Deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fazal-e-Aleem; Ali, S.
1991-01-01
The eikonal picture which has theoretical foundations in some areas of physics has been successful in explaining various aspects of elastic scattering at high energies. Chou and Yang first proposed a preliminary version of the eikonal model for hadron-hadron elastic scattering. The model is based on geometrical considerations in which hadrons are treated as extended objects. Elastic scattering then results from the propagation of attenuated wave function. By assuming that at high energies the scattering amplitude is purely imaginary and that the hadronic matter distribution is proportional to the charge distribution on protons, Durand and Lipes studied high energy pp scattering on the basis of this prestine model. Later on, the model was extended to other elastic reactions. However, a survey of literature shows that it has been successful only in the diffraction peak region. It has been shown that the pristine Chou-Yange model can explain the differential cross section for deuteron-deuteron elastic scattering at √s = 53 GeV in the diffraction peak region. In order to fit the large momentum transfer data, the generalized Chou-Yang model is used
Tensor polarized deuteron targets for intermediate energy physics experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, W.; Schilling, E.
1985-03-01
At intermediate energies measurements from a tensor polarized deuteron target are being prepared for the following reactions: the photodisintegration of the deuteron, the elastic pion-deuteron scattering and the elastic electron-deuteron scattering. The experimental situation of the polarization experiments for these reactions is briefly discussed in section 2. In section 3 the definitions of the deuteron polarization and the possibilities to determine the vector and tensor polarization are given. Present tensor polarization values and further improvements in this field are reported in section 4. (orig.)
Deuteron photo-disintegration at large energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potterveld, D.H.
1994-01-01
Current proposals at CEBAF include the measurement of cross sections and polarization observables of exclusive photo-reactions such as deuteron photo-disintegration and pion photo-production from nucleons. At issue is the applicability of traditional meson-exchange models versus quark models of these reactions at photon energies of several GeV. Beam energies above 4 GeV at CEBAF could make possible the measurement of these reactions over a kinematic range sufficiently broad to distinguish between the models. Estimates of counting rates for a Hall-C experiment to measure the γd → pn cross section are presented
First calculation of the deuteron binding energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaegger, B.
2012-01-01
No universal constant characterizing the nuclear force has yet been found as for gravity and electromagnetism. The neutron is globally neutral with a zero net charge. The charges contained in a neutron may be separated by the electric field of a nearby proton and therefore being attracted by electrostatic induction in the same way as a rubbed plastic pen attracts small pieces of paper. There is also a magnetic force that may repel the nucleons like magnets in the proper relative orientation. In the deuteron, the heavy hydrogen nucleus, the induced electrostatic attraction is equilibrated by the magnetic repulsion between the opposite and colinear moments of the nucleons. Equilibrium is calculated by minimizing the electromagnetic interaction potential, giving a binding energy of 1.6 MeV, not much lower than the experimental value, 2.2 MeV. No fitting parameter is used: it is a true ab initio calculation
Deuterons and flow: At intermediate AGS energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kahana, D.E.; Pang, Y.; Kahana, S.H.
1996-06-01
A quantitative model, based on hadronic physics and Monte Carlo cascading is applied to heavy ion collisions at BNL-AGS and BEVALAC energies. The model was found to be in excellent agreement with particle spectra where data previously existed, for Si beams, and was able to successfully predict the spectra where data was initially absent, for Au beams. For Si + Au collisions baryon densities of three or four times the normal nuclear matter density (ρ 0 ) are seen in the theory, while for Au + Au collisions, matter at densities up to 10 ρ 0 is anticipated. The possibility that unusual states of matter may be created in the Au beams and potential signatures for its observation, in particular deuterons and collective flow, are considered
Deuteron breakup mechanism in the intermediate-energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Divadeenam, M.; Ward, T.E.
1991-01-01
In an earlier investigation, we have explored the possibility of explaining the deuteron breakup mechanism in terms of the Udagawa and Tannura (UT) formalism of the breakup-fusion process. The experimental doubly differential data were very well reproduced for the test case studies. However, the application of UT formalism of the spirit of DWBA involves the use of optical-model parameters for different nuclei and at different energies. The optical model parameters are not always unique. In the present study we investigate the deuteron breakup mechanism in terms of the semiclassical models of Serber (for the nuclear interaction part) and Dancoff (for the electromagnetic dissociation). In the case of Serber model the modification due to the finite range of the deuteron and the Glauber correction for the diffractive disassociation are considered. The modified deuteron breakup cross section either for the (d,p) or the (d,n) process is proportional to the product of the target radius and the deuteron radius (R target · R deuteron ). The predicted proton/neutron spectrum is centered around 1/2 E d and forward peaked. The Coulomb dissociation of deuteron is attributed to the deuteron dipole excitation in the presence of the nuclear Coulomb field. The neutron/proton spectrum, resulting from the Coulomb breakup of the deuteron, is highly forward peaked and also centered around 1/2 E d . The systematics of the deuteron breakup neutron/proton spectra are investigated for medium to heavy target nuclei at 50--200 MeV deuteron energies. 10 refs., 4 figs
Experimental study of the deuteron induced deuteron break-up at low energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cocu, F.; Ambrosino, G.; Guerreau, D.; Lachkar, J.
1974-07-01
The quasi-free scattering process has been studied from the d + D -> n + p + D reaction at 6 deuteron energies between 6.77 MeV to 11.7 MeV in steps of 1 MeV. Coincident events between neutron and charged-particle pulses (emitted protons or deuterons) have been recorded at angles of {theta}{sub p} = {theta}{sub d} = 19 deg 5 and {theta}{sub n} = 330 deg. Some calculations using the plane wave approximation account for the shape of the experimental cross sections but not for their magnitude. Two kinds of nucleon-nucleon forces are used and discussed.
Deuteron color degrees of freedom and deuteron break-up at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobushkin, A.P.
1992-01-01
Deuteron break-up reactions are analysed from a QCD-motivated point of view. Production of a nucleon with hard momentum is considered as a result of high gluon exchange between three quark clusters in hidden-color component of deuteron wave function. It is shown that the model reproduces well the nucleon momentum distribution extracted from (d,p)-reaction at high energy as well as the tensor analysing powers T 20 of this reaction and of the reaction of elastic pd-backward scattering. 19 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab. (author)
Intermediate energy nucleon-deuteron scattering theory.
Wilson, J. W.
1973-01-01
Sloan's conclusion (1969) that terms of the multiple-scattering series beyond single scattering contribute only to S- and P-wave amplitudes in an S-wave separable model is examined. A comparison of experiments with the calculation at 146 MeV shows that the conclusion is valid in nucleon-deuteron scattering applications.
Nucleon-deuteron low energy parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zankel, H.; Mathelitsch, L.
1983-01-01
Momentum space Fadeev equations are solved for nucleon-deuteron scattering and effective range parameters are calculated. A reverse trend is found in the two spin states by 4 asub(nd) 4 asub(pd) and 2 asub(pd) 2 asub(nd) which is in agreement with a configuration space calculation, but in conflict with all existing experiments. The Coulomb contributions to the effective range are small in quartet but sizeable in doublet scattering. (Author)
Surface energy anisotropy of tungsten
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, R; Grenga, H E [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (USA). School of Chemical Engineering
1976-10-01
Field-ion microscopy was used to study the faceting behavior and/or surface energy anisotropy of tungsten in vacuum and in hydrogen. In vacuum below 1700 K the activation energy for (110) facet growth agreed with values previously reported for surface diffusion on tungsten. The observed anisotropy values at 0.5 Tsub(m), where Tsub(m) is the absolute melting temperature of tungsten (approximately 3680 K), were different from those previously reported at higher temperatures and more nearly agreed with broken bond calculations based on Mie potential using m=5, n=8, and a 1.5% lattice expansion. Hydrogen appeared to have a negligible effect on surface energy anisotropy, but did preferentially increase surface diffusion rates on (310) regions.
Scattering of high energy electrons on deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grossetete, B.
1964-12-01
The aim of this work is to obtain information on the neutron form factor from the study of the scattering of electrons on deuterium. The first part is dedicated to the theoretical study of the elastic and inelastic scattering. We introduce different form factors: Sachs form factor, the Pauli and Dirac form factors, they appear in the analytic expression of the scattering cross-section. We show how the deuteron form factors can be deduced from neutron's and proton's form factors. In the case of the inelastic scattering we show how the cross section can be broken into components associated to partial waves and we obtain different formulas for the inelastic cross-section based on the Breit formula or the Durand formalism. The second part is dedicated to the experiment setting of electron scattering on deuterium. The elastic scattering experiment has been made on solid or liquid CD 2 targets while inelastic scattering has been studied on a liquid target. We have used an electron beam produced by the Orsay linear accelerator and the scattered electrons have been analysed by a magnetic spectrometer and a Cerenkov detector. The results give a very low value (slightly positive)for the charge form factor of the neutron and a magnetic form factor for the neutron slightly below that of the proton [fr
Energy Loss of Coasting Gold Ions and Deuterons in RHIC
Abreu, N P; Brown, K; Burkhardt, H; Butler, J; Fischer, W; Harvey, M; Tepikian, S
2008-01-01
The total energy loss of coasting gold ion beams at two different energies and deuterons at one energy were measured at RHIC, corresponding to a gamma of 75.2, 107.4 and 108.7 respectively. We describe the experiment and observations and compare the measured total energy loss with expectations from ionization losses at the residual gas, the energy loss due to impedance and synchrotron radiation. We find that the measured energy losses are below what is expected from free space synchrotron radiation. We believe that this shows evidence for suppression of synchrotron radiation which is cut off at long wavelength by the presence of the conducting beam pipe.
Low energy pion--nucleon and pion--deuteron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burman, R.L.
1975-01-01
This survey concentrates upon current experiments in the fields of pion-nucleon and pion-deuteron interactions, for low-energy incident pions--below 300 MeV. The discussion is restricted to very recent work. The topics to be covered are: π +- p → π +- p, Elastic Scattering; π +- p → π +- pγ, Bremsstrahlung; π + d → pp, Absorption; π d → π + d, Elastic Scattering; and π + d → π + pn, Breakup. (14 figures) (U.S.)
Nuclear photofissility in the quasi-deuteron energy region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paiva, E. de; Tavares, O.A.P.; Terranova, M.L.
2001-04-01
A two hundred experimental photofissility data obtained in the quasi-deuteron region (∼ 30 - 140 MeV) of photonuclear absorption covering the target nuclei 27 Al, n at Ti, 51 V, 154 Sm, 174 Yb, n at T Hf, 181 Ta, n a t W, nat Re, nat Os, n a t Pt, 197 Au, na t Tl, 208 Pb, nat Pb and 209 Bi have been analysed in the framework of the current, two-step model for intermediate-energy photofission reactions. The incoming photon is assumed to be absorber by a neutron-proton pair (Levinger's quasi-deuteron model), followed by a mechanism of evaporation-fission competition for the excited residual nuclei. The experimental features of photofissility have been reproduced successfully by the model. (author)
Singlet channel coupling in deuteron elastic scattering at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Khalili, J.S.; Tostevin, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.
1990-01-01
Intermediate energy deuteron elastic scattering is investigated in a three-body model incorporating relativistic kinematics. The effects of deuteron breakup to singlet spin intermediate states, on the elastic scattering observables for the 58 Ni(d vector, d) 58 Ni reaction at 400 and 700 MeV, are studied quantitatively. The singlet-breakup contributions to the elastic amplitude are estimated within an approximate two-step calculation. The calculation makes an adiabatic approximation in the intermediate states propagator which allows the use of closure over the np intermediate states continuum. The singlet channel coupling is found to produce large effects on the calculated reaction tensor analysing power A yy , characteristic of a dynamically induced second-rank tensor interaction. By inspection of the calculated breakup amplitudes we show this induced interaction to be of the T L tensor type. (orig.)
Quark-exchange effects in a deuteron breakup at intermediate energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobushkin, A.P.; Syamtomov, A.I.; Glozman, L.Ya.
1995-01-01
Microscopical approach to a deuteron breakup at high and intermediate energies is proposed. We show that the quark exchange effects, resulting from the full asymmetry of the 6q-deuteron wave function with respect to the pair permutations of quark variables, strongly affect the proton momentum distribution in the deuteron, as well as the polarization observables of inclusive deuteron breakup, when the '' internal momentum '' in the deuteron is of order of a few hundreds MeV/c. 25 refs., 2 tab., 9 figs
Quark-exchange effects in a deuteron breakup at intermediate energy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kobushkin, A P; Syamtomov, A I; Glozman, L Ya
1996-12-31
Microscopical approach to a deuteron breakup at high and intermediate energies is proposed. We show that the quark exchange effects, resulting from the full asymmetry of the 6q-deuteron wave function with respect to the pair permutations of quark variables, strongly affect the proton momentum distribution in the deuteron, as well as the polarization observables of inclusive deuteron breakup, when the `` internal momentum `` in the deuteron is of order of a few hundreds MeV/c. 25 refs., 2 tab., 9 figs.
Photodisintegration of the deuteron at high energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, R.J.
1992-01-01
Measurements of the angular distribution for the γd→+pn reaction were performed at SLAC for photon energies between 0.7 and 1.8 GeV (experiment NE8) and between 1.6 and 4.4. GeV (experiment NE17). The final results for experiment NE8 will be presented, but only preliminary results for NE17 will be discussed. The data at θ cm = 90 degrees appear to follow the constituent counting rules. The angular distribution at high photon energies exhibit large values of the cross section at forward angles. There is evidence that the cross section may also be large at backward angles and high energies
Pion deuteron scattering at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, E.M.
1978-09-01
A comparison is made of results of calculations of πd elastic scattering cross section using multiple scattering and three-body equations, in relation to their ability to reproduce the experimental data at intermediate energies. It is shown that the two methods of theoretical calculation give quite similar curves for the elastic differential cross sections, and that both fail in reproducing backward scattering data above 200MeV. The new accurate experimental data on πd total cross section as a function of the energy are confronted with the theoretical values obtained from the multiple scattering calculation through the optical theorem. Comparison is made between the values of the real part of the forward amplitude evaluated using dispersion relations and using the multiple scattering method [pt
On the theory for Coulomb break-up of deuterons by atomic nuclei at low energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grantsev, V.I.; Evlanov, M.V.
1982-01-01
The influence of a finite range of nuclear forces between nucleons in the deuteron on angular and energy distributions for products of deuteron disintegration by the Coulomb field of nucleus is investigated. This effect leads to the difference of differential cross sections of Coulomb deuteron disintegration from differential cross sections obtained in the framework of the approximation of the zero-radius interaction. Angular and energy dependences of differential cross sections of deuteron disintegration with the energy of 13.6 MeV on the 208 Pb nucleus are given [ru
Electron scattering from nucleons and deuterons at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkert, V.
1985-04-01
Recent results from electron scattering of nucleons and deuterons are discussed. A tentative physics program for ELSA employing the polarized electron beams as well as the polarized nucleon and deuteron target facilities is outlined. (orig.)
High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
2002-05-01
New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees
Calibration of PM-355 nuclear track detectors for low-energy deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Sadowski, M.J.; Czaus, K.
2008-01-01
A dependence of track diameters on deuteron energy was investigated for PM-355 nuclear track detectors. Deuteron streams were obtained from RPI-IBIS facility at the pulsed injection of deuterium. Mass and energy analysis was performed with a Thomson-type spectrometer and PM-355 samples. An etched deuteron parabola extended from about 20 keV to about 500 keV. The energy resolution of measurements on the parabola at 20 keV was ±0.2keV, and at 500 keV amounted to ±50keV. Accuracy of the determination of deuteron energies decreased for higher energy values. Results are presented in diagrams showing the track diameters as a function of deuteron energy for chosen etching times (1-8 h)
Deuteron stripping on beryllium target in the 100-2300 MeV energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lecolley, J.F.; Varignon, C.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lefebvres, F.; Louvel, M.; Thun, J.; Borne, F.; Martinez, E.; Menard, S.; Pras, P.; Boudard, A.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Frehaut, J.; Hanappe, F.; Ledoux, X.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Milleret, G.; Patin, Y.; Stuttge, L.; Terrien, Y.
1999-01-01
Cross sections for stripping and dissociation of deuterons interacting with Be targets in the 100-2300 MeV energy range have been measured. Comparisons with model calculations suggest a dominant contribution of the stripping process. It is also shown that the deuteron break-up cross section exhibits the same energy dependence as the nucleon-nucleon cross section. (orig.)
The quasi deuteron model for low energy pion absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gouweloos, M.
1986-01-01
In this thesis pion absorption in complex nuclei is studied in the quasi-deuteron model in which the pion is absorbed on a nucleon pair in the nucleus. The mechanism is studied in the low-energy domain since then the in-medium (pi→NN) operator turns out to be of simple character. In Ch. 2 and 3 this operator is constructed and analytical expressions are derived for (pi,NN) distributions in a plane wave impulse approximation for nuclei. The results turn out to be very useful for developing insight in the possibilities inherent in the QDM and the interpretation of the results in later chapters. Ch. 4 to 6 are devoted to the more realistic distorted wave calculations. In Ch. 4 the formal framework is presented and the calculational details are discussed. Ch.5 and 6 contain the comparison to stopped pion and in-flight data respectively. In Ch. 7 the main results are summarized. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1992-05-15
At the end of January, the 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (PS) at the Japanese KEK Laboratory successfully accelerated deuterons to 11.2 GeV (5.6 GeV/nucleon), the limiting energy for deuterons with this ring. Beam intensity in this test exceeded 3 x 10{sup 11} particles per pulse.
Compton Scattering from the Deuteron at Low Energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lundin, Magnus [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics
2002-05-01
A series of three Compton scattering experiments on deuterium have been performed at the high-resolution tagged-photon facility MAX-lab located in Lund, Sweden. The 50 < E{sub g} < 70 MeV tagged photons were scattered from a liquid deuterium target and detected simultaneously in three (10{sup x}10{sup )} NaI detectors. The average laboratory angles investigated were 45, 125 and 135 deg. The influence of the inelastic contribution was minimized by implementing a narrow elastic fit-region in the missing energy spectra. Absolute cross sections were extracted for average photon energies of 55 and 66 MeV at each angle and for each experiment. The extracted cross sections are in good agreement with those measured at Illinois by Lucas et al. The difference between the electric and magnetic isospin-averaged polarizabilities of the nucleon inside the deuteron, was varied within the calculations of Levchuk and L'vov to best reproduce the data, holding the sum fixed at 14.6 (10{sup -4} fm{sup 3}). The result implies that the electric polarizability of the neutron is the same as that of the proton within the experimental uncertainties. The result also indicates that the magnetic polarizability of the neutron is larger than that of the proton.
Compton Scattering from the Deuteron at Low Energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lundin, Magnus
2002-05-01
A series of three Compton scattering experiments on deuterium have been performed at the high-resolution tagged-photon facility MAX-lab located in Lund, Sweden. The 50 g x 10 ) NaI detectors. The average laboratory angles investigated were 45, 125 and 135 deg. The influence of the inelastic contribution was minimized by implementing a narrow elastic fit-region in the missing energy spectra. Absolute cross sections were extracted for average photon energies of 55 and 66 MeV at each angle and for each experiment. The extracted cross sections are in good agreement with those measured at Illinois by Lucas et al. The difference between the electric and magnetic isospin-averaged polarizabilities of the nucleon inside the deuteron, was varied within the calculations of Levchuk and L'vov to best reproduce the data, holding the sum fixed at 14.6 (10 -4 fm 3 ). The result implies that the electric polarizability of the neutron is the same as that of the proton within the experimental uncertainties. The result also indicates that the magnetic polarizability of the neutron is larger than that of the proton
Deuteron interaction with 124Sn nuclei at sub-barrier energies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu.N. Pavlenko
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The measurements of cross sections for deuteron elastic scattering and (d,p reaction on 124Sn nuclei have been performed with aim to study the features of sub-barrier deuteron interaction with heavy nuclei. Experimental data were obtained on the electrostatic Tandem accelerator EGP-10K of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Kyiv at the deuteron beam energies Ed = 4.0; 5.0 and 5.5 MeV. Cross sections of deuteron elastic scattering were calculated in approach where the deuteron interaction potential with heavy nuclei at sub-barrier energies has been constructed in the framework of single folding model using the complex dynamic polarization potential. It is shown that the account of finite deuteron size leads to the increasing the nuclear potential in outer region of interaction and significantly improves the description of the experimental data. The calculations of elastic scattering cross sections were performed without any variations of the nuclear potential parameters. The analysis of measured integral cross sections of the 124Sn(d,p reaction and calculated cross sections of deuteron breakup reaction 124Sn(d,pn124Sn shows the dominant contribution of the neutron transfer reaction in the processes of the formation of protons and elastic scattering cross sections.
Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy.
Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong
2015-11-20
We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV/u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities.
Plasma focus neutron anisotropy measurements and influence of a deuteron beam obstacle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talebitaher, A. [Physics Department, University of Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada S4S 0A2 (Canada); Springham, S.V., E-mail: stuart.springham@nie.edu.sg [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, 637616 (Singapore); Rawat, R.S.; Lee, P. [Natural Sciences and Science Education, National Institute of Education, 637616 (Singapore)
2017-03-11
The deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion neutron yield and anisotropy were measured on a shot-to-shot basis for the NX2 plasma focus (PF) device using two beryllium fast-neutron activation detectors at 0° and 90° to the PF axis. Measurements were performed for deuterium gas pressures in the range 6–16 mbar, and positive correlations between neutron yield and anisotropy were observed at all pressures. Subsequently, at one deuterium gas pressure (13 mbar), the contribution to the fusion yield produced by the forwardly-directed D{sup +} ion beam, emitted from the plasma pinch, was investigated by using a circular Pyrex plate to obstruct the beam and suppress its fusion contribution. Neutron measurements were performed with the obstacle positioned at two distances from the anode tip, and also without the obstacle. It was found that ~ 80% of the neutron yield originates in the plasma pinch column and just above that. In addition, proton pinhole imaging was performed from the 0° and 90° directions to the pinch. The obtained proton images are consistent with the conclusion that DD fusion is concentrated (~ 80%) in the pinch column region.
Target asymmetry measurement of deuteron photodisintegration at a photon energy of 550 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Althoff, K.H.; Anton, G.; Bock, B.; Bour, D.; Erbs, P.; Ferber, W.; Gelhausen, H.; Haertel, U.; Havenith, W.; Jahnen, T.; Kaufmann, H.P.; Kaul, O.; Luecking, B.; Menze, D.; Meyer, W.; Miczaika, T.; Rennings, K.; Riechert, H.; Roderburg, E.; Ruhm, W.; Schenuit, E.; Schilling, E.; Schwille, W.; Sternal, G.; Sundermann, D.; Thiel, W.; Thiesmeyer, D.; Wagener, K.
1984-01-01
The target asymmetry of the deuteron photodisintegration was measured at a photon energy of 550+-50 MeV and at proton center-off-mass angles between 25 and 155 degrees. D-butanol and ND 3 were used as target material yielding a maximum deuteron polarization of 41%. Proton and neutron were detected in coincidence. The data show a structure which cannot be described by the existing analyses. (orig.)
Nuclear reactions of high energy deuterons with medium mass targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numajiri, Masaharu; Miura, Taichi; Oki, Yuichi
1994-01-01
Formation cross sections of product nuclides in the nuclear reactions of medium mass targets by 10 GeV deuterons were measured with a gamma-ray spectroscopy. The measured data were compared with the cross sections of 12 GeV protons. (author)
Low energy deuteron-induced reactions on Fe isotopes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Bém, Pavel; Fischer, U.; Honusek, Milan; Katovsky, K.; Manailescu, C.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Šimečková, Eva; Závorka, Lukáš
2014-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), 044613 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross sections * proton spectra * polarized deuterons Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.733, year: 2014
Low-energy deuteron-induced reactions on Nb-93
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Bém, Pavel; Fischer, U.; Honusek, Milan; Koning, A.J.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Šimečková, Eva; Štefánik, Milan; Závorka, Lukáš
2013-01-01
Roč. 88, č. 1 (2013), 014612 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : deuteron-induced reactions * cross sections * breakup mechanism Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.881, year: 2013 http://prc.aps.org/pdf/PRC/v88/i1/e014612
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X. Z.; Wei, Q. M.; Liu, B.; Zhu, X. G.; Ren, S. L.
2007-01-01
Pursuing nuclear energy with no nuclear contamination has been a long endeavor since the first fission reactor in 1942. Four major concepts have been the key issues: i.e. resonance, negative feed back, self-sustaining, nuclear radiation. When nuclear energy was just discovered in laboratory, the key issue was to enlarge it from the micro-scale to the macro-scale. Slowing-down the neutrons was the key issue to enhance the fission cross-section in order to build-up the neutron flux through the chain-reactions using resonance between neutron and fissile materials. Once the chain-reaction was realized, the negative feed-back was the key issue to keep the neutron flux at the allowable level. The negative reaction coefficient was introduced by the thermal expansion, and the resonant absorption in cadmium or boron was used to have a self-sustaining fission reactor with neutron flux. Then the strong neutron flux became the origin of all nuclear contamination, and a heavy shielding limits the application of the nuclear energy. The fusion approach to nuclear energy was much longer; nevertheless, it evolved with the similar issues. The resonance between deuteron and triton was resorted to enlarge the fusion cross section in order to keep a self-sustaining hot plasma. However, the 14 MeV neutron emission became the origin of all nuclear contamination again. Deuteron plus helium-3 fusion reaction was proposed to avoid neutron emission although there are two more difficulties: the helium-3 is supposed to be carried back from the moon; and much more higher temperature plasma has to be confined while 50 years needed to realized the deuteron-triton plasma already. Even if deuteron plus helium-3 fusion plasma might be realized in a much higher temperature plasma, we still have the neutron emission from the deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction in the deuteron plus helium-3 fusion plasma. Polarized deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction was proposed early in 1980's to select the neutron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zolin, L S; Litvinenko, A G; Pilipenko, Yu K; Reznikov, S G; Rukoyatkin, P A; Fimushkin, V V
1998-12-01
The method of determining the tensor component of high energy polarized deuteron beams, based on measuring of the tensor analyzing power in the deuteron stripping reaction, is discussed. This method is convenient for monitoring during long time runs on the tensor polarized deuteron beams. The method was tested in the 5-days run at the LHE JINR accelerator with the 3 and 9 GeV/c tensor polarized deuterons. The results made it possible to estimate the beam polarization stability in time 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
1H(d,2p)n reaction at 2 GeV deuteron energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erohuml, J.; Fodor, Z.; Koncz, P.; Seres, Z.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Punjabi, V.; Boudard, A.; Bonin, B.; Garcon, M.; Lombard, R.; Mayer, B.; Terrien, Y.; Tomasi, E.; Boivin, M.; Yonnet, J.; Bhang, H.C.; Youn, M.; Belostotsky, S.L.; Grebenuk, O.G.; Nikulin, V.N.; Kudin, L.G.
1994-01-01
The 1 H(d,2p)n deuteron breakup reaction was measured at 2 GeV deuteron energy in a kinematically complete experiment. Fivefold differential cross sections are given in a wide range of kinematical variables and analyzed in terms of impulse approximation and NN rescattering. The deuteron momentum density was determined and deviations were found depending on the value of the four-momentum transfer |t| in the scattering process. At low |t| the momentum densities are in good agreement with the impulse approximation whereas large discrepancies were found above q∼200 MeV/c when the four-momentum transfer was large. Various possible origins of the anomalous behavior at high q values are discussed
The search for high-energy deuterons in the 3He +3He reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pigeon, R.; Slobodrian, R.J.
1979-01-01
High-energy deuterons have been detected from the 3 He + 3 He reaction with a system sensitive to cross-sections of 0.6 nb sr -1 . Several tests have permitted to evaluate the small contribution of spurious events. The deuterons are kenematically consistent with the reaction 3 He + 3 He→ 2 H + 4 He + e + +ν, but the measured cross-section at 20deg laboratory is too high for a weak-interaction process; (1.3 +- 0.2) nb sr -1 . It might be due to an interaction of intermediate strength causing the decay of pp pairs ( 3 He) into deuterons. Other alternatives and the implications concerning fusion processes and the production of neutrinos in the sun are discussed in the text
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moss, J.M.
1985-01-01
An overview of intermediate energy (80 to 1000 MeV) study contributions to the International Polarization Symposium in Osaka, Japan, August 1985 is presented in this report. Contributions fall into three categories: polarization transfer, polarized deuteron scattering and polarized (p,π +- ) reactions
The nuclear spin response to intermediate energy protons and deuterons at low momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, F.T.; Djalali, C.; Glashausser, C.; Lenske, H.; Love, W.G.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Wambach, J.
1997-01-01
Measurements of polarization transfer in the inelastic scattering of intermediate energy protons and deuterons have yielded a wealth of data on the spin response of nuclei. This work complements the well-known studies of Gamow-Teller strength in charge-exchange reactions. The emphasis here is on a consistent determination of the S=1, T=0 response, practical only with deuterons, and on the proper separation of S=0 and S=1 strength in proton spectra for appropriate comparison with sum rules. We concentrate on two nuclei, 40 Ca and 12 C, at momentum transfers below about 1 fm -1 and on excitations up to about 50 MeV. The continuum second random phase approximation provides the primary theoretical tool for calculating and interpreting the response in terms of properties of the nucleon-nucleon force inside the nuclear medium. The reaction mechanism is described by the DWIA, applied here to continuum proton scattering almost as rigorously as it is usually applied to low energy excitations. A new DWIA formalism for the description of spin observables in deuteron scattering is used. Comparison of the proton and deuteron data with each other and with RPA/DWIA calculations yields interesting insights into the current state of understanding of collectivity and the nuclear spin response. (orig.)
High energy angular distribution measurements of the exclusive deuteron photodisintegration reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulte, E. C.; A. Afanasev; M. Amarian; K. Aniol; S. Becher; K. Benslama; L. Bimbot; P. Bosted; E. Brash; J. Calarco; Z. Chai; C. Chang; T. Chang; J. P. Chen; S. Choi; E. Chudakov; S. Churchwell; D. Crovelli; S. Dieterich; S. Dumalski; D. Dutta; M. Epstein; K. Fissum; B. Fox; S. Frullani; H. Gao; J. Gao; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; V. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; R. J. Holt; J. Hovdebo; G. M. Huber; C. W. de Jager; X. Jiang; C. Jones; M. K. Jones; J. Kelly; E. Kinney; E. Kooijman; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; S. Malov; D. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; K. McCormick; D. Meekins; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; J. Mitchell; L. Morand; C. Perdrisat; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Punjabi; A. Radyushkin; R. Ransome; R. Roche; M. Rvachev; A. Saha; A. Sarty; D. Simon; S. Strauch; R. Suleiman; L. Todor; P. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; K. Wijesooriya; B. Wojtsekhowski; F. Xiong; W. Xu
2002-01-01
The first complete measurements of the angular distributions of the two-body deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section at photon energies above 1.6 GeV were performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The results show a persistent forward-backward asymmetry up to Egamma = 2.4 GeV, the highest-energy measured in this experiment. The Hard Rescattering and the Quark-Gluon string models are in fair agreement with the results
A tensor and vector polarimeter for deuterons at fusion energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kroell, Leonard; Engels, Ralf; Gregoryev, Kyril; Mikirtychiants, Maxim; Mikirtychiants, Sergey; Rathmann, Frank; Stroeher, Hans [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, FZ Juelich (Germany); Kravtsov, Peter; Vasilyev, Alexander [High Energy Physics Department, PNPI (Russian Federation); Paetz, Hans [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Hebbeker, Thomas [III. Physikalisches Institut A, RWTH, Aachen (Germany)
2010-07-01
Within the framework of an ISTC project the fusion reactions of double-polarized deuterium (vector (d)+vector (d){yields} {sup 3}H+p, vector (d)+vector (d){yields} {sup 3}He+n) will be analysed in order to study the influence of the vector and tensor polarization of the initial projectiles on the total cross sections. These results allow a conclusion on the change of the branching ration between the two fusion channels and, therefore, the neutron reduction for a future generation of fusion reactor. The measurements request the knowledge of the polarization of the deuteron beam and of the (gas)target. With an unpolarized target, the beam polarization can be determined by measuring the angular distributions of the outgoing particles ({sup 3}He, p and {sup 3}H) with use of the known analysing powers. Vice versa, additional data for the analysing powers can be obtained with a beam of known polarization, measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. The setup of the charged ejectile polarimeters is described.
Cosmic ray anisotropies at high energies
Martinic, N. J.; Alarcon, A.; Teran, F.
1986-01-01
The directional anisotropies of the energetic cosmic ray gas due to the relative motion between the observers frame and the one where the relativistic gas can be assumed isotropic is analyzed. The radiation fluxes formula in the former frame must follow as the Lorentz invariance of dp/E, where p, E are the 4-vector momentum-energy components; dp is the 3-volume element in the momentum space. The anisotropic flux shows in such a case an amplitude, in a rotating earth, smaller than the experimental measurements from say, EAS-arrays for primary particle energies larger than 1.E(14) eV. Further, it is shown that two consecutive Lorentz transformations among three inertial frames exhibit the violation of dp/E invariance between the first and the third systems of reference, due to the Wigner rotation. A discussion of this result in the context of the experimental anisotropic fluxes and its current interpretation is given.
Middle-energy electron anisotropies in the auroral region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Janhunen
2004-01-01
Full Text Available Field-aligned anisotropic electron distribution functions of T_{∥} > T_{⊥} type are observed on auroral field lines at both low and high altitudes. We show that typically the anisotropy is limited to a certain range of energies, often below 1keV, although sometimes extending to slightly higher energies as well. Almost always there is simultaneously an isotropic electron distribution at higher energies. Often the anisotropies are up/down symmetrical, although cases with net upward or downward electron flow also occur. For a statistical analysis of the anisotropies we divide the energy range into low (below 100eV, middle (100eV–1keV and high (above 1keV energies and develop a measure of anisotropy expressed in density units. The statistical magnetic local time and invariant latitude distribution of the middle-energy anisotropies obeys that of the average auroral oval, whereas the distributions of the low and high energy anisotropies are more irregular. This suggests that it is specifically the middle-energy anisotropies that have something to do with auroral processes. The anisotropy magnitude decreases monotonically with altitude, as one would expect, because electrons have high mobility along the magnetic field and thus, the anisotropy properties spread rapidly to different altitudes.
Key words. Magnetospheric physics (auroral phenomena. Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions; changed particle motion and acceleration
GAKER-KIRA, Energy Transfer of Protons in H2O or Polyethylene and Deuterons in D2O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stammler, R.J.J.
1965-01-01
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Evaluation of the energy transfer matrix and its first, second and third Legendre components for protons bound in water or polyethylene, and for deuterons bound in heavy water. Further output, the isotropic scattering matrix with diagonal elements corrected for first order anisotropy, scattering and transport cross sections, nth moment of energy transfer mn(e) (n=1,2,3), and Maxwellian averages of these moments, of the transport mean free path and of the scattering cross sections. 2 - Method of solution: For down-scattering the elements of the matrix are calculated directly from the analytical formulae (BNL 5826, p 69 FF (1961)). For scattering in the same speed (energy) group, a linear average is taken of four terms, scattering from the typical speed point of that group to four equidistant points in that same interval. Up-scattering elements are computed from detailed balance. The Bessel functions that appear are calculated following an algorithm due to Stegun and Abramowitz (see references). The anisotropic version of GAKER, which is due to Koppel and Young (see references) is also included in GAKER-KIRA, and the integration over the orientation angles is done by a 5-points Gauss quadrature. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum number of 55 speed groups is permitted
Polarization of protons produced in diffractive disintegration of deuterons by high-energy pions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gakh, G.Yi.; Rekalo, M.P.
1996-01-01
For the process of diffractive disintegration of unpolarized deuterons by the high-energy pions, π + d → π + p + n, the polarization characteristics of produced protons are calculated. Using the vector nature of the Pomeron exchange, the general structure of all components of proton polarization vector is found for d (π, π p) n. By the Pomeron-photon analogy, the amplitude of the process P + d → n + p is approximated by the isoscalar contribution of four Born diagrams similar to the case of deuteron electrodisintegration. Unitarization of the amplitude is achieved by introducing in multipole amplitudes the corresponding phases of np-scattering. The numerical calculation of all components of the polarization vector of protons, produced in the case of noncomplanar kinematics of the reaction π + d → π + p + n, is realized
Photodisintegration of the deuteron at medium and high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, T.S.H.
1991-01-01
We report the results from a unitary πNN calculation of γd →np reaction up to the Δ-excitation energy region, and the preliminary results from a light-front calculation at high energies. 7 refs., 3 figs
Polarization Measurements in High-Energy Deuteron Photodisintegration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam Sarty; Andrei Afanasev; Arunava Saha; Bogdan Wojtsekhowski; Brendan Fox; Chang, C.; Cathleen Jones; Charles Glashausser; Charles Perdrisat; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis De Jager; Cornelis de Jager; Crovelli, D.; Daniel Simon; David Meekins; Demetrius Margaziotis; Dipangkar Dutta; Edgar Kooijman; Edward Brash; Edward Kinney; Elaine Schulte; Eugene Chudakov; Feng Xiong; Franco Garibaldi; Garth Huber; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Guido Urciuoli; Haiyan Gao; James Kelly; Javier Gomez; Jens-Ole Hansen; Jian-Ping Chen; John Calarco; John LeRose; Jordan Hovdebo; Joseph Mitchell; Juncai Gao; Kamal Benslama; Kathy McCormick; Kevin Fissum; Konrad Aniol; Krishni Wijesooriya; Louis Bimbot; Ludyvine Morand; Luminita Todor; Marat Rvachev; Mark Jones; Martin Epstein; Meihua Liang; Michael Kuss; Moskov Amarian; Nilanga Liyanage; Oleksandr Glamazdin; Olivier Gayou; Paul Ulmer; Pete Markowitz; Peter Bosted; Holt, R.; Riad Suleiman; Richard Lindgren; Rikki Roche; Robert Michaels; Roman Pomatsalyuk; Ronald Gilman; Ronald Ransome; Salvatore Frullani; Scott Dumalski; Seonho Choi; Sergey Malov; Sonja Dieterich; Steffen Strauch; Stephen Becher; Steve Churchwell; Ting Chang; Viktor Gorbenko; Vina Punjabi; Xiaodong Jiang; Zein-Eddine Meziani; Zhengwei Chai; Wang Xu
2001-01-01
We present measurements of the recoil proton polarization for the d(polarized y, polarized p)n reaction at thetac.m. = 90 degrees for photon energies up to 2.4 GeV. These are the first data in this reaction for polarization transfer with circularly polarized photons. The induced polarization py vanishes above 1 GeV, contrary to meson-baryon model expectations, in which resonances lead to large polarizations. However, the polarization transfer Cx does not vanish above 1 GeV, inconsistent with hadron helicity conservation. Thus, we show that the scaling behavior observed in the d(y,p)n cross sections is not a result of perturbative QCD. These data should provide important tests of new nonperturbative calculations in the intermediate energy regime
Bianchi-V string cosmological model with dark energy anisotropy
Mishra, B.; Tripathy, S. K.; Ray, Pratik P.
2018-05-01
The role of anisotropic components on the dark energy and the dynamics of the universe is investigated. An anisotropic dark energy fluid with different pressures along different spatial directions is assumed to incorporate the effect of anisotropy. One dimensional cosmic strings aligned along x-direction supplement some kind of anisotropy. Anisotropy in the dark energy pressure is found to evolve with cosmic expansion at least at late times. At an early phase, the anisotropic effect due to the cosmic strings substantially affect the dynamics of the accelerating universe.
Studies of the deuteron at high energy and momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, R.J.
1993-01-01
Measurements of the tensor analyzing power T 20 are in progress at the 2-GeV electron storage ring (VEPP-3) in Novosibirsk. Preliminary results from the second phase of this experiment will be presented along with a discussion of the theoretical implications of the existing data. Measurements of the γd → pn reaction at photon energies above ∼ 1 GeV were performed at SLAC during experiments NE8 and NE17. The results for experiment NE8 are final while those for NE17 are preliminary. The results appear to be consistent with the constituent scaling law near θ CM =90 degrees, but inconsistent with the rule at a forward angle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ten Haken, R.K.; Awschalom, M.; Rosenberg, I.
1982-11-01
Neutron absorbed dose yields (absorbed dose rates per unit incident current on targets at a given SAD or SSD) increase with incident charged particle energy for both protons and deuterons. Analyses of neutron dose yield versus incident particle energy have been performed for both deuterons and protons. It is the purpose of this report to update those analyses by pooling all of the more recent published results and to reanalyze the trend of yield, Y, versus incident energy, E, which in the past has been described by an expression of the form Y = aE/sup b/, where a and b are empirical constants. From the reanalyzed trend it is concluded that for a given size cyclotron (E/sub p/ = 2E/sub d/), the dose yields using protons are higher than those using deuterons up to a proton energy E/sub p/ of 64 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jameson, R.A.
1989-01-01
There are many overall system aspects and tradeoffs that must be considered in the design of a deuteron linac based neutron source for materials research, in order to obtain a facility with the best possible response to the user's needs, efficient and reliable operation and maintenance, at the optimum construction and operating cost. These considerations should be included in the facility design from the earliest conceptual stages, and rechecked at each stage to insure consistency and balance. Some of system requirements, particularly that of beam energy variability and its implications, are outlined in this talk. (author)
High-energy elastic and quasi-elastic deuteron-nucleus scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tekou, Amouzou
1974-01-01
A study is made of deuteron-nucleus elastic and quasi-elastic scattering and the connection between the opaque nucleus model and the Glauber model is pointed out. The contributions to different cross-sections of the collisions in which the nucleus, excited by one of the nucleons of the deuteron, is brought back to the ground state by the other nucleon is analysed. Coherent deuteron disintegration is found to be highly improbable when the target nucleus is heavy and incoherent disintegration accounts for nearly all the deuteron disintegration. Thus a correct comparison between theoretical and experimental data on proton stripping must take the incoherent deuteron disintegration into consideration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, R.J.
1992-01-01
Two of the simplest nuclear reactions, electron deuteron elastic scattering and deuteron photodisintegration, will be discussed. In particular, measurements of the tensor analyzing power T 20 in e-d scattering performed with a polarized gas target in the VEPP-3 electron storage ring will be presented. In addition, measurements of deuteron photodisintegration at high energy performed at SLAC will be discussed. The meson-exchange calculations appear to agree well with al available data for electron-deuteron elastic scattering, while the constituent counting rules appear to describe the high-energy deuteron photodisintegration results at θcm = 90 degrees
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondarenko, S.G.; Burov, V.V.; Hamamoto, N.; Manabe, Y.; Hosaka, A.; Toki, H.
2005-01-01
Recent results obtained by the application of the Bethe-Salpeter approach to the analysis of elastic electron-deuteron scattering with the separable NN kernel are presented. We analyze the impact of the P waves (negative-energy components) on the electromagnetic properties of the deuteron and compare it with experimental data. It was shown that the contribution of the P waves must be taken into account to explain tensor polarization and charge form factor of the deuteron
Adolph, C; Akhunzyanov, R; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anfimov, N V; Anosov, V; Augsten, K; Augustyniak, W; Austregesilo, A; Azevedo, C D R; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, M; Barth, J; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bielert, E R; Birsa, R; Bodlak, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Chang, W-C; Chatterjee, C; Chiosso, M; Choi, I; Chung, S-U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Dreisbach, Ch; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Fuchey, E; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Giarra, J; Giordano, F; Gnesi, I; Gorzellik, M; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hahne, D; Hamar, G; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Heitz, R; Herrmann, F; Horikawa, N; d’Hose, N; Hsieh, C-Y; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jary, V; Joosten, R; Jorg, P; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O M; Kramer, M; Kremser, P; Krinner, F; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kulinich, Y; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lian, Y-S; Lichtenstadt, J; Longo, R; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makins, N; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marianski, B; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G V; Meyer, M; Meyer, W; Mikhailov, Yu V; Mikhasenko, M; Mitrofanov, E; Mitrofanov, N; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Novy, J; Nowak, W-D; Nukazuka, G; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peng, J-C; Pereira, F; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D V; Pierre, N; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Riedl, C; Roskot, M; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rybnikov, A; Rychter, A; Salac, R; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, C; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sawada, T; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schonning, K; Seder, E; Selyunin, A; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Smolik, J; Srnka, A; Steffen, D; Stolarski, M; Subrt, O; Sulc, M; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Tasevsky, M; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Thiel, A; Tosello, F; Tskhay, V; Uhl, S; Veloso, J; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wallner, S; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; ter Wolbeek, J; Zaremba, K; Zavada, P; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A
2016-01-01
Single hadron azimuthal asymmetries in the cross sections of positive and negative hadron production in muon semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons are determined using the 2006 COMPASS data and also all deuteron COMPASS data. For each hadron charge, the dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry on the hadron azimuthal angle $\\phi$ is obtained by means of a five-parameter fitting function that besides a $\\phi$-independent term includes four modulations predicted by theory: $\\sin\\phi$, $\\sin 2 \\phi$, $\\sin 3\\phi$ and $\\cos\\phi$. The amplitudes of the five terms have been first extracted for the data integrated over all kinematic variables. In further fits, the $\\phi$-dependence is determined as a function of one of three kinematic variables (Bjorken-$x$, fractional energy of virtual photon taken by the outgoing hadron and hadron transverse momentum), while disregarding the other two. Except the $\\phi$-independent term, all the modulation amplitudes are very small, and no cl...
Low-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Czakon, N.G.; Howell, C.R.; Hutcheson, A.; Kelley, J.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Mikhailov, S.F.; Pinayev, I.V.; Weisel, G.J.; Witala, H.
2003-01-01
The photon analyzing power for the photodisintegration of the deuteron was measured for seven gamma-ray energies between 2.39 and 4.05 MeV using the linearly polarized gamma-ray beam of the high-intensity gamma-ray source at the Duke Free-Electron Laser Laboratory. The data provide a stringent test of theoretical calculations for the inverse reaction, the neutron-proton radiative capture reaction at energies important for Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. Our data are in excellent agreement with potential model and effective field theory calculations. Therefore, the uncertainty in the baryon density Ω B h 2 obtained from Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis can be reduced at least by 20%
Low-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tornow, W.; Czakon, N.G.; Howell, C.R.; Hutcheson, A.; Kelley, J.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Mikhailov, S.F.; Pinayev, I.V.; Weisel, G.J.; Witala, H
2003-11-06
The photon analyzing power for the photodisintegration of the deuteron was measured for seven gamma-ray energies between 2.39 and 4.05 MeV using the linearly polarized gamma-ray beam of the high-intensity gamma-ray source at the Duke Free-Electron Laser Laboratory. The data provide a stringent test of theoretical calculations for the inverse reaction, the neutron-proton radiative capture reaction at energies important for Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. Our data are in excellent agreement with potential model and effective field theory calculations. Therefore, the uncertainty in the baryon density {omega}{sub B}h{sup 2} obtained from Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis can be reduced at least by 20%.
Production of (anti)deuterons in heavy-ion collisions at SPS energies
Kolesnikov, Vadim Ivanovich
2015-01-01
In this paper NA49 results on the production of deuterons and anti-deuterons in semi-central Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV are presented. Midrapidity transverse momentum spectra of d ( ̄ d ) are analysed in several centrality bins. A combined analysis of (anti)deuterons and (anti)protons iss performed in the framework of the coalescence model.
Methane formation during deuteron bombardment of carbon in the energy range of 100 to 1500 eV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sone, K.
1982-01-01
Methane (CD 4 ) formation rates during deuteron bombardment of carbon (Papyex) have been measured in the energy range of 100 to 1500 eV. The temperature dependence of the methane formation rate is well explained by the model proposed by Erents et al. in the temperature range of 600 to 1150 K. The model, however, does not explain the dependence of the methane formation rate on the flux of incident deuterons at a certain temperature near Tsub(m) at which the formation rate has a maximum value. An alternative model is proposed in which the methane formation rate is assumed to be proportional to the product of the following three parameters: the surface concentration of deuterium atoms, the chemical reaction rate for the formation of methane, and the rate of production of vacancies on the surface by the deuteron bombardment. This model predicts an energy dependence of methane formation which has a maximum around 900 eV even at different deuteron fluxes, when the calculated result by Weissman and Sigmund is used for the surface deposited energy responsible for the production of vacancies. (author)
Energy-based ferromagnetic material model with magnetic anisotropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steentjes, Simon, E-mail: simon.steentjes@iem.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Electrical Machines - RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Henrotte, François, E-mail: francois.henrotte@uclouvain.be [Institute of Mechanics Materials and Civil Engineering - UCL, Av. G. Lemaître 4-6, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hameyer, Kay [Institute of Electrical Machines - RWTH Aachen University, Schinkelstr. 4, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)
2017-03-01
Non-oriented soft magnetic materials are commonly assumed to be magnetically isotropic. However, due to the rolling process a preferred direction exists along the rolling direction. This uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the related magnetostriction effect, are critical to the accurate calculation of iron losses and magnetic forces in rotating electrical machines. This paper proposes an extension of an isotropic energy-based vector hysteresis model to account for these two effects. - Highlights: • Energy-based vector hysteresis model with magnetic anisotropy. • Two-scale model to account for pinning field distribution. • Pinning force and reluctivity are extended to anisotropic case.
Particle interaction with the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosa, L.P.
1974-09-01
A study of the particle deuteron interactions at low, intermediate and high energies is presented. The differential cross section for pion deuteron scattering, near the 33 resonance, is calculated considering the Fermi motion and the off energy shell effects. We present formulae for the calculation of correction to the incoherent production cross section on deuteron arising from the multiple scattering and interference; we apply them to the case K + → K 0 π + between 1. and 5 Gev/c. is introduced. A relativistic correction to the double scattering Glauber formula and is done an application to the rho photoproduction on deuteron at high energies
Deuteron polarizability and S-wave π+d scattering at energies below 1 keV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pupyshev, V.V.
1987-01-01
The influence of deuteron polarizability on the S-wave π + d-scattering in a low-energy limit is explored in the framework of the variable phase method. It is shown that the nonoscillating part of the S-wave cross section of π + d-scattering has a deep and sharp minimum in the energy region ∼ 0.4 keV
Production of deuterons in hA collisions at high energies in the target fragmentation region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braun, M.A.; Vechernin, V.V.
1987-01-01
The production of relativistic deuterons in the target fragmentation region is studied. It is shown that for fast deuterons the role of the nuclear field is small and is not determined by the Butler-Pearson formulae. The main contribution comes from the direct coalescence into the deuteron of nucleons produced either at one point in the nucleus or at two different points. In the forward hemisphere for purely geometrical reasons the production at two points dominates, whereas in the backward hemisphere (the ''cumulative region'') the production at one point and at two different points may give contributions of the same order
Deuteron microscopic optical model potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Hairui; Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Xu Yongli
2010-01-01
A deuteron microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear-matter approximation and local-density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The microscopic optical model potential is used to calculate the deuteron reaction cross sections and the elastic scattering angular distributions for some target nuclei in the mass range 6≤A≤208 with incident deuteron energies up to 200 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.
Cross-sections of residual nuclei from deuteron irradiation of thin thorium target at energy 7 GeV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vespalec Radek
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The residual nuclei yields are of great importance for the estimation of basic radiation-technology characteristics (like a total target activity, production of long-lived nuclides etc. of accelerator driven systems planned for transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and for a design of radioisotopes production facilities. Experimental data are also essential for validation of nuclear codes describing various stages of a spallation reaction. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to add new experimental data in energy region of relativistic deuterons, as similar data are missing in nuclear databases. The sample made of thin natural thorium foil was irradiated at JINR Nuclotron accelerator with a deuteron beam of the total kinetic energy 7 GeV. Integral number of deuterons was determined with the use of aluminum activation detectors. Products of deuteron induced spallation reaction were qualified and quantified by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy method. Several important spectroscopic corrections were applied to obtain results of high accuracy. Experimental cumulative and independent cross-sections were determined for more than 80 isotopes including meta-stable isomers. The total uncertainty of results rarely exceeded 9%. Experimental results were compared with MCNP6.1 Monte-Carlo code predictions. Generally, experimental and calculated cross-sections are in a reasonably good agreement, with the exception of a few light isotopes in a fragmentation region, where the calculations are highly under-estimated. Measured data will be useful for future development of high-energy nuclear codes. After completion, final data will be added into the EXFOR database.
