WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy critical nonlinear

  1. Global well-posedness for nonlinear Schrodinger equations with energy-critical damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binhua Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Cauchy problem for the nonlinear Schrodinger equations with energy-critical damping. We prove the existence of global in-time solutions for general initial data in the energy space. Our results extend some results from [1,2].

  2. Nonlinear acceleration of transport criticality problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Knoll, D.A.; Newman, C.K.

    2011-01-01

    We present a nonlinear acceleration algorithm for the transport criticality problem. The algorithm combines the well-known nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) with a recently developed, Newton-based, nonlinear criticality acceleration (NCA) algorithm. The algorithm first employs the NDA to reduce the system to scalar flux, then the NCA is applied to the resulting drift-diffusion system. We apply a nonlinear elimination technique to eliminate the eigenvalue from the Jacobian matrix. Numerical results show that the algorithm reduces the CPU time a factor of 400 in a very diffusive system, and a factor of 5 in a non-diffusive system. (author)

  3. Adaptive Critic Nonlinear Robust Control: A Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; He, Haibo; Liu, Derong

    2017-10-01

    Adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) and reinforcement learning are quite relevant to each other when performing intelligent optimization. They are both regarded as promising methods involving important components of evaluation and improvement, at the background of information technology, such as artificial intelligence, big data, and deep learning. Although great progresses have been achieved and surveyed when addressing nonlinear optimal control problems, the research on robustness of ADP-based control strategies under uncertain environment has not been fully summarized. Hence, this survey reviews the recent main results of adaptive-critic-based robust control design of continuous-time nonlinear systems. The ADP-based nonlinear optimal regulation is reviewed, followed by robust stabilization of nonlinear systems with matched uncertainties, guaranteed cost control design of unmatched plants, and decentralized stabilization of interconnected systems. Additionally, further comprehensive discussions are presented, including event-based robust control design, improvement of the critic learning rule, nonlinear H ∞ control design, and several notes on future perspectives. By applying the ADP-based optimal and robust control methods to a practical power system and an overhead crane plant, two typical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results. Overall, this survey is beneficial to promote the development of adaptive critic control methods with robustness guarantee and the construction of higher level intelligent systems.

  4. Critical electric field for maximum tunability in nonlinear dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.

    2006-09-01

    The authors develop a self-consistent thermodynamic theory to compute the critical electric field at which maximum tunability is attained in a nonlinear dielectric. They then demonstrate that the stored electrostatic free energy functional has to be expanded at least up to the sixth order in electric field so as to define the critical field, and show that it depends solely on the fourth and sixth order permittivities. They discuss the deficiency of the engineering tunability metric in describing nonlinear dielectric phenomena, introduce a critical field renormalized tunability parameter, and substantiate the proposed formalism by computing the critical electric field for prototypical 0.9Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)-0.1PbTiO3 and Ba(Ti0.85,Sn0.15)O3 paraelectrics.

  5. Nonlinear Pricing in Energy and Environmental Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichiro

    This dissertation consists of three empirical studies on nonlinear pricing in energy and environmental markets. The first investigates how consumers respond to multi-tier nonlinear price schedules for residential electricity. Chapter 2 asks a similar research question for residential water pricing. Finally, I examine the effect of nonlinear financial rewards for energy conservation by applying a regression discontinuity design to a large-scale electricity rebate program that was implemented in California. Economic theory generally assumes that consumers respond to marginal prices when making economic decisions, but this assumption may not hold for complex price schedules. The chapter "Do Consumers Respond to Marginal or Average Price? Evidence from Nonlinear Electricity Pricing" provides empirical evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal price when faced with nonlinear electricity price schedules. Nonlinear price schedules, such as progressive income tax rates and multi-tier electricity prices, complicate economic decisions by creating multiple marginal prices for the same good. Evidence from laboratory experiments suggests that consumers facing such price schedules may respond to average price as a heuristic. I empirically test this prediction using field data by exploiting price variation across a spatial discontinuity in electric utility service areas. The territory border of two electric utilities lies within several city boundaries in southern California. As a result, nearly identical households experience substantially different nonlinear electricity price schedules. Using monthly household-level panel data from 1999 to 2008, I find strong evidence that consumers respond to average price rather than marginal or expected marginal price. I show that even though this sub-optimizing behavior has a minimal impact on individual welfare, it can critically alter the policy implications of nonlinear pricing. The second chapter " How Do

  6. Critical energy of superconducting composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.

    1987-01-01

    The stability of superconducting composites is studied in one-dimensional geometry and critical quench energies are calculated by solving for the steady state temperature profile which gives the minimum energy. The present calculations give lower values for the critical energy than previous estimates. The calculations are shown to be applicable to both direct cooled and impregnated conductors. Critical energies are also calculated including the effect of temperature dependence of conductor properties. (author)

  7. Defect production in nonlinear quench across a quantum critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Diptiman; Sengupta, K; Mondal, Shreyoshi

    2008-07-04

    We show that the defect density n, for a slow nonlinear power-law quench with a rate tau(-1) and an exponent alpha>0, which takes the system through a critical point characterized by correlation length and dynamical critical exponents nu and z, scales as n approximately tau(-alphanud/(alphaznu+1)) [n approximately (alphag((alpha-1)/alpha)/tau)(nud/(znu+1))] if the quench takes the system across the critical point at time t=0 [t=t(0) not = 0], where g is a nonuniversal constant and d is the system dimension. These scaling laws constitute the first theoretical results for defect production in nonlinear quenches across quantum critical points and reproduce their well-known counterpart for a linear quench (alpha=1) as a special case. We supplement our results with numerical studies of well-known models and suggest experiments to test our theory.

  8. A Review on the Linear and Nonlinear Critical Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several authors have proposed 'easier numerical methods' to find multiple attractors and the critical speed in railway dynamical problems. Actually, the methods do function in some cases, but they are not safe in the sense that you will calculate the relevant critical parameter...... values with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases the 'easier numerical methods' are really just a gamble. In this presentation the methods will be discussed. For this purpose linearisations of the nonlinear dynamical problem are made. A linearisation of the nonlinear dynamical problem simplifies...... the calculations and may give relevant answers to important questions such as the possibility of resonance phenomena in the designs, but a linearisation is not always allowed, and it does not help to find the critical speed of a railway vehicle. We shall also address the curious fact that the hunting motion...

  9. Inhomogeneous critical nonlinear Schroedinger equations with a harmonic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Daomin; Han Pigong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem of the inhomogeneous nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a harmonic potential: i∂ t u=-div(f(x)∇u)+|x| 2 u-k(x)|u| 4/N u, x is an element of R N , N≥1, which models the remarkable Bose-Einstein condensation. We discuss the existence and nonexistence results and investigate the limiting profile of blow-up solutions with critical mass.

  10. Ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear QCD dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2004-01-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino-nucleon cross sections are computed taking into account different phenomenological implementations of the nonlinear QCD dynamics. Based on the color dipole framework, the results for the saturation model supplemented by the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) evolution as well as for the Balitskii-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov (BFKL) formalism in the geometric scaling regime are presented. They are contrasted with recent calculations using next-to-leading order DGLAP and unified BFKL-DGLAP formalisms

  11. Probabilistic DHP adaptive critic for nonlinear stochastic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzallah, Randa

    2013-06-01

    Following the recently developed algorithms for fully probabilistic control design for general dynamic stochastic systems (Herzallah & Káarnáy, 2011; Kárný, 1996), this paper presents the solution to the probabilistic dual heuristic programming (DHP) adaptive critic method (Herzallah & Káarnáy, 2011) and randomized control algorithm for stochastic nonlinear dynamical systems. The purpose of the randomized control input design is to make the joint probability density function of the closed loop system as close as possible to a predetermined ideal joint probability density function. This paper completes the previous work (Herzallah & Káarnáy, 2011; Kárný, 1996) by formulating and solving the fully probabilistic control design problem on the more general case of nonlinear stochastic discrete time systems. A simulated example is used to demonstrate the use of the algorithm and encouraging results have been obtained. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy taxes -- Some critical remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirl, F.

    1994-01-01

    The familiar concept of Pigouvian taxes has finally caught the interest of politicians as the various proposals for a pollution tax, often simplified to an energy tax, document. This paper reviews these proposals critically and points at some wrong presumptions. The suggestion to make the polluter liable for all damages is in general inefficient. In order to sell new taxes, politicians argue that Pigouvian taxes would not lower disposable income, because the associated revenues allow one to reduce other taxes (in particular, income taxes) correspondingly. However, strategic, noncompetitive energy producers may themselves attempt to internalize the external costs rather than to leave these tax revenues to the treasuries of the consuming countries. Moreover, the revenues from a commodity tax are potentially volatile. Finally, the conservation impact from Pigouvian energy taxes may fall short of expectations, in particular, if the tax is too low

  13. Critical behavior and phase transition of dilaton black holes with nonlinear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayyani, Z.; Dehghani, M.H.; Hajkhalili, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheykhi, A. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    In this paper, we take into account the dilaton black hole solutions of Einstein gravity in the presence of logarithmic and exponential forms of nonlinear electrodynamics. First of all, we consider the cosmological constant and nonlinear parameter as thermodynamic quantities which can vary. We obtain thermodynamic quantities of the system such as pressure, temperature and Gibbs free energy in an extended phase space. We complete the analogy of the nonlinear dilaton black holes with the Van der Waals liquid-gas system. We work in the canonical ensemble and hence we treat the charge of the black hole as an external fixed parameter. Moreover, we calculate the critical values of temperature, volume and pressure and show that they depend on the dilaton coupling constant as well as on the nonlinear parameter. We also investigate the critical exponents and find that they are universal and independent of the dilaton and nonlinear parameters, which is an expected result. Finally, we explore the phase transition of nonlinear dilaton black holes by studying the Gibbs free energy of the system. We find that in the case of T > T{sub c}, we have no phase transition. When T = T{sub c}, the system admits a second-order phase transition, while for T = T{sub f} < T{sub c} the system experiences a first-order transition. Interestingly, for T{sub f} < T < T{sub c} we observe a zeroth-order phase transition in the presence of a dilaton field. This novel zeroth-order phase transition occurs due to a finite jump in the Gibbs free energy which is generated by the dilaton-electromagnetic coupling constant, α, for a certain range of pressure. (orig.)

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics and Nucleation Kinetics in Near-Critical Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patashinski, Alexander Z.; Ratner, Mark A.; Pines, Vladimir

    1996-01-01

    The objective of our study is to model the nonlinear behavior of a near-critical liquid following a rapid change of the temperature and/or other thermodynamic parameters (pressure, external electric or gravitational field). The thermodynamic critical point is manifested by large, strongly correlated fluctuations of the order parameter (particle density in liquid-gas systems, concentration in binary solutions) in the critical range of scales. The largest critical length scale is the correlation radius r(sub c). According to the scaling theory, r(sub c) increases as r(sub c) = r(sub 0)epsilon(exp -alpha) when the nondimensional distance epsilon = (T - T(sub c))/T(sub c) to the critical point decreases. The normal gravity alters the nature of correlated long-range fluctuations when one reaches epsilon approximately equal to 10(exp -5), and correspondingly the relaxation time, tau(r(sub c)), is approximately equal to 10(exp -3) seconds; this time is short when compared to the typical experimental time. Close to the critical point, a rapid, relatively small temperature change may perturb the thermodynamic equilibrium on many scales. The critical fluctuations have a hierarchical structure, and the relaxation involves many length and time scales. Above the critical point, in the one-phase region, we consider the relaxation of the liquid following a sudden temperature change that simultaneously violates the equilibrium on many scales. Below T(sub c), a non-equilibrium state may include a distribution of small scale phase droplets; we consider the relaxation of such a droplet following a temperature change that has made the phase of the matrix stable.

  15. Studies in nonlinear problems of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matkowsky, B.J.

    1992-07-01

    Emphasis has been on combustion and flame propagation. The research program was on modeling, analysis and computation of combustion phenomena, with emphasis on transition from laminar to turbulent combustion. Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation were investigated in the transition. Stability of combustion waves, and transitions to complex waves are described. Combustion waves possess large activation energies, so that chemical reactions are significant only in thin layers, or reaction zones. In limit of infinite activation energy, the zones shrink to moving surfaces, (fronts) which must be found during the analysis, so that (moving free boundary problems). The studies are carried out for limiting case with fronts, while the numerical studies are carried out for finite, though large, activation energy. Accurate resolution of the solution in the reaction zones is essential, otherwise false predictions of dynamics are possible. Since the the reaction zones move, adaptive pseudo-spectral methods were developed. The approach is based on a synergism of analytical and computational methods. The numerical computations build on and extend the analytical information. Furthermore, analytical solutions serve as benchmarks for testing the accuracy of the computation. Finally, ideas from analysis (singular perturbation theory) have induced new approaches to computations. The computational results suggest new analysis to be considered. Among the recent interesting results, was spatio-temporal chaos in combustion. One goal is extension of the adaptive pseudo-spectral methods to adaptive domain decomposition methods. Efforts have begun to develop such methods for problems with multiple reaction zones, corresponding to problems with more complex, and more realistic chemistry. Other topics included stochastics, oscillators, Rysteretic Josephson junctions, DC SQUID, Markov jumps, laser with saturable absorber, chemical physics, Brownian movement, combustion synthesis, etc.

  16. Energy flow theory of nonlinear dynamical systems with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Jing Tang

    2015-01-01

    This monograph develops a generalised energy flow theory to investigate non-linear dynamical systems governed by ordinary differential equations in phase space and often met in various science and engineering fields. Important nonlinear phenomena such as, stabilities, periodical orbits, bifurcations and chaos are tack-led and the corresponding energy flow behaviors are revealed using the proposed energy flow approach. As examples, the common interested nonlinear dynamical systems, such as, Duffing’s oscillator, Van der Pol’s equation, Lorenz attractor, Rössler one and SD oscillator, etc, are discussed. This monograph lights a new energy flow research direction for nonlinear dynamics. A generalised Matlab code with User Manuel is provided for readers to conduct the energy flow analysis of their nonlinear dynamical systems. Throughout the monograph the author continuously returns to some examples in each chapter to illustrate the applications of the discussed theory and approaches. The book can be used as ...

  17. Broadband piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting using a nonlinear energy sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liuyang; Tang, Lihua; Liu, Kefu; Mace, Brian R.

    2018-05-01

    A piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH) is capable of converting waste or undesirable ambient vibration energy into useful electric energy. However, conventional PVEHs typically work in a narrow frequency range, leading to low efficiency in practical application. This work proposes a PVEH based on the principle of the nonlinear energy sink (NES) to achieve broadband energy harvesting. An alternating current circuit with a resistive load is first considered in the analysis of the dynamic properties and electric performance of the NES-based PEVH. Then, a standard rectifying direct current (DC) interface circuit is developed to evaluate the DC power from the PVEH. To gain insight into the NES mechanism involved, approximate analysis of the proposed PVEH systems under harmonic excitation is sought using the mixed multi-scale and harmonic balance method and the Newton–Raphson harmonic balance method. In addition, an equivalent circuit model (ECM) of the electromechanical system is derived and circuit simulations are conducted to explore and validate the energy harvesting and vibration absorption performance of the proposed NES-based PVEH. The response is also compared with that obtained by direct numerical integration of the equations of motion. Finally, the optimal resistance to obtain the maximum DC power is determined based on the Newton–Raphson harmonic balance method and validated by the ECM. In general, the NES-based PVEH can absorb the vibration from the primary structure and collect electric energy within a broad frequency range effectively.

  18. Nonlinear quenches of power-law confining traps in quantum critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collura, Mario; Karevski, Dragi

    2011-01-01

    We describe the coherent quantum evolution of a quantum many-body system with a time-dependent power-law confining potential. The amplitude of the inhomogeneous potential is driven in time along a nonlinear ramp which crosses a critical point. Using Kibble-Zurek-like scaling arguments we derive general scaling laws for the density of excitations and energy excess generated during the nonlinear sweep of the confining potential. It is shown that, with respect to the sweeping rate, the densities follow algebraic laws with exponents that depend on the space-time properties of the potential and on the scaling dimensions of the densities. We support our scaling predictions with both analytical and numerical results on the Ising quantum chain with an inhomogeneous transverse field varying in time.

  19. Extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in a geometrically nonlinear lattice oscillating in the plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Manevitch, Leonid I.; Smirnov, Valeri; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    We study the in-plane damped oscillations of a finite lattice of particles coupled by linear springs under distributed harmonic excitation. Strong nonlinearity in this system is generated by geometric effects due to the in-plane stretching of the coupling spring elements. The lattice has a finite number of nonlinear transverse standing waves (termed nonlinear normal modes - NNMs), and an equal number of axial linear modes which are nonlinearly coupled to the transverse ones. Nonlinear interactions between the transverse and axial modes under harmonic excitation give rise to unexpected and extreme nonlinear energy exchanges in the lattice. In particular, we directly excite a transverse NNM by harmonic forcing (causing simulataneous indirect excitation of a corresponding axial linear mode due to nonlinear coupling), and identify three energy transfer mechanisms in the lattice. First, we detect the stable response of the directly excited transverse NNM (despite its instability in the absence of forcing), with simultaneous stability of the indirectly excited axial linear mode. Second, by changing the system and forcing parameters we report extreme nonlinear "energy explosions," whereby, after an initial regime of stability, the directly excited transverse NNM loses stability, leading to abrupt excitation of all transverse and axial modes of the lattice, at all possible wave numbers. This strong instability is triggered by the parametric instability of an indirectly excited axial mode which builds energy until the explosion. This is proved through theoretical analysis. Finally, in other parameter ranges we report intermittent, intense energy transfers from the directly excited transverse NNM to a small set of transverse NNMs with smaller wavelengths, and from the indirectly excited axial mode to a small set of axial modes, but with larger wavelengths. These intermittent energy transfers resemble energy cascades occurring in turbulent flows. Our results show that

  20. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  1. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahimana, Didace; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  2. Energy nonlinearity in radiation detection materials: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, J.E.; Jordan, D.V.; Peurrung, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenology and present theoretical understanding of energy nonlinearity (nonproportionality) in radiation detection materials is reviewed, with emphasis on gamma-ray spectroscopy. Scintillators display varying degrees and patterns of nonlinearity, while semiconductor detectors are extremely linear, and gas detectors show a characteristic form of nonproportionality associated with core levels. The relation between nonlinear response (to both primary particles and secondary electrons) and spectrometer resolution is also discussed. We review the qualitative ideas about the origin of nonlinearity in scintillators that have been proposed to date, with emphasis on transport and recombination of electronic excitations. Recent computational and experimental work on the basic physics of scintillators is leading towards a better understanding of energy nonlinearity and should result in new, more linear scintillator materials in the near future

  3. Sensorless Estimation and Nonlinear Control of a Rotational Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunna, Kameswarie; Toh, Tzern T.; Mitcheson, Paul D.; Astolfi, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    It is important to perform sensorless monitoring of parameters in energy harvesting devices in order to determine the operating states of the system. However, physical measurements of these parameters is often a challenging task due to the unavailability of access points. This paper presents, as an example application, the design of a nonlinear observer and a nonlinear feedback controller for a rotational energy harvester. A dynamic model of a rotational energy harvester with its power electronic interface is derived and validated. This model is then used to design a nonlinear observer and a nonlinear feedback controller which yield a sensorless closed-loop system. The observer estimates the mechancial quantities from the measured electrical quantities while the control law sustains power generation across a range of source rotation speeds. The proposed scheme is assessed through simulations and experiments.

  4. Universal Critical Power for Nonlinear Schroedinger Equations with a Symmetric Double Well Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchetti, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Here we consider stationary states for nonlinear Schroedinger equations in any spatial dimension n with symmetric double well potentials. These states may bifurcate as the strength of the nonlinear term increases and we observe two different pictures depending on the value of the nonlinearity power: a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, and a subcritical pitchfork bifurcation with two asymmetric branches occurring as the result of saddle-node bifurcations. We show that in the semiclassical limit, or for a large barrier between the two wells, the first kind of bifurcation always occurs when the nonlinearity power is less than a critical value; in contrast, when the nonlinearity power is larger than such a critical value then we always observe the second scenario. The remarkable fact is that such a critical value is a universal constant in the sense that it does not depend on the shape of the double well potential and on the dimension n.

  5. On the energy-critical fractional Sch\\"odinger equation in the radial case

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zihua; Sire, Yannick; Wang, Yuzhao; Zhao, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    We consider the Cauchy problem for the energy-critical nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with fractional Laplacian (fNLS) in the radial case. We obtain global well-posedness and scattering in the energy space in the defocusing case, and in the focusing case with energy below the ground state.

  6. Criticality safety studies at VTT Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roine, T.; Anttila, M.

    1995-01-01

    At VTT Energy a compact reactor physics calculation system is applied in many kind of problems. Generation of group constants for static and dynamic core calculations, flux and dose rate calculations as well as criticality safety studies are performed basically with the same codes. In the presentation a short overview of the wide variety of criticality safety problems analyzed at VTT Energy is given. The calculation system with some illustrative examples is also described. (12 refs., 1 tab.)

  7. Nonlinear Schrodinger elliptic systems involving exponential critical growth in R^2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. B. Albuquerque Albuquerque

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the existence and multiplicity of solutions for elliptic systems with weights, and nonlinearities having exponential critical growth. Our approach is based on the Trudinger-Moser inequality and on a minimax theorem.

  8. A nonlinear complementarity approach for the national energy modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, S.A.; Kydes, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a large-scale mathematical model that computes equilibrium fuel prices and quantities in the U.S. energy sector. At present, to generate these equilibrium values, NEMS sequentially solves a collection of linear programs and nonlinear equations. The NEMS solution procedure then incorporates the solutions of these linear programs and nonlinear equations in a nonlinear Gauss-Seidel approach. The authors describe how the current version of NEMS can be formulated as a particular nonlinear complementarity problem (NCP), thereby possibly avoiding current convergence problems. In addition, they show that the NCP format is equally valid for a more general form of NEMS. They also describe several promising approaches for solving the NCP form of NEMS based on recent Newton type methods for general NCPs. These approaches share the feature of needing to solve their direction-finding subproblems only approximately. Hence, they can effectively exploit the sparsity inherent in the NEMS NCP

  9. APPLICATION OF NONLINEAR PID CONTROLLER IN SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETIC ENERGY STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    PENG, Xiaotao; CHENG, Shijie

    2011-01-01

    As a new control strategy, Nonlinear PID(NLPID) controller has been introduced in the power system successfully. The controller is free of planting model foundation in the design procedure and realized simply. In this paper, a nonlinear PID controller used for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit connected to a power system is proposed. Purpose of designing such controller is to improve the stability of the power system in a relatively wide operation range. The design procedure...

  10. A seesaw-type approach for enhancing nonlinear energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huaxia; Wang, Zhemin; Du, Yu; Zhang, Jin; Ma, Mengchao; Zhong, Xiang

    2018-05-01

    Harvesting sustainable mechanical energy is the ultimate objective of nonlinear energy harvesters. However, overcoming potential barriers, especially without the use of extra excitations, poses a great challenge for the development of nonlinear generators. In contrast to the existing methods, which typically modify the barrier height or utilize additional excitations, this letter proposes a seesaw-type approach to facilitate escape from potential wells by transfer of internal energy, even under low-intensity excitation. This approach is adopted in the design of a seesaw-type nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester and the energy transfer process is analyzed by deriving expressions for the energy to reveal the working mechanism. Comparison experiments demonstrate that this approach improves energy harvesting in terms of an increase in the working frequency bandwidth by a factor of 60.14 and an increase in the maximum output voltage by a factor of 5.1. Moreover, the output power is increased by a factor of 51.3, which indicates that this approach significantly improves energy collection efficiency. This seesaw-type approach provides a welcome boost to the development of renewable energy collection methods by improving the efficiency of harvesting of low-intensity ambient mechanical energy.

  11. Feasibility of Residual Stress Nondestructive Estimation Using the Nonlinear Property of Critical Refraction Longitudinal Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual stress has significant influence on the performance of mechanical components, and the nondestructive estimation of residual stress is always a difficult problem. This study applies the relative nonlinear coefficient of critical refraction longitudinal (LCR wave to nondestructively characterize the stress state of materials; the feasibility of residual stress estimation using the nonlinear property of LCR wave is verified. The nonlinear ultrasonic measurements based on LCR wave are conducted on components with known stress state to calculate the relative nonlinear coefficient. Experimental results indicate that the relative nonlinear coefficient monotonically increases with prestress and the increment of relative nonlinear coefficient is about 80%, while the wave velocity only decreases about 0.2%. The sensitivity of the relative nonlinear coefficient for stress is much higher than wave velocity. Furthermore, the dependence between the relative nonlinear coefficient and deformation state of components is found. The stress detection resolution based on the nonlinear property of LCR wave is 10 MPa, which has higher resolution than wave velocity. These results demonstrate that the nonlinear property of LCR wave is more suitable for stress characterization than wave velocity, and this quantitative information could be used for residual stress estimation.

  12. Nonlinear analysis and dynamic structure in the energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghababa, Hajar

    This research assesses the dynamic structure of the energy sector of the aggregate economy in the context of nonlinear mechanisms. Earlier studies have focused mainly on the price of the energy products when detecting nonlinearities in time series data of the energy market, and there is little mention of the production side of the market. Moreover, there is a lack of exploration about the implication of high dimensionality and time aggregation when analyzing the market's fundamentals. This research will address these gaps by including the quantity side of the market in addition to the price and by systematically incorporating various frequencies for sample sizes in three essays. The goal of this research is to provide an inclusive and exhaustive examination of the dynamics in the energy markets. The first essay begins with the application of statistical techniques, and it incorporates the most well-known univariate tests for nonlinearity with distinct power functions over alternatives and tests different null hypotheses. It utilizes the daily spot price observations on five major products in the energy market. The results suggest that the time series daily spot prices of the energy products are highly nonlinear in their nature. They demonstrate apparent evidence of general nonlinear serial dependence in each individual series, as well as nonlinearity in the first, second, and third moments of the series. The second essay examines the underlying mechanism of crude oil production and identifies the nonlinear structure of the production market by utilizing various monthly time series observations of crude oil production: the U.S. field, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), non-OPEC, and the world production of crude oil. The finding implies that the time series data of the U.S. field, OPEC, and the world production of crude oil exhibit deep nonlinearity in their structure and are generated by nonlinear mechanisms. However, the dynamics of the non

  13. Nonlinear sound generation by high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westervelt, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with Project DUMAND, the proposal to utilize the ocean as a giant acoustic detector of neutrinos, the applicability of a recent theory of thermoacoustic arrays [Peter J. Westervelt and Richard S. Larson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 54, 121 (1973)] is studied. In the static case or at very low frequencies, about 10% of the coefficient of thermal expansion for water at 20 0 C can be attributed to Debye-like modes. Debye-like modes generate sound via the nonlinear mechanism responsible for the operation of the parametric acoustic array [Peter J. Westervelt, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 35, 535 (1963)]. The contribution of the Debye-like modes to the thermal expansion coefficient and thus to the sound pressure is essentially independent of the ambient water temperature. Hence if the Debye-like modes are not fully excited as is postulated to be the case at high frequencies, then the thermal expansion coefficient will be less than the static value by an amount that causes it to vanish at about 6 0 C instead of at 4 0 C, the temperature of maximum water density. This theory is in agreement with recent measurements of the temperature dependence of sound generated by proton deposition in water [L. Sulak, et al., Proceedings of the La Jolla Workshop on Acoustic Detection of Neutrinos, 25--29 July 1977, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, U.C.L.A., San Diego, Hugh Bradner, Ed.

  14. Modelling of a bridge-shaped nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gafforelli, G; Corigliano, A; Xu, R; Kim, S G

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) energy harvesting is an attractive technology for harvesting small magnitudes of energy from ambient vibrations. Increasing the operating frequency bandwidth of such devices is one of the major issues for real world applications. A MEMS-scale doubly clamped nonlinear beam resonator is designed and developed to demonstrate very wide bandwidth and high power density. In this paper a first complete theoretical discussion of nonlinear resonating piezoelectric energy harvesting is provided. The sectional behaviour of the beam is studied through the Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) specifically modified to introduce the piezoelectric coupling and nonlinear Green-Lagrange strain tensor. A lumped parameter model is built through Rayleigh-Ritz Method and the resulting nonlinear coupled equations are solved in the frequency domain through the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM). Finally, the influence of external load resistance on the dynamic behaviour is studied. The theoretical model shows that nonlinear resonant harvesters have much wider power bandwidth than that of linear resonators but their maximum power is still bounded by the mechanical damping as is the case for linear resonating harvesters

  15. Design and development of a parametrically excited nonlinear energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, Tanju; Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Li, Weihua; Alici, Gursel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A parametrically broadband energy harvester was fabricated. • Strong softening-type nonlinear behaviour was observed. • Experiments were conducted showing the large bandwidth of the device. - Abstract: An energy harvester has been designed, fabricated and tested based on the nonlinear dynamical response of a parametrically excited clamped-clamped beam with a central point-mass; magnets have been used as the central point-mass which pass through a coil when parametrically excited. Experiments have been conducted for the energy harvester when the system is excited (i) harmonically near the primary resonance; (ii) harmonically near the principal parametric resonance; (iii) by means of a non-smooth periodic excitation. An electrodynamic shaker was used to parametrically excite the system and the corresponding displacement of the magnet and output voltages of the coil were measured. It has been shown that the system displays linear behaviour at the primary resonance; however, at the principal parametric resonance, the motion characteristic of the magnet substantially changed displaying a strong softening-type nonlinearity. Theoretical simulations have also been conducted in order to verify the experimental results; the comparison between theory and experiment were within very good agreement of each other. The energy harvester developed in this paper is capable of harvesting energy close to the primary resonance as well as the principal parametric resonance; the frequency-band has been broadened significantly mainly due to the nonlinear effects as well as the parametric excitation.

  16. Geometric scaling in ultrahigh energy neutrinos and nonlinear perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2011-01-01

    The ultrahigh energy neutrino cross section is a crucial ingredient in the calculation of the event rate in high energy neutrino telescopes. Currently there are several approaches which predict different behaviors for its magnitude for ultrahigh energies. In this contribution is presented a summary of current predictions based on the non-linear QCD evolution equations, the so-called perturbative saturation physics. In particular, predictions are shown based on the parton saturation approaches and the consequences of geometric scaling property at high energies are discussed. The scaling property allows an analytical computation of the neutrino scattering on nucleon/nucleus at high energies, providing a theoretical parameterization. (author)

  17. Energy dependence of the Cronin effect from nonlinear QCD evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albacete, Javier L.; Armesto, Nestor; Salgado, Carlos A.; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Kovner, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of dense partonic systems has been suggested as a novel physics mechanism relevant for the dynamics of p-A and A-A collisions at collider energies. Here we study to what extent the description of Cronin enhancement in the framework of this nonlinear evolution is consistent with the recent observation in √(s)=200 GeV d-Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. We solve the Balitsky-Kovchegov evolution equation numerically for several initial conditions encoding Cronin enhancement. We find that the properly normalized nuclear gluon distribution is suppressed at all momenta relative to that of a single nucleon. For the resulting spectrum of produced gluons in p-A and A-A collisions, the nonlinear QCD evolution is unable to generate a Cronin-type enhancement, and it quickly erases any such enhancement which may be present at lower energies

  18. Loss of Energy Concentration in Nonlinear Evolution Beam Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrione, Maurizio; Gazzola, Filippo

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by the oscillations that were seen at the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, we introduce the notion of solutions with a prevailing mode for the nonlinear evolution beam equation u_{tt} + u_{xxxx} + f(u)= g(x, t) in bounded space-time intervals. We give a new definition of instability for these particular solutions, based on the loss of energy concentration on their prevailing mode. We distinguish between two different forms of energy transfer, one physiological (unavoidable and depending on the nonlinearity) and one due to the insurgence of instability. We then prove a theoretical result allowing to reduce the study of this kind of infinite-dimensional stability to that of a finite-dimensional approximation. With this background, we study the occurrence of instability for three different kinds of nonlinearities f and for some forcing terms g, highlighting some of their structural properties and performing some numerical simulations.

  19. Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    department for the Energy sector, has been pro- active and innovative in enhancing protection for national critical energy infrastructure (NCI). While...prospérité (PSP), mais des relations transfrontalières plus informelles entre les propriétaires/opérateurs et leurs associations industrielles ...create innovative solutions for CIP. 9. International Cooperation: participate in international CIP initiatives and to strengthen information-sharing

  20. Effect of Integral Non-Linearity on Energy Calibration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integral non-linearity (INL) of four spectroscopy systems, two integrated (A1 and A2) and two classical (B1 and B2) systems was determined using pulses from a random pulse generator. The effect of INL on the system's energy calibration was also determined. The effect is minimal in the classical system at high ...

  1. Energy transfer in coupled nonlinear phononic waveguides: transition from wandering breather to nonlinear self-trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosevich, Y A; Manevitch, L I; Savin, A V

    2007-01-01

    We consider, both analytically and numerically, the dynamics of stationary and slowly-moving breathers (localized short-wavelength excitations) in two weakly coupled nonlinear oscillator chains (nonlinear phononic waveguides). We show that there are two qualitatively different dynamical regimes of the coupled breathers: the oscillatory exchange of the low-amplitude breather between the phononic waveguides (wandering breather), and one-waveguide-localization (nonlinear self-trapping) of the high-amplitude breather. We also show that phase-coherent dynamics of the coupled breathers in two weakly linked nonlinear phononic waveguides has a profound analogy, and is described by a similar pair of equations, to the tunnelling quantum dynamics of two weakly linked Bose-Einstein condensates in a symmetric double-well potential (single bosonic Josephson junction). The exchange of phonon energy and excitations between the coupled phononic waveguides takes on the role which the exchange of atoms via quantum tunnelling plays in the case of the coupled condensates. On the basis of this analogy, we predict a new tunnelling mode of the coupled Bose-Einstein condensates in a single bosonic Josephson junction in which their relative phase oscillates around π/2. The dynamics of relative phase of two weakly linked Bose-Einstein condensates can be studied by means of interference, while the dynamics of the exchange of lattice excitations in coupled nonlinear phononic waveguides can be observed by means of light scattering

  2. New aspect of critical nonlinearly charged black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendi, S. H.; Taghadomi, Z. S.; Corda, C.

    2018-04-01

    The motion of a point charged particle moving in the background of the critical power Maxwell charged AdS black holes in a probe approximation is studied. The extended phase space, where the cosmological constant appears as a pressure, is regarded and the effective potential is investigated. At last, the mass-to-charge ratio and the large q limit are studied.

  3. Stress evaluation of metallic material under steady state based on nonlinear critically refracted longitudinal wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hanling; Zhang, Yuhua; Mao, Hanying; Li, Xinxin; Huang, Zhenfeng

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the study of applying the nonlinear ultrasonic wave to evaluate the stress state of metallic materials under steady state. The pre-stress loading method is applied to guarantee components with steady stress. Three kinds of nonlinear ultrasonic experiments based on critically refracted longitudinal wave are conducted on components which the critically refracted longitudinal wave propagates along x, x1 and x2 direction. Experimental results indicate the second and third order relative nonlinear coefficients monotonically increase with stress, and the normalized relationship is consistent with simplified dislocation models, which indicates the experimental result is logical. The combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is proposed, and three stress evaluation models at x direction are established based on three ultrasonic nonlinear parameters, which the estimation error is below 5%. Then two stress detection models at x1 and x2 direction are built based on combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter, the stress synthesis method is applied to calculate the magnitude and direction of principal stress. The results show the prediction error is within 5% and the angle deviation is within 1.5°. Therefore the nonlinear ultrasonic technique based on LCR wave could be applied to nondestructively evaluate the stress of metallic materials under steady state which the magnitude and direction are included.

  4. An Energy Decaying Scheme for Nonlinear Dynamics of Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottasso, Carlo L.; Bauchau, Olivier A.; Choi, Jou-Young; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A novel integration scheme for nonlinear dynamics of geometrically exact shells is developed based on the inextensible director assumption. The new algorithm is designed so as to imply the strict decay of the system total mechanical energy at each time step, and consequently unconditional stability is achieved in the nonlinear regime. Furthermore, the scheme features tunable high frequency numerical damping and it is therefore stiffly accurate. The method is tested for a finite element spatial formulation of shells based on mixed interpolations of strain tensorial components and on a two-parameter representation of director rotations. The robustness of the, scheme is illustrated with the help of numerical examples.

  5. Homotopy analysis approach for nonlinear piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahlaei-Far Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric energy harvesting from a vertical geometrically nonlinear cantilever beam with a tip mass subject to transverse harmonic base excitations is analyzed. One piezoelectric patch is placed on the slender beam to convert the tension and compression into electrical voltage. Applying the homotopy analysis method to the coupled electromechanical governing equations, we derive analytical solutions for the horizontal displacement of the tip mass and consequently the output voltage from the piezoelectric patch. Analytical approximation for the frequency response and phase of the geometrically forced nonlinear vibration system are also obtained. The research aims at a rigorous analytical perspective on a nonlinear problem which has previously been solely investigated by numerical and experimental methods.

  6. Direct observation of coherent energy transfer in nonlinear micromechanical oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Zanette, Damián H; Czaplewski, David A; Shaw, Steven; López, Daniel

    2017-05-26

    Energy dissipation is an unavoidable phenomenon of physical systems that are directly coupled to an external environmental bath. In an oscillatory system, it leads to the decay of the oscillation amplitude. In situations where stable oscillations are required, the energy dissipated by the vibrations is usually compensated by replenishment from external energy sources. Consequently, if the external energy supply is removed, the amplitude of oscillations start to decay immediately, since there is no means to restitute the energy dissipated. Here, we demonstrate a novel dissipation engineering strategy that can support stable oscillations without supplying external energy to compensate losses. The fundamental intrinsic mechanism of resonant mode coupling is used to redistribute and store mechanical energy among vibrational modes and coherently transfer it back to the principal mode when the external excitation is off. To experimentally demonstrate this phenomenon, we exploit the nonlinear dynamic response of microelectromechanical oscillators to couple two different vibrational modes through an internal resonance.

  7. Blowing up solutions for a biharmonic equation with critical nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mehdi, K.; Hammami, M.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper we consider the following biharmonic equation with critical exponent (P ε ):Δ 2 u=Ku (n+4)/(n-4)-ε , u>0 in Ω and u=Δu=0 on ∂Ω, where Ω is a smooth bounded domain in R n , n≥5, ε is a small positive parameter, and K is a smooth positive function in Ω-bar. We construct solutions of (P ε ) which blow up and concentrate at strict local maximum of K either at the boundary or in the interior of Ω. We also construct solutions of (P ε ) concentrating at an interior strict local minimum point of K. Finally, we prove a nonexistence result for the supercritical problem which is in sharp contrast to what happened for (P ε ). (author)

  8. Energy sector pricing: On the role of neglected nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyrtsou, Catherine; Malliaris, Anastasios G.; Serletis, Apostolos

    2009-01-01

    Modern economies have been subjected to a number of shocks during the past several years such as the burst of the Internet bubble, terrorist attacks, corporate scandals, the war in Iraq, the uncertainty about energy prices, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis. In particular, during the last few years, the energy shock has caused concerns for potential stagflation for both the United States and numerous other countries. We perform numerous univariate tests for non-linearity and chaotic structure using price data from the energy sector to resolve whether the sector's fundamentals or exogenous shocks drive these prices.

  9. Energy sector pricing: On the role of neglected nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrtsou, Catherine [University of Macedonia (Greece); Malliaris, Anastasios G. [Loyola University Chicago (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [University of Calgary (Canada)], E-mail: Serletis@ucalgary.ca

    2009-05-15

    Modern economies have been subjected to a number of shocks during the past several years such as the burst of the Internet bubble, terrorist attacks, corporate scandals, the war in Iraq, the uncertainty about energy prices, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis. In particular, during the last few years, the energy shock has caused concerns for potential stagflation for both the United States and numerous other countries. We perform numerous univariate tests for non-linearity and chaotic structure using price data from the energy sector to resolve whether the sector's fundamentals or exogenous shocks drive these prices.

  10. Energy sector pricing. On the role of neglected nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrtsou, Catherine [University of Macedonia (Greece); Malliaris, Anastasios G. [Loyola University Chicago (United States); Serletis, Apostolos [University of Calgary (Canada)

    2009-05-15

    Modern economies have been subjected to a number of shocks during the past several years such as the burst of the Internet bubble, terrorist attacks, corporate scandals, the war in Iraq, the uncertainty about energy prices, and the recent subprime mortgage crisis. In particular, during the last few years, the energy shock has caused concerns for potential stagflation for both the United States and numerous other countries. We perform numerous univariate tests for non-linearity and chaotic structure using price data from the energy sector to resolve whether the sector's fundamentals or exogenous shocks drive these prices. (author)

  11. Damage Evaluation of Critical Components of Tilted Support Spring Nonlinear System under a Rectangular Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensionless nonlinear dynamical equations of a tilted support spring nonlinear packaging system with critical components were obtained under a rectangular pulse. To evaluate the damage characteristics of shocks to packaged products with critical components, a concept of the damage boundary surface was presented and applied to a titled support spring system, with the dimensionless critical acceleration of the system, the dimensionless critical velocity, and the frequency parameter ratio of the system taken as the three basic parameters. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the frequency parameter ratio, the mass ratio, the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration, the angle of the system, and the damping ratio on the damage boundary surface of critical components were discussed. It was demonstrated that with the increase of the frequency parameter ratio, the decrease of the angle, and/or the increase of the mass ratio, the safety zone of critical components can be broadened, and increasing the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration or the damping ratio may lead to a decrease of the damage zone for critical components. The results may lead to a thorough understanding of the design principles for the tilted support spring nonlinear system.

  12. Nonlinear energy loss of highly charged heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.Guenter.

    2000-01-01

    For slow, highly charged heavy ions strong coupling effects in the energy transfer from the projectile-ion to an electron target plasma become important. A theoretical description of this nonlinear ion stopping has to go beyond the standard approaches like the dielectric linear response or the binary collision model which are strictly valid only at weak ion-target coupling. Here we outline an improved treatment which is based on a suitable combination of binary collision and linear response contributions. As has been verified for isotropic, nonmagnetized electron plasmas by comparison with simulations, this approach well reproduces the essential features of nonlinear stopping up to moderate coupling strength. Its extension to anisotropic, magnetized electron plasmas basically involves the fully numerical determination of the momentum and energy transfer in binary ion-electron collisions in the presence of a magnetic field. First results of such calculations are presented and discussed

  13. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, D. S.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter.

  14. Nonlinearly-enhanced energy transport in many dimensional quantum chaos

    KAUST Repository

    Brambila, D. S.

    2013-08-05

    By employing a nonlinear quantum kicked rotor model, we investigate the transport of energy in multidimensional quantum chaos. This problem has profound implications in many fields of science ranging from Anderson localization to time reversal of classical and quantum waves. We begin our analysis with a series of parallel numerical simulations, whose results show an unexpected and anomalous behavior. We tackle the problem by a fully analytical approach characterized by Lie groups and solitons theory, demonstrating the existence of a universal, nonlinearly-enhanced diffusion of the energy in the system, which is entirely sustained by soliton waves. Numerical simulations, performed with different models, show a perfect agreement with universal predictions. A realistic experiment is discussed in two dimensional dipolar Bose-Einstein-Condensates (BEC). Besides the obvious implications at the fundamental level, our results show that solitons can form the building block for the realization of new systems for the enhanced transport of matter.

  15. Nonlinear instabilities relating to negative-energy modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1993-03-01

    The nonlinear instability of general linearly stable systems allowing linear negative-energy perturbations is investigated with the aid of a multiple time scale formalism. It is shown that the basic equations thus obtained imply resonance conditions and possess inherent symmetries which lead to the existence of similarity solutions of these equations. These solutions can be of an explosive type, oscillatory or static. It is demonstrated that at least some of the oscillatory and static solutions are normally linearly unstable. (orig.). 5 figs

  16. Optically nonlinear energy transfer in light-harvesting dendrimers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, David; Bradshaw, DS

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimeric polymers are the subject of intense research activity geared towards their implementation in nanodevice applications such as energy harvesting systems,organic light-emitting diodes, photosensitizers, low-threshold lasers, and quantum logic elements, etc. A recent development in this area has been the construction of dendrimers specifically designed to exhibit novel forms of optical nonlinearity, exploiting the unique properties of these materials at high levels of photon flux. Sta...

  17. Calculation of critical fault recovery time for nonlinear systems based on region of attraction analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Blanke, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    of a system. It must be guaranteed that the trajectory of a system subject to fault remains in the region of attraction (ROA) of the post-fault system during this time. This paper proposes a new algorithm to compute the critical fault recovery time for nonlinear systems with polynomial vector elds using sum...

  18. Wideband quin-stable energy harvesting via combined nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a wideband quintuple-well potential piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester using a combined nonlinearity: the magnetic nonlinearity induced by magnetic force and the piecewise-linearity produced by mechanical impact. With extra stable states compared to other multi-stable harvesters, the quin-stable harvester can distribute its potential energy more uniformly, which provides shallower potential wells and results in lower excitation threshold for interwell motion. The mathematical model of this quin-stable harvester is derived and its equivalent piecewise-nonlinear restoring force is measured in the experiment and identified as piecewise polynomials. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed in different levels of sinusoid excitation ranging from 1 to 25 Hz. The results demonstrate that, with lower potential barriers compared with tri-stable counterpart, the quin-stable arrangement can escape potential wells more easily for doing high-energy interwell motion over a wider band of frequencies. Moreover, by utilizing the mechanical stoppers, this harvester can produce significant output voltage under small tip deflections, which results in a high power density and is especially suitable for a compact MEMS approach.

  19. Cities and Energy Consumption: a Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between cities and energy consumption has been of great interest for the scientific community for over twenty years. Most of the energy consumption, indeed, occurs in cities because of the high concentration of human activities. Thus, cities are responsible for a big share of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2. However, the debate on this topic is still open, mainly because of the heterogeneity of published studies in the selection, definition and measurement of the urban features influencing energy consumption and CO2 emissions, as well as in the choice of the energy sectors to be considered, in the territorial scale of analysis, and in the geographical distribution of the sample. Therefore, the goal of this research is to systematize and compare the approach, methodology and results of the relevant literature on the relationship between cities and energy consumption over the last twenty years. Furthermore, this critical review identifies the knowledge gap between what is known and what is still under debate and, based on that, it proposes a conceptual framework that will help to outline a new direction for future research and support local policy makers in the definition of strategies and actions that can effectively reduce urban energy use and CO2 emissions.

  20. Broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting using nonlinear magnetic forces; Bandbreitensteigerung von piezoelektrischen Energy Harvesting Systemen durch Magnetkraefte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westermann, Henrik; Neubauer, Marcus; Wallaschek, Joerg [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Dynamik und Schwingungen

    2012-07-15

    Using ambient energy by piezoelectric energy harvesting systems received much attention over the last years. Most vibration-based generators produce a sufficient power only if the transducer is excited in its resonance frequency. The use of magnetic forces suggests a promising strategy to increase the efficiency. This paper presents different ways for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting using nonlinear magnetic forces. (orig.)

  1. Nonlinear analysis of piezoelectric nanocomposite energy harvesting plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, M; He, X Q; Liew, K M

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear analysis of energy harvesting from piezoelectric functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates under combined thermal and mechanical loadings. The excitation, which derives from harmonically varying mechanical in-plane loading, results in parametric excitation. The governing equations of the piezoelectric functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates are derived based on classical plate theory and von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. The material properties of the nanocomposite plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are assumed to be aligned, straight and have a uniform layout. The linear buckling and vibration behavior of the nanocomposite plates is obtained in the first step. Then, Galerkin’s method is employed to derive the nonlinear governing equations of the problem with cubic nonlinearities associated with mid-plane stretching. Periodic solutions are determined by using the Poincaré–Lindstedt perturbation scheme with movable simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of temperature change, the volume fraction and the distribution pattern of the SWCNTs on the parametric resonance, in particular the amplitude of vibration and the average harvested power of the smart functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates, are investigated through a detailed parametric study. (paper)

  2. Optimization under uncertainty of parallel nonlinear energy sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Ethan; Missoum, Samy; Mattei, Pierre-Olivier; Vergez, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear Energy Sinks (NESs) are a promising technique for passively reducing the amplitude of vibrations. Through nonlinear stiffness properties, a NES is able to passively and irreversibly absorb energy. Unlike the traditional Tuned Mass Damper (TMD), NESs do not require a specific tuning and absorb energy over a wider range of frequencies. Nevertheless, they are still only efficient over a limited range of excitations. In order to mitigate this limitation and maximize the efficiency range, this work investigates the optimization of multiple NESs configured in parallel. It is well known that the efficiency of a NES is extremely sensitive to small perturbations in loading conditions or design parameters. In fact, the efficiency of a NES has been shown to be nearly discontinuous in the neighborhood of its activation threshold. For this reason, uncertainties must be taken into account in the design optimization of NESs. In addition, the discontinuities require a specific treatment during the optimization process. In this work, the objective of the optimization is to maximize the expected value of the efficiency of NESs in parallel. The optimization algorithm is able to tackle design variables with uncertainty (e.g., nonlinear stiffness coefficients) as well as aleatory variables such as the initial velocity of the main system. The optimal design of several parallel NES configurations for maximum mean efficiency is investigated. Specifically, NES nonlinear stiffness properties, considered random design variables, are optimized for cases with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 NESs in parallel. The distributions of efficiency for the optimal parallel configurations are compared to distributions of efficiencies of non-optimized NESs. It is observed that the optimization enables a sharp increase in the mean value of efficiency while reducing the corresponding variance, thus leading to more robust NES designs.

  3. Non-critical strings at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Kenichiro; Aoki, Kenichiro; Hoker, Eric D'

    1996-01-01

    We consider scattering amplitudes in non-critical string theory of $N$ external states in the limit where the energy of all external states is large compared to the string tension. We argue that the amplitudes are naturally complex analytic in the matter central charge $c$ and we propose to define the amplitudes for arbitrary value of $c$ by analytic continuation. We show that the high energy limit is dominated by a saddle point that can be mapped onto an equilibrium electro-static energy configuration of an assembly of $N$ pointlike (Minkowskian) charges, together with a density of charges arising from the Liouville field. We argue that the Liouville charges accumulate on segments of curves, and produce quadratic branch cuts on the worldsheet. The electro-statics problem is solved for string tree level in terms of hyper-elliptic integrals and is given explicitly for 3- and 4-point functions. We show that the high energy limit should behave in a string-like fashion with exponential dependence on the energy sc...

  4. A Review of Critical Conditions for the Onset of Nonlinear Fluid Flow in Rock Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting appropriate governing equations for fluid flow in fractured rock masses is of special importance for estimating the permeability of rock fracture networks. When the flow velocity is small, the flow is in the linear regime and obeys the cubic law, whereas when the flow velocity is large, the flow is in the nonlinear regime and should be simulated by solving the complex Navier-Stokes equations. The critical conditions such as critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient are commonly defined in the previous works to quantify the onset of nonlinear fluid flow. This study reviews the simplifications of governing equations from the Navier-Stokes equations, Stokes equation, and Reynold equation to the cubic law and reviews the evolutions of critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient for fluid flow in rock fractures and fracture networks, considering the influences of shear displacement, normal stress and/or confining pressure, fracture surface roughness, aperture, and number of intersections. This review provides a reference for the engineers and hydrogeologists especially the beginners to thoroughly understand the nonlinear flow regimes/mechanisms within complex fractured rock masses.

  5. Nonlinear spherical perturbations in quintessence models of dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap Rajvanshi, Manvendra; Bagla, J. S.

    2018-06-01

    Observations have confirmed the accelerated expansion of the universe. The accelerated expansion can be modelled by invoking a cosmological constant or a dynamical model of dark energy. A key difference between these models is that the equation of state parameter w for dark energy differs from ‑1 in dynamical dark energy (DDE) models. Further, the equation of state parameter is not constant for a general DDE model. Such differences can be probed using the variation of scale factor with time by measuring distances. Another significant difference between the cosmological constant and DDE models is that the latter must cluster. Linear perturbation analysis indicates that perturbations in quintessence models of dark energy do not grow to have a significant amplitude at small length scales. In this paper we study the response of quintessence dark energy to non-linear perturbations in dark matter. We use a fully relativistic model for spherically symmetric perturbations. In this study we focus on thawing models. We find that in response to non-linear perturbations in dark matter, dark energy perturbations grow at a faster rate than expected in linear perturbation theory. We find that dark energy perturbation remains localised and does not diffuse out to larger scales. The dominant drivers of the evolution of dark energy perturbations are the local Hubble flow and a supression of gradients of the scalar field. We also find that the equation of state parameter w changes in response to perturbations in dark matter such that it also becomes a function of position. The variation of w in space is correlated with density contrast for matter. Variation of w and perturbations in dark energy are more pronounced in response to large scale perturbations in matter while the dependence on the amplitude of matter perturbations is much weaker.

  6. Critical success factors for renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This project highlighted best practice in the planning and assessment of proposals with the aim of: encouraging more successful renewable energy projects and proposals; lowering financial and other barriers; and stimulating a climate for success. Based on the analysis of a number of case studies, data was collected through a series of extensive interviews to identify why certain schemes were considered successful, what might have been done differently and which factors were considered important when entering a market. The Critical Success Factors can be broken down into five groups: Universal CSFs; CSFs for funding bodies; CSFs for managing agencies; CSFs for niche markets; CSFs for individual technologies. (author)

  7. Renormalization group and instantons in stochastic nonlinear dynamics, from self-organized criticality to thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkov, D.

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic counterparts of nonlinear dynamics are studied by means of nonperturbative functional methods developed in the framework of quantum field theory (QFT). In particular, we discuss fully developed turbulence, including leading corrections on possible compressibility of fluids, transport through porous media, theory of waterspouts and tsunami waves, stochastic magnetohydrodynamics, turbulent transport in crossed fields, self-organized criticality, and dynamics of accelerated wrinkled flame fronts advancing in a wide canal. This report would be of interest to the broad auditorium of physicists and applied mathematicians, with a background in nonperturbative QFT methods or nonlinear dynamical systems, having an interest in both methodological developments and interdisciplinary applications. (author)

  8. Renormalization group and instantons in stochastic nonlinear dynamics, from self-organized criticality to thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volchenkov, D. [Bielefeld Univ., Center of Excellence Cognitive Interaction Technology (CITEC) (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Stochastic counterparts of nonlinear dynamics are studied by means of nonperturbative functional methods developed in the framework of quantum field theory (QFT). In particular, we discuss fully developed turbulence, including leading corrections on possible compressibility of fluids, transport through porous media, theory of waterspouts and tsunami waves, stochastic magnetohydrodynamics, turbulent transport in crossed fields, self-organized criticality, and dynamics of accelerated wrinkled flame fronts advancing in a wide canal. This report would be of interest to the broad auditorium of physicists and applied mathematicians, with a background in nonperturbative QFT methods or nonlinear dynamical systems, having an interest in both methodological developments and interdisciplinary applications. (author)

  9. Understanding the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of vibratory energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, Ravindra Shiva Charan

    The last two decades have witnessed several advances in micro-fabrication technologies and electronics, leading to the development of small, low-power devices for wireless sensing, data transmission, actuation, and medical implants. Unfortunately, the actual implementation of such devices in their respective environment has been hindered by the lack of scalable energy sources that are necessary to power and maintain them. Batteries, which remain the most commonly used power source, have not kept pace with the demands of these devices, especially in terms of energy density. In light of this challenge, the concept of vibratory energy harvesting has flourished in recent years as a possible alternative to power and maintain low-power electronics. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have received the majority of the literature's attention, a significant body of the current research activity is focused on the concept of purposeful inclusion of nonlinearities for broadband transduction. When compared to their linear resonant counterparts, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth, leading to the common belief that they can be utilized to improve performance especially in random and non-stationary vibratory environments. This dissertation aims to critically investigate this belief by drawing a clearer picture of the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of energy harvesters and by defining the conditions under which nonlinearities can be used to enhance performance. To achieve this goal, the Thesis is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under harmonic excitations and carries a detailed analysis of their relative performance. The second part investigates their response to broadband and narrowband random excitations and again analyzes their relative behavior. The third part exploits the super-harmonic resonance bands of bi-stable energy harvesters for the

  10. Nonlinear generalization of special relativity at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown, that the introduction of a fundamental length constant into the operator representation of the quantum mechanical commutation relations, as suggested by Bagge, leads to a nonlinear generalization of the Lorentz transformations. The theory requires the introduction of a substratum (ether) and which can be identified as the zero point vacuum energy. At very high energies a non-Lorentz invariant behaviour for the cross sections between elementary particles is predicted. Using the Einstein clock synchronisation definition, the velocity of light is also constant and equal to c in the new theory, but the zero point vacuum energy becomes finite, as are all other quantities which are divergent in Lorentz invariant quantum field theories. In the limiting case where the length constant is set equal to zero, the zero point vacuum energy diverges and special relativity is recovered. (orig.) [de

  11. Towards a Carbon Nanotube Intermodulation Product Sensor for Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell B. Lerner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is critically important in designing RF receiver front ends to handle high power jammers and other strong interferers. Instead of blocking incoming energy or dissipating it as heat, we investigate the possibility of redirecting that energy for harvesting and storage. The approach is based on channelizing a high power signal into a previously unknown circuit element which serves as a passive intermodulation device. This intermodulation component must produce a hysteretic current-voltage curve to be useful as an energy harvester. Here we demonstrate a method by which carbon nanotube transistors produce the necessary hysteretic I-V curves. Such devices can be tailored to the desired frequency by introducing functional groups to the nanotubes. These effects controllably enhance the desired behavior, namely, hysteretic nonlinearity in the transistors’ I-V characteristic. Combining these components with an RF energy harvester may one day enable the reuse of inbound jamming energy for standard back end radio components.

  12. Nonlinear vibration analysis of the high-efficiency compressive-mode piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengbao; Zu, Jean

    2015-04-01

    Power source is critical to achieve independent and autonomous operations of electronic mobile devices. The vibration-based energy harvesting is extensively studied recently, and recognized as a promising technology to realize inexhaustible power supply for small-scale electronics. Among various approaches, the piezoelectric energy harvesting has gained the most attention due to its high conversion efficiency and simple configurations. However, most of piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) to date are based on bending-beam structures and can only generate limited power with a narrow working bandwidth. The insufficient electric output has greatly impeded their practical applications. In this paper, we present an innovative lead zirconate titanate (PZT) energy harvester, named high-efficiency compressive-mode piezoelectric energy harvester (HC-PEH), to enhance the performance of energy harvesters. A theoretical model was developed analytically, and solved numerically to study the nonlinear characteristics of the HC-PEH. The results estimated by the developed model agree well with the experimental data from the fabricated prototype. The HC-PEH shows strong nonlinear responses, favorable working bandwidth and superior power output. Under a weak excitation of 0.3 g (g = 9.8 m/s2), a maximum power output 30 mW is generated at 22 Hz, which is about ten times better than current energy harvesters. The HC-PEH demonstrates the capability of generating enough power for most of wireless sensors.

  13. Analytical model for nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neiss, S; Goldschmidtboeing, F; M Kroener; Woias, P

    2014-01-01

    In this work we propose analytical expressions for the jump-up and jump-down point of a nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester. In addition, analytical expressions for the maximum power output at optimal resistive load and the 3 dB-bandwidth are derived. So far, only numerical models have been used to describe the physics of a piezoelectric energy harvester. However, this approach is not suitable to quickly evaluate different geometrical designs or piezoelectric materials in the harvester design process. In addition, the analytical expressions could be used to predict the jump-frequencies of a harvester during operation. In combination with a tuning mechanism, this would allow the design of an efficient control algorithm to ensure that the harvester is always working on the oscillator's high energy attractor. (paper)

  14. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M.; Browne, Alan L.; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-11-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s-1. Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R&D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s-1.

  15. Nonlinear modeling of magnetorheological energy absorbers under impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Min; Hu, Wei; Choi, Young-Tai; Wereley, Norman M; Browne, Alan L; Ulicny, John; Johnson, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) provide adaptive vibration and shock mitigation capabilities to accommodate varying payloads, vibration spectra, and shock pulses, as well as other environmental factors. A key performance metric is the dynamic range, which is defined as the ratio of the force at maximum field to the force in the absence of field. The off-state force is typically assumed to increase linearly with speed, but at the higher shaft speeds occurring in impact events, the off-state damping exhibits nonlinear velocity squared damping effects. To improve understanding of MREA behavior under high-speed impact conditions, this study focuses on nonlinear MREA models that can more accurately predict MREA dynamic behavior for nominal impact speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . Three models were examined in this study. First, a nonlinear Bingham-plastic (BP) model incorporating Darcy friction and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BP) was formulated where the force is proportional to the velocity. Second, a Bingham-plastic model incorporating minor loss factors and fluid inertia (Unsteady-BPM) to better account for high-speed behavior was formulated. Third, a hydromechanical (HM) analysis was developed to account for fluid compressibility and inertia as well as minor loss factors. These models were validated using drop test data obtained using the drop tower facility at GM R and D Center for nominal drop speeds of up to 6 m s −1 . (paper)

  16. Non-linear and signal energy optimal asymptotic filter design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Hrusak

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies some connections between the main results of the well known Wiener-Kalman-Bucy stochastic approach to filtering problems based mainly on the linear stochastic estimation theory and emphasizing the optimality aspects of the achieved results and the classical deterministic frequency domain linear filters such as Chebyshev, Butterworth, Bessel, etc. A new non-stochastic but not necessarily deterministic (possibly non-linear alternative approach called asymptotic filtering based mainly on the concepts of signal power, signal energy and a system equivalence relation plays an important role in the presentation. Filtering error invariance and convergence aspects are emphasized in the approach. It is shown that introducing the signal power as the quantitative measure of energy dissipation makes it possible to achieve reasonable results from the optimality point of view as well. The property of structural energy dissipativeness is one of the most important and fundamental features of resulting filters. Therefore, it is natural to call them asymptotic filters. The notion of the asymptotic filter is carried in the paper as a proper tool in order to unify stochastic and non-stochastic, linear and nonlinear approaches to signal filtering.

  17. Nonlinear analysis for dual-frequency concurrent energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhimiao; Lei, Hong; Tan, Ting; Sun, Weipeng; Huang, Wenhu

    2018-05-01

    The dual-frequency responses of the hybrid energy harvester undergoing the base excitation and galloping were analyzed numerically. In this work, an approximate dual-frequency analytical method is proposed for the nonlinear analysis of such a system. To obtain the approximate analytical solutions of the full coupled distributed-parameter model, the forcing interactions is first neglected. Then, the electromechanical decoupled governing equation is developed using the equivalent structure method. The hybrid mechanical response is finally separated to be the self-excited and forced responses for deriving the analytical solutions, which are confirmed by the numerical simulations of the full coupled model. The forced response has great impacts on the self-excited response. The boundary of Hopf bifurcation is analytically determined by the onset wind speed to galloping, which is linearly increased by the electrical damping. Quenