and electricity) and between the different sectors - transport, industry, buildings etc. It is therefore clear that a strong energy policy is needed to counterbalance the expected increase in energy consumption in all sectors, with emphasis on measures in the building sector (both residential and tertiary) and in the transport sector. Furthermore improvements in the district heating sector are also essential to prevent further disconnection from district heating and a shift to other means of heating. A review of the main barriers to energy efficiency leads to the conclusion that while significant changes are needed in the regulatory framework, the lack of access to finance and the general lack of awareness about existing technologies and best practice represent the greatest barriers. In order to evaluate the success of energy. In a few studies available from past 2-3 years the calculation of low and high targets for energy policy was elaborated. The low targets would represent about 11% - 12% reduction in overall energy consumption. The high targets would represent a 13% - 15% reduction in overall energy consumption. Policy instruments have been identified which can turn energy efficiency into one of the driving forces of the overall economic and development strategy of the country. Some of these instruments deal with general issues such as general policy issues, regulatory and legal aspects, the institutional framework and fiscal, taxation and pricing policy. They are designed to improve the present conditions and would use only a limited part of the available public budget. The state budget dedicated to energy issues will

  8. Energy efficiency information systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that different cultures and countries are receptive in different ways to information transfer. Modern information technology, including computers, videos, and telecommunications, can provide a very useful tool for the dissemination of information. At the same time, however, the use of new media involves many new and varied challenges. It is important therefore that the new dissemination methods are developed and utilised in the most effective way depending on the subjects distinctive character, needs and traditions. This workshop was designed to gather experts from all the CADDET member countries, to share knowledge, experiences and ideas about the use of new methods of information exchange and training in the field of energy efficiency. The workshop was divided into four plenary sessions: dissemination of information on energy efficient technologies; training technologies and effective learning; computer-based training tools on energy efficiency; databases and network resources. Two discussion groups followed the plenary sessions, to concentrate on: different aspects of information exchange; and different aspects of state-of-the-art training tools. The workshop was attended by 44 participants from 17 countries, and included 14 speakers

  9. Development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system in fiscal 1998. Pt. 1. Research on highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology (Research on design technology for optimal system); 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu. 1. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This paper summarizes achievements of the researches during fiscal 1998 on researching a highly efficient and effective energy utilization technology. With regard to technologies to recover and convert unutilized energies, a process simulator was developed, basic internal structure was discussed by experiments and simulation, and substance migrating and heat exchanging characteristics were identified by using partial testing devices. These researches and developments were performed for the waste heat reforming and recovering systems used in chemical plants. In developing a thermoelectric generation system using low calorie exhaust gases, thermoelectric power generating materials were developed, a powder manufacturing technology was developed, a thermoelectric conversion element bulking technology was developed, a thermoelectric power generation system using porous structures was simulated, development and concept design were carried out on system element technologies. In the research and development of the thermoelectric generation system using low calorie exhaust gases, advanced materials and modules were manufactured, the modules were evaluated, and power generation systems were researched. In addition, researches were performed on energy transportation, supply and utilization technologies, and on environmental load reducing technologies. (NEDO)

  10. Energy efficiency fallacies revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    A number of governments including that of the UK subscribe to the belief that a national program devoted to raising energy efficiency throughout the economy provides a costless - indeed profitable - route to meeting international environmental obligations. This is a seductive policy. It constitutes the proverbial free lunch - not only avoiding politically unpopular measures like outlawing, taxing or rationing offending fuels or expanding non-carboniferous sources of energy like nuclear power but doing so with economic benefit. The author of this contribution came to doubt the validity of this solution when it was offered as a way of mitigating the effect of the OPEC price hikes of the 1970s, maintaining that economically justified improvement in energy efficiency led to higher levels of energy consumption at the economy-wide level than in the absence of any efficiency response. More fundamentally, he argues that there is no case for preferentially singling out energy, from among all the resources available to us, for efficiency maximisation. The least damaging policy is to determine targets, enact the restrictive measures needed to curb consumption, and then leave it to consumers - intermediate and final - to reallocate all the resources available to them to best effect subject to the new enacted constraints and any others they might be experiencing. There is no reason to suppose that it is right for all the economic adjustment following a new resource constraint to take the form of improvements in the productivity of that resource alone. As many others have argued, any action to impose resource constraint entails an inevitable economic cost in the shape of a reduction in production and consumption possibilities: there would be no free lunch. In the last few years debate about the validity of these contentions has blossomed, especially under the influence of writers on the western side of the Atlantic. In this contribution the author outlines the original arguments

  11. Modeling of dynamic conditions of operation of wind turbines (WT and choice of environmentally efficient and energy economic technology of wind power energy transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bespalov Vadim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy usage is one of the promising areas among renewable energy sources. The article considers a methodical approach to the modeling and selection of environmentally efficient and energy-efficient wind turbines at the design stage, taking into account the characteristics of the natural-territorial complex and the specific anthropogenic load on the territory of the WT location.

  12. Energy efficiency: from principles to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, Paul; Ballot-Miguel, Benedicte; Binet, Guillaume; Bordigoni, Mathieu; Decellas, Fabrice; Hauser, Chantal; Hita, Laurent; Laurent, Marie-Helene; Osso, Dominique; Peureux, Jean-Louis; Pham Van Cang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This collective publication proposes a comprehensive overview of issues related to energy efficiency: associated stakes, methods of assessment of energy savings and of their costs, methods of action for energy efficiency policies, application in the housing, office building and industry sectors based on energy consumption modes in these different sectors, and main technologies aimed at improving energy efficiency. The first chapter proposes an historical perspective on energy, outlines the crucial role of energy efficiency in today's and tomorrow's contexts, and discusses which are the different levers of action to increase this efficiency. The next chapters address methods of assessment of energy efficiency, identify and discuss the use of different potential sources of energy saving, propose an overview of the various objectives and instruments of policies for energy efficiency, and address the issue of energy efficiency in the housing sector, in the office building sector, and in the industry sector by indicating the current levels of energy consumption, by identifying the various potential sources of energy saving, and by indicating available technologies aimed at improving energy efficiency

  13. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  14. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarensky, Mihael

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  15. Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Howard [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States); Meyers, Jim [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2018-01-29

    SWEEP worked with Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs to foster greater energy efficiency throughout the Southwest. SWEEP accomplished this through a combination of analysis and support; preparation and distribution of materials on best practice technologies, policies and programs; and technical assistance and information dissemination to states and municipalities in the southwest supporting BTO, AMO, OWIP for advancement of efficiency in products and practices. These efforts were accomplished during the period 2012 through 2017.

  16. Promoting energy efficiency in Egyptian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The energy situation in Egypt is characterized by a rather high energy demand, a high annual increase in energy consumption, inefficient utilization of energy, and heavily subsidized energy prices. Energy efficiency is therefore considered to be a matter of top priority, as it would lead to substantial savings. A national policy for efficient use of energy in industry has been outlined, including the establishment of an Industrial Energy Conservation Centre (IECC), the training and upgrading of energy management specialists, and the introduction of energy efficiency technologies in industrial plants. In this article the assistance that international organizations and donors can give to energy efficiency programmes is demonstrated. The results obtained so far are discussed and the lessons, findings and experience gained are outlined. (author). 1 tab

  17. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. ...

  18. Energy efficiency in industry and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscoe, J.

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of energy issues has changed since the 1970s as improvements have been made in energy efficiency. The present capacity for surplus energy production in economically advanced countries reflects a decrease in energy requirements as well as new production sources. At the same time, the energy crisis can be seen as having discouraged improvements in energy efficiency because of its negative impact on growth. And the centrally planned economies remain highly inefficient energy users. Economic growth encourages the use of new technologies which are likely to be less energy-intensive than those they replace. Permanent gains in energy efficiency are derived from structural changes in the economy and from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies. This article addresses the prospect of increased energy conservation, particularly in industry (the end-use which consumes the most energy) and transportation. Although investments in projects to promote energy conservation are more cost-effective and environment-friendly than investments in energy supply, there is still widespread support for the latter. Developing countries naturally give preference to quantitative growth, with an increasing consumption of energy, but in these countries, too, more efficient use of energy could greatly reduce demand. The policies of international development agencies which still favour increasing energy supply over conservation need to change. Awareness of the need to reduce energy demand is, however, growing worldwide. (author)

  19. Energy efficiency: From regional to global cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1994-01-01

    In developing, reforming and emerging countries in particular, institutional hurdles have hindered the introduction of energy efficient technology. The author develops the theme from two U.N. projects: A new institutional accessibility to supra-regional cooperation could provide an important stimulus for future worldwide cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. (orig.) [de

  20. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, T.T.; Sathaye, J.; Galitsky, C.

    2010-09-30

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the working of energy programs and policies on carbon regulation, how to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions become extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions (e.g., carbon emission) for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing of GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct brief overview on different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by problem statements, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating non-regrets options. A non-regrets option is defined as a GHG reduction option that is cost effective, without considering their additional benefits related to reducing GHG emissions. Based upon these, we develop information on costs of mitigation measures and technological change. These serve as the basis for collating the data on energy savings and costs for their future use in integrated assessment models. In addition to descriptions of the iron and steel making processes, and the mitigation measures identified in this study, the report includes tabulated databases on costs of measure implementation, energy savings, carbon-emission reduction, and lifetimes. The cost curve data on mitigation

  1. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of environmentally friendly high-efficiency energy utilization system. 2. Research of technology of effectively utilizing high-efficiency energy / research of optimum system designing technology; 1998 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu, saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    This 2nd volume deals with the transportation and storage of energy in the above-named research. In search of technologies for transporting exhausted heat from the industrial area to the urban section for consumers to utilize the heat for driving their air-conditioners and hot water supply systems, the decomposition and composition reactions of methanol are utilized for a long-range transportation system. The subjects taken up in this connection include the research and development of a methanol energy system, non-equilibrium high-efficiency methanol decomposition technology, multifunctional catalysts, and highly active/selective catalysts capable of promoting reversible endoergic/exoergic reactions. Research and development is also conducted of a high-efficiency heat pump technology using hydrogen-absorbing alloys, and such a pump will realize an air-conditioning system not dependent on chlorofluorocarbon. In the research and development of a long-range heat transportation system using hydrogen-absorbing alloys, a study is made of technologies of heat/hydrogen recovery, transportation, and utilization. (NEDO)

  2. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  3. ENERGY EFFICIENT DESALINATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the research is to develop a thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of cylindrical shape for the desalination of sea water.Methods. To improve the efficiency of the desalination device, a  special thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of  cylindrical shape is developed. The construction of the thin-film  semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump allows the flow rates of  incoming sea water and outflowing fresh water and brine to be  equalised by changing the geometric dimensions of the desalinator.  The cross-sectional area of the pipeline for incoming sea water is equal to the total area of outflowing fresh water and brine.Results. The use of thin-film semiconductor p- and n-type branches  in a thermo-module reduces their electrical resistance virtually to  zero and completely eliminates Joule's parasitic heat release. The  Peltier thermoelectric effect on heating and cooling is completely  preserved, bringing the efficiency of the heat pump to almost 100%, improving the energy-saving characteristics of the  desalinator as a whole. To further increase the efficiency of the  proposed desalinator, thermoelectric modules with radiation can be  used as thermoelectric devices.Conclusion. As a consequence of the creation of conditions of high rarefaction under which water will be converted to steam, which, at  20° C, is cold (as is the condensed distilled water, energy costs can  be reduced. In this case, the energy for heating and cooling is not  wasted; moreover, sterilisation is also achieved using the ultraviolet  radiation used in the thermoelectric devices, which, on the one hand, generate electromagnetic ultraviolet radiation, and, on the other, cooling. Such devices operate in optimal mode without heat  release. The desalination device can be used to produce fresh water and concentrated solutions from any aqueous solutions, including wastewater from industrial

  4. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  5. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 1. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of element technology and comprehensive adjustment which are related to the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the study of the high efficiency energy utilization technology, and the results of FY 2000, the final fiscal year, were summed up. As to the R and D of the exhaust heat reforming/recovery system, the internal heat exchange type distillation tower was developed which has a good energy conservation effect and enables the heat supply outside. Concerning the R and D of the cogeneration system using low calorie exhaust gas, the following were conducted for further improvement of the performance of electrothermic elements: evaluation of the thermoelectric performance using bulk elements, development of new elements and evaluation of the energy balance at the time of combustion, etc. Relating to the R and D of the low temperature exhaust heat utilization cogeneration system, conducted were the development of thermoelectric materials and the fabrication/evaluation study of module. Moreover, WATT20A equipped with the original power generation module developed in this study was fabricated, and the data on the operation at the temperature of 150 degrees C were obtained by WATT-20HT. (NEDO)

  6. Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tengfang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sathaye, Jayant [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kramer, Klaas Jan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Adoption of efficient end-use technologies is one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. How to effectively analyze and manage the costs associated with GHG reductions becomes extremely important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Energy-climate (EC) models are often used for analyzing the costs of reducing GHG emissions for various emission-reduction measures, because an accurate estimation of these costs is critical for identifying and choosing optimal emission reduction measures, and for developing related policy options to accelerate market adoption and technology implementation. However, accuracies of assessing GHG-emission reduction costs by taking into account the adoption of energy efficiency technologies will depend on how well these end-use technologies are represented in integrated assessment models (IAM) and other energy-climate models. In this report, we first conduct a brief review of different representations of end-use technologies (mitigation measures) in various energy-climate models, followed by the problem statement, and a description of the basic concepts of quantifying the cost of conserved energy including integrating no-regrets options.

  7. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  8. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  9. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  10. Energy Efficiency Analysis And Auditing Of Ethiopian University Buildings Case Of Buildings In Arba Minch Institute Of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engidaw Abel Hailu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the results of the energy audit of buildings in Arba Minch Institute of Technology AMIT are presented. The objective of the study was to identify the energy lossy applications activities and traditions and to suggest the least costly energy conservation mechanisms. All functional lighting systems office equipment desktop computers and water fixtures showerheads dishwashers toilet flushers and hand washers are taken into consideration for the study. Increased energy consumption due to daytime operation of lighting systems inactive mode operation office equipment and desktop computers and poor water management practices were the focus of the study. Based on the audit results poor water management practice in the campus contributes the most to the total energy loss followed by the inactive mode energy consumption of desktop computers and daytime operation of outdoor lighting systems. Therefore a significant amount of energy can be saved by practicing regular maintenance of water fixtures and pipes in the campus. Moreover awareness creation campaign can help a lot in reducing the energy loss which could be resulted from inactive mode energy consumption of computers and daytime operation of lamps. Installation of electronic day light control and motion detection systems can be potentially used to reduce the energy consumption of lighting systems operating in the daytime and in class rooms and halls both in the day and night time respectively.

  11. Energy Efficiency in Swimming Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kampel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    High and increasing energy use is a worldwide issue that has been reported and documented in the literature. Various studies have been performed on renewable energy and energy efficiency to counteract this trend. Although using renewable energy sources reduces pollution, improvements in energy efficiency reduce total energy use and protect the environment from further damage. In Europe, 40 % of the total energy use is linked to buildings, making them a main objective concerning...

  12. An analysis of the energy efficiency of winter rapeseed biomass under different farming technologies. A case study of a large-scale farm in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budzyński, Wojciech Stefan; Jankowski, Krzysztof Józef; Jarocki, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of a three-year study investigating the impact of production technology on the energy efficiency of winter rapeseed produced in large-scale farms. Rapeseed biomass produced in a high-input system was characterized by the highest energy demand (30.00 GJ ha"−"1). The energy demand associated with medium-input and low-input systems was 20% and 34% lower, respectively. The highest energy value of oil, oil cake and straw was noted in winter rapeseed produced in the high-input system. In the total energy output (268.5 GJ ha"−"1), approximately 17% of energy was accumulated in oil, 20% in oil cake, and 63% in straw. In lower input systems, the energy output of oil decreased by 13–23%, the energy output of oil cake – by 6–16%, and the energy output of straw – by 29–37% without visible changes in the structure of energy accumulated in different components of rapeseed biomass. The highest energy gain was observed in the high-input system. The low-input system was characterized by the highest energy efficiency ratio, at 4.22 for seeds and 9.43 for seeds and straw. The increase in production intensity reduced the energy efficiency of rapeseed biomass production by 8–18% (seeds) and 5–9% (seeds and straw). - Highlights: • Energy inputs in the high-input production system reached 30 GJ ha"−"1. • Energy inputs in the medium- and low-input systems were reduced by 20% and 34%. • Energy gain in the high-input system was 15% and 42% higher than in other systems. • Energy ratio in the high-input system was 5–18% lower than in the low-input system.

  13. Energy research and energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development in the field of energy technologies was and still is a rational necessity of our time. However, the current point of main effort has shifted from security of supply to environmental compatibility and safety of the technological processes used. Nuclear fusion is not expected to provide an extension of currently available energy resources until the middle of the next century. Its technological translation will be measured by the same conditions and issues of political acceptance that are relevant to nuclear technology today. Approaches in the major research establishments to studies of regenerative energy systems as elements of modern energy management have led to research and development programs on solar and hydrogen technologies as well as energy storage. The percentage these systems might achieve in a secured energy supply of European national economies is controversial yet today. In the future, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Grossforschungseinrichtungen (AGF) (Cooperative of Major Research Establishments) will predominantly focus on nuclear safety research and on areas of nuclear waste disposal, which will continue to be a national task even after a reorganization of cooperation in Europe. In addition, they will above all assume tasks of nuclear plant safety research within international cooperation programs based on government agreements, in order to maintain access for the Federal Republic of Germany to an advancing development of nuclear technology in a concurrent partnership with other countries. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Electric power in the competitive market - Investing capital for cleaner energy generation still a rewarding business? New perspectives for electrical energy efficiency improvement, the cogeneration technology, and renewable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanhold, E.

    2000-01-01

    The meeting gathered policymakers, members of the energy industry, the business consulting professions, and scientific institutes and relevant technology companies. New perspectives have been discussed in the context of required framework conditions and processes that have to/can be put in place, or further developed, in order to create a concrete basis or stronger incentives for realisation of climate protection and environmental policy goals in the energy sector. There have been two panel discussions on the issue of whether investing in clean generation technologies will be rewarding. Five papers each presented to these panels have been analysed and prepared for separate retrieval from the database, as well as five papers each of the discussion forum A, ''New perspectives for energy efficiency measures and contracting partnerships'', and the discussion forum B, ''New perspectives for distributed power generation with CHP systems''. From the discussion forum C, ''New perspectives for renewable energy sources'', one paper has been prepared for separate retrieval. (CB) [de

  15. Promoting renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, S.

    2004-06-01

    Technologies using renewable energy sources are receiving increasing interest from both public authorities and power producing companies, mainly because of the environmental advantages they procure in comparison with conventional energy sources. These technologies can be substitution for conventional energy sources and limit damage to the environment. Furthermore, several of the renewable energy technologies satisfy an increasing political goal of self-sufficiency within energy production. The subject of this thesis is promotion of renewable technologies. The primary goal is to increase understanding on how technological development takes place, and establish a theoretical framework that can assist in the construction of policy strategies including instruments for promotion of renewable energy technologies. Technological development is analysed by through quantitative and qualitative methods. (BA)

  16. EDITORIAL: Renewing energy technology Renewing energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2011-06-01

    Renewable energy is now a mainstream concern among businesses and governments across the world, and could be considered a characteristic preoccupation of our time. It is interesting to note that many of the energy technologies currently being developed date back to very different eras, and even predate the industrial revolution. The fuel cell was first invented as long ago as 1838 by the Swiss--German chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein [1], and the idea of harnessing solar power dates back to ancient Greece [2]. The enduring fascination with new means of harnessing energy is no doubt linked to man's innate delight in expending it, whether it be to satisfy the drive of curiosity, or from a hunger for entertainment, or to power automated labour-saving devices. But this must be galvanized by the sustained ability to improve device performance, unearthing original science, and asking new questions, for example regarding the durability of photovoltaic devices [3]. As in so many fields, advances in hydrogen storage technology for fuel cells have benefited significantly from nanotechnology. The idea is that the kinetics of hydrogen uptake and release may be reduced by decreasing the particle size. An understanding of how effective this may be has been hampered by limited knowledge of the way the thermodynamics are affected by atom or molecule cluster size. Detailed calculations of individual atoms in clusters are limited by computational resources as to the number of atoms that can studied, and other innovative approaches that deal with force fields derived by extrapolating the difference between the properties of clusters and bulk matter require labour-intensive modifications when extending such studies to new materials. In [4], researchers in the US use an alternative approach, considering the nanoparticle as having the same crystal structure as the bulk but relaxing the few layers of atoms near the surface. The favourable features of nanostructures for catalysis

  17. Research and Energy Efficiency: Selected Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, P. W.; Garland, R. W.

    1997-06-26

    Energy use and energy technology play critical roles in the U.S. economy and modern society. The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts civilian energy research and development (R&D) programs for the purpose of identifying promising technologies that promote energy security, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. DOE-sponsored research ranges from basic investigation of phenomena all the way through development of applied technology in partnership with industry. DOE`s research programs are conducted in support of national strategic energy objectives, however austere financial times have dictated that R&D programs be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit. In some cases it is difficult to measure the return on investment for the basic "curiosity-driven" research, however many applied technology development programs have resulted in measurable commercial successes. The DOE has published summaries of their most successful applied technology energy R&D programs. In this paper, we will discuss five examples from the Building Technologies area of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. Each story will describe the technology, discuss the level of federal funding, and discuss the returns in terms of energy savings, cost savings, or national economic impacts.

  18. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  19. Energy Efficiency Plan 2009-2012; Energie Efficiency Plan 2009-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, M.M.W. (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the Energy Efficiency Plan is to give an overview of the energy conservation plans of the Eindhoven University of Technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which must result in efficient use of energy conform the long-range agreements between businesses, industry and organizations and the Dutch government to improve energy efficiency (MJA3) [Dutch] Het doel van het EEP (Energie Efficiency Plan) is het in beeld brengen van de energiebesparingsplannen die leiden tot een efficienter gebruik van energie conform de MJA-3 afspraak (de derde Meerjaren Afspraak)

  20. Energy efficient solid state lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam-Hansen, C.; Petersen, Poul Michael

    2012-11-15

    Even though vast improvements have been made on efficiency and light quality, SSL is still in its infancy. One of the barriers for a market introduction is the price, which still is around 5 times higher than traditional lighting technologies. In order to fulfil the potential of SSL, further research and development needs to increase the light extraction from semiconductor materials, provide better and cheaper production and packaging, and advanced optical systems for optimized light distribution and new thermal solutions for SSL lamps and luminaires. Nanotechnology and applied research at DTU Fotonik in close collaboration with industry are essential parts in the development of new enhanced LED optical systems and LEDs with higher light extraction efficiency. Photonic crystals can help to efficiently extract light from LEDs and to form a desired emission profile. Future directions are devoted to the next generation of LEDs, in which the spontaneous emission is photon enhanced. One realization of this idea is using LEDs with a layer of nanocrystals, which are coupled to the quantum well of the LED. Such R and D work is ongoing all over the world and DOE roadmaps foresee luminous efficiencies by 2020 that are close to 250 lm/W for both cold and warm white light from LEDs, and prices in the order of one dollar per kilolumen. Such figures will drastically reduce the energy consumption worldwide for lighting, and hence a marked reduction in carbon emissions. (Author)

  1. Distributed Energy Technology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Distributed Energy Technologies Laboratory (DETL) is an extension of the power electronics testing capabilities of the Photovoltaic System Evaluation Laboratory...

  2. Energy conservation, efficiency and energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the conservation, efficiency, audit, fundamentals, differences and methods, the objectives of energy conservation, definitions of energy audit, scope, short term, medium term and long term measures to be taken for conservation are discussed

  3. Developing an assessment framework to improve the efficiency of R and D and the market diffusion of energy technologies - EduaR and D. Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradke, H.; Cremer, C.; Dreher, C. (and others)

    2007-01-31

    The energy R and D and innovation policy will have to concentrate on accelerating innovation processes and the market penetration of those technologies capable of meeting challenges in the future and reducing the risks. The lack of financing available to substantially enlarge public funds for energy-related R and D and market diffusion policies is a major bottleneck to meeting these challenges. One way to tackle this dilemma is to improve the efficiency of energy R and D and relevant innovations including market entrance and diffusion. Unfortunately, little is understood about how to make the best choices from among the myriad research ideas and proposals in order to reduce the risks of R and D funding and to maximise the outcome of public (or private) R and D funds. This was the starting point of a small research programme called EduaR and D (Energy data and Analysis of Research and Development) initiated by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) with five analytical projects on energy systems and related research and development. Two of them focus on methodological questions ('Decision criteria for efficient R and D policy strategies' and 'Priority setting by methods of innovation and technology cycle research') and three on concrete technological areas ('systemic evaluation of new co-generation technologies', 'multi-criteria technology assessment applied to electricity generation', 'highly insulated buildings and intelligent building management'). The results of the second methodological project are reported here. During the analysis of this project, several meetings were held among the participating research teams to exchange and discuss intermediate results. (orig.)

  4. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  5. Energy efficiency: Lever for the Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The Eco-electric industry group (FFIE, FGME, Gimelec, IGNES, SERCE) has conducted a study to evaluate the energy saving potential of active energy efficiency solutions in the residential and commercial building sectors. Based on field implementations and demonstrators, it has been demonstrated that active energy efficiency can sustainably achieve substantial savings for households, companies and public authorities. Energy Efficiency - Lever for the energy transition presents the results and conclusions of that study, alongside with recommendations for public authority in terms of building retrofit policy for putting France on the best possible 'trajectory' from a budgetary and environmental point of view. (author)

  6. Energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.

    1992-01-01

    The main sources of Pakistan's energy supply are oil, natural gas, coal, hydro power, nuclear power and liquefied petroleum gas. At present 75 % of total energy delivered is met through oil and gas. The limited resources and financial constraints have proved to be stumbling block in the way of prosperity and economics stability. Lighting is a conspicuous consumer of energy and thus an easy prey for saving drives which is indeed a very promising target for energy saving. (A.B.)

  7. Evaluating energy efficiency policies with energy-economy models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundaca, L.; Neij, L.; Worrell, E.; McNeil, M.

    2010-01-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems, and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically

  8. Energy Efficient Televisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Dorothea; Remmen, Arne

    The EuP Directive sets the frame for implementing ecodesign requirements for energy-using and energy-related products. The aim of the Directive is to achieve a high level of protection for the environment by reducing the potential environmental impact of energy-related products. The focus...

  9. Energy efficient policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector. (author)

  10. Energy efficiency policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector

  11. Energy efficiency: 2004 world overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) has been collaborating with ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) on a joint project 'Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'. APERC (Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre) and OLADE (Latin American Energy Organisation) have also participated in the study, which has been monitoring and evaluating energy efficiency policies and their impacts around the world. WEC Member Committees have been providing data and information and ENERDATA (France) has provided technical assistance. This report, published in August 2004, presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in 63 countries, with a specific focus on five policy measures, for which in-depth case studies were prepared by selected experts: - Minimum energy efficiency standards for household electrical appliances; - Innovative energy efficiency funds; - Voluntary/negotiated agreements on energy efficiency/ CO 2 ; - Local energy information centres; - Packages of measures. In particular, the report identifies the policy measures, which have proven to be the most effective, and can be recommended to countries which have recently embarked on the development and implementation of energy demand management policies. During the past ten years, the Kyoto Protocol and, more recently, emerging concerns about security of supply have raised, both the public and the political profile of energy efficiency. Almost all OECD countries and an increasing number of other countries are implementing energy efficiency policies adapted to their national circumstances. In addition to the market instruments (voluntary agreements, labels, information, etc.), regulatory measures are widely introduced where the market fails to give the right signals (buildings, appliances). In developing countries, energy efficiency is equally important, even if the drivers are different compared to industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and local pollution often have a

  12. Power shifts: the dynamics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenhofer, O.; Jaeger, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    Induced technical change is crucial for tackling the problem of timing in environmental policy. However, it is by no means obvious that the state has the ability to impose its will concerning technical change on the other relevant actors. Therefore, we conceptualize power in a non-linear model with social conflict and induced technical change. The model shows how economic growth, business cycles and innovation waves interact in the dynamics of energy efficiency. We assess three different ways of government control: energy taxes, energy and labor subsidies, and energy caps. Energy taxes help to select more energy efficient technologies. However, a successful selection of such technologies presupposes that they are available in the pool of technologies. As for energy subsidies, their existence helps to explain why in contemporary economies labor productivity grows faster than energy efficiency. With an energy cap, the social network of the relevant agents may be stabilized via social norms. It seems plausible that innovation waves comprise several business cycles and that such a wave is currently in the making. Proposals to postpone policies for improving energy efficiency increase the risk of energy inefficient lock-in effects. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Climate technology and energy efficiency. From ''best practice'' experiences to policy diffusion. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael; Grashof, Katharina (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    The seminar proceedings cover the following contributions following the opening address: Germany's climate protection program - a step by step approach; the renewable energy act in Germany; CTI's activities for technology transfer on climate change; the climate protection programs of the Federal states: the example of Bavaria; UNECE energy efficiency market formation activities and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in economies in transition; energy efficiency - policy designs and implementation in PEEREA countries; environmental fiscal reform in Germany; instruments to overcome existing barriers to energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria; proposal to establish a testing ground facility for JI projects in the Baltic sea region testing ground; the Baltic sea region joint implementation testing ground, the Estonian perspective; policy instrumentation; financing international market penetration of renewable energies: a report on the German export initiative; the Dutch ERUPT and CERUPT programs - lessons and outlook; co-operation between Austrian and Central and Eastern Europe in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy; biomass and pellet market:: implementation strategies in Slovakia; results of monitoring of the German biomass ordinance; developing RES strategy for the Czech republic; building retrofit and renewable energy; energy conversion; between economics and environment - energy saving in German housing sector; implementation and performance contracting in Slovenia; sustainable institutional mechanisms of efficient energy use in Rostov oblast health care and educational facilities; towards sustainable housing management in Lithuania; emissions trading will accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the markets; Energy efficiency in residential and public buildings; international climate protection policy; long-term perspectives for as sustainable energy future in Germany, the Danish program Energy 21; the

  14. Program energy research and energy technologies. Annual report 1987. Fossil energy carriers, renewable energy sources, efficient use of energy. Programm Energieforschung und Energietechnologien. Jahresbericht 1987. Fossile Energietraeger, erneuerbare Energiequellen, rationelle Energieverwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    After a general introduction and a short overview of financial contributions in 1987 there is a description of the projects sponsored. The main section contains project descriptions of the partial programmes Fossil Energy Carriers, Renewable Energy Sources and Efficient Use of Energy. The ordering of the wide-ranging material is carried out essentially via two indices: the index of project numbers and the index of companies. Then an overview is given of final reports published in 1987. A list of 1987 patents forms the final section.

  15. International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bahsi, Zehra; Ozer, Mehmet; ENEFM2013

    2014-01-01

    The International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials (ENEFM2013) was held on 9-12 October, 2013. This three-day congress focused on the latest developments of sustainable energy technologies, materials for sustainable energy applications and environmental & economic perspectives of energy. These proceedings include 63 peer reviewed technical papers, submitted from leading academic and research institutions from over 23 countries, representing some of the most cutting edge research available. The papers included were presented at the congress in the following sessions: General Issues Wind Energy Solar Energy Nuclear Energy Biofuels and Bioenergy Energy Storage Energy Conservation and Efficiency Energy in Buildings   Economical and Environmental Issues Environment Energy Requirements Economic Development   Materials for Sustainable Energy Hydrogen Production and Storage Photovoltaic Cells Thermionic Converters Batteries and Superconductors Phase Change Materials Fuel Cells Supercon...

  16. The German way to an energy efficient future. Process and cross cutting technology improvements for CO{sub 2} reductions and a competitive economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radgen, P.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to show how Germany tries to improve the energy efficiency of the economy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions without affecting the competitiveness of the industry. Between 1990 to 1995 Germany has reduced its CO{sub 2} emission from 1029 to 933 million tonnes, which is equivalent to an emission reduction of 9%. To analyse and compare different options to reach the emission reduction target, multiple tools have been developed and can be used to help in setting policy priorities. The IKARUS model and database together with the use of energy efficiency indicators helps to keep the development of energy consumption and emission reduction on track to the reduction target. Voluntary agreements between industry and government had been worked out, to limit the emissions in the energy intensive sectors of the German industry. Results from the monitoring of this efforts will be presented together with a short evaluation of the factors influencing the improvements in energy efficiency. As energy related emissions can be reduced significantly by closing energy and material flows, the effect of recycling of energy intensive materials such as steel, glass, plastics, and paper is discussed. The possible role of renewables as energy carrier and feedstock is evaluated for the production of surfactants. If more oleochemical surfactants could be applied, this will help to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from the use of fossil fuels as feedstock. The efficiency improvement by cross cutting technologies will be discussed for furnaces, compressed air systems and electric motors. Most of these improvement potentials are economic at present energy prices, but some barriers for their application has to be overcome. One way to help decision makers in industry is the use of energy benchmarking. Benchmarking helps to analyse the energy efficiency of the own company in comparison to the competitors and to set appropriate targets and to prepare a road map of measures to

  17. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document brings together the different definitions of the indicators used in the European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators. This project was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. To reach this objective, all data and indicators are stored in a common database called ODYSSEE that is regularly updated. A common methodology is used to produce comparative energy efficiency indicators from the database. The definitions presented in this document concern: 1) the general points (energy intensity, consumption, savings, efficiency, the unit consumption effect and index, the technological effect or savings, the substitution effect and the behavioural/management effect); 2) the macro-indicators (primary and final energy intensities at constant structure, at purchasing power parities, at reference economic structure); 3) industry (energy intensity of industry/manufacturing, of industry at constant structure and at reference structure, unit consumption of steel, cement etc.., process effect); 4) transports (energy intensity, unit consumption of vehicles, average specific consumption, test specific consumption, unit consumption, specific consumption, behavioural energy savings; 5) households and services (unit consumption, specific consumption, energy intensity of households, appliances); 6) transformations (apparent efficiency of energy sector or transformations, efficiency at constant fuel mix, efficiency of electricity sector). The same work is made for the 'key energy efficiency indicators', for the 'aggregate energy efficiency indicators' for

  18. Energy-efficient wireless mesh infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazmi, Y.; de Meer, Hermann; Hummel, Karin Anna; Meyer, Harald; Meo, Michela; Remondo Bueno, David

    2011-01-01

    The Internet comprises access segments with wired and wireless technologies. In the future, we can expect wireless mesh infrastructures (WMIs) to proliferate in this context. Due to the relatively low energy efficiency of wireless transmission, as compared to wired transmission, energy consumption of WMIs can represent a significant part of the energy consumption of the Internet as a whole. We explore different approaches to reduce energy consumption in WMIs, taking into accoun...

  19. Efficient Technology and Appropriate Life-styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The paper suggests that the energy chain model of converting primary energy into energy services should be extended to include also the lifestyles. A pittfall from looking solely at the technical efficiency is revealed. Various examples indicates economic saturations among consumers in the most w...... in Europe by combining changes in technology with changes in lifestyles and economy are demonstrated with results from a Low Electricity Europe study....... wealthy countries. Similarly, examples of alternatives to Gross Domestic Product as an indicator of progress show steady declines in the countries with high GDP, which is suggesting a decline in the efficiencies in the economies and the lifestyles. The potentials for reducing electricity consumption...

  20. Energy efficiency: utopia or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    In its 2006 allocution the world council on the energy WEC, analyzes the role of the energy efficiency in the energy life cycle. In spite of different objectives followed by the developing and developed countries, implement a world energy efficiency economy is a challenge possible by the cooperation.The WEC is an ideal forum for the information and experience exchange. (A.L.B.)

  1. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  2. An interdisciplinary perspective on industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Jenny; Thollander, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper combines engineering and social science approaches to enhance our understanding of industrial energy efficiency and broaden our perspective on policy making in Europe. Sustainable development demands new strategies, solutions, and policy-making approaches. Numerous studies of energy efficiency potential state that cost-effective energy efficiency technologies in industry are not always implemented for various reasons, such as lack of information, procedural impediments, and routines not favoring energy efficiency. Another reason for the efficiency gap is the existence of particular values, unsupportive of energy efficiency, in the dominant networks of a branch of trade. Analysis indicates that different sectors of rather closed communities have established their own tacit knowledge, perceived truths, and routines concerning energy efficiency measures. Actors in different industrial sectors highlight different barriers to energy efficiency and why cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not being implemented. The identified barriers can be problematized in relation to the social context to understand their existence and how to resolve them.

  3. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies.

  4. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  5. Advanced energy efficient windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    2007-01-01

    Windows should be paid special attention as they contribute a significant part of the total heat-loss coefficient of the building. Contrary to other parts of the thermal envelope the windows are not only heat loosers, but may gain heat in the day-time. Therefore there are possibilities for large...... energy savings. In terms of energy, windows occupy a special position compared with other thermal envelope structures due to their many functions: 1) windows let daylight into the building and provide occupants with visual contact with their surroundings 2) windows protect against the outdoor climate 3......) windows transmit solar energy that may contribute to a reduction of energy consumption, but which may also lead to unpleasant overheating. In the following paragraphs the current use of windows is reviewed with an emphasis on energy, while special products like solar protection glazing and security...

  6. USSR energy efficiency and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.

    1991-06-01

    The U.S.S.R. is the largest energy producer and the second largest energy consumer in the world. Its share of global energy use reached above 17% in 1988. The soviet energy system is characterized by low efficiency and high per capita energy consumption, although there are some reasons justifying the greater U.S.S.R. energy use per unit of product output than in other industrialized countries. The present energy-savings potential is approximately equal to one-half of the domestic energy consumption. Improvements in energy efficiency at all levels of the national economy are now considered to be the primary goal of national energy policy for the next couple of decades. Being endowed with abundant natural gas resources, the U.S.S.R. will count on this energy source in the future to improve its energy efficiency, reduce expenses and cope with air pollution. After 2005-2010, stabilized primary energy consumption may be reached or there may even be a decline of total energy use. The U.S.S.R. could reduce CO 2 emissions by 20% by 2030 but with substantial negative impacts on GNP growth. Required improvements in the Soviet energy system depend on changes in energy management, including reduction of the role of centralized planning, decentralization and privatization of energy-producing facilities, energy-price reforms, reshaping of investment patterns, reduction in military expenditures, etc. (author)

  7. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. METC's R ampersand D programs are focused on commercialization of technologies that will be carried out in the private sector. META has solicited two PRDAs for EM. The first, in the area of groundwater and soil technologies, resulted in twenty-one contact awards to private sector and university technology developers. The second PRDA solicited novel decontamination and decommissioning technologies and resulted in eighteen contract awards. In addition to the PRDAs, METC solicited the first EM ROA in 1993. The ROA solicited research in a broad range of EM-related topics including in situ remediation, characterization, sensors, and monitoring technologies, efficient separation technologies, mixed waste treatment technologies, and robotics. This document describes these technology development activities

  8. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamburg, A.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roos, I.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's energy balance for 1990 - 1994 is characterized by the dramatic changes in the economy after regaining independence in 1991. In 1990 - 1993, primary energy supply decreased about 1.9 times. The reasons were a sharp decrease in exports of electric energy and industrial products, a steep increase in fuel prices and the transition from the planned to a market-oriented economy. Over the same period, the total amount of emitted greenhouse gases decreased about 45%. In 1993, the decrease in energy production and consumption stopped, and in 1994, a moderate increase occurred (about 6%), which is a proof stabilizing economy. Oil shale power engineering will remain the prevailing energy resource for the next 20 - 25 years. After stabilization, the use of oil shale will rise in Estonia's economy. Oil shale combustion in power plants will be the greatest source of greenhouse gases emissions in near future. The main problem is to decrease the share of CO 2 emissions from the decomposition of carbonate part of oil shale. This can be done by separating limestone particles from oil shale before its burning by use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Higher efficiency of oil shale power plants facilitates the reduction of CO 2 emissions per generated MWh electricity considerably. The prognoses for the future development of power engineering depend essentially on the environmental requirements. Under the highly restricted development scenario, which includes strict limitations to emissions (CO 2 , SO 2 , thermal waste) and a severe penalty system, the competitiveness of nuclear power will increase. The conceptual steps taken by the Estonian energy management should be in compliance with those of neighboring countries, including the development programs of the other Baltic states

  9. Is energy efficiency environmentally friendly?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, H. [Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2000-07-01

    The paper challenges the view that improving the efficiency of energy use will lead to a reduction in national energy consumption, and hence is an effective policy for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. It argues that improving energy efficiency lowers the implicit price of energy and hence makes its use more affordable, thus leading to greater use. The paper presents the views of economists, as well as green critics of 'efficiency' and the 'dematerialization' thesis. It argues that a more effective CO{sub 2} policy is to concentrate on shifting to non-fossil fuel, like renewables, subsidized through a carbon tax. Ultimately what is needed, to limit energy consumption is energy conservation not energy efficiency. 44 refs.

  10. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  11. Modeling international trends in energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, David I.

    2012-01-01

    I use a stochastic production frontier to model energy efficiency trends in 85 countries over a 37-year period. Differences in energy efficiency across countries are modeled as a stochastic function of explanatory variables and I estimate the model using the cross-section of time-averaged data, so that no structure is imposed on technological change over time. Energy efficiency is measured using a new energy distance function approach. The country using the least energy per unit output, given its mix of outputs and inputs, defines the global production frontier. A country's relative energy efficiency is given by its distance from the frontier—the ratio of its actual energy use to the minimum required energy use, ceteris paribus. Energy efficiency is higher in countries with, inter alia, higher total factor productivity, undervalued currencies, and smaller fossil fuel reserves and it converges over time across countries. Globally, technological change was the most important factor counteracting the energy-use and carbon-emissions increasing effects of economic growth.

  12. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J...

  13. Integrated membrane and microbial fuel cell technologies for enabling energy-efficient effluent Re-use in power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Namita; Chilkoor, Govinda; Xia, Lichao; Alvarado, Catalina; Kilduff, James E; Keating, John J; Belfort, Georges; Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana

    2017-06-15

    Municipal wastewater is an attractive alternative to freshwater sources to meet the cooling water needs of thermal power plants. Here we offer an energy-efficient integrated microbial fuel cell (MFC)/ultrafiltration (UF) process to purify primary clarifier effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant for use as cooling water. The microbial fuel cell was shown to significantly reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the primary settled wastewater effluent upstream of the UF module, while eliminating the energy demand required to deliver dissolved oxygen in conventional aerobic treatment. We investigated surface modification of the UF membranes to control fouling. Two promising hydrophilic monomers were identified in a high-throughput search: zwitterion (2-(Methacryloyloxy)-ethyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl ammoniumhydroxide, abbreviated BET SO 3 - ), and amine (2-(Methacryloyloxy) ethyl trimethylammonium chloride, abbreviated N(CH 3 ) 3 + ). Monomers were grafted using UV-induced polymerization on commercial poly (ether sulfone) membranes. Filtration of MFC effluent by membranes modified with BET SO 3 - and N(CH 3 ) 3 + exhibited a lower rate of resistance increase and lower energy consumption than the commercially available membrane. The MFC/UF process produced high quality cooling water that meets the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) recommendations for COD, a suite of metals (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Si, Mn, S, Ca and Mg), and offered extremely low corrosion rates (<0.05 mm/yr). A series of AC and DC diagnostic tests were used to evaluate the MFC performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: International Trade... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee, Attention: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy and...

  15. DOE/Industrial Technologies Program DOE Award Number DE-FG36-05GO15099 Plant Wide Energy Efficiency Assessment Pilgrims Pride Corporation – Mt Pleasant Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paper, Riyaz; Dooley, Bill; Turpish, William J; Symonds, Mark; Carswell, Needham

    2007-04-13

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP), through Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is supporting plant wide energy efficiency assessments that will lead to substantial improvements in industrial efficiency, waste reduction, productivity, and global competitiveness in industries identified in ITP’s Industries of the Future. The stated goal of the assessments is to develop a comprehensive strategy at manufacturing locations that will significantly increase plant productivity, profitability, and energy efficiency, and reduce environmental emissions. ITP awarded a contract to Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation to conduct a plant wide energy efficiency assessment for their Mt Pleasant Facility in Mt Pleasant, Texas. Pilgrim’s Pride Corporation is the largest poultry company in the U.S. and Mexico producing nearly 9 billion pounds of poultry per year. Pilgrim's Pride products are sold to foodservice, retail and frozen entrée customers. Pilgrim's Pride owns and operates 37 chicken processing plants (34 in the U.S. and three in Mexico), 12 prepared foods plants and one turkey processing plant. Thirty-five feed mills and 49 hatcheries support these plants. Pilgrim's Pride is ranked number 382 on 2006's FORTUNE 500 list and net sales were $7.4 billion. In Mt. Pleasant, Texas, Pilgrim's Pride operates one of the largest prepared foods plants in the United States, with the capability of producing 2,000 different products and the capacity to turn out more than 7 million pounds of finished goods per week. The facility is divided into distinct departments: East Kill, West Kill, Prepared Foods, Protein Conversion, Wastewater Treatment, and Truck Shop. Facility processes include killing, eviscerating, refrigeration, baking, frying, and protein conversion. Pilgrim’s Pride formed a team to complete the plant wide energy efficiency assessment. The scope of work for this project was to: provide the analysis of departmental

  16. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program. Bibliography, 1993 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1993-06-01

    The Bibliography contains listings of publicly available reports, journal articles, and published conference papers sponsored by the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and published between 1987 and mid-1993. The topics of Bibliography include: analysis and evaluation; building equipment research; building thermal envelope systems and materials; district heating; residential and commercial conservation program; weatherization assistance program; existing buildings research program; ceramic technology project; alternative fuels and propulsion technology; microemulsion fuels; industrial chemical heat pumps; materials for advanced industrial heat exchangers; advanced industrial materials; tribology; energy-related inventions program; electric energy systems; superconducting technology program for electric energy systems; thermal energy storage; biofuels feedstock development; biotechnology; continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations; sensors for electrolytic cells; hydropower environmental mitigation; environmental control technology; continuous fiber ceramic composite technology.

  17. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... building projects through municipal planning practices, and how do they cope with these challenges? The report is based on an in-depth study of proactive planning practices performed by municipal partners in the Class 1 project and a series of experiences, strategies and instru-ments are identified...

  18. Technological trends in energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Moyano, R.

    1995-01-01

    According to the usual meaning, technological trends are determined by main companies and leading countries with capacity for the development and marketing of technology. Presently, those trends are addressed to: the development of cleaner and more efficient process for fossil fuels utilization (atmospheric and pressurized fluidized beds, integrated gasification in combined cycle, advanced combined cycles, etc), the development of safer and more economic nuclear reactors; the efficiency increase in both generation and utilisation of energy, including demand side management and distribution automation; and the reduction of cost of renewable energies. Singular points of these trends are: the progress in communication technologies (optical fibre, trucking systems, etc.); the fuel cells; the supercritical boilers; the passive reactors; the nuclear fusion; the superconductivity; etc. Spain belongs to the developed countries but suffer of certain technology shortages that places it in a special situation. (Author)

  19. Renewable Energy Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Michael K.; Carter, Vinson R.

    2010-01-01

    In many ways the field of renewable energy technology is being introduced to a society that has little knowledge or background with anything beyond traditional exhaustible forms of energy and power. Dotson (2009) noted that the real challenge is to inform and educate the citizenry of the renewable energy potential through the development of…

  20. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  1. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, W.J.; Bookless, W.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the United States Department of Energy, was established in 1952 to do research on nuclear weapons and magnetic fusion energy. Since then, in response to new national needs, we have added other major programs, including technology transfer, laser science (fusion, isotope separation, materials processing), biology and biotechnology, environmental research and remediation, arms control and nonproliferation, advanced defense technology, and applied energy technology. These programs, in turn, require research in basic scientific disciplines, including chemistry and materials science, computing science and technology, engineering, and physics. The Laboratory also carries out a variety of projects for other federal agencies. Energy and Technology Review is published monthly to report on unclassified work in all our programs. This issue reviews work performed in the areas of modified retoring for waste treatment and underground stripping to remove contamination

  2. Technology line and case analysis of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in Northern heating areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    The building area in northern heating areas accounting for 70% of the total land area in China is 6,500,000,000 m 2 . The average heating energy consumption in northern China is 100-200% times more than developed countries in the same latitude. This paper introduced firstly the heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit background of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China organized by mohurd and MOF, and then put forward the total principle and contents of retrofit. Through analyzing some retrofit cases in Germany, Poland and China, some technological experiences were summarized and finally a technology line suitable for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China which involved retrofit for heat metering and temperature regulation of heating systems, heat balance of heat source and network, and building envelope was described to provide a systematic, scientific, technological guide for the retrofit projects of 0.15 billion m 2 in 'the Eleventh Five-Year Plan' period.

  3. Research for energy efficiency; Forschung fuer Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The Federal Ministry of Economy enhanced its funding for research in the field of non-nuclear energy in the programme ''Forschung fuer Energieeffizienz'' (Research for Energy Efficiency). The programme focuses on established areas like modern power plant technologies (''Moderne Kraftwerkstechnologien''), fuel cells and hydrogen (''Brennstoffzelle, Wasserstoff''), and energy-optimized building construction (''Energieoptimiertes Bauen''). New subjects are energy-efficient towns and cities (''Energieeffiziente Stadt''), power grids for future power supply (''Netze fuer die Stromversorgung der Zukunft''), power storage (''Stromspeicher''), and electromobility (''Elektromobilitaet''). The brochure presents research and demonstration projects that illustrate the situation in 2010 when the programme was initiated. (orig.)

  4. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  5. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  6. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  7. Models for efficient integration of solar energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder

    the available flexibility in the system. In the present thesis methods related to operation of solar energy systems and for optimal energy use in buildings are presented. Two approaches for forecasting of solar power based on numerical weather predictions (NWPs) are presented, they are applied to forecast......Efficient operation of energy systems with substantial amount of renewable energy production is becoming increasingly important. Renewables are dependent on the weather conditions and are therefore by nature volatile and uncontrollable, opposed to traditional energy production based on combustion....... The "smart grid" is a broad term for the technology for addressing the challenge of operating the grid with a large share of renewables. The "smart" part is formed by technologies, which models the properties of the systems and efficiently adapt the load to the volatile energy production, by using...

  8. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  9. Effective education for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2008-01-01

    A lot of today's world vices can be eliminated if certain targeted modules and adapted curricula are introduced in the schooling system. One of these vices is energy squandering with all its negative consequences for the planet (e.g. depletion of finite energy sources and the subsequent climate change). This paper describes the results of an energy-thrift information and education project taking place in different levels of education in Crete-Greece, which records 321 students' and their parents' routine energy-related behavior and proves that this behavior changes to a more energy efficient one, after the dissemination of relevant information and the participation into the energy education projects. Namely, response percentages indicating the energy-efficient behavior increased after project participation while the ones indicating an energy-squandering behavior decreased. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was statistically significant in all energy behavior questions related to students and to most questions related to parents

  10. Energy efficiency benchmarking of energy-intensive industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, David Yih-Liang; Huang, Chi-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytical tool was applied to estimate the energy efficiency indicator of energy intensive industries in Taiwan. • The carbon dioxide emission intensity in selected energy-intensive industries is also evaluated in this study. • The obtained energy efficiency indicator can serve as a base case for comparison to the other regions in the world. • This analysis results can serve as a benchmark for selected energy-intensive industries. - Abstract: Taiwan imports approximately 97.9% of its primary energy as rapid economic development has significantly increased energy and electricity demands. Increased energy efficiency is necessary for industry to comply with energy-efficiency indicators and benchmarking. Benchmarking is applied in this work as an analytical tool to estimate the energy-efficiency indicators of major energy-intensive industries in Taiwan and then compare them to other regions of the world. In addition, the carbon dioxide emission intensity in the iron and steel, chemical, cement, textile and pulp and paper industries are evaluated in this study. In the iron and steel industry, the energy improvement potential of blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF–BOF) based on BPT (best practice technology) is about 28%. Between 2007 and 2011, the average specific energy consumption (SEC) of styrene monomer (SM), purified terephthalic acid (PTA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was 9.6 GJ/ton, 5.3 GJ/ton and 9.1 GJ/ton, respectively. The energy efficiency of pulping would be improved by 33% if BAT (best available technology) were applied. The analysis results can serve as a benchmark for these industries and as a base case for stimulating changes aimed at more efficient energy utilization

  11. Energy efficiency initiatives: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Dipankar [ICFAI Business School, Kolkata, (IBS-K) (India)

    2007-07-01

    India, with a population of over 1.10 billion is one of the fastest growing economies of the world. As domestic sources of different conventional commercial energy are drying up, dependence on foreign energy sources is increasing. There exists a huge potential for saving energy in India. After the first 'oil shock' (1973), the government of India realized the need for conservation of energy and a 'Petroleum Conservation Action Group' was formed in 1976. Since then many initiatives aiming at energy conservation and improving energy efficiency, have been undertaken (the establishment of Petroleum Conservation Research Association in 1978; the notification of Eco labelling scheme in 1991; the formation of Bureau of Energy Efficiency in 2002). But no such initiative was successful. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the changing importance of energy conservation/efficiency measures which have been initiated in India between 1970 and 2005.The present study tries to analyze the limitations and the reasons of failure of those initiatives. The probable reasons are: fuel pricing mechanism (including subsidies), political factors, corruption and unethical practices, influence of oil and related industry lobbies - both internal and external, the economic situation and the prolonged protection of domestic industries. Further, as India is opening its economy, the study explores the opportunities that the globally competitive market would offer to improve the overall energy efficiency of the economy. The study suggests that the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) - the newly formed nodal agency for improving energy efficiency of the economy may be made an autonomous institution where intervention from the politicians would be very low. For proper implementation of different initiatives to improve energy efficiency, BEE should involve more the civil societies (NGO) from the inception to the implementation stage of the programs. The paper also

  12. Technology Roadmaps: Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Wind energy is perhaps the most advanced of the 'new' renewable energy technologies, but there is still much work to be done. This roadmap identifies the key tasks that must be undertaken in order to achieve a vision of over 2 000 GW of wind energy capacity by 2050. Governments, industry, research institutions and the wider energy sector will need to work together to achieve this goal. Best technology and policy practice must be identified and exchanged with emerging economy partners, to enable the most cost-effective and beneficial development.

  13. Encouraging energy efficiency: Policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Successfully overcoming the barriers to higher energy efficiency requires development of policies designed for specific users and locations. Reform of energy pricing, which entails removing subsidies and beginning internalization of externalities, is critical to give technology producers and users proper signals for investment and management decisions. But while a rise in energy prices increases the amount of energy-efficiency improvement that is cost-effective, it does not remove other barriers that deter investment. Minimum efficiency standards or agreements can raise the market floor, and are important because they affect the entire market in the near-term. But they may not raise the celining very much, and do little to push the efficiency frontier. To accomplish these goals, incentives and other market-development strategies are needed. Utility programs in particular can play a key role in pushing energy efficiency beyond the level where users are likely to invest on their own. Policies, programs, and pricing should complement one another. Pricing reform alone will not overcome the many entrenched barriers to higher energy efficiency, but trying to accelerate energy efficiency improvement without addressing energy pricing problems will lead to limited success. Whether tagerting new equipment or management of existing systems, policies must reflect a thorough understanding of the particular system and an awareness of the motivations of the actors. 25 refs

  14. Technology Roadmap: Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-01

    Energy storage technologies are valuable components in most energy systems and could be an important tool in achieving a low-carbon future. These technologies allow for the decoupling of energy supply and demand, in essence providing a valuable resource to system operators. There are many cases where energy storage deployment is competitive or near-competitive in today's energy system. However, regulatory and market conditions are frequently ill-equipped to compensate storage for the suite of services that it can provide. Furthermore, some technologies are still too expensive relative to other competing technologies (e.g. flexible generation and new transmission lines in electricity systems). One of the key goals of this new roadmap is to understand and communicate the value of energy storage to energy system stakeholders. This will include concepts that address the current status of deployment and predicted evolution in the context of current and future energy system needs by using a ''systems perspective'' rather than looking at storage technologies in isolation.

  15. Department of energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The general development of the Department of Energy Technology at Risoe during 1982 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. List of staff, publications and computer programs are included. (author)

  16. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  17. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  18. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... EERE-2010-BT-STD-0011] RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

  19. CTI capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Climate technology and energy efficiency. Challenges and changes for climate technology. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    Within the CTI Capacity Building Seminar for CEE/FSU Countries at 20th to 24th September, 2003 in Tutzing (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures were held: (1) Excursion to fuel cell pilot project (Peter Fleischmann); (2) How to construct a climate change program - some basics (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (3) The EU emissions trading directive (Felix Matthes); (4) Emissions trading - The implementation of the EU-Directive in Germany (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (5) Emissions trading from a buyer's perspective (Albrecht von Ruffer); (6) Emissions trading from a seller's perspective: Czech Republic (Toma Chmelik); (7) Discussant notes: Emissions trading (Sonja Butzengeiger); (8) Carbon finance and the world bank: Chances, experiences, lessons learned (Charlotte Streck); (9) Joint implementation: Relationship to and compatibility with the emission trading scheme (Franzjosef Schafhausen); (10) Clean development mechanism in Central Asia (Liliya Zavyalova); (11) Creating a national CDM system in Georgia (Paata Janelidze); (12) Experiences from the certification of JI/CDM projects (Michael Rumberg); (13) Discussant notes Session JI and CDM (Tiit Kallaste); (14) The EU Directive on electricity from renewable energy sources 2001/77/EC (Volkmar Lauber); (15) Amending the Renewable Energy Source Act (Thorsten Mueller); (16) The new renewables support scheme in te Czech Republic (Martin Busik); (17) Replacing nuclear energy by renewables. The case of Lithunia (Kestutis Buinevicius); (18) Renewables in the New Energy Acts of Estonia (Villu Vares); (19) Discussant notes: Session incentive schemes for renewables (Hans-Joachim Ziesing); (20) Bankable energy efficiency projects - How to get energy efficiency investment financed (Petra Opitz); (21) Clear contract - clearinghouse for contracting (Ralf Goldmann); (22) CHP as an important element of a sustainable energy use in Germany (Juergen Landrebe); (23) The European CHP Directive - a step towards the smarter

  20. Energy Efficiency Governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to help EE practitioners, government officials and stakeholders to establish the most effective EE governance structures, given their specific country context. It also aims to provide readers with relevant and accessible information to support the development of comprehensive and effective governance mechanisms. The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a global review of many elements of EE governance,including legal frameworks, institutional frameworks, funding mechanisms, co-ordination mechanisms and accountability arrangements, such as evaluation and oversight. The research tools included a survey of over 500 EE experts in 110 countries, follow-up interviews of over 120 experts in 27 countries and extensive desk study and literature searches on good EE governance.

  1. Energy Efficiency in Future PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reschat, Halfdan; Laustsen, Johannes Russell; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    There is a still increasing tendency to give energy efficiency a high priority, even in already low energy demanding systems. This is also the case for Passive Optical Networks (PONs) for which many different methods for saving energy are proposed. This paper uses simulations to evaluate three...... proposed power saving solutions for PONs which use sleep mechanisms for saving power. The discovered advantages and disadvantages of these methods are then used as a basis for proposing a new solution combining different techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency further. This novel solution...

  2. Fourth Annual Report on Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, Nino; Bertini, Ilaria; Federici, Alessandro; Moneta Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the main elements of the annual report on energy efficiency 2015. The results indicate that, thanks to national policies for energy efficiency, Italy saved over 7.5 million tons of oil equivalent per year in the period 2005-2013. Compared to the National Plan for Energy Efficiency 2014, the report shows that the 2020 objectives have already been achieved for more than 20%, with residential (35.7% of the target) and industry (26.6%) among the sectors that contributed most to this result. Substantial savings could result from the agribusiness sector through the dissemination of efficient technologies in the logistics and large retail chains. A key role lies with the banks: 86% of banks has developed products dedicated to efficiency, necessitating guidelines for replicability of projects, and audit and rating to assess their quality [it

  3. Domestic energy management methodology for optimizing efficiency in Smart Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2009-01-01

    Increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect lead to more awareness of energy efficiency of electricity supply. During the last years, a lot of domestic technologies have been developed to improve this efficiency. These technologies on their own already improve the efficiency, but more can be

  4. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  5. Energy efficiency: potentials and profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigaud, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Jean-Marie Bouchereau (ADEME) has presented a review of the energy efficiency profits in France during the last 20 years and the prospects from now to 2020. Then, Geoffrey Woodward (TOTAL) and Sebastien Huchette (AXENS) have recalled the stakes involved in the energy efficiency of the upstream and downstream sectors respectively and presented examples of advances approaches illustrated by concrete cases of applications. (O.M.)

  6. Increased energy efficiency of hobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is to save energy when cooking food on hobs. A great part of the total energy consumption used for cooking is consumed by hobs. The amount of energy depends on the temperature used for cooking and energy used for evaporation of liquid, focussing especially on the latter in this project. CHEC B is a method for controlling the supply of energy to the zone, so that a minimum of energy is used for reaching a set temperature of the food/liquid in the pot and maintaining this temperature. Today the efficiency of hobs is between 50 - 75%. Using CHEC B the energy efficiency is expected to be higher. (au)

  7. Evaluating sub-national building-energy efficiency policy options under uncertainty: Efficient sensitivity testing of alternative climate, technological, and socioeconomic futures in a regional integrated-assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Michael J.; Daly, Don S.; Zhou, Yuyu; Rice, Jennie S.; Patel, Pralit L.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Page Kyle, G.; Kim, Son H.; Eom, Jiyong

    2014-01-01

    Improving the energy efficiency of building stock, commercial equipment, and household appliances can have a major positive impact on energy use, carbon emissions, and building services. Sub-national regions such as the U.S. states wish to increase energy efficiency, reduce carbon emissions, or adapt to climate change. Evaluating sub-national policies to reduce energy use and emissions is difficult because of the large uncertainties in socioeconomic factors, technology performance and cost, and energy and climate policies. Climate change itself may undercut such policies. However, assessing all of the uncertainties of large-scale energy and climate models by performing thousands of model runs can be a significant modeling effort with its accompanying computational burden. By applying fractional–factorial methods to the GCAM-USA 50-state integrated-assessment model in the context of a particular policy question, this paper demonstrates how a decision-focused sensitivity analysis strategy can greatly reduce computational burden in the presence of uncertainty and reveal the important drivers for decisions and more detailed uncertainty analysis. - Highlights: • We evaluate building energy codes and standards for climate mitigation. • We use an integrated assessment model and fractional factorial methods. • Decision criteria are energy use, CO2 emitted, and building service cost. • We demonstrate sensitivity analysis for three states. • We identify key variables to propagate with Monte Carlo or surrogate models

  8. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  9. Energy efficient elevators and escalators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrao, Carlos; Fong, Joao; Almeida, Anibal de (Dep. Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)); Rivet, Luc

    2009-07-01

    Elevators and escalators are the crucial element that makes it practical to live and work several floors above ground - more than 4,3 million units are installed in Europe. Due to ageing of the European population the installation of elevators in single family houses is experiencing a significant growth, as well as equipping existing buildings. Elevators use about 4% of the electricity in tertiary sector buildings. High untapped saving potentials exist with respect to energy-efficient technologies, investment decisions and behavioural approaches, in these sectors. This paper presents preliminary results from the IEE project E4, whose overall objective is the improvement of the energy performance of elevators and escalators, in tertiary sector buildings and in multi family residential buildings. The project is characterizing people conveyors electricity consumption in the tertiary sector and in residential buildings in the EU. The installed park is characterised by a survey among elevators national associations in each country. An assessment of the barriers has been made in the first phase of the project and will be presented. Monitoring campaigns in elevators and escalators are being conducted in each country according to a common developed methodology. More than fifty elevators and escalators will be audited. This will allow the collection of load curves (start up, travel up and down, travel full and empty), including the characterization of standby consumption. Standby consumption of an elevator can represent up to 80% of the total energy consumed per year, and can be drastically reduced. This paper presents the preliminary results of the first ten audits performed in Portugal by Isr-UC.

  10. Microelectronics in energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeding, D; Jesse, G

    1984-07-01

    This meeting, which will take place on the 16th and 17th of October 1984 at the Old Opera House at Frankfurt on Main, in the context of the VDE Congress, will consist of 14 lectures on the state of the application of microelectronics to energy technology, and give its participants information on and a chance for discussion of this subject. The meeting will cover the following subjects: Microelectronics in energy supply undertakings; Microelectronics in the automation of power stations; Microelectronics in switchgear and transmission networks; Microelectronics in measurement technology; Microelectronics in lighting technology; Microelectronics in drive technology; Microelectronics in railway technology. The following shortened versions of these lectures are intended to motivate people to visit this event and to prepare contributions to and questions for the discussions.

  11. Energy - efficient buildings in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Qureshi, M.U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is one of the countries with the highest energy consumption for domestic use. Annual energy consumption by the domestic sector is 45.9 % of the total, while the industrial sector, consumes about 27.5%. About half of the total energy consumed is used in buildings and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting appliances. The energy consumed for the same purposes in China and UK is 25 to 30 % and 40 %, respectively, even in extreme weather conditions. Energy deficiency in Pakistan is approximately 5,000 MWe, which results in worst load-shedding in summers and, lately, even in winters. Building new energy sources like dams, coal power plants and renewable energy power projects are some possible solutions, but these are time taking and need at least 2 to 6 years to complete, depending upon the nature of the project. Fast development of energy-efficient buildings is, therefore, necessary to deal with exacerbating energy-crisis and related environmental impact in Pakistan. Innovations in the prevailing building-design will help the country in reducing the energy burden. These innovations may include improved architectural designs, energy-efficient building materials, electrical appliances and implementation of building energy-efficiency codes. In 1987, the National Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON), was established under Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, with the aim to build awareness among the masses for energy conservation, and to make policies regarding energy-conservation structures in the country. But no policy regarding building energy codes has been introduced by ENERCON till now. In collaboration with Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), ENERCON has recently finalized the Building Energy Code of Pakistan Energy Provisions 2011 for which statutory notification is under process for necessary amendment in the building by-laws. The implementation of this Energy Code will result in 25 to 30 % of energy savings in the

  12. CO2 reduction in the Danish transportation sector. Working paper 5: Technological improvement of energy efficiency. Average requirements to energy efficiency of the new vehicles. Subsidies to research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    The road traffic is expected to be responsible for 9/10 of the total CO 2 emission from transportation sector in 2005. Especially private cars contribute more than half of the total CO 2 emission. Cars are not produced in Denmark, so energy efficiency of the new models depends entirely on the foreign manufacturers. Measurements of energy efficiency on test facilities show usually slightly better efficiency than on-the-road results. Efficiency estimates are based on test results. Within 10-15 years the whole car park will show essential efficiency improvement due to exchanging to newer models. Shadow price of CO 2 emission reduction is defined. (EG) Prepared for Trafikministeriet. 27 refs

  13. 'Normal' markets, market imperfections and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Howarth, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The conventional distinction between 'economic' and 'engineering' approaches to energy analysis obscures key methodological issues concerning the measurement of the costs and benefits of policies to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The engineering approach is in fact based upon firm economic foundations: the principle of lifecycle cost minimization that arises directly from the theory of rational investment. Thus, evidence that so-called 'market barriers' impede the adoption of cost-effective energy-efficient technologies implies the existence of market failures as defined in the context of microeconomic theory. A widely held view that the engineering view lacks economic justification, is based on the fallacy that markets are 'normally' efficient. (author)

  14. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  15. Commercialization of sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.; Kristle Nathan, Hippu Salk; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2010-01-01

    Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) have so far remained as the biggest challenge in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways urges the need for market based approaches. This paper reviews the existing state of commercialization of SETs in the backdrop of the basic theory of technology diffusion. The different SETs in India are positioned in the technology diffusion map to reflect their slow state of commercialization. The dynamics of SET market is analysed to identify the issues, barriers and stakeholders in the process of SET commercialization. By upgrading the 'potential adopters' to 'techno-entrepreneurs', the study presents the mechanisms for adopting a private sector driven 'business model' approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and delivery mechanisms leading to SET commercialization. (author)

  16. Adopting Energy Efficiency in Connected Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kemper, Emily [CLEAResult

    2017-10-02

    This presentation on connected homes was presented at the 11th Rocky Mountain Utility Efficiency Exchange on September 28, 2017. The discussion covered the integration of energy efficiency measures and practices with Internet of Things (IoT) awareness and adoption of smart technologies and services via WiFi/ Bluetooth enabled home and office equipment. The presentation also describes the benefits to the home and business and benefits/challenges for the utility/implementer.

  17. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  18. Energy efficiency and energy management: an abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coullet-Demaiziere, Corinne; Barthet, Marie-Claire; Tourneur, Jean-Claude; Mirguet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    As France has just published a decree on the energy audit for large companies, and has thus been among the first countries to comply with an article of the European directive on energy efficiency, a set of articles discusses various aspects of these issues of energy efficiency and energy management. A first one presents this mandatory energy audit as a tool for a better energy efficiency, and illustrates the relationship between this commitment and the ISO 50001 standard for French large companies. A second article outlines the tools and standards of application of this energy audit in different legal texts. A third one comments the introduction of four new European arrangements on the labelling of products (indication of energy performance by retailers, objective of reduction of energy consumption, information displayed on site and on-line for various household appliances, current legislation). The next article comments the new German legislation on renewable energies which implements environmental requirements higher than European objectives, and tries to boost the carbon market. The presence of the ISO 50001 certification in the German law is also briefly addressed. Then, an article proposes an overview of a bill project, opinions of experts, and way to go for the new arrangement for energy saving certificates (CEE, certificat d'economie d'energie) launched by the French ministry of Ecology, and which aims at a 700 TWh saving. The content of each article of the bill project is presented and explained, and the relationship between certificate application and some standards is highlighted. The last article comments the decision of the European Court of Justice on the compatibility of Flemish Green Certificates with the European law

  19. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various

  20. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  1. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    .... EERE-2013-BT-STD-0030] RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

  2. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  3. Different I/O Standard and Technology Based Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Vedic Multiplier Design for Green Wireless Communication on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kumar, Tanesh

    2017-01-01

    and that eventually decrease power dissipation of wireless communications systems. In order to study the effect of different process technology (40, 65, 90 nm) on our design, a novel design is implemented on 40, 65 and 90 nm based FPGA. In this work, we are integrating thermal aware design approach for energy......This paper deals with low power multiplier design that plays a significant role in green wireless communications systems. Over the period of time, researchers have proposed various multiplier designs in order to get high speed. Vedic multiplier is considered as one of the low power multiplier along...... with high speed as compared with traditional array and booth multipliers. Vedic Multiplier contains a total of sixteen algorithms/sutras for predominantly logical operations. This research focuses on thermal aspects and energy efficiency of wireless communications systems with the thermal aware low power...

  4. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  5. New energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Kuester, W J; Wagner, H F

    1977-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, analyses and forecasts of the energy supply and energy consumption have revealed five major sectors in which extensive R and D activities should be carried out: nuclear energy, coal technology, the utilization of solar energy, techniques for the economical use of energy, and nuclear fusion. Of these sectors, only nuclear energy will be able to make a major contribution to our energy supply both in the near future and over a longer period. The available capacity for mining the large deposits of coal in the Federal Republic of Germany can be increased only gradually and will therefore not make an appreciable contribution until a later date. Another fact to be considered is that a rapidly expanding utilization of this source of energy entails very heavy pollution of the environment. The utilization of solar energy in Central Europe will probably be possible only for supplying warm water for industry and for heating buildings. In the long term, solar energy will contribute only a small percentage of energy to the supply required by the Federal Republic of Germany. Intensive efforts are being made to develop technologies for the more economical use of energy. The priorities in this sector are the installation of district heating systems using waste heat from power stations, and the improved heat insulation of houses. It is not anticipated that the technical utilization of nuclear fusion will be introduced before the end of this century. Nonetheless, this source of energy still constitutes a possibility offering an extremely great potential in the long term, with the result that every effort is being made to put it to good use. The work being carried out in this field in the Federal Republic of Germany is being closely coordinated with the relevant activities undertaken by the other member countries of the European Community.

  6. Energy, technology, development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldemberg, J [Ministerio da Educacao, Brasilia (Brazil)

    1992-02-01

    Energy and technology are essential ingredients of development, it is only through their use that it became possible to sustain a population of almost 5 billion on Earth. The challenges to eradicate poverty and underdevelopment in developing countries in the face of strong population increases can only be successfully met with the use of advanced technology, leapfrogging the path followed in the past by today's industrialized countries. It is shown in the paper that energy consumption can be decoupled from economic development. Such possibility will contribute significantly in achieving sustainable development. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Moonlight project promotes energy-saving technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, A.

    1986-01-01

    In promoting energy saving, development of energy conservation technologies aimed at raising energy efficiency in the fields of energy conversion, its transportation, its storage, and its consumption is considered, along with enactment of legal actions urging rational use of energies and implementation of an enlightenment campaign for energy conservation to play a crucial role. Under the Moonlight Project, technical development is at present being centered around the following six pillars: (1) large scale energy saving technology; (2) pioneering and fundamental energy saving technology; (3) international cooperative research project; (4) research and survey of energy saving technology; (5) energy saving technology development by private industry; and (6) promotion of energy saving through standardization. Heat pumps, magnetohydrodynamic generators and fuel cells are discussed.

  8. International energy technology collaboration: benefits and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The IEA Energy Technology Collaboration Programme facilitates international collaboration on energy technology research, development and deployment. More than 30 countries are involved in Europe, America, Asia, Australasia and Africa. The aim is to accelerate the development and deployment of new energy technologies to meet energy security, environmental and economic development goals. Costs and resources are shared among participating governments, utilities, corporations and universities. By co-operating, they avoid unproductive duplication and maximize the benefits from research budgets. The IEA Programme results every year in hundreds of publications which disseminate information about the latest energy technology developments and their commercial utilisation. The IEA Energy Technology Collaboration Programme operates through a series of agreements among governments. This report details the activities and achievements of all 41 agreements, covering energy technology information centres and Research and Development projects in fossil fuels, renewable energy efficient end-use, and nuclear fusion technologies. (authors). 58 refs., 9 tabs

  9. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  10. Improved energy efficiency in the process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilavachi, P A [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-12-31

    The European Commission, through the JOULE Programme, is promoting energy efficient technologies in the process industries; the topics of the various R and D activities are: heat exchangers (enhanced evaporation, shell and tube heat exchangers including distribution of fluids, and fouling), low energy separation processes (adsorption, melt-crystallization and supercritical extraction), chemical reactors (methanol synthesis and reactors with integral heat exchangers), other unit operations (evaporators, glass-melting furnaces, cement kilns and baking ovens, dryers and packed columns and replacements for R12 in refrigeration), energy and system process models (batch processes, simulation and control of transients and energy synthesis), development of advanced sensors.

  11. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; Bathgate, M.B.; Crawford, R.B.; McCaleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K.

    1976-05-01

    The chief objective of LLL's biomedical and environmental research program is to enlarge mankind's understanding of the implications of energy-related chemical and radioactive effluents in the biosphere. The effluents are studied at their sources, during transport through the environment, and at impact on critical resources, important ecosystems, and man himself. We are pursuing several projects to acquire such knowledge in time to guide the development of energy technologies toward safe, reasonable, and optimal choices

  12. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.B.; Bathgate, M.B.; Crawford, R.B.; McCaleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K. (eds.)

    1976-05-01

    The chief objective of LLL's biomedical and environmental research program is to enlarge mankind's understanding of the implications of energy-related chemical and radioactive effluents in the biosphere. The effluents are studied at their sources, during transport through the environment, and at impact on critical resources, important ecosystems, and man himself. We are pursuing several projects to acquire such knowledge in time to guide the development of energy technologies toward safe, reasonable, and optimal choices.

  13. Geothermal energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Geothermal energy research and development by the Sunshine Project is subdivided into five major categories: exploration and exploitation technology, hot-water power generation technology, volcanic power generation technology, environmental conservation and multi-use technology, and equipment materials research. The programs are being carried out by various National Research Institutes, universities, and private industry. During 1976 and 1977, studies were made of the extent of resources, reservoir structure, ground water movement, and neotectonics at the Onikobe and Hachimantai geothermal fields. Studies to be performed in the near future include the use of new prospecting methods, including artificial magnetotellurics, heat balance calculation, brightspot techniques, and remote sensing, as well as laboratory studies of the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of rock. Studies are continuing in the areas of ore formation in geothermal environments, hot-dry-rock drilling and fracturing, large scale prospecting technology, high temperature-pressure drilling muds and well cements, and arsenic removal techniques.

  14. A framework to characterize energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; De Donatis, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel framework to characterize energy efficiency measures is proposed. • It allows a greater knowledge sharing, facilitating the adoption of the best measures. • It supports policy-makers in developing drivers for industrial energy efficiency. - Abstract: The need to increase the diffusion of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) is of crucial importance to achieve a consistent reduction of energy consumption and green house gases (GHG) emissions. A clear comprehension of the characteristics of such EEMs could assist in gathering and capitalizing all the information needed by industrial firms in selecting and adopting technologies, as well as by policy-makers in designing appropriate policies for their diffusion. Therefore, in this study, starting from a literature review of the studies analyzing the attributes of EEMs, we aim at providing an innovative and comprehensive framework to characterize such measures, based on 17 attributes grouped according to six categories, such as: economic, energy, environmental, production-related, implementation-related and the possible interaction with other systems. We applied this scheme to an extensive range of EEMs in cross-cutting technologies, i.e. motors, compressed air, lighting and HVAC systems. The analysis provides a relevant contribution firstly to the structuring and the sharing of knowledge on EEMs and hence to the comprehension of the barriers currently hindering their adoption; secondly, it provides a structured basis for the analysis of the drivers that policy-makers should develop in order to promote industrial energy efficiency

  15. Energy efficiency improvement and environment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouhier, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    Massive reliance on polluting sources of energy (coal, traditional biomass and oil) has damaged the environment in China over years. Now, China is the world's first carbon dioxide emitter and air pollution represents between 2 and 7 percent of loss of Gross Domestic Product per year, depending on the studies chosen. In order to reduce the level of pollution, one can either enhance the technology in use or reduce the share of polluting fuels in the energy mix. Indeed, current Chinese technologies are far less efficient than those of developed countries and the energy mix is massively composed of polluting sources of energy. So, they both represent huge potential savings. This article enquires the link between diversification, efficiency in the power sector and the per capita emissions and shows that emissions are negatively correlated to a diversification of the energy mix as well as an improvement of power generating technologies. Hence, it justifies the diversification of the energy mix and technology improvement as viable strategies to tackle pollution

  16. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  17. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  18. Energy Efficient Drivepower: An Overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    1993-05-01

    This report examines energy efficiency in drivepower systems. Only systems where the prime movers are electrical motors are discussed. A systems approach is used to examine all major aspects of drivepower, including motors, controls, electrical tune-ups, mechanical efficiency, maintenance, and management. Potential annual savings to the US society of $25 to $50 billion are indicated. The report was written for readers with a semi-technical background.

  19. Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda, Making Energy Efficiency Count. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Pudleiner, David; Jones, David; Khan, Aleisha

    2017-06-15

    Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda has focused its energy sector investments largely on increasing energy access by increasing energy supply. The links between energy efficiency and energy access, the importance of energy efficiency in new energy supply, and the multiple benefits of energy efficiency for the level and quality of energy available, have been largely overlooked. Implementing energy efficiency in parallel with expanding both the electricity grid and new clean energy generation reduces electricity demand and helps optimize the power supply so that it can serve more customers reliably at minimum cost. Ensuring efficient appliances are incorporated into energy access efforts provides improved energy services to customers. Energy efficiency is an important contributor to access to modern energy. This Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda (Roadmap) is a response to the important role that electrical energy efficiency can play in meeting Uganda’s energy goals. Power Africa and the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) initiatives collaborated with more than 24 stakeholders in Uganda to develop this document. The document estimates that if the most efficient technologies on the market were adopted, 2,224 gigawatt hours could be saved in 2030 across all sectors, representing 31% of the projected load. This translates into 341 megawatts of peak demand reductions, energy access to an additional 6 million rural customers and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 10.6 million tonnes in 2030. The Roadmap also finds that 91% of this technical potential is cost-effective, and 47% is achievable under conservative assumptions. The Roadmap prioritizes recommendations for implementing energy efficiency and maximizing benefits to meet the goals and priorities established in Uganda’s 2015 SEforALL Action Agenda. One important step is to create and increase demand for efficiency through long-term enabling policies and financial incentives

  20. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  1. The Challenge of Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of renewable energies sets some binding targets for the contribution of renewable energies in 2020 to total consumption, setting the share at 20% of final energy demand, with a particularisation of 10% for the transport sector, and also a 20% reduction of greenhouse gases Together with these targets, it also sets another target relative to energy efficiency, aiming for a 20% improvement, under the terms set down by the Commission in its announcement dated 19 October 2006. This energy saving target is going to have a decisive influence on the achievement of the other two. In order to quantify the degree of difficulty of achieving the saving target and determine the policies and measures to be taken, we are going to analyze the evolution of energy efficiency (energy consumption energy units per unit of GDP - economic unit) in Spain from 1980 to date and the value of energy intensity that we should have in 2020 to achieve the targets. This will give us an idea of the magnitude of the challenge and, therefore, of the efforts we will have to make to achieve the target. (Author)

  2. Promoting energy efficiency in developing countries: The role of NGOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaszek, E.I.

    1993-06-01

    Developing countries need energy growth to spur economic growth. Yet energy activities contribute significantly to local water pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency offers the means to achieve the twin goals of sustainable economic/social development and environmental protection. Energy efficiency increases industrial competitiveness and frees up capital so it can be applied to other uses, such as health and education. The key to improving energy efficiency in developing countries will be acquiring and applying Western technologies, practices, and policies and building national institutions for promoting energy efficiency. Relevant energy-efficient technologies include the use of better electric motors, adjustable speed controls, combined cycle power cogeneration, improved lighting, better refrigeration technologies, and improved electric power transmission and distribution systems. Western countries can best help developing countries by providing guidance and resources to support nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) staffed by local experts; these institutions can capture the energy efficiency potential and ensure environmental protection in developing countries

  3. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  4. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes the Energy and Technology Review Monthly. This periodical reviews progress mode is selected programs at the laboratory. This issue includes articles on in-situ coal gasification, on chromosomal aberrations in human sperm, on high speed cell sorting and on supercomputers.

  5. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, R.B.; McCleb, C.S.; Prono, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Brief discussions of research progress on the following topics are given: (1) lasers and laser applications, (2) advanced energy systems, (3) science and technology, and (4) national security. Some experiments on the in-flight laser irradiation of ammonia pellets are discussed

  6. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory publishes the Energy and Technology Review Monthly. This periodical reviews progress mode is selected programs at the laboratory. This issue includes articles on in-situ coal gasification, on chromosomal aberrations in human sperm, on high speed cell sorting and on supercomputers

  7. Downtown Detroit Energy Efficient Street Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Malik [Detroit Economic Growth Corp, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Reliable public lighting remains a critically important and valuable public service in Detroit, Michigan. The Downtown Detroit Energy Efficiency Lighting Program (the, “Program”) was designed and implemented to bring the latest advancements in lighting technology, energy efficiency, public safety and reliability to Detroit’s Central Business District, and the Program accomplished those goals successfully. Downtown’s nighttime atmosphere has been upgraded as a result of the installation of over 1000 new LED roadway lighting fixtures that were installed as part of the Program. The reliability of the lighting system has also improved.

  8. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  9. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  10. Energy researchers - 1. Energy efficiency: Energy efficiency is driving innovation; No economic crisis for energy efficiency; How can we change our energy habits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisan, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel; Viterbo, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    A first article comments how the race to achieve energy efficiency is driving the emergence of new technologies in transportation and construction (hybrid cars, phase change material, digital mock-ups, and so on). The example of the AGV is evoked, a new version of the TGV developed by Alstom which will run faster and consume less energy. A second article outlines that, due to the support from public authorities and to an increased awareness of energy costs and environmental challenges, the energy savings market is booming. Then, in an interview, a sociologist of the ADEME comments the difficulty of changing habits in terms of energy savings

  11. State Energy Efficiency Benefits and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the benefits of energy efficiency and how to assess its potential for your state. Also, find details on energy efficiency policies, programs, and resources available for furthering energy efficiency goals.

  12. Challenges in Improving Energy Efficiency in a University Campus Through the Application of Persuasive Technology and Smart Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Emeakaroha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of energy consumption and carbon emission in the UK poses a grave challenge. This challenge is particularly high amongst residents of university campuses, where usage of electricity and carbon emission remain invisible to the students. In student residential accommodation, personal choices and social influences affect electricity consumption and ultimately the resultant reduction in carbon emissions. Therefore, innovative solutions are required to change students’ energy consumption behavior, and one promising part of the solution is to present real-time electricity consumption data to students in real-time via a dedicated web platform, while, at the same time, appointing an energy delegate in each hall to induce motivation among the students. The results of some interventions show that immediate energy feedback from smart meters or display devices can provide savings of 5%–15%. However, the situation is different; with the complexity in behavior of our target groups “the students who are living in the halls of residence”, there are economical and environmental aspects to be addressed in these issues, in the campus halls of residence. Therefore, we propose a system to address this issue, by applying smart sensors (real-time electricity data capture, integration of dedicated visual web interface (real-time electricity feedback display and an appointed energy delegate in each hall (a motivator. It is expected that this will motivate students living in the halls of residence to reduce their electricity wastage and, therefore, control the energy cost and also reduce the carbon emissions released into the environment. In the present research, we focus on the University of Kent, Canterbury campus to study energy conservation and carbon emission reduction strategies.

  13. Global climate change: Mitigation opportunities high efficiency large chiller technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, M.V.

    1997-12-31

    This paper, comprised of presentation viewgraphs, examines the impact of high efficiency large chiller technology on world electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Background data are summarized, and sample calculations are presented. Calculations show that presently available high energy efficiency chiller technology has the ability to substantially reduce energy consumption from large chillers. If this technology is widely implemented on a global basis, it could reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 65 million tons by 2010.

  14. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  15. Technology Learning Ratios in Global Energy Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of introduction of a new technology supposes that while its production and utilisation increases, also its operation improves and its investment costs and production decreases. The accumulation of experience and learning of a new technology increase in parallel with the increase of its market share. This process is represented by the technological learning curves and the energy sector is not detached from this process of substitution of old technologies by new ones. The present paper carries out a brief revision of the main energy models that include the technology dynamics (learning). The energy scenarios, developed by global energy models, assume that the characteristics of the technologies are variables with time. But this trend is incorporated in a exogenous way in these energy models, that is to say, it is only a time function. This practice is applied to the cost indicators of the technology such as the specific investment costs or to the efficiency of the energy technologies. In the last years, the new concept of endogenous technological learning has been integrated within these global energy models. This paper examines the concept of technological learning in global energy models. It also analyses the technological dynamics of the energy system including the endogenous modelling of the process of technological progress. Finally, it makes a comparison of several of the most used global energy models (MARKAL, MESSAGE and ERIS) and, more concretely, about the use these models make of the concept of technological learning. (Author) 17 refs

  16. EYES -- Energy Efficient Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Karl, Holger; Petrioli, Chiara; Zorzi, Michele; Kip, Harry; Lentsch, Thomas; Conti, M.; Giordano, S.; Gregori, E.; Olariu, S.

    The EYES project (IST-2001-34734) is a three years European research project on self-organizing and collaborative energy-efficient sensor networks. It will address the convergence of distributed information processing, wireless communications, and mobile computing. The goal of the project is to

  17. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  18. Energy Policy is Technology Politics The Hydrogen Energy Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl-Jochen Winter

    2006-01-01

    Germany's energy supply status shows both an accumulation of unsatisfactory sustainabilities putting the nation's energy security at risk, and a hopeful sign: The nation's supply dependency on foreign sources and the accordingly unavoidable price dictate the nation suffers under is almost life risking; the technological skill, however, of the nation's researchers, engineers, and industry materializes in a good percentage of the indigenous and the world's energy conversion technology market. Exemplified with the up and coming hydrogen energy economy this paper tries to advocate the 21. century energy credo: energy policy is energy technology politics! Energy source thinking and acting is 19. and 20. century, energy efficient conversion technology thinking and acting is 21. century. Hydrogen energy is on the verge of becoming the centre-field of world energy interest. Hydrogen energy is key for the de-carbonization and, thus, sustainabilization of fossil fuels, and as a storage and transport means for the introduction of so far un-operational huge renewable sources into the world energy market. - What is most important is hydrogen's thermodynamic ability to exergize the energy scheme: hydrogen makes more technical work (exergy) out of less primary energy! Hydrogen adds value. Hydrogen energy and, in particular, hydrogen energy technologies, are to become part of Germany's national energy identity; accordingly, national energy policy as energy technology politics needs to grow in the nation's awareness as common sense! Otherwise Germany seems ill-equipped energetically, and its well-being hangs in the balance. (author)

  19. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowers, I.F.; Crawford, R.B.; Esser, M.A.; Lien, P.L.; O' Neal, E.; Van Dyke, P. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    The state of the laboratory address by LLNL Director Roger Batzel is summarized, and a breakdown of the laboratory funding is given. The Livermore defense-related committment is described, including the design and development of advanced nuclear weapons as well as research in inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnance, and particle beam technology. LLNL is also applying its scientific and engineering resources to the dual challenge of meeting future energy needs without degrading the quality of the biosphere. Some representative examples are given of the supporting groups vital for providing the specialized expertise and new technologies required by the laboratory's major research programs. (GHT)

  20. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Crawford, R.B.; Esser, M.A.; Lien, P.L.; O'Neal, E.; Van Dyke, P.

    1982-07-01

    The state of the laboratory address by LLNL Director Roger Batzel is summarized, and a breakdown of the laboratory funding is given. The Livermore defense-related committment is described, including the design and development of advanced nuclear weapons as well as research in inertial confinement fusion, nonnuclear ordnance, and particle beam technology. LLNL is also applying its scientific and engineering resources to the dual challenge of meeting future energy needs without degrading the quality of the biosphere. Some representative examples are given of the supporting groups vital for providing the specialized expertise and new technologies required by the laboratory's major research programs

  1. New energy technologies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the conclusions of the working group, decided by the french government to identify the objectives and main axis for the french and european research on the new energy technologies and to propose recommendations on the assistance implemented to reach these objectives. The three main recommendations that the group drawn concern: the importance of the research and development on the energy conservation; a priority on the renewable energies, the sequestration and the nuclear power; the importance of the France for the research programs on the hydrogen, the fuel cells, the photovoltaic, the electric power networks and storage, the production of liquid fuels from fossil fuels, the underground geothermal energy, the fusion and the offshore wind power. (A.L.B.)

  2. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  3. 77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Hoyt Battey, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S...

  4. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies can significantly reduce household electricity consumption, but adoption has been slow. A unique dataset of German households is used in this paper to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ‘rebound’ effect of increased lamp luminosity in the transition to energy efficient bulbs is analyzed jointly with the replacement decision to account for household self-selection in bulb-type choice. Results indicate that the EU ban on ILs accelerated the pace of transition to CFLs and LEDs, while storage of bulbs significantly dampened the speed of the transition. Higher lighting needs and bulb attributes like energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and durability spur IL replacement with CFLs or LEDs. Electricity gains from new energy efficient lighting are mitigated by 23% and 47% increases in luminosity for CFL and LED replacements, respectively. Model results suggest that taking the replacement bulb from storage and higher levels of education dampen the magnitude of these luminosity rebounds in IL to CFL transitions. - Highlights: • EU ban on ILs has fostered transitions to energy efficient lighting • Energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and durable lighting preferences make CFL and LED transitions more likely • Indicators of greater lighting needs are associated with higher propensities to replace ILs with CFLs and LEDs • For residential lighting, the rebound effect manifests itself through increases in luminosity • In IL to CLF transitions luminosity increases are lower with higher levels of education

  5. Energy efficiency and bioclimatic architecture - the case of the Center of Energy and Sustainable Technologies; Eficiencia energetica e arquitetura bioclimatica - o caso do Centro de Energia e Tecnologias Sustentaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilpen, Daniel Vasconcellos de Sousa

    2007-07-15

    This thesis analyzes the energy efficiency of a single-family dwelling, constructed in Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro. It first describes the Center of Energy and Sustainable Technologies and also evaluates the thermal behavior of the non-conventional materials used in its construction. After that, a thermal comfort experiment, in accordance with the thermal comfort theory proposed by Fanger, is presented. Then, the experimental data analysis, from more than 300 (three hundred) interviews, is shown. Finally, some bioclimatic suggestions for modifications in the architecture project of the dwelling are presented. All solutions represent significant increases in the human thermal comfort responses, with low implementation cost.

  6. 75 FR 7464 - Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative-Joint Federal Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... a regional innovation cluster focused on innovation in energy efficient building technologies and... technology challenges through approaches that span basic research to engineering development to... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative...

  7. 75 FR 17700 - Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative-Joint Federal Funding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... economically dynamic regional innovation cluster focused on energy efficient buildings technologies and systems...-risk, high-reward research that overcomes technology challenges through approaches that span basic... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Energy Efficient Building Systems Regional Innovation Cluster Initiative...

  8. Energy and technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.S.

    1983-06-01

    Research activities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are described in the Energy and Technology Review. This issue includes articles on measuring chromosome changes in people exposed to cigarette smoke, sloshing-ion experiments in the tandem mirror experiment, aluminum-air battery development, and a speech by Edward Teller on national defense. Abstracts of the first three have been prepared separately for the data base

  9. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.S. (ed.)

    1983-06-01

    Research activities at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are described in the Energy and Technology Review. This issue includes articles on measuring chromosome changes in people exposed to cigarette smoke, sloshing-ion experiments in the tandem mirror experiment, aluminum-air battery development, and a speech by Edward Teller on national defense. Abstracts of the first three have been prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  10. Energy efficieny in existing domestic buildings: Technologies, potential, cost and economic efficiency. General report; Energieeffizienz im Wohngebaeudebestand - Techniken, Potenziale, Kosten und Wirtschaftlichkeit. Querschnittsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loga, T.; Diefenbach, N.; Enseling, A.; Hacke, U.; Born, R.; Knissel, J.; Hinz, E. (comps.)

    2007-11-22

    The study outlines the considerable dynamics of technological development. Among others, the need for accelerating the market penetration of innovative measures is discussed. There are great discrepancies in the practical implementation of different measures, and it is shown that so-called low-investive measures can make a significant contribution to energy conservation. Implementation of complex measures also shows that the results achieved are strongly dependent on the energy savings goals on the one hand and on the regional or local housing situation and the resulting price levels on the other hand. This stresses the influence of the design of boundary conditions, and the question that comes up is the function of funding policy. The housing industry will have to intensify its energetic portfolio management during the next few years to cope with the new challenges, and the consumer behaviour has great influence. Here, too, efficient behaviour has considerable energy saving potential. The next few years will show if and inhowfar measures for higher transparency will have an effect. (orig.)

  11. Deployment of commercial energy efficiency cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This research concerned the promotion of energy-efficient wood stoves in commercial and institutional kitchens in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda through technology transfer and training of local commercial stove producers. The key objective of the project was to introduce proven designs of energy-efficient wood stoves to producers in the target countries and train them in the manufacture and marketing of these stoves. The improved designs save 50% of the fuel used by the traditional stoves - a major saving where 10-15% of the kitchen budget is spent on fuel. They also remove smoke more effectively, protect cooks from heat and burns, and are easier to keep clean. The project went well although results have varied from one country to the other. In conclusion, the technology transfer of commercial stove designs can take place between neighbouring countries by a process of training, study visits, prototype development, market surveys and producer support.(author)

  12. Learning energy literacy concepts from energy-efficient homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Frederick Eugene

    The purpose of this study is to understand ways that occupants' and visitors' interaction with energy efficient home design affects Energy Literacy. Using a case study approach including interviews, surveys, and observations, I examined the potential for affordable energy efficient homes in the Greenville South Carolina area to "teach" concepts from an Energy Literacy framework developed by dozens of educational partners and federal agencies that comprise the U.S. Global Change Research Program Partners. I paid particular attention to concepts from the framework that are transferable to energy decisions beyond a home's walls. My research reveals ways that interaction with high efficiency homes can effect understanding of the following Energy Literacy concepts: human use of energy is subject to limits and constraints, conservation is one way to manage energy resources, electricity is generated in multiple ways, social and technological innovations effect the amount of energy used by society, and energy use can be calculated and monitored. Examples from my case studies show how the at-home examples can make lessons on energy more personally relevant, easy to understand, and applicable. Specifically, I found that: • Home occupants learn the limits of energy in relation to the concrete and constricting costs associated with their consumption. • Heating and cooling techniques showcase the limits and constraints on different sources of energy. • Relatable systems make it easier to understand energy's limits and constraints. • Indistinct and distant power utilities allow consumers to overlook the root of electricity sources. • Visible examples of electricity generation systems make it clear that electricity is generated in multiple ways. • Small and interactive may mean inefficient electricity generation, but efficient energy education. • Perceptions of expense and complexity create a disconnect between residential energy consumers and renewable electricity

  13. The Role of Emerging Energy-Efficient Technology in PromotingWorkplace Productivity and Health: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

    2002-02-13

    Research into indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and itseffects on health, comfort, and performance of occupants is becoming anincreasing priority as interest in high performance buildings andorganizational productivity advances. Facility managers are interested inIEQ's close relationship to energy use in facilities and employers wantto enhance employee comfort and productivity, reduce absenteeism andhealth costs, and reduce or even eliminate litigation by providingexcellent indoor environments to employees. The increasing interest inthis field as architects, engineers, facility managers, buildinginvestors, health officials, jurists, and the public seek simple andgeneral guidelines on creating safe, healthy, and comfortable indoorenvironment, has put additional pressure on the research community. Inthe last twenty years, IEQresearchers have advanced our understanding ofthe influence of IEQ on health and productivity, but many uncertaintiesremain. Consequently, there is a critical need to expand research in thisfield, particularly research that is highly multidisciplinary. Inaddition, there is a strong need to better communicate knowledgecurrently documented in research publications to building professionalsin order to encourage implementation of designs and practices thatenhance health and productivity. Against this background, the IndoorHealth and Productivity (IHP) project aims to develop a fullerunderstanding of the relationships between physical attributes of theworkplace (e.g. thermal, lighting, ventilation, and air quality) innon-residential and non-industrial buildings and the health andproductivity of occupants. A particular emphasis of the IHP project is toidentify and communicate key research findings, with their practical andpolicy implications, to policymakers, design practitioners, facilitymanagers, construction and energy services companies, and buildinginvestors.The IHP project has a steering committee of sponsors and seniorscientists. Advisory

  14. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... industry-specific teams--renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy storage and transmission, and biofuels...

  15. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... submitted to the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee, Office of Energy and...

  16. Frontiers in the economics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Labandeira, Xavier; Löschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an essential instrument to obtain effective greenhouse gas mitigation and reduced energy dependence. This introductory article contextualizes the contributions of the supplemental issue by showing the new setting for energy efficiency economics and policy; discussing the role of price instruments to promote energy savings; presenting new approaches for energy efficiency policies; and placing energy efficiency within a wider energy and environmental framework.

  17. Toward an energy efficient community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, M.

    1980-10-01

    The current oil policy of the OPEC countries means that a substantial oil shortage may be expected in the future. Conservative estimates indicate an oil shortage of 65 billion tons in the year 2000. The results of numerous new studies show that (from the technological point of view) the savings potential is high enough to achieve an absolute decrease in total energy consumption by the year 2000, provided better use is made of secondary energy sources in the form of electric power, gas, and solar heat.

  18. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  19. Energy-efficient neuromorphic classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. Neuromorphic engineering promises extremely low energy consumptions, comparable to those of the nervous system. However, until now the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, rendering el...

  20. How energy efficiency fails in the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryghaug, Marianne; Sorensen, Knut H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how energy efficiency fails in the building industry based on many years of research into the integration of energy efficiency in the construction of buildings and sustainable architecture in Norway. It argues that energy-efficient construction has been seriously restrained by three interrelated problems: (1) deficiencies in public policy to stimulate energy efficiency, (2) limited governmental efforts to regulate the building industry, and (3) a conservative building industry. The paper concludes that innovation and implementation of new, energy-efficient technologies in the building industry requires new policies, better regulations and reformed practices in the industry itself

  1. Aerodynamics/ACEE: Aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    An overview is presented of a 10 year program managed by NASA which seeks to make possible the most efficient use of energy for aircraft propulsion and lift as well as provide a technology that can be used by U.S. manufacturers of air transports and engines. Supercritical wings, winglets, vortex drag reduction, high lift, active control, laminar flow control, and aerodynamics by computer are among the topics discussed. Wind tunnel models in flight verification of advanced technology, and the design, construction and testing of various aircraft structures are also described.

  2. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of U.S. renewable [[Page 6784

  3. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  4. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  5. Energy efficient home in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to present new methods or new products that could save money while improving the environment in Lebanon. Cost of energy is on the increase and is predicted to increase even more in the future. Environmental issues and awareness are gaining momentum in Lebanon. With electricity production directly linked to power plants that represent about 30% of the air pollution which is also linked to health related issues. There is an intermediate need to introduce more energy efficient products in the construction industry which require less energy to operate or could be linked indirectly to energy. In this context, cost-benefit analysis of heating, light, painting, energy consumption and energy lamp burning hours in addition to fuel burner, gas and electric heater in buildings are presented in tables. Finally, there is a lack of awareness on the positive impact on the environment reflected in the saving of natural resources, reducing pollution and creation of a better living environment

  6. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  7. Energy efficient hydrocyclones; Energieffektive hydrocykloner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsbaek, P.; Damgaard, L.; Nielsen, John Bo; Christensen, Kent; Overgaard, J.

    2009-05-15

    The project's primary purpose is to investigate the energy savings opportunities by using hydro cyclones for separation instead of more traditional separation technologies like rotary sieves and centrifuges. The hydro cyclone plant has been tested through two campaigns. In the 2007/2008 campaign the plant was tested at the Karup potato flour factory and here the cyclone plant achieved energy savings of approx. 32% compared to the current sieve plant. This result includes consumption for a macerator shredder, pre-filtering of the gratings and additional dewatering of the pulp. In the 2008/2009 campaign the plant was tested at the Brande potato flour factory, and here the plant achieved energy savings of 54% compared with the traditional sieve system. This result includes consumption for a shear pump for the homogenization of the gratings and additional consumption for dewatering of pulp. Pre-filtering of the gratings is not thought to be necessary. (ln)

  8. Fourteenth National Industrial Energy Technology Conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Presented are many short articles on various aspects of energy production, use, and conservation in industry. The impacts of energy efficient equipment, recycling, pollution regulations, and energy auditing are discussed. The topics covered include: New generation sources and transmission issues, superconductivity applications, integrated resource planning, electro technology research, equipment and process improvement, environmental improvement, electric utility management, and recent European technology and conservation opportunities. Individual papers are indexed separately

  9. Superconductivity in energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Four years after the sensational discovery the purpose of this book is to show the current state of the art, the technical-physical concepts and new aspects of the technical application and use of superconductors, in the field of energy technologies. The book will focus primarily on the following topics: general introductions; materials: requirements, properties, manufacture, processing; cryotechnology; machines, cables, switches, transformers; energy storage; magnetic engineering for fusion, transport and mass separation; magnets for particle accelerators; promotional activities, economy, patents. This book has been written by and for scientists and engineers working in industry, large-scale research institutions, universities and other research and application fields to help further their knowledge in this field. Apart from the current state of the art, the book also describes future application and development possibilities for the superconductor in power engineering. (orig.)

  10. Energy-efficient computing and networking. Revised selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatziargyriou, Nikos; Dimeas, Aris [Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece); Weidlich, Anke (eds.) [SAP Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Tomtsi, Thomai

    2011-07-01

    This book constitutes the postproceedings of the First International Conference on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, E-Energy, held in Passau, Germany in April 2010. The 23 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the post-proceedings. The papers are organized in topical sections on energy market and algorithms, ICT technology for the energy market, implementation of smart grid and smart home technology, microgrids and energy management, and energy efficiency through distributed energy management and buildings. (orig.)

  11. Automation technology saves 30% energy; Automatisierungstechnik spart 30% Energie ein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinkow, Torsten; Meyer, Michael [Wago Kontakttechnik GmbH und Co. KG, Minden (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    A systematic energy management is in more demand than ever in order to reduce the increasing energy costs. What used to be a difficult puzzle consisting of different technology components in the early days is today easier to solve by means of a standardized and cost-effective automation technology. With its IO system, Wago Kontakttechnik GmbH and Co. KG (Minden, Federal Republic of Germany) supplies a complete and coordinated portfolio for the energy efficiency.

  12. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  13. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC.... competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services, such as access...

  14. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... programs support the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency companies, to review...

  15. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC....S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The December 3, 2013 meeting of the RE&EEAC...

  16. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency exports. The meeting is open to the public and the...

  17. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries, including specific challenges...

  18. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... new capital for investment in the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency sectors, increasing the...

  19. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and...

  20. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. [FR Doc. 2012-25636 Filed 10-17-12; 8:45 am...

  1. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC.... renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The RE&EEAC held its first meeting on December 7, 2010...

  2. Energy-efficient buildings: Does the marketplace work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    For a variety of reasons, U.S. households, businesses, manufacturers, and government agencies all fail to take full advantage of cost-effective, energy-efficiency opportunities. Despite a growing environmental ethic among Americans and a concern for energy independence, consumers in this country are underinvesting in technologies, products, and practices that would cut their energy bills. The result is a large untapped potential for improving energy productivity, economic competitiveness, environmental quality, and energy security. The thesis of this paper is that the marketplace for energy efficiency, in general, is not operating perfectly, and the marketplace for energy-efficient buildings, in particular, is flawed. The reasons for underinvestments in cost-effective, energy efficiency are numerous and complicated. They also vary from sector to sector: the principal causes of energy inefficiencies in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation are not the same as the causes of inefficiencies in homes and office buildings, although there are some similarities. One of the reasons for these differences is that the structure of marketplace for delivering new technologies and products in each sector differs. Energy-efficiency improvements in the buildings sector is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, since most of the energy consumed in buildings comes from the burning of fossil fuels. This paper therefore begins by describing energy use and energy trends in the U.S. buildings sector. Characteristics of the marketplace for delivering energy efficiency technologies and products are then described in detail, arguing that this marketplace structure significantly inhibits rapid efficiency improvements.

  3. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Seneca Rocks Discovery Center, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    As part of ongoing efforts by the U.S. Forest Service to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies into its facilities, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment of the Seneca Rocks Discovery Center in Seneca Rocks, West Virginia. This report documents the findings of this assessment, and provides site-specific information for the implementation of energy and water conservation measures, and renewable energy measures.

  4. Auditing energy use -a systematic approach for enhancing energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardhapnrkar, P.M.; Mahalle, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Energy management is a critical activity in the developing as well as developed countries owing to constraints in the availability of primary energy resources and the increasing demand for energy from the industrial and non-industrial users. Energy consumption is a vital parameter that determines the economic growth of any country. An energy management system (EMS) can save money by allowing greater control over energy consuming equipment. The foundation for the energy program is the energy audit, which is the systematic study of factory or building to determine where and how well energy is being used. It is the nucleus of any successful energy saving program -it is tool, not a solution. Conventional energy conservation methods are mostly sporadic and lack a coordinated plan of action. Consequently only apparent systems are treated without the analysis of system interaction. Energy audit on the other hand, involves total system approach and aims at optimizing energy use efficiently for the entire plant. In the present paper a new approach to pursue energy conservation techniques is being discussed. The focus is mainly on the methodology of energy audit, energy use analysis, relating energy with the production, and reducing energy losses, etc. It is observe that with this systematic approach, if adopted, which consists of three essential segments namely capacity utilization fine-tuning of the equipment and technology up-gradation can result in phenomenal savings in the energy, building competitive edge for the industry. This approach along with commitment can provide the right impetus to reap the benefits of energy conservation on a sustained basis. (author)

  5. Finnish energy technology programmes 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish Technology Development Centre (Tekes) is responsible for the financing of research and development in the field of energy production technology. A considerable part of the financing goes to technology programmes. Each technology programme involves major Finnish institutions - companies, research institutes, universities and other relevant interests. Many of the energy technology programmes running in 1998 were launched collectively in 1993 and will be completed at the end of 1998. They are complemented by a number of other energy-related technology programmes, each with a timetable of its own. Because energy production technology is horizontal by nature, it is closely connected with research and development in other fields, too, and is an important aspect in several other Tekes technology programmes. For this reason this brochure also presents technology programmes where energy is only one of the aspects considered but which nevertheless contribute considerably to research and development in the energy production sector

  6. Smart City Energy Interconnection Technology Framework Preliminary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guotai; Zhao, Baoguo; Zhao, Xin; Li, Hao; Huo, Xianxu; Li, Wen; Xia, Yu

    2018-01-01

    to improve urban energy efficiency, improve the absorptive ratio of new energy resources and renewable energy sources, and reduce environmental pollution and other energy supply and consumption technology framework matched with future energy restriction conditions and applied technology level are required to be studied. Relative to traditional energy supply system, advanced information technology-based “Energy Internet” technical framework may give play to energy integrated application and load side interactive technology advantages, as a whole optimize energy supply and consumption and improve the overall utilization efficiency of energy.

  7. Worldwide trends in energy use and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Improvements in energy efficiency over the past three decades have played a key role in limiting global increases in energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions. For IEA countries, energy efficiency gains since 1990 have led to annual energy savings of more than 16 EJ in 2005 and 1.3 Gt of avoided CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the recent rate of efficiency improvement has been much lower than in the past. The good news is that a large potential remains for further energy and CO{sub 2} savings across all sectors. In industry alone, the application of proven technologies and best practices on a global scale could save between 1.9 Gt and 3.2 Gt of CO{sub 2} emissions per year. In public power generation, if all countries produced electricity at current best practice levels, CO{sub 2} savings would be between 1.8 Gt and 2.5 Gt. 40 figs., 5 tabs., 3 annexes.

  8. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  9. Global status report on energy efficiency 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; van Breevoort, P.; Roes, A.L.; Coenraads, R.; Müller, N.

    2008-01-01

    There is wide agreement that energy efficiency improvement is one of the key strategies to achieve greater sustainability of the energy system. In the past, the contribution of energy efficiency has already been considerable.Without the energy efficiency improvements achieved since the 1970s,

  10. The economic crisis and the energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some data from the Brazilian economy (2009 and 2010) and their impact on energy efficiency programs. It is also shown the main results of the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL) and PROCEL INFO, which aims to gather and make available information on the rational and efficient use of energy. At the end, we present information showing that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Companies) should be the main focus of the technological innovation programs aimed to energy efficiency. (author)

  11. Energy consumption and technological developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okorokov, V.R.

    1990-02-01

    The paper determines an outline of the world energy prospects based on principal trends of the development of energy consumption analysed over the long past period. According to the author's conclusion the development of energy systems will be determined in the nearest future (30 - 40 years) by contemporary energy technologies based on the exploitation of traditional energy resources but in the far future technologies based on the exploitation of thermonuclear and solar energy will play the decisive role. (author)

  12. Energy forum 92: Efficiency, trade and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    In 1992 B.C. Hydro's annual Electric Energy Forum was held in conjunction with the National Energy Forum to provide an opportunity for delegates from utilities, government, industry, international development agencies, environmental groups, universities and interested members of the public to discuss major energy issues of today and tomorrow. Three main themes were addressed: Efficiency (the latest developments in energy-efficient technologies and their role in sustainable development), trade (strategies for trade in energy and related technologies), and environment (the effects of energy production, use and trade on the local, regional and global environment). This document presents opening remarks, speeches presented, and panel discussions.

  13. Progress Implementing the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Significantly improving energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. Meetings of G8 leaders and IEA ministers reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic challenges. Many IEA publications have also documented the essential role of energy efficiency. For example, the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports identify energy efficiency as the most significant contributor to achieving energy security, economic and environmental goals. Energy efficiency is clearly the “first fuel” in the delivery of energy services in the coming low-carbon energy future. To support governments in their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations to these summits is known as the ‘IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations’ because it covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and energy utilities. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save as much as 7.6 giga tonnes (Gt) CO2/year by 2030 – almost 1.5 times the current annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the United States. The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations were developed to address policy gaps and priorities. This has two implications. First, the recommendations do not cover the full range of energy efficiency policy activity possible. Rather, they focus on priority energy efficiency policies identified by IEA analysis. Second, while IEA analysis, the energy efficiency professional literature and engagement with experts clearly demonstrate the broad benefits of these IEA priority measures, the recommendations are not weighted to reflect the different energy end-use make up of different

  14. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggio, A.J. (ed.)

    1988-10-01

    This issue of Energy and Technology Review contains: Neutron Penumbral Imaging of Laser-Fusion Targets--using our new penumbral-imaging diagnostic, we have obtained the first images that can be used to measure directly the deuterium-tritium burn region in laser-driven fusion targets; Computed Tomography for Nondestructive Evaluation--various computed tomography systems and computational techniques are used in nondestructive evaluation; Three-Dimensional Image Analysis for Studying Nuclear Chromatin Structure--we have developed an optic-electronic system for acquiring cross-sectional views of cell nuclei, and computer codes to analyze these images and reconstruct the three-dimensional structures they represent; Imaging in the Nuclear Test Program--advanced techniques produce images of unprecedented detail and resolution from Nevada Test Site data; and Computational X-Ray Holography--visible-light experiments and numerically simulated holograms test our ideas about an x-ray microscope for biological research.

  15. Energy efficiency networks; Energieeffizienz-Netzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Anna [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH (FfE GmbH), Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Energy efficiency networks are an attractive method to increase the energy efficiency and to reduce the costs and CO{sub 2} emissions of the companies operating in this network. A special feature of the energy efficiency networks is the exchange of experiences and training of the energy managers. Energy efficiency networks consist of about ten to fifteen locally domiciled companies. During the project period of three to four years, there are two main phases. In the first phase, the initial consultation phase, the actual state of a company is captured, and measures to increase the efficiency and energy conservation are identified. Parallel to this, in the second phase every three months a meeting with the participating companies takes place. Experience exchange and implementation of energy efficiency measures are the focus of these meetings. Initial studies show that the increase of the energy efficiency during participating in the energy efficiency network almost can be doubled in comparison to the average of the industry.

  16. Data Center Energy Efficiency Technologies and Methodologies: A Review of Commercial Technologies and Recommendations for Application to Department of Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    host multiple applications on a single server and split larger applications between multiple servers. If applications can be quickly and easily...improvements are often seen as leading to negative impacts on the organization that operates the DC. Another significant limiting factor for the DoD...34 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 31, pp. 622-638, 2014. [152] R. Miller, "Data Center Used to Heat Swimming Pool," Data Center Knowledge, 2

  17. Model project for enhancing energy consumption efficiency in developing countries. Report on changes of energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the chemical industry of Japan; Hatten tojokoku energy shohi koritsuka model jigyo. Nippon kagaku kogyo ni okeru sho energy gijutsu to kankyo taisaku gijutsu no hensen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of contributing to the economic growth and the global environmental protection in the Asian area, an investigation was carried out into energy conservation technology and environmental protection technology in the chemical industry of Japan. Measures for energy conservation are shifting from those which do not cost so much such as reduction in excess air rate of the heating furnace, and reduction in reflux ratio of the distillation tower to those with equipment investment such as waste heat recovery of the heating furnace and waste heat recovery of the distillation tower. In the 1980s, the utilization of low temperature waste heat by absorption type refrigerator and heat pump was promoted and the energy utilization efficiency by computer control was enhanced. Concerning environmental measures, the following were carried out: installation of the flue gas desulfurization device and reconstruction of high-rise stack, reduction of NOx by combustion control, smoke/dust disposal of electrostatic precipitator, combustion of hydrocarbon causing photochemical oxidant, catalytic oxidation, condensation, treatment by activated carbon, activated sludge treatment for BOD/COD, diaphragm process for dimethylmercury, ion exchange resin process, etc. 21 refs., 29 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Environment: renewable energy, environmental protection and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The second in the series of IPPSO policy papers for discussion deals with the place of renewable energy sources and environmental protection in relation to the soon-to-be deregulated electricity industry in Ontario. The paper provides a broad statement of principles, defines the issues, identifies the problems, and discusses the various options under consideration. Some of the more important design questions regarding a renewable portfolio standard were discussed, among them the technologies to be included, the treatment of existing generators and expansions, establishment of minimum amounts and targets, responsibility for and means of compliance, compensation for the intermittent nature of some of the renewable resources, mandatory disclosure and labelling, development by the IMO of environmental dispatch protocols, research and development funding for renewable energy technologies, emission caps with tradeable targets, and concerns about the operation of a system benefits fund for energy efficiency. 5 refs

  19. USE Efficiency -- Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, Daniela

    2010-09-15

    Universities and Student for Energy Efficiency is a European Project within the Intelligent Energy Programme. It intends to create a common stream for energy efficiency systems in university buildings. Universities and students are proposed as shining examples for energy efficiency solutions and behaviour. The Project involves 10 countries and has the aim to improve energy efficiency in university buildings. Students are the main actors of the project together with professors and technicians. To act on students means to act on direct future market players in diffusion of public opinions. A strong communication action supports the succeeding of the action.

  20. A Foundation of Energy Efficiency in South Carolina: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    South Carolina demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  1. Implications of energy efficiency measures in wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Aurich, Andreas; Ziegler, T.; Scholz, L.

    The economic and environmental effect of energy saving measures were analyzed for a typical wheat production system in Germany. The introduction of precision farming, reduced nitrogen fertilization and improved crop drying technologies proved to be efficient measures for enhancing energy efficiency...

  2. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  3. High-Performance Energy-Efficient Cool Metal Roof Assemblies Utilizing Building Integrated Renewable Solar Energy Technologies for New and Retrofit Building Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    technology described in this proposal was first commercialized in 2004. It has been installed in 35 states and 5 countries primarily on residential ...temperatures. o Rainwater harvesting systems help reduce demands on potable water systems and help crowded cities manage stormwater drainage problems...of high density polyisocyanurate rigid insulation board installed over the existing roof and between the sub-purlins with the top layer taped to

  4. Energy efficiency in the British housing stock: Energy demand and the Homes Energy Efficiency Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Ian G.; Steadman, Philip J.; Bruhns, Harry; Summerfield, Alex J.; Lowe, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government has unveiled an ambitious retrofit programme that seeks significant improvement to the energy efficiency of the housing stock. High quality data on the energy efficiency of buildings and their related energy demand is critical to supporting and targeting investment in energy efficiency. Using existing home improvement programmes over the past 15 years, the UK Government has brought together data on energy efficiency retrofits in approximately 13 million homes into the Homes Energy Efficiency Database (HEED), along with annual metered gas and electricity use for the period of 2004–2007. This paper describes the HEED sample and assesses its representativeness in terms of dwelling characteristics, the energy demand of different energy performance levels using linked gas and electricity meter data, along with an analysis of the impact retrofit measures has on energy demand. Energy savings are shown to be associated with the installation of loft and cavity insulation, and glazing and boiler replacement. The analysis illustrates this source of ‘in-action’ data can be used to provide empirical estimates of impacts of energy efficiency retrofit on energy demand and provides a source of empirical data from which to support the development of national housing energy efficiency retrofit policies. - Highlights: • The energy efficiency level for 50% of the British housing stock is described. • Energy demand is influenced by size and age and energy performance. • Housing retrofits (e.g. cavity insulation, glazing and boiler replacements) save energy. • Historic differences in energy performance show persistent long-term energy savings

  5. 76 FR 18428 - Energy Efficiency Program for Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Ice Makers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... this proposed rule may be submitted to Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy through the... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW...

  6. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, I W; Yoon, K S; Cho, B W [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    1996-12-01

    The sharp increase in energy usage according to the industry development has resulted in deficiency of energy resources and severe pollution problems. Therefore, development of the effective way of energy usage and energy resources of low pollution is needed. Development of the energy conversion technology by chemical processes is also indispensable, which will replace the pollutant-producing and inefficient mechanical energy conversion technologies. Energy conversion technology by chemical processes directly converts chemical energy to electrical one, or converts heat energy to chemical one followed by heat storage. The technology includes batteries, fuel cells, and energy storage system. The are still many problems on performance, safety, and manufacturing of the secondary battery which is highly demanded in electronics, communication, and computer industries. To overcome these problems, key components such as carbon electrode, metal oxide electrode, and solid polymer electrolyte are developed in this study, followed by the fabrication of the lithium secondary battery. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell, as an advanced power generating apparatus with high efficiency, no pollution, and no noise, has many applications such as zero-emission vehicles, on-site power plants, and military purposes. After fabricating the cell components and operating the single cells, the fundamental technologies in polymer electrolyte fuel cell are established in this study. Energy storage technology provides the safe and regular heat energy, irrespective of the change of the heat energy sources, adjusts time gap between consumption and supply, and upgrades and concentrates low grade heat energy. In this study, useful chemical reactions for efficient storage and transport are investigated and the chemical heat storage technology are developed. (author) 41 refs., 90 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Market introduction of renewable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    On 11 and 12 November 1997 the VDI Society for Energy Technology (VDI-GET) held a congress in Neuss on the ''Market introduction of renewable energy technologies'' The focal topics of the congress were as follows: market analyses for renewable energy technologies, the development of markets at home and abroad, and the framework conditions governing market introduction. Specifically it dealt with the market effects of national and international introduction measures, promotion programmes and their efficiency, the legal framework conditions governing market introduction, advanced and supplementary training, market-oriented research (e.g., for cost reduction), and improved marketing [de

  8. Towards a more efficient use of energy through beneficial electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbesino, C.; Le Goff, R.; Goericke, P.; Porter, D.F.; Roth, M.F.; Halberg, N.

    1996-01-01

    An important part of any commitment to energy conservation is a commitment to achieving savings in the use of electrical energy. However, to enable true comparisons to be made in the drive for more efficient and effective use of energy, it is essential that the entire primary energy chain, up to and including the final application, is taken into account. Conversion losses, which occur in the generation of electricity can often be offset by very high efficiencies at the point of use. The existence of a wide range of technology, to improve the efficiency of energy use and maximize the quality of usable energy extracted from primary energy resources, is a prerequisite. Of equal importance are the promotion and marketing of these technologies. In attempting to draw up a consistent energy conservation policy, it is essential to adopt approaches which consider all forms of energy. (R.P.)

  9. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K.

    2003-07-01

    Part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called ''no-regret'' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be ''worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so''. The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs. This paper will re-examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures, especially in the context of energy system modelling, will be shown (section 3). (author)

  10. Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Charles Chamberlin; Robert Chaney; Gang Chen; Godwin Chukwu; James Clough; Steve Colt; Anthony Covescek; Robert Crosby; Abhijit Dandekar; Paul Decker; Brandon Galloway; Rajive Ganguli; Catherine Hanks; Rich Haut; Kristie Hilton; Larry Hinzman; Gwen Holdman; Kristie Holland; Robert Hunter; Ron Johnson; Thomas Johnson; Doug Kame; Mikhail Kaneveskly; Tristan Kenny; Santanu Khataniar; Abhijeet Kulkami; Peter Lehman; Mary Beth Leigh; Jenn-Tai Liang; Michael Lilly; Chuen-Sen Lin; Paul Martin; Pete McGrail; Dan Miller; Debasmita Misra; Nagendra Nagabhushana; David Ogbe; Amanda Osborne; Antoinette Owen; Sharish Patil; Rocky Reifenstuhl; Doug Reynolds; Eric Robertson; Todd Schaef; Jack Schmid; Yuri Shur; Arion Tussing; Jack Walker; Katey Walter; Shannon Watson; Daniel White; Gregory White; Mark White; Richard Wies; Tom Williams; Dennis Witmer; Craig Wollard; Tao Zhu

    2008-12-31

    The Arctic Energy Technology Development Laboratory was created by the University of Alaska Fairbanks in response to a congressionally mandated funding opportunity through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), specifically to encourage research partnerships between the university, the Alaskan energy industry, and the DOE. The enabling legislation permitted research in a broad variety of topics particularly of interest to Alaska, including providing more efficient and economical electrical power generation in rural villages, as well as research in coal, oil, and gas. The contract was managed as a cooperative research agreement, with active project monitoring and management from the DOE. In the eight years of this partnership, approximately 30 projects were funded and completed. These projects, which were selected using an industry panel of Alaskan energy industry engineers and managers, cover a wide range of topics, such as diesel engine efficiency, fuel cells, coal combustion, methane gas hydrates, heavy oil recovery, and water issues associated with ice road construction in the oil fields of the North Slope. Each project was managed as a separate DOE contract, and the final technical report for each completed project is included with this final report. The intent of this process was to address the energy research needs of Alaska and to develop research capability at the university. As such, the intent from the beginning of this process was to encourage development of partnerships and skills that would permit a transition to direct competitive funding opportunities managed from funding sources. This project has succeeded at both the individual project level and at the institutional development level, as many of the researchers at the university are currently submitting proposals to funding agencies, with some success.

  11. Energy efficiency improvements in electric motors and drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy; Ameida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Electrotecnica; Falkner, H. [eds.] [AEA Technolgy, Harwell (United Kingdom). ETSU

    2000-07-01

    This book covers the state of the art of energy-efficient electric motor technologies, which can be used now and in the near future to achieve significant and cost-effective energy savings. Recent developments in advanced motor technologies by some of the largest manufacturers of motors and drives are also presented. Although energy-efficient motor technologies can save a huge amount of electricity, they still have not been widely adopted. The barriers which can hinder the adoption of those technologies are presented. Policies and programmes to promote the large scale penetration of energy-efficient technologies and the market transformation are featured in the book, describing the experiences carried out in different parts of the world. This extensive coverage includes contributions from relevant institutions in the European Union, North America, Latin America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. (orig.)

  12. Pump systems for the new Tivoli construction. Football mythos with energy efficient technology; Pumpensysteme fuer den Tivoli-Neubau. Fussball-Mythos mit energieeffizienter Technik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krings, Jochen [Jochen Krings Professional Relations, PR-Agentur, Moenchengladbach (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Professional football on a solid economic base barely is conceivable without the possibility of modern stadiums. An emotional live-atmosphere, modern comfort as well as a diverse business offer are in demand. Particularly successful is this compound in the new construction of the Tivoli at the Aachen Soers. A modern building technology with efficient pumping systems belong to the facilities of the stadium.

  13. Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India's household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Energy efficiency generates substantial financial savings while simultaneously improving environmental quality. Despite these benefits, developing countries like India are missing out on energy efficiency opportunities and instead concentrating on increased energy production. This paper identifies the efficient technologies in the household sector in India, and details their benefits to the consumer as well as to the society. It identifies the barriers that prevent the government from achieving its energy efficiency goals, analyses programs that addresses these barriers, and explores the creation of an institutional mechanism

  14. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented.

  15. Compressed Air System Enhancement Increases Efficiency and Provides Energy Savings at a Circuit Board Manufacturer (Sanmina Plant, Oswego, New York): Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) BestPractices Technical Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogsland, J.

    2001-01-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the circuit board manufacturer (Sanmina Plant) project

  16. Towards Energy Efficient Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman

    2016-07-14

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a cutting-edge wireless communication technology that adopts several existing communication concepts in order to efficiently utilize the spectrum and meet the users demands of high throughput and real-time systems. Conventionally, high throughput demands are met through adopting broadband and multi-antenna technologies such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO). Whereas, real-time application demands are met by analyzing metrics which characterize the delay limited channels, such as, outage probability over block-fading channels. Being an environmental friendly technology, energy efficiency metrics should be considered in the design of a CR application. This thesis tackles the energy efficiency of CR system from different aspects, utilizing different measuring metrics and constrains. Under the single-input single-output (SISO) OFDM we minimized the energy per goodbit (EPG) metric subject to several power and Quality of Service (QoS) constraints. In this approach, the minimum EPG metric is optimized via proposing two optimal and sub-optimal resource allocation schemes. We consider several parameters as optimization variables, such as, power policy, sensing threshold, and channel quality threshold. We also captured the impact of involving the media access control (MAC) layers parameters, such as, frame length, in the minimization of a modified EPG metric. Also, a MAC protocol, i.e., hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ), and the associated power consumption of the retransmission mechanism is considered in the formulation of the problem. In this context, the optimal power and frame length are derived to minimize the modified EPG while considering several spectrum-sharing scenarios, which depend on sensing information. In MIMO based CR system, we maximized capacity to power ratio (CPR) (as an energy efficiency (EE) metric) subject to several power and QoS constraints. In this context, the

  17. The role of built environment energy efficiency in a sustainable UK energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Joseph A.; Johnstone, Cameron M.; Kelly, Nicolas J.; Strachan, Paul A.; Tuohy, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Energy efficiency in the built environment can make significant contributions to a sustainable energy economy. In order to achieve this, greater public awareness of the importance of energy efficiency is required. In the short term, new efficient domestic appliances, building technologies, legislation quantifying building plant performance, and improved building regulations to include installed plant will be required. Continuing these improvements in the longer term is likely to see the adoption of small-scale renewable technologies embedded in the building fabric. Internet-based energy services could deliver low-cost building energy management and control to the mass market enabling plant to be operated and maintained at optimum performance levels and energy savings quantified. There are many technology options for improved energy performance of the building fabric and energy systems and it is not yet clear which will prove to be the most economic. Therefore, flexibility is needed in legislation and energy-efficiency initiatives

  18. Wind Energy: Trends And Enabling Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Alam, Mansoor; Boyapati, Premchand; Chandna, Pankaj; Kumar, Ashok; Lack, Lewis; Nims, Douglas; Wang, Lingfeng

    2010-09-15

    With attention now focused on the damaging impact of greenhouse gases, wind energy is rapidly emerging as a low carbon, resource efficient, cost-effective sustainable technology in many parts of the world. Despite higher economic costs, offshore appears to be the next big step in wind energy development alternative because of the space scarcity for installation of onshore wind turbine. This paper presents the importance of off-shore wind energy, the wind farm layout design, the off-shore wind turbine technological developments, the role of sensors and the smart grid, and the challenges and future trends of wind energy.

  19. Regional energy efficiency, carbon emission performance and technology gaps in China: A meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xin; Zhou, Hongchen; Zhang, Aizhen; Li, Aijun

    2015-01-01

    At present, China is the largest primary energy consumer and carbon emitter in the world. Meantime, China is a large transitional economy with significant regional gaps. Against such backgrounds, the calculated results of energy and carbon performance indicators may be biased, without considering heterogeneity across regions. To this end, after incorporating region-heterogeneity, this paper provides detailed information, regarding energy efficiency, carbon emission performance and the potential of carbon emission reductions from regional perspectives, which may be important and useful for policy makers. Our main findings are as follows. Firstly, there is significant group-heterogeneity across regions in China, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon emission performance. Secondly, there are no considerable differences between total-factor and single-factor performance indices, since there is limited substitutability between energy inputs and other production inputs. Finally, significant carbon emission reductions can be made by “catching up” for regions with low energy efficiency and carbon emission performance. Looking ahead, the Chinese government should adopt measures to promote improvements in terms of energy efficiency and carbon emission performance in the short term. -- Highlights: •We adopt a meta-frontier non-radial directional distance function analysis. •We provide detailed information regarding energy and carbon emission performance. •We find that there is significant region-heterogeneity in China. •There are no large differences between total- and single-factor performance indices. •It can make great contributions to carbon emission reductions by “catching up”

  20. Energy Efficiency in Computing (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We will start the second day of our energy efficient computing series with a brief discussion of software and the impact it has on energy consumption. A second major point of this lecture will be the current state of research and a few future technologies, ranging from mainstream (e.g. the Internet of Things) to exotic. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and initiated projects with the private sector (e.g. HP and Google), as well as international research institutes, such as EPFL. Currently, Andrzej acts as a consultant on technology and innovation with TIK Services (http://tik.services), and runs a peer-to-peer lending start-up. NB! All Academic Lectures are recorded. No webcast! Because of a problem of the recording equipment, this lecture will be repeated for recording pu...

  1. Finnish energy technologies for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The global energy sector is going through major changes: the need for energy is growing explosively, while at the same time climate change is forcing US to find new, and cleaner, ways to generate energy. Finland is one of the forerunners in energy technology development, partly because of its northern location and partly thanks to efficient innovations. A network of centres of expertise was established in Finland in 1994 to boost the competitiveness and internationalisation of Finnish industry and, consequently, that of the EU region. During the expertise centre programme period 2007-2013, substantial resources will be allocated to efficient utilisation of top level expertise in thirteen selected clusters of expertise. The energy cluster, focusing on developing energy technologies for the future, is one of these

  2. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 21-23, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Transparent heat mirror films are discussed, taking into account bandgap widening in heavily doped oxide semiconductors used as transparent heat-reflectors, the characterization of a low emissivity coating in large scale production, an exact analysis of radiative and conductive heat transfer through radiative gray films, and process control for sputter deposition of low emissivity films in large scale production. Other topics explored are related to optical switching materials, selective absorber coatings, general solar optical materials and instrumentation, and technical needs of the energy related coatings industry and the building sciences. Attention is given to electrochromic coatings for 'smart windows', materials for electrochromic windows, optical frequencies free electron scattering studies on electrochromic materials for variable reflectivity windows, progress on solar absorber selective paint research, complex index interference films on metal substrates, luminescent solar concentrator daylighting, and research on passive solar materials in Canada.

  3. Appendix A: Energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The project financial evaluation section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  4. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... competitiveness of U.S. wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, hydropower, waste-to-energy, smart grid, and energy... technologies--has been largely undeveloped. Chile's new National Energy Strategy contains six pillars: Energy efficiency; renewable energy; traditional fossil fuels; smart grid; competition in electricity distribution...

  5. Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  6. Energy efficiency in California laboratory-type facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.; Bell, G.; Sartor, D. [and others

    1996-07-31

    The central aim of this project is to provide knowledge and tools for increasing the energy efficiency and performance of new and existing laboratory-type facilities in California. We approach the task along three avenues: (1) identification of current energy use and savings potential, (2) development of a {ital Design guide for energy- Efficient Research Laboratories}, and (3) development of a research agenda for focused technology development and improving out understanding of the market. Laboratory-type facilities use a considerable amount of energy resources. They are also important to the local and state economy, and energy costs are a factor in the overall competitiveness of industries utilizing laboratory-type facilities. Although the potential for energy savings is considerable, improving energy efficiency in laboratory-type facilities is no easy task, and there are many formidable barriers to improving energy efficiency in these specialized facilities. Insufficient motivation for individual stake holders to invest in improving energy efficiency using existing technologies as well as conducting related R&D is indicative of the ``public goods`` nature of the opportunity to achieve energy savings in this sector. Due to demanding environmental control requirements and specialized processes, laboratory-type facilities epitomize the important intersection between energy demands in the buildings sector and the industrial sector. Moreover, given the high importance and value of the activities conducted in laboratory-type facilities, they represent one of the most powerful contexts in which energy efficiency improvements stand to yield abundant non-energy benefits if properly applied.

  7. Applications mechanisms of energetic efficiency in energy-intensive industries segments in Brazil: opportunities for current technological structures; Aplicacoes de mecanismos de eficiencia energetica em segmentos industriais energo-intensivos brasileiros: oportunidades relativas as atuais estruturas tecnologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorileo, Ivo Leandro [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso (NIEPE/UFMT), Cuiaba, MT (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Estudos em Planejamento; Berni, Mauro Donizeti [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Paccola, Jose Angelo; Silva Junior, Herculano Xavier da; Bernardes, Cyro Barbosa [MCPAR Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    This work presents energy efficiency mechanisms analysis in the Brazilian industrial sector. Significant energy savings can be made in this sector and rely on urgent widespread implementation of mechanisms. The experience of the developed countries is demonstrated and serves as base for the critical evaluation of the Brazilian situation, considering the current technological period, the investments and economic perspectives in industrial segments of pulp and paper, iron and steel and non-ferrous metals. (author)

  8. Improved energy efficiency in sawmill drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jan-Olof; Westerlund, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A heating system at a sawmill was investigated and improved. • Different impacts of external technologies at the energy usage were explored. • The heat and electricity consumption was analysed separate between technologies type. • The result point out a significant decrease of the biomass consumptions. - Abstract: The worldwide use of biomass has increased drastically during the last decade. At Swedish sawmills about half of the entering timber becomes lumber, with the remainder considered as by-product (biomass). A significant part of this biomass is used for internal heat production, mainly for forced drying of lumber in drying kilns. Large heat losses in kilns arise due to difficulties in recovering evaporative heat in moist air at low temperatures. This paper addresses the impact of available state-of-the-art technologies of heat recycling on the most common drying schemes used in Swedish sawmills. Simulations of different technologies were performed on an hourly basis to compare the heat and electricity demand with the different technologies. This was executed for a total sawmill and finally to the national level to assess the potential effects upon energy efficiency and biomass consumption. Since some techniques produce a surplus of heat the comparison has to include the whole sawmill. The impact on a national level shows the potential of the different investigated techniques. The results show that if air heat exchangers were introduced across all sawmills in Sweden, the heat demand would decrease by 0.3 TWh/year. The mechanical heat pump technology would decrease the heat demand by 5.6 TWh/year and would also produce a surplus for external heat sinks, though electricity demand would increase by 1 TWh/year. The open absorption system decreases the heat demand by 3.4 TWh/year on a national level, though at the same time there is a moderate increase in electricity demand of 0.05 TWh/year. Introducing actual energy prices in Sweden gives an

  9. Progress in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim; Kucuk, Haydar

    2014-01-01

    This multi-disciplinary volume presents information on the state-of-the-art in sustainable energy technologies key to tackling the world's energy challenges and achieving environmentally benign solutions. Its unique amalgamation of the latest technical information, research findings and examples of successfully applied new developments in the area of sustainable energy will be of keen interest to engineers, students, practitioners, scientists and researchers working with sustainable energy technologies. Problem statements, projections, new concepts, models, experiments, measurements and simula

  10. Marginal abatement cost and carbon reduction potential outlook of key energy efficiency technologies in China's building sector to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, He; Wei, Qingpeng; Wang, Hailin

    2014-01-01

    China achieved an energy savings of 67.5 Mtce in the building sector at the end of the 11th Five-Year Plan and set a new target of 116 Mtce by the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan. In this paper, an improved bottom-up model is developed to assess the carbon abatement potential and marginal abatement cost (MAC) of 34 selected energy-saving technologies/measures for China's building sector. The total reduction potential is 499.8 million t-CO 2 by 2030. 4.8 Gt-CO 2 potential will be achieved cumulatively to 2030. By 2030, total primary energy consumption of Chinese building sector will rise continuously to 1343 Mtce in the reference scenario and 1114 Mtce in the carbon reduction scenario. Total carbon dioxide emission will rise to 2.39 Gt-CO 2 and 1.9 Gt-CO 2 in two scenarios separately. The average carbon abatement cost of the aforementioned technologies is 19.5 $/t-CO 2 . The analysis reveals that strengthening successfully energy-saving technologies is important, especially for the residential building sector. The central government's direct investments in such technologies should be reduced without imposing significant negative effects. - Highlights: • MAC of 34 energy-saving technologies of China's building sector is calculated. • Energy use and CO 2 emission of China's building sector by 2030 is forecasted. • The reference and the carbon reduction scenarios are compared

  11. Research report for fiscal 1998 on development of environmentally friendly high-efficiency energy utilization system. Research of optimum system designing technology (Research of effect of eco-energy city system technology introduction to Osaka); Kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu Saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho (Osakafu). Ekoene toshi system gijutsu donyu koka no chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Concerning the district in Osaka Prefecture selected for study in fiscal 1997, it is investigated whether energy efficiency is enhanced, and environmental impact reduced, by the introduction of element technologies, and the findings are compared with the results expected to be produced without their introduction. Problems about their introduction are also discussed. Taken up for study are the collection and utilization of heat from a water granulated slag manufacturing plant of an iron mill, exhaust heat reform and recovery system at a chemical plant, heat supply system driven by a high-performance heat pump capable of dealing with various kinds of fuels, compression/suction hybrid heat utilization system, and a cold heat supply system using microspheres. Annual energy consumption, CO2 and NOx emissions, and costs are calculated for each of them. Concerning these element technologies, various tasks are discussed, related to the technology of their systematization, economy, dissemination of district heat supply, and wide-area heat supply businesses utilizing exhaust heat. As the result, it is concluded that the primary energy consumption as a whole is reduced upon their introduction and that energy saving effect and environmental impact reducing effect are in presence. (NEDO)

  12. Policies and programs for sustainable energy innovations renewable energy and energy efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jisun; Iskin, Ibrahim; Taha, Rimal; Blommestein, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This volume features research and case studies across a variety of industries to showcase technological innovations and policy initiatives designed to promote renewable energy and sustainable economic development. The first section focuses on policies for the adoption of renewable energy technologies, the second section covers the evaluation of energy efficiency programs, and the final section provides evaluations of energy technology innovations. Environmental concerns, energy availability, and political pressure have prompted governments to look for alternative energy resources that can minimize the undesirable effects for current energy systems.  For example, shifting away from conventional fuel resources and increasing the percentage of electricity generated from renewable resources, such as solar and wind power, is an opportunity to guarantee lower CO2 emissions and to create better economic opportunities for citizens in the long run.  Including discussions of such of timely topics and issues as global...

  13. Empirical investigation of energy efficiency barriers in Italian manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst; Pugliese, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies and evaluates barriers to industrial energy efficiency through the investigation of 48 manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Northern Italy. The research provides interesting suggestions both for enterprises and energy policy-makers. Firstly, economic and information barriers are perceived as the major obstacles to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, whilst behavioural barriers do not seem to affect enterprises very much. Nonetheless, despite what declared, the most relevant barriers are the lack of interest in energy efficiency and the existence of other priorities, thus showing that decision-makers tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a marginal issue. Furthermore, perceived barriers do not take place exclusively in implementing energy-efficient technologies, but, with comparable importance, also in generating the interest and knowledge of the opportunities. Moreover, the study highlights that relevant differences can be appreciated for both perceived and real barriers even among SMEs, that thus should not be bundled together. In addition to that, other factors affect barriers, stimulating future research: indeed, lower real barriers can be observed with higher complexity of the production, high variability of the demand and strong competitors. -- Highlights: ► Evidence of existing misalignments between perceived and real barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. ► Relevance of barriers to the generation of interest towards energy efficiency. ► Evidence of firm's size (within SMEs) and energy expenditures on barriers to energy efficiency. ► Importance, for energy efficiency barriers, of avoid bundling SMEs as a whole. ► Preliminary evidence of factors related to supply chain complexity affecting barriers to energy efficiency.

  14. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Nordic homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyysalo, S; Rinkinen, J [Aalto Univ. School of Economics, Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Management and International Business; Heiskanen, E [National Consumer Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-07-01

    The role of citizens as innovators, adaptors of existing technologies and diffusers of new climate-relevant innovations has been studied extensively in recent years. Since the late 1970s, sociological and demographic research on residential energy use has consistently found great variations in energy use among similar households. It has been suggested that these variations constitute a source of innovative low-carbon practices. Yet, while there are many generic technologies available for end-use efficiency and renewables, their slow rate of diffusion suggests that they are not as such applicable to local conditions. Citizens have a key role in their adoption and adaptation to local conditions, as well in their diffusion to other users. Against this backdrop, the track 4 of NCF called for poster presentations of innovative new products, modifications of existing products, news ways of make use of existing technologies as well as such living practices that reduce energy use or enable the utilization of renewable energy sources in domestic settings in the Nordic countries. (orig.)

  15. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: San Juan National Forest - Dolores Ranger District, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, Alicen J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-26

    This report summarizes the results from an energy efficiency, water efficiency, and renewable energy site assessment of the Dolores Ranger District in the San Juan National Forest in Colorado. A team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted the assessment with United States Forest Service (USFS) personnel on August 16-17, 2016, as part of ongoing efforts by USFS to reduce energy and water use and implement renewable energy technologies. The assessment is approximately an American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers Level 2 audit and meets Energy Independence and Security Act requirements.

  16. Energy efficiency of mobile soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Langquan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2017-11-15

    The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented. Proposed as the ratio of the desired locomotion kinetic energy to the input mechanical energy, the energy efficiency of locomotion is found to play a critical role in determining the overall energy efficiency of soft robots. Four key factors related to the locomotion energy efficiency are identified, that is, the locomotion modes, material properties, geometric sizes, and actuation states. It is found that the energy efficiency of most mobile soft robots reported in the literature is surprisingly low (mostly below 0.1%), due to the inefficient mechanical energy that essentially does not contribute to the desired locomotion. A comparison of the locomotion energy efficiency for several representative locomotion modes in the literature is presented, showing a descending ranking as: jumping ≫ fish-like swimming > snake-like slithering > rolling > rising/turning over > inchworm-like inching > quadruped gait > earthworm-like squirming. Besides, considering the same locomotion mode, soft robots with lower stiffness, higher density and larger size tend to have higher locomotion energy efficiency. Moreover, a periodic pulse actuation instead of a continuous actuation mode may significantly reduce the input mechanical energy, thus improving the locomotion energy efficiency, especially when the pulse actuation matches the resonant states of the soft robots. The results presented herein indicate a large and necessary space for improving the locomotion energy

  17. Hydrogen energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morovic, T.; Pilhar, R.; Witt, B.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of different energy systems from the economic point of view has to be based on data showing all relevant costs incurred and benefits drawn by the society from the use of such energy systems, i.e. internal costs and benefits visible to the energy consumer as prices paid for power supplied, as well as external costs and benefits. External costs or benefits of energy systems cover among other items employment or wage standard effects, energy-induced environmental impacts, public expenditure for pollution abatement and mitigation of risks and effects of accidents, and the user costs connected with the exploitation of reserves, which are not rated high enough to really reflect and demonstrate the factor of depletion of non-renewable energy sources, as e.g. fossil reserves. Damage to the natural and social environment induced by anthropogenous air pollutants up to about 90% counts among external costs of energy conversion and utilisation. Such damage is considered to be the main factor of external energy costs, while the external benefits of energy systems currently are rated to be relatively unsignificant. This means that an internalisation of external costs would drive up current prices of non-renewable energy sources, which in turn would boost up the economics of renewable energy sources, and the hydrogen produced with their energy. Other advantages attributed to most of the renewable energy sources and to hydrogen energy systems are better environmental compatibility, and no user costs. (orig.) [de

  18. Radon and energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1981-09-01

    Radon and its daughters in indoor air are presently responsible for dose equivalents of about 31 mSv/year (3 rem/year) to parts of the respiratory tract. Linear extrapolation from the dose response values of uranium miners heavily exposed to radon and its decay products would suggest that almost all lung cancers in the non-smoking population are caused by environmental 222 Rn. Using epidemiological data on the types of lung cancer found in non-smokers of the general public as compared to the miners, a smaller effect of low level radon exposure is assumed, which would result in a lung cancer mortality rate due to radon of about 10 deaths per year and million or 25% of the non-smoker rate. Higher indoor radon concentrations in energy efficient homes mostly caused by reduced air exchange rates will lead to a several fold increase of the lung cancer incidence from radon. Based on the above assumption, about 100 additional lung cancer deaths/year-million will result both from an increase in radionuclide concentrations in indoor air and a concomitant rise in effectiveness of radiation to cause cancer with higher exposure levels. Possibilities to reduce indoor radon levels in existing buildings and costs involved are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  20. Energy-efficient cloud computing : autonomic resource provisioning for datacenters

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfatsion, Selome Kostentinos

    2018-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an increasingly important concern in data centers because of issues associated with energy consumption, such as capital costs, operating expenses, and environmental impact. While energy loss due to suboptimal use of facilities and non-IT equipment has largely been reduced through the use of best-practice technologies, addressing energy wastage in IT equipment still requires the design and implementation of energy-aware resource management systems. This thesis focu...

  1. Role and potential of renewable energy and energy efficiency for global energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krewitt, Wolfram; Nienhaus, Kristina [German Aerospace Center e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany); Klessmann, Corinna; Capone, Carolin; Stricker, Eva [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Graus, Wina; Hoogwijk, Monique [Ecofys Netherlands BV, Utrecht (Netherlands); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Winterfeld, Uta von; Samadi, Sascha [Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    The analysis of different global energy scenarios in part I of the report confirms that the exploitation of energy efficiency potentials and the use of renewable energies play a key role in reaching global CO2 reduction targets. An assessment on the basis of a broad literature research in part II shows that the technical potentials of renewable energy technologies are a multiple of today's global final energy consumption. The analysis of cost estimates for renewable electricity generation technologies and even long term cost projections across the key studies in part III demonstrates that assumptions are in reasonable agreement. In part IV it is shown that by implementing technical potentials for energy efficiency improvements in demand and supply sectors by 2050 can be limited to 48% of primary energy supply in IEA's ''Energy Technology Perspectives'' baseline scenario. It was found that a large potential for cost-effective measures exists, equivalent to around 55-60% of energy savings of all included efficiency measures (part V). The results of the analysis on behavioural changes in part VI show that behavioural dimensions are not sufficiently included in energy scenarios. Accordingly major research challenges are revealed. (orig.)

  2. New energy technologies part 2, storage and low emission technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    After a first volume devoted to renewable energy sources, this second volume follows the first one and starts with a detailed presentation of energy storage means and technologies. This first chapter is followed by a prospective presentation of innovative concepts in the domain of nuclear energy. A detailed analysis of cogeneration systems, which aim at optimizing the efficiency of heat generation facilities by the adjunction of a power generation unit, allows to outline the advantages and limitations of this process. The next two chapters deal with the development of hydrogen industry as energy vector and with its application to power generation using fuel cells in several domains of use. Content: - forewords: electric power, the new paradigm, the decentralized generation, the energy conversion means; - chapter 1: energy storage, applications in relation with the electricity vector (energy density, storage problems, storage systems); - chapter 2: nuclear fission today and tomorrow, from rebirth to technological jump (2006 energy green book, keeping all energy options opened); nuclear energy in the world: 50 years of industrial experience; main actors: common needs, international vision and strategic instruments; at the eve of a technological jump: research challenges and governmental initiatives; generation 2 (today): safety of supplies and respect of the environment; generation 3 (2010): rebirth with continuous improvements; generation 4 (2040): technological jump to satisfy new needs; education and training: general goals; conclusion: nuclear power as part of the solution for a sustainable energy mix; - chapter 3: cogeneration (estimation of cogeneration potential, environmental impact, conclusions and perspectives); - chapter 4: hydrogen as energy vector (context, energy vector of the future, hydrogen generation, transport, distribution and storage; applications of hydrogen-energy, risks, standards, regulations and acceptability; hydrogen economics; hydrogen

  3. Industrial energy conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  4. Energy and technology review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selden, R.W.

    1977-05-01

    Topics covered include: geothermal energy development at LLL, energy conversion engineering, continuing education at LLL, and the Western states uranium resource survey. Separate abstracts were prepared for 3 sections. (MCG)

  5. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)