Anti-deuteron sensitivity studies at LHCb
Baker, Sophie Katherine
2018-01-01
Measurements of anti-deuterons in collider experiments can help to reduce systematic uncertainties in indirect searches for dark matter. Two predominant unknowns in these searches are the production of secondary anti-deuterons in the cosmos from spallation processes, and anti-deuteron production from annihilating dark matter. LHCb is a forward spectrometer on the LHC ring, designed to measure b-hadron decays from high energy proton-proton collisions. With the detector's excellent particle identification capabilities, deuteron and anti-deuteron measurements at LHCb could help to parametrise the two cosmological processes. Recent studies of (anti-)deuteron identification at LHCb and the prospects for measuring prompt (anti-)deuterons from pp-collisions will be presented, as well as a working analysis of b-baryrons decaying to deuterons.
Polarization of recoil deuteron in ed elastic scattering at medium energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhalerao, R. S.
1981-12-01
Vector and tensor polarizations of the recoil deuteron in ed elastic scattering are calculated for THETA=0deg-180deg and q 2 2 . A longitudinally polarized electron beam is assumed to scatter off an unpolarized deuteron target. Calculations are made in the relativistic impulse approximation using a recently described approach based on the Bethe-Salpeter equation. Results are different, at high q 2 even qualitatively so, from those of a non-relativistic calculation, and a relativistic calculation which takes the spectator nucleon on-mass-shell. In the light of these results a recent suggestion that the polarization measurements would throw new light on the off-shell behavior and tensor force strength of the NN interaction are reexamined. Results are also presented for the three deuteron form factors Gsub(C), Gsub(Q), and Gsub(M), and the often-needed related quantities Ssub(S), Ssub(Q), and Ssub(M). The latter results may have an important implication in high-momentum transfer reactions involving deuteron. (author)
The Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau formalism and intermediate-energy deuteron-nucleus scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozack, R.E.; Clark, B.C.; Hama, S.; Mishra, V.K.; Kaelbermann, G.; Mercer, R.L.; Ray, L.
1988-01-01
The spin-1 Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau (KDP) equations are described and applied to deuteron-nucleus scattering. Comparison with d + 58 Ni elastic scattering data at 400 MeV shows that the KDP model; reproduces experimental spin observables very well. 11 refs., 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurennoy, S.S.; O'Hara, J.F.; Rybarcyk, L.J.
2008-01-01
We are developing a compact deuteron-beam accelerator up to the deuteron energy of a few MeV based on room-temperature inter-digital H-mode (IH) accelerating structures with the transverse beam focusing using permanent-magnet quadrupoles (PMQ). Combining electromagnetic 3-D modeling with beam dynamics simulations and thermal-stress analysis, we show that IHPMQ structures provide very efficient and practical accelerators for light-ion beams of considerable currents at the beam velocities around a few percent of the speed of light. IH-structures with PMQ focusing following a short RFQ can also be beneficial in the front end of ion linacs.
Parton self-energies for general momentum-space anisotropy
Kasmaei, Babak S.; Strickland, Michael
2018-03-01
We introduce an efficient general method for calculating the self-energies, collective modes, and dispersion relations of quarks and gluons in a momentum-anisotropic high-temperature quark-gluon plasma. The method introduced is applicable to the most general classes of deformed anisotropic momentum distributions and the resulting self-energies are expressed in terms of a series of hypergeometric basis functions which are valid in the entire complex phase-velocity plane. Comparing to direct numerical integration of the self-energies, the proposed method is orders of magnitude faster and provides results with similar or better accuracy. To extend previous studies and demonstrate the application of the proposed method, we present numerical results for the parton self-energies and dispersion relations of partonic collective excitations for the case of an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy. Finally, we also present, for the first time, the gluon unstable mode growth rate for the case of an ellipsoidal momentum-space anisotropy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Senga, T.; Sakane, H.; Shibata, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Kasugai, Yoshimi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment
2000-03-01
Using a Ti-deuteron target in the neutron energy range between 2 and 4.5 MeV and a deuteron gas target between 4.5 and 7 MeV, mono-energetic neutrons could be generated enough for activation cross section measurements. The KN-3750 Van de Grraff accelerator at Nagoya University and the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) were used. Preliminary results of activation cross sections were obtained for reactions of {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg, {sup 47}Ti(n,p){sup 47}Sc, {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co. The evaluation data of JENDL-3.2 showed reasonable agreement with our results. (author)
Big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background anisotropies and dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Signore, Monique; Puy, Denis
2002-01-01
Over the last decade, cosmological observations have attained a level of precision which allows for very detailed comparison with theoretical predictions. We are beginning to learn the answers to some fundamental questions, using information contained in Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy (CMBA) data. In this talk, we briefly review some studies of the current and prospected constraints imposed by CMBA measurements on the neutrino physics and on the dark energy. As it was already announced by Scott, we present some possible new physics from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
Ab initio studies of magnetic anisotropy energy in highly Co-doped ZnO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Łusakowski, A., E-mail: lusak@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Szuszkiewicz, W. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, PL-02668 Warsaw (Poland); Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, ul. S. Pigonia 1, PL-35959 Rzeszów (Poland)
2017-03-15
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the energy of magnetic anisotropy for diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn,Co)O were performed using OpenMX package with fully relativistic pseudopotentials. The analysis of the band spin-orbit interaction and the magnetic ion's surrounding on magnetic anisotropy have been provided. As a result, the calculations show that the magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O solid solution, mainly of the single ion anisotropy type has been caused by Co ions. - Highlights: • The magnetic anisotropy in (Zn,Co)O is mainly due to anisotropy of single cobalt ion. • The magnetic anisotropy of (Zn,Co)O strongly depends on the nearest neighborhood of magnetic ion including local lattice deformations. • For (Zn,Co)O the energy of magnetic anisotropy is described by second order terms in magnetization.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timus, D.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Timus, B.D.; Kalla, S.L.; Srivastava, H.M.
2000-01-01
This paper is an analytical study of the spatial dependency of the d-T neutron energy in the vicinity of a homogeneous tritium-occluded plane target. Close to the target, and along the path of incidence of axially symmetric deuteron beams, the transverse density of accelerated deuterons is assumed to be governed by a law approximated by the 'Witch' function. In particular circumstances, the elementary neutron emission process in non-dispersive media can be considered to be omni-directional (due consideration being paid to collision kinetics, depending upon mass and kinetic energy of particles involved in the nuclear collision, nuclear reaction energy, etc.). Consequently, analytical expressions can be considerably simplified. By applying the classical kinetic energy and momentum conservation laws to nuclear processes, a theoretical description is obtained, taking into account the exoergic character of d-T fusion reaction. A number of expressions for energetic prediction of the fast neutron field are proposed. The associated relations, involving elementary functions, can be investigated using a desk-top computer. Computationally tractable tools are of importance in the study of diverse situations such as induced reactions and activation analysis using 14 MeV neutron generators, investigations in health-physics, radiation dose measurements, nuclear medicine, damage effects, and simulation studies
Photodisintegration of aligned deuterons at astrophysical energies using linearly polarized photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shilpashree, S.P.; Sirsi, Swarnamala; Ramachandran, G.
2013-01-01
Following the model independent approach to deuteron photodisintegration with linearly polarized γ-rays, we show that the measurements of the tensor analyzing powers on aligned deuterons along with the differential cross-section involve five different linear combinations of the isovector E1 ν j ; j = 0, 1, 2 amplitudes interfering with the isoscalar M1 s and E2 s amplitudes. This is of current interest in view of the recent experimental finding [M. A. Blackston et al., Phys. Rev. C78 (2008) 034003] that the three E1 ν j amplitudes are distinct and also the reported experimental observation [B. D. Sawatzky, Ph.D. thesis, University of Virginia (2005)] on the front–back (polar angle) asymmetry in the differential cross-section. (author)
On theory of π-mesons low-energy scattering on the deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zubarev, A.L.; Irgaziev, B.F.; Podkopaev, A.P.; Fridman, A.A.
1979-01-01
The pion-deuteron scattering length is calculated using the equations derived by application of Shwinger variational principle to the strongly coupled channel method. The dependence upon the πN-scattering lengths, effective radii and shape of the NN potential is studied. The πN interaction is described by local potentials. The contribution given by closed channels to the πd-scattering length is shown to be of 30 %
Elastic scattering of polarized deuterons from 40Ca and 58Ni at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, N. van; Arvieux, J.; Yanlin, Y.; Gaillard, G.; Bonin, B.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Lugol, J.C.; Babinet, R.; Hasegawa, T.; Soga, F.; Cameron, J.M.; Neilson, G.C.; Sheppard, D.M.
1985-01-01
Angular distributions of cross section, and Asub(y) and Asub(yy) analyzing powers were measured for polarized deuteron elastic scattering from 58 Ni at 200, 400 and 700 MeV, and 40 Ca at 700 MeV. Phenomenological potentials were obtained from an optical model analysis of the data. The total reaction cross sections deduced were compared to predictions from the Glauber theory optical limit. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, M. W.; Blackston, M. A.; Perdue, B. A.; Tornow, W.; Weller, H. R.; Norum, B.; Sawatzky, B.; Prior, R. M.; Spraker, M. C.
2008-01-01
It is shown that a measurement of the analyzing power obtained with linearly polarized γ-rays and an unpolarized target can provide an indirect determination of two physical quantities. These are the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn (GDH) sum rule integrand for the deuteron and the sum rule integrand for the forward spin polarizability (γ 0 ) near photodisintegration threshold. An analysis of data for the d(γ-vector,n)p reaction and other experiments is presented. A fit to the world data analyzed in this manner gives a GDH integral value of -603±43μb between the photodisintegration threshold and 6 MeV. This result is the first confirmation of the large contribution of the 1 S 0 (M1) transition predicted for the deuteron near photodisintegration threshold. In addition, a sum rule value of 3.75±0.18 fm 4 for γ 0 is obtained between photodisintegration threshold and 6 MeV. This is a first indirect confirmation of the leading-order effective field theory prediction for the forward spin-polarizability of the deuteron
The thick-target 9Be(d,n) neutron spectra for deuteron energies between 2.6 and 7.0-MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meadows, J.W.
1991-11-01
The measurement of the zero deg. neutron spectra and yields from deuterons incident on thick beryllium metal targets is described. 235 U and 238 U fission ion chambers were used as neutron detectors to span the neutron energy range above 0.05-MeV with a time resolution of ≤ 3 nanosec. Measurements were made for incident deuteron energies from 2.6 to 7.0-MeV, at 0.4-MeV intervals, using time-of-flight techniques with flight paths of 2.7 and 6.8 meters. The results are presented in graphical form and in tables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montarou, G.
1988-01-01
Deuteron production in collisions between alpha-particle and carbon, copper or lead target nuclei at 200, 400, 600 and 800 MeV (Mega-electron Volt) per nucleon have been measured by using the large solid angle detector DIOGENE. Nucleus-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies offer the possibility of studying the properties of highly excited nuclear matter at high density and temperature. Among the different observables measured for the determination of the nuclear matter equation of state, light fragment production measurements has raised considerable interest during the last years because of the close relationship between entropy and nuclear cluster formation. In chapter 1, a general presentation of the main experimental and theoretical aspects of the relativistic heavy ion collision is presented. Chapter 2 is devoted to the description of the detector DIOGENE used at the SATURNE (Saclay-France) accelerator. This detector can measure simultaneously the momenta, masses and emission angles of most of the particles (pions, protons, deuterons ...) emitted in each collision. The chapter 3 describes the method used in order to extract from the raw data the momentum, mass and emission angles of each particle measured in the detector. The deuteron production in central relativistic heavy ion collision is reviewed in chapter 4. Then we present the results of deuteron production measurements, using the DIOGENE detector. In chapter 5 deuteron differential cross-sections are compared with theoretical predictions obtained with intra-nuclear cascade model. In chapter 6 deuteron differential cross-sections are presented for the most central reactions. These spectra are investigated in order to extract the size of the interaction region at the end of the collision. Finally the deuteron-to-proton ratio is studied in relationship with the proton number measured in each event; this ratio is used to evaluate the entropy per nucleon in the most central collisions [fr
Activation cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on niobium in the 30–50 MeV energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A.V.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural niobium up to 50 MeV. • Stacked foil irradiation technique. • Comparison of results with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TENDL-2015 calculations. • Application of radioisotopes in medicine and industry. - Abstract: Activation cross-sections of deuterons induced reactions on Nb targets were determined with the aim of different applications and comparison with theoretical models. We present the experimental excitation functions of "9"3Nb(d,x)"9"3"m","9"0Mo, "9"2"m","9"1"m","9"0Nb, "8"9","8"8Zr and "8"8","8"7"m","8"7"gY in the energy range of 30–50 MeV. The results were compared with earlier measurements and with the cross-sections calculated by means of the theoretical model codes ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (on-line TENDL-2014 and TENDL-2015 libraries). Possible applications of the radioisotopes are discussed in detail.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Komarov, V I; Kosarev, G E; Reshetnikov, G P; Savchenko, O V; Tesh, Z
1974-12-31
The high energy parts of the spectra of fast deuterons, which are knocked out from Li, Be and C targets by protons at a 5.5 deg lab. angle with proton energies of 666, 578, 484 and 382 MeV were measured. The cross sections of quasi-elastic deuteron knock-out obtained are compared with the corresponding cross sections of elastic pd-scattering at energies mentioned above. The evaluations of the effective number of two-nucleon clusters are discussed, which have been obtained taking into account (in the Glauber approximation) the incident proton and knocked-out deuteron interactions with nuclear nucleons. The results show the common behavior of the scattering mechanism responsible for elastic pd- and quasi-elastic proton backward scattering with large momentum transfer to two-nucleon clusters. The energy dependence of the deuteron production cross section at the energy kinematically corresponding to the p + N yields d + pi process on tanget nucleons is close to that of the cross section for the p + p yields d + pi /sup +/ process. (auth)
A new perspective on anisotropy and multiple energy gaps in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milkove, K.R.; Bostock, J.; MacVicar, M.L.A.
1976-01-01
New perspective on superconducting anisotropy and multiple energy gaps: direct experimental evidence shows that widely accepted anisotropy and multiple energy gap interpretations of tunneling data are consistent with a voltage divider model and may not relate to intrinsic superconducting properties. The model also accounts for other common data anomalies. (author)
First measurement of coherent $\\phi$-meson photoproduction on deuteron at low energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsutomu Mibe; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Hicks; Kevin Kramer; Stepan Stepanyan; David Tedeschi; Moscov Amaryan; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Marco Anghinolfi; G. Asryan; Gerard Audit; Harutyun Avakian; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Nathan Baillie; Jacques Ball; Nathan Baltzell; Marco Battaglieri; Ivan Bedlinski; Ivan Bedlinskiy; Matthew Bellis; Nawal Benmouna; Barry Berman; Angela Biselli; Lukasz Blaszczyk; Sylvain Bouchigny; Sergey Boyarinov; Robert Bradford; Derek Branford; William Briscoe; William Brooks; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Sharon Careccia; Daniel Carman; Shifeng Chen; Philip Cole; Patrick Collins; Philip Coltharp; Donald Crabb; Hall Crannell; Volker Crede; John Cummings; Natalya Dashyan; Rita De Masi; Raffaella De Vita; Enzo De Sanctis; Pavel Degtiarenko; Alexandre Deur; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Richard Dickson; Chaden Djalali; Gail Dodge; Joseph Donnelly; David Doughty; Michael Dugger; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Lamiaa Elfassi; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Paul Eugenio; Gleb Fedotov; Gerald Feldman; Herbert Funsten; Michel Garcon; Gagik Gavalian; Gerard Gilfoyle; Kevin Giovanetti; Francois-Xavier Girod; John Goetz; Atilla Gonenc; Christopher Gordon; Ralf Gothe; Keith Griffioen; Michel Guidal; Nevzat Guler; Lei Guo; Vardan Gyurjyan; Cynthia Hadjidakis; Kawtar Hafidi; Hayk Hakobyan; Rafael Hakobyan; Charles Hanretty; John Hardie; F. Hersman; Ishaq Hleiqawi; Maurik Holtrop; Charles Hyde; Charles Hyde-Wright; Yordanka Ilieva; David Ireland; Boris Ishkhanov; Eugeny Isupov; Mark Ito; David Jenkins; Hyon-Suk Jo; John Johnstone; Kyungseon Joo; Henry Juengst; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kellie; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Andreas Klein; Franz Klein; Alexei Klimenko; Mikhail Kossov; Zebulun Krahn; Laird Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; Joachim Kuhn; Sebastian Kuhn; Sergey Kuleshov; Viacheslav Kuznetsov; Jeff Lachniet; Jean Laget; Jorn Langheinrich; David Lawrence; Tsung-shung Lee; Ji Li; Kenneth Livingston; Haiyun Lu; Marion MacCormick; Claude Marchand; Nikolai Markov; Paul Mattione; Bryan McKinnon; Bernhard Mecking; Joseph Melone; Mac Mestayer; Curtis Meyer; Konstantin Mikhaylov; Ralph Minehart; Marco Mirazita; Rory Miskimen; Viktor Mokeev; Kei Moriya; Steven Morrow; M. Moteabbed; E. Munevar; Gordon Mutchler; P. Nadel-Turonski; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Silvia Niccolai; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Bogdan Niczyporuk; Megh Niroula; Rustam Niyazov; Mina Nozar; Mikhail Osipenko; Alexander Ostrovidov; K. Park; Evgueni Pasyuk; Craig Paterson; S. Anefalos Pereira; Joshua Pierce; Nikolay Pivnyuk; Dinko Pocanic; Oleg Pogorelko; S. Pozdniakov; John Price; Yelena Prok; Dan Protopopescu; Brian Raue; Gregory Riccardi; Giovanni Ricco; Marco Ripani; Barry Ritchie; Federico Ronchetti; Guenther Rosner; Patrizia Rossi; Franck Sabatie; Julian Salamanca; Carlos Salgado; Joseph Santoro; Vladimir Sapunenko; Reinhard Schumacher; Vladimir Serov; Youri Sharabian; Dmitri Sharov; Nikolay Shvedunov; Elton Smith; Lee Smith; Daniel Sober; Daria Sokhan; A. Stavinsky; Samuel Stepanyan; B.E. Stokes; Paul Stoler; I.I. Strakovsky; Steffen Strauch; Mauro Taiuti; Ulrike Thoma; Avtandil Tkabladze; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Luminita Todor; Clarisse Tur; Maurizio Ungaro; Michael Vineyard; Alexander Vlassov; Daniel Watts; Lawrence Weinstein; Dennis Weygand; M. Williams; Elliott Wolin; Michael Wood; Amrit Yegneswaran; Lorenzo Zana; Jixie Zhang; Bo Zhao; Zhiwen Zhao
2007-11-01
The cross section and decay angular distributions for the coherent \\phi meson photoproduction on the deuteron have been measured for the first time up to a squared four-momentum transfer t =(p_{\\gamma}-p_{\\phi})^2 =-2 GeV^2/c^2, using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The cross sections are compared with predictions from a re-scattering model. In a framework of vector meson dominance, the data are consistent with the total \\phi-N cross section \\sigma_{\\phi N} at about 10 mb. If vector meson dominance is violated, a larger \\sigma_{\\phi N} is possible by introducing larger t-slope for the \\phi N \\to \\phi N process than that for the \\gamma N \\to \\phi N process. The decay angular distributions of the \\phi are consistent with helicity conservation.
Alekseev, M G; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Austregesilo, A; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Brona, G; Burtin, E; Bussa, M P; Chaberny, D; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Colantoni, M; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Dasgupta, S S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Diaz, V; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Efremov, A; El Alaoui, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; Friedrich, J M; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gazda, R; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Heß, C; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; Höppner, Ch; d’Hose, N; Ilgner, C; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jasinski, P; Jegou, G; Joosten, R; Kabuß, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konopka, R; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kowalik, K; Krämer, M; Kral, A; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuhn, R; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Lauser, L; Le Goff, J M; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Liska, T; Maggiora, A; Maggiora, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Massmann, F; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Moinester, M A; Mutter, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nassalski, J; Negrini, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B; Perevalova, E; Pesaro, G; Peshekhonov, D V; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pontecorvo, G; Pretz, J; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Ramos, S; Rapatsky, V; Reicherz, G; Richter, A; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, H; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmitt, L; Schopferer, S; Schröder, W; Shevchenko, O Yu; Siebert, H W; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Takekawa, S; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Tkatchev, L G; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Vossen, A; Weitzel, Q; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zhao, J; Zhuravlev, N; Zvyagin, A
2010-01-01
Azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of positive (h^+) and negative hadrons (h^-) have been measured by scattering 160 GeV muons off longitudinally polarised deuterons at CERN. The asymmetries were decomposed in several terms according to their expected modulation in the azimuthal angle phi of the outgoing hadron. Each term receives contributions from one or several spin and transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions. The amplitudes of all phi-modulation terms of the hadron asymmetries integrated over the kinematic variables are found to be consistent with zero within statistical errors, while the constant terms are nonzero and equal for h^+ and h^- within the statistical errors. The dependencies of the phi-modulated terms versus the Bjorken momentum fraction x, the hadron fractional momentum z, and the hadron transverse momentum p_h^T were studied. The x dependence of the constant terms for both positive and negative hadrons is in agreement with the longitudin...
The anisotropy of cosmic ray particles in the energy range 1011-1019 eV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Chunxian
1985-01-01
A study of the anisotropy of primary cosmic ray is presented. The expression of the anisotropy is derived in a model of statistical discrete sources in an infinite galaxy. Using these derived formulas, the amplitudes of the first harmonic anisotropies caused by eleven supernovea nearby the Earth are estimated individually and the trend of the resultant anisotropy is investigated. It is found that the expected results can account for the power law of Esup(0.5) of the anisotropy above the energy 5 x 10 15 eV. The Compton-getting effect can cause an additional anisotropy which is independent of energy and added to the resultant anisotropy of these discrete sources. It is apparent that the anisotropies available in the low energy range 10 11 - 10 14 eV are caused by the Compton-Getting effect. Taking the differential spectrum index γ = 2.67 measured in the same energy bound we get the streaming velocity of 35 km/s with respect to the cosmic ray background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alekseev, M.G.; Colantoni, M.; Maggiora, A.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Efremov, A.; Finger, M.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Perevalova, E.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rapatsky, V.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Savin, I.A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Vlassov, N.V.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Zavertyaev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Bertini, R.; Bussa, M.P.; Chiosso, M.; Garfagnini, R.; Gnesi, I.; Grasso, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Maggiora, M.; Parsamyan, B.; Piragino, G.; Rocco, E.; Sosio, S.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Gazda, R.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kurek, K.; Nassalski, J.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Rondio, E.; Sandacz, A.; Wislicki, W.; Barth, J.; Klein, F.; Panknin, R.; Pretz, J.; Windmolders, R.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Burtin, E.; El Alaoui, A.; Ferrero, A.; Hose, N. d'; Jegou, G.; Kunne, F.; Le Goff, J.M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Neyret, D.; Platchkov, S.; Robinet, F.; Bernhard, J.; Chaberny, D.; Harrach, D. von; Jasinski, P.; Kabuss, E.; Koblitz, S.; Korzenev, A.; Ostrick, M.; Pochodzalla, J.; Siebert, H.W.; Bettinelli, M.; Duennweber, W.; Faessler, M.; Geyer, R.; Rajotte, J.F.; Schlueter, T.; Uman, I.; Zvyagin, A.; Birsa, R.; Bravar, A.; Dalla Torre, S.; Gobbo, B.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Eversheim, P.D.; Hinterberger, F.; Jahn, R.; Joosten, R.; Massmann, F.; Negrini, T.; Bordalo, P.; Franco, C.; Nunes, A.S.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Santos, H.; Silva, L.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Duic, V.; Giorgi, M.; Levorato, S.; Martin, A.; Pesaro, G.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Sozzi, F.; Takekawa, S.; Brona, G.; Chung, S.U.; Friedrich, J.M.; Grabmueller, S.; Grube, B.; Haas, F.; Hoeppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konopka, R.; Kraemer, M.; Kuhn, R.; Mann, A.; Nagel, T.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Schmitt, L.; Uhl, S.; Weitzel, Q.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Diaz, V.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dhara, L.; Sarkar, S.; Sinha, L.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Donskov, S.V.; Filin, A.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kolosov, V.N.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Lednev, A.A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Polyakov, V.A.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Doshita, N.; Kondo, K.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Richter, A.; Schroeder, W.; Teufel, A.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Kang, D.; Koenigsmann, K.; Lauser, L.; Nerling, F.; Schill, C.; Schopferer, S.; Vossen, A.; Wollny, H.; Gautheron, F.; Hess, C.; Kisselev, Yu.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Gerassimov, S.; Konorov, I.; Goertz, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Matsuda, T.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ilgner, C.; Iwata, T.; Michigami, T.; Kouznetsov, O.; CEA IRFU/SPhN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette; Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies and University of Warsaw, Warsaw; Lichtenstadt, J.; Moinester, M.A.; Mallot, G.K.; Stolarski, M.; Marzec, J.; Padee, A.; Sulej, R.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Mutter, A.; Panzieri, D.; Polak, J.; Srnka, A.; Sulc, M.; Zhao, J.
2010-01-01
Azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of positive (h + ) and negative hadrons (h - ) have been measured by scattering 160 GeV muons off longitudinally polarised deuterons at CERN. The asymmetries were decomposed in several terms according to their expected modulation in the azimuthal angle φ of the outgoing hadron. Each term receives contributions from one or several spin and transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions. The amplitudes of all φ-modulation terms of the hadron asymmetries integrated over the kinematic variables are found to be consistent with zero within statistical errors, while the constant terms are nonzero and equal for h + and h - within the statistical errors. The dependencies of the φ-modulated terms versus the Bjorken momentum fraction x, the hadron fractional momentum z, and the hadron transverse momentum p h T were studied. The x dependence of the constant terms for both positive and negative hadrons is in agreement with the longitudinal double-spin hadron asymmetries, measured in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering. The x dependence of the sin φ-modulation term is less pronounced than that in the corresponding HERMES data. All other dependencies of the φ-modulation amplitudes are consistent with zero within the statistical errors. (orig.)
A new model for elastic deuteron-deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etim, E.; Satta, L.
1988-01-01
Straightforward application of the Glauber multiple scattering theory is drammatically challenged by data on elastic deuteron-deuteron scattering. The challenge has been argued to be met by an improved representation of the ground state wave function of the deuteron as an admixture of S-and D-waves. In the light of the failure of the Glauber and geometrical picture models in general, to explain proton-proton and proton-antiproton scattering data up to and including collider energies and for all momentum transfers, this argument becomes less and less compelling and more and more unconvincing. A model inspired by unitarity and which produces substantial elastic scattering through a unitarity sum over a specific class of intermediate states is presented. The model fits not only deuteron-deuteron, but also proton-proton, proton-antiproton and αN -> αN (N =α, d, He 3 ) data for all energies and momentum transfers. No detailed knowledge of ground state wave functions is required
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saraf, S.K.; Brient, C.E.; Egun, P.M.; Grimes, S.M.; Mishra, V.; Pedroni, R.S.
1988-05-10
The response of BC-404 plastic scintillator is measured up to 11 MeV for protons and up to 8 MeV for deuterons using a time-of-flight spectrometer. It is shown that the response is nonlinear in this energy range and can be described very well using a four-term polynomial in energy. Earlier response curves which were extrapolated from high energy data and from interpolation of low energy data at widely separated energies are nearly linear in the low energy region. A comparison has been made between our new measured data and the existing curves.
Electromagnetic Structure of the Deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franz Gross
2002-01-01
Recent high energy measurements of elastic ed scattering support the use of a relativistic theory based on an accurate description of the NN channel, but theory needed for an understanding of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration cross sections and polarized observables is not yet mature
Roy, Arijit; Gururajan, M P
2017-01-01
A wide variety of morphologies arise due to the tetragonal anisotropy in interfacial free energy. In this paper, we report on a family of Extended Cahn-Hilliard (ECH) models for incorporating tetragonal anisotropy in interfacial free energy. We list the non-zero and independent parameters that are introduced in our model and list the constraints on them. For appropriate choice of these parameters, our model can produce a many of the morphologies seen in tetragonal systems such as di-pyramids,...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merkel, R.
1992-11-01
Within the framework of this thesis it has been achieved to complete the tagging system TOPAS 1 including all aspects of hardware, software and calibration procedures. In addition, TOPAS 1, has been integrated into SAPHIR successfully, thus adding an indispensable tool for making physical measurements. Initial data analysis of the double Pion production at the Deuteron proved the basic function and usability of the tagging system in measuring total cross sections, also comprising their dependence on photon energy. (orig.) [de
Effect of anisotropy on the magnon energy gap in a two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiu Rongke; Liang Jing; Li Qingfeng; Zhang Zhidong; Song Panpan; Hong Xiaomin
2009-01-01
The magnon energy bands or spectra in a two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice are studied. It is found that a modulated energy gap exists in the magnon energy band along K x direction perpendicular to the superlattice plane, which is different from the optical magnon gap at K x =0. The anisotropy, the spin quantum numbers and the interlayer exchange couplings all affect the magnon energy gap. If the anisotropy exists, there will be no acoustic energy branch in the system. There is a competition effect of the anisotropy and the spin quantum number on the magnon energy gap. The competition achieves a balance at the zero energy gap, at which the symmetry of the system is higher. The two energy spectra of the two-layer ferromagnetic superlattice are lowered with increasing temperature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zachariou, Nicholas [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)
2012-05-20
Deuteron photodisintegration is a benchmark process for the investigation of the role of quarks and gluons in nuclei. Existing theoretical models of this process describe the available cross sections with the same degree of success. Therefore, spin-dependent observables are crucial for a better understanding of the underlying dynamical mechanisms. However, data on the induced polarization (P _{y}), along with the polarization transfers (C_{x} and C_{z} ), have been shown to be insensitive to differences between theoretical models. On the other hand, the beam-spin asymmetry {Sigma} is predicted to have a large sensitivity and is expected to help in identifying the energy at which the transition from the hadronic to the quark-gluon picture of the deuteron takes place. Here, the work done to determine the experimental values of the beam-spin asymmetry in deuteron photodisintegration for photon energies between 1.1 - 2.3 GeV is presented. The data were taken with the CLAS at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility during the g13 experiment. Photons with linear polarization of ~80% were produced using the coherent bremsstrahlung facility in Hall B. The work done by the author to calibrate a specific detector system, select deuteron photodisintegration events, study the degree of photon polarization, and finally determine the azimuthal asymmetry and any systematic uncertainties associate with it, is comprehensively explained. This work shows that the collected data provide the kinematic coverage and statistics to test the available QCD-based models. The results of this study show that the available theoretical models in their current state do not adequately predict the azimuthal asymmetry in the energy region 1.1 - 2.3 GeV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adam, J.; Baldin, A.A.; Chilap, V.
2014-01-01
Experiments with a natural uranium target assembly QUINTA exposed to 4- and 8 GeV deuteron beams of the Nuclotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) are analyzed. The 129 I, 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, nat U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 241 Am radioactive samples were installed on the surface of the QUINTA set-up and irradiated with secondary neutrons. The neutron flux through the RA samples was monitored by Al foils. The reaction rates of 27 Al(n, y 1 ) 24 Na, 27 Al(n, y 2 ) 22 Na and 27 Al(n, y 3 ) 7 Be reactions with the effective threshold energies of 5, 27 and 119 MeV were measured at both 4- and 8-GeV deuteron beam energies. The average neutron fluxes between the effective threshold energies and the effective ends of the neutron spectra (which are 800 or 1000 MeV for energy of 4- or 8-GeV deuterons) were determined. The evidence for the intensity shift of the neutron spectra to higher neutron energies with the increase of the deuteron energy from 4 to 8 GeV was found from the ratios of the average neutron fluxes. The reaction rates and the average neutron fluxes were calculated with MCNPX2.7 and MARS15 codes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barit, I.Ya.; Balashko, Yu.G.; Dul'kova, L.S.; Zavarzina, V.P.; Romanova, T.A.
1975-01-01
An investigation is described of a possibility of recording 700 to 950 keV deuterons with fine-grain type T-3 and P-9 photoemulsion in vacuum and in a helium atmosphere, allowance being made for a possible variation in photolayer parameters during long exposures of an 10 to 14 days. To eliminate the exfoliation of emulsions from the glass as a result of staying for long in vacuum, they have been first kept in an spirit-glycerine mixture and then dried in a special drier at room temperature. Such pretreatment may result in changes in photoemulsion moderating capability as well as in the shrinkage coefficient. Therefore the moderating capability and the shrinkage coefficients of the photoemulsions treated by the method described above have been estimated. The obtained results show that the treatment with spirit-glycerine mixture may cause an increse in track length not more than by 1.5 to 3%, if at all, this value being within the accuracy limits of track measurements. The shrinkage coefficient for plates soaked with spirit-glycerine mixture turns out to be equal to that of untreated ones. Investigation of a possible change in emulsion layer thickness during long exposure in helium atmosphere (240 hours) and in vacuum (approximately 100 hours) show a 15% decrease in the shrinkage coefficient. Investigation of the effect of long staying of plates in vacuum and dry helium atmosphere indicates the decrease in track length due to pumping various additives the emulsions contain. The investigation carried out proves the possibility of using types T-3 and P-9 nuclear emulsions for recording low-energy charged particles at long exposures in vacuum (approximately 0.01 torr) and a dry neutral gas medium accounting for possible changes in the photolayer nuclear emulsions for recording low-energy charged particles at long exposures in vacuum (approximately 0.01 torr) and a dry neutral gas medium accounting for possible changes in the photolayer [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobushkin, A.P.; Vizireva, L.
1981-01-01
A study of the nature of the short-range few-nucleon correlations in nuclei is proposed in the polarized high-energy deuteron fragmentation experiments. The presence of 6q-state in deuteron with probability of several percents is shown to change essentially the cross-section behaviour of this process in the momentum region where the fraction of the deuteron momentum carried out by proton in the infinite momentum frame is about 0.78. It is shown how the character of the cross-section of the transverse polarized deuteron fragmentation is changed depending on the parameters of 6q-admixure in deuteron [ru
DUBNA: Relativistic deuterons in the Nuclotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1994-01-01
At the Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research - JINR, Dubna - 17-29 March saw the first physics run of the superconducting Nuclotron (July/August 1993, page 9). The run began just after completion of a synchrophasotron polarized deuteron run. In accordance with the programme, a polarized deuteron beam was injected and accelerated up to 100 MeV nucleon. Subsequently the ''Polaris'' polarized deuteron source was replaced by the duoplasmatron (providing unpolarized particles) and Nuclotron operation continued for physics
Correlations among observables in the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering at low energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frederico, T.; Goldman, I.D.
1984-01-01
The 2 S amplitude of the n-d elastic scattering appears like function of the dublet ( 2 a) scattering length in the three nucleons calculations. The correlation of Kcotg 2 δ o with 2 a, with separable N-N potential calculations, is obtained and the result is independent of the N-N potential. The 2 δ o (n-d) values obtained with these lines, using 2 a=.65F (experimental value), agree with p-d data. 2 S and 4 S scattering amplitude and tritium energy (E T ) calculations are performed with the zero-range model and an alternative deduction is proposed. These results for the E T and Kcotg 2 δ o correlation with 2 a show the limitations of this model. (L.C.) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tornow, W.; Howell, C.R.; Alohali, M.; Chen, Z.P.; Felsher, P.D.; Hanly, J.M.; Walter, R.L.; Weisel, G. (Duke Univ., Durham, NC (USA). Dept. of Physics Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (USA)); Mertens, G. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Slaus, I. (Institut Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Witala, H.; Gloeckle, W. (Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 2)
1991-03-28
Data for the analyzing power A{sub y}({theta}) for the elastic scattering of neutrons from deuterons have been measured at 5.0, 6.5 and 8.5 MeV to an accuracy of +-0.0035. Surprisingly large differences have been observed at these low energies between the data and rigorous Faddeev calculations using the Paris and Bonn B nucleon-nucleon potentials. The A{sub y}({theta}) data provide a stringent test for our present understanding of the on-shell and off-shell {sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2} nucleon-nucleon interactions. (orig.).
Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology
Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.
2001-04-01
In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.
The energy spectrum of neutrons from 7Li(d,n)8Be reaction at deuteron energy 2.9 MeV
Mitrofanov, Konstantin V.; Piksaikin, Vladimir M.; Zolotarev, Konstantin I.; Egorov, Andrey S.; Gremyachkin, Dmitrii E.
2017-09-01
The neutron beams generated at the electrostatic accelerators using nuclear reactions T(p,n)3He, D(d,n)3He, 7Li(p,n)7Be, T(d,n)4He, 7Li(d,n)8Be, 9Be(d,n)10B are widely used in neutron physics and in many practical applications. Among these reactions the least studied reactions are 7Li(d,n)8Be and 9Be(d,n)10B. The present work is devoted to the measurement of the neutron spectrum from 7Li(d,n)8Be reaction at 0∘ angle to the deuteron beam axis on the electrostatic accelerator Tandetron (JSC "SSC RF - IPPE") using activation method and a stilbene crystal scintillation detector. The first time ever 7Li(d,n)8Be reaction was measured by activation method. The target was a thick lithium layer on metallic backing. The energy of the incident deuteron was 2.9 MeV. As activation detectors a wide range of nuclear reactions were used: 27Al(n,p)27Mg, 27Al(n,α)24Na, 113In(n,n')113mIn, 115In(n,n')115mIn, 115In(n,γ)116mIn, 58Ni(n,p)58mCo, 58Ni(n,2n)57Ni, 197Au(n,γ)198Au, 197Au(n,2n)196Au, 59Co(n,p)59Fe, 59Co(n,2n)58m+gCo, 59Co (n,g)60Co. Measurement of the induced gamma-activity was carried out using HPGe detector Canberra GX5019 [1]. The up-to-date evaluations of the cross sections for these reactions were used in processing of the data. The program STAYSL was used to unfold the energy spectra. The neutron spectra obtained by activation detectors is consistent with the corresponding data measured by a stilbene crystal scintillation detector within their uncertainties.
The energy spectrum of neutrons from 7Li(d,n8Be reaction at deuteron energy 2.9 MeV
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitrofanov Konstantin V.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The neutron beams generated at the electrostatic accelerators using nuclear reactions T(p,n3He, D(d,n3He, 7Li(p,n7Be, T(d,n4He, 7Li(d,n8Be, 9Be(d,n10B are widely used in neutron physics and in many practical applications. Among these reactions the least studied reactions are 7Li(d,n8Be and 9Be(d,n10B. The present work is devoted to the measurement of the neutron spectrum from 7Li(d,n8Be reaction at 0∘ angle to the deuteron beam axis on the electrostatic accelerator Tandetron (JSC “SSC RF – IPPE” using activation method and a stilbene crystal scintillation detector. The first time ever 7Li(d,n8Be reaction was measured by activation method. The target was a thick lithium layer on metallic backing. The energy of the incident deuteron was 2.9 MeV. As activation detectors a wide range of nuclear reactions were used: 27Al(n,p27Mg, 27Al(n,α24Na, 113In(n,n'113mIn, 115In(n,n'115mIn, 115In(n,γ116mIn, 58Ni(n,p58mCo, 58Ni(n,2n57Ni, 197Au(n,γ198Au, 197Au(n,2n196Au, 59Co(n,p59Fe, 59Co(n,2n58m+gCo, 59Co (n,g60Co. Measurement of the induced gamma-activity was carried out using HPGe detector Canberra GX5019 [1]. The up-to-date evaluations of the cross sections for these reactions were used in processing of the data. The program STAYSL was used to unfold the energy spectra. The neutron spectra obtained by activation detectors is consistent with the corresponding data measured by a stilbene crystal scintillation detector within their uncertainties.
Study of the high energy Cosmic Rays large scale anisotropies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Illuminati, Giulia
2016-01-01
We present the analysis method used to search for an anisotropy in the high energy Cosmic Rays arrival distribution using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. ANTARES is a neutrino detector, where the collected data are dominated by a large background of cosmic ray muons. Therefore, the background data are suitable for high-statistics studies of cosmic rays in the Northern sky. The main challenge for this analysis is accounting for those effects which can mimic an apparent anisotropy in the muon arrival direction: the detector exposure asymmetries, non-uniform time coverage, diurnal and seasonal variation of the atmospheric temperature. Once all these effects have been corrected, a study of the anisotropy profiles along the right ascension can be performed. (paper)
Search for Δ-Δ component in deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asai, M.; Endo, I.; Harada, M.
1989-10-01
We investigated the Δ-Δ states in deuteron by Δ-spectator method in γd reaction. No candidates for spectator Δ ++ originating in deuteron were observed. An upper limit of the Δ-Δ state in deuteron was estimated as 0.14 % at the 95 % CL. This limit is consistent with most of the existing data, but it is incompatible with an earlier measurement with photons of higher energies. (author)
Exclusive nuclear reactions: Can you count on the deuteron?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, R.J.
1991-01-01
Three of the simplest nuclear reactions -- (1) electron-deuteron elastic scattering, (2) electro-disintegration of the deuteron near threshold and at high momentum transfer, and (3) photodisintegration of the deuteron at high energy -- were believed to have unique signatures for OCD effects in nuclei. The progress in the past few years with regard to these reactions will be traced and the results will be compared with recent theoretical predictions. 36 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab
Zachariou, N.; Ilieva, Y.; Berman, B. L.; Ivanov, N. Ya.; Sargsian, M. M.; Avakian, R.; Feldman, G.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Anderson, M. D.; Pereira, S. Anefalos; Avakian, H.; Badui, R. A.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Baturin, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Compton, N.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; Alaoui, A. El; Fassi, L. El; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Forest, T. A.; Fradi, A.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glazier, D. I.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P. T.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeeev, V. I.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moutarde, H.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Net, L. A.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration
2015-05-01
The beam-spin asymmetry, Σ , for the reaction γ d →p n has been measured using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) for six photon-energy bins, between 1.1 and 2.3 GeV, and proton angles in the center-of-mass frame, θc .m ., between 25∘ and 160∘. These are the first measurements of beam-spin asymmetries at θc .m .=90∘ for photon-beam energies above 1.6 GeV, and the first measurements for angles other than θc .m .=90∘ . The angular and energy dependence of Σ is expected to aid in the development of QCD-based models to understand the mechanisms of deuteron photodisintegration in the transition region between hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom, where both effective field theories and perturbative QCD cannot make reliable predictions.
Cosmological anisotropy from non-comoving dark matter and dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2013-01-01
We consider a cosmological model in which the two major fluid components of the Universe, dark energy and dark matter, flow with distinct four-velocities. This cosmological configuration is equivalent to a single anisotropic fluid, expanding with a four-velocity that is an appropriate combination of the two fluid four-velocities. The energy density of the single cosmological fluid is larger than the sum of the energy densities of the two perfect fluids, i.e., dark energy and dark matter, respectively, and contains a correction term due to the anisotropy generated by the differences in the four-velocities. Furthermore, the gravitational field equations of the two-fluid anisotropic cosmological model are obtained for a Bianchi type I geometry. By assuming that the non-comoving motion of the dark energy and dark matter induces small perturbations in the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker type cosmological background, and that the anisotropy parameter is small, the equations of the cosmological perturbations due to the non-comoving nature of the two major components are obtained. The time evolution of the metric perturbations is explicitly obtained for the cases of the exponential and power law background cosmological expansion. The imprints of a non-comoving dark energy - dark matter on the Cosmic Microwave Background and on the luminosity distance are briefly discussed, and the temperature anisotropies and the quadrupole are explicitly obtained in terms of the metric perturbations of the flat background metric. Therefore, if there is a slight difference between the four-velocities of the dark energy and dark matter, the Universe would acquire some anisotropic characteristics, and its geometry will deviate from the standard FLRW one. In fact, the recent Planck results show that the presence of an intrinsic large scale anisotropy in the Universe cannot be excluded a priori, so that the model presented in this work can be considered as a
Santilli’s hadronic mechanics of formation of deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhondge, Sudhakar S.
2015-01-01
In the present communication a brief review of the structure of deuteron proposed by Professor Santilli [1, 2] and its physical properties have been presented. Although Deuteron is a simple molecule, quantum mechanics has been unable to explain its different properties like the spin, magnetic moment, binding energy, stability, charge radius, dipole moment, etc. However, the Hadronic Mechanics developed by Santilli and applied by him [1, 2] to deuteron has succeeded in explaining the above properties to the scientific satisfaction. Santilli proposed Deuteron as a three body system which could take care of all the insufficiencies of quantum mechanics
The deuteron bound state wave function with tensor forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takemasa, Tadashi
1991-01-01
A FORTRAN program named DEUTERON is developed to calculate the binding energy and wave function of a deuteron, when the interaction between two nucleons is described in terms of central, tensor, spin-orbit, and quadratic LS potentials with or without a hard core. An important use of the program is to provide the deuteron wave function required in nuclear reaction calculations involving a deuteron. Also, this program may be employed in nuclear Hartree-Fock calculations using an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction with a tensor component. (author)
Scaling of anisotropy flows in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Y.G.; Yan, T.Z.; Cai, X.Z.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Guo, W.; Liu, G.H.; Ma, C.W.; Ma, E.J.; Shen, W.Q.; Shi, Y.; Su, Q.M.; Tian, W.D.; Wang, H.W.; Wang, K.
2007-01-01
Anisotropic flows (v 1 , v 2 and v 4 ) of light nuclear clusters are studied by a nucleonic transport model in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions. The number-of-nucleon scalings of the directed flow (v 1 ) and elliptic flow (v 2 ) are demonstrated for light nuclear clusters. Moreover, the ratios of v 4 /v 2 2 of nuclear clusters show a constant value of 1/2 regardless of the transverse momentum. The above phenomena can be understood by the coalescence mechanism in nucleonic level and are worthy to be explored in experiments
Investigation of the 14N/d,α/12C reaction at Esub(d)=640-310 keV deuteron energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakr, M.H.S.; Hunyadi, I.; Schlenk, G.; Somogyi, G.; Valek, A.
1974-01-01
Angular distributions of the α 0 , α 1 , α 2 , and α 3 groups from the 14 N/d,α/ 12 C reaction have been measured at deuteron energies 640, 510, and 350 keV using solid state track detectors. Semiconductor detector was used to measure the excitation functions of the α 0 and α 1 groups from the same reaction in the energy range 640-310 keV at THETAsub(lab)=90 0 . The absolute cross-section values are given for the alpha groups investigated. The experimentally obtained angular distributions have been analysed in terms of Legendre polynomials. The measured relative intensity ratios of the α 0 , α 1 , and α 3 groups could be reproduced by a simple calculation assuming statistical compound reaction mechanism. (B.T.)
Theoretical analysis of low-energy proton and helium anisotropies in the outer heliosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forman, M.A.; McDonald, F.B.
1982-01-01
Analysis of the anisotropies of low-energy protons and helium near the ecliptic plane at 12 AU in 1977 reported by McDonald and Forman, in terms of the standard convection-diffusion and drift expressions, and using the observed gradients and spectral indices, shows that their mean free paths are approximately 10 AU parallel to the mean magnetic field, that k perpendicular may be substantially larger than k transverse 2 /k parallel and that these particles may be flowing radially
Characterization of Deuteron-Deuteron Neutron Generators
Waltz, Cory Scott
A facility based on a next-generation, high-flux D-D neutron generator (HFNG) was commissioned at the University of California Berkeley. The characterization of the HFNG is presented in the following study. The current generator design produces near mono-energetic 2.45 MeV neutrons at outputs of 108 n/s. Calculations provided show that future conditioning at higher currents and voltages will allow for a production rate over 1010 n/s. Characteristics that effect the operational stability include the suppression of the target-emitted back streaming electrons, target sputtering and cooling, and ion beam optics. Suppression of secondary electrons resulting from the deuterium beam striking the target was achieved via the implementation of an electrostatic shroud with a voltage offset of greater than -400 V relative to the target. Ion beam optics analysis resulted in the creation of a defocussing extraction nozzle, allowing for cooler target temperatures and a more compact design. To calculate the target temperatures, a finite difference method (FDM) solver incorporating the additional heat removal effects of subcooled boiling was developed. Validation of the energy balance results from the finite difference method calculations showed the iterative solver converged to heat removal results within about 3% of the expected value. Testing of the extraction nozzle at 1.43 mA and 100 kV determined that overheating of the target did not occur as the measured neutron flux of the generator was near predicted values. Many factors, including the target stopping power, deuterium atomic species, and target loading ratio, affect the flux distribution of the HFNG neutron generator. A detailed analysis to understand these factors effects is presented. Comparison of the calculated flux of the neutron generator using deuteron depth implantation data, neutron flux distribution data, and deuterium atomic species data matched the experimentally calculated flux determined from indium foil
The 270 MeV deuteron beam polarimeter at the Nuclotron Internal Target Station
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurilkin, P.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow State Institute of Radio-engineering Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Ladygin, V.P., E-mail: vladygin@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow State Institute of Radio-engineering Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Uesaka, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suda, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Gurchin, Yu.V.; Isupov, A.Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Itoh, K. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama (Japan); Janek, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Physics Department, University of Zilina, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia); Karachuk, J.-T. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Kawabata, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Khrenov, A.N.; Kiselev, A.S.; Kizka, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Institute of Physics of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krasnov, V.A.; Livanov, A.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maeda, Y. [Kyushi University, Hakozaki (Japan); Malakhov, A.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Matousek, V.; Morhach, M. [Institute of Physics of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)
2011-06-21
A deuteron beam polarimeter has been constructed at the Internal Target Station at the Nuclotron of JINR. The polarimeter is based on spin-asymmetry measurements in the d-p elastic scattering at large angles and the deuteron kinetic energy of 270 MeV. It allows to measure vector and tensor components of the deuteron beam polarization simultaneously.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Weiqiang Yang
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The coupling between dark energy and dark matter provides a possible approach to mitigate the coincidence problem of the cosmological standard model. In this paper, we assumed the interacting term was related to the Hubble parameter, energy density of dark energy, and equation of state of dark energy. The interaction rate between dark energy and dark matter was a constant parameter, which was, Q = 3 H ξ ( 1 + w x ρ x . Based on the Markov chain Monte Carlo method, we made a global fitting on the interacting dark energy model from Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background anisotropy and observational Hubble data. We found that the observational data sets slightly favored a small interaction rate between dark energy and dark matter; however, there was not obvious evidence of interaction at the 1 σ level.
Semiclassical model of deuteron dissociation in the Coulomb-Nuclear field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aleshin, V.P.; Sidorenko, B.I.
1995-01-01
We consider the survival probability of a deuteron which moves in the field of a heavy nucleus. This quantity was calculated within a semiclassical approach to the intrinsic motion within a deuteron and in the framework of an approach which makes use of the imaginary part of the phenomenological deuteron optical potential. A close agreement is obtained between these approaches in a broad range of deuteron energies and orbital momenta
The effect of anisotropy on the thermodynamics of the interacting holographic dark energy model
Hossienkhani, H.; Jafari, A.; Fayaz, V.; Ramezani, A. H.
2018-02-01
By considering a holographic model for the dark energy in an anisotropic universe, the thermodynamics of a scheme of dark matter and dark energy interaction has been investigated. The results suggest that when holographic dark energy and dark matter evolve separately, each of them remains in thermodynamic equilibrium, therefore the interaction between them may be viewed as a stable thermal fluctuation that brings a logarithmic correction to the equilibrium entropy. Also the relation between the interaction term of the dark components and this thermal fluctuation has been obtained. Additionally, for a cosmological interaction as a free function, the anisotropy effects on the generalized second law of thermodynamics have been studied. By using the latest observational data on the holographic dark energy models as the unification of dark matter and dark energy, the observational constraints have been probed. To do this, we focus on observational determinations of the Hubble expansion rate H( z). Finally, we evaluate the anisotropy effects (although low) on various topics, such as the evolution of the statefinder diagnostic, the distance modulus and the spherical collapse from the holographic dark energy model and compare them with the results of the holographic dark energy of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker and Λ CDM models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballot, J.L.; Eiro, A.M.; Robilotta, M.R.
1988-12-01
A potential containing the OPEP tail and regularized at the origin by means of three parameters is used to construct several families of deuterons, which are employed in the assessment of the influence of the inner parts of the potential over observables such as Υ m , η and Q. The off-energy shell extrapolation of the results is considered, so as to provide guide-lines for the treatment of other systems such as the triton. We also show that, provided the central potential contains an OPEP tail, the value of η is determined with great precision by just the inner part of the tensor component of the interaction
Effects of Low Anisotropy on Generalized Ghost Dark Energy in Galileon Gravity
Hossienkhani, H.; Fayaz, V.; Jafari, A.; Yousefi, H.
2018-04-01
The definition of the Galileon gravity form is extended to the Brans-Dicke theory. Given, the framework of the Galileon theory, the generalized ghost dark energy model in an anisotropic universe is investigated. We study the cosmological implications of this model. In particular, we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of this dark energy in Bianchi type I model. We also probe observational constraints by using the latest observational data on the generalized ghost dark energy models as the unification of dark matter and dark energy. In order to do so, we focus on observational determinations of the Hubble expansion rate (namely, the expansion history) H(z). As a result, we show the influence of the anisotropy (although low) on the evolution of the universe in the statefinder diagrams for Galileon gravity.
Observations of Solar Energetic Particle Anisotropies at MeV Energies from STEREO/LET
Leske, R. A.; Cummings, A. C.; Cohen, C.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Labrador, A. W.; Stone, E. C.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Christian, E. R.; von Rosenvinge, T. T.
2016-12-01
During the transport of solar energetic particles (SEPs) through interplanetary space, their pitch-angle distributions are modified by the competing effects of scattering and magnetic focusing. Thus, measurements of SEP anisotropies can reveal conditions such as magnetic field strength, topology, and turbulence levels at heliospheric locations far removed from the observer. Onboard each of the two STEREO spacecraft, the Low Energy Telescope (LET) measures angular distributions in the ecliptic for SEP protons, helium, and heavier ions up to iron with energies of about 2-12 MeV/nucleon. Anisotropies observed with this instrument include unidirectional outward beams at the onset of magnetically well-connected SEP events when particles experienced little scattering, bidirectional flows within many interplanetary coronal mass ejections, sunward particle flows when the spacecraft was magnetically connected to the back side of a shock, and loss-cone distributions when particles with large pitch angles were magnetically mirrored at a remote field enhancement that was too weak to reflect particles with the smallest pitch angles. Observations at a 1-minute cadence also revealed peculiar oscillations in the width of a beamed distribution at the onset of the 23 July 2012 extreme SEP event. The shapes of the pitch angle distributions often vary with energy and differ for H, He, and heavier species, perhaps as a result of rigidity dependence of the pitch angle diffusion coefficient. We present a selection of the more interesting LET anisotropy observations made throughout solar cycle 24 and discuss the implications of these observations for SEP transport in the heliosphere.
Exotic components of the deuteron wave function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobushkin, A.P.; Syamtonov, A.I.
1996-01-01
Problems of quark exchange effects in cross sections and polarization observables of d p elastic backward scattering and (d, p) deuteron breakup at high and intermediate energy are considered. Theoretical predictions for new polarization observables of the d p elastic backward scattering are given [ru
Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V
2015-11-01
The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Electromagnetic Weible Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.
2003-01-01
In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T perpendi c ular b /T parallelb >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r w . The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T perpendi c ularb /T parallelb ) Weibel >> (T perpendi c ularb /T parallelb ) Harris ) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espina-Hernández, J H; Pérez-Benítez, J A; Caleyo, F; Hallen, J M; Baudin, T; Helbert, A L
2013-01-01
This paper presents experimental evidence of the capability of Barkhausen noise measurements to estimate the angular dependence of the average magnetocrystalline energy in soft magnetic polycrystalline materials. Three different API 5L steel samples, all obtained from out-of-service pipelines, were investigated using crystallographic texture and Barkhausen noise measurements. The angular dependence of the rms voltage of the Barkhausen signal was determined in each sample for the time band corresponding to the saturation-to-remanence part of the hysteresis loop where irreversible domain rotation occurs. For each angular position, the rms voltage of the Barkhausen noise signal in this time band was interpreted as a direct measure of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of the polycrystal in the corresponding direction. A strong correlation between the angular dependence of both the rms voltage of the Barkhausen signal in the time band of interest and the average magnetocrystalline energy obtained from crystallographic texture measurements was found experimentally. (fast track communication)
Neutron production by deuteron breakup on 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, D.
1994-10-01
Neutron spectra of the deuteron breakup on 4 He have been measured at eight deuteron incident energies between 4.7 MeV and 12.1 MeV using the TOF method. The measurements carried out at angles of 0 deg, 5 deg and 10 deg were completed by measurements at 2.5 deg and 7.5 deg at some energies. The cross sections for these angles were reliably interpolated for the other energies. The normalization to absolute cross sections was carried out by reference to the well known data of the DD reaction. When a relative energy scale is introduced the spectral shape is almost angle-independent. It is shown that the use of the deuteron breakup on 4 He can considerably refine the correction for the deuteron breakup on deuterium in scattering experiments made with Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.)
Startsev, Edward; Lee, Wei-li
2005-01-01
In intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy, free energy is available to drive transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instabilities. Such slow-wave transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be described by the so-called Darwin model, which neglects the fast-wave portion of the displacement current. The Weibel instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the Weibel instability using the Beam Eigenmode And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.
Coulomb effects in the deuteron-nucleus interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuz'michev, V.E.; Peresypkin, V.V.
1990-01-01
The authors develop a consistent theory for calculation of the potential of the deuteron interaction with the Coulomb field of a nucleus. They study the properties of this potential at large distances and give its explicit form at the deuteron-breakup threshold. In the limit of low energies they derive the potential, which includes intermediate off-energy-shell states, and explain the physical nature of its constants. The accuracy of the transition to the polarization interaction is estimated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hensley, Brandon S.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.
2010-01-01
The energy dependence of the anisotropy (the anisotropy energy spectrum) of the large-scale diffuse gamma-ray background can reveal the presence of multiple source populations. Annihilating dark matter in the substructure of the Milky Way halo could give rise to a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by Fermi, enabling the detection of a dark matter signal. We determine the detectability of a dark-matter-induced modulation for scenarios in which unresolved blazars are the primary contributor to the measured emission above ∼1 GeV and find that in some scenarios pair-annihilation cross sections on the order of the value expected for thermal relic dark matter can produce a detectable feature. We anticipate that the sensitivity of this technique to specific dark matter models could be improved by tailored likelihood analysis methods.
Weisel, G. J.; Tornow, W.; Esterline, J. H.
2015-08-01
We present measurements of n-d analyzing power, {A}y(θ ), at En = 21.0 MeV. The experiment produces neutrons via the 2H(d, n)3He reaction and uses a deuterated liquid-scintillator center detector and six pairs of liquid-scintillator neutron side detectors. Elastic neutron scattering events are identified by using time-of-flight techniques and by setting a gate in the center-detector pulse-height spectrum. Beam polarization is monitored by using a high-pressure helium gas scintillator. The n-d {A}y(θ ) data at 21.0 MeV show a significant discrepancy with the results of rigorous three-body calculations and are consistent with data taken previously by us at 19.0 and 22.5 MeV. We review the overall energy dependence of the three-nucleon analyzing power puzzle in neutron-deuteron elastic scattering, using the best data available. We find that the relative difference between calculations and data is nearly constant at 25% up to En = 22.5 MeV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avdeev, S.P.; Karnaukhov, V.A.; Korovin, G.Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.D.; Nad', T.; Petrov, L.A.
1982-01-01
The purpose of the paper is to clarify how the isotopical distribution form of deep fissaon products depends on the type of the bombarding particles. Isotopical distributions of Rb, In, Cs, produced at interactions of protons, deuterons ( 8 GeV) and α particles (15.2 GeV) with Ta nuclei are measured by means of the ''off-line'' mass separation. The isotopical distributions are obtained by the experimentally measured yields directly without complex procedure of processing necessary for transition to the charge distribution. It was found that neither the position of the maximum, nor the shape of the curve are changed essentially at variation of the projectile. In all the cases the relative behaviour of the distribution is in a qualitative agreement with the calculations based upon the semiempirical formula by Rudstam. For indium the mesurements are performed also with the proton beam of energy 0.66 GeV. In this case the shape of the isotopic distribution is influenced by the fission process [ru
Electromagnetic structure of the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilman, R.; Gross, Franz
2001-01-01
Recent measurements of the deuteron electromagnetic structure functions A, B, and T 20 extracted from high energy elastic ed scattering, and the cross sections and asymmetries extracted from high energy photodisintegration gamma + d to n + p, are reviewed and compared to theory. The theoretical calculations range from nonrelativistic and relativistic models using the traditional meson and baryon degrees of freedom, to effective field theories, to models based on the underlying quark and gluon degrees of freedom of QCD, including nonperturbative quark cluster models and perturbative QCD. We review what has been learned from these experiments, and discuss why elastic ed scattering and photodisintegration seem to require very different theoretical approaches, even though they are closely related experimentally
Energy dependence of the anisotropy of noncharacteristic x-rays emitted in fast ion-atom collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoe, R.S.; Sellin, I.A.; Brown, M.D.; Forester, J.P.; Griffin, P.M.; Pegg, D.J.; Peterson, R.S.
1974-01-01
The effect of beam velocity and K-shell binding energy on the angular distributions of the noncharacteristic x-radiation emitted for various collision pairs. The results are in general agreement with the calculations of Mueller and Greiner, in that the anisotropy increases rapidly with energy, provided that the ions are still moving slowly, compared to the velocity of the K-shell electrons of the separated atoms. The anisotropy in some cases exceeds the maximum permitted by the Mueller--Greiner model for the zero alignment case, implying that strong alignment phenomena also occur
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ansar Masood
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Thickness dependent competing magnetic anisotropy energies were investigated to explore the global magnetic behaviours of FineMET amorphous thin films. A dominant perpendicular magnetization component in the as-deposited state of thinner films was observed due to high magnetoelastic anisotropy energy which arises from stresses induced at the substrate-film interface. This perpendicular magnetization component decreases with increasing film thickness. Thermal annealing at elevated temperature revealed a significant influence on the magnetization state of the FineMET thin films and controlled annealing steps leads to ultra-soft magnetic properties, making these thin films alloys ideal for a wide range of applications.
Anisotropy studies around the Galactic Centre at EeV energies with the Auger Observatory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Alvarez, C.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Anjos, J.C.; Aramo, C.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche /Buenos Aires, IAFE /Buenos Aires, CONICET /Pierre Auger Observ. /La Plata U. /Natl. Tech. U., San Rafael /Adelaide U. /Catholic U. of Bolivia, La Paz /Bolivia U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo U.
2006-07-01
Data from the Pierre Auger Observatory are analyzed to search for anisotropies near the direction of the Galactic Centre at EeV energies. The exposure of the surface array in this part of the sky is already significantly larger than that of the fore-runner experiments. Our results do not support previous findings of localized excesses in the AGASA and SUGAR data. We set an upper bound on a point-like flux of cosmic rays arriving from the Galactic Centre which excludes several scenarios predicting sources of EeV neutrons from Sagittarius A. Also the events detected simultaneously by the surface and fluorescence detectors (the ''hybrid'' data set), which have better pointing accuracy but are less numerous than those of the surface array alone, do not show any significant localized excess from this direction.
New capabilities for Monte Carlo simulation of deuteron transport and secondary products generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sauvan, P.; Sanz, J.; Ogando, F.
2010-01-01
Several important research programs are dedicated to the development of facilities based on deuteron accelerators. In designing these facilities, the definition of a validated computational approach able to simulate deuteron transport and evaluate deuteron interactions and production of secondary particles with acceptable precision is a very important issue. Current Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNPX or PHITS, when applied for deuteron transport calculations use built-in semi-analytical models to describe deuteron interactions. These models are found unreliable in predicting neutron and photon generated by low energy deuterons, typically present in those facilities. We present a new computational tool, resulting from an extension of the MCNPX code, which improve significantly the treatment of problems where any secondary product (neutrons, photons, tritons, etc.) generated by low energy deuterons reactions could play a major role. Firstly, it handles deuteron evaluated data libraries, which allow describing better low deuteron energy interactions. Secondly, it includes a reduction variance technique for production of secondary particles by charged particle-induced nuclear interactions, which allow reducing drastically the computing time needed in transport and nuclear response calculations. Verification of the computational tool is successfully achieved. This tool can be very helpful in addressing design issues such as selection of the dedicated neutron production target and accelerator radioprotection analysis. It can be also helpful to test the deuteron cross-sections under development in the frame of different international nuclear data programs.
Systematic Studies of Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy and Energy Spectrum with IceCube and IceTop
McNally, Frank
Anisotropy in the cosmic-ray arrival direction distribution has been well documented over a large energy range, but its origin remains largely a mystery. In the TeV to PeV energy range, the galactic magnetic field thoroughly scatters cosmic rays, but anisotropy at the part-per-mille level and smaller persists, potentially carrying information about nearby cosmic-ray accelerators and the galactic magnetic field. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory was the first detector to observe anisotropy at these energies in the Southern sky. This work uses 318 billion cosmic-ray induced muon events, collected between May 2009 and May 2015 from both the in-ice component of IceCube as well as the surface component, IceTop. The observed global anisotropy features large regions of relative excess and deficit, with amplitudes on the order of 10-3. While a decomposition of the arrival direction distribution into spherical harmonics shows that most of the power is contained in the low-multipole (ℓ ≤ 4) moments, higher-multipole components are found to be statistically significant down to an angular scale of less than 10°, approaching the angular resolution of the detector. Above 100TeV, a change in the topology of the arrival direction distribution is observed, and the anisotropy is characterized by a wide relative deficit whose amplitude increases with primary energy up to at least 5PeV, the highest energies currently accessible to IceCube with sufficient event statistics. No time dependence of the large- and small-scale structures is observed in the six-year period covered by this analysis within statistical and systematic uncertainties. Analysis of the energy spectrum and composition in the PeV energy range as a function of sky position is performed with IceTop data over a five-year period using a likelihood-based reconstruction. Both the energy spectrum and the composition distribution are found to be consistent with a single source population over declination bands. This work
SEARCH FOR ANISOTROPY OF ULTRAHIGH ENERGY COSMIC RAYS WITH THE TELESCOPE ARRAY EXPERIMENT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Hanlon, W. [High Energy Astrophysics Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Aida, R. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Kofu, Yamanashi (Japan); Azuma, R.; Fukuda, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Cheon, B. G.; Cho, E. J. [Department of Physics and The Research Institute of Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Department of Physics, Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, W. R. [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, H. [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujii, T. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); and others
2012-09-20
We study the anisotropy of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) events collected by the Telescope Array (TA) detector in the first 40 months of operation. Following earlier studies, we examine event sets with energy thresholds of 10 EeV, 40 EeV, and 57 EeV. We find that the distributions of the events in right ascension and declination are compatible with an isotropic distribution in all three sets. We then compare with previously reported clustering of the UHECR events at small angular scales. No significant clustering is found in the TA data. We then check the events with E > 57 EeV for correlations with nearby active galactic nuclei. No significant correlation is found. Finally, we examine all three sets for correlations with the large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe. We find that the two higher-energy sets are compatible with both an isotropic distribution and the hypothesis that UHECR sources follow the matter distribution of the universe (the LSS hypothesis), while the event set with E > 10 EeV is compatible with isotropy and is not compatible with the LSS hypothesis at 95% CL unless large deflection angles are also assumed. We show that accounting for UHECR deflections in a realistic model of the Galactic magnetic field can make this set compatible with the LSS hypothesis.
Surface-Energy-Anisotropy-Induced Orientation Effects on RayleighInstabilities in Sapphire
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santala, Melissa; Glaeser, Andreas M.
2006-01-01
Arrays of controlled-geometry, semi-infinite pore channels of systematically varied crystallographic orientation were introduced into undoped m-plane (10{bar 1}0) sapphire substrates using microfabrication techniques and ion-beam etching and subsequently internalized by solid-state diffusion bonding. A series of anneals at 1700 C caused the breakup of these channels into discrete pores via Rayleigh instabilities. In all cases, channels broke up with a characteristic wavelength larger than that expected for a material with isotropic surface energy, reflecting stabilization effects due to surface-energy anisotropy. The breakup wavelength and the time required for complete breakup varied significantly with channel orientation. For most orientations, the instability wavelength for channels of radius R was in the range of 13.2R-25R, and complete breakup occurred within 2-10 h. To first order, the anneal times for complete breakup scale with the square of the breakup wavelength. Channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction had a wavelength of {approx} 139R, and required 468 h for complete breakup. Cross-sectional analysis of channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction showed the channel to be completely bounded by stable c(0001), r{l_brace}{bar 1}012{r_brace}, and s{l_brace}10{bar 1}1{r_brace} facets.
Composite nucleon approach to the deuteron problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agarwal, B.K.
1975-01-01
A composite model is suggested for the nucleons by assuming a long-range strong gluon force between a diquark boson B and a quark A. In the proton, A is trapped inside B in an oscillator potential; and in the neutron, A is on the surface of B in a hydrogenlike state. Nucleon form factors are obtained in agreement with experiments. The model contains a mechanism for a large effective mass of the quark A. When B is identified with π and A with μ, one can fix the gluon charge value and obtain the magnetic moments of the proton and neutron. The (μπ) atomic model for the nucleon can be used to construct the deuteron on a hydrogen molecule model. It leads to values for the binding energy, electric quadrupole moment, and form factors of the deuteron that are in agreement with experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nardi, V.; Bostick, W.; Prior, W.; Feugeas, J.; Bortolotti, A.
1982-01-01
A detailed analysis has been completed on the internal structure of ions and electron beams which are efected, along the system axis, in opposite directions (0 0 and 180 0 ). An image (contact print) of plasmoids which emit MeV deuterons is formed by the deuteron emission and it is revealed by etching deuteron tracks in a target of plastic material (CR-39). Ion-imaging with different energy filters discriminates between tracks of plasmoid ions and tracks of charged products of D-D fusion reactions. Ions-imaging can also discriminate plasmoid deuterons from MeV deuterons of a directed beam. (L.C.) [pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abreu, P.
2012-01-01
Observations of cosmic ray arrival directions made with the Pierre Auger Observatory have previously provided evidence of anisotropy at the 99% CL using the correlation of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with objects drawn from the Veron-Cetty Veron catalog. In this paper we report on the use of three catalog independent methods to search for anisotropy. The 2pt-L, 2pt+ and 3pt methods, each giving a different measure of self-clustering in arrival directions, were tested on mock cosmic ray data sets to study the impacts of sample size and magnetic smearing on their results, accounting for both angular and energy resolutions. If the sources of UHECRs follow the same large scale structure as ordinary galaxies in the local Universe and if UHECRs are deflected no more than a few degrees, a study of mock maps suggests that these three methods can efficiently respond to the resulting anisotropy with a P-value = 1.0% or smaller with data sets as few as 100 events. Using data taken from January 1, 2004 to July 31, 2010 we examined the 20, 30, ..., 110 highest energy events with a corresponding minimum energy threshold of about 51 EeV. The minimum P-values found were 13.5% using the 2pt-L method, 1.0% using the 2pt+ method and 1.1% using the 3pt method for the highest 100 energy events. In view of the multiple (correlated) scans performed on the data set, these catalog-independent methods do not yield strong evidence of anisotropy in the highest energy cosmic rays.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rustwick, Bryce A. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2005-01-01
Both academia and industry alike have paid close attention to the mechanisms of microstructural selection during the solidification process. The forces that give rise to and the principles which rule the natural selection of particular morphologies are important to understanding and controlling new microstructures. Interfacial properties play a very crucial role to the selection of such microstructure formation. In the solidification of a metallic alloy, the solid-liquid interface is highly mobile and responds to very minute changes in the local conditions. At this interface, the driving force must be large enough to drive solute diffusion, maintain local curvature, and overcome the kinetic barrier to move the interface. Therefore, the anisotropy of interfacial free energy with respect to crystallographic orientation is has a significant influence on the solidification of metallic systems. Although it is generally accepted that the solid-liquid interfacial free energy and its associated anisotropy are highly important to the overall selection of morphology, the confident measurement of these particular quantities remains a challenge, and reported values are scarce. Methods for measurement of the interfacial free energy include nucleation experiments and grain boundary groove experiments. The predominant method used to determine anisotropy of interfacial energy has been equilibrium shape measurement. There have been numerous investigations involving grain boundaries at a solid-liquid interface. These studies indicated the GBG could be used to describe various interfacial energy values, which affect solidification. Early studies allowed for an estimate of interfacial energy with respect to the GBG energy, and finally absolute interfacial energy in a constant thermal gradient. These studies however, did not account for the anisotropic nature of the material at the GBG. Since interfacial energy is normally dependent on orientation of the crystallographic plane of the
Proton-deuteron phase-shift analysis above the deuteron breakup threshold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tornow, W. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Box 90308, Durham, NC (United States); Witala, H. [Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30059 Cracow (Poland)
1998-03-02
We have performed single-energy phase-shift analyses of proton-deuteron elastic scattering data in the proton energy range from 3.5 to 10 MeV. The resulting values for the {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} and {sup 4}P{sub 1/2}, {sup 4}P{sub 3/2}, and {sup 4}P{sub 5/2} phase shifts are important benchmark values for three-nucleon calculations based on nucleon-nucleon potential models (with and without three-nucleon forces) aimed at describing the triton binding energy and at resolving the nucleon-deuteron A{sub y}({theta}) and iT{sub 11}({theta}) puzzles, respectively. (orig.) 7 refs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Luz, R. J. Barreira; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Boncioli, D.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D' Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; Mauro, G. De; Neto, J. R. T. de Mello; Mitri, I. De; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Giulio, C. Di; Matteo, A. Di; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D' Olivo, J. C.; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Fratu, O.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaior, R.; García, B.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Gorham, P.; Gouffon, P.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harton, J. L.; Hasankiadeh, Q.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Jansen, S.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Katkov, I.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; LaHurd, D.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Messina, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Minaya, I. A.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, H.; Núñez, L. A.; Ochilo, L.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlín, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pieroni, P.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Revenu, B.; Ridky, J.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; de Carvalho, W. Rodrigues; Fernandez, G. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rogozin, D.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Greus, F. Salesa; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento, C. A.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schulz, A.; Schulz, J.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Settimo, M.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Sima, O.; Śmiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Sorokin, J.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Strafella, F.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Tapia, A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Torri, M.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; Aar, G. van; Bodegom, P. van; Berg, A. M. van den; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Varner, G.; Vázquez, J. R.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Quispe, I. D. Vergara; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Winchen, T.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yelos, D.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.
2017-06-01
We report a multi-resolution search for anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with local zenith angles up to 80(o) and energies in excess of 4 EeV (4 × 10^{18} eV). This search is conducted by measuring the angular power spectrum and performing a needlet wavelet analysis in two independent energy ranges. Both analyses are complementary since the angular power spectrum achieves a better performance in identifying large-scale patterns while the needlet wavelet analysis, considering the parameters used in this work, presents a higher efficiency in detecting smaller-scale anisotropies, potentially providing directional information on any observed anisotropies. No deviation from isotropy is observed on any angular scale in the energy range between 4 and 8 EeV. Above 8 EeV, an indication for a dipole moment is captured, while no other deviation from isotropy is observed for moments beyond the dipole one. The corresponding p-values obtained after accounting for searches blindly performed at several angular scales, are 1.3 × 10^{-5} in the case of the angular power spectrum, and 2.5 × 10^{-3} in the case of the needlet analysis. While these results are consistent with previous reports making use of the same data set, they provide extensions of the previous works through the thorough scans of the angular scales.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aab, A. [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Abreu, P.; Andringa, S. [Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas—LIP and Instituto Superior Técnico—IST, Universidade de Lisboa—UL (Portugal); Aglietta, M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (INAF), Torino (Italy); Samarai, I. Al [Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Universités Paris 6 et Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Albuquerque, I.F.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Inst. de Física, São Paulo (Brazil); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET) (Argentina); Almela, A.; Andrada, B. [Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM), Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Castillo, J. Alvarez [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México (Mexico); Alvarez-Muñiz, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Anastasi, G.A. [Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); Anchordoqui, L., E-mail: auger_spokespersons@fnal.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York (United States); and others
2017-06-01
We report a multi-resolution search for anisotropies in the arrival directions of cosmic rays detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory with local zenith angles up to 80{sup o} and energies in excess of 4 EeV (4 × 10{sup 18} eV). This search is conducted by measuring the angular power spectrum and performing a needlet wavelet analysis in two independent energy ranges. Both analyses are complementary since the angular power spectrum achieves a better performance in identifying large-scale patterns while the needlet wavelet analysis, considering the parameters used in this work, presents a higher efficiency in detecting smaller-scale anisotropies, potentially providing directional information on any observed anisotropies. No deviation from isotropy is observed on any angular scale in the energy range between 4 and 8 EeV. Above 8 EeV, an indication for a dipole moment is captured; while no other deviation from isotropy is observed for moments beyond the dipole one. The corresponding p -values obtained after accounting for searches blindly performed at several angular scales, are 1.3 × 10{sup −5} in the case of the angular power spectrum, and 2.5 × 10{sup −3} in the case of the needlet analysis. While these results are consistent with previous reports making use of the same data set, they provide extensions of the previous works through the thorough scans of the angular scales.
Phenomenological model for non-equilibrium deuteron emission in nucleon induced reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broeders, C.H.M.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.
2005-01-01
A new approach is proposed for the calculation of non-equilibrium deuteron energy distributions in nuclear reactions induced by nucleons of intermediate energies. It combines the model of the nucleon pick-up, the coalescence and the deuteron knock-out. Emission and absorption rates for excited particles are described by the pre-equilibrium hybrid model. The model of Sato, Iwamoto, Harada is used to describe the nucleon pick-up and the coalescence of nucleons from the exciton configurations starting from (2p, 1h). The model of deuteron knock-out is formulated taking into account the Pauli principle for the nucleon-deuteron interaction inside a nucleus. The contribution of the direct nucleon pick-up is described phenomenologically. The multiple pre-equilibrium emission of particles is taken into account. The calculated deuteron energy distributions are compared with experimental data from 12 C to 209 Bi. (orig.)
Exchange bias energy in Co/Pt/IrMn multilayers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Czapkiewicz, M. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: czapkiew@agh.edu.pl; Stobiecki, T. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Rak, R. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Zoladz, M. [Department of Electronics, AGH University of Science and Technology, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Dijken, S. van [CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2007-09-15
The magnetization reversal process in perpendicularly biased [Pt/Co]{sub 3}/d{sub Pt} Pt/IrMn and in-plane biased Co/d{sub Pt} Pt/IrMn multilayers with 0nm=
Alpha-deuteron elastic scattering around 40 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De, A.; Karmakar, S.; Roychaudhury, T.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ismail, M.; Banerjee, S.R.; Divatia, A.S.
1989-01-01
Differential cross section for alpha-deuteron elastic scattering has been measured at several energies around 40 MeV incident alpha. General behaviour of angular distributions remaining close to that predicted by Faddeev type calculations, a sharp energy dependence is observed. (author). 8 refs
Electric and Magnetic Coulomb Potentials in the Deuteron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernard Schaeffer
2013-09-01
Full Text Available After one century of nuclear physics, the underlying fun- damental laws of nuclear physics are still missing. Bohr had found a formula for the H atom and another for the H2 molecule but no equivalent formula exists for the deuteron 2H. The only known Coulomb interaction in a nucleus by the mainstream nuclear physics is the long range repulsion between protons, forgetting that the neutron contains elec- tric charges with no net charge. The neutron is attracted by the proton in a way discovered two millenaries ago by the Greeks. This attraction is equilibrated by the repulsion between the opposite magnetic moments of the proton and of the neutron in the deuteron. The bare application of ge- ometry together with electric and magnetic Coulomb’s in- teractions accounts for the binding energy of the deuteron, without fitting, with only 4 per cent discrepancy, proving the electromagnetic nature of the nuclear energy.
Measurements of fast deuterons from plasma accelerator by means of PM-355 track detectors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Skladnik-Sadowska, E. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Malinowski, K., E-mail: k.malinowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J.; Czaus, K. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (IPJ), 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
2009-10-15
This paper reports on studies of fast ions (mostly deuterons) emitted from an RPI (Rod-Plasma-Injector) plasma accelerator. The first aim was the verification of applicability of PM-355 track detectors for dosimetry of lower-energy (<200 KeV) deuterons. The second aim was information about energy spectra of deuterons from RPI-IBIS device in different operational modes. Mass- and energy spectra of ions were investigated with a Thomson-analyzer and PM-355 detectors. On the recorded deuteron-parabolas we chose points, and from numbers of tracks we determined the deuteron energy distribution. In the slow-mode the energy distribution peak was observed at about 40 keV, while the maximum energy amounted to about 150 keV. Those measurements confirmed an influence of the initial gas-conditions on energy distributions of the deuteron streams. The results are of importance for plasma-physics and applications. Another result was the confirmation that PM-355 detectors might be used for accurate measurements of low-energy (<200 keV) deuterons.
AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krämer, Dietrich; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Willumeit, R; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J
1999-01-01
We present the results of the spin asymmetries $A_1$ of the proton and the deuteron in the kinematic region extending down to $x=6\\cdot 10^{-5}$ and $Q^2=0.01$ GeV$^2$. The data were taken with a dedicated low $x$ trigger, which required hadron detection in addition to the scattered muon, so as to reduce the background at low $x$. The results complement our previous measurements and the two sets are consistent in the overlap region. No sig\\-ni\\-fi\\-cant spin effects are found in the newly explored region.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shick, Alexander; Hong, S.C.; Máca, František; Lichtenstein, A.I.
2014-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 47 (2014), "476003-1"-"476003-6" ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/10/0330; GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : magnetic anisotropy * Co monolayer * graphene Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.346, year: 2014
Anisotropy of Magnetic Moments and Energy in Tetragonal Fe-Co Alloys from First Principles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Carva, K.
2013-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 5 (2013), s. 1581-1584 ISSN 1557-1939 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1228 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : density functional theory * magnetic anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.930, year: 2013
Anisotropy in diffusion and activation energies of I- and CS+ ions in compacted smectite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haruo Sato
2005-01-01
The anisotropies and the effect of salinity in the apparent diffusivities (D a ) and activation energies (ΔE a ) of I - and Cs + in compacted Na-smectite were studied. The diffusion experiments in the parallel and perpendicular directions to the orientated direction of smectite particles were performed as a function of smectite's dry density (0.9-1.4 Mg/m 3 ), salinity ([NaCl]=0.01, 0.51 M) and temperature (295-333 K). The Da-values for both ions tended to be higher in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction to the orientated direction of smectite particles. The Da-values of I - in the parallel direction decreased with increasing salinity only at low-dry density, but those of Cs + increased with increasing salinity in all conditions. Considering electrostatic effect from the surface of smectite aggregates and the change in tortuosity on dry density, salinity and diffusion direction, I - is interpreted to mainly diffuse in interstitial pores. While, Cs + can diffuse in both interlayer and interstitial pores, and the Da-values of Cs + are presumed to have elevated by the decrease in retardation by competition with Na + . The ΔE a -values of I - , similar levels (ΔE a =15.1-16.1 kJ/mol) to that of the ionic diffusivity in free water (Do) for I - (ΔE a =17.36 kJ/mol) at low-dry density, increased with increasing dry density. On the contrary, the ΔE a -values of Cs + , clearly higher (ΔE a =23.7-25.7 kJ/mol) than that of the Do for Cs + (ΔE a =16.47 kJ/mol) even at low-dry density, increased with increasing dry density. Such high ΔE a -values for Cs + can be explained by considering the ion exchange enthalpy between Cs + and Na + in smectite (ΔH 0 = -11.1 kJ/mol) at low-dry density, and are considered to be due to the effects of the decrease in the activity of porewater and ΔH 0 at high-dry density. (authors)
Precise calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2016-06-01
Recently, two calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment have have given predictions that agree with the measured value to within 1%, resolving a long-standing discrepancy. One of these uses the covariant spectator theory (CST) and the other chiral effective field theory (cEFT). In this talk I will first briefly review the foundations and history of the CST, and then compare these two calculations with emphasis on how the same physical processes are being described using very different language. The comparison of the two methods gives new insights into the dynamics of the low energy NN interaction.
Deuteron forward photodisintegration: meson currents and relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friar, J.L.
1983-01-01
The few-nucleon problem in nuclear physics and the few-electron problem in atomic physics are shown to possess similarities. Relativistic aspects of the latter are reviewed. The radiative decay of the 3 P 1 excited state of helium-like ions to the 1 S 0 ground state is shown to be a theoretical analogue of low-energy deuteron forward photodisintegration. Both have large relativistic components. The extended Siegert's theorem, which permits application of Siegert's technique to arbitrary photon wave lengths, is applied to both transitions. Physical arguments for the two processes are stressed, and the relevance of interaction currents is discussed. 28 references
Hadron--deuteron scattering at 50 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levinson, L.J.
1978-06-01
The forward scattering of π + , π - , and protons on deuterons and protons was measured with a single arm spectrometer at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The energy was 50 GeV and the invariant 4-momentum transfer range was .06 2 for π + and p, and .06 - . The missing mass, determined by the spectrometer, selected proton elastic and deuteron elastic-plus-breakup scattering, rejecting particle and resonance production events. The measured proton and deuteron differential cross sections were analyzed in the context of the Glauber Theory of deuteron elastic-plus-breakup scattering and a neutron elastic differential cross section was extracted. The theory and analysis were tested by comparing the π + n cross section extracted from the π + d and n + p data with the π - p data; by I-spin symmetry the π + n cross section must equal the π - p. The same test was done for π - n. The proton--neutron elastic differential cross section was then extracted from the pd and pp data. The theory and the data were not found to be consistent within the random errors. Systematic errors are probably the cause; several possible systematic errors are discussed. Also an attempt to use recoil particle detectors to extract the deuteron elastic and the neutron cross sections is reported
The deuteron microscopic optical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Congshan; Zhang Jingshang; Shen Qingbiao
1991-01-01
The two particle Green's function is introduced. When the direct interaction between two nucleons is neglected, the first and second order mass operators of two particles are the sum of those for each particle. The nucleon microscopic optical potential is calculated by applying nuclear matter approximation and effective Skyrme interaction. Then the deuteron microscopic optical potential (DMOP) is calculated by using fold formula. For improvement of the theory, the two particle polarization diagram contribution to the imaginary part of the deuteron microscopic optical potential is studied
Elastic and inelastic electron scattering on tensor polarized deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zevakov, S.A.; Barkov, L.M.; Arenkhovel', Kh.
2006-01-01
The components T 20 and T 21 of the tensor analysis capability of the elastic electron scattering on deuteron are measured in the momentum transfer range of 8.4-21.6 fm -2 . The form factors of deuteron G C and G Q are defined in the momentum transfer range where the monopole charge form factor G C turns into zero. The preliminary measuring results of T 20 , T 21 and T 22 of the deuteron photodisintegration reaction in the photon energy range of 25-500 MeV and the proton departure angles equal to 20 deg-40 deg and 75 deg-105 deg are presented. The experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meftah, B.; Karam, R.A.
1984-01-01
Agreement between calculations and measurements within prescribed limits of error is always the test of engineering design analysis. Large and puzzling discrepancies do exist between several measured and calculated important integral reactor parameters. A thorough and exhaustive investigation of the methods used in reactor analysis revealed that in the generation of effective resonance cross sections no anisotropy effects are considered in the resonances. This is true in the integral transport and fundamental-mode codes. The neglect of anisotropy introduces errors at two levels: (1) the effective group cross sections such as σsub(c), σsub(f) and σsub(s); and (2) the diffusion coefficients and P 1 and higher components of the scattering cross sections. The study showed that the inclusion of linear scattering anisotropy increases, in general, the cell effective capture cross section of 238 U in both ZPR-6/5 and TRX-3 reactors. The increase was up to 2% in TRX-3 and 0.5% in ZPR-6/5. The effect on the multiplication factor was -0.003% Δk/k for ZPR-6/5 and -0.05% Δk/k for TRX-3. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uber, R.E.; Mansuripur, M.
1988-01-01
Optical investigation of magneto-optical films is complementary to conventional torque and VSM magnetometry. In the authors' laboratory, they are now measuring anisotropy energy constants of RE-TM thin films at temperatures from ambient to 150 0 C. An in-plane magnetic field (up to 16.5 KOe) is applied to a saturated sample with perpendicular magnetization. The movement away from the perpendicular direction is monitored using the polar Kerr effect. At the HeNe wavelength, the Kerr effect is principally due to the top 500 angstroms of the transition metal subnetwork in the films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberi, G.; Bleszynski, M.; California Univ., Los Angeles; Santos, S.; Jaroszewicz, T.
1980-01-01
It is shown that the tensor asymmetries in the elastic proton-deuteron scattering at medium energies are very sensitive to the non-eikonal corrections to the Glauber model. This sensitivity originates from the fact that, in double scattering, the non-eikonal corrections affect in a different way the contributions coming from the S- and D-wave parts of the deuteron wave function. This leads to considerable change of the tensor asymmetries not only in the region of the interference between single and double scatterings, but also in the region of dominance of the double scattering. It is suggested that these effects should be taken into account in any careful analysis of the proton-deuteron polarization data, which has as a goal the extraction of the NN amplitudes. (author)
AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Golutvin, I A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nagaitsev, A P; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Pussieux, T; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Schüler, K P; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sergeev, S; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zamiatin, N I; Zhao, J
1998-01-01
We present the final results of the spin asymmetries $A_1$ and the spin structure functions $g_1$ of the proton and the deuteron in the kinematic range $0.0008
Towards High Precision Deuteron Polarimetry
da Silva e Silva, M.; Crabb, DG; Day, DB; Liuti, S; Zheng,; Poelker, M; Prok, Y
2009-01-01
A finite electric dipole moment (EDM) in any fundamental system would constitute a signal for new physics. The deuteron presents itself as an optimal candidate both experimentally and theoretically. A new storage ring technique is being developed for which a small change in the vertical polarization
Calculation of nucleon production cross sections for 200 MeV deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ridikas, D.; Mittig, W.
1997-01-01
The differential neutron and proton production cross sections have been investigated for 200 MeV incident deuterons on thin and thick 9 Be, 56 Fe and 238 U targets using the LAHET code system. The examples of the deuteron beam on different target materials are analysed to determine the differences of converting the energy of the beam into the nucleons produced. Both double differential, energy and angle integrated nuclear production cross sections are presented together with the average nucleon multiplicities per incident deuteron. (K.A.)
Calculation of nucleon production cross sections for 200 MeV deuterons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ridikas, D.; Mittig, W.
1997-12-31
The differential neutron and proton production cross sections have been investigated for 200 MeV incident deuterons on thin and thick {sup 9}Be, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 238}U targets using the LAHET code system. The examples of the deuteron beam on different target materials are analysed to determine the differences of converting the energy of the beam into the nucleons produced. Both double differential, energy and angle integrated nuclear production cross sections are presented together with the average nucleon multiplicities per incident deuteron. (K.A.). 31 refs.
Investigation of the sidereal anisotropy of muons with energies greater than 2 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhr, R.C.; Faehnders, E.; Koseck, K.; Klemke, G.; Jokisch, H.; Dau, W.D.
1975-01-01
The sidereal variation of the intensity of cosmic-ray-muons is investigated by means of a stack of four wire-spark-chambers with magneto-strictive readout. The apparatus is sensitive for particles with a momentum greater than 2 GeV/c, the triggerrate is 0.74 sec -1 and the arrival directions can be determined with an accuracy of some tenths of degree. The apparatus is scanning all arrival directions the declination of which lay between -25 and +60 degrees. Till now 1.26 x 10 6 muons were scanned and no anisotropies found. (orig.) [de
Achard, P; Aguilar-Benitez, M; van den Akker, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, J; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, Valery P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Bahr, J; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillere, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, G J; Bohm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, M; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo, M; Chiarusi, T; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J; de Asmundis, R; Deglon, P; Debreczeni, J; Degre, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; DeNotaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Ding, L K; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Duran, I; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El Hage, A; El Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Faber, G; Falagan, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, K; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Iouri; Ganguli, S N; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grabosch, H J; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Groenstege, H; Gruenewald, M W; Guida, M; Guo, Y N; Gupta, S; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Haller, Ch; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, Y; He, Z X; Hebbeker, T; Herve, Alain; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Huo, A X; Hu, Y; Ito, N; Jin, B N; Jing, C L; Jones, Lawrence W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kantserov, V; Kaur, M; Kawakami, S; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, W; Klimentov, A; Konig, A C; Kok, E; Korn, A; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V; Kraber, M; Kuang, H H; Kraemer, R W; Kruger, A; Kuijpers, J; Kunin, A; Ladron de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Lei, Y; Leich, H; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levtchenko, P; Li, C; Li, L; Li, Z C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, F L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma, W G; Ma, X H; Ma, Y Q; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Mana, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Meng, X W; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; van Mil, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Monteleoni, B; Muanza, y G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Nahnhauer, R; Naumov, V A; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novak, T; Kluge, Hannelies; Ofierzynski, R; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Parriaud, J -F; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, Thomas Cantzon; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, F; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pieri, M; Pioppi, M; Piroue, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pojidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Quartieri, J; Qing, C R; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, Mohammad Azizur; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A; Ravindran, K C; Razis, P; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Rewiersma, P; Riemann, y S; Riles, Keith; Roe, B P; Rojkov, A; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, Stefan; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Saidi, R; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sanchez, E; Schafer, C; Schegelsky, V; Schmitt, V; Schoeneich, B; Schopper, H; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shen, C Q; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Straessner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sulanke, H; Sultanov, G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillasi, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, L; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, Charles; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Toth, J; Trowitzsch, G; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Unger, M; Valente, E; Verkooijen, H; Van de Walle, R T; Vasquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitsky, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, G; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopianov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, R G; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, X W; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; van Wijk, R; Wijnen, T A M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Y P; Xu, J S; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yang, X F; Yao, Z G; Yeh, S C; Yu, Z Q; Zalite, An; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhang, J; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhou, S J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zhu, Q Q; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zoller, M; Zwart, A N M
2008-01-01
Primary cosmic rays experience multiple deflections in the nonuniform galactic and heliospheric magnetic fields which may generate anisotropies. A study of anisotropies in the energy range between 100 and 500 GeV is performed. This energy range is not yet well explored. The L3 detector at the CERN electron-positron collider, LEP, is used for a study of the angular distribution of atmospheric muons with energies above 20 GeV. This distribution is used to investigate the isotropy of the time-dependent intensity of the primary cosmic-ray flux with a Fourier analysis. A small deviation from isotropy at energies around 200 GeV is observed for the second harmonics at the solar frequency. No sidereal anisotropy is found at a level above 10^-4. The measurements have been performed in the years 1999 and 2000.
Field theory for a deuteron quantum liquid
Berezhiani, Lasha; Gabadadze, Gregory; Pirtskhalava, David
2010-04-01
Based on general symmetry principles we study an effective Lagrangian for a neutral system of condensed spin-1 deuteron nuclei and electrons, at greater-than-atomic but less-than-nuclear densities. We expect such matter to be present in thin layers within certain low-mass brown dwarfs. It may also be produced in future shock-wave-compression experiments as an effective fuel for laser-induced nuclear fusion. We find a background solution of the effective theory describing a net spin zero condensate of deuterons with their spins aligned and anti-aligned in a certain spontaneously emerged preferred direction. The spectrum of low energy collective excitations contains two spin-waves with linear dispersions — like in antiferromagnets — as well as gapped longitudinal and transverse modes related to the Meissner effect — like in superconductors. We show that counting of the Nambu-Goldstone modes of spontaneously broken internal and space-time symmetries obeys, in a nontrivial way, the rules of the Goldstone theorem for Lorentz non-invariant systems. We discuss thermodynamic properties of the condensate, and its potential manifestation in the low-mass brown dwarfs.
Hard breakup of the deuteron into two Δ isobars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granados, Carlos G.; Sargsian, Misak M.
2011-01-01
We study high-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron into two Δ isobars at large center of mass angles within the QCD hard rescattering model (HRM). According to the HRM, the process develops in three main steps: the photon knocks a quark from one of the nucleons in the deuteron; the struck quark rescatters off a quark from the other nucleon sharing the high energy of the photon; then the energetic quarks recombine into two outgoing baryons which have large transverse momenta. Within the HRM, the cross section is expressed through the amplitude of pn→ΔΔ scattering which we evaluated based on the quark-interchange model of hard hadronic scattering. Calculations show that the angular distribution and the strength of the photodisintegration is mainly determined by the properties of the pn→ΔΔ scattering. We predict that the cross section of the deuteron breakup to Δ ++ Δ - is 4-5 times larger than that of the breakup to the Δ + Δ 0 channel. Also, the angular distributions for these two channels are markedly different. These can be compared with the predictions based on the assumption that two hard Δ isobars are the result of the disintegration of the preexisting ΔΔ components of the deuteron wave function. In this case, one expects the angular distributions and cross sections of the breakup in both Δ ++ Δ - and Δ + Δ 0 channels to be similar.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, Eugenie
1997-01-01
We are studying the energy distributions of spallation neutrons produced at 0 deg. by protons of 0.8 GeV up to 1.6 GeV and deuterons of 1.2 and 1.6 GeV with two complementary experimental techniques: the time of flight measurement with tagged incident protons for low energy neutrons (3-400 MeV) and the use of a magnetic spectrometer at high energy (E ≥ 200 MeV). These measurements enable us to measure for the first time the neutron spectra for incident energies higher than 800 MeV. We have compared the double differential cross sections produced with 1.2 GeV protons on several thin targets (Al, Fe, Zr, W, Pb and Th). The neutron production obtained for a lead target is also studied for various energies (0.8 up to 1.6 GeV) and incident particles (p, d). Data are compared with theoretical simulations carried out using the TIERCE system and the intranuclear cascade model of J. Cugnon associated to the decay code of D. Durand. The neutron spectra calculated by using the HETC and MCNP codes, included in TIERCE, are significantly higher than the measured distributions. A better agreement is observed with the results of the Cugnon's cascade model. (author) [fr
Exclusive scattering off the deuteron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amrath, D.
2007-12-15
Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)
Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)
2017-05-15
We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)
Relativistic impulse approximation and deuteron spin structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokarev, M.V.
1992-01-01
The fragmentation processes were considered of tensor- and vector-polarized deuterons to protons in the framework of the covariant approach in the light cone variables on the basis of the relativistic deuteron wave function with one nucleon on-mass shell. The experimental verification of predicted dependences of T 20 and K is of interest for the research of the momentum and spin distributions of high momentum deuteron constituents. 21 refs.; 6 figs
Model wave functions for the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Certov, A.; Mathelitsch, L.; Moravcsik, M.J.
1987-01-01
Model wave functions are constructed for the deuteron to facilitate the unambiguous exploration of dependencies on the percentage D state and on the small-, medium-, and large-distance parts of the deuteron wave function. The wave functions are constrained by those deuteron properties which are accurately known experimentally, and are in an analytic form which is easily integrable in expressions usually encountered in the use of such wave functions
Aleksandrov, V. V.; Volkov, G. S.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Lakhtyushko, N. I.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Oleinik, G. M.; Svetlov, E. V.
2014-02-01
Results are presented from measurements of the anisotropy of energy losses in high-current Z-pinches produced by the implosion of wire arrays at the ANGARA-5-1 facility at load currents of up to 4MA. The energy losses were measured in the radial direction and along the pinch axis from the anode side. The main diagnostics were time-integrated thermocouple calorimeters, nanosecond X-ray diodes (XRDs) with different filters, and a foil radiation calorimeter with a time resolution of 2 μs. The azimuthal anisotropy of energy losses was measured for different wire array configurations and different shapes of the high-voltage electrode. The presence of strong initial azimuthal inhomogeneity of the wire mass distribution (sectioned arrays), as well as the use of conical electrodes instead of plane ones, does not increase the azimuthal inhomogeneity of the total energy losses. For cylindrical wire arrays, energy losses in the radial direction are compared with those along the pinch axis. According to XRD and calorimetric measurements, the radiation yield per unit solid angle along the pinch axis is two to three times lower than that in the radial direction. In the axial direction, the energy flux density of the expanding plasma is two to three times lower than the radiation intensity. The measured radiation yield across the pinch is 2.5-5 kJ/sr, while that along the pinch axis is 1-2 kJ/sr. The results obtained by means of XRDs agree to within measurement errors with those obtained using the radiation calorimeter. It is found that the energy per unit solid angle carried by the expanding plasma in the radial direction does not exceed 10% of the soft X-ray yield. Analysis of the structure of time-integrated pinhole images and signals from the radial and axial XRDs shows that radiation emitted in the radial direction from the hot central region of the pinch is partially screened by the less dense surrounding plasma halo, whereas radiation emitted in the axial direction is a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Šipr, O; Bornemann, S; Ebert, H; Minár, J
2014-01-01
The substrate contribution to the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of supported nanostructures can be assessed by a site-selective manipulation of the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) and of the effective exchange field B ex . A systematic study of Co adatoms and Co monolayers on the (1 1 1) surfaces of Cu, Ag, Au, Pd and Pt is performed to study common trends in this class of materials. It is found that for adatoms, the influence of the substrate SOC and B ex is relatively small (10–30% of the MAE) while for monolayers, this influence can be substantial. The influence of the substrate SOC is much more important than the influence of the substrate B ex , except for highly polarizable substrates with a strong SOC (such as Pt). The substrate always promotes the tendency to an out-of-plane orientation of the easy magnetic axis for all the investigated systems. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garibay-Alonso, R; Villasenor-Gonzalez, P; Dorantes-Davila, J; Pastor, G M
2004-01-01
The magnetic anisotropy energy at the interface (IMAE) of Co films deposited on the Pd(111) surface are determined in the framework of a self-consistent, real-space tight-binding method at zero temperature. Significant spin moments are induced at the Pd atoms at the interface which have an important influence on the observed reorientation transitions as a function of Co film thickness. Film-substrate hybridizations are therefore crucial for the magneto-anisotropic behaviour of thin transition-metal films deposited on metallic non-magnetic substrates. Furthermore, using a real-space recursive expansion of the local Green function and within the virtual-crystal approximation we calculate the magnetization curves and the Curie temperature T C for free-standing Fe films
Däne, Markus; Kim, Soo Kyung; Surh, Michael P; Åberg, Daniel; Benedict, Lorin X
2015-07-08
We present and discuss density functional theory calculations of magnetic properties of the family of ferromagnetic compounds, (Fe(1-x)Co(x))(2)B, focusing specifically on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). Using periodic supercells of various sizes (up to 96 atoms), it is shown that the general qualitative features of the composition dependence of the MAE is in agreement with experimental findings, while our predicted magnitudes are larger than those of experiment. We find that the use of small supercells (6 and 12-atom) favors larger MAE values relative to a statistical sample of configurations constructed with 96-atom supercells. The effect of lattice relaxations is shown to be small. Calculations of the Curie temperature for this alloy are also presented.
Proton and deuteron activation measurements at the NPI and future plans in SPIRAL2/NFS
Šimečková, Eva; Bém, Pavel; Mrázek, Jaromír; Štefánik, Milan; Běhal, Radomír; Gladolev, Vadim
2017-09-01
The proton- and deuteron-induced reactions are of a great interest for the assessment of induced radioactivity of accelerator components, target and beam stoppers as well as isotope production for medicine. In the present work, the deuteron-induced reaction cross sections on zinc were investigated by stacked-foil activation technique with deuteron beam of 20 MeV energy from the cyclotron U-120M of NPI CAS Řež. Also the proton activation cross section measurement of iron is presented. The comparison of present results to data of other authors and to predictions of evaluated data libraries is discussed. The investigation shall continue for higher proton and deuteron energy interval 20-35 MeV at SPIRAL2/NFS facility using a charged particle irradiation chamber with pneumatic transport system to measure isotopes and isomers with half-lives in minutes-regions.
Plasma sheet pressure anisotropies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stiles, G.S.; Hones, E.W. Jr; Bame, S.J.; Asbridge, J.R.
1978-01-01
The ecliptic plane components of the pressure tensors for low-energy ( or =1.2 approximately 25% of the time. Due to the low energy density of the electrons, however, this anisotropy is not itself sufficient to balance the tension of the magnetic field
Capture of polarized deuterons on protons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca, A.C.; Lehman, D.R.
1995-01-01
Full three-body calculations for the cross sections, vector analyzing powers, and tensor analyzing powers for radiative capture of polarized deuterons on protons over the energy range of available data are completed. The Paris, Bonn A, and AV14 two-nucleon interactions are used by means of separable-expansion methods. The Paris and Bonn interactions are handled by the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) method, whereas the AV14 potential is used through the new expansion of Koike, in order to reduce the two-variable integral equations to a single variable. The electromagnetic transition is calculated with the Siegert long-wavelength E1 operator. Comparisons are made between results for different nucleon-nucleon interactions and with respect to the experimental data. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Helicity dependence of the total inclusive cross section on the deuteron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahrens, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Arends, H.-J.; Beck, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Blackston, M.A. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Braghieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Hose, N. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dutz, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Heid, E.; Jahn, O. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Klein, F. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Kondratiev, R. [INR, Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lang, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Lisin, V. [INR, Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Martinez Fabregate, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); McGeorge, J.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Meyer, W. [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Panzeri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: pedroni@pv.infn.it (and others)
2009-03-02
A measurement of the helicity dependence of the total inclusive photoabsorption cross section on the deuteron was carried out at MAMI (Mainz) in the energy range 200
Helicity dependence of the total inclusive cross section on the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahrens, J.; Altieri, S.; Annand, J.R.M.; Arends, H.-J.; Beck, R.; Blackston, M.A.; Braghieri, A.; D'Hose, N.; Dutz, H.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Klein, F.; Kondratiev, R.; Lang, M.; Lisin, V.; Martinez Fabregate, M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Meyer, W.; Panzeri, A.; Pedroni, P.
2009-01-01
A measurement of the helicity dependence of the total inclusive photoabsorption cross section on the deuteron was carried out at MAMI (Mainz) in the energy range 200 γ <800 MeV. The experiment used a 4π detection system, a circularly polarized tagged photon beam and a frozen spin target which provided longitudinally polarized deuterons. These new results are a significant improvement on the existing data and allow a detailed comparison with state-of-the-art calculations
Time-resolved characteristics of deuteron-beam generated by plasma focus discharge
Bradley, D. A.
2018-01-01
The plasma focus device discussed herein is a Z-pinch pulsed-plasma arrangement. In this, the plasma is heated and compressed into a cylindrical column, producing a typical density of > 1025 particles/m3 and a temperature of (1–3) × 107 oC. The plasma focus has been widely investigated as a radiation source, including as ion-beams, electron-beams and as a source of x-ray and neutron production, providing considerable scope for use in a variety of technological situations. Thus said, the nature of the radiation emission depends on the dynamics of the plasma pinch. In this study of the characteristics of deuteron-beam emission, in terms of energy, fluence and angular distribution were analyzed. The 2.7 kJ plasma focus discharge has been made to operate at a pressure of less than 1 mbar rather than at its more conventional operating pressure of a few mbar. Faraday cup were used to determine deuteron-beam energy and deuteron-beam fluence per shot while CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were employed in studying the angular distribution of deuteron emission. Beam energy and deuteron-beam fluence per shot have been found to be pressure dependent. The largest value of average deuteron energy measured for present conditions was found to be (52 ± 7) keV, while the deuteron-beam fluence per shot was of the order of 1015 ions/m2 when operated at a pressure of 0.2 mbar. The deuteron-beam emission is in the forward direction and is observed to be highly anisotropic. PMID:29309425
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copeland, K.; Parker, D. E.; Friedberg, W.
2011-01-01
Conversion coefficients were calculated for fluence-to-absorbed dose, fluence-to-equivalent dose, fluence-to-effective dose and fluence-to-gray equivalent for isotropic exposure of an adult female and an adult male to deuterons ( 2 H + ) in the energy range 10 MeV -1 TeV (0.01-1000 GeV). Coefficients were calculated using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.7.C and BodyBuilder TM 1.3 anthropomorphic phantoms. Phantoms were modified to allow calculation of the effective dose to a Reference Person using tissues and tissue weighting factors from 1990 and 2007 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and gray equivalent to selected tissues as recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Coefficients for the equivalent and effective dose incorporated a radiation weighting factor of 2. At 15 of 19 energies for which coefficients for the effective dose were calculated, coefficients based on ICRP 1990 and 2007 recommendations differed by < 3 %. The greatest difference, 47 %, occurred at 30 MeV. (authors)
Deuteron-induced activation data in EAF for IFMIF calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forrest, R.; Cook, I.
2006-01-01
The main type of activation calculations needed for fusion technology deals with the interaction of neutrons with materials. The road map for development of fusion as an electricity producing technology is based on ITER and IFMIF followed by DEMO. IFMIF is a materials testing facility that will enable materials planned to be used in DEMO to be irradiated to very high fluences, so providing the database of material properties required for the licensing of DEMO. IFMIF will use intense beams of high energy deuterons striking a flowing lithium target to produce the neutron field. Although the neutron spectrum is a good match to those produced in a D-T fusion device, there is a significant high energy tail extending up to 55 MeV. These high energy neutrons were the motivation for increasing the upper energy limit in the neutron-induced part of EAF-2005 so that activation calculations could be made in IFMIF. The deuterons themselves will also make a contribution to activation especially in the target where they strike the lithium but also due to beam losses in the accelerator. It was realised that because of corrosion in the lithium loop there is the potential for a wide range of elements to be present in the target region and it is therefore necessary to have a complete library of deuteron-induced cross section data, just as in the neutron case. A preliminary library based on model calculations with TALYS using global parameters was used to construct a deuteron-induced library and this was released as part of the maintenance release of EAF-2005.1 at the beginning of this year. This data library has been used with an updated version of the inventory code FISPACT to calculate the activation in the lithium target due to reactions of the deuterons with the corrosion products. These calculations show that deuterons are much more important than neutrons (about a factor of 70) in activating the elements other than lithium. This work shows the importance of the effect and means
Mehrangiz, M.; Ghasemizad, A.
2017-06-01
Deuteron fast ignition of a conically guided pre-compressed DT fuel is investigated. For this purpose, the acceleration of the deuterated thin foil by the intense laser beam is evaluated. The acceleration values and the number of foil-generated deuterons are calculated in terms of the laser pulse duration. Using the created deuterons as the fast ignitors, we investigate the fast ignition scheme by comparing fully degenerate, partial degenerate and classical types of DT plasma. The total energy gain of deuterons "beam fusion" is calculated to show the efficiency of beam reactions in increasing fusion rate. Besides, the stopping time and stopping range of incident deuterons are evaluated. Our numerical results indicate that degeneracy increases the beam-target collisions. Thus, it prepares the ignition situation sooner than the classical plasma. Moreover, the number of generated deuterons and their acceleration depend on the foil thickness and laser parameters. We show that when a 4ps laser with intensity of 10^{19} W/cm^2 focused onto a 20μm foil, 35× 10^{15} deuterons are generated. Moreover, under our analysis, in order to have a practicable fast ignition, 18% of the laser energy is necessary to convert into a deuteron driver.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, R.T.; Kramer, M.J.; Besser, M.F.; Sordelet, D.J.
2006-01-01
We have used high-energy X-ray scattering to measure the structural anisotropy and excess free volume in a homogeneously deformed Zr-based metallic glass alloy. The scattering results show that bond length anisotropy is present in the samples following isothermal tensile creep deformation. The average atomic bond length in the direction parallel to the tensile loading axis is larger than that in the direction normal to the loading axis. The magnitude of the bond length anisotropy is found to be dependent on the gradient of macroscopic plastic strain along the gauge length. Furthermore, the scattering results show that the excess free volume also increases with increasing macroscopic plastic strain. Results from differential scanning calorimetry analysis of free volume variations along the gauge length of the creep samples are consistent with results from the X-ray scattering experiments
Fragmentation of deuteronated aromatic derivatives: The role of ion-neutral complexes
Harrison, Alex G.; Wang, Jian-Yao
1997-01-01
The low-energy collision-induced dissociation reactions of the MD+ ions of a number of alkyl phenyl ethers, alkylbenzenes, acetophenones and benzaldehyde have been studied as a function of collision energy to establish qualitatively the dependence of the fragmentation reactions observed on internal energy. Deuteronated alkyl phenyl ethers (ROC6H5·D+, R = C3H7, C4H9) fragment at low collision energies to form C6H5OHD+ + (R-H), the thermochemically favoured products; with increasing collision energy (and, hence, internal energy) formation of the alkyl ion R+ increases significantly in importance. Deuteronated alkylbenzenes (RC6H5, RC6H4R', R = C2H5, C3H7) similarly form the deuteronated benzene (the thermochemically favoured product) at low collision energies with formation of the alkyl ion R+ being observed at higher collision energies. The results for both systems are consistent with a fragmentation mechanism involving initial formation of an R+/aromatic ion/neutral complex. At low internal energies proton transfer occurs within this complex to form an ion/neutral complex consisting of the deuteronated aromatic and a neutral olefin; this complex fragments to the thermochemically favoured products. Since the transition state leading to these products is a "tight" transition state involving loss of rotational degrees of freedom, the proton transfer reaction is unfavourable entropically with respect to simple dissociation of the R+/aromatic complex to R+ + ArD. Consequently, these products increase in importance as the internal energy is increased. The fragmentation of deuteronated aromatic carbonyl compounds can also be rationalized by similar mechanisms involving the intermediacy of ion/neutral complexes. Deuteronated acetophenone forms only CH3CO+ at all collision energies; this is both the thermochemically and entropically favoured product. However, deuteronated p-aminoacetophenone forms deuteronated aniline, the thermochemically favoured product at low collision
Local and non-local potentials for deuteron elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez, J.A.
1976-01-01
The nucleon--nucleus local potential (central and spin--orbit) and the deuteron--nucleus nonlocal potential (central, spin--orbit, spin--radial tensor) are calculated by the folding-model (FM). Simple analytic expressions are obtained for the nucleon--nucleus potential by the use of Gaussians to represent the nucleon--nucleus potential and the charge and mass densities of the target. The analytic expressions give qualitative descriptions of phenomenological nucleon--nucleus interactions. A systematic target--mass dependence of realistic local FM deueron potentials is also included. Local-equivalent, energy-dependent, deuteron potentials are obtained from the nonlocal FM deuteron potentials and the energy dependence of the local potential parameters are presented. The local FM deuteron potential is tested for 60 Ni(d,d) 60 Ni at E/sub α/ = 15 MeV by comparing the predictions of the FM potentials with data in which all five polarization moments were measured. A qualitative fit to the data is obtained, but it overestimates the volume integral of the central potential by 7%. Energy-dependence effects are estimated by evaluating the local-equivalent potentials at E/sub α/ = 30 MeV and comparing the predictions to the E/sub α/ = 15 MeV potentials. The energy dependence of the central potential dominates the angular dependence of all five observables while the energy dependence of the spin--orbit and tensor potentials produces only scale changes (approx. 3%) in the vector and tensor analyzing powers. The scattering formalism for a spin-1 on a spin-0 target nucleus, and a description of the coupled--channels computer code DDUNC1 which treats the spin--radial tensor potential exactly, are included
Scale dependence of deuteron electrodisintegration
More, S. N.; Bogner, S. K.; Furnstahl, R. J.
2017-11-01
Background: Isolating nuclear structure properties from knock-out reactions in a process-independent manner requires a controlled factorization, which is always to some degree scale and scheme dependent. Understanding this dependence is important for robust extractions from experiment, to correctly use the structure information in other processes, and to understand the impact of approximations for both. Purpose: We seek insight into scale dependence by exploring a model calculation of deuteron electrodisintegration, which provides a simple and clean theoretical laboratory. Methods: By considering various kinematic regions of the longitudinal structure function, we can examine how the components—the initial deuteron wave function, the current operator, and the final-state interactions (FSIs)—combine at different scales. We use the similarity renormalization group to evolve each component. Results: When evolved to different resolutions, the ingredients are all modified, but how they combine depends strongly on the kinematic region. In some regions, for example, the FSIs are largely unaffected by evolution, while elsewhere FSIs are greatly reduced. For certain kinematics, the impulse approximation at a high renormalization group resolution gives an intuitive picture in terms of a one-body current breaking up a short-range correlated neutron-proton pair, although FSIs distort this simple picture. With evolution to low resolution, however, the cross section is unchanged but a very different and arguably simpler intuitive picture emerges, with the evolved current efficiently represented at low momentum through derivative expansions or low-rank singular value decompositions. Conclusions: The underlying physics of deuteron electrodisintegration is scale dependent and not just kinematics dependent. As a result, intuition about physics such as the role of short-range correlations or D -state mixing in particular kinematic regimes can be strongly scale dependent
Power plant by deuteron beams using indirect-driven target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu, Keishiro
1989-01-01
An indirect-driven target is proposed to be used for 6-beam nonuniform irradiation of deuteron particles. The target consists of 5 layers; tamper, radiator, smoother (radiation gap), absorber (pusher) and solid DT fuel. The fluctuation comes from nonuniform energy deposition in the radiator layer. Through the smoother layer, radiative energy transport from the radiator layer to the absorber layer is expected to smooth out the temperature fluctuation in the absorber layer. The total beam energy of 12 MJ is launched to the target by 6 beams. In order to delete the charge of the front edge of the propagating deuteron beam, the electron beam is proposed to be launched to the target with the same velocity and with the same number density at the same time of the deuteron extraction form the diode. To stabilize the beam propagation, the electron beam has a rotation velocity which induces the magnetic field in the propagation direction. The construction of the power supply system whose total stored energy is 12 MJ seems to be not difficult and to be economical. (author)
The polarized proton and deuteron beam at the Bonn isochronous cyclotron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, K G; Enders, R; Hammon, W; Krause, K D; Lesemann, D; Scholzen, A [Bonn Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik; Euler, K; Schueller, B [Bonn Univ. (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik
1976-02-15
The present state of the polarized proton and deuteron source at the Bonn cyclotron is described. The source, which is of the atomic beam type, gives typical ion beam intensities of 2 ..mu..A for protons and 3 ..mu..A for deuterons. The overall transmission from the source to the first stopper after extraction from the cyclotron is 3%. Target currents with an energy resolution E/..delta..E=500 are 20 nA for deuterons and 10 nA for protons. For the proton beam, a polarization P=-0.71 was measured. For the deuteron beam, a pure vector polarization Psub(z)=-0.47 or various mixtures of vector and tensor polarization are obtained.
Neutron production in interactions of relativistic protons and deuterons with lead targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurevich, V.I.; Amelin, N.S.; Yakovlev, R.M.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Lyapin, V.G.; Tsvetkov, I.O.
2005-01-01
Results on the neutron double-differential cross sections and yields obtained in the time-of-flight measurements with different lead targets and beams of protons and deuterons at an energy of about 2 GeV are discussed. The neutron spatial-energy distribution for an extended lead target was studied by the threshold detector method in the energy range of protons and deuterons 1-3.7 GeV. A dependence of the mean neutron multiplicity, energy of neutrons, and process of neutron multiplication in lead on the target dimension, and the type and energy of the beam particle is analyzed. (author)
Ab initio and work function and surface energy anisotropy of LaB6
Uijttewaal, M. A.; de Wijs, G. A.; de Groot, R. A.
2006-01-01
Lanthanum hexaboride is one of the cathode materials most used in high-power electronics technology, but the many experimental results do not provide a consistent picture of the surface properties. Therefore, we report the first ab initio calculations of the work functions and surface energies of
Final-state interaction in processes of deuteron breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thome Filho, Z.D.
1974-12-01
Interaction between particles in the final state of reactions can strongly affect the experimental angular distributions, as in the scattering processes with the breaking of the deuteron target, where the final state interaction is responsible for the disappearance of the differential cross section in the front direction. It is then necessary to include the contribution of the final state interaction to small angles of incoherent processes particle-deuteron. In this work line, an analysis is made of the process πd → πpn for different values of the incident energy. The data obtained are compared with existing experimental data. The hypothesis is also considered of the nucleon which collides with the incident particle being outside the mass layer. An analytical extension of the resonant amplitude πN outwards the mass layer is also used
The Hilbert-Schmidt method for nucleon-deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, K.; Narodetskii, I.M.
1984-01-01
The Hilbert-Schmidt technique is used for computing the divergent multiple-scattering series for scattering of nucleons by deuterons at energies above the deuteron breakup. We have found that for each partial amplitude a series of s-channel resonances diverges because of the logarithmic singularities which reflect the t-channel singularities of the total amplitude. However, the convergence of the Hilbert-Schmidt series may be improved by iterating the Faddeev equations thereby extracting the most strong logarithmic singularities. We show that the series for the amplitudes with the first two iteration subtracted converges rapidly. Our final results are in excellent agreement with exact results obtained by a direct matrix technique. (orig.)
Hilbert-Schmidt method for nucleon-deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, K.; Narodetskij, I.M.
1983-01-01
The Hilbert-Schmidt technique is used for computing the divergent multiple-scattering series for scattering of nucleons by deuterons at energies above the deuteron breakup. It is found that for each partial amplitude a series of s-channel resonances diverges because of the logarithmic singularities which reflect the t-channel singularities of the total amplitude. However, the convergence of the Hilbert-Schmidt series may be improved by iterating the Faddeev equations thereby extracting the most strong logarithmic singularities. It is shown that the series for the amplitudes with first two iterations subtracted converges rapidly. Final results are in excellent agreement with exact results obtained by a direct matrix technique
Lambda-neutron interaction in kaon photoproduction from the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adelseck, R.A.; Wright, L.E.
1989-01-01
The importance of hyperon-nucleon final-state interaction in kaon photoproduction from the deuteron is examined. By calculating the deuteron wave function using the Reid, Paris, or Bonn NN potentials, the uncertainty of this process due to the nucleonic wave function is found to be negligible. The insignificance of off-shell and relativistic effects is demonstrated by employing a completely relativistic wave function and comparing various approximations. We find the influence of the kaon production operator to be the most critical ingredient in this calculation. Final-state effects, which are included via a distorted-wave formalism, involve partial waves up to l = 3. They produce a sharp rise of the cross section near threshold resulting in an enhancement by about a factor of 3, but diminish rapidly as the energy increases. Different ΛN potential models show variations of the effect by up to 10%
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miley, George H.
2012-01-01
Fast Ignition (FI) uses Petawatt laser generated particle beam pulse to ignite a small volume called a pre-compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target, and is the favored method to achieve the high energy gain per target burn needed for an attractive ICF power plant. Ion beams such as protons, deuterons or heavier carbon ions are especially appealing for FI as they have relative straight trajectory, and easier to focus on the fuel capsule. But current experiments have encountered problems with the 'converter-foil' which is irradiated by the Petawatt laser to produce the ion beams. The problems include depletion of the available ions in the convertor foils, and poor energy efficiency (ion beam energy/ input laser energy). We proposed to develop a volumetrically-loaded ultra-high-density deuteron deuterium cluster material as the basis for converter-foil for deuteron beam generation. The deuterons will fuse with the ICF DT while they slow down, providing an extra 'bonus' energy gain in addition to heating the hot spot. Also, due to the volumetric loading, the foil will provide sufficient energetic deuteron beam flux for 'hot spot' ignition, while avoiding the depletion problem encountered by current proton-driven FI foils. After extensive comparative studies, in Phase I, high purity PdO/Pd/PdO foils were selected for the high packing fraction D-Cluster converter foils. An optimized loading process has been developed to increase the cluster packing fraction in this type of foil. As a result, the packing fraction has been increased from 0.1% to 10% - meeting the original Phase I goal and representing a significant progress towards the beam intensities needed for both FI and pulsed neutron applications. Fast Ignition provides a promising approach to achieve high energy gain target performance needed for commercial Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This is now a realistic goal for near term in view of the anticipated ICF target burn at the National Ignition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Haruo
2005-01-01
The diffusion experiments for I - and Cs + in the parallel and perpendicular directions to the orientated direction of smectite particles were performed as a function of smectite's dry density, salinity and temperature. The anisotropies and the effect of salinity in the apparent diffusivities (D a ) and activation energies (ΔE a ) for both ions were additionally discussed. The D a -values for both ions showed a tendency to be higher in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. The D a -values of I - in the parallel direction decreased with increasing salinity at low-dry density, but those of Cs + increased with increasing salinity for all conditions. Based on this, it is interpreted that I - mainly diffuses in interstitial pores and that Cs + diffuses in interlayer and interstitial pores. The ΔE a -values for I - , similar levels to that for the diffusivity in free water (D o ) at low-dry density, increased with increasing dry density. The ΔE a -values for Cs + , higher than that for D o even at low-dry density, increased with increasing dry density. Such high ΔE a -values for Cs + are considered to be due to the effects of ion exchange enthalpy (ΔH o ) between Cs + and Na + and the decrease in the activity of porewater. (author)
Deuteron production in α-nucleus collisions from 200 to 800 MeV per nucleon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montarou, G.; Alard, J.P.; Augerat, J.; Fraysse, L.; Parizet, M.J.; Babinet, R.; Fodor, Z.; Girard, J.; Gosset, J.; Laspalles, C.; Lemaire, M.C.; L'Hote, D.; Lucas, B.; Poitou, J.; Schimmerling, W.; Terrien, Y.; Brochard, F.; Gorodetzky, P.; Racca, C.; Cugnon, J.; Vandermeulen, J.
1991-01-01
Deuteron spectra at laboratory angles from 30 degree to 90 degree were measured in α+(Pb, Cu, and C) collisions at 800, 600, and 200 MeV/nucleon, and α+(Pb and C) collisions at 400 MeV/nucleon. The coalescence relation between protons and deuterons was examined for the inclusive part of the spectra. The size of the interacting region was evaluated from the observed coalescence coefficients. The rms radius is typically 4--5 fm, depending of the target mass. The proton and deuteron energy spectra corresponding to central collisions were fitted assuming emission from a single source moving with a velocity intermediate between that of the projectile and the target. The extracted ''temperatures'' are independent of the nature of the emitted particle, indicating that the fragments have a common source. The best fits were achieved for 200- and 400-MeV/nucleon reactions. Spectra of deuteron-like pairs, including real deuterons and neutron-proton pairs that may be contained in a larger nuclear cluster, are compared to the prediction of an intranuclear cascade model incorporating a clustering algorithm based on a classical coalescence prescription. Best agreements between experimental and predicted deuteron-like spectra occur for 800- and 600-MeV/nucleon collisions
The Large Scale Structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field and High Energy Cosmic Ray Anisotropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez-Muniz, Jaime [Department de Fisica de PartIculas, University de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago, SPAIN (Spain); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)
2006-10-15
Measurements of the magnetic field in our Galaxy are complex and usually difficult to interpret. A spiral regular field in the disk is favored by observations, however the number of field reversals is still under debate. Measurements of the parity of the field across the Galactic plane are also very difficult due to the presence of the disk field itself. In this work we demonstrate that cosmic ray protons in the energy range 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 19}eV, if accelerated near the center of the Galaxy, are sensitive to the large scale structure of the Galactic Magnetic Field (GMF). In particular if the field is of even parity, and the spiral field is bi-symmetric (BSS), ultra high energy protons will predominantly come from the Southern Galactic hemisphere, and predominantly from the Northern Galactic hemisphere if the field is of even parity and axi-symmetric (ASS). There is no sensitivity to the BSS or ASS configurations if the field is of odd parity.
Anisotropy of acoustic properties in paratellurite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parygin, Vladimir N.
1996-01-01
One of the peculiarities of the TeO 2 crystal consists of its strong acoustic anisotropy. This anisotropy demonstrates itself by acoustic energy walk-off and anisotropic distortion of an acoustic beam. Four constants completely characterise the acoustic anisotropy of the medium. In this paper these constants are calculated for various directions of the acoustic beam in crystal. (authors)
Tensor polarization in pion-deuteron elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, R.J.; Freeman, W.S.; Geesaman, D.F.
1985-01-01
During this year the analysis of measurements of t 20 in π-d elastic scattering was completed and a final summary manuscript was prepared for publication. The results consists of angular distributions of the deuteron tensor polarization in π-d elastic scattering at pion energies of 140, 180, 220 and 256 MeV. Theoretical calculations in which the effects of pion absorption on the elastic channel are small reproduce the data. No rapid angular or energy dependence was found near a pion energy of 134 MeV, where another experiment at SIN has suggested the existence of dibaryon resonances
Azimuthal anisotropies and initial-state fluctuations from SPS to LHC energies
Milosevic, Jovan
2016-01-01
The $v_{3}$ coefficient, obtained using the PbAu data from the CERES detector at the top SPS energy, is presented. The $v_{2}$ is measured over a $p_{T}$ range up to 100 GeV/c in PbPb collisions collected with the CMS detector. The $v_{2}\\{2\\}$ of charged and strange particles emitted in pp collisions shows a mass ordering effect. The $v_{2}\\{4\\}$ and $v_{2}\\{6\\}$ are comparable to the $v_{2}\\{2\\}$, and thus supports the collective nature of the long-range correlations in high-multiplicity pp collisions at 13~TeV. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of two-particle harmonics ($V_{n\\Delta}$) is studied in PbPb and high-multiplicity pPb collisions at the LHC. The factorization breaking of the $V_{n\\Delta}$ can be attributed to the effect of initial-state fluctuations (ISF). Using a PCA, the $V_{n\\Delta}$ are characterized through the leading and sub-leading modes. The leading modes are essentially equivalent to the $v_{n}\\{2\\}$. The sub-leading modes represent the largest sources of factorization breaking.
Study of the baryon-baryon interaction in nucleon-nucleon and pion-deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuchs, M.
1993-01-01
After the definition of the Hamiltonian in general form by meson production and absorption the transition to operators pursued, which connect only spaces with definite meson numbers. In this approximation first the self-energy of a single baryon was calculated in its full energy and momentum dependence. Then the formal expressions for the T matrices of nucleon-nucleon and pion-deuteron scattering were derived. The essential components of these expressions are the baryon-baryon T matrix ant transition amplitudes from pion-deuteron channels to baryon-baryon states. The central chapter dealt with the calculation of the baryon-baryon interaction for the general form of the vertices, with the solution of the binding problem and the baryon-baryon T matrix. Finally followed the results on the nucleon-nucleon and pion-deuteron scattering. For this first the transition amplitudes from pion-deuteron states to intermediate baryon-baryon states and the Born graphs of the pion-deuteron scattering had to be calculated. After some remarks to the transition from partial-wave decomposed T matrices to scattering observables an extensive representation of the total, partial, and differential cross sections and a series of spin observables (analyzing powers and spin correlations) for the elastic proton-proton, neutron-proton, and pion-deuteron scattering as well for the fusion reaction pp→πd and the breakup reaction πd→pp follows. Thereby the energies reached from the nucleon-nucleon respectively pion-deuteron threshold up to 100 MeV above the delta resonance
Polarized deuteron beam at the Dubna synchrophasotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ershov, V.P.; Fimushkin, V.V.; Gai, G.I.
1990-01-01
The experimental equipment and setup used to accelerate a polarized deuteron beam at the Dubna synchrophasotron are briefly described. Basic characteristics of the cryogenic source of polarized deuterons POLARIS are presented. The results of measurements of the intensity of the accelerated beam, vector and tensor polarization at the output of the linac LU-20, inside the synchrophasotron ring and in the extracted beam are given. 16 refs.; 9 figs.; 3 tabs
Deuteron structure in the deep inelastic regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia Canal, C.A.; Tarutina, T. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP/CONICET y Departamento de Fisica, La Plata (Argentina); Vento, V. [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica-IFIC, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)
2017-06-15
We study nuclear effects in the deuteron in the deep inelastic regime using the newest available data. We put special emphasis on their Q{sup 2} dependence. The study is carried out using a scheme which parameterizes, in a simple manner, these effects by changing the proton and neutron stucture functions in medium. The result of our analysis is compared with other recent proposals. We conclude that precise EMC ratios cannot be obtained without considering the nuclear effects in the deuteron. (orig.)
Role of deuteron NN*-components in processes pd → dp and pd → dN*
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uzikov, Yu.N.
1996-01-01
The contribution of nucleon isobar N * exchanges to backward elastic pd-scattering is calculated on the basis of deuteron 6q-model and found to be negligible in comparison with neutron exchange. It is shown that the pole amplitude of neutron pickup from the deuteron nN * -component is favoured in the reaction pd → dN * for backward going N * (1440) and N* (1710) at kinetic energy of incident proton of 1.5-2 GeV whereas the triangular diagram with subprocess pp → dπ + related to the usual pn-component of deuteron considerably suppressed. 19 refs., 3 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Arnold, W.; Herdtweck, J.; Mertens, G.
1986-01-01
The response of the deuterated scintillators NE 232 and NE 230 to protons and deuterons has been measured via elastic neutron-proton and neutron-deuteron scattering using the two mixtures of C 6 H 12 /C 6 D 12 and C 6 H 6 /C 6 D 6 and ''pure'' scintillators. The energy range covered for protons and deuterons was about 1-16 MeV. The light output relation Lsub(p)(E)=(1/2)Lsub(d) (2E) has been observed. (orig.)
Tensor polarization in pion-deuteron elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holt, R.J.
1983-01-01
The angular dependence of the tensor polarization t 20 /sup lab/ of recoiling deuterons in π-d elastic scattering was measured as a function of incident pion energy in the range 134 to 256 MeV. No evidence was found for rapid energy or angular dependences in t 20 /sup lab/. The results agree most favorably with theoretical calculations in which the P 11 π-N amplitude has been removed altogether. This agreement is consistent with a small effect of pion absorption on the elastic channel. 14 references
Superconducting sector magnet for the deuteron cyclotron DC-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alenitskij, Y.G.; Vasilenko, A.T.; Zaplatin, N.L.; Mironov, S.V.; Morozov, N.A.; Pryanichnikov, V.I.; Samsonov, E.V.; Sukhanov, V.I.; Chesnov, A.F.; Chesnova, S.I.
1992-01-01
In this paper the results of calculations of a superconducting magnet with a cold pole for a cyclotron to deuteron energy 100 MeV are presented. The maximum induction in the magnet is 4.5 T, stored energy 5 MJ, mean current density in coil 9 · 10 7 A/m 2 . The scheme and main parameters of the magnet protection system and cryogenic provision system are described. The results of calculation of magnetic and thermal forces acting on the coil and its case are presented. The status of the manufacture of the magnetic system elements is considered
Fragmentation of deuterons on nucleons in the infinite momentum frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolidze, M.G.; Lykasov, G.I.
1989-01-01
A method for the analysis of interactions between fast deuterons and nucleons is developed taking into account both the relativistic effects in the deuteron and the mechanism of their interaction. The inclusive proton spectra and the polarization characteristics are investigated on the example of the fragmentation type processes of deuterons on nucleons. A strong sensitivity of the deuteron polarization tensor component T 20 both to the reaction mechanisms and to the relativistic structure of the deuteron is shown. The probable existence of the 6q-state in the deuteron in those reactions is discussed. 24 refs.; 3 figs
Study of deuteron break-up at low energies in the reactions D(d,pn)d and D(d,dn)p
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cocu, Francis; Ambrosino, Georges; Guerreau, Daniel.
1977-06-01
Quasi-free scattering in the reactions d+D=n+p+d has been studied at incident energies between 7 and 12 MeV by steps of 1 MeV. In a kinematically complete experiment, the cross sections were measured for the coincidences (p,n) and for the coincidences (d,n). The energy of the charged particle was also enregistered. The detector of the charged particles was put at an angle thetasub(p)=thetasub(d)=19 0 5 counted from the incident axis, the detector of neutrons at thetasub(n)=-30 0 . The geometry was coplanar. Pure gaseous target gives an excellent signal/back-ground ratio. The measure of the time-of-flight of the neutron allows indirectly the discrimination of the nature of the detected charged particle. Absolute cross sections are compared with the results of the complete Born approximation. The nucleon-nucleon potential is spin-dependant. The shape of the measured (d,n) spectra is fairly well reproduced but not its intensity. The (p,n) spectra is not so well reproduced but the distortion diminishes on increasing the incident energy [fr
Noboru, HIROSHIGE; Faculty of Economics, Hannan University
1996-01-01
An energy-dependent partial-wave analysis of πd elastic scattering has been performed in the region T_L=65～294 MeV for currently available experimental data, including the recent vector analyzing power iT_ and composite observables τ_. We have obtained a solution which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The ^3P_1,^3P_2,^3D_3 and ^3D_2 amplitudes abtained show counter-clockwise rotating behaviors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agababyan, K.S.; Adamyan, F.V.; Akopyan, G.G.; Vartapetyan, G.A.; Galumyan, P.I.; Grabskii, V.O.; Karapetyan, V.V.; Karapetyan, G.V.; Kordonskii, M.S.
1985-06-01
We describe the experimental methods and the results of measurements of the asymmetry of the cross section of the eld pn reaction induced by linearly polarized photons over the energy range E/sub el/ = 0.4 to 0.8 GeV and proton angles in the c.m. system theta* = 45 to 95. Experiments were conducted on a two-arm spectrometer installation. The results obtained do not agree either with calculations within the framework of phenomenological models, or with predictions of a partial-wave analysis that includes the contribution of dibaryon resonances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.
2006-01-01
The most basic theoretical challenge for understanding low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation reaction (LETR) in condensed matters is to find mechanisms by which the large Coulomb barrier between fusing nuclei can be overcome. A unifying theory of LENR and LETR has been developed to provide possible mechanisms for the LENR and LETR processes in matters based on high-density nano-scale and micro-scale quantum plasmas. It is shown that recently developed theoretical models based on Bose-Einstein Fusion (BEF) mechanism and Quantum Plasma Nuclear Fusion (QPNF) mechanism are applicable to the results of many different types of LENR and LETR experiments. (author)
Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.
The most basic theoretical challenge for understanding low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation reaction (LETR) in condensed matters is to find mechanisms by which the large Coulomb barrier between fusing nuclei can be overcome. A unifying theory of LENR and LETR has been developed to provide possible mechanisms for the LENR and LETR processes in matters based on high-density nano-scale and micro-scale quantum plasmas. It is shown that recently developed theoretical models based on Bose-Einstein Fusion (BEF) mechanism and Quantum Plasma Nuclear Fusion (QPNF) mechanism are applicable to the results of many different types of LENR and LETR experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Abramovich, S.N.; Zvenigorodskii, A.G. [Russia Federal Nuclear Centre, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others
1995-10-01
There were presented results of cross-section measurements for nuclear reactions {sup 238}U(p,n){sup 238}Np, {sup 238}U(d,2n){sup 238}Np, {sup 238}U(d,t){sup 237}U, {sup 238}U(d,p){sup 239}U, and {sup 238}U(d,n){sup 239}Np. Interval of projectile energy was 10-14 MeV. For measurements of cross-sections it was used the activatio methods. The registration of {beta}- and {gamma}-activity was made with using of plastic scintillation detector and Ge(Li)-detector.
Light ion source for proton/deuteron production at CEA Saclay for the Spiral2 project
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tuske, O.; Adroit, G.; Delferriere, O.; Denis, J-F.; Gauthier, Y.; Girardot, P.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Guiho, P.; Sauce, Y.; Uriot, D.; Vacher, T.; Van Hille, C. [CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SACM, F- 91191-Gif/Yvette (France); Graehling, P.; Hosselet, J.; Maazouzi, C. [IPHC, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg (France)
2012-02-15
The production of rare radioactive ion beam (RIB) far from the valley of stability is one of the final purposes of the Spiral2 facility in Caen. The RIB will be produced by impinging a deuteron beam onto a carbon sample to produce a high neutron flux, which will interact with a uranium target. The primary deuteron beam is produced by an ion source based on ECR plasma generation. The deuteron source and the low energy beam transport (LEBT) has been assembled and tested at CEA Saclay. Diagnostics from other laboratories were implemented on the LEBT in order to characterize the deuteron beam produced and compare it to the initial simulations. The ion source has been based on a SILHI-type source, which has demonstrated good performances in pulsed and continuous mode, and also a very good reliability on long term operation. The 5 mA of deuteron beam required at the RFQ entrance is extracted from the plasma source at the energy of 40 kV. After a brief description of the experimental set-up, this article reports on the first beam characterization experiments.
Measurement of Anti-Deuteron Photoproduction and a Search for Heavy Stable Charged Particles at HERA
Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kuckens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Ratiani, Z.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.
2004-01-01
The cross section for anti-deuteron photoproduction is measured at HERA at a mean centre-of-mass energy of W_{\\gamma p} = 200 GeV in the range 0.2 < p_T/M < 0.7 and |y| < 0.4, where M, p_T and y are the mass, transverse momentum and rapidity in the laboratory frame of the anti-deuteron, respectively. The numbers of anti-deuterons per event are found to be similar in photoproduction to those in central proton-proton collisions at the CERN ISR but much lower than those in central Au-Au collisions at RHIC. The coalescence parameter B_2, which characterizes the likelihood of anti-deuteron production, is measured in photoproduction to be 0.010 \\pm 0.002 \\pm 0.001, which is much higher than in Au-Au collisions at a similar nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy. No significant production of particles heavier than deuterons is observed and upper limits are set on the photoproduction cross sections for such particles.
Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V
2017-10-01
Excitation functions were measured in the 31-49.2MeV energy range for the nat Pd(d,xn) 111,110m,106m,105,104g,103 Ag, nat Pd(d,x) 111m,109,101,100 Pd, nat Pd(d,x), 105,102m,102g,101m,101g,100,99m,99g Rh and nat Pd(d,x) 103,97 Ru nuclear reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with our previous results and with the theoretical predictions calculated with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (TENDL libraries) codes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Progress on using deuteron-deuteron fusion generated neutrons for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation
Rutte, Daniel; Renne, Paul R.; Becker, Tim; Waltz, Cory; Ayllon Unzueta, Mauricio; Zimmerman, Susan; Hidy, Alan; Finkel, Robert; Bauer, Joseph D.; Bernstein, Lee; van Bibber, Karl
2017-04-01
We present progress on the development and proof of concept of a deuteron-deuteron fusion based neutron generator for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation. Irradiation with deuteron-deuteron fusion neutrons is anticipated to reduce Ar recoil and Ar production from interfering reactions. This will allow dating of smaller grains and increase accuracy and precision of the method. The instrument currently achieves neutron fluxes of ˜9×107 cm-2s-1 as determined by irradiation of indium foils and use of the activation reaction 115In(n,n')115mIn. Multiple foils and simulations were used to determine flux gradients in the sample chamber. A first experiment quantifying the loss of 39Ar is underway and will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. In ancillary experiments via irradiation of K salts and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis we determined the cross-sections of the 39K(n,p)39Ar reaction at ˜2.8 MeV to be 160 ± 35 mb (1σ). This result is in good agreement with bracketing cross-section data of ˜96 mb at ˜2.45 MeV and ˜270 mb at ˜4 MeV [Johnson et al., 1967; Dixon and Aitken, 1961 and Bass et al. 1964]. Our data disfavor a much lower value of ˜45 mb at 2.59 MeV [Lindström & Neuer, 1958]. In another ancillary experiment the cross section for 39K(n,α)36Cl at ˜2.8 MeV was determined as 11.7 ± 0.5 mb (1σ), which is significant for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology due to subsequent decay to 36Ar as well as for the determination of production rates of cosmogenic 36Cl. Additional experiments resolving the cross section functions on 39K between 1.5 and 3.6 MeV are on their way using the LICORNE neutron source of the IPN Orsay tandem accelerator. Results will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. While the neutron generator is designed for fluxes of ˜109 cm-2s-1, arcing in the sample chamber currently limits the power—straightforwardly correlated to the neutron flux—the generator can safely be run at. Further
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, D.N.; Higbie, P.R.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Belian, R.D.
1978-01-01
Multiple detectors giving nearly complete 4π coverage of particle pitch angle distributions have provided high resolution measurements (in energy and time) of 30- to 300-keV electrons. Data from a spacecraft (1976-059A) in geostationary orbit show a remarkably consistent sequence of variations of the electron anisotropy before and during magnetospheric substorms. For periods typically 1--2 hours prior to the onset of substorms, electron distributions, peaked along the direction of the local magnetic field, are observed in the premidnight sector. These cigarlike anisotropies are accompanied by a local taillike magnetic field which may develop further during the event. At substorm onset an abrupt transition usually occurs from the cigar-shaped distributions to pancake-shaped distributions. This anisotropy sequence may be due to the buildup and subsequent release of stresses in the magnetotail; the cigar phase may also be due to associated processes at the dayside magnetopause causing a loss of 90 0 pitch angle particles. The present observations, based on approx.100 events, appear to provide a predictive tool for assessing the probability of occurrence of a substorm
Proceedings of the International symposium Dubna Deuteron-93
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
Proceedings of international symposium on the deuteron structure problem are given. The results of investigations of hadron-deuteron interactions with polarized and unpolarized beams, lD, γD and NN interactions are discussed
Neutrino magnetic moment contribution to the neutrino-deuteron reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuji, K.; Nakamura, S.; Sato, T.; Kubodera, K.; Myhrer, F.
2004-01-01
We study the effect of the neutrino magnetic moment on the neutrino-deuteron breakup reaction, using a method called the standard nuclear physics approach, which has already been well tested for several electroweak processes involving the deuteron
Reorientation effects for 52 MeV vector polarized deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nurzynski, J.; Kihm, T.; Knopfle, K.T.; Mairle, G.; Clement, H.
1987-01-01
The differential cross sections and the vector analysing powers were measured for the elastic and inelastic scattering of 52 MeV vector polarized deuterons from 20 Ne, 22 Ne, 26 Mg, 28 Si, 32 S, 34 S, 36 Ar and 40 Ar nuclei. Coupled channels analysis was carried out using an axially symmetric rotational model with either prolate or oblate quadrupole deformations for each isotope. Calculations assuming harmonic vibrator model were also carried out. In general, reorientation effects were found to be weak. A global optical model potential containing an imaginary spin-orbit component was found to be the most suitable in describing the experimental data at this energy
Anomalous heat evolution of deuteron implanted Al on electron bombardment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamada, K.; Kinoshita, H.; Takahashi, H.
1994-05-01
Anomalous heat evolution was observed in deuteron implanted Al foils on 175 keV electron bombardment. Local regions with linear dimension of several 100nm showed simultaneous transformation from single crystalline to polycrystalline structure instantaneously on the electron bombardment, indicating the temperature rise up to more than melting point of Al from room temperature. The amount of energy evolved was more than 180 MeV for each transformed region. The transformation was never observed in proton implanted Al foils. The heat evolution was considered due to a nuclear reaction in D 2 molecular collections. (author)
Determination of deuteron beam polarizations at COSY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Chiladze
2006-05-01
Full Text Available The vector (P_{z} and tensor (P_{zz} polarizations of a deuteron beam have been measured using elastic deuteron–carbon scattering at 75.6 MeV and deuteron-proton scattering at 270 MeV. After acceleration to 1170 MeV inside the COSY storage ring, the polarizations of the deuterons were remeasured by studying the analyzing powers of a variety of nuclear reactions. For this purpose a hydrogen cluster target was employed at the ANKE magnetic spectrometer, which is situated at an internal target position in the ring. The overall precisions obtained were about 4% for both P_{z} and P_{zz}. Though all the measurements were consistent with the absence of depolarization during acceleration, only an upper limit of about 6% could be placed on such an effect.
Relativistic deuteron wave function on light front
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmanov, V.A.
1980-01-01
In the framework of the one boson exchange model the approximate analytical expression for the deuteron wave function (WF) at relativistic relative momenta is obtained. WF depends on extra variable having the form of a unit vector and is determined by six functions instead of two ones (S-and D-waves) in the nonrelativistic case. At moderate momenta the WF is matched with WF in the Reid model. It is emphasized the importance of indication of the qualitative observed phenomena associated with change of parametrization and spin structure of relativistic deuteron WF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blideanu, Valentin; Garcia, Mauricio; Joyer, Philippe; Lopez, Daniel; Mayoral, Alicia; Ogando, Francisco; Ortiz, Felix; Sanz, Javier; Sauvan, Patrick
2011-01-01
In the frame of IFMIF/EVEDA activities, a prototype accelerator delivering a high power deuteron beam is under construction in Japan. Interaction of these deuterons with matter will generate high levels of neutrons and induced activation, whose predicted yields depend strongly on the models used to calculate the different cross sections. A benchmark test was performed to validate these data for deuteron energies up to 20 MeV and to define a reasonable methodology for calculating the cross sections needed for EVEDA. Calculations were performed using the nuclear models included in MCNPX and PHITS, and the dedicated nuclear model code TALYS. Although the results obtained using TALYS (global parameters) or Monte Carlo codes disagree with experimental values, a solution is proposed to compute cross sections that are a good fit to experimental data. A consistent computational procedure is also suggested to improve both transport simulations/prompt dose and activation/residual dose calculations required for EVEDA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ragheb, M.; Miley, G.H.
1989-01-01
The possibility of deuteron disintegration due to polarization in the coulomb field of a target nucleus according to an Oppenheimer-Phillips process is discussed within the context of electrochemically compressed D + in a palladium cathode. This reaction is possible between deuterons and palladium isotopes, as well as between the deuterons themselves. In the last case, the equivalent of the proton branch of the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction occurs in preference to the neutron branch. The process provides a possible explanation for the observed energy release, tritium production, and neutron suppression in the Fleischmann and Pons experiment. If such a process can be experimentally verified, analogous processes leading to the disintegration of the 9 Be nucleus may be achievable
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blideanu, Valentin [Commissariat a l' energie atomique CEA/IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Garcia, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Joyer, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.joyer@cea.fr [Commissariat a l' energie atomique CEA/IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Lopez, Daniel; Mayoral, Alicia; Ogando, Francisco [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Ortiz, Felix [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier; Sauvan, Patrick [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain)
2011-10-01
In the frame of IFMIF/EVEDA activities, a prototype accelerator delivering a high power deuteron beam is under construction in Japan. Interaction of these deuterons with matter will generate high levels of neutrons and induced activation, whose predicted yields depend strongly on the models used to calculate the different cross sections. A benchmark test was performed to validate these data for deuteron energies up to 20 MeV and to define a reasonable methodology for calculating the cross sections needed for EVEDA. Calculations were performed using the nuclear models included in MCNPX and PHITS, and the dedicated nuclear model code TALYS. Although the results obtained using TALYS (global parameters) or Monte Carlo codes disagree with experimental values, a solution is proposed to compute cross sections that are a good fit to experimental data. A consistent computational procedure is also suggested to improve both transport simulations/prompt dose and activation/residual dose calculations required for EVEDA.
Calculation of proton-deuteron phase parameters including the Coulomb force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alt, E.O.; Sandhas, W.; Ziegelmann, H.
1985-04-01
A previously proposed exact method for including the Coulomb force in three-body collisions is applied to proton-deuteron scattering. We present phase shifts for angular momenta up to L=9, from elastic threshold to 50 MeV proton laboratory energy. Separable rank-one potentials are taken for the nuclear interactions. A charge-independent and a charge-symmetric choise, while leading to different neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron phase parameters, nevertheless yields practically the same Coulomb corrections. We, moreover, investigate the question of P-wave resonances.A critical comparison of our results with those obtained in a co-ordinate space formalism is performed. Furthermore, proposals for an approximate inclusion of the Coulomb potential are tested, and found unsatisfactory. (orig.)
Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions obtained by activation method
Wagner, V; Svoboda, O; Vrzalová, J; Majerle, M; Krása, A; Chudoba, P; Honusek, M; Kugler, A; Adam, J; Baldin, A; Furman, W; Kadykov, M; Khushvaktov, J; Sol-nyskhin, A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V; Závorka, L; Tyutyunnikov, S; Vladimirova, N
2014-01-01
The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the big Quinta uranium target at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The deuteron beams with energies ranging from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were produced by JINR Nuclotron. Residual nuclides were identified by the gamma spectrometry. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the usage of copper foils from beam integral monitoring.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kin, Tadahiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Imamura, Minoru
2006-01-01
We have investigated the deuteron productions from 392 MeV proton induced reaction for target nuclei of 12 C, 27 Al, 93 Nb. Deuteron production double differential cross sections were determined over a broad energy range and scattered angles from 20 to 105 degrees in laboratory system. Those spectra were compared with two theoretical models; Quantum Molecular Dynamics model and Intranuclear Cascade model. We developed the code of Intra Nuclear Cascade model and we've got good results to reproduce the experimental data. (author)
Study of the deuteron emission in the $\\beta$-decay of $^{6}$He
Karny, M; Tengblad, O; Riisager, K; Perkowski, J; Garcia borge, M J; Raabe, R; Kowalska, M; Fynbo, H O U; Perea martinez, A; Ter-akopian, G; Huyse, M L
The main goal of the present proposal is to measure the continuous spectrum of deuterons emitted in the $\\beta$-decay of $^{6}$He. In particular, we want to focus on the low energy part of the spectrum, below 400 keV, which could not be accessed by all previous experiments. For the decay spectroscopy the Warsaw Optical Time Projection Chamber (OTPC) will be used. The bunches of $^{6}$He ions produced by REX-ISOLDE facility will be implanted into the active volume of the OTPC, where the rare events of deuteron emission will be recorded, practically background free.
Hilbert-Schmidt expansion for the nucleon-deuteron scattering amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeller, K.; Narodetskii, I.M.
1983-01-01
The Hilbert-Schmidt method is used to sum the divergent iterative series for the partial amplitudes of nucleon-deuteron scattering in the energy region above the deuteron breakup threshold. It is observed that the Hilbert-Schmidt series for the partial amplitudes themselves diverges, which is due to the closeness of the logarithmic singularities. But if the first iterations in the series for multiple scattering are subtracted from the amplitude, the Hilbert-Schmidt series for the remainder converges rapidly. The final answer obtained in the present paper is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in exact calculations
Measurement of (anti)deuteron and (anti)proton production in DIS at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.
2007-05-01
The first observation of (anti)deuterons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA has been made with the ZEUS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 300-318 GeV using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb -1 . The measurement was performed in the central rapidity region for transverse momentum per unit of mass in the range 0.3 T /M<0.7. The particle rates have been extracted and interpreted in terms of the coalescence model. The (anti)deuteron production yield is smaller than the (anti)proton yield by approximately three orders of magnitude, consistent with the world measurements. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /IFSI, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Nijmegen U., IMAPP
2011-11-01
We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the energy estimation of extensive air showers with a zenith angle smaller than 60{sup o}, detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The geomagnetic field induces an azimuthal modulation of the estimated energy of cosmic rays up to the {approx} 2% level at large zenith angles. We present a method to account for this modulation of the reconstructed energy. We analyse the effect of the modulation on large scale anisotropy searches in the arrival direction distributions of cosmic rays. At a given energy, the geomagnetic effect is shown to induce a pseudo-dipolar pattern at the percent level in the declination distribution that needs to be accounted for. In this work, we have identified and quantified a systematic uncertainty affecting the energy determination of cosmic rays detected by the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This systematic uncertainty, induced by the influence of the geomagnetic field on the shower development, has a strength which depends on both the zenith and the azimuthal angles. Consequently, we have shown that it induces distortions of the estimated cosmic ray event rate at a given energy at the percent level in both the azimuthal and the declination distributions, the latter of which mimics an almost dipolar pattern. We have also shown that the induced distortions are already at the level of the statistical uncertainties for a number of events N {approx_equal} 32 000 (we note that the full Auger surface detector array collects about 6500 events per year with energies above 3 EeV). Accounting for these effects is thus essential with regard to the correct interpretation of large scale anisotropy measurements taking explicitly profit from the declination distribution.
Proceedings of the 3. International Symposium. Dubna. Deuteron-95
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-07-01
Proceedings of the 3. International Symposium. Dubna. Deuteron-95 (July 4-7, 1995) are presented. The main subjects of 50 presented reports are the following ones: the deuteron structure at small distances in hadron-deuteron interactions with polarized and nonpolarized beams and targets; the deuterons structure in lD and {gamma}D interactions; study of the NN interactions; the program of experimental investigations of the deuteron structure at JINR and other centers; prospects of the investigations with polarized {sup 3}He beams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies - IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion - IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Malinowska, A.; Malinowski, K.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Zebrowski, J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies - IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Karpinski, L.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M.; Stepniewski, W. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion - IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)
2011-07-01
The paper describes measurements of fast protons produced by D-D fusion reactions during high-current discharges within the PF-1000 facility operated with the deuterium filling at 27 kV, 480 kJ. The measurements were performed by means of a set of pinhole-cameras equipped with PM-355 track detectors shielded by 80-{mu}m-thick Al-filters, which eliminated fast primary deuterons and protons of lower energy (< 3 MeV). Those cameras were placed at different angles around the pinch axis. The obtained proton images showed a distinct angular anisotropy, which was explained by an influence of local magnetic fields connected with a filamentary structure of the plasma column during the fast proton (and neutron) emission. The paper shows that in addition to measurements of a fusion neutron anisotropy it is reasonable to study also an anisotropy of fusion protons (originated from the second branch of the D-D reactions), as well as other charged fusion products. This document is composed of a paper followed by a poster
Production of e(+)e(-) pairs in proton-deuteron capture to He-3
Korchin, AY; Van Neck, D; Waroquier, M; Scholten, O; Dieperink, AEL
1998-01-01
The process p + d He-3 + gamma * at intermediate energies is described using a covariant and gauge-invariant model, and a realistic pd(3)He vertex, Both photodisintegration of He-3 and proton-deuteron capture with production of e(+)e(-) pairs are studied, and results for cross sections and response
A new measurement of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries on a transversely polarised deuteron target
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ageev, E.; Alexakhin, V.; Alexandrov, Y.; Alexeev, G.; Amoroso, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Berglund, P.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Bytchkov, V.; Cerini, L.; Chapiro, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Colavita, A.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz Kavka, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Dolgopolov, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Ehlers, J.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Fabro, M.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Fauland, P.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Fuchs, U.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grünemaier, A.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Ijaduola, R.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kang, D.; Karstens, F.; Kastaun, W.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Khomutov, N.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kowalik, K.; Kravchuk, N.; Krivokhizhin, G.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Leberig, M.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Manuilov, I.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Medved, K.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Nähle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nozdrin, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pereira, H.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Platzer, K.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.; Popov, A.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Rebourgeard, P.; Reicherz, G.; Reymann, J.; Rith, K.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Rondio, E.; Sadovski, A.; Saller, E.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Sans, M.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitt, H.; Schmitt, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shishkin, A.; Siebert, H.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Skachkova, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sozzi, F.; Sugonyaev, V.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.; Tassarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Thers, D.; Tkatchev, L.; Toeda, T.; Tretyak, V.; Trousov, S.; Varanda, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Wagner, M.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Wiedner, U.; Wiesmann, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Zanetti, A.; Zaremba, K.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.
2007-01-01
Roč. 765, 1-2 (2007), s. 31-70 ISSN 0550-3213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : transversity * deuteron * Collins asymmetry * Sivers asymmetry Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.645, year: 2007
On the meson exchange currents contribution in deep inelastic scattering on deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaptar', L.P.; Titov, A.I.; Umnikov, A.Yu.
1988-01-01
The contribution of the one- and two-pion exchange currents to the deep inelastic deuteron structure function F 2 D (x) is considered. It is shown that the mesonic corrections do not restore the energy sum rule violated by the off-mass-shell properties of the bound nucleons
The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering angular distribution at 95 MeV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mermod, Philippe
2004-04-01
The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering differential cross section has been measured at 95 MeV incident neutron energy, with the Medley setup at TSL in Uppsala. The neutron-proton differential cross section has also been measured for normalization purposes. The data are compared with theoretical calculations to investigate the role of three-nucleon force effects.
Polarization observables in hard rescattering mechanism of deuteron photodisintegration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sargsian, Misak M
2004-05-06
Polarization properties of high energy photodisintegration of the deuteron are studied within the framework of the hard rescattering mechanism (HRM). In HRM, a quark of one nucleon knocked-out by the incoming photon rescatters with a quark of the other nucleon leading to the production of two nucleons with high relative momentum. Summation of all relevant quark rescattering amplitudes allows us to express the scattering amplitude of the reaction through the convolution of a hard photon-quark interaction vertex, the large angle p-n scattering amplitude and the low momentum deuteron wave function. Within HRM, it is demonstrated that the polarization observables in hard photodisintegration of the deuteron can be expressed through the five helicity amplitudes of NN scattering at high momentum transfer. At 90 deg. CM scattering HRM predicts the dominance of the isovector channel of hard pn rescattering, and it explains the observed smallness of induced, P{sub y} and transfered, C{sub x} polarizations without invoking the argument of helicity conservation. Namely, HRM predicts that P{sub y} and C{sub x} are proportional to the phi{sub 5} helicity amplitude which vanishes at {theta}{sub cm}=90 deg. due to symmetry reasons. HRM predicts also a nonzero value for C{sub z} in the helicity-conserving regime and a positive {sigma} asymmetry which is related to the dominance of the isovector channel in the hard reinteraction. We extend our calculations to the region where large polarization effects are observed in pp scattering as well as give predictions for angular dependences.
Coherent pi^{0} Photoproduction on the Deuteron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meekins, David G. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
2004-11-01
The differential scattering cross section for the process gamma d → d pi^{0} was measured, as part of experiment E89-012 at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The experiment was performed in Hall C during the Spring of 1996 as the commissioning experiment for the Hall C cryogenic target. The High Momentum Spectrometer was used to detect the recoil deuteron and no effort was made to detect the pi^{0} or its decay photons. The differential cross section was measured at a number of incident photon energies between 0.8 GeV and 4.0 GeV for the center-of-mass angles of 90 degrees and 136 degrees. The data were found to disagree with both the constituent counting rule and reduced nuclear amplitude predictions. These are the first data at large deuteron center-of-mass angles for photon energies larger than 1.6 GeV.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frisone, Fulvio
2006-01-01
In this work we wish to demonstrate that a reaction path as the following dislocations, deformations due to thermodynamic stress and, finally, microcrack occurrence, can enhance the process of fusion of the deuterons introduced into the lattice by deuterium loading (F. Frisone, Can variations in temperature influence deuteron interaction within crystalline lattices?, Nuovo Cimento D, 18, 1279 (1996)). In fact, calculating the rate of deuteron-plasmon-deuteron fusion within a microcrack, showed, together with an enhancement of the tunneling effect, an increase of at least 2 - 3 orders of magnitude compared to the probability of fusion on the no deformed lattice. In fact, strong electric fields can take place in the microcrack and the deuterons are accelerated to the energy which is enough for the D-D tunnelling (M. Rabinowitz, High temperature superconductivity and cold fusion, Mod. Phys, Lett. B, 4, 233 (1990); J. Price Hirt and J. Lothe, Theory of Dislocation (McGraw Hill); Z. Phys., 457, 156 (1960)). These phenomena open the way to the theoretical hypothesis that a kind of chain reaction, catalyzed by the microcracks produced in the structure as a result of deuterium loading, can favour tho process of deuteron-plasmon fusion (N. W. Ashcroft and N. D. Mermin (Eds.), Solid State Physics, Chapter 25 (Saunders College, Philadelphia, 1972, pp. 492-509)
Nucleon polarizabilities from deuteron Compton scattering within a Green's function hybrid approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hildebrandt, R.P.; Hemmert, T.R. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (T39), Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Griesshammer, H.W. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik (T39), Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet I, Erlangen (Germany); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Department of Physics, Washington DC (United States)
2010-10-15
We examine elastic Compton scattering from the deuteron for photon energies ranging from zero to 100MeV, using state-of-the-art deuteron wave functions and NN potentials. Nucleon-nucleon rescattering between emission and absorption of the two photons is treated by Green's functions in order to ensure gauge invariance and the correct Thomson limit. With this Green's function hybrid approach, we fulfill the low-energy theorem of deuteron Compton scattering and there is no significant dependence on the deuteron wave function used. Concerning the nucleon structure, we use the chiral effective field theory with explicit {delta} (1232) degrees of freedom within the small-scale expansion up to leading-one-loop order. Agreement with available data is good at all energies. Our 2-parameter fit to all elastic {gamma} d data leads to values for the static isoscalar dipole polarizabilities which are in excellent agreement with the isoscalar Baldin sum rule. Taking this value as additional input, we find {alpha}{sub E}{sup s} = (11.3{+-}0.7(stat){+-}0.6(Baldin){+-}1(theory)){sup .}10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and {beta}{sub M}{sup s} = (3.2{+-}0.7(stat){+-}0.6(Baldin){+-}1(theory)){sup .}10{sup -4} fm{sup 3} and conclude by comparison to the proton numbers that neutron and proton polarizabilities are the same within rather small errors. (orig.)
Hartouni, Edward; Eckart, Mark; Field, John; Grim, Gary; Hatarik, Robert; Moore, Alastair; Munro, David; Sayer, Daniel; Schlossberg, David
2017-10-01
Neutron kinetic energy distributions from fusion reactions are characterized predominantly by the excess energy, Q, of the fusion reaction and the variance of kinetic energy which is related to the thermal temperature of the plasma as shown by e.g. Brysk. High statistics, high quality neutron time-of-flight spectra obtained at the National Ignition Facility provide a means of measuring small changes to the neutron kinetic energy due to the spatial and temporal distribution of plasma temperature, density and velocity. The modifications to the neutron kinetic energy distribution as described by Munro include plasma velocity terms with spatial orientation, suggesting that the neutron kinetic energy distributions could be anisotropic when viewed by multiple lines-of-sight. These anisotropies provide a diagnostic of burn averaged plasma velocity distributions. We present the results of measurements made for a variety of DT implosions and discuss their possible physical interpretations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaheen, M.; Ragheb, M.
1992-01-01
A hypothesis is presented for explaining the experimentally determined anomalous D/H ratio observed in the samples from the naturally occuring fission reaction in the Oklo phenomenon. No other explanation has been given, to the best knowledge, for the large difference between the measured D/H ratio in the Oklo samples and the expected values in a fission neutron spectrum. A multicomponent system consisting of hydrogen, deuterium, tritium and helium nuclei is considered. An analytical solution is derived and solved using as boundary conditions the experimentally determined value of the D/H ratio. The solution of the rate equations for hydrogen and deuteron concentrations, assuming a pure fission process without a deuteron sink term, yields a D/H ratio of 445 ppm for a reaction in which the fluence of neutrons is 10 21 n/cm 2 . This exceeds the experimentally observed value of 127 ppm, and the naturally occuring value of 150 ppm. Solving the same rate equations accounting for a deuterium sink term using a hypothesis of deuteron disintegration, and the experimentally observed value of 127 ppm yields a deuteron disintegration constant of 7.47*10 -14 s -1 . Deuteron disintegration would provide a neutron source, in addition to the fission neutrons, driving a subcritical chain reaction over an extended period of time. Relationship of the presented hypothesis to the Vlasov theory of an annihilation meteorite impact explosion explaining the experimentally observed anomalous 235 U/ 238 U ratio, and to the suggestion of deuteron disintegration as a possible explanation of some observations of deuterium dissociation in palladium and titanium electrodes is discussed. The tritium andhelium-3 rate equations are further solved under the deuteron disintegration hypothesis and the relationship of the present work to the work by JONES et al. is discussed. (author) 16 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs
Bhattacharya, Dhritiman; Mamun Al-Rashid, Md; Atulasimha, Jayasimha
2017-10-01
Recent work (P-H Jang et al 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 107 202401, J. Sampaio et al 2016 Appl. Phys. Lett. 108 112403) suggests that ferromagnetic reversal with spin transfer torque (STT) requires more current in a system in the presence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) than switching a typical ferromagnet of the same dimensions and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). However, DMI promotes the stabilization of skyrmions and we report that when perpendicular anisotropy is modulated (reduced) for both the skyrmion and ferromagnet, it takes a much smaller current to reverse the fixed skyrmion than to reverse the ferromagnet in the same amount of time, or the skyrmion reverses much faster than the ferromagnet at similar levels of current. We show with rigorous micromagnetic simulations that skyrmion switching proceeds along a different path at very low PMA, which results in a significant reduction in the spin current or time required for reversal. This can offer potential for memory applications where a relatively simple modification of the standard STT-RAM (to include a heavy metal adjacent to the soft magnetic layer and with appropriate design of the tunnel barrier) can lead to an energy efficient and fast magnetic memory device based on the reversal of fixed skyrmions.
Deuteron-induced reactions generated by intense lasers for PET isotope production
Kimura, Sachie; Bonasera, Aldo
2011-05-01
We investigate the feasibility of using laser accelerated protons/deuterons for positron emission tomography (PET) isotope production by means of the nuclear reactions 11B(p, n) 11C and 10B(d, n) 11C. The second reaction has a positive Q-value and no energy threshold. One can, therefore, make use of the lower energy part of the laser-generated deuterons, which includes the majority of the accelerated deuterons. By assuming that the deuteron spectra are similar to the proton spectra, the 11C produced from the reaction 10B(d, n) 11C is estimated to be 7.4×10 9 per laser-shot at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Meanwhile a high-repetition table-top laser irradiation is estimated to generate 3.5×10 711C per shot from the same reaction. In terms of the 11C activity, it is about 2×10 4 Bq per shot. If this laser delivers kHz, the activity is integrated to 1 GBq after 3 min. The number is sufficient for the practical application in medical imaging for PET.
Particle correlation based measurement of the mean time between the deuteron and proton emissions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghisalberti, C.; Lebrun, C.; Sezac, L.; Ardouin, D.; Erazmus, B.; Eudes, P.; Ghuilbault, F.; Lautridou, P.; Rahmani, J.A.; Reposeur, T.; Chbihi, A.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Morjean, M.; Peghaire, A.; Lednicky, R.; Pluta, J.; Quebert, J.; Siemssen, R.
1997-01-01
Proton-deuteron correlations at small relative momenta have been measured with the reaction 208 Pb + 93 Nb at 29 MeV per nucleon at GANIL using the ORION neutron calorimeter. By selecting the proton-deuteron pairs according to the angle between their relative velocity and the pair center of mass velocity of the emitting source one can determine the average value of the time delay between the emission of these particles. The results reported in this paper for the first time at GANIL energies agree with the values published before in the literature i.e. 600 and 1500 fm/c for deuteron and proton emission times, respectively, as obtained in the reactions Ar + Ag at E/A = 17 MeV. At higher energies measurements with a B.U.U. calorimeter recording the collisions 14 N + 27 Al at E/A = 75 MeV show that in this case the proton emission begins at 15 fm/c and decreases slowly in time, while the deuterons are emitted at 50 fm/c and present a steep falling. This result agrees with a negative average value of d - t p >. Thus, the method presented in this report for determining the order of emission is of great interest for checking the theoretical description of the particle emission all the way in the collision dynamical process
Electron-deuteron scattering in a relativistic theory of hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, D.
1998-11-01
The author reviews a three-dimensional formalism that provides a systematic way to include relativistic effects including relativistic kinematics, the effects of negative-energy states, and the boosts of the two-body system in calculations of two-body bound-states. He then explains how to construct a conserved current within this relativistic three-dimensional approach. This general theoretical framework is specifically applied to electron-deuteron scattering both in impulse approximation and when the ρπγ meson-exchange current is included. The experimentally-measured quantities A, B, and T 20 are calculated over the kinematic range that is probed in Jefferson Lab experiments. The role of both negative-energy states and meson retardation appears to be small in the region of interest
A deuteron linac for a high-intensity neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staples, J.; Clark, D.; Grunder, H.; Lancaster, H.; Main, R.; Selph, F.; Smith, L.; Voelker, F.; Yourd, R.
1976-01-01
The preliminary design of an accelerator suitable to meet the flux and neutron energy requirements of a CTR materials test facility is presented. The specifications of such a facility call for a neutron flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -sec distributed over an area of about 10 2 cm 2 with a neutron spectrum similar to that anticipated from a fusion reactor. A 30 MeV deuteron linac producing a CW beam of 125 mA, upgradable to 40 MeV at 250 mA at a later date, would produce the relatively broad spectrum of neutrons at the required intensity. Attention to the low-energy beam intercept on the drift tubes and diffusive losses producing neutrons and attendant activation problems are discussed
Polarized proton and deuteron solid HD targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Honig, A.
1977-01-01
A decade has now elapsed since HD was proposed as a polarized proton and deuteron target with exceptionally desirable properties. These include a very high free proton proportion, independently polarizable proton and deuteron systems, and a ''frozen-spin'' mode of operation which allows separation of the functions of production and utilization of the highly polarized target. A discussion is given of what can be expected of the polarized HD system right now, without further research. The basic features of solid HD pertinent to its use as a ''frozen-spin'' target are outlined, then a summary is given of the particular experimental results which support the contention that the target will perform successfully, and finally, some feasible operating modes and the expected performances from them are presented
Deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at high momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, W.M.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.F.; Yates, T.C.; Zumbro, J.D.; Lee, K.S.; Baghaei, H.; Churchwell, S.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.; Peterson, G.A.; Wang, K.; Bosted, P.E.; Spengos, M.; Frois, B.; Martino, J.; Platchkov, S.; Hotta, A.
1997-01-01
Absolute differential cross sections for the threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron with good resolution were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 160 degree for five values of Q 2 ranging from 8.66 to 42.4fm -2 . Comparisons of the data averaged over E np from 0 to 3 MeV and from 0 to 10 MeV are made with nonrelativistic meson exchange calculations. These calculations are sensitive to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, nucleon-nucleon potential, and relativistic effects. The data are also compared with a hybrid quark-hadron model calculation that describes the deuteron as a six-quark cluster for the short range part of the interaction. Some of these calculations can describe the data reasonably well over certain ranges of Q 2 ; however, none of these calculations can accurately describe the data over the entire measured Q 2 range. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at high momentum transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, W.M.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.F.
1997-01-01
Absolute differential cross sections for the threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron with good resolution were measured at a laboratory scattering angle of 160 degree for five values of Q 2 ranging from 8.66 to 42.4 fm -2 . Comparisons of the data averaged over E np from 0--3 MeV and 0--10 MeV are made with nonrelativistic meson-exchange calculations. These calculations are sensitive to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors, nucleon-nucleon potential, and relativistic effects. The data are also compared with a hybrid quark-hadron model calculation that describes the deuteron as a six-quark cluster for the short range part of the interaction. Some of these calculations can describe the data reasonably well over certain ranges of Q 2 ; however, none of these calculations can accurately describe the data over the entire measured Q 2 range
THEORY OF ELECTRON-DEUTERON SCATTERING
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand, L. III
1963-06-15
Information on the electromagnetic form factors of the neutron is obtained from the theory of inelastic electrondeuteron scattering. Problems in the analysis of these experiments that are related to the detailed structure of the deuteron and to the strong final state interactions between the emergent nucleons are considered. Problems arising from an ambiguity in the sign of the Dirac or charge form factor are also discussed. (C.E.S.)
Elastic anisotropy of crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher M. Kube
2016-09-01
Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.
Experimental studies of fast deuterons, impurity- and admixture-ions emitted from a plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mozer, A.; Sadowski, M.; Herold, H.; Schmidt, H.
1982-01-01
The energy and mass analysis of ions emitted from a 50-kJ, 18-kV, plasma focus machine was performed with a Thomson analyzer. Energy distribution functions of fast deuterons (E> or =350 keV) and those of impurity ions have been determined. The energy distributions of the O, N, and C impurity ions in different ionization states have similar character. They usually increase exponentially and after reaching the maximum at E/Zroughly-equal1.0 MeV they decrease exponentially to E/Zroughly-equal1.8 MeV. For deuterons at lower operating pressures (p 0 + -Ar 7+ ions of energy from 0.5 to 14 MeV are produced
Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osman, A.
1976-05-01
Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable
Momentum anisotropy at freeze out
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feld, S.; Borghini, N.; Lang, C.
2017-01-01
The transition from a hydrodynamical modeling to a particle-based approach is a crucial element of the description of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. Assuming this “freeze out” happens instantaneously at each point of the expanding medium, we show that the local phase-space distribution of the emitted particles is asymmetric in momentum space. This suggests the use of anisotropic hydrodynamics for the last stages of the fluid evolution. We discuss how observables depend on the amount of momentum-space anisotropy at freeze out and how smaller or larger anisotropies allow for different values of the freeze-out temperature. (paper)
Polarization Measurements in elastic electron-deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcon, M.
1989-01-01
The deuteron electromagnetic form factors, are recalled. The experiment, recently performed in the Bates accelerator (M.I.T.), is described. The aim of the experiment is the measurement of the tensor polarization of the backscattered deuteron, in the elastic electron-deuteron scattering, up to q = 4.6 f/m. Different experimental methods, concerning the determination of this observable, are compared. Several improvement possibilities in this field are suggested
Cyclotron production of {sup 64}Cu by deuteron irradiation of {sup 64}Zn
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbas, K. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: kamel.abbas@jrc.it; Kozempel, J. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic and Nuclear Chemistry, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Bonardi, M. [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, University and INFN, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Groppi, F. [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, University and INFN, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Alfarano, A. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Holzwarth, U. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Simonelli, F. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Hofman, H. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Horstmann, W. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Menapace, E. [ENEA, Applied Physics Division, Bologna (Italy); Leseticky, L. [Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic and Nuclear Chemistry, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Gibson, N. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy)
2006-09-15
The short-lived (12.7 h half-life) {sup 64}Cu radioisotope is both a {beta} {sup +} and a {beta} {sup -} emitter. This property makes {sup 64}Cu a promising candidate for novel medical applications, since it can be used simultaneously for therapeutic application of radiolabelled biomolecules and for diagnosis with PET. Following previous work on {sup 64}Cu production by deuteron irradiation of natural zinc, we report here the production of this radioisotope by deuteron irradiation of enriched {sup 64}Zn. In addition, yields of other radioisotopes such as {sup 61}Cu, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 69m}Zn, {sup 66}Ga and {sup 67}Ga, which were co-produced in this process, were also measured. The evaporation code ALICE-91 and the transport code SRIM 2003 were used to determine the excitation functions and the stopping power, respectively. All the nuclear reactions yielding the above-mentioned radioisotopes were taken into account in the calculations both for the natural and enriched Zn targets. The experimental and calculated yields were shown to be in reasonable agreement. The work was carried out at the Scanditronix MC-40 Cyclotron of the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (Ispra site, Italy). The irradiations were carried out with 19.5 MeV deuterons, the maximum deuteron energy obtainable with the MC-40 cyclotron.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grigat, Marius
2011-06-10
The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 15} eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grigat, Marius
2011-06-10
The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 15} eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigat, Marius
2011-01-01
The distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays is remarkably uniform over the complete spectrum of energies. At large angular scales only tiny deviations from isotropy have been observed and huge statistics are required to quantify the corresponding amplitudes. The measurement of cosmic rays with energies above 10 15 eV is only feasible with large, earthbound observatories: The cosmic ray primary particles initiate cascades of secondary particles in the Earth's atmosphere. Every aspect of the development of these air showers down to the measurement of the resulting particles at ground level needs to be well understood and controlled in order to precisely reconstruct the properties of the primary particle. The development of air showers is subject to systematic distortions caused by the magnetic field of the Earth. Both this and other local effects are capable of inducing false anisotropy into the distribution of arrival directions. In this thesis, the effect of the geomagnetic field on the energy measurement is modelled and quantified; consequently, a correction of the energy estimator is derived. Furthermore, a method is introduced to fit dipolar patterns to the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays as observed from the field of view of the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory. After correcting for all relevant local effects the method is applied to data and the parameters of a potentially underlying dipole are determined and evaluated. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blackston, M. A.; Ahmed, M. A.; Perdue, B. A.; Weller, H. R.; Bewer, B.; Pywell, R. E.; Wurtz, W. A.; Igarashi, R.; Kucuker, S.; Norum, B.; Wang, K.; Li, J.; Mikhailov, S. F.; Popov, V. G.; Wu, Y. K.; Sawatzky, B. D.
2008-01-01
Angular distributions of the cross section and linear analyzing powers have been measured for the d(γ-vector,n)p reaction at the High Intensity γ-ray Source with linearly polarized beams of 14 and 16 MeV. The outgoing neutrons were detected using the Blowfish detector array, consisting of 88 liquid scintillator detectors with large solid angle coverage. The amplitudes of the reduced transition matrix elements were extracted by means of fits to the data and good agreement was found with a recent potential model calculation of the splittings of the triplet p-wave amplitudes. The extracted amplitudes are used to reconstruct the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule integrand for the deuteron and are compared to theory
Forward amplitude in pion deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, E.M.; Munguia, G.A.P.; Rosa, L.P.; Thome, Z.D.
1979-06-01
The data on total cross section for πd scattering is analysed in terms of a single scattering calculation with Fermi motion dependence, in order to obtain a criterion to fix the value of the energy entering the two body meson nucleon amplitude. It is found that the prescription derived from the non-relativistic three body kinematics gives reasonable results. The introduction of a shift in the energy value, possibly representing nuclear binding effects, leads to a very good fitting of the data. The results are compared with those obtained in direct calculations of Faddeev equations and with the Brueckner model of fixed scatterers. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, H.
1978-06-01
The mechanism of the quasifree scattering (QFS) in the reaction dd → dpn has been investigated systematically by means of kinematically complete coincidence experiments using 52 MeV deuterons. In order to measure the angular distributions of the quasifree dp scattering and the quasifree dn scattering, the kinematical conditions were chosen to favour quasifree scattering of deuterons on bound nucleons of the target deuteron. (orig.) [de
Deuteron beam interaction with lithium jet in a neutron source test facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanein, A.
1996-01-01
Testing and evaluating candidate fusion reactor materials in a high-flux, high-energy neutron environment are critical to the success and economic feasibility of a fusion device. The current understanding of materials behavior in fission-like environments and existing fusion facilities is insufficient to ensure the necessary performance of future fusion reactor components. An accelerator-based deuterium-lithium system to generate the required high neutron flux for material testing is considered to be the most promising approach in the near future. In this system, a high-energy (30-40 MeV) deuteron beam impinges on a high-speed (10-20 m/s) lithium jet to produce the high-energy (≥14 MeV) neutrons required to simulate a fusion environment via the Li (d,n) nuclear stripping reaction. Interaction of the high-energy deuteron beam and the subsequent response of the high-speed lithium jet are evaluated in detail. Deposition of the deuteron beam, jet-thermal hydraulic response, lithium-surface vaporization rate, and dynamic stability of the jet are modeled. It is found that lower beam kinetic energies produce higher surface temperature and consequently higher Li vaporization rates. Larger beam sizes significantly reduce both bulk and surface temperatures. Thermal expansion and dynamic velocities (normal to jet direction) due to beam energy deposition and momentum transfer are much lower than jet flow velocity and decrease substantially at lower beam current densities. (orig.)
Deuteron beam interaction with Li jet for a neutron source test facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassanein, A.
1995-09-01
Testing and evaluating candidate fusion reactor materials in a high-flux, high-energy neutron environment are critical to the success and economic feasibility of a fusion device. The current understanding of materials behavior in fission-like environments and existing fusion facilities is insufficient to ensure the necessary performance of future fusion reactor components. An accelerator-based deuterium-lithium system to generate the required high neutron flux for material testing is considered to be the most promising approach in the near future. In this system, a high-energy (30-40 MeV) deuteron beam impinges on a high-speed (10-20 m/s) lithium jet to produce the high-energy (>14 MeV) neutrons required to simulate a fusion environment via the Li (d,n) nuclear stripping reaction. Interaction of the high-energy deuteron beam and the subsequent response of the high-speed lithium jet are evaluated in detail. Deposition of the deuteron beam, jet-thermal hydraulic response, lithium-surface vaporization rate, and dynamic stability of the jet are modeled. It is found that lower beam kinetic energies produce higher surface temperature and consequently higher Li vaporization rates. Larger beam sizes significantly reduce both bulk and surface temperatures. Thermal expansion and dynamic velocities (normal to jet direction) due to beam energy deposition and momentum transfer are much lower than jet flow velocity and decrease substantially at lower beam current densities
Deuteron photodisintegration: Data and plans
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Napolitano, J.
1993-01-01
We review existing data for the exclusive reaction γd → pn at photon energies above ∼ 1 GeV. We compare these data to various models, most notably those which rely on fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom. We include a discussion of future plans for related measurements
K- and L-shell ionization cross sections for deuterons calculated in the ECPSSR theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, D.D.
1989-01-01
Ionization cross sections for K and L subshells are tabulated according to target atomic number and incident deuteron energy. Deuteron energies between 100 keV and 10 MeV and selected targets between C and Am for the K shell and between Ar and Am for the L subshells are used. The cross sections have been calculated in the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) with corrections for energy loss (E), Coulomb deflection (C), perturbed stationary states (PSS), and relativistic (R) effects (ECPSSR). Differences between the computational approach of Cohen and Harrigan and that of Brandt and Lapicki are delineated, and the ratios of the resulting cross sections are tabulated. Copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc
Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Polarization in Elastic Electron Scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gustafsson, Kenneth K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)
2000-01-01
Nuclear physics traces it roots back to the very beginning of the last century. The concept of the nuclear atom was introduced by Rutherford around 1910. The discovery of the neutron Chadwick in 1932 gave us the concept of two nucleons: the proton and the neutron. The Jlab electron accelerator with its intermediate energy high current continuous wave beam combined with the Hall C high resolution electron spectrometer and a deutron recoil polarimeter provided experiment E94018 with the opportunity to study the deuteron electomagnetic structure, in particular to measure the tensor polarization observable t_{20}, at high four momentum transfers than ever before. This dissertation presents results of JLab experiment E94018.
A single-beam deuteron compact accelerator for neutron generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araujo, Wagner Leite; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de
2011-01-01
Portable neutron generators are devices composed by small size accelerators that produce neutrons through fusion between hydrogen isotopes. These reactions are characterized by appreciable cross section at energies at the tens of keV, which enables device portability. The project baselines follow the same physical and engineering principles of any other particle accelerators. The generator consists of a gas reservoir, apparatus for ion production, few electrodes to accelerate and focus the ion beam, and a metal hydride target where fusion reactions occur. Neutron generator applications include geophysical measurements, indus- trial process control, environmental, research, nation's security and mechanical structure analysis.This article presents a design of a compact accelerator for d-d neutron generators, describing the physical theory applied to the deuteron extraction system, and simulating the ion beam transport in the accelerator. (author)
Higher-order anisotropies in the Buda-Lund model: Disentangling flow and density field anisotropies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loekoes, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Csanad, Mate [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Prague (Czech Republic); Csoergo, Tamas [Wigner RCP, Budapest (Hungary); KRF, Gyoengyoes (Hungary)
2016-10-15
The Buda-Lund hydro model describes an expanding ellipsoidal fireball, and fits the observed elliptic flow and oscillating HBT radii successfully. Due to fluctuations in energy depositions, the fireball shape however fluctuates on an event-by-event basis. The transverse plane asymmetry can be translated into a series of multipole anisotropy coefficients. These anisotropies then result in measurable momentum-space anisotropies, to be measured with respect to their respective symmetry planes. In this paper we detail an extension of the Buda-Lund model to multipole anisotropies and investigate the resulting flow coefficients and oscillations of HBT radii. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plis, Yu.A.
2001-01-01
There is an interest in the problem of polarized fusion with the neutron-free d 3 He reaction. Up to now, the experimental data on the cross sections of two dd reactions, which produce neutrons at once or through secondary dt reaction, are absent for polarized deuterons. There is a relatively cheap way to carry out the experiments with polarized deuterons at the Charles University in Prague. A polarized deuteron beam with energy from 100 keV up to approximately 1 MeV may be produced on the Van de Graaff accelerator by the channeling of a deuteron beam through magnetized Ni single crystal foil, according M. Kaminsky [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 819 (1969)]. This method permits to produce a polarized deuteron beam of an energy ≤1 MeV with a current of ∼1 nA, vector polarization P 3 up to 2/3 and tensor polarization P 33 =0. It will be necessary to modify the existing polarized target at Charles University for work with a low energy deuteron beam [N. S. Borisov et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 345, 421 (1994)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharov, V I
2016-01-01
The report shows the possibilities of studying the spin one observables in the elastic dN and dd interactions at the NICA collider of the VBLHEP JINR. The use of the colliding deuteron beams would allow us to carry out the measurements of the differential cross sections I 0 (dN, dd) of the elastic scattering of unpolarized deuterons and the differential cross sections I pol (dN,dd) and the vector A y (Ed,θ) and tensor A yy (Ed,θ) and A xx (E d .θ) analyzing powers in elastic collisions of the vector and tensor polarized deuterons. The planned luminosity of the colliding polarized deuteron beams will provide sufficiently high elastic events counting rate. The use of the colliding beams of the polarized deuterons for the spin one >dN and dd observables research has a number of significant advantages in comparison with the experiments with the “fixed” target. The angular acceptance of the collider detector covers the full solid angle 4π radians while the wide ranges of the energies of the dN, dd interactions and the 4-momentum transfer squared are available. (paper)
Anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, W.; Gari, M.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie
1981-01-01
The anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron (anti ν + D → anti ν + n + p and anti νsub(e) + D → + e + + n + n) is calculated using realistic two-body states. Meson-exchange currents are considered in the one-boson-exchange limit. The results are discussed as corrections to the cross sections obtained in effective range approximations. It is shown that the ratio of the cross sections (sigma - /sigma 0 ) for reactor antineutrinos is practically independent of the nuclear physics uncertainties. (orig.)
Deuteron NMR and modelling in solid polymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirschinger, J.
1992-01-01
Deuteron NMR techniques are described and some recent applications to the study of rotational motions in solid polymers are reviewed. The information content and the domain of applicability of each technique are presented. Ultra-slow motions are studied in real time without any motional model consideration. For very fast motions, computer molecular dynamics simulations are shown to complement the NMR results. Experimental examples deal with the chain motion in the crystalline α-phase of poly(vinylidenefluoride) and nylon 6,6
Study of depolarization of deuteron and proton beams in the Nuclotron ring
Golubeva, N Y; Kondratenko, A M; Kondratenko, A M; Mikhajlov, V A; Strokovsky, E A
2002-01-01
The scheme for acceleration of polarized deuterons at the Nuclotron accelerator facility includes a cryogenic polarized deuteron source 'Polaris', a 5 MeV/nucl. linac, a superconducting heavy ion synchrotron of a 6 GeV/nucl. energy with 10 s spill slow extraction, thin internal targets and wide net of external beam lines. This scheme also allows one to generate high energy polarized proton and neutron beams with well determined characteristics. There are two principal problems of polarized particle acceleration: to keep spin orientation during beam acceleration and to produce the high ion intensity sufficient for data taking in physics experiments. The first problem is discussed in this paper. The reasons of depolarization effects in the mentioned parts of the Nuclotron have been analysed and four methods of the polarization conserving have been suggested. They are the spin resonance strength compensation increasing of the resonance strength, the betatron tune jump and the spin tune jump. Among their number, ...
Tornow, W; Witala, H
2002-01-01
Using the existing high-accuracy data for proton-deuteron and deuteron-proton elastic scattering, a phase-shift analysis has been performed in the laboratory proton energy range from E sub p = 4 to 10 MeV The AV 18-based proton-deuteron phase shifts were used as starting values in the phase-shift search procedure. The low-partial wave phase shifts, especially the sup 4 P sub j phase shifts have been determined very precisely, thus providing valuable guidance for theoretical approaches to tackle the quest for a successful description of three-nucleon bound-state and continuum observables in a more efficient and consistent way. Furthermore, it was found that the sup 4 P sub 1 sub / sub 2 phase shift and the mixing parameter epsilon sub 3 sub / sub 2 sub sup - determined in the present analysis cannot be generated by sup 3 P sub j nucleon-nucleon interactions which are consistent with two-nucleon analyzing power data. Therefore, three-nucleon forces must play an essential role in resolving the long-standing thre...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Kievsky, A.; Witala, H.
2002-01-01
Using the existing high-accuracy data for proton-deuteron and deuteron-proton elastic scattering, a phase-shift analysis has been performed in the laboratory proton energy range from E p = 4 to 10 MeV The AV 18-based proton-deuteron phase shifts were used as starting values in the phase-shift search procedure. The low-partial wave phase shifts, especially the 4 P j phase shifts have been determined very precisely, thus providing valuable guidance for theoretical approaches to tackle the quest for a successful description of three-nucleon bound-state and continuum observables in a more efficient and consistent way. Furthermore, it was found that the 4 P 1/2 phase shift and the mixing parameter ε 3/2 - determined in the present analysis cannot be generated by 3 P j nucleon-nucleon interactions which are consistent with two-nucleon analyzing power data. Therefore, three-nucleon forces must play an essential role in resolving the long-standing three-nucleon analyzing-power puzzle. Refs. 44 (author)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Blažek, Jiří; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub
2017-01-01
Roč. 2017, č. 6 (2017), 1-26, č. článku 026. ISSN 1475-7516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015038; GA MŠk LG15014; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cosmic ray experiments * ultra high energy cosmic rays Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 4.734, year: 2016
New approximation for Glauber theory on stripping of relativistic deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nissen-Meyer, S.A.
1978-03-01
The momentum distribution of forward protons from relativistic collisions of deuterons with nuclei is computed from a Glauber theoretical Ansatz of Bertocchi and Tekou. The outgoing proton-neutron scattering state (disintegrated deuteron) with a plane wave minus the components of this plane wave along the deuteron bound state vector is approximated. With no fitted parameters good agreement is found with data from the reaction d + C 12 → p + X in the region corresponding to nonrelativistic Fermi momenta in the forward direction. At more relativistic Fermi momenta, the model deviates more from the data, which can be due to incorrect choice of the short distance part of the deuteron wave function as well as off-shell effects in the deuteron
Electric dipole moment of the deuteron in the standard model with NN - ΛN - ΣN coupling
Yamanaka, Nodoka
2017-07-01
We calculate the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron in the standard model with | ΔS | = 1 interactions by taking into account the NN - ΛN - ΣN channel coupling, which is an important nuclear level systematics. The two-body problem is solved with the Gaussian Expansion Method using the realistic Argonne v18 nuclear force and the YN potential which can reproduce the binding energies of Λ3H, Λ3He, and Λ4He. The | ΔS | = 1 interbaryon potential is modeled by the one-meson exchange process. It is found that the deuteron EDM is modified by less than 10%, and the main contribution to this deviation is due to the polarization of the hyperon-nucleon channels. The effect of the YN interaction is small, and treating ΛN and ΣN channels as free is a good approximation for the EDM of the deuteron.
Estimation of PHI (γ,n) average probability for complex nuclei in the quasi-deuteron region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, M.C. da S.
1977-01-01
The average probabilities of (γ,n) reactions for complexe nuclei of 6 C 12 , 19 F 19 , 25 Mn 55 , 79 Au 197 and 92 U 238 , in the energy range from giant resonance end to photomesonic threshold (quasi-deuteron region), using values of cross sections per quantum equivalent to 300 Mev produced by Bremsstrahlung photons in the Frascati and Orsay accelerators were determined. The probabilities were also calculated using nuclear transparence for protons and neutrons, resultants from quasi-deuteron disintegration. The transparence formulaes were determined by optical model. (M.C.K.) [pt
Selectivity of the nucleon-induced deuteron breakup and relativistic effects
Witała, H.; Golak, J.; Skibiński, R.
2006-01-01
Theoretical predictions for the nucleon induced deuteron breakup process based on solutions of the three-nucleon Faddeev equation including such relativistic features as the relativistic kinematics and boost effects are presented. Large changes of the breakup cross section in some complete configurations are found at higher energies. The predicted relativistic effects, which are mostly of dynamical origin, seem to be supported by existing data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, G.G.
1978-01-01
In this thesis results of measurements of the differential cross sections of the elastic and inelastic electron deuteron scattering are presented. The data were taken at several scattering angles and in the electron energy range of 150 MeV up to 320 MeV. The extracted form factors and structure functions are compared with theoretical results which are sensitive to details of nucleon structure and of the nucleon-nucleon forces. (FKS)
Limits on production of anomalous secondaries in deuteron-deuteron collisions at 7.9 GeV/c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarke, R.L.; Hardy, J.E.; Hemingway, R.J.
1983-01-01
A search has been made in bubble-chamber film of 7.9-GeV/c deuteron-deuteron interactions for anomalous behavior of the collision fragments. No positive effect is seen in the distribution of secondary mean free paths, although stringent limits are placed on the primary production rate
Fast neutron distributions from Be and C thick targets bombarded with 80 and 160 MeV deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pauwels, N.; Laurent, H.; Clapier, F.; Brandenburg, S.; Beijers, J. P .M.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Lebreton, H.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Mirea, M.
2001-01-01
Production of fast neutron studies have come to the fore in the past few years because of the great interest for the possible applications of induced fission to produce neutron rich ion beams. In this context, the main objective of the SPIRAL II (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Ligne) and PARRNe (Production d'Atomes Radioactifs Riches en Neutrons) R and D projects is the investigation of the feasibility and of the optimum parameters for a neutron rich isotope source. Special attention is dedicated to the energy and angular distributions of the neutrons obtained through deuteron break--up in different types of converters and different incident energies. Analysis and modelling of such behaviors, together with the study of the yields of neutron induced fission, can be used to optimize the productivity of the fissioning target its geometry and designing it accordingly. The present report continues our previous studies realised for 17, 20, 28 and 200 MeV deuteron energies and it is focused on deuteron incident energies of 80 and 160 MeV. In the experiment, the double differential cross section for neutron production induced by 80 and 160 MeV deuterons impinging on thick C and Be targets, in which the incident deuterons were complete stopped, have been measured. The energy of the neutrons was determined from the time--of--flight (TOF) measurement. To obtain an energy resolution of about 4% for the fastest, forward--emitted neutrons, which have approximately beam velocity, the length of the flightpath for the detectors at angles up to 30 angle was chosen to be 6 m. At backward angles, where the neutron energies are lower, a shorter flightpath was chosen. A schematic drawing of the setup is shown. A 100 mm thick Be target and a 70 mm thick C target were used. Results are exemplified with the angular and energy distributions of neutron obtained for Be target at 80 MeV. (authors)
The spin structure of the deuteron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frois, B. [DAPNIA/SPHN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
1994-12-01
The Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) has measured for the first time the spin-dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup d} of the deuteron in the deep inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized deuterons in the kinematic range Q{sup 2} > 1 GeV{sup 2}, 0.006 < x < 0.6. The first moment {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup d} = {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}g{sub 1}{sup d}dx = 0.023 {+-} 0.020(stat.) {+-} 0.015(syst.) is smaller than the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rules. The author finds that the fraction of the nucleon spin carried by strange quarks {Delta}s is appreciable and negative. Using earlier measurements of g{sub 1}{sup p}, the group can infer the first moment of the spin-dependent neutron structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}. The combined analysis of all the available data on the spin-dependent structure functions of the nucleon shows an excellent agreement among the data sets. The author does not find significant deviations from the prediction of the Bjorken sum rule.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasilov, V.I.; Lapin, N.N.
1981-01-01
An enhancement is detected under the angle of 90 deg in the fission fragment yield from 238 U nuclei produced by photons emitted by high-energy electrons passing through a silicon monocrystal. The results enable one to select the most optimal conditions to obtain maximal yields of nuclear particles [ru
Shape anisotropy: tensor distance to anisotropy measure
Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; El-Hilo, Saba; Atkins, M. S.
2011-03-01
Fractional anisotropy, defined as the distance of a diffusion tensor from its closest isotropic tensor, has been extensively studied as quantitative anisotropy measure for diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images (DT-MRI). It has been used to reveal the white matter profile of brain images, as guiding feature for seeding and stopping in fiber tractography and for the diagnosis and assessment of degenerative brain diseases. Despite its extensive use in DT-MRI community, however, not much attention has been given to the mathematical correctness of its derivation from diffusion tensors which is achieved using Euclidean dot product in 9D space. But, recent progress in DT-MRI has shown that the space of diffusion tensors does not form a Euclidean vector space and thus Euclidean dot product is not appropriate for tensors. In this paper, we propose a novel and robust rotationally invariant diffusion anisotropy measure derived using the recently proposed Log-Euclidean and J-divergence tensor distance measures. An interesting finding of our work is that given a diffusion tensor, its closest isotropic tensor is different for different tensor distance metrics used. We demonstrate qualitatively that our new anisotropy measure reveals superior white matter profile of DT-MR brain images and analytically show that it has a higher signal to noise ratio than fractional anisotropy.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub
2015-01-01
Roč. 804, č. 1 (2015), s. 15 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acceleration of particles * astroparticle physics Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015
Exchange bias energy in Co/Pt/IrMn multilayers with perpendicular and in-plane anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czapkiewicz, M.; Stobiecki, T.; Rak, R.; Zoladz, M.; Dijken, S. van
2007-01-01
The magnetization reversal process in perpendicularly biased [Pt/Co] 3 /d Pt Pt/IrMn and in-plane biased Co/d Pt Pt/IrMn multilayers with 0nm= Pt = Pt =0.1nm. In both cases, the existence of large exchange bias fields correlates with a high domain density during magnetization reversal. The interface exchange coupling energy is larger for the in-plane biased films than for the perpendicularly biased multilayers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, X.H.; Zhao, G.P.; Yue, Ming; Ye, L.N.; Xia, J.; Zhang, X.C.; Chang, J.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the magnetic reversal process, hysteresis loops and energy products for exchange-coupled Nd 2 Fe 14 B/α-Fe bilayers are studied systematically by a three-dimensional (3D) model. The 3D calculations are numerically solved using the finite difference method, where the results are carefully compared with those calculated by one-dimensional (1D) model. It is found that the calculated hysteresis loops and energy products based on the two methods are consistent with each other. Both nucleation fields and coercivities decrease monotonically as the soft layer thickness L s increases. In addition, the calculated spatial distributions of magnetization orientations in the thickness direction at various applied fields based on both methods signify a three-step magnetic reversal process, which are nucleation, growth and displacement of the domain wall. The calculated magnetic orientations within the film plane, however, are totally different according to the two methods. The 3D calculation exhibits a process of vortex formation and annihilation. On the other hand, the 1D calculation gives a quasi-coherent one, where magnetization orientation is coherent in the film plane and varies in the thickness direction. This new reversal mechanism displayed in the film plane has a systematic influence on the nucleation fields, coercivity and energy products. - Highlights: • Consistent hysteresis loops and energy products for 3D and 1D calculation. • Domain wall formation, evolution and displacement perpendicular to the film plane. • Vortex formation, annihilation and better loop squareness in 3D calculation. • Larger nucleation fields, remanence and smaller coercivity in 3D calculation
Slow electron contribution to inelastic reflection anisotropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podsvirov, O.A.; Kuznetsov, Yu.A.
1980-01-01
Investigated is electron contribution with low energy (up to 1 keV) to the anisotropy of electron inelastic reflection (IRE) from silicon monocrystal (111) within 12-50 keV energy range of primary electrons. Experimental data on IRE anisotropy are presented: delay curves for silicon monocrystal, permitting to separate electrons with the energy up to 1 keV, dependences of IRE anisotropy on the energy of primary electrons for the systems - monocrystalline silicon-amorphous silicon film and delay curves for such systems (film thickness varies from 20 to 2000 A). Suggested is a phenomenologic model, permitting to take into account the contribution of slow electrons to IRE anisotropy: it is supposed, that three groups of electrons take part in the formation of the latter: elastic and inelastic reflected electrons, slow electrons, excited by primary electrons and slow electrons, generated by the reverse flow of the scattered electrons. Contribution of electrons, different by origin, to IRE anisotropy is evaluated in accordance with the experimental data on the basis of this model. It is stated, that slow electrons constitute approximately one half of the IRE anisotropy value, the contribution of both groups of slow electrons being approximately equal
Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy.
Dixit, Gopal Krishna; Ranganathan, Madhav
2017-09-20
Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to [Formula: see text] facets on the surface.
Modeling elastic anisotropy in strained heteroepitaxy
Krishna Dixit, Gopal; Ranganathan, Madhav
2017-09-01
Using a continuum evolution equation, we model the growth and evolution of quantum dots in the heteroepitaxial Ge on Si(0 0 1) system in a molecular beam epitaxy unit. We formulate our model in terms of evolution due to deposition, and due to surface diffusion which is governed by a free energy. This free energy has contributions from surface energy, curvature, wetting effects and elastic energy due to lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. In addition to anisotropy due to surface energy which favors facet formation, we also incorporate elastic anisotropy due to an underlying crystal lattice. The complicated elastic problem of the film-substrate system subjected to boundary conditions at the free surface, interface and the bulk substrate is solved by perturbation analysis using a small slope approximation. This permits an analysis of effects at different orders in the slope and sheds new light on the observed behavior. Linear stability analysis shows the early evolution of the instability towards dot formation. The elastic anisotropy causes a change in the alignment of dots in the linear regime, whereas the surface energy anisotropy changes the dot shapes at the nonlinear regime. Numerical simulation of the full nonlinear equations shows the evolution of the surface morphology. In particular, we show, for parameters of the Ge0.25 Si0.75 on Si(0 0 1), the surface energy anisotropy dominates the shapes of the quantum dots, whereas their alignment is influenced by the elastic energy anisotropy. The anisotropy in elasticity causes a further elongation of the islands whose coarsening is interrupted due to facets on the surface.
Measurement of (anti)deuteron and (anti)proton production in DIS at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)
2007-05-15
The first observation of (anti)deuterons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA has been made with the ZEUS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 300-318 GeV using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed in the central rapidity region for transverse momentum per unit of mass in the range 0.3
deuteron production yield is smaller than the (anti)proton yield by approximately three orders of magnitude, consistent with the world measurements. (orig.)
Deuteron and anti-deuteron production in CERN experiment NA44
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon-Gillo, J.
1995-01-01
The abundances of light nuclei probe the later stages of the evolution of a system formed in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. After the system has cooled and expanded, nucleons in close proximity and moving with small relative momenta coalesce to form nuclei. Light nuclei production enables the study of several topics, including the mechanism of composite particle production, freeze-out temperature, size of the interaction region, and entropy of the system. NA44 is the only relativistic heavy-ion experiment to have both deuteron and anti-deuteron results in both pA and AA collisions and the first CERN experiment to study the physics topics addressed by d and bar d production
The pion-deuteron forward elastic amplitude in the non-overlapping potentials model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butterworth, D.S.
1978-01-01
The pion-deuteron forward elastic amplitude has been calculated in the non-overlapping potentials model, which enables a description of off-shell propagation effects in terms of on-shell amplitudes. Calculations include spin, isospin and deuteron D-state probability effects. Two energy regions are considered. First the pion-nucleon P 33 resonance region, where, using a formalism developed by Agassi and Gal (Ann. Phys.; 75:56 (1973) and 94:184 (1975)), the full multiple-scattering series is summed in an approximation of P 33 wave dominance of the higher-order scatterings. Second, for the subsequent highest-energy region, the double-scattering term only is calculated. Fermi smearing effects are included in both cases. Predictions for the total cross section, its dependence on the deuteron alignment and the real part of the forward elastic amplitude are compared with those of Glauber theory, and data where available. Convergence of the multiple-scattering series is also discussed. (author)
Quarks degrees of freedom and deuteron static moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Narodetskij, I.M.; Veselov, A.I.
1985-01-01
The probability of the six-quark bag part of the deuteron is defined within recently formulated quark compound bag (QCB) model.An upper limit of about 1% for admixture of the confined bag in the deuteron is found for the QCB potential supplied by the long range Paris interaction. The six-quark bag corrections to the static multipole moments of the deuteron are estimated to be < or approximately 1% for μsub(α) and < or approximately 6% for Qsub(d)
Development of a cryogenic source of polarized deuterons ''Polaris''
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anishchenko, N.G.; Belushkina, A.A.; Ershov, V.P.
1985-01-01
To obtain a beam of polarized deuterons, a cryogenic source ''Polaris'' has been developed according to the program of research at the Dubna synchrophasotron. The source is installed on a high-voltage terminal of the linac preaccelerator. A beam of deuterons from the source is accelerated in the synchrophasotron. At present the source is being improved. A polarimeter with 3 He and 4 He targets has been developed to measure the polarization of the beam of deuterons after the linac. Results of this work are presented in the report
Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Schlimme B. S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm−1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm−1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barbato, F.; Luz, R. J. Barreira; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalani, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Cerutti, A. C. Cobos; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Consolati, G.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D’Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Almeida, R. M. de; Jong, S. J. de; Mauro, G. De; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Mitri, I. De; Oliveira, J. de; Souza, V. de; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Castro, M. L. Díaz; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; Anjos, R. C. dos; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farmer, J.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fenu, F.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaïor, R.; García, B.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Berisso, M. Gómez; Vitale, P. F. Gómez; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Halliday, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Jurysek, J.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemmerich, N.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; Lago, B. L.; LaHurd, D.; Lang, R. G.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Oliveira, M. A. Leigui de; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Presti, D. Lo; Lopes, L.; López, R.; Casado, A. López; Lorek, R.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Bravo, O. Martínez; Meza, J. J. Masías; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Merenda, K. -D.; Michal, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Morlino, G.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlin, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Poh, J.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Ridky, J.; Riehn, F.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schröder, S.; Schulz, A.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Soriano, J. F.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strafella, F.; Streich, A.; Suarez, F.; Durán, M. Suarez; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šupík, J.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Elipe, G. Torralba; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; Berg, A. M. van den; Vliet, A. van; Varela, E.; Cárdenas, B. Vargas; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Ventura, C.; Quispe, I. D. Vergara; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiedeński, M.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Wirtz, M.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.
2018-02-01
A new analysis of the dataset from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 EeV with zenith angles up to 80 deg recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0 sigma, the highest value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 EeV. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7-3.2 sigma significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed.
Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barbato, F.; Barreira Luz, R. J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalani, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Cobos Cerutti, A. C.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceição, R.; Consolati, G.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D’Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Díaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D’Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farmer, J.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Fenu, F.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipčič, A.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaïor, R.; García, B.; Gaté, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Głas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Vitale, P. F.; González, N.; Gorgi, A.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Halliday, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Jurysek, J.; Kääpä, A.; Kambeitz, O.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemmerich, N.; Kemp, E.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Kukec Mezek, G.; Kunka, N.; Kuotb Awad, A.; Lago, B. L.; LaHurd, D.; Lang, R. G.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lo Presti, D.; Lopes, L.; López, R.; López Casado, A.; Lorek, R.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Mariş, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Masías Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Merenda, K.-D.; Michal, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Morlino, G.; Mostafá, M.; Müller, A. L.; Müller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Müller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. H.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Niechciol, M.; Niemietz, L.; Niggemann, T.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Novotny, V.; Nožka, L.; Núñez, L. A.; Oikonomou, F.; Olinto, A.; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Papenbreer, P.; Parente, G.; Parra, A.; Paul, T.; Pech, M.; Pedreira, F.; Pȩkala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Peña-Rodriguez, J.; Pereira, L. A. S.; Perlin, M.; Perrone, L.; Peters, C.; Petrera, S.; Phuntsok, J.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pirronello, V.; Platino, M.; Plum, M.; Poh, J.; Porowski, C.; Prado, R. R.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Querchfeld, S.; Quinn, S.; Ramos-Pollan, R.; Rautenberg, J.; Ravignani, D.; Ridky, J.; Riehn, F.; Risse, M.; Ristori, P.; Rizi, V.; Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Roncoroni, M. J.; Roth, M.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Ruehl, P.; Saffi, S. J.; Saftoiu, A.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Saleh, A.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Sanchez-Lucas, P.; Santos, E. M.; Santos, E.; Sarazin, F.; Sarmento, R.; Sarmiento-Cano, C.; Sato, R.; Schauer, M.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, D.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schröder, F. G.; Schröder, S.; Schulz, A.; Schumacher, J.; Sciutto, S. J.; Segreto, A.; Shadkam, A.; Shellard, R. C.; Sigl, G.; Silli, G.; Šmída, R.; Snow, G. R.; Sommers, P.; Sonntag, S.; Soriano, J. F.; Squartini, R.; Stanca, D.; Stanič, S.; Stasielak, J.; Stassi, P.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strafella, F.; Streich, A.; Suarez, F.; Suarez Durán, M.; Sudholz, T.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Šupík, J.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Taboada, A.; Taborda, O. A.; Theodoro, V. M.; Timmermans, C.; Todero Peixoto, C. J.; Tomankova, L.; Tomé, B.; Torralba Elipe, G.; Travnicek, P.; Trini, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Valdés Galicia, J. F.; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van Aar, G.; van Bodegom, P.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Vliet, A.; Varela, E.; Vargas Cárdenas, B.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Ventura, C.; Vergara Quispe, I. D.; Verzi, V.; Vicha, J.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Walz, D.; Watson, A. A.; Weber, M.; Weindl, A.; Wiedeński, M.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyński, H.; Wirtz, M.; Wittkowski, D.; Wundheiler, B.; Yang, L.; Yushkov, A.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zepeda, A.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zong, Z.; Zuccarello, F.; The Pierre Auger Collaboration
2018-02-01
A new analysis of the data set from the Pierre Auger Observatory provides evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays on an intermediate angular scale, which is indicative of excess arrivals from strong, nearby sources. The data consist of 5514 events above 20 {EeV} with zenith angles up to 80° recorded before 2017 April 30. Sky models have been created for two distinct populations of extragalactic gamma-ray emitters: active galactic nuclei from the second catalog of hard Fermi-LAT sources (2FHL) and starburst galaxies from a sample that was examined with Fermi-LAT. Flux-limited samples, which include all types of galaxies from the Swift-BAT and 2MASS surveys, have been investigated for comparison. The sky model of cosmic-ray density constructed using each catalog has two free parameters, the fraction of events correlating with astrophysical objects, and an angular scale characterizing the clustering of cosmic rays around extragalactic sources. A maximum-likelihood ratio test is used to evaluate the best values of these parameters and to quantify the strength of each model by contrast with isotropy. It is found that the starburst model fits the data better than the hypothesis of isotropy with a statistical significance of 4.0σ, the highest value of the test statistic being for energies above 39 {EeV}. The three alternative models are favored against isotropy with 2.7σ–3.2σ significance. The origin of the indicated deviation from isotropy is examined and prospects for more sensitive future studies are discussed. Any correspondence should be addressed to .
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold
Levchuk, M. I.; L'vov, A. I.
2000-07-01
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levchuk, M.I.; L'vov, A.I.
2000-01-01
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levchuk, M.I. E-mail: levchuk@dragon.bas-net.by; L' vov, A.I. E-mail: lvov@x4u.lebedev.ru
2000-07-17
Deuteron Compton scattering below pion photoproduction threshold is considered in the framework of the nonrelativistic diagrammatic approach with the Bonn OBE potential. A complete gauge-invariant set of diagrams is taken into account which includes resonance diagrams without and with NN-rescattering and diagrams with one- and two-body seagulls. The seagull operators are analyzed in detail, and their relations with free- and bound-nucleon polarizabilities are discussed. It is found that both dipole and higher-order polarizabilities of the nucleon are required for a quantitative description of recent experimental data. An estimate of the isospin-averaged dipole electromagnetic polarizabilities of the nucleon and the polarizabilities of the neutron is obtained from the data.
Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badelek, B.
1992-01-01
Shadowing in inelastic lepton-deuteron scattering is analysed using the double interaction formalism where we relate shadowing to inclusive diffractive processes. Both the vector meson and parton contributions are considered for low and high Q 2 values including QCD corrections with parton recombination for high Q 2 . These Q 2 values were chosen to correspond to existing experimental data and to the possible HERA measurements. Detailed discussion of various shadowing mechanisms is given. As expected the shadowing effects are found to be very small, less then 2% or so, in agreement with the recent precise measurements performed by the New Muon Collaboration. The contribution of shadowing term to the Gottfried sum the region x > 0.004 and for Q 2 = 4 GeV 2 is estimated to be equal to -0.025. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs
(Anti-)deuteron formation and neutron-proton correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mrowczynski, S.
1995-01-01
The neutron-proton correlation, deuteron and antideuteron formation in nuclear collisions are all due to the final state interactions. The neutron-proton correlation function and the (anti-)deuteron formation rate are calculated in parallel. These quantities are expressed through the space-time parameters of the particle source created in nucleus-nucleus collisions. In the case of baryon reach sources, the nucleons are emitted from the whole source volume while the antinucleons dominantly from the surface due to the antinucleon absorption in the baryon environment. Thus, the shape of the antinucleon source is different from the nucleon one, and consequently the antideuteron formation rate is substantially smaller than that one of deuterons. The correlation function satisfies the sum rule, which, in particular, connects the number of correlated neutron-proton pairs with the number of produced deuterons. (author). 18 refs., 4 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tornow, W.; Braun, R.T.; Witala, H.
1996-01-01
We review published analyses of the final-state-interaction enhancement observed in proton energy distributions obtained from kinematically incomplete neutron-deuteron breakup experiments. We compare the results derived from these analyses for the neutron-neutron scattering length, a nn with our results based on a rigorous treatment of the three-nucleon Faddeev equations in conjunction with the use of realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Our values for a nn deviate outside the quoted uncertainties from the ones obtained in the previous analyses where simplified nucleon-nucleon interaction models were employed. In contrast to the previous determinations, the present results for a nn are in clear disagreement with the values for a nn based on π - -deuteron capture experiments. Unless inconsistencies in the experimental neutron-deuteron breakup data at low energies can be resolved and the influence of possible three-nucleon-force effects can be reliably determined, we recommend that one not resort to the kinematically incomplete neutron-deuteron breakup reaction as a tool for determining a quantity as important for nuclear and particle physics as is the neutron-neutron scattering length a nn . (author)
Approximate treatment of the deuteron+nucleus interaction in the resonating-group formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaneko, T.
1995-01-01
A simplified version of the microscopic resonating-group method (RGM), called model K, is formulated for the deuteron+nucleus problem by making the simplifications of approximately treating the total center-of-mass motion and keeping only the direct and knockon-exchange terms. For these terms, the important point is that they can be analytically derived without much difficulty, with the consequence that the adoption of this model can enhance the general utility of the RGM by rendering the calculations feasible even in heavy nuclear systems. By utilizing the information obtained from previous investigations in the nucleon+nucleus case and by studying the analytical structure of the RGM kernel functions, it can be determined that this model for deuteron+nucleus scattering should work well when the nucleon-number ratio of the target and incident nuclei is larger than about 10 and when the scattering energy is higher than about 20 MeV/nucleon. A test comparison with exact RGM results for d+ 16 O scattering at 30 MeV and a fit to experiment for d+ 40 Ca scattering at 49.52 MeV yield rather convincing evidence that this model has great simplicity and generality, and can be employed to conduct a systematic and large-scale study of existing data on deuteron+nucleus scattering. (orig.)
Acceleration of polarized protons and deuterons in the ion collider ring of JLEIC
Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu N.; Derbenev, Ya S.; Lin, F.; Morozov, V. S.; Zhang, Y.
2017-07-01
The figure-8-shaped ion collider ring of Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) is transparent to the spin. It allows one to preserve proton and deuteron polarizations using weak stabilizing solenoids when accelerating the beam up to 100 GeV/c. When the stabilizing solenoids are introduced into the collider’s lattice, the particle spins precess about a spin field, which consists of the field induced by the stabilizing solenoids and the zero-integer spin resonance strength. During acceleration of the beam, the induced spin field is maintained constant while the resonance strength experiences significant changes in the regions of “interference peaks”. The beam polarization depends on the field ramp rate of the arc magnets. Its component along the spin field is preserved if acceleration is adiabatic. We present the results of our theoretical analysis and numerical modeling of the spin dynamics during acceleration of protons and deuterons in the JLEIC ion collider ring. We demonstrate high stability of the deuteron polarization in figure-8 accelerators. We analyze a change in the beam polarization when crossing the transition energy.
What should be measured in deuteron breakup with polarized proton target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strokovskij, E.A.
1995-01-01
At present, two different approaches are used for interpretation of inclusive data on deuteron breakup with emission of protons-fragments at zero degree by hadrons. According to one of them the observed characteristics of this reaction (cross sections, polarization observables) are determined by the reaction mechanism and the deuteron structure at short distances (in the commonly accepted sense) plays a minor role. According to the other approach it is the deuteron structure at short distances which determines the observed trend of the data. Neither of these approaches can describe the data even qualitatively in the whole investigated region of kinematical variables, having particular success for some narrow region corresponding to long distances. Installation of the polarized proton target at LHE (Laboratory of High Energies) JINR opens an opportunity to perform a rather simple experiment which could discriminate one of these completing approaches. The idea of this experiment is discussed in the present paper. Measurement of the observable suggested here is a particular example of a general problem of a search for spin correlations in inelastic reactions between particles separated well in 4-velocity or rapidity spaces. In our particular case correlations of spin degrees of freedom between particles, one of which is in the target fragmentation region and the other belongs to the projectile fragmentation region, are discussed. 10 refs., 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Bernardis, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Serra, Paolo; Cooray, Asantha
2008-01-01
We search for the presence of cosmological neutrino background (CNB) anisotropies in recent Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) five-year data using their signature imprinted on modifications to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy power spectrum. By parameterizing the neutrino background anisotropies with the speed viscosity parameter c vis , we find that the WMAP five-year data alone provide only a weak indication for CNB anisotropies with c vis 2 >0.06 at the 95% confidence level. When we combine CMB anisotropy data with measurements of galaxy clustering, the SN-Ia Hubble diagram, and other cosmological information, the detection increases to c vis 2 >0.16 at the same 95% confidence level. Future data from Planck, combined with a weak lensing survey such as the one expected with DUNE from space, will be able to measure the CNB anisotropy parameter at about 10% accuracy. We discuss the degeneracy between neutrino background anisotropies and other cosmological parameters such as the number of effective neutrinos species and the dark energy equation of state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biermann, Mark L [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Walters, Matthew [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Diaz-Barriga, James [Physics Department, 566 Brownson Rd., U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Rabinovich, W S [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 5652, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375-5320 (United States)
2003-10-21
Anisotropic in-plane strain in quantum wells leads to an optical polarization anisotropy that can be exploited for device applications. We have determined that for many anisotropic compressive strain cases, the dependence of the optical anisotropy is linear in the strain anisotropy. This result holds for a variety of well and barrier materials and widths and for various overall strain conditions. Further, the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy varies as the reciprocal of the energy separation of the relevant hole sub-bands. Hence, a general result for the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy is available for cases of compressive anisotropic in-plane strain.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biermann, Mark L; Walters, Matthew; Diaz-Barriga, James; Rabinovich, W S
2003-01-01
Anisotropic in-plane strain in quantum wells leads to an optical polarization anisotropy that can be exploited for device applications. We have determined that for many anisotropic compressive strain cases, the dependence of the optical anisotropy is linear in the strain anisotropy. This result holds for a variety of well and barrier materials and widths and for various overall strain conditions. Further, the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy varies as the reciprocal of the energy separation of the relevant hole sub-bands. Hence, a general result for the polarization anisotropy per strain anisotropy is available for cases of compressive anisotropic in-plane strain
Bethe-Salpeter amplitudes and static properties of the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaptari, L.P.; Bondarenko, S.G.; Khanna, F.C.; Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ. Dresden
1996-04-01
Extended calculations of the deuteron's static properties, based on the numerical solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, are presented. A formalism is developed, which provides a comparative analysis of the covariant amplitudes in various representations and nonrelativistic wave functions. The magnetic and quadrupole moments of the deuteron are calculated in the Bethe-Salpeter formalism and the role of relativistic corrections is discussed. (orig.)
Azimuthal anisotropy of jet quenching at LHC
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We analyze the azimuthal anisotropy of jet spectra due to energy loss of hard partons in quark–gluon plasma, created initially in nuclear overlap zone in collisions with non-zero impact parameter. The calculations are performed for semi-central Pb–Pb collisions at LHC energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobushkin, A.P.; Syamtomov, A.I.
1994-01-01
Experimental observables of the elastic ed-scattering in the region of intermediate energies are discussed. We offer the numerical analysis of the available experimental data, which reproduces the results of the calculations with popular NN-potentials at low energies (Q 2 2 ), but, at the same time, provides the right asymptotic behavior of the deuteron e.m. form factors, following from the quark counting rules, at high energies (Q 2 >>1(GeV/c) 2 ). The numerical analysis developed allows to make certain estimations of the characteristic energy scale, at what the consideration of quark-gluon degrees of freedom in the deuteron becomes essential. (author). 18 refs., 2 tab., 10 figs
Measurements of neutron-deuteron breakup cross sections at 13.0 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Setze, H.R.; Howell, C.R.; Tornow, W.
1993-01-01
The discrepancy between low-energy nucleon-deuteron breakup cross-section data and calculations, which do not include three-nucleon forces, has been cited as a possible signature of the influence of three-nucleon forces section. The comparison between data and calculations is difficult to interpret because there are significant disagreements between the data. To help clarify the situation we have made kinematically complete cross-section measurements for n-d breakup at an incident neutron energy of 13.0 MeV. The experimental techniques and data analysis method will be described. Preliminary results will be presented in comparison to calculations and previous data
COSMIC-RAY TRANSPORT AND ANISOTROPIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Becker Tjus, Julia; Mandelartz, Matthias [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Theoretische Physik I, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Seo, Eun-Suk [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2013-05-10
We show that the large-scale cosmic-ray anisotropy at {approx}10 TeV can be explained by a modified Compton-Getting effect in the magnetized flow field of old supernova remnants. Cosmic rays arrive isotropically to the flow field and are then carried along with the flow to produce a large-scale anisotropy in the arrival direction. This approach suggests an optimum energy scale for detecting the anisotropy. Two key assumptions are that propagation is based on turbulence following a Kolmogorov law and that cosmic-ray interactions are dominated by transport via cosmic-ray-excited magnetic irregularities through the stellar wind of an exploding star and its shock shell. A prediction is that the amplitude is smaller at lower energies due to incomplete sampling of the velocity field and also smaller at larger energies due to smearing.
Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated PAHs
Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter
2015-08-01
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of PAH molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar PAHs are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in PAHs, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated PAHs (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large PAH family, i.e. Deuteronated PAHs (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in PAHs, they might be accommodated in large PAHs (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated PAHs (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galazka-Friedman, J.; Sobczak, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Zielinski, I.P.; Bano, M.; Hlavacova, J.; Martinska, G.; Patocka, J.; Seman, M.; Sandor, L.; Urban, J.
1993-01-01
The reactions 4 Hep→pp+X, 3 Hep→pp+X and 4 Hep→ddp have been investigated and the correlation function has been measured for protons and deuterons with small relative momenta. Strong positive correlation has been observed for protons related mainly to the final state interactions in 1 S 0 state. The root mean square radius of the proton source calculated from the correlation function has been found to be equal to (1.7±0.3) fm and (2.1±0.3) fm for 4 He and 3 He respectively. It agrees with the known radii of these nuclei. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gakh, G.I.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.
2006-01-01
The general spin structure of the matrix element, taking into account the 2-photon exchange contribution, for the elastic electron (positron) - deuteron scattering has been derived using general symmetry properties of the hadron electromagnetic interaction, such as P-, C- and T-invariances as well as lepton helicity conservation in QED at high energy. Taking into account also crossing symmetry, the amplitudes of e ± d scattering can be parametrized in terms of fifteen real functions. The expressions for the differential cross section and for all polarization observables are given in terms of these functions. We consider the case of an arbitrary polarized deuteron target and polarized electron beam (both longitudinal and transverse). The transverse polarization of the electron beam induces a single-spin asymmetry which is non-zero in presence of 2-photon exchange. It is shown that elastic deuteron electromagnetic form factors can still be extracted in presence of 2 photon exchange, from the measurements of the differential cross sections and of one polarization observable (for example, the tensor asymmetry) for electron and positron deuteron elastic scattering, in the same kinematical conditions. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurchin, Yu.V.; Isupov, A.Yu.; Khrenov, A.N.; Kiselev, A.S.; Ladygin, V.P.; Reznikov, S.G.; Vasil'ev, T.A.; Janek, M.; Karachuk, J.T.
2011-01-01
A selection of dp-elastic scattering events at energies of 1.6 and 2.0 GeV by using scintillation counters has been performed. The procedure of the CH 2 -C subtraction has been established. The dependence of the elastic events yield on the filter thickness has been investigated. This method can be used to develop the efficient high-energy deuteron beam polarimetry
Effect of Δ-isobar excitation on spin-dependent observables of elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemoto, S.; Oryu, S.; Chmielewski, K.; Sauer, P.U.
2000-01-01
Δ-isobar excitation in the nuclear medium yields an effective three-nucleon force. A coupled-channel formulation with Δ-isobar excitation developed previously is used. The three-particle scattering equations are solved by a separable expansion of the two-baryon transition matrix for elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering. The effect of Δ-isobar excitation on the spin-dependent observables is studied at energies above 50 MeV nucleon lab energy. (author)
The MuSun experiment. Muon capture on the deuteron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wauters, Frederik [Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz (Germany); University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Kammel, Peter; Ryan, Rachel; Salvat, Daniel; Muldoon, Ethan; Murray, Michael; Hertzog, David [University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Petitjean, Claude [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Vasilyev, Alexander [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Carrey, Robert [Boston University, Boston (United States); Gray, Frederick [Regis University, Denver (United States); Gorringe, Tim [University of Kentuky, Lexington (United States)
2016-07-01
The MuSun experiment measures the muon capture rate on the deuteron via a precise measurement of the lifetime of negative muons in deuterium, determining unambiguously the low energy constant (LEC) related to the strengths of the axial coupling to the two nucleon-system. LEC's are part of recently developed QCD-based effective field theories, which provide a first-principles description with predictive power for few-body nuclear systems. A quantitative relationship is established between astrophysical processes which cross sections can not be measured in the laboratory, such as the pp fusion in our sun, and muon capture rates. The MuSun experiment finished data taking at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Villigen, CH) in the summer of 2015. In this talk, I present the experimental program of the last 4 years and the progress of the data analysis towards a first physics result. I focus on our active-target time projection chamber, which provides the event selection for the 10 ppm lifetime analysis.
Calculation of deuteron wave functions with relativistic interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buck, W.W. III.
1976-01-01
Deuteron wave functions with a repulsive core are obtained numerically from a fully relativistic wave equation introduced by Gross. The numerical technique enables analytic solutions for classes of interactions composed of the relativistic exchanges of a single pion and a single phenomenological meson, sigma. The pion is chosen to interact as a mixture of pseudoscalar and pseudovector. The amount of mixture is determined by a free mixing parameter, lambda, ranging between 1 (pure pseudoscalar) and (pure pseudovector). Each value of lambda corresponds, then, to a different interaction. Solutions are found for lambda = 1, .9, .8, .6, and 0. The wave functions for each interaction come in a group of four. Of the four wave functions, two are the usual S and D state wave functions, while the remaining two, arising out of the relativistic prescription, are identified as 3 P 1 and 1 P 1 wave functions (P state wave functions). For the interactions solved for, the D state probabilities ranged between 5.1 percent and 6.3 percent, while the total P state probabilities ranged between 0.7 percent and 2.7 percent. The method of obtaining solutions was to adjust the sigma meson parameters to give the correct binding energy and a good quadrupole moment. All wave functions obtained are applied to relativistic N-d scattering in the backward direction where the effect of the P states is quite measurable
Multiple fracture planes in deuteron irradiated metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, W.R.; Johnson, P.B.
1987-01-01
Evidence has been found of multiple fracture planes in the blistering and flaking of metals observed at room temperature following irradiation at 120 K with 200 keV deuterons. In particular, two fracture planes are identified in copper, gold and stainless steel and three in aluminium. In nickel only one fracture plane is found. Qualitative models are proposed which explain the different fracture planes that are observed. In these models it is proposed that several mechanisms are important. (i) High levels of compressional stress in the implanted layer inhibits bubble nucleation and bubble growth in the depth region near the maxima in the damage and gas deposition profiles. (ii) The lateral stress varies from compression in the implant region to tension in the material below. In the region of tension bubble growth is enhanced. The vertical gradient in the lateral stress may also assist gas to move deeper into the target to further enhance bubble growth in this region. (iii) Shear resulting from differential expansion due to a combination of radiation induced swelling and localised heating is an important mechanism leading to fracture. (orig.)
Applications of proton and deuteron accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todd, A.M.M. (Grumman Corporate Research Center, Princeton, NJ (United States))
1993-06-01
Applications of positive and negative hydrogen and deuterium ion accelerators beyond basic research are increasing. Large scale proposed national laboratory/industrial projects include the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) which will utilize protons, and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) which will accelerate a deuteron beam into a lithium target. At the small scale end, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator based systems have been built for neutron activation analysis and for applications such as explosive detection. At an intermediate scale, the Loma Linda proton therapy accelerator is now successfully treating a full schedule of patients, and more than half a dozen such hospital based units are under active study world-wide. At this same scale, there are also several ongoing negative ion, military accelerator projects which include the Continuous Wave Deuterium Demonstrator (CWDD) and the Neutral Particle Beam Space Experiment (NPBSE). These respective deuterium and hydrogen accelerators, which have not been previously described, are the focus of this paper. (orig.)
The electrodisintegration of the deuteron reaction at high four-momentum transfer
Ibrahim, Hassan F.
This dissertation presents the highest four-momentum transfer, Q2, quasielastic (xBj = 1) results from Experiment E01-020 which systematically explored the 2H(e, e'p)n reaction ("Electro-disintegration" of the deuteron) at three different four-momentum transfers, Q 2 = 0.8, 2.1, and 3.5 GeV2 and missing momenta, pmiss = 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 GeV including separations of the longitudinal-transverse interference response function, RLT, and extraction of the longitudinal-transverse asymmetry, ALT. This systematic approach will help to understand the reaction mechanism and the deuteron structure down to the short range part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction which is one of the fundamental missions of nuclear physics. By studying the very short distance structure of the deuteron, one may also determine whether or to what extent the description of nuclei in terms of nucleon/meson degrees of freedom must be supplemented by inclusion of explicit quark effects. The unique combination of energy, current, duty factor, and control of systematics for Hall A at Jefferson Lab made Jefferson Lab the only facility in the world where these systematic studies of the deuteron can be undertaken. This is especially true when we want to understand the short range structure of the deuteron where high energies and high luminosity/duty factor are needed. All these features of Jefferson Lab allow us to examine large missing momenta (short range scales) at kinematics where the effects of final state interactions (FSI), meson exchange currents (MEC), and isobar currents (IC) are minimal, making the extraction of the deuteron structure less model-dependent. Jefferson Lab also provides the kinematical flexibility to perform the separation of RLT over a broad range of missing momenta and momentum transfers. Experiment E01-020 used the standard Hall A equipment in coincidence configuration in addition to the cryogenic target system. The low and middle Q2 kinematics were completed in June
Radiative capture of cold neutrons by protons and deuteron photodisintegration with twisted beams
Afanasev, Andrei; Serbo, Valeriy G.; Solyanik, Maria
2018-05-01
We consider two basic nuclear reactions: capture of neutrons by protons, n + p → γ + d, and its time-reversed counterpart, photodisintegration of the deuteron, γ + d → n + p. In both of these cases we assume that the incoming beam of neutrons or photons is ‘twisted’ by having an azimuthal phase dependence, i.e., it carries an additional angular momentum along its direction of propagation. Taking a low-energy limit of these reactions, we derive relations between corresponding transition amplitudes and cross sections with plane-wave beams and twisted beams. Implications for experiments with twisted cold neutrons and twisted photon beams are discussed.
Computer studies of the field for the superconducting magnetic system of the deuteron cyclotron DC-1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Dudareva, T.N.; Zaplatin, N.L.; Samsonov, E.V.
1983-01-01
The calculation results are presented concerning the magnetic system parameters for the 90 MeV deuteron cyclotron (DC-1). Dynamic characteristics of the equilibrium orbits have been calculated too. It is shown that stability of the circUlation frequency in the 15-103 MeV energy range is maintained with the accuracy +-2x10 -3 or +-0.03 MHz. Calculations of the pondermotive forces affecting the coil showed that the maximum density of normal and axial forces equals 2.7 MN/m and 0.5 MN/m respectively
A miniature small size 3 MeV deuteron linear accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranov, L.N.; Bryzgalov, G.A.; Verbovskij, V.V.; Kovpak, N.E.; Onoprienko, V.T.; Papkovich, V.G.; Khizhnyak, N.A.; Shulika, N.G.; Yashin, V.P.
1975-01-01
Basic characteristics are presented of the small-size linear deuteron accelerator for 3 MeV, the accelerating system of which operates at H-wave. It is shown that the usage of such accelerating systems makes it possible to reduce the resonator volume by more than 30 times, whereas the capacity of the evacuating devices as well as the total HF supply power are decreased. Owing to a relatively large wave length, particle injection energy may be reduced to 100-150 keV
Egiyan, H.; Langheinrich, J.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Holtrop, M.; Lu, H.; Mattione, P.; Mutchler, G.; Park, K.; Smith, E. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Zhao, Z. W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Contalbrigo, M.; D'Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; de Vita, R.; de Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Ni, A.; Niculescu, G.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Phelps, E.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, B.
2012-01-01
We searched for the Φ--(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the Ξ-π--decay channel using CLAS. The invariant-mass spectrum of the Ξ-π- system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M=1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90%-confidence-level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of Φ--(1860) with a consecutive decay into Ξ-π- in the photon-energy range 4.5GeV
Exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction on transversely polarised protons and deuterons
Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.
2012-01-01
The transverse target spin azimuthal asymmetry A_UT in hard exclusive production of rho^0 mesons was measured at COMPASS by scattering 160 GeV/c muons off transversely polarised protons and deuterons. The measured asymmetry is sensitive to the nucleon helicity-flip generalised parton distributions E^q, which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. The Q^2, x_B and p_t^2 dependence of A_UT is presented in a wide kinematic range. Results for deuterons are obtained for the first time. The measured asymmetry is small in the whole kinematic range for both protons and deuterons, which is consistent with the theoretical interpretation that contributions from GPDs E^u and E^d approximately cancel.
Azimuthal anisotropy measurements by STAR
Yi, Li
2014-06-01
The recent study of centrality and transverse momentum (pT) dependence of inclusive charged hardron elliptic anisotropy (v2) at midrapidity (|η|<1.0) in Au+Au collision at √{sNN}=7.7,11.5,19.6,27, and 39 GeV in STAR Beam Energy Scan program is presented. We show that the observed increase of inclusive v2 is mainly due to the average pT increase with energy. In Au+Au 200 GeV collisions, the triangular anisotropy (v3) measurements highly depend on measurement methods; v3 is strongly dependent on Δη. The difference between two- and four-particle cumulants v2{2} and v2{4} for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision at √{sNN}=62.4 and 200 GeV is used to explore flow fluctuations. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetry of average flow in pseudorapidity η about midrapidity, the Δη-dependent and independent components are separated using v2{2} and v2{4}.
Azimuthal anisotropy measurements by STAR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, Li
2014-06-15
The recent study of centrality and transverse momentum (p{sub T}) dependence of inclusive charged hardron elliptic anisotropy (v{sub 2}) at midrapidity (|η|<1.0) in Au+Au collision at √(s{sub NN})=7.7,11.5,19.6,27, and39 GeV in STAR Beam Energy Scan program is presented. We show that the observed increase of inclusive v{sub 2} is mainly due to the average p{sub T} increase with energy. In Au+Au 200 GeV collisions, the triangular anisotropy (v{sub 3}) measurements highly depend on measurement methods; v{sub 3} is strongly dependent on Δη. The difference between two- and four-particle cumulants v{sub 2}{2} and v{sub 2}{4} for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision at √(s{sub NN})=62.4 and 200 GeV is used to explore flow fluctuations. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetry of average flow in pseudorapidity η about midrapidity, the Δη-dependent and independent components are separated using v{sub 2}{2} and v{sub 2}{4}.
Azimuthal anisotropy measurements by STAR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi, Li
2014-01-01
The recent study of centrality and transverse momentum (p T ) dependence of inclusive charged hardron elliptic anisotropy (v 2 ) at midrapidity (|η|<1.0) in Au+Au collision at √(s NN )=7.7,11.5,19.6,27, and39 GeV in STAR Beam Energy Scan program is presented. We show that the observed increase of inclusive v 2 is mainly due to the average p T increase with energy. In Au+Au 200 GeV collisions, the triangular anisotropy (v 3 ) measurements highly depend on measurement methods; v 3 is strongly dependent on Δη. The difference between two- and four-particle cumulants v 2 {2} and v 2 {4} for Au+Au and Cu+Cu collision at √(s NN )=62.4 and 200 GeV is used to explore flow fluctuations. Furthermore, by exploiting the symmetry of average flow in pseudorapidity η about midrapidity, the Δη-dependent and independent components are separated using v 2 {2} and v 2 {4}
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fidorra, J.; Booz, J.
1978-01-01
The local distribution of radiation quality (ysub(F), ysub(D)) of a collimated fast neutron beam from 14 MeV deuterons on Beryllium was studied with a spherical 1/2 inch EG and G proportional counter simulating a diameter of 2μm. The deuterons were accelerated by the compact cyclotron CV-28 of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich. The collimator was constructed by the Cyclotron Corporation. The mean neutron energy was 6 MeV. The measurements were performed in air and in a water phantom at a target skin distance of 125 cm. The energy deposition spectra of fast neutrons obtained at various positions were separated into three components of different radiation quality: the gamma component, the recoil proton component, and the heavy ion component
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wyslocki, J.J.; Pawlik, P.; Wochowski, K.; Kotur, B.; Bodak, O.I.
1996-01-01
The magnetic torque, T, was applied to determine the anisotropy constants K 1 and K 2 of the UFe 6 Al 6 , UFe 9 AlSi 2 and ScFe 10 Si 2 compounds. The mechanism of magnetization reversal processes in these compounds was investigated on the basis of the analysis of the rotational hysteresis energy, W r and rotational hysteresis integral, R, calculated from the magnetic torque curves. Applying the powder pattern method, magnetic domain structures were observed. Moreover, the fundamental parameters of the domain structure were determined. (orig.)
Relativistic analysis of the electromagnetic properties of the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hummel, E.
1991-01-01
In this thesis the electromagnetic properties of the deuteron are studied. A relativistic description is constructed starting from a quasi-potential approach of the bethe-Salpeter equation, which treats dynamical and electromagnetical properties in a consistent way. This is applied on elastic as well as inelastic electron-deuteron scattering. In ch. 2 the formalism of electromagnetic scattering in the one-photon exchange approximation is described. The general form of the electromagnetic deuteron current operator and the consequences of current conservation are discussed. The deuteron current operator is constructed in a simple quasipotential approximation model. Ch. 3 discusses elastic electron-deuteron scattering. The ρπγ and ωεγ MEC contributions are taken into account and the results are compared to the experimental data for both the electric and magnetic form factor. In particular, the usual non-relativistic reduction of the two-body current operators is studied. In ch. 4 some improvements are made on the simple approximation model. In this improved model at the same time both elastic and breakup processes can be treated. The differences with the simple model are the treatment of the initial and final states and the propagator structure. The isovector two-body currents are constructed using the OBE-model, where the complications due to the use of strong form factors at the meson-nucleon vertices are accounted for. The results for elastic scattering using the improved model are compared with the results of ch. 3. Finally in ch. 5 the model developed in ch. 4 is used to describe the electro-desintegration of the deuteron. The recent experiments at NIKHEF are discussed in the PWIA approximation also with FSI included. In the analysis of the threshold experiments the π-MEC are included. In both experiments relativistic effects and in the threshold experiment also the controversy about the form factor in the MEC, are discussed. (author). 61 refs.; 40 figs
Magnetic anisotropy in rare-earth metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1970-01-01
The magnetic field dependence of the energy of long- wavelength magnons in Tb-10%Ho has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering. The results agree with the `frozen-lattice' model, provided that the second-order magnetoelastic effect is taken into account. The planar anisotropy is almost...
CMB anisotropies interpolation
Zinger, S.; Delabrouille, Jacques; Roux, Michel; Maitre, Henri
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of the interpolation of irregularly spaced spatial data, applied to observation of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies. The well-known interpolation methods and kriging are compared to the binning method which serves as a reference approach. We analyse kriging
Spin tracking for a deuteron EDM storage ring
Skawran, A.; Lehrach, A.
2017-07-01
The aim of the Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations (JEDI) collaboration is the measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of charged particles like protons or deuterons. There are two possible concepts under consideration for the realization of EDM measurement with deuterons; the Frozen Spin (FS) and Quasi-Frozen Spin (QFS) method. Both approaches are discussed and compared in this paper. Detailed spin- and beam dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the effect of various misalignments of ring elements and systematic effects. Furthermore, the utilization of counter rotating beams is studied and checked for its validity.
Mesonic effects in the elastic electron deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopka, G.
1981-01-01
The present thesis was concerned with the study of the electromagnetic structure of the deuteron in the framework of the OBE model using elastic electron-deuteron scattering with high momentum transfer. In the framework of the S-matrix formalism the differential cross sections was derived in first Born approximation. The calculation of the invariant amplitude led to the introduction of the electric and magnetic structure functions. From these structure functions the electromagnetic form factor was calculated. Furthermore the effective OBE-potential was derived in the framework of a projection procedure on the base of unitary transformations. (orig./HSI). [de
Past, present and future polarization experiments with deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C.F.
1996-01-01
Recent experimental data for the inclusive breakup reaction A(d, p)X, with emphasis on 1 H(d, p)X, and the backward elastic scattering reaction dp → pd are discussed. There is now a fairly complete data base for these reactions, with measurements of the differential cross section, the tensor analyzing power T 20 and the deuteron to proton polarization transfer k 0 . The relevance of these reactions to the study of the short range properties of the deuteron is estimated [ru
Non-pionic effects in deuteron asymptotic observables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballot, J.L.; Robilotta, M.R.
1991-01-01
It is well known that pion dynamics dominates deuteron asymptotic observables, especially η, the D/S ratio and Q, the quadrupole moment. A procedure has been discussed earlier that allows the unambiguous determination of the pion contribution to these observables as function of the pion-nucleon coupling constant. This problem is discussed in the framework of a specific model for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, namely the potential developed by the Tourreil, Rouben and Sprung. The contribution of non-pionic dynamics to deuteron asymptotic observables is investigated. It is shown that effects due to ρ and ω exchanges are negligible. (K.A.) 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Large enhancement of deuteron polarization with frequency modulated microwaves
AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, S; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin,; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birda, I G; Birsa, R; Bjrkholm, P; Bonner, B E; de Botton, N; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bressan, A; Brullc, A; Buchanan, J; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Chen, J P; Clement, J; Clocchiatti, M; Corcoran, M D; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Deshpande, S; Dalla Torre, A; Van Dantzig, R; Dhawan, S; Dulya, C; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Day, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, B; Garabatos, C; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Giorgi, M; von Goeler, E; Goloutvin, Igor A; Gómez, A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, D; von Harrach, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; De Jong, M; Kabu, E M; Kageya, T; Kaiser, R; Karev, A; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kisselev, Yu; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Kukhtin, V; Kyynarinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Lau, V; Krivokhijinea, K; Layda, T; Le Go, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; López-Ponte, S; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B; McCarthy, J S; van Middelkoop, K; Medved, G; Miller, D; Mitchell, J; Mori, K; Moromisato, J; Mutchler, G S; Nagaitsev, A; Nassalski, J; Naumann, Lutz; Neganov, B; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J E J; Ogawa, A; Okumi, S; Ozben, C S; Penzo, Aldo L; Pérez, C A; Perrot-Kunne, F; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, D; Peshekhonov, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Reyhancan, I; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, E; Rondon, O; Ropelewski, Leszek; Rosado, A; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Salvato, G; Sandacz, A; Sanders, D; Savin, I; Schiavon, Paolo; Schüler, K P; Segel, R; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y; Sergeev, S; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Smirnov, G; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stuhrmann, H; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thiel, W; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, R; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Willumeit, R; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Yañez, A; Zanetti, A M; Zhao, J; Zamiatin, N I
1996-01-01
We report a large enhancement of 1.7 in deuteron polarization up to values of 0.6 due to frequency modulation of the polarizing microwaves in a two liters polarized target using the method of dynamic nuclear polarization. This target was used during a deep inelastic polarized muon-deuteron scattering experiment at CERN. Measurements of the electron paramagnetic resonance absorption spectra show that frequency modulation gives rise to additional microwave absorption in the spectral wings. Although these results are not understood theoretically, they may provide a useful testing ground for the deeper understanding of dynamic nuclear polarization.
Probing CP Violation with the Deuteron Electric Dipole Moment
Lebedev, Oleg; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Lebedev, Oleg; Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam
2004-01-01
We present an analysis of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron as induced by CP-violating operators of dimension 4, 5 and 6 including theta QCD, the EDMs and color EDMs of quarks, four-quark interactions and the Weinberg operator. We demonstrate that the precision goal of the EDM Collaboration's proposal to search for the deuteron EDM, (1-3)\\times 10^{-27} e cm, will provide an improvement in sensitivity to these sources of one-two orders of magnitude relative to the existing bounds. We consider in detail the level to which CP-odd phases can be probed within the MSSM.
Spin tracking for a deuteron EDM storage ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skawran, A; Lehrach, A
2017-01-01
The aim of the Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations (JEDI) collaboration is the measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of charged particles like protons or deuterons. There are two possible concepts under consideration for the realization of EDM measurement with deuterons; the Frozen Spin (FS) and Quasi-Frozen Spin (QFS) method. Both approaches are discussed and compared in this paper. Detailed spin- and beam dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the effect of various misalignments of ring elements and systematic effects. Furthermore, the utilization of counter rotating beams is studied and checked for its validity. (paper)
A P + DEUTERON PROTON POLARIMETER AT 200 MEV.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
HUANG,H.; ROSER,T.; ZELENSKI,A.; KURITA,K.; STEPHENSON,E.; TOOLE,R.
2002-06-02
There has been concern about the analyzing power of the p-Carbon polarimeter at the end of 200 MeV LINAC of BNL. A new polarimeter based on proton-deuteron scattering was installed and we have repeated the calibration of proton-Carbon scattering at 12 degrees and 200 MeV against proton-deuteron scattering. The result is consistent with the value of A=0.62 now used to measure the beam polarization at the end of the LINAC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolidze, M.G.; Glagolev, V.V.; Kacharava, A.K.
1986-01-01
A sample of ''non-spectator'' events in the pionless deuteron breakup at a 3.3 Gev/c momentum has been investigated by means of a 1m hydrogen bubble chamber at JINR, Dubna. The two-proton invariant mass spectrum in the charge exchange channel exibits two enhancements for masses of 2010 MeV/c 2 and 2160 Mev/c 2 . Theoretical calculations taking into account one-pion exchange diagrams and virtual pion absorption by the deuteron have been carried out. It has been shown that the enhancement at Msub(pp) = 2010 MeV/c 2 can be explained if there is an irregularity in the behaviour of the off-energy-shell amplitude of the πsup(+)d→pp reaction near the threshold. The observed maximum at Msub(pp) = 2160 Mev/c 2 is caused mainly by intermediate Δ production and pion absorption on the deuteron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang He
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.
Deuteron breakup in the 2H(e,e'p) reaction at low momentum transfer and close to threshold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Shevchenko, A.; Stiller, A.; Arenhoevel, H.
2002-04-01
Deuteron breakup has been studied in a 2 H(e, e'p) coincidence experiment at low momentum transfer and for energies close to threshold. The longitudinal-plus-transverse (L + T) and longitudinal-transverse interference (LT) cross sections are deduced. Nonrelativistic calculations based on the Bonn potential and including leading order relativistic contributions, meson exchange currents and isobar configurations describe the (L + T) data well. Surprisingly large deviations of 30 to 45% are observed for the LT contribution. (orig.)
Anisotropy of dilepton emission from nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bratkovskaya, E.L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Toneev, V.D.; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna
1994-01-01
Attention is paid to studying the angular characteristics of e + e - pairs created in collisions with nuclear targets at intermediate and relativistic energies. Arising due to general spin and angular momentum constraints, the dilepton anisotropy seems to be quite sensitive to the contribution of different sources and may be used for disentangling these sources (or models) as well as an additional signature of a possible chiral symmetry restoration and phase transition of hadrons into the quark-gluon plasma. An anisotropy estimate for some dilepton sources is given and its relevance to the problems mentioned is discussed
Anisotropy of dilepton emission from nuclear collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bratkovskaya, E.L.; Teryaev, O.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogolubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Toneev, V.D. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Inst. for Nuclear Theory]|[Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogolubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics
1994-11-07
Attention is paid to studying the angular characteristics of e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pairs created in collisions with nuclear targets at intermediate and relativistic energies. Arising due to general spin and angular momentum constraints, the dilepton anisotropy seems to be quite sensitive to the contribution of different sources and may be used for disentangling these sources (or models) as well as an additional signature of a possible chiral symmetry restoration and phase transition of hadrons into the quark-gluon plasma. An anisotropy estimate for some dilepton sources is given and its relevance to the problems mentioned is discussed.
Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huke, A.; Heide, P.; Czerski, K.; Ruprecht, G.; Targosz, N.; Zebrowski, W.
2008-01-01
Recent measurements of the reaction 2 H(d,p) 3 H in metallic environments at very low energies performed by different experimental groups point to an enhanced electron screening effect. However, the resulting screening energies differ strongly for diverse host metals and different experiments. Here, we present new experimental results and investigations of interfering processes in the irradiated targets. These measurements inside metals set special challenges and pitfalls that make them and the data analysis particularly error prone. There are multiparameter collateral effects that are crucial for the correct interpretation of the observed experimental yields. They mainly originate from target surface contaminations owing to residual gases in the vacuum as well as from inhomogeneities and instabilities in the deuteron density distribution in the targets. To address these problems an improved differential analysis method beyond the standard procedures has been implemented. Profound scrutiny of the other experiments demonstrates that the observed unusual changes in the reaction yields are mainly due to deuteron density dynamics simulating the alleged screening energy values. The experimental results are compared with different theoretical models of the electron screening in metals. The Debye-Hueckel model that has been previously proposed to explain the influence of the electron screening on both nuclear reactions and radioactive decays can be clearly excluded
Routes for the production of isotopes for PET with high intensity deuteron accelerators
Arias de Saavedra, F.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.
2018-04-01
Recent advances in accelerator science are opening new possibilities in different fields of physics. In particular, the development of compact linear accelerators that can provide charged particles of low-medium energy (few MeV) with high current (above mA) allows for the study of new possibilities in neutron production and for new routes for the production of radioisotopes. Keeping in mind how radioisotopes are actually produced in dedicated facilities, we have performed a study of alternative reactions to produce PET isotopes induced by low-energy deuterons. We have fitted the EXFOR cross sections data, used the fitted values of the stopping power by Andersen and Ziegler and calculated by numerical integration the production rate of isotopes for charged particles up to 20 MeV. The results for deuterons up to 3 MeV are compared with the ones from cyclotrons, which are able to provide higher energies to the charged projectiles but with lower intensities. Our results indicate that using linear accelerators may be a good alternative for producing PET isotopes, reducing the problem of neutron activation.
Shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomonay, O.; Kondovych, S.; Loktev, V.
2014-01-01
High fraction of the surface atoms considerably enhances the influence of size and shape on the magnetic and electronic properties of nanoparticles. Shape effects in ferromagnetic nanoparticles are well understood and allow us to set and control the parameters of a sample that affect its magnetic anisotropy during production. In the present paper we study the shape effects in the other widely used magnetic materials – antiferromagnets, – which possess vanishingly small or zero macroscopic magnetization. We take into account the difference between the surface and bulk magnetic anisotropy of a nanoparticle and show that the effective magnetic anisotropy depends on the particle shape and crystallographic orientation of its faces. The corresponding shape-induced contribution to the magnetic anisotropy energy is proportional to the particle volume, depends on magnetostriction, and can cause formation of equilibrium domain structure. Crystallographic orientation of the nanoparticle surface determines the type of domain structure. The proposed model allows us to predict the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles depending on their shape and treatment. - Highlights: • We demonstrate that the shape effects in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles stem from the difference of surface and bulk magnetic properties combined with strong magnetoelastic coupling. • We predict shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic particles with large aspect ratio. • We predict different types of domain structures depending on the orientation of the particle faces
Photoproduction of ηπ pairs off nucleons and deuterons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaeser, A.; Mueller, F.; Dieterle, M.; Garni, S.; Jaegle, I.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Maghrbi, Y.; Oberle, M.; Pheron, F.; Rostomyan, T.; Strub, T.; Walford, N.K.; Witthauer, L. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Bartolome, P.A.; Ostrick, M.; Otte, P.; Thomas, A. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Annand, J.R.M.; Hamilton, D.; Howdle, D.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Mancell, J.; McGeorge, J.C.; McNicoll, E.; Robinson, J. [University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bantawa, K.; Manley, D.M. [Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States); Beck, R.; Nikolaev, A.; Schumann, S.; Unverzagt, M. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); University Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Costanza, S.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Briscoe, W.J.; Marinides, Z. [The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Cherepnya, S.; Fil' kov, L.V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Downie, E.J. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Drexler, P.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Thiel, M. [University of Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Glazier, D.I. [University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, SUPA School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Hornidge, D.; Middleton, D.G. [Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick (Canada); Huber, G.M. [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Jude, T.C.; Sikora, M.H.; Watts, D.P. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kashevarov, V.L. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V.; Polonski, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korolija, M.; Mekterovic, D.; Micanovic, S.; Supek, I. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Oussena, B. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Prakhov, S.; Starostin, A. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sober, D. [The Catholic University of America, Washington (United States); Werthmueller, D. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The A2 Collaboration
2016-09-15
Quasi-free photoproduction of πη-pairs has been investigated from threshold up to incident photon energies of 1.4 GeV, respectively up to photon-nucleon invariant masses up to 1.9 GeV. Total cross sections, angular distributions, invariant-mass distributions of the πη and meson-nucleon pairs, and beam-helicity asymmetries have been measured for the reactions γp → pπ{sup 0}η, γn → nπ{sup 0}η, γp → nπ{sup +}η, and γn → pπ{sup -}η from nucleons bound inside the deuteron. For the γp initial-state data for free protons have also been analyzed. Finally, the total cross sections for quasi-free production of π{sup 0}η pairs from nucleons bound in {sup 3} He nuclei have been investigated in view of final state interaction (FSI) effects. The experiments were performed at the tagged photon beam facility of the Mainz MAMI accelerator using an almost 4π covering electromagnetic calorimeter composed of the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors. The shapes of all differential cross section data and the asymmetries are very similar for protons and neutrons and agree with the conjecture that the reactions are dominated by the sequential Δ*3/2{sup -} → ηΔ(1232) → πηN decay chain, mainly with Δ(1700)3/2{sup -} and Δ(1940)3/2{sup -}. The ratios of the magnitude of the total cross sections also agree with this assumption. However, the absolute magnitudes of the cross sections are reduced by FSI effects with respect to free proton data. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avila, Mario; Morales, J R; Riquelme, H O [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Ciencias. Dept. de Fisica
1997-12-31
Full text: The natural copper irradiation with deuterons produces the Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 radionuclides. Of two radioisotopes, those with deficiencies in neutrons, are applied in nuclear medicine diagnostic processes, mainly for the nuclear characteristic of the decay modes. The positron emitters, of short life mean Cu-62 (9.1 min, {beta}{sup +}) and Cu(12.7 h), are radionuclides applied in radio pharmacological preparation for brain, core, blood flux studies. The radiochemical process consists in the de solution of the irradiated metallic copper target, in acid medium. The result solution, can be neutralized with a base or a buffer at wished pH. Using a deuteron beam of 4,2 {+-} 0,1 MeV energy has been obtained total yields of 1,103 {+-} 0,011 {mu}Cl/{mu}Ah medium for 62 Cu and of 0,148 {+-} 0,015 {mu}Cl/{mu}Ah for 64 Cu.
Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.
2005-12-01
Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are
Transference of Fermi Contour Anisotropy to Composite Fermions.
Jo, Insun; Rosales, K A Villegas; Mueed, M A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Baldwin, K W; Winkler, R; Padmanabhan, Medini; Shayegan, M
2017-07-07
There has been a surge of recent interest in the role of anisotropy in interaction-induced phenomena in two-dimensional (2D) charged carrier systems. A fundamental question is how an anisotropy in the energy-band structure of the carriers at zero magnetic field affects the properties of the interacting particles at high fields, in particular of the composite fermions (CFs) and the fractional quantum Hall states (FQHSs). We demonstrate here tunable anisotropy for holes and hole-flux CFs confined to GaAs quantum wells, via applying in situ in-plane strain and measuring their Fermi wave vector anisotropy through commensurability oscillations. For strains on the order of 10^{-4} we observe significant deformations of the shapes of the Fermi contours for both holes and CFs. The measured Fermi contour anisotropy for CFs at high magnetic field (α_{CF}) is less than the anisotropy of their low-field hole (fermion) counterparts (α_{F}), and closely follows the relation α_{CF}=sqrt[α_{F}]. The energy gap measured for the ν=2/3 FQHS, on the other hand, is nearly unaffected by the Fermi contour anisotropy up to α_{F}∼3.3, the highest anisotropy achieved in our experiments.
Contribution of the NN inelasticity into photodisintegration of the deuteron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadovnikova, V.A.
1996-01-01
The technique of dispersion integration over the mass of composite particle is used to describe the reaction of the deuteron photodisintegration. The influence of the final state interaction on the total cross section, calculated with and without inelasticity is investigated. Numerical results depend on the choice of the vertex for the isobar photoproduction [ru
Hadronic parity violation and inelastic electron-deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, C.-P.; Prezeau, G.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.
2003-01-01
We compute contributions to the parity-violating (PV) inelastic electron-deuteron scattering asymmetry arising from hadronic PV. While hadronic PV effects can be relatively important in PV threshold electrodisintegration, we find that they are highly suppressed at quasielastic kinematics. The interpretation of the PV quasielastic asymmetry is, thus, largely unaffected by hadronic PV
Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements
Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ozben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Sandri, P. Levi; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.
2012-01-01
This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY
Study of double scattering effect in antiproton--deuteron annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zemany, P.D.
1975-01-01
The double scattering process in the deuteron is investigated for the reaction anti pd → p/sub s/ + mesons. About 30 percent of the apparent anti pn annihilations are involved in double scattering. A model which describes the properties of protons emerging from apparent anti pn annihilations is presented
Investigation of injected deuteron by means of D(d,p)T
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tagishi, Yoshihiro; Katabuchi, Tatsuya; Mizukoshi, Kazumitsu; Yamada, Naoki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Physics
1996-12-01
We developed a new experimental method to determine the change of depth direction distribution of injected heavy hydrogen at real time by means of measurement of the yield and energy of proton by D(d,p)T during the continuous irradiation of heavy hydrogen beam. This method is one of the general method of nuclear experimental techniques but gives various interested information. In this experiment, the energy detector of proton was set up at {theta} 160deg and about 30 KeV of resolving power which corresponded to about 1000 A of the depth direction. When various metals (Au, Ta, Mo and Pd) were irradiated continuously by D{sup -} beam (90 KeV, about 3{mu}A and 4 mm of beam diameter), the time course of proton yield by D(d,p)T was observed. The proton yield increased generally with time and attained to the saturation. The behavior of proton yield was affected by the diffusion of deuteron in the metals. The distribution of deuteron in Ti increased exponentially from the range to the surface, but that in Pd was the same distribution in any place. (S.Y.)
Preliminary results of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility deuteron injector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gobin, R.; Adroit, G.; Bogard, D.; Bourdelle, G.; Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Gauthier, Y.; Girardot, P.; Guiho, P.; Harrault, F.; Jannin, J. L.; Loiseau, D.; Mattei, P.; Roger, A.; Sauce, Y.; Senee, F.; Vacher, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energie Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191-Gif/Yvette (France)
2012-02-15
In the framework of the IFMIF-EVEDA project (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities), CEA/IRFU is in charge of the design, construction, and characterization of the 140 mA continuous deuteron injector, including the source and the low energy beam line. The electron cyclotron resonance ion source which operates at 2.45 GHz is associated with a 4-electrode extraction system in order to minimize beam divergence at the source exit. Krypton gas injection is foreseen in the 2-solenoid low energy beam line. Such Kr injection will allow reaching a high level of space charge compensation in order to improve the beam matching at the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) entrance. The injector construction is now completed on the Saclay site and the first plasma and beam production has been produced in May 2011. This installation will be tested with proton and deuteron beams either in pulsed or continuous mode at Saclay before shipping to Japan. In this paper, after a brief description of the installation, the preliminary results obtained with hydrogen gas injection into the plasma chamber will be reported.
(Anti-)deuteron production at the LHC with the ALICE-HMPID detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barile, F.
2015-01-01
The high center-of-mass energies delivered by the LHC during the last three years of operation led to accumulate a significant statistics of light (hyper-)nuclei in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. The ALICE apparatus allows for the detection of these rarely produced particles over a wide momentum range thanks to its excellent vertexing, tracking and particle identification capabilities. The last is based on the specific energy loss in the Time Projection Chamber and the velocity measurement with the Time-Of-Flight detector. The Cherenkov technique, exploited by a small acceptance detector (HMPID), has been also recently used for the most central Pb-Pb collisions to extend the identification range of the (anti-)deuteron at intermediate transverse momentum. An overview of the recent results on the (anti-)deuteron production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions measured with ALICE experiment are presented, giving a particular emphasis to the description of the Cherenkov technique.
(Anti-)deuteron production at the LHC with the ALICE-HMPID detector
Barile, F
2015-01-01
The high center-of-mass energies delivered by the LHC during the last three years of operation led to accumulate a significant statistics of light (hyper-)nuclei in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. The ALICE apparatus allows for the detection of these rarely produced particles over a wide momentum range thanks to its excellent vertexing, tracking and particle identification capabilities. The last is based on the specific energy loss in the Time Projection Chamber and the velocity measurement with the Time-Of-Flight detector. The Cherenkov tech- nique, exploited by a small acceptance detector (HMPID), has been also recently used for the most central Pb-Pb collisions to extend the identification range of the (anti-)deuteron at intermediate transverse momentum. An overview of the recent results on the (anti-)deuteron production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions mea- sured with ALICE experiment are presented, giving a particular emphasis to the description of the Cherenkov technique
Deuterium microscopy using 17 MeV deuteron–deuteron scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reichart, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.reichart@unibw.de; Moser, Marcus; Greubel, Christoph; Peeper, Katrin; Dollinger, Günther, E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de
2016-03-15
Using 17 MeV deuterons as a micrometer focused primary beam, we performed deuterium microscopy by using the deuteron–deuteron (dd) scattering reaction. We describe our new box like detector setup consisting of four double sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) with 16 strips on each side, each covering up to 0.5 sr solid angle for coincidence detection. This method becomes a valuable tool for studies of hydrogen incorporation or dynamic processes using deuterium tagging. The background from natural hydrocarbon or water contamination is reduced by the factor 150 ppm of natural abundance of deuterium in hydrogen. Deuterium energies of up to 25 MeV, available at the microprobe SNAKE, are ideal for the analysis of thin freestanding samples so that the scattered particles are transmitted to the detector. The differential cross section for the elastic scattering reaction is about the same as for pp-scattering (~100 mb/sr). The main background due to nuclear reactions is outside the energy window of interest. Deuteron–proton (dp) scattering events give an additional signal for hydrogen atoms, so the H/D-ratio can be monitored in parallel. A deuterium detection limit due to accidental coincidences of 3 at-ppm down to less than 1 at-ppm is demonstrated on deuterated polypropylen sheets as well as thick polycarbonate sheets after various stages of coincidence filtering that is possible with our granular detector.
Quarkonium dissociation by anisotropy
Chernicoff, Mariano; Fernández, Daniel; Mateos, David; Trancanelli, Diego
2013-01-01
We compute the screening length for quarkonium mesons moving through an anisotropic, strongly coupled mathcal{N} = 4 super Yang-Mills plasma by means of its gravity dual. We present the results for arbitrary velocities and orientations of the mesons, as well as for arbitrary values of the anisotropy. The anisotropic screening length can be larger or smaller than the isotropic one, and this depends on whether the comparison is made at equal temperatures or at equal entropy densities. For generic motion we find that: (i) mesons dissociate above a certain critical value of the anisotropy, even at zero temperature; (ii) there is a limiting velocity for mesons in the plasma, even at zero temperature; (iii) in the ultra-relativistic limit the screening length scales as (1 - v 2)ɛ with ɛ = 1 /2, in contrast with the isotropic result ɛ = 1 /4.
Some new effects of the deuteron D state observed in (p,d) and (d,p) reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, Hajime
1980-01-01
Two previously unexplored experiments have revealed the importance of the deuteron D-state effects on (p,d) and (d,p) reactions at moderate energies. Firstly, a clear indication of the deuteron D-state effects on the polarization of the residual nuclear state has been observed in the 58 Ni(p,dγ) angular correlation measurement at E sub(p) = 30 MeV. Secondly, a comparison of the vector analyzing power and vector polarization measured at E sub(d) = 22 MeV for an l = 0 (d,p) transition has shown that the D state has significant effects even on the first-rank polarization quantities. The experimental data and the results of exact-finite-range DWBA calculations with Reid soft-core potential are presented. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darwish, E.M.; Arenhoevel, H.; Schwamb, M.
2003-01-01
The contribution of incoherent single-pion photoproduction to the spin response of the deuteron, i.e., the asymmetry of the total photoabsorption cross-section with respect to parallel and antiparallel spins of photon and deuteron, is calculated over the region of the Δ-resonance with inclusion of final-state NN and πN rescattering. Sizeable effects, mainly from NN rescattering, are found leading to an appreciable reduction of the spin asymmetry. Furthermore, the contribution to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn integral is explicitly evaluated by integration up to a photon energy of 550 MeV. Final-state interaction reduces the value of the integral to about half of the value obtained for the pure impulse approximation. (orig.)
Study of the Two-pion Photoproduction on the Deuteron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graham, Lewis P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)
2012-12-01
Understanding the structure of baryons in terms of the fundamental interaction of the constituent quarks and gluons is one of the primary challenges in strong interaction physics. This interaction is governed by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is a theory for understanding the dynamics of strong. QCD displays the asymptotic freedom of hadrons at very short distances and also the confinement of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. However, solutions of this QCD theory in the non-perturbative domain of the interaction are extremely difficult to achieve, mainly because confinement happens on the hadronic scale on which the coupling constant is large and prevents any perturbative approach. Thus leaving us with strategies such as lattice QCD or formulating QCD sum rules to get around this problem. In exclusive hadron production the yN interaction is recognized for being a powerful method for investigating hadrons and the mysteries that still exist within the strong interaction. From reactions with the nucleon, the strong interaction can be investigated through the transition amplitudes to the N and Delta resonances. More specifically, if an electromagnetic interaction is well known then the intermediate resonance states may be evaluated through meson photoproduction. To gain more detailed insight into this interaction, we look to probe the baryon structure of the nucleon and the photo-excited resonance decays through photon scattering off a deuteron producing two pions in the final state. This photoproduction process off the deuteron will be used to investigate known baryon resonances in the two pion channel. The two pion final state will be investigated for unraveling new information into the photo-coupling strengths. We want to explore final state interactions, search for properties of known resonances, and to explore the possibility of seeing missing states that are predicted by quark models but have not yet been found experimentally. Using the CEBAF Large
Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
Treating the anisotropy Hamiltonian as perturbation, we compute ... The dependence of DM on the energy gap between the ground and the excited states in both the systems has also been studied by using different sets of exchange constants.
Supernovae anisotropy power spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghodsi, Hoda; Baghram, Shant [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Habibi, Farhang, E-mail: h.ghodsi@mehr.sharif.ir, E-mail: baghram@sharif.edu, E-mail: habibi@lal.in2p3.fr [LAL-IN2P3/CNRS, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France)
2017-10-01
We contribute another anisotropy study to this field of research using Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). In this work, we utilise the power spectrum calculation method and apply it to both the current SNe Ia data and simulation. Using the Union2.1 data set at all redshifts, we compare the spectrum of the residuals of the observed distance moduli to that expected from an isotropic universe affected by the Union2.1 observational uncertainties at low multipoles. Through this comparison we find a dipolar anisotropy with tension of less that 2σ towards l = 171° ± 21° and b = −26° ± 28° which is mainly induced by anisotropic spatial distribution of the SNe with z > 0.2 rather than being a cosmic effect. Furthermore, we find a tension of ∼ 4σ at ℓ = 4 between the two spectra. Our simulations are constructed with the characteristics of the upcoming surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), which shall bring us the largest SNe Ia collection to date. We make predictions for the amplitude of a possible dipolar anisotropy that would be detectable by future SNe Ia surveys.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berthelot, R; Cohen, E; Cotton, H; Farraggi, T; Grjebine, A; Leveque, V; Naggiar, M; Roclawski-Conjeaud, D; Szteinsznaider, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1954-07-01
The study of angular distributions of the protons from the reaction {sup 16}O(d,p){sup 17}O{sup *} (level at 875 keV) was made, using a photographic method, at seven different deuteron energies, from 1.66 to 2.20 MeV (obtained with the Saclay electrostatic generator). The analysis of results shows that the angular distribution for forward angles is for each chosen energy in good agreement with the stripping theory (l = 0), even at the maximum of the capture resonance of the deuteron, about 2.1 MeV. Moreover, the differential cross section at 7 deg reaches a maximum for this resonance energy. (author) [French] L'etude des distributions angulaires des protons emis au cours de la reaction {sup 16}O(d,p){sup 17}O{sup *} (niveau a 875 key) a ete effectuee, par une methode photographique, pour 7 energies differentes de deuterons comprises entre 1,66 et 2,20 MeV (obtenues grace a l'accelerateur electrostatique de Saclay). L'analyse des resultats montre que la distribution angulaire vers l'avant est, pour toutes ces energies, en bon accord avec la theorie du ''stripping'' ( 1=0), meme au maximum de la resonance de capture du deuteron situee vers 2,1 MeV. De plus, la section efficace differentielle a 7 deg passe par un maximum pour cette energie de resonance. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivopustov, M.I.; Pavliouk, A.V.; Malakhov, A.I.
2008-01-01
Preliminary results of the first experiment with energy 2.52 GeV at the electronuclear setup which consists of Pb-target (diameter 8.4 cm, length 45.6 cm) and nat U-blanket (206.4 kg), transmutation samples of 129 I, 237 Np, 238 Pu and 239 Pu (radioecological aspect) are described. Hermetically sealed samples in notable amounts are gathered in atomic reactors and setups of industries which use nuclear materials and nuclear technologies were irradiated in the field of neutrons produced in the Pb-target and propagated in the nat U-blanket. Estimates of transmutations were obtained as a result of measurements of gamma activities of the samples. The information about the space and energy distribution of neutrons in the volume of the lead target and the uranium blanket was obtained with the help of sets of activation threshold detectors (Al, Co, Y, I, Au, Bi and others), solid-state nuclear track detectors, 3 He neutron detectors and nuclear emulsion. Comparison of the experimental data with the results of simulation with the MCNPX program was performed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbasi, R. U.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Allen, M.; Anderson, R.; Barcikowski, E.; Belz, J. W.; Bergman, D. R.; Blake, S. A.; Cady, R.; Hanlon, W. [High Energy Astrophysics Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Abe, M. [The Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama, Saitama (Japan); Azuma, R. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Chae, M. J. [Department of Physics and Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seodaaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, B. G. [Department of Physics and The Research Institute of Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chiba, J. [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Chikawa, M. [Department of Physics, Kinki University, Higashi Osaka, Osaka (Japan); Cho, W. R. [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Fujii, T.; Fukushima, M. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Goto, T. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Osaka (Japan); and others
2014-08-01
We have searched for intermediate-scale anisotropy in the arrival directions of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays with energies above 57 EeV in the northern sky using data collected over a 5 yr period by the surface detector of the Telescope Array experiment. We report on a cluster of events that we call the hotspot, found by oversampling using 20° radius circles. The hotspot has a Li-Ma statistical significance of 5.1σ, and is centered at R.A. = 146.°7, decl. = 43.°2. The position of the hotspot is about 19° off of the supergalactic plane. The probability of a cluster of events of 5.1σ significance, appearing by chance in an isotropic cosmic-ray sky, is estimated to be 3.7 × 10{sup –4} (3.4σ)
Many-body calculations with deuteron based single-particle bases and their associated natural orbits
Puddu, G.
2018-06-01
We use the recently introduced single-particle states obtained from localized deuteron wave-functions as a basis for nuclear many-body calculations. We show that energies can be substantially lowered if the natural orbits (NOs) obtained from this basis are used. We use this modified basis for {}10{{B}}, {}16{{O}} and {}24{{Mg}} employing the bare NNLOopt nucleon–nucleon interaction. The lowering of the energies increases with the mass. Although in principle NOs require a full scale preliminary many-body calculation, we found that an approximate preliminary many-body calculation, with a marginal increase in the computational cost, is sufficient. The use of natural orbits based on an harmonic oscillator basis leads to a much smaller lowering of the energies for a comparable computational cost.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, K.
1983-01-01
In the present thesis we have studied the system 4 He-neutron-proton. Starting from the microscopic three-cluster model of the resonating group method the Hamiltonian of the optical fish-bone model is defined for the three cluster centers which contains effects from the Pauli principle of the whole six-nucleon system. Beside this microscopically founded Hamiltonian a second, purely phenomenologically defined Hamiltonian is applied, which is only fixed by the phase shifts of the systems neutron-proton and 4 He-nucleon. Both Hamiltonians are phase equivalent in the subsystems, i.e. the scattering waves of the subsystems differ only in the near-range. A comparison of the three-particle scattering observables of both approaches at the incident energies Esub(d)sup(lab) = 7.5 and 12 MeV shows surprisingly strong off-shell effects in the system 4 He-neutron-proton, the order of magnitude of which exceeds both in the elastic and in the breakup case widely the experimental measurement uncertainty. It means that in our system the near-range of the subsystem scattering waves and by this the kind of the reduction of the six-nucleon problem to a three-body problem play an important role. Furthermore we can in the case of the elastic reaction 4 He + deuteron -> 4 He + deuteron for the differential cross sections and the spherical analyzing powers in angular ranges, where the neglected Coulomb interaction should have only little influence, prove, that the microscopically foundes Hamiltonian leads to results which are more realistic than in the case of the phenomenological model. (orig./HSI) [de
Dark matter electron anisotropy. A universal upper limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borriello, Enrico; Maccione, Luca; Cuoco, Alessandro
2010-12-01
Indirect searches of particle Dark Matter (DM) with high energy Cosmic Rays (CR) are affected by large uncertainties, coming both from the DM side, and from poor understanding of the astrophysical backgrounds. We show that, on the contrary, the DM intrinsic degree of anisotropy in the arrival directions of high energy CR electrons and positrons does not suffer from these unknowns. Furthermore, if contributions from possible local sources are neglected, the intrinsic DM anisotropy sets the maximum degree of total anisotropy. As a consequence, if some anisotropy larger than the DM upper bound is detected, its origin could not be ascribed to DM, and would constitute an unambiguous evidence for the presence of astrophysical local discrete sources of high energy electrons and positrons. The Fermi-LAT will be able to probe such scenarios in the next years. (orig.)
Proceedings of the workshop on deuteron beam acceleration in the KEK 12 GeV PS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Yoshiharu
1991-12-01
The acceleration of atomic nucleus beam with the 12 GeV proton synchrotron in National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK-PS) has been demanded by the experimenters of nuclear physics, and there was the move to concretely realize it at the beginning of 1980, but actually it was not materialized up to now due to various circumstances. The reason that makes the acceleration even in light nuclear beam like deuterons difficult is various, but one is that the acceleration method considered so far particularly in a booster main ring is very complicated. Recently as one of the various proposals made from the viewpoint of the future utilization of the KEK-PS, that of using nuclear beam and the experiment with the PS-collider have been discussed, and the method of accelerating nuclear beam in the PS was reexamined. As the result, together with the technical progress such as ring RF and linear accelerator augmentation, the method with high realization possibility became to be proposed. This proceedings is the report of the first workshop on deutron acceleration held on February 20, 1991, to prepare for the experiment using deuteron beam. (K.I.)
Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 production with 4.2 MeV deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avila, Mario; Morales, J.R.; Riquelme, H.O.
1996-01-01
Full text: The natural copper irradiation with deuterons produces the Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 radionuclides. Of two radioisotopes, those with deficiencies in neutrons, are applied in nuclear medicine diagnostic processes, mainly for the nuclear characteristic of the decay modes. The positron emitters, of short life mean Cu-62 (9.1 min, β + ) and Cu(12.7 h), are radionuclides applied in radio pharmacological preparation for brain, core, blood flux studies. The radiochemical process consists in the de solution of the irradiated metallic copper target, in acid medium. The result solution, can be neutralized with a base or a buffer at wished pH. Using a deuteron beam of 4,2 ± 0,1 MeV energy has been obtained total yields of 1,103 ± 0,011 μCl/μAh medium for 62 Cu and of 0,148 ± 0,015 μCl/μAh for 64 Cu
Neutron-deuteron scattering calculations with W-matrix representation of the two-body input
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartnik, E.A.; Haberzettl, H.; Januschke, T.; Kerwath, U.; Sandhas, W.
1987-05-01
Employing the W-matrix representation of the partial-wave T matrix introduced by Bartnik, Haberzettl, and Sandhas, we show for the example of the Malfliet-Tjon potentials I and III that the single-term separable part of the W-matrix representation, when used as input in three-nucleon neutron-deuteron scattering calculations, is fully capable of reproducing the exact results obtained by Kloet and Tjon. This approximate two-body input not only satisfies the two-body off-shell unitarity relation but, moreover, it also contains a parameter which may be used in optimizing the three-body data. We present numerical evidence that there exists a variational (minimum) principle for the determination of the three-body binding energy which allows one to choose this parameter also in the absence of an exact reference calculation. Our results for neutron-deuteron scattering show that it is precisely this choice of the parameter which provides optimal scattering data. We conclude that the W-matrix approach, despite its simplicity, is a remarkably efficient tool for high-quality three-nucleon calculations. (orig.)
Final COMPASS results on the deuteron spin-dependent structure function g1d and the Bjorken sum rule
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Adolph
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Final results are presented from the inclusive measurement of deep-inelastic polarised-muon scattering on longitudinally polarised deuterons using a 6LiD target. The data were taken at 160 GeV beam energy and the results are shown for the kinematic range 1(GeV/c24GeV/c2 in the mass of the hadronic final state. The deuteron double-spin asymmetry A1d and the deuteron longitudinal-spin structure function g1d are presented in bins of x and Q2. Towards lowest accessible values of x, g1d decreases and becomes consistent with zero within uncertainties. The presented final g1d values together with the recently published final g1p values of COMPASS are used to again evaluate the Bjorken sum rule and perform the QCD fit to the g1 world data at next-to-leading order of the strong coupling constant. In both cases, changes in central values of the resulting numbers are well within statistical uncertainties. The flavour-singlet axial charge a0, which is identified in the MS‾ renormalisation scheme with the total contribution of quark helicities to the nucleon spin, is extracted at next-to-leading order accuracy from only the COMPASS deuteron data: a0(Q2=3(GeV/c2=0.32±0.02stat±0.04syst±0.05evol. Together with the recent results on the proton spin structure function g1p, the results on g1d constitute the COMPASS legacy on the measurements of g1 through inclusive spin-dependent deep inelastic scattering.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winther, G.
1996-01-01
stress Variation in the rolling plane, which may be as high as 20%, are presented. The traditional Taylor model is applied to the data to account for the effect of texture. However, texture effects alone are not enough to explain all of the observed anisotropy. New models which take the combined effects...... of texture and deformation microstructure into account are presented. The models are based on the Taylor and Sachs models but modified with an anisotropic critical shear stress to account for the effect of the microstructure. The agreement between experimental data and model predictions is definitely better...
First Results from BM@N Technical Run with Deuteron Beam
Baranov, D.; Kapishin, M.; Kulish, E.; Maksymchuk, A.; Mamontova, T.; Pokatashkin, G.; Rufanov, I.; Vasendina, V.; Zinchenko, A.
2018-03-01
BM@N (Baryonic Matter at Nuclotron) is the first experiment to be realized at the accelerator complex of NICA-Nuclotron at JINR (Dubna). The aim of the experiment is to study interactions of relativistic heavy ion beams with a kinetic energy from 1 to 4.5 AGeV with fixed targets. The BM@N set-up at the starting phase of the experiment is introduced. First results of the analysis of minimum bias experimental data collected in the technical run in interactions of the deuteron beam of 4 AGeV with different targets are presented. The spacial, momentum and primary vertex resolution of the GEM tracker are studied. The signal of Lambda-hyperon is reconstructed in the proton-pion invariant mass spectrum. The data results are described by Monte Carlo simulations. The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High Energy Physics, JINR.
Study of the deuteron break-up with protons and neutrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumpf, H.; Moeller, K.; Moesner, J.; Schmidt, G.
1977-06-01
A review is given on the present situation and the results obtained in the experimental and theoretical investigation of the break-up of deuterons by protons and neutrons at bombarding energies up to 50 MeV. The nonrelativistic three-particle kinematics, experimental techniques and the basic theoretical equations for three particle scattering are described and the most important experimental results of the last years are discussed together with theoretical interpretation. It is shown that the reaction mechanism of the N-d break-up is well understood and that one can extract two-particle low energy scattering parameters (e.g., the n-n scattering length) with good accuracy. But despite of a relatively good agreement between experimental spectra and theoretical calculations (except polarisation measurements) no reliable quantitative information on the off-shell behaviour of the two-particle interaction and on three-body forces can be obtained at present. (author)
Photo- and electro-disintegration of the deuteron in the GeV range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Y.
1991-12-01
The process γ (*) d→pn is investigated up to photon lab.-energies of 1.6 GeV in a relativistic covariant approach based on conventional quantum field theory. Using effective lagrangians for the hadron interactions we have applied consequently the method of Feynman graphs to approximate the dynamics of deuteron photo- and electro-disintegration. It is demonstrated that in the considered energy region the relativistic structure of the dNN-vertex, the usually neglected offshell effects and the contributions of the higher nucleon resonances play a significant role. A central point in our calculations is the treatment of Feynman box diagrams where the exchange of π-, ρ-, ω- and η-meson and all nucleon- and delta-resonances of the data booklet with mass m * [de
Relativistic correction to the deuteron magnetic moment and angular condition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondratyuk, L.A.; Strikman, M.I.
1983-01-01
The relativistic correction (RC) to the deuteron magnetic moment μsub(d) is investigated using the light-cone dynamics. The restrictions imposed by the angular condition on the electromagnetic current operator of deuteron are discussed in detail. It is shown that the additive model for the current operator of interacting consistuencies is consistent with the angular condition only for the two first terms of expansion of the ''good'' electromagnetic current component jsub(+) in powers of the momentum transfer q. The RC into μsub(d) is calculated using the mattix element of the ''good'' component. The account of RC decreases essentially the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental values. The value of Δsub(μ) is determined for the Hamada-Johnston potential hard core potential (0.93x10 -2 ) for the Reid soft core potential (0.71x10 -2 ) and for the Paris potential (0.63x10 -2 )
Fragmentation of tensor polarized deuterons into cumulative pions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, S.; Arkhipov, V.; Bondarev, V.
1998-01-01
The tensor analyzing power T 20 of the reaction d polarized + A → π - (0 0 ) + X has been measured in the fragmentation of 9 GeV tensor polarized deuterons into pions with momenta from 3.5 to 5.3 GeV/c on hydrogen, beryllium and carbon targets. This kinematic range corresponds to the region of cumulative hadron production with the cumulative variable x c from 1.08 to 1.76. The values of T 20 have been found to be small and consistent with positive values. This contradicts the predictions based on a direct mechanism assuming NN collision between a high momentum nucleon in the deuteron and a target nucleon (NN → NNπ)
Canonical Transform Method for Treating Strongly Anisotropy Magnets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cooke, J. F.; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1977-01-01
An infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of magnetism in magnets with strong single-ion anisotropy is given. This approach is based on a canonical transformation of the system into one with a diagonal crystal field, an effective two-ion anisotropy, and reduced ground-state corrections....... A matrix-element matching procedure is used to obtain an explicit expression for the spin-wave energy to second order. The consequences of this theory are illustrated by an application to a simple example with planar anisotropy and an external magnetic field. A detailed comparison between the results...
Dipole stabilizer rods for 400 keV deuteron RFQ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sista, V.L.S. Rao; Srivastava, S.C.L.; Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Singh, P.
2009-01-01
In our 400 keV deuteron RFQ for neutron production, the destructive dipolar modes are very close to the required quadrupolar mode. In order to increase the spacing between the quadrupole and dipole modes the dipolar stabilizer rods (DSR's) are used. The design of the DSR's is done using the computer code CST Microwave studio. The variation of the quadrupole and dipolar mode frequencies with the radius and length of the DSR's are studied. (author)
A liquid hydrocarbon deuteron source for neutron generators
Schwoebel, P. R.
2017-06-01
Experimental studies of a deuteron spark source for neutron generators using hydrogen isotope fusion reactions are reported. The ion source uses a spark discharge between electrodes coated with a deuterated hydrocarbon liquid, here Santovac 5, to inhibit permanent electrode erosion and extend the lifetime of high-output neutron generator spark ion sources. Thompson parabola mass spectra show that principally hydrogen and deuterium ions are extracted from the ion source. Hydrogen is the chief residual gas phase species produced due to source operation in a stainless-steel vacuum chamber. The prominent features of the optical emission spectra of the discharge are C+ lines, the hydrogen Balmer Hα-line, and the C2 Swan bands. Operation of the ion source was studied in a conventional laboratory neutron generator. The source delivered an average deuteron current of ˜0.5 A nominal to the target in a 5 μs duration pulse at 1 Hz with target voltages of -80 to -100 kV. The thickness of the hydrocarbon liquid in the spark gap and the consistency thereof from spark to spark influences the deuteron yield and plays a role in determining the beam-focusing characteristics through the applied voltage necessary to break down the spark gap. Higher breakdown voltages result in larger ion beam spots on the target and vice-versa. Because the liquid self-heals and thereby inhibits permanent electrode erosion, the liquid-based source provides long life, with 104 pulses to date, and without clear evidence that, in principle, the lifetime could not be much longer. Initial experiments suggest that an alternative cylindrical target-type generator design can extract approximately 10 times the deuteron current from the source. Preliminary data using the deuterated source liquid as a neutron-producing target are also presented.
Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Zankel, H. (Graz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1983-01-13
Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76/sup 0/,85/sup 0/,98/sup 0/,115/sup 0/,132/sup 0/). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results.
Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R.; Zankel, H.
1983-01-01
Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76 0 ,85 0 ,98 0 ,115 0 ,132 0 ). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results. (orig.)
Theoretical study of incoherent φ photoproduction on a deuteron target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekihara, T.; Martinez Torres, A.; Jido, D.; Oset, E.
2012-01-01
We study the photoproduction of φ mesons in deuteron, paying attention to the modification of the cross-section from bound protons to the free ones. For this purpose we take into account Fermi motion in single scattering and rescattering of φ to account for φ absorption on a second nucleon as well as the rescattering of the proton on the neutron. We find that the contribution of the double scattering for φ is much smaller than the typical cross-section of γp→φp in free space, which implies a very small screening of the φ production in deuteron. The contribution from the proton rescattering, on the other hand, is found to be not negligible compared to the cross-section of γp→φp in free space, and leads to a moderate reduction of the φ photoproduction cross-section on a deuteron at forward angles if the LEPS set-up is taken into account. The Fermi motion allows contribution of the single scattering in regions forbidden by phase-space in the free case. In particular, we find that for momentum transfer squared close to the maximum value, the Fermi motion changes drastically the shape of dσ/dt, to the point that the ratio of this cross-section to the free one becomes very sensitive to the precise value of t chosen, or the size of the bin used in an experimental analysis. Hence, this particular region of t does not seem to be the most indicated to find effects of a possible φ absorption in the deuteron. This reaction is studied theoretically as a function of t and the results are contrasted with recent experiments at LEPS and Jefferson Lab. The effect of the experimental angular cuts at LEPS is also discussed, providing guidelines for future experimental analyses of the reaction. (orig.)
On deformed tensor potential for inelastic deuteron scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raynal, Jacques.
1980-08-01
Tensor analysing powers for inelastic deuteron scattering have been measured around 12 to 15 MeV. There is no problem to use such a tensor potential for the excited states in coupled channel calculations. However, for transition potentials, form factors are very different. A fit has been done with the first order vibrational model for 64 Ni(d,d') 64 Ni*, 2 + at 1,344 MeV
T-odd polarization observables in deuteron electrodisintegration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rekalo, M.P.; Gakh, G.I.; Rekalo, A.P.
1996-01-01
It is considered such simplest T-odd polarization observables of the deuteron disintegration as proton polarization in d(e, e' p-bar)n and the asymmetry in the scattering of unpolarized electrons by a vector-polarized target, d-bar (e, e' p)n. The θ dependence of theses observables has been studied. The procedure of making the conserved electromagnetic current has an essential influence on the final θ dependence of the T-odd polarization observables [ru
Moving triangle singularities: the possibilities for observation in deuteron reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolybasov, V.M.
1996-01-01
If the amplitude of direct reaction is dominated by the triangle graph then it can be identified observing the picture corresponding to so-called moving triangle singularity: the form of the distribution with respect to the invariant mass of several final particles must change with momentum transferred from initial fast particle to final one. The possibilities for observation are discussed using two reactions, namely deuteron break up and η-meson production pd → pdη [ru
Anisotropy of dark matter velocity distribution
Nagao, Keiko I.
2018-01-01
Direct detection of dark matter with directional sensitivity has the potential to discriminate the dark matter velocity distribution. Especially, it will be suitable to discriminate isotropic distribution from anisotropic one. Analyzing data produced with Monte-Carlo simulation, required conditions for the discrimination is estimated. If energy threshold of detector is optimized, $O(10^3-10^4)$ event number is required to discriminate the anisotropy.
Toroidal deuteron accelerator for Mo-98 neutron activation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araujo, Wagner L.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
2017-01-01
The radionuclide Tc- 99m is the most useful radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It can be produced by the Mo-99 beta minus decay. Mo-99 has often been produced in a high- flux nuclear reactor through radioactive neutron capture reactions on Mo-98. The present paper provides a preliminary design of a toroidal transmutation system (TTS) based on a toroidal compact deuteron accelerator, which can provide the Mo-98 transmutation into Mo-99. This system is essentially composed of a multi-aperture plasma electrode and a target, submitted to 180 kV, where a positive deuteron beam is accelerated toward a titanium-target loaded with deuterium in which nuclear d-d fusion reactions are induced. The Particle Studio package of the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software was applied to design, simulate and optimize the deuteron beam on the target. MCNP code provided to neutronic analysis. Based on electromagnetic and neutronic simulations, the neutron yield and reaction rates were estimated. The simulated data allowed appraising the Mo-99 activity. A TTS, in a specific configuration, could produce a total deuterium current of 1.6 A at the target and a neutron yield of 10 13 n.s -1 . In a arrangement of 30 column samples, TTS provides 230 mCi s -1 Mo 99 in each column, which represents 80% of Tc-99m in secular equilibrium. As conclusion, the system holds potential for generating Mo-99 and Tc-99m in a suitable activity in secular equilibrium. (author)
Cascade multiplicity inside deuteron in Π d high energy collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kisielewska, D.
1983-01-01
Multiplicity distribution of double scattering events is analysed using the additive quark model including the cascading effect. The mean multiplicity of particles produced in the process of cascading estimated for Π d experiments at 100, 205 and 360 GeV/c is equal to 1.15 ± .31. This value does not depend on the momentum of the incident pion. Some indications are found that the probability of cascading depends on multiplicity of the collision with the first nucleon and is smaller for low multiplicities. (author)
dc power system for deuteron accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Creek, K.O.; Liska, D.J.
1981-01-01
The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility dc power system provides excitation current for all linac and High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) quadrupole and bending magnets, excitation for horizontal and vertical beam steering, and current-bypass shunts.
On the theory of deuteron disintegration with collective states excitation in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evlanov, M.V.
1981-01-01
Differential cross sections of diffraction disintegration of deuterons with excitation of collective states in nuclei have been theoretically investigated. Effects of nucleon-nucleon interaction as well as smearing of nucleus boundary on differential characteristics of deuteron disintegration accompanying with change in state of target- nuclei have been studied. Spectra of protons liberated during the reaction of 2 + level deuteron disintegration in 114 Cd nucleus are presented [ru
Lee, Shih-Huang
2009-11-01
After the photolysis of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) at 157.6 nm in a molecular-beam apparatus using photofragment translational spectroscopy and vacuum-ultraviolet photoionization to detect products, we observed 13 photofragments associated with six primary dissociation channels and secondary dissociation of products CH3CO and HCO. We measured time-of-flight spectra and spatial angular anisotropies of products and evaluated the branching ratios of products. All photoproducts have nearly isotropic angular distributions with an average |β| value less than 0.05. Primary dissociations to CH3CO+H and CH3+HCO are two major paths; most CH3CO subsequently decomposes spontaneously to CH3+CO and CH2CO+H and most HCO decomposes to H+CO. The ternary dissociation to CH3+CO+H thus accounts for approximately half of the total branching. Dissociations to CH2CO+H2 and CH2+CH2O are observable, but the production of CH4+CO is ambiguous. The productions of C2H3+OH and C2H2+H2O indicate that isomerization from acetaldehyde to ethenol occurs before fragmentation. After photoexcitation to the n-3p state, most acetaldehyde converts into states T1 and S0 but a little isomerizes to ethenol followed by multichannel decomposition.
A simple model for the trapping of deuterons in a carbon target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erents, S.K.; Hotston, E.S.
1980-01-01
A model is proposed for the trapping of deuterons in an annealed carbon target. The deuterons are assumed to be lodged in traps which are created by the ion beam implanting the deuterons. There is a saturation trap density of 6.8 x 10 22 cm -3 . A deuteron in a region of the target where all the traps are filled is free to execute a random walk until it finds a vacant trap or is released from the target surface. The number of ions trapped per unit area of the target surface has been calculated as a function of ion fluence and is in good agreement with the experimental results. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Heinz Anklin; Francois Arvieux; Jacques Ball; Beedoe, S.; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; Dow, K.; Jean-Eric Ducret; James Dunne; Lars Ewell; Laurent Eyraud; Christophe Furget; Michel Garcon; Ronald Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; Adrian Honegger; Juerg Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Lu, L.; Allison Lung; David Mack; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; Fernand Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; Mohring, R.; Sekazi Mtingwa; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; David Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; Jean-Sebastien Real; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Samuel Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; Egle Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; Kelley Vansyoc; Jochen Volmer; Eric Voutier; William Vulcan; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jie Zhao; Wenxia Zhao
2000-01-01
Tensor polarization observables (t20, t21 and t22) have been measured in elastic electron-deuteron scattering for six values of momentum transfer between 0.66 and 1.7 (GeV/c) 2 . The experiment was performed at the Jefferson Laboratory in Hall C using the electron HMS Spectrometer, a specially designed deuteron magnetic channel and the recoil deuteron polarimeter POLDER. The new data determine to much larger Q 2 the deuteron charge form factors G C and G Q . They are in good agreement with relativistic calculations and disagree with pQCD predictions
Precise Measurement of the Deuteron Elastic structure Function A(Q2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D. Abbott; A. Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; J. Arvieux; J. Bail; S. Beedoe; E. J. Beise; L. Bimbot; W. Boeglin; H. Breuer; R. Carlini; N. S. Chant; S. Danagoulian; K. Dow; J.E. Ducret; J. Dunne; R. Ent; L. Ewell; L. Eyraud; C. Furget; M. Garcon; R. Gilman; C. Glashausser; P. Gucye; K. Gustafsson; K. Hafidi; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; S. Kox; G. Kumbartzki; L. Lu; A. Lung; D. Mack; P. Markowitz; J. McIntyre; D. Meekins; F. Merchez; J. Mitchell; R. Mohring; S. Mtingwa; H. Mrktchyan; D. Pitz; L. Qin; R. Ransome; J.S. Real; P. G. Roos; P. Rutt; R. Sawafta; S. Stepanyan; R. Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; W. Turchinetz; K. Vansyoc; J. Volmer; E. Voutier; W. Vulcan; C. Williamson; S. A. Wood; C. Yan; J. Zhao; W. Zhao
1999-01-01
The A(Q 2 ) structure function in elastic electron-deuteron scattering was measured at six momentum transfers Q 2 between 0.66 and 1.80 (GeV/c) 2 in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. The scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in coincidence, at a fixed deuteron angle of 60.5 o . These new precise measurements resolve discrepancies between older sets of data. They put significant constraints on existing models of the deuteron electromagnetic structure, and on the strength of isoscalar meson exchange currents
Precise Measurement of the Deuteron Elastic Structure Function A(Q2 )
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ball, J.; Ducret, J.; Garcon, M.; Hafidi, K.; Pitz, D.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Honegger, A.; Jourdan, J.; Zhao, J.; Beise, E.J.; Breuer, H.; Chant, N.S.; Ewell, L.; Gustafsson, K.; Lung, A.; Mohring, R.; Pitz, D.; Roos, P.G.; Eyraud, L.; Furget, C.; Kox, S.; Lu, L.; Merchez, F.; Real, J.; Tieulent, R.; Voutier, E.; Abbott, D.; Carlini, R.; Dunne, J.; Ent, R.; Gilman, R.; Gueye, P.; Mack, D.; Meekins, D.; Mitchell, J.; Pitz, D.; Qin, L.; Vansyoc, K.; Volmer, J.; Vulcan, W.; Wood, S.A.; Yan, C.; Gilman, R.; Glashausser, C.; Kumbartzki, G.; McIntyre, J.; Ransome, R.; Rutt, P.; Ahmidouch, A.; Dow, K.; Turchinetz, W.; Williamson, C.; Zhao, W.; Anklin, H.; Boeglin, W.; Markowitz, P.; Mrktchyan, H.; Stepanyan, S.; Ahmidouch, A.; Beedoe, S.; Danagoulian, S.; Mtingwa, S.; Sawafta, R.; Arvieux, J.; Ball, J.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Arvieux, J.; Bimbot, L.
1999-01-01
The A(Q 2 ) structure function in elastic electron-deuteron scattering was measured at six momentum transfers Q 2 between 0.66 and 1.80 (GeV/c) 2 in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. The scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in coincidence, at a fixed deuteron angle of 60.5 degree. These new precise measurements resolve discrepancies between older sets of data. They put significant constraints on existing models of the deuteron electromagnetic structure, and on the strength of isoscalar meson exchange currents. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Measurement of the longitudinal deuteron spin-structure function in deep-inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauer, J.M.
1996-09-01
Experiment E143 at SLAC performed deep-inelastic scattering measurements with polarized electrons incident on polarized protons and deuterons. The data for the beam energy of 29 GeV cover the kinematical range of x Bj > 0.03 and 1 2 2 . From these data, the spin-dependent structure functions g 1 were determined. This dissertation describes the experiment and its analysis and discusses the results. The measured integral of g 1 d over x from x = 0 to x = 1 is Γ 1 d = 0.046 ± 0.003 (stat)±0.004 (syst) at Q 2 = 3 GeV 2 and disagrees by more than three standard deviations with the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe, sum rule. The data suggest that the quark contribution to the nucleon helicity is 0.35 ± 0.05. From the proton data of the same experiment, the integral over the proton spin-structure functional g 1 d was determined to be Γ 1 p = 0.127 ± 0.003(stat)±0.008(syst). By Combining the deuteron data with the proton data, the integral Γ 1 n was extracted as -0.027 ± 0.008 (stat)±0.010 (syst). The integral Γ 1 p - Γ 1 n is 0.154±0.010(stat) ±0.016 (syst) according to the E143 analysis. This result agrees with the important Bjorken sum rule of 0.171 ± 0.009 at Q 2 = 3 GeV 2 within less than one standard deviation. Furthermore, results of a separate analysis involving GLAP evolution equations are shown. Data were also collected for beam energies of 16.2 and 9.7 GeV, Results for g 1 at these energies are presented
On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Doshita, N.; Finger Jr., M.; Finger, M.; Gautheron, F.; Goertz, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hess, C.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kondo, K.; Le Goff, J.M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Srnka, Aleš
2006-01-01
Roč. 56, Suppl. F (2006), F295-F305 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : COMPASS * polarized target * Dilution refrigerator Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pauwels, N
2000-11-01
This thesis is part of two research and development programmes for the study of neutron rich radioactive nuclear beam production. The technique is based on the ISOL method and can be summarized as follows. Fast neutrons are generated by the break-up of deuterons in a thick target. These neutrons irradiate a fissionable {sup 238}U target. The resulting fission products are extracted from the target, ionised, mass selected and post-accelerated. The aim of the thesis is to study the neutron angular and energetic distributions. After a bibliographical research to justify the choice of deuterons as the best projectile, we developed more specifically three points: - the extension of the activation detector method for neutron spectroscopy to a wide energy range (1 to 150 MeV), - the experimental measurement of neutron angular and energetic distributions produced by deuterons on thick targets. The deuteron energy ranges from 17 to 200 MeV and the thick targets were Be, C and U, - the realization of a code based on Serber's theory to predict the neutron distribution for any couple (deuteron energy-thick target). We conclude that for our application the most suitable target is C and the best deuteron energy is about 100 MeV. (author)
Photonuclear reaction as a probe for α -clustering nuclei in the quasi-deuteron region
Huang, B. S.; Ma, Y. G.; He, W. B.
2017-03-01
Photon-nuclear reaction in a transport model frame, namely an extended quantum molecular dynamics model, has been realized at the photon energy of 70-140 MeV in the quasi-deuteron regime. For an important application, we pay a special focus on photonuclear reactions of 12C(γ ,n p )10B where 12C is considered as different configurations including α clustering. Obvious differences for some observables have been observed among different configurations, which can be attributed to spatial-momentum correlation of a neutron-proton pair inside nucleus, and therefore it gives us a sensitive probe to distinguish the different configurations including α clustering with the help of the photonuclear reaction mechanism.
Investigation of the Three-Nucleon System Dynamics in the Deuteron-Proton Breakup Reaction
Ciepał, I.; Kłos, B.; Kistryn, St.; Stephan, E.; Biegun, A.; Bodek, K.; Deltuva, A.; Epelbaum, E.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Fonseca, A. C.; Golak, J.; Jha, V.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kamada, H.; Khatri, G.; Kirillov, Da.; Kirillov, Di.; Kliczewski, St.; Kozela, A.; Kravcikova, M.; Machner, H.; Magiera, A.; Martinska, G.; Messchendorp, J.; Nogga, A.; Parol, W.; Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Roy, B. J.; Sakai, H.; Sekiguchi, K.; Sitnik, I.; Siudak, R.; Skibiński, R.; Sworst, R.; Urban, J.; Witała, H.; Zejma, J.
2014-08-01
Precise and large sets of cross section, vector A x , A y and tensor A xx , A xy , A yy analyzing power data for the 1 H( d, pp) n breakup reactions were measured at 100 and 130 MeV deuteron beam energies with the SALAD and BINA detectors at KVI and the Germanium Wall setup at FZ-Jülich. Results are compared with various theoretical approaches which model the three-nucleon system dynamics. The cross section data reveal a sizable three-nucleon force (3NF) and Coulomb force influence. In case of the analyzing powers very low sensitivity to these effects was found and the data are well describe by 2N models only. For A xy at 130 MeV, serious disagreements were observed when 3NF models are included in the calculations.
Spallation of {sup 197}Au with 4.4-GeV deuterons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karapetyan, G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Balabekyan, A.R. [Yerevan State University (Armenia); Demekhina, N.A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Alikhanyan Brothers 2, Yerevan (Armenia); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (LNR), Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2014-07-01
A comprehensive set of 110 radioactive nuclide cross sections with mass numbers 22 ≤ A ≤ 198 amu in the interaction of 4.4-GeV deuterons with {sup 197}Au have been measured for the first time. The results including charge distributions have been parameterized in term of a 3-parameter equation in order to reproduces the isobaric distributions. Using data from the charge distributions, the total mass-yield distribution was obtained. The new experimental data of the recoil properties of reaction products were also obtained. Kinematical characteristics of the reaction products obtained from measurements of the residuals emitted in the forward and backward directions exhibit different behavior depending on the mass region. The kinematical features of reaction products have been analyzed on the basis of the two-step model of high-energy nuclear reactions and discussed in terms of the different reaction mechanisms. (author)
Spallation of 197Au with 4.4-GeV deuterons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karapetyan G. S.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available A comprehensive set of 110 radioactive nuclide cross sections with mass numbers 22 ≤ A ≤ 198 amu in the interaction of 4.4-GeV deuterons with 197Au have been measured for the first time. The results including charge distributions have been parameterized in term of a 3-parameter equation in order to reproduces the isobaric distributions. Using data from the charge distributions, the total mass-yield distribution was obtained. The new experimental data of the recoil properties of reaction products were also obtained. Kinematical characteristics of the reaction products obtained from measurements of the residuals emitted in the forward and backward directions exhibit different behavior depending on the mass region. The kinematical features of reaction products have been analyzed on the basis of the two-step model of high-energy nuclear reactions and discussed in terms of the different reaction mechanisms.
Bokarev, Valery P.; Krasnikov, Gennady Ya
2018-02-01
Based on the evaluation of the properties of crystals, such as surface energy and its anisotropy, the surface melting temperature, the anisotropy of the work function of the electron, and the anisotropy of adsorption, were shown the advantages of the model of coordination melting (MCM) in calculating the surface properties of crystals. The model of coordination melting makes it possible to calculate with an acceptable accuracy the specific surface energy of the crystals, the anisotropy of the surface energy, the habit of the natural crystals, the temperature of surface melting of the crystal, the anisotropy of the electron work function and the anisotropy of the adhesive properties of single-crystal surfaces. The advantage of our model is the simplicity of evaluating the surface properties of the crystal based on the data given in the reference literature. In this case, there is no need for a complex mathematical tool, which is used in calculations using quantum chemistry or modeling by molecular dynamics.
Deuteron photodisintegration by linear polarized photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganenko, V.B.; Zhebrovskij, Yu.V.; Kolesnikov, L.Ya.; Kostromin, A.S.; Rubashkin, A.L.; Sorokin, P.V.
1993-01-01
The of the experiment on measuring the cross section asymmetry of the γd → p n reaction have been carried out in the photon energy range 0.6-2.4 GeV for new superconducting electron accelerator CEBAF (Newport News, Virginia, USA). It have been shown the principle possibility of the carrying out such experiment. Two variants of the experiments have been examine: with using mixed e - and γ beam, and with using clean γ-beam. It was suggested the simple magnetic system for divide e - and γ beams after photon target. 26 refs., 9 tab., 12 figs
Cosmic-ray anisotropy studies with IceCube
McNally, Frank
2014-03-01
The IceCube neutrino observatory detects tens of billions of energetic muons per year produced by cosmic-ray interactions with the atmosphere. The size of this sample has allowed IceCube to observe a significant anisotropy in arrival direction for cosmic rays with median energies between 20 and 400 TeV. This anisotropy is characterized by a large scale structure of per-mille amplitude accompanied by structures with smaller amplitudes and with typical angular sizes between 10° and 20°. IceTop, the surface component of IceCube, has observed a similar anisotropy in the arrival direction distribution of cosmic rays, extending the study to PeV energies. The better energy resolution of IceTop allows for additional studies of the anisotropy, for example a comparison of the energy spectrum in regions of a cosmic-ray excess or deficit to the rest of the sky. We present an update on the cosmic-ray anisotropy observed with IceCube and IceTop and the results of first studies of the energy spectrum at locations of cosmic-ray excess or deficit.
Fluid dynamics characteristics of IFMIF Li-jet under deuteron load
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuertes, F.M.; Casal, N.; Barbero, R.; Garcia, A.; Branas, B.; Riccardi, B.
2006-01-01
IFMIF is an accelerator-based neutron source with the purpose of testing and fully qualify fusion candidate materials. Two 40 MeV deuteron beams, 125 mA current each, strike a target of liquid lithium flowing over a concave back-plate. The deuteron-lithium stripping reactions produce an intense high energy neutron flux which simulates the fusion reactor irradiation. To remove the beam power deposited on it (up to 10 MW), the lithium jet must have a speed around 20 m/s, which may give rise to flow instabilities. However, a stable liquid free surface is a very critical requirement of the target system, otherwise the neutron field could be altered. Therefore, the possible occurrences that could affect the hydrodynamical stability of the lithium jet are being examined in the frame of EFDA Technology Workprogramme. This paper summarizes the studies of the fluid dynamics characteristics of the lithium jet under the deuteron heat load, based on applications of the CFX 5.7 code, a commercial Navier-Stokes equations solver with specific modelling of turbulence, like the classical k - ε among others. Significant effort has been dedicated to develop an optimized and reliable numerical mesh, able to illustrate the behaviour of the lithium free surface and other issues like heat transport along the stream and to the back-plate, and lithium vaporization. First activities were dedicated to explore the effects on the results of a three-dimensional unstructured numerical mesh covering the area from the nozzle upstream the target to the exit of the target region. Subsequently, a more effective approach to this issue has been undertaken by developing a fine two-dimensional mesh along the longitudinal flow direction, with refined areas in the free surface and close to the wall regions. The numerical convergence criteria have been found to be strongly sensitive with respect to small modifications of the adopted unstructured mesh. Owing to the uncertainties associated with modelling
Measurement of the reaction 2H(e,e') at 180 degrees close to the deuteron breakup threshold.
Ryezayeva, N; Arenhövel, H; Burda, O; Byelikov, A; Chernykh, M; Enders, J; Griesshammer, H W; Kalmykov, Y; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Ozel, B; Poltoratska, I; Pysmenetska, I; Rangacharyulu, C; Rathi, S; Richter, A; Schrieder, G; Shevchenko, A; Yevetska, O
2008-05-02
Inclusive inelastic electron scattering off the deuteron under 180 degrees has been studied at the S-DALINAC close to the breakup threshold at momentum transfers q=0.27 fm;{-1} and 0.74 fm;{-1} with good energy resolution sufficient to map in detail the spin flip M1 response, which governs the starting reaction pn-->dgamma of big-bang nucleosynthesis over most of the relevant temperature region. Results from potential model calculations and (for q=0.27 fm;{-1}) from pionless nuclear effective field theory are in excellent agreement with the data.
QED corrections in deep-inelastic scattering from tensor polarized deuteron target
Gakh, G I
2001-01-01
The QED correction in the deep inelastic scattering from the polarized tensor of the deuteron target is considered. The calculations are based on the covariant parametrization of the deuteron quadrupole polarization tensor. The Drell-Yan representations in the electrodynamics are used for describing the radiation real and virtual particles
Deep inelastic scattering on the deuteron in the Bethe-Salpeter formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaptari, L.P.; Kazakov, K.Yu.; Umnikov, A.Yu.; Khanna, F.C.
1996-01-01
The nuclear effects in the spin structure functions of the deuteron g 1 and b 2 are estimated in a fully covariant approach of the Bethe-Salpeter formalism. The construction of the relativistic wave function of the deuteron is discussed in detail. Numerical results for g 1 and b 2 are compared with nonrelativistic results and relativistic corrections are discussed [ru
Study of inclusive proton spectra from 20 MeV deuteron breakup by bismuth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badiger, N.M.; Hallur, B.R.; Madhusoodhanan, T.; Sathyavathiamma, M.P.; Puttaswamy, N.G.; Darshan, V.P.; Sharma, H.; Chintalapudi, S.N.
1997-01-01
The breakup of deuteron into proton and neutron has been studied earlier to understand the breakup mechanism. Inclusive measurements show the expected broad bumps near the beam velocity. In the present experiment, the breakup of 20 MeV deuterons by bismuth target has been investigated
Toroidal deuteron accelerator for Mo-98 neutron activation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Araujo, Wagner L., E-mail: wagner.leite@ifnmg.edu.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais (IFN-MG), Montes Claros, MG (Brazil); Campos, Tarcisio P.R. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear
2017-07-01
The radionuclide Tc-{sup 99m} is the most useful radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It can be produced by the Mo-99 beta minus decay. Mo-99 has often been produced in a high- flux nuclear reactor through radioactive neutron capture reactions on Mo-98. The present paper provides a preliminary design of a toroidal transmutation system (TTS) based on a toroidal compact deuteron accelerator, which can provide the Mo-98 transmutation into Mo-99. This system is essentially composed of a multi-aperture plasma electrode and a target, submitted to 180 kV, where a positive deuteron beam is accelerated toward a titanium-target loaded with deuterium in which nuclear d-d fusion reactions are induced. The Particle Studio package of the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software was applied to design, simulate and optimize the deuteron beam on the target. MCNP code provided to neutronic analysis. Based on electromagnetic and neutronic simulations, the neutron yield and reaction rates were estimated. The simulated data allowed appraising the Mo-99 activity. A TTS, in a specific configuration, could produce a total deuterium current of 1.6 A at the target and a neutron yield of 10{sup 13} n.s{sup -1}. In a arrangement of 30 column samples, TTS provides 230 mCi s{sup -1} Mo{sup 99} in each column, which represents 80% of Tc-99m in secular equilibrium. As conclusion, the system holds potential for generating Mo-99 and Tc-99m in a suitable activity in secular equilibrium. (author)
Three-body model of deuteron breakup and stripping, II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Austern, N.; Vincent, C.M.; Farrell, J.P. Jr.
1978-01-01
A previously investigated three-body model of the deuteron-nucleus system, limited to relative angular momentum l=0 for the two active nucleons, is reevaluated. Full attention is given to self-consistency between elastic and breakup channels. Introduction of the reaction of breakup on the elastic channel now reduces the elastic reflection coefficients in low partial waves by nearly a factor of 2 and causes substantial shifts in phase. Breakup amplitudes in low partial waves are also greatly reduced. As before, the breakup part of the wavefunction contains a broad specteum of n-p continuum states. The breakup part of the wavefunction at zero n-p separation is localized at small radii, within and just outside the target nucleus, where it is comparable in magnitude with the projected elastic channel wavefunction. As a result, the projected elastic channel wavefuntion is a poor approximation to the full wavefunction at n-p coincidence. Deuteron stripping theories that use the projected elastic wavefunction in a truncated distorted waves Born series must correspondingly be quite misleading. To investigate deuteron stripping further, the exact result of the coupled channels calculation is compared with several standard approximate models. Although there is a close qualitative resemblance among the results of all the approaches, the best single approximation to the coupled channels result is found from the familiar phenomenological approach, in which a local optical potential is fitted to the elastic scattering ''observed'' in the coupled channels calculation. The coupled channels results are also used to analyze the approximations in the Johnson-Soper method. Several formal aspects of the three-body model are discussed
Electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy properties of light lanthanides
Hackett, Timothy A.; Baldwin, D. J.; Paudyal, D.
2017-11-01
Theoretical understanding of interactions between localized and mobile electrons and the crystal environment in light lanthanides is important because of their key role in much needed magnetic anisotropy in permanent magnet materials that have a great impact in automobile and wind turbine applications. We report electronic, magnetic, and magnetocrystalline properties of these basic light lanthanide elements studied from advanced density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We find that the inclusion of onsite 4f electron correlation and spin orbit coupling within the full-potential band structure is needed to understand the unique magnetocrystalline properties of these light lanthanides. The onsite electron correlation, spin orbit coupling, and full potential for the asphericity of charge densities must be taken into account for the proper treatment of 4f states. We find the variation of total energy as a function of lattice constants that indicate multiple structural phases in Ce contrasting to a single stable structure obtained in other light lanthanides. The 4f orbital magnetic moments are partially quenched as a result of crystalline electric field splitting that leads to magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The charge density plots have similar asphericity and environment in Pr and Nd indicating similar magnetic anisotropy. However, Ce and Sm show completely different asphericity and environment as both orbital moments are significantly quenched. In addition, the Fermi surface structures exemplified in Nd indicate structural stability and unravel a cause of anisotropy. The calculated magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) reveals competing c-axis and in-plane anisotropies, and also predicts possibilities of unusual structural deformations in light lanthanides. The uniaxial magnetic anisotropy is obtained in the double hexagonal closed pack structures of the most of the light lanthanides, however, the anisotropy is reduced or turned to planar in the low symmetry
Electron scattering from the deuteron using the Gross equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
J.W. Van Orden; N. Devine; F. Gross
1996-01-01
The elastic electromagnetic form factors for the deuteron are calculated in the context of a one-boson-exchange model using the Gross or Spectator equation [1]. The formalism is manifestly covariant and gauge invariant. Results are shown for the impulse approximation and for pxy exchange currents. The impulse approximation results are quite close to the available data which suggests that only a relatively small exchange current contribution is required. It is shown that by using a soft form factor for the exchange current, the model provides a very good representation of the data.
Maekawa, F; Wada, M; Wilson, P P H; Ikeda, Y
2000-01-01
Neutron flux spectra at an irradiation field produced by a 40-MeV deuteron bombardment on a thick lithium-target at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, have been determined by the multi-foil activation technique. Twenty-seven dosimetry reactions having a wide energy range of threshold energies up to 38 MeV were employed as detectors for the neutron flux spectra extending to 55 MeV. The spectra were adjusted with the SAND-II code with the experimental reaction rates based on an iterative method. The adjusted spectra validated quantitatively the Monte Carlo deuteron-lithium (d-Li) neutron source model code (M sup C DeLi) which was used to calculate initial guess spectra and also has been used for IFMIF nuclear designs. Accuracy of the adjusted spectra was approx 10% that was suitable for successive integral tests of activation cross section data.
New approach to a global description of the deuteron electromagnetic structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubnickova, A.Z.; Dubnicka, S.
1991-07-01
A new approach to a global description of the deuteron electro-magnetic (EM) structure is developed on the bases of a modification of the well known vector-meson-dominance (VMD) model of EM hadron interactions by incorporating the true deuteron form factor (FF) analytic properties, non-zero vector meson widths and the correct power asymptotic behaviour as predicted by QCD. As a result, the experimental data on elastic electron-deuteron scattering structure functions A(t) and B(t) are described quite well, the deuteron EM FF's in the space-like region are reproduced and their behaviour in the time- like region is predicted. At the same time the couplings of the ω-mesons to deuteron are evaluated and the total cross section of e + e - → dd-bar process is determined for the first time. (author). 47 refs, 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballot, J.L.; L'Huillier, M.; Combes, M.P.; Tatischeff, B.
1984-01-01
An analysis of deuteron-deuteron scattering data at 3.0, 3.4 and 3.7 GeV/c is given in the framework of the Glauber NN multiple scattering model. The model accounts qualitatively well for the larger momentum transfer data. The model cannot reproduce the observed experimental bump at small transfer in the region of missing mass 2GeV/c, because pionic processes have been considered. Nevertheless it shows that the nucleon background is important
Photoproduction of Neutral Kaons on Deuterons
Beckford, Brian
2006-11-01
Experimentation to greater understand the strangeness production mechanism can be performed by observing the electromagnetic interaction that leads to Kaon photoproduction. The n (γ, K^0) λ reaction may assist in answering questions about the strangeness photo-production process. An experiment into the elementary Kaon photoproduction process was investigated in an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science of Tohoku University (LNS) using the Neutral Kaon Spectrometer. (NKS). The experiment was conducted by the d (γ, K^0) reaction. K^0 will be measured in the K^0->π^+π^- decay chain by the NKS. The NKS implements many detectors working in coincidence: These ranging from the Tagged Photon Beam generated by the 1.2 GeV Electron beam via bremsstrahlung, an Inner Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope (IH), a Straw Drift Chamber (SDC), a Cylindrical Drift Chamber (CDC), and an Outer Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope. Due to the background produced through the γ-> e+e- process, electron veto counters (EV) were placed in the middle of the OH to reject charged particles in the horizontal plane of the beam line. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates the need for pulse height correction. This was achieved by analysis of the Inner and Outer hodoscopes, and determining the energy deposit in the scintillators.
High-intensity deuteron linear accelerator (FMIT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jameson, R.A.
1979-01-01
For fusion reactors to become operational, one of the many problems to be solved is to find materials able to withstand the intense bombardment of 14-MeV neutrons released by the fusion process. The development of alloys less likely to become damaged by this neutron bombardment will require years of work, making it desirable to begin studies in parallel with other aspects of fusion power generators. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, to be built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, will provide a high neutron flux and a neutron energy spectrum representative of fusion reactor conditions in volumes adequate to screen and qualify samples of candidate fusion reactor materials. FMIT's design goal is to provide an irradiation test volume of 10 cm 3 at a neutron flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 -s, and 500 cm 3 at a flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -s. This will not allow testing of actual components, but samples in the most intense flux region can be subjected to accelerated life testing, accumulating in one year the total number of neutrons seen by a fusion reactor in 10 to 20 years of operation
Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.
2018-03-01
We consider electron-deuteron deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) with detection of a proton in the nuclear fragmentation region ("spectator tagging") as a method for extracting the free neutron structure functions and studying their nuclear modifications. Such measurements could be performed at a future electron-ion collider (EIC) with suitable forward detectors. The measured proton recoil momentum (≲100 MeV in the deuteron rest frame) specifies the deuteron configuration during the high-energy process and permits a controlled theoretical treatment of nuclear effects. Nuclear and nucleonic structure are separated using methods of light-front quantum mechanics. The impulse approximation to the tagged DIS cross section contains the free neutron pole, which can be reached by on-shell extrapolation in the recoil momentum. Final-state interactions (FSIs) distort the recoil momentum distribution away from the pole. In the intermediate-x region 0.1 rest frame momenta ≲1 GeV , target fragmentation region). We construct a schematic model describing this effect, using final-state hadron distributions measured in nucleon DIS experiments and low-energy hadron scattering amplitudes. We investigate the magnitude of FSIs, their dependence on the recoil momentum (angular dependence, forward/backward regions), their analytic properties, and their effect on the on-shell extrapolation. We comment on the prospects for neutron structure extraction in tagged DIS with an EIC. We discuss possible extensions of the FSI model to other kinematic regions (large/small x ). In tagged DIS at x ≪0.1 FSIs resulting from diffractive scattering on the nucleons become important and require separate treatment.
Fast neutron forward distributions from C, Be and U thick targets bombarded by deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menard, S.; Clapier, F.; Pauwels, N.; Proust, J.; Donzaud, C.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Lhenry, I.; Mueller, A.C.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Sorlin, O.; Mirea, M.
1999-01-01
In principle, to produce neutron rich radioactive beams with sufficient intensities, a source of isotopes far from the valley of β--stability can be obtained through the fission of 238 U induced by fast neutrons. A very promising way to assess the feasibility of these very intense neutron beams is to break an intense 2 H beam in a dedicated converter. The main objective of SPIRAL and PARRNe R - D projects is the investigation of the optimum parameters for a neutron rich isotope source in accordance with the scheme presented above. In such conditions, the charge particle energy loss can prevent the destruction of the fission target. In the frame of these project, a special attention is dedicated to the energetic and angular distributions of the neutrons emerging from a set of converters at a series of 2 H incident energies. Deuteron beams at energies less than 30 MeV are particularly interesting because it is expected that, after the decay in the 238 U target, the neutron rich radioactive fission products are cold enough, thus avoiding the evaporation of a too large number of neutrons. For such purposes, one needs experimental angular distributions at given energies for different types of converters and to elaborate a theoretical tool in order to estimate accurately the characteristics of the secondary neutron beam. In this paper, the experimental results were obtained with 17, 20 and 28 MeV deuteron energies on Be, C and U converters using the time of flight method. These data are compared to results given by a model valid at higher energy in order to obtain pertinent simulations in a large range of incident energies. Many theoretical tools were developed to characterize the properties of the neutron beams emerging from thick targets. In this contribution the Serber's model, considered with its improvements which account for the Coulomb deflection and the mean straggling of the beam in the material, is compared to experimental data in order to verify the validity
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Adare, A.; Adler, S. S.; Afanasiev, S.; Kubart, J.; Mašek, L.; Mikeš, P.; Tomášek, Lukáš; Vrba, Václav
2008-01-01
Roč. 77, č. 2 (2008), 024912/1-024912/15 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk 1P04LA211; GA ČR GA202/05/0653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : PHENIX experiment * Au+Au collisions * cold nuclear matter * deuteron-gold Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.124, year: 2008
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Kowalska, A.; Laut, Peter
1967-01-01
curves are suggested. The magnon cross section for unpolarized neutrons is calculated and shown to be dependent on the anisotropy in the spin interaction. Thus in principle it allows the detection of anisotropy in the exchange interaction. Some remarks are made concerning antiferromagnetic and plane...... for the exchange interaction seem to be necessary for agreement with experimental dispersion curves be obtained. The effect of the anisotropy in the cross section is estimated and shown to be important for small magnon energies....
No Giant Two-Ion Anisotropy in the Heavy-Rare-Earth Metals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker
1976-01-01
A new Bose-operator expansion of tensor operators is applied to the heavy-rare-earth metals. The Er data for the cone phase have been analyzed successfully with single-ion anisotropy and isotropic exchange interaction. The Tb data can be understood on the same basis. The previously found large two......-ion anisotropy was due to an inadequate treatment of the large single-ion anisotropy leading to an incorrect expression for the spin-wave energy....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mons, Michel
1988-01-01
In this research thesis, the author reports the use of laser resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization and of time-of-flight mass spectrometry for a detailed characterization of fragments produced by a photo-dissociation process. The author more particularly addressed the case of a NO 2 molecule excited at low energies above the dissociation threshold. In the first part, the author discusses issues and problems related to molecular photo-dissociation. In the second part, he presents the developed method and shows that the combined use of both techniques allows a precise characterisation of photo-fragments in terms of internal or translational energies as well as in terms of angle distributions. Finally, the author presents and discusses results obtained in the case of NO 2 [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barabanov, A.L.
1985-01-01
Experimental data on dependence of fission cross section Σsub(f) (epsilon) and angular anisotropy W(epsilon, 0 deg)/W(epsilon, 90 deg) of sup(235)U fission fragment escape by neutrons with energy epsilon=100 and 200 keV on orientation of target nuclei are analyzed. 235 U (Isup(πsub(0))=7/2sup(-)) nuclei were orientated at the expense of interaction of quadrupole nucleus momenta with nonuniform electric field of uranyl-rubidium nitrate crystal at crystal cooling to T=0.2 K. The analysis was carried out with three different sets of permeability factors T(epsilon). Results of the analysis weakly depend on T(epsilon) choice. It is shown that a large number of adjusting parameters (six fissionabilities γsup(f)(Jsup(π), epsilon) and six momenta sub(Jsup(π))) permit to described experimental data on Σsub(f)(epsilon) and W(epsilon, 0 deg)/W(epsilon, 90 deg), obtained at epsilon=200 keV by introducing essential dependence of γsup(f)(Jsup(π), epsilon) and sub(Jsup(π)) on Jsup(π). Estimations of fission cross sections Σsub(f)(epsilon) and angular distribution W(epsilon, n vector) up to T approximately equal to 0.01 K in two geometries of the experiment: the orientation axis is parallel and perpendicular to momentum direction p vector of incident neutrons, are conducted
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jung Jin Park
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011 grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ − λ⊥ of ∼280 ppm and ∼130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA. Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ∼60% to within ∼80% of λsat. The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ∼46% to ∼56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing/energy
Park, Jung Jin; Na, Suok-Min; Raghunath, Ganesh; Flatau, Alison B.
2016-05-01
Magnetostrictive Fe-Ga and Fe-Al alloys are promising materials for use in bending-mode vibrational energy harvesters. For this study, 50.8 mm × 5.0 mm × 0.5 mm strips of Fe-Ga and Fe-Al were cut from 0.50-mm thick rolled sheet. An atmospheric anneal was used to develop a Goss texture through an abnormal grain growth process. The anneal lead to large (011) grains that covered over 90% of sample surface area. The resulting highly-textured Fe-Ga and Fe-Al strips exhibited saturation magnetostriction values (λsat = λ∥ - λ⊥) of ˜280 ppm and ˜130 ppm, respectively. To maximize 90° rotation of magnetic moments during bending of the strips, we employed compressive stress annealing (SA). Samples were heated to 500°C, and a 100-150 MPa compressive stress was applied while at 500°C for 30 minutes and while being cooled. The effectiveness of the SA on magnetic moment rotation was inferred by comparing post-SA magnetostriction with the maximum possible yield of rotated magnetic moments, which is achieved when λ∥ = λsat and λ⊥ = 0. The uniformity of the SA along the sample length and the impact of the SA on sensing/energy harvesting performance were then assessed by comparing pre- and post-SA bending-stress-induced changes in magnetization at five different locations along the samples. The SA process with a 150 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Ga actuation along the sample length from 170 to 225 ppm (from ˜60% to within ˜80% of λsat). The corresponding sensing/energy harvesting performance improved by as much as a factor of eight in the best sample, however the improvement was not at all uniform along the sample length. The SA process with a 100 MPa compressive load improved Fe-Al actuation along the sample length from 60 to 73 ppm (from ˜46% to ˜56% of λsat, indicating only a marginally effective SA and suggesting the need for modification of the SA protocol. In spite of this, the SA was effective at improving the sensing/energy harvesting
Influence of spin on fission fragments anisotropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghodsi Omid N.
2005-01-01
Full Text Available An analysis of selected fission fragment angular distribution when at least one of the spins of the projectile or target is appreciable in induced fission was made by using the statistical scission model. The results of this model predicate that the spins of the projectile or target are affected on the nuclear level density of the compound nucleus. The experimental data was analyzed by means of the couple channel spin effect formalism. This formalism suggests that the projectile spin is more effective on angular anisotropies within the limits of energy near the fusion barrier.
Triton, deuteron and proton responses of the CR-39 track detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamauchi, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi; Oda, Keiji [Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan)
1996-07-01
In the present study, we assessed the response of the CR-39 detector to proton, deuteron and triton from their etch-pit growth curves obtained by multi-step etching technique and the difference among their track registration properties was discussed. In order to avoid incorrect evaluation due to the missing track effect, particle irradiation was performed at various incident energies. The response function, S(R), etch rate ratio, S, as a function of the residual range, R, was experimentally evaluated for all hydrogen isotopes by this method. In the next, we obtained another form of response functions of S(E), S({beta}) and S(LET{sub 200}), which were presented as functions of the particle energy, E, the particle velocity, {beta}(=v/c), and the linear energy transfer in the case where the cut-off energy is 200 eV, LET{sub 200}, respectively. These information will be useful also in understanding the fundamentals of the latent track formation mechanism in the plastic track detectors. (J.P.N.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genta, Philippe; Millet, Francois; Vezin, Robert.
1975-01-01
Bernstein simplifying hypotheses are used to describe the FOCUS plasma producing nuclear reactions, by means of two populations: the accelerated deuterons described by the space-time mean value of their single velocity distribution f 1 (E(d), theta(d)); and a beam of target deuterons with a kinetic energy E(T). The neutron spectrum S(M)(P 0 ,E,theta(n)) being obtained by a time-of-flight measurement, a possible determination of the function f 1 (E(d), theta(d)) giving the same spectrum is developed. When theta(n) is not zero, the Gauss-Legendre two-step method used for the programming allows a precise computation for the infinite branches. There is no difficulty in the case where theta(n)=0,π. A discrete solution is developed from two or three different values of theta(n) and a ten energy values with 100keV steps. The minimization leads to solving a linear system by the Gauss-Seidel method [fr
High flux, beamed neutron sources employing deuteron-rich ion beams from D2O-ice layered targets
Alejo, A.; Krygier, A. G.; Ahmed, H.; Morrison, J. T.; Clarke, R. J.; Fuchs, J.; Green, A.; Green, J. S.; Jung, D.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P.; Notley, M.; Oliver, M.; Roth, M.; Vassura, L.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Freeman, R. R.; Kar, S.
2017-06-01
A forwardly-peaked bright neutron source was produced using a laser-driven, deuteron-rich ion beam in a pitcher-catcher scenario. A proton-free ion source was produced via target normal sheath acceleration from Au foils having a thin layer of D2O ice at the rear side, irradiated by sub-petawatt laser pulses (˜200 J, ˜750 fs) at peak intensity ˜ 2× {10}20 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The neutrons were preferentially produced in a beam of ˜70° FWHM cone along the ion beam forward direction, with maximum energy up to ˜40 MeV and a peak flux along the axis ˜ 2× {10}9 {{n}} {{sr}}-1 for neutron energy above 2.5 MeV. The experimental data is in good agreement with the simulations carried out for the d(d,n)3He reaction using the deuteron beam produced by the ice-layered target.
Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, N.; Radhika, R.; Kozakov, A.T.; Pandian, R.; Chakravarty, S.; Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient
Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, N., E-mail: niranjan@igcar.gov.in [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Radhika, R. [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai (India); Kozakov, A.T. [Research Institute of Physics, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Pandian, R. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Chakravarty, S. [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam (India); Ravindran, T.R.; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Friction anisotropy in boronated graphite is observed in macroscopic sliding condition. • Low friction coefficient is observed in basal plane and becomes high in prismatic direction. • 3D phase of boronated graphite transformed into 2D structure after friction test. • Chemical activity is high in prismatic plane forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces. - Abstract: Anisotropic friction behavior in macroscopic scale was observed in boronated graphite. Depending upon sliding speed and normal loads, this value was found to be in the range 0.1–0.35 in the direction of basal plane and becomes high 0.2–0.8 in prismatic face. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction analysis shows prominent reflection of (0 0 2) plane at basal and prismatic directions of boronated graphite. However, in both the wear tracks (1 1 0) plane become prominent and this transformation is induced by frictional energy. The structural transformation in wear tracks is supported by micro-Raman analysis which revealed that 3D phase of boronated graphite converted into a disordered 2D lattice structure. Thus, the structural aspect of disorder is similar in both the wear tracks and graphite transfer layers. Therefore, the crystallographic aspect is not adequate to explain anisotropic friction behavior. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows weak signature of oxygen complexes and functional groups in wear track of basal plane while these species dominate in prismatic direction. Abundance of these functional groups in prismatic plane indicates availability of chemically active sites tends to forming strong bonds between the sliding interfaces which eventually increases friction coefficient.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fragopoulou, M.; Manolopoulou, M.; Jokic, S.; Zamani, M.; Krivopustov, M.; Sosnin, A.; Stoulos, S.
2008-01-01
A spallation neutron source consisted of a cylindrical Pb target and surrounded by uranium blanket was irradiated by deuteron beam 1.25 GeV/amu provided from the Nuclotron accelerator at High Energy Laboratory, JINR, Dubna. For radiation protection purpose a polyethylene shielding was placed around the spallation neutron source. Neutron distributions along the surface of the U-blanket were measured by using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) as particle and fission detectors. The neutron distributions appear to be similar to those obtained by proton irradiations. Applying a fitting procedure to the experimental data the inelastic cross section of deuteron in Pb was estimated. The escaping neutron distribution from the polyethylene shielding and parallel to the target was also measured and presented to be two orders of magnitude less than that over the U-blanket surface
Romanowicz, Barbara; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf
2017-08-01
Seismic anisotropy has been found in many regions of the Earth's interior. Its presence in the Earth's crust has been known since the 19th century, and is due in part to the alignment of anisotropic crystals in rocks, and in part to patterns in the distribution of fractures and pores. In the upper mantle, seismic anisotropy was discovered 50 years ago, and can be attributed for the most part, to the alignment of intrinsically anisotropic olivine crystals during large scale deformation associated with convection. There is some indication for anisotropy in the transition zone, particularly in the vicinity of subducted slabs. Here we focus on the deep Earth - the lower mantle and core, where anisotropy is not yet mapped in detail, nor is there consensus on its origin. Most of the lower mantle appears largely isotropic, except in the last 200-300 km, in the D″ region, where evidence for seismic anisotropy has been accumulating since the late 1980s, mostly from shear wave splitting measurements. Recently, a picture has been emerging, where strong anisotropy is associated with high shear velocities at the edges of the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the central Pacific and under Africa. These observations are consistent with being due to the presence of highly anisotropic MgSiO3 post-perovskite crystals, aligned during the deformation of slabs impinging on the core-mantle boundary, and upwelling flow within the LLSVPs. We also discuss mineral physics aspects such as ultrahigh pressure deformation experiments, first principles calculations to obtain information about elastic properties, and derivation of dislocation activity based on bonding characteristics. Polycrystal plasticity simulations can predict anisotropy but models are still highly idealized and neglect the complex microstructure of polyphase aggregates with strong and weak components. A promising direction for future progress in understanding the origin of seismic anisotropy in the deep mantle
The role of nuclear corrections on the structure function and the EMC-ratio of deuteron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nematollahi, H.; Yazdanpannah, M.M. [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Faculty of Physics, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-11-15
We investigate the EMC effect in the deuteron nucleus using the quark exchange formalism and the harmonic-oscillator shell model. We first calculate the parton distribution functions (PDFs) of deuteron applying the chiral quark exchange model and also considering the shell model effect, at low Q{sup 2} scale. Then we obtain the deuteron structure function (SF) and the EMC-ratio of this nucleus. We compare the results with the available experimental data and the results of some parametrization models. It is found that the results of our completely theoretical model are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and the parametrized results. (orig.)
Validity of the Glauber approximation with account of the deuteron quark structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, B.G.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.
1985-01-01
Corrections to the hadron-deuteron elastic scattering amplitude due to the deuteron quark structore are calculated. The two-gluon pomeron model which provides a good description of the hadron-hardron scattering data has been used. It is shown that the Glauber approximation with elastic corrections provides with a good description of the data on the total and differential pd-scattering cross sections, if the admixture of the six-quark bag state in the deuteron S 6 wave function is small ( 6 approximately 0.8 fm
Phenomenological description of anisotropy effects in some ferromagnetic superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shopova, Diana V., E-mail: sho@issp.bas.bg [TCCM Research Group, Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Todorov, Michail D. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2015-07-03
We study phenomenologically the role of anisotropy in ferromagnetic superconductors UGe{sub 2}, URhGe, and UCoGe for the description of their phase diagrams. We use the Ginzburg–Landau free energy in its uniform form as we will consider only spatially independent solutions. This is an expansion of previously derived results where the effect of Cooper-pair and crystal anisotropies is not taken into account. The three compounds are separately discussed with the special stress on UGe{sub 2}. The main effect comes from the strong uniaxial anisotropy of magnetization while the anisotropy of Cooper pairs and crystal anisotropy only slightly change the phase diagram in the vicinity of Curie temperature. The limitations of this approach are also discussed. - Highlights: • Anisotropic Landau energy for description of ferromagnetic superconductors is proposed. • Meissner phases are described with their existence and stability conditions. • The application of the model to UGe{sub 2} is discussed. • The limitations to apply the model for description of experimental data are explained.
Study of proton-proton and deuteron-proton interactions by a bubble chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimizu, Fumiya; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Sai, Fuminori
1981-01-01
A preliminary report on the analysis of bubble chamber data at the energy of 1.35 and 1.55 GeV/c is described. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of π production cross section in p-p interaction. The total elastic cross sections are 25.0 mb at 1.35 GeV/c and 25.5 mb at 1.55 GeV/c. The cross-sections of π-production such as pp-pnπ + and pp-ppπ 0 were directly obtained. The values were 11.9 mb for pnπ + and 3.5 mb for ppπ 0 at 1.35 GeV/c, and 17.3 mb for pnπ + and 4.7 mb for ppπ 0 at 1.55 GeV/c. The values of ppπ 0 did not agree with previously reported data at high energy. In the production of (delta) 2+ in the pp-pnπ + reaction, Monte Carlo calculation explains well this mass distribution. A preliminary experiment of dp reaction was done at the deuteron energy of 2 GeV/c. The tagging of spectator will be done. (Kato, T.)
Elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering and breakup with chiral forces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Witała Henryk
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Results on three-nucleon (3N elastic scattering and breakup below the pion production threshold are discussed. The large discrepancies found between a theory based on numerical solutions of 3N Faddeev equations with standard nucleon-nucleon (NN potentials only and data point to the need for three-nucleon forces (3NF’s. This notion is supported by the fact that another possible reason for the discrepancies in elastic nucleon-deuteron (Nd scattering, relativistic effects, turned out to be small. Results for a new generation of chiral NN forces (up to N4LO together with theoretical truncation errors are shown. They support conclusions obtained with standard NN potentials
Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements
Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Özben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Levi Sandri, P.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.
2012-02-01
This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Jülich. By measuring with very high statistical precision, the contributions that are second-order in the systematic errors become apparent. By calibrating the sensitivity of the polarimeter to such errors, it becomes possible to obtain information from the raw count rate values on the size of the errors and to use this information to correct the polarization measurements. During the experiment, it was possible to demonstrate that corrections were satisfactory at the level of 10 -5 for deliberately large errors. This may facilitate the real time observation of vector polarization changes smaller than 10 -6 in a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.
Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brantjes, N.P.M. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dzordzhadze, V. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Gebel, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Gonnella, F. [Physica Department of ' Tor Vergata' University, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Gray, F.E. [Regis University, Denver, CO 80221 (United States); Hoek, D.J. van der [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Imig, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Kruithof, W.L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, NL-9747AA Groningen (Netherlands); Lazarus, D.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Messi, R. [Physica Department of ' Tor Vergata' University, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Moricciani, D. [INFN-Sez. ' Roma tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Morse, W.M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Noid, G.A. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); and others
2012-02-01
This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY at Juelich. By measuring with very high statistical precision, the contributions that are second-order in the systematic errors become apparent. By calibrating the sensitivity of the polarimeter to such errors, it becomes possible to obtain information from the raw count rate values on the size of the errors and to use this information to correct the polarization measurements. During the experiment, it was possible to demonstrate that corrections were satisfactory at the level of 10{sup -5} for deliberately large errors. This may facilitate the real time observation of vector polarization changes smaller than 10{sup -6} in a search for an electric dipole moment using a storage ring.
Ionisation of L subshells of heavy atoms by deuteron collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokhi, R.S.; Crumpton, D.; Trautmann, D.
1989-01-01
L i subshell ionisation cross sections for 1.2-3.0 MeV deuteron impact on thin targets of W, Au, Pb and Bi have been measured experimentally. Measurements were made with the Birmingham University's 3MV Dynamitron accelerator and the cross sections were deduced from the emitted L X-rays. These cross sections and their ratios have been compared graphically with the ECPSSR and RHSCA models. The ECPSSR model underestimates the measured L 2 subshell cross sections but shows very good agreement with the L 3 subshell values. The RHSCA theory in general exhibits good agreement with the measured cross sections for the L 1 and L 2 subshells but overestimates the L 3 cross sections by up to 60%. (orig.)
Magnetic spectrometer of the DEUTERON-2 set-up
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajvazyan, R.V.; Alanakyan, K.V.; Amaryan, M.J.
1989-01-01
A magnetic spectrometer of the two-arm DEUTERON-2 set-up of the Erevan Physical Institute is described. It is shown that the rejection factor for electrons and pions is 10 -2 - 10 -3 . The positively charged particles in the momentum range up to 1.5 GeV/c are identified by momentum and time-of-flight measurements. The main characteristics of the spectrometer are: momentum and angular acceptance δp/p = 46%, Δθ = 4 deg, solid angle ΔΩ = 2.75 msr, momentum resolution δp/p = 1.5%, angular resolutions δθ = 0.6 deg, δφ = 2 deg. The intervals of measured momentum and the polar scattering anlge are 0.5-3 GeV/c and 10-30 deg, 68-90 deg respectively. 7 refs.; 11 figs
Experimental physics with polarized protons, neutrons and deuterons
Lehar, František; Wilkin, Colin
2015-01-01
The monograph gives a comprehensive overview of the diverse aspects of the experimental study of polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-deuteron collisions. The special nature of this volume is that it is based on the original physics results and knowledge gained by one of the authors (F. Lehar), who was a respected researcher in the field for nearly fifty years. The results of these experiments provide valuable information on the spin dependence of the forces acting between nucleons in atomic nuclei, of which all matter is ultimately composed. The fundamental importance of the results means that the subject will remain topical for years to come. The book is designed for teachers and students of natural sciences, espe - cially those with interests in nuclear and particle physics, as well as for ex - perimental physicists who are investigating polarization phenomena using accelerators of charged particles. The writing of the book was initiated by F. Lehar who was the driving force beh...
Results from CEBAF experiment E89-012: Measurements of deuteron photo-disintegration up to 4 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mike Miller; David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Chris Armstrong; John Arrington; K. A. Assamagan; Oliver K. Baker; S. P. Barrow; D. P. Beatty; D. H. Beck; S. Y. Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; J. E. Belz; 0 C. W. Bochna; Peter Bosted; Ed Brash; Herbert Breuer; R. V. Cadman; Larry Cardman; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; Nicholas Chant; G. Collins; C. Cothran; W. J. Cummings; Samuel Danagoulian; F. A. Duncan; J. A. Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; Bradley Filippone; Tony A. Forest; H. T. Fortune; Valera V. Frolov; Haiyan Gao; Donald Geesaman; Ron Gilman; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Jens-Ole Hansen; M. Harvey; Wendy Hinton; R. J. Holt; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; M. A. Khandaker; Ed Kinney; Andi Klein; 0 Doug Koltenuk; Gerfried Kumbartzki; Allison Lung; David Mack; Richard Madey; Pete Markowitz; Kenneth McFarlane; Robert McKeown; David Meekins; Z-E. Meziani; J. H. Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; R. M. Mohring; James Napolitano; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Tom O'Neill; B. R. Owen; S. Pate; Dave Potterveld; John Price; G. L. Rakness; Ronald Ransome; Juerg Reinhold; Paul Rutt; G. Savage; Ralph Segel; N. Simicevic; Paul Stoler; Riad Suleiman; Liguang Tang; B. P. Terburg; D. Van Westrum; Bill Vulcan; S. E. Williamson; Michael Witkowski; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Ben Zeidman
1997-01-01
The first measurements of differential cross sections for deuteron photo-disintegration at photon energies up to 4 GeV were performed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility early in 1996. Cross section results for D(gamma,p)n at proton center of mass angle of 35 o , 53 o and 90 o will be presented. These results are in good agreement with previous measurements at low energy and extend to higher energies where data were previously unavailable. The 90 o degree data show behavior consistent with the constituent counting rules up to 4 GeV and are also in fair agreement with the asymptotic meson exchange model. The 37 o and 53 o data do not show clear signs of counting rule behavior, although a threshold in transverse momentum for the onset of scaling cannot be excluded
Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The mean energy of muons at sea level is ∼4 GeV with a rel- .... of decays of mesons and muons work against each other resulting in temperature coef- ..... The mean muon rate of 16 modules measured every 15 min for one week interval from .... 4. 8. 12. 16. 20. 24. Hours. Figure 12. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured in ...
Flow stress anisotropy in aluminium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Jensen, D.; Hansen, N.
1990-01-01
The plastic anisotropy of cold-rolled high purity aluminum (99.996%) and commercially pure aluminum (99.6%) has been investigated. Sample parameters were the initial grain size and the degree of plastic strain (ϵ < 3.00). Flow stresses (0.2% offset) were measured at room temperature by uniaxial t...
The Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy
Bennett, C. L.
1994-12-01
The properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation provide unique constraints on the history and evolution of the universe. The first detection of anisotropy of the microwave radiation was reported by the COBE Team in 1992, based on the first year of flight data. The latest analyses of the first two years of COBE data are reviewed in this talk, including the amplitude of the microwave anisotropy as a function of angular scale and the statistical nature of the fluctuations. The two-year results are generally consistent with the earlier first year results, but the additional data allow for a better determination of the key cosmological parameters. In this talk the COBE results are compared with other observational anisotropy results and directions for future cosmic microwave anisotropy observations will be discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) is responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Scientific guidance is provided by the COBE Science Working Group.
Parity non-conserving effects in thermal neutron-deuteron radiative capture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desplanques, B.
1985-01-01
Predictions of parity non-conserving effects in thermal neutron-deuteron radiative capture are presented. The sensitivity of the results to models of the strong interaction as well as the validity of approximations made in previous calculations are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tobailem, Jacques.
1981-11-01
Cross sections are reviewed for nuclear reactions induced by protons, deuterons, and alpha particles on phosphorus targets. When necessary, published experimental data are corrected, and, when possible, excitation functions are proposed [fr
Calculation of Ax for the Proton–Deuteron Breakup Reaction at 135 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Amir-Ahmadi, H.R.; Biegun, A.; Joulaeizadeh, L.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Moeini, H.; Shende, S.V.; Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Shafaei, M.A.; Mehmandoost-Khajeh-Dad, A.A.; Gašparic, I.; Kistryn, St.; Sworst, R.; Kozela, A.; Stephan, E.
2013-01-01
Observables in proton–deuteron scattering are sensitive probes of the nucleon-nucleon interaction and three-nucleon force effects (3NF). Several facilities in the world, including Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), allow a detailed study a few-nucleon interaction below the pion-production threshold exploiting polarized proton and deuteron beams. In this contribution we explored 3NF effects in the break-up scattering process by performing a measurement of differential cross section and the analyzing power, especially the x component of the analyzing power, using a 135 MeV polarized-proton beam impinging on a liquid-deuteron target. The proton–deuteron breakup reaction leads to a final state with three free particles and a rich phase space that allows us to study observables for continuous set of kinematical configurations of the outgoing nucleons. The results are interpreted with the help of state-of-the-art Faddeev calculations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darwish, Eed M.; Hemmdan, A.; El-Shamy, N.T.
2015-01-01
The helicity-dependent coherent π 0 -photoproduction in the reaction γd → π 0 d near the η-threshold is investigated. The calculations are performed within an approach which includes the reaction amplitudes of the impulse approximation (IA), two-step process with intermediate πN- and ηN-rescattering, and the higher order terms in the multiple scattering series for the intermediate ηNN interaction. The contribution of γd → π 0 d to the deuteron spin asymmetry is calculated and its contribution to the Gerasimov–Drell–Hearn (GDH) integral is explicitly evaluated by integration up to a photon energy of 900 MeV. In addition, the helicity E-asymmetry is calculated. The results revealed that the doubly polarized differential cross-sections and the helicity E-asymmetry are sensitive to the interference of rescattering effects, specially at photon energies 600–800 MeV and extreme backward pion angles. The sensitivity of the obtained results for the GDH integral to the choice of NN potential model governing the deuteron wave function is discussed. We find that the deviation among results obtained for the deuteron GDH integral using different deuteron wave functions is quite large. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonck, M.; Hermanne, A.; Takacs, S.; Szelecsenyi, F.; Tarkanyi, F.
1999-01-01
Cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 92m,95 Nb-, 93,94g,94m,95g,95m,96,99m Tc- and 99 Mo were measured up to 21 MeV deuteron energy by using stacked foil technique and activation method. The goal of this work was to study the production possibility of the medical important 94m,99m Tc- and 99 Mo-nuclides. Production of 99m Tc and 99 Mo is of importance for their use in nuclear medicine, whereas 94m Tc is of interest regarding quantification of kinetics of well-established 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals. The production possibilities of 99m Tc and 99 Mo above 20 MeV deuteron energies up to 50 MeV were estimated and was found that beside the proton induced reactions the deuteron induced reactions on enriched molybdenum target are very promising. (author)
Influence of Elastic Anisotropy on Extended Dislocation Nodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pettersson, B
1971-09-15
The interaction forces between the partial dislocations forming an extended dislocation node are calculated using elasticity theory for anisotropic media.s are carried out for nodes of screw, edge and mixed character in Ag, which has an anisotropy ratio A equal to 3, and in a hypothetic material with A = 1 and the same shear modulus as Ag. The results are compared with three previous theories using isotropic elasticity theory. As expected, in Ag the influence of anisotropy is of the same order as the uncertainty due to the dislocation core energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gobin, R.; Bogard, D.; Chauvin, N.; Chel, S.; Delferrière, O.; Harrault, F.; Mattei, P.; Senée, F.; Cara, P.; Mosnier, A.; Shidara, H.; Okumura, Y.
2014-01-01
In the framework of the ITER broader approach, the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) deuteron accelerator (2 × 125 mA at 40 MeV) is an irradiation tool dedicated to high neutron flux production for future nuclear plant material studies. During the validation phase, the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) machine will be tested on the Rokkasho site in Japan. This demonstrator aims to produce 125 mA/9 MeV deuteron beam. Involved in the LIPAc project for several years, specialists from CEA/Saclay designed the injector based on a SILHI type ECR source operating at 2.45 GHz and a 2 solenoid low energy beam line to produce such high intensity beam. The whole injector, equipped with its dedicated diagnostics, has been then installed and tested on the Saclay site. Before shipment from Europe to Japan, acceptance tests have been performed in November 2012 with 100 keV deuteron beam and intensity as high as 140 mA in continuous and pulsed mode. In this paper, the emittance measurements done for different duty cycles and different beam intensities will be presented as well as beam species fraction analysis. Then the reinstallation in Japan and commissioning plan on site will be reported
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eyraud, Laurent
1998-01-01
The topic of this thesis is the made for the upgrade of the deuteron tensor polarimeter Polder, and its use in the so-called t 20 experiment at the Jefferson Laboratory (USA). The Polder polarimeter is based on the analysing reaction H(d → ,2p)n which makes possible the measurement of the tensor polarization of deuterons in the kinetic energy range 160 MeV - 520 MeV. The first part of this thesis describes the polarimeter and its performances as obtained during the calibration experiment at Saturne (Saclay, France). Specific developments of this polarimeter for the t 20 experiment (Wire Chambers with 3 detections planes, target, hodoscopes) are described. An acquisition system based on Fastbus-VME standard was developed and used during the calibration runs. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the t 20 experiment. The experimental devices, the CEBAF accelerator and the data analysis are presented. Finally the preliminary results for the polarization t 20 and the extraction of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron (G c , G q and G m ) for six values of the transferred momentum Q in the range of 4.11 - 6.8 fm -1 are presented and discussed along various theoretical models predictions. (author) [fr
Secondary electron emission from 0.5--2.5-MeV protons and deuterons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thornton, T.A.; Anno, J.N.
1977-01-01
Measurement of the secondary electron currents leaving Al, V, Fe, 316 stainless steel, Nb, and Mo foils undergoing 0.5--2.5-MeV proton and deuteron bombardment were made to determine the secondary electron emission ratios for these ions. The measured secondary electron yields were of the order of 1.0, with the deuterons producing generally higher yields than the protons
Measurements of the Deuteron Elastic Structure Function A(Q2) for 0.7
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
L. C. Alexa; B. D. Anderson; K. A. Aniol; K. Arundell; L. Auerbach; F. T. Baker; J. Berthot; P. Y. Bertin; W. Bertozzi; L. Bimbot; W. U. Boeglin; E. J. Brash; V. Breton; H. Breuer; E. Burtin; J. R. Calarco; L. S. Cardman; C. Cavata; C.-C. Chang; J.-P. Chen; E. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; D. S. Dale; N. Degrande; R. De Leo; A. Deur; N. d'Hose; B. Diederich; J. J. Domingo; M. B. Epstein; L. A. Ewell; J. M. Finn; K. G. Fissum; H. Fonvieille; B. Frois; S. Frullani; H. Gao; J. Gao; F. Garibaldi; A. Gasparian,; S. Gilad; R. Gilman; A. Glamazdin; C. Glashausser; J. Gomez; V. Gorbenko; J.-O. Hansen; R. Holmes; M. Holtrop; C. Howell; G. M. Huber; C. Hyde-Wright; M. Iodice; C. W. de Jager; S. Jaminion; J. Jardillier; M. K. Jones; C. Jutier,; W. Kahl; S. Kato; A. T. Katramatou; J. J. Kelly; S. Kerhoas; A. Ketikyan; M. Khayat; K. Kino; L. H. Kramer; K. S. Kumar; G. Kumbartzki; M. Kuss; G. Lavessiere; A. Leone; J. J. LeRose; M. Liang; R. A. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; G. J. Lolos; R. W. Lourie; R. Madey,; K. Maeda; S. Malov; D. M. Manley; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; J. Marroncle; J. Martino; C. J. Martoff; K. McCormick; J. McIntyre; R. L. J. van der Meer; S. Mehrabyan; Z.-E. Meziani; R. Michaels; G. W. Miller; J. Y. Mougey; S. K. Nanda; D. Neyret; E. A. J. M. Offermann; Z. Papandreou; C. F. Perdrisat; R. Perrino; G. G. Petratos; S. Platchkov; R. Pomatsalyuk; D. L. Prout; V. A. Punjabi; T. Pussieux; G. Quemener; R. D. Ransome; O. Ravel; Y. Roblin; D. Rowntree; G. Rutledge; P. M. Rutt; A. Saha; T. Saito; A. J. Sarty; A. Serdarevic,; T. Smith; K. Soldi; P. Sorokin; P. A. Souder; R. Suleiman; J. A. Templon; T. Terasawa; L. Todor; H. Tsubota; H. Ueno; P. E. Ulmer; G. M. Urciuoli; L. Van Hoorebeke; P. Vernin; B. Vlahovic; H. Voskanyan; J. W. Watson; L. B. Weinstein; K. Wijesooriya; R. Wilson; B. B. Wojtsekhowski; D. G. Zainea; W-M. Zhang; J. Zhao; Z.-L. Zhou
1999-01-01
The deuteron elastic structure function A(Q 2 ) has been extracted in the range 0.7 2 2 from cross section measurements of elastic electron-deuteron scattering in coincidence using the Hall A Facility of Jefferson Laboratory. The data are compared to theoretical models, based on the impulse approximation with the inclusion of meson-exchange currents, and to predictions of quark dimensional scaling and perturbative quantum chromodynamics
Neutron-deuteron analyzing power data at 19.0 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weisel, G. J.; Tornow, W.; Crowe, B. J. III; Crowell, A. S.; Esterline, J. H.; Howell, C. R.; Kelley, J. H.; Macri, R. A.; Pedroni, R. S.; Walter, R. L.; Witala, H.
2010-01-01
Measurements of neutron-deuteron (n-d) analyzing power A y (θ) at E n =19.0 MeV are reported at 16 angles from θ c.m. =46.7 to 152.0 deg. The objective of the experiment is to better characterize the discrepancies between n-d data and the predictions of three-nucleon calculations for neutron energies above 16.0 MeV. The experiment used a shielded neutron source, which produced polarized neutrons via the 2 H(d-vector,n-vector) 3 He reaction, a deuterated liquid scintillator center detector (CD) and liquid-scintillator neutron side detectors. A coincidence between the CD and the side detectors isolated the elastic-scattering events. The CD pulse height spectrum associated with each side detector was sorted by using pulse-shape discrimination, time-of-flight techniques, and by removing accidental coincidences. A Monte Carlo computer simulation of the experiment accounted for effects due to finite geometry, multiple scattering, and CD edge effects. The resulting high-precision data (with absolute uncertainties ranging from 0.0022 to 0.0132) have a somewhat lower discrepancy with the predictions of three-body calculations, as compared to those found at lower energies.
Understanding the magnetic anisotropy in Fe-Si amorphous alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diaz, J.; Hamdan, N.M.; Jalil, P.; Hussain, Z.; Valvidares, S.M.; Alameda, J.M.
2002-08-01
The origin of the magnetic anisotropy in a very disordered Fe-Si alloy has been investigated. The alloy containing 40 percent at. Si was prepared in the form of a thin film in a DC magnetron sputtering chamber. Structural disorder was obtained from Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy. The uniformity and lack of inhomogeneities at a microscopic level was checked by measuring their transverse magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loops. The orbital component of the magnetic moment was measured by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectroscopy. The orbital moment was extraordinary high, 0.4mB. Such a high value contrasted with the relatively small uniaxial anisotropy energy of the thin film (2kJ/m3). This suggests that the cause of the magnetic anisotropy in this alloy was a small degree of correlation in the orientation of the local orbital moments along a preferential direction.
Understanding the magnetic anisotropy in Fe-Si amorphous alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz, J.; Hamdan, N.M.; Jalil, P.; Hussain, Z.; Valvidares, S.M.; Alameda, J.M.
2002-01-01
The origin of the magnetic anisotropy in a very disordered Fe-Si alloy has been investigated. The alloy containing 40 percent at. Si was prepared in the form of a thin film in a DC magnetron sputtering chamber. Structural disorder was obtained from Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy. The uniformity and lack of inhomogeneities at a microscopic level was checked by measuring their transverse magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis loops. The orbital component of the magnetic moment was measured by X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism spectroscopy. The orbital moment was extraordinary high, 0.4mB. Such a high value contrasted with the relatively small uniaxial anisotropy energy of the thin film (2kJ/m3). This suggests that the cause of the magnetic anisotropy in this alloy was a small degree of correlation in the orientation of the local orbital moments along a preferential direction
Search for positron anisotropies in cosmic rays with AMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Machate, Fabian [1. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University (Germany)
2016-07-01
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) on the International Space Station has observed a significant excess of cosmic ray positrons over the background expected from secondary production at energies above 10 GeV. Nearby pulsars and annihilating dark matter particles as a primary source of electrons and positrons have been discussed as an explanation. A possible way of distinguishing between pulsar and dark matter origin is the measurement of dipole anisotropies in the positron flux or the positron to electron ratio. Any anisotropy will be reduced by diffusion in galactic magnetic fields to below the percent level. AMS-02 is the leading space-based experiment for cosmic ray detection and well suited for this search. A new analysis procedure for anisotropies using an event sample with large acceptance is presented. It relies on the ability of the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) to separate positrons from the proton background.
Neutron energy spectra from the thick target 9Be(d,n)10B reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whittlestone, S.
1976-12-01
The energy spectrum of neutrons emitted when deuterons impinge on a thick beryllium target has been measured using an NE213 scintillation detector and the time-of-flight technique. Spectra were measured at angles of 0, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 150 0 for deuteron energies of 1.4, 1.8, 2.3 and 2.8 MeV. Tables are presented of these angle-dependent energy spectra, the angle-integrated energy dependent yeidls, and the total neutron yield as a function of deuteron energy. (author)
Gauzshtein, V. V.; Zevakov, S. A.; Levchuk, M. I.; Loginov, A. Yu.; Nikolenko, D. M.; Rachek, I. A.; Sadykov, R. Sh.; Toporkov, D. K.; Shestakov, Yu. V.
2018-05-01
The first results of a double polarization experiment to extract the asymmetry of the reaction of photoproduction of a π- meson by a linearly polarized photon on a tensor-polarized deuteron in the energy range of the virtual photon (300-700 MeV) are presented. The measurements were performed on an internal tensor-polarized deuterium target in the VEPP-3 electron-positron storage ring for the electron beam energy equal to 2 GeV. The experiment employed the method of recording two protons and the scattered electron in coincidence. The obtained measurement results are compared with the theoretical predictions obtained in the momentum approximation with allowance for πN and NN rescattering in the final state.
Dielectron production in proton-proton an proton-deuteron collisions at 1-5 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Titov, A.I.; Kaempfer, B.; Bratkovskaya, E.L.
1994-03-01
Estimates of elementary cross sections for dielectron production in pN and pd reactions are presented. We use throughout the vector dominance model for all hadron-hadron-photon vertices. Dynamical suppression mechanisms (e.g., mass dependent Δ production rate, and the correct energy dependence of the two-body T matrix) bring the elementary rate near to experimental data and previous estimates which do not use vector meson dominance. The Δ, η Dalitz decays and bremsstrahlung appear as dominant sources of dielectrons. Bremsstrahlung is dealt within an improved soft photon approximation which also applies for the pp collisions. Relying on a realistic deuteron wave function we also estimate the energy dependence of the ratio of dielectron yields in pd to pp reactions and find qualitative agreement with new experimental results. (orig.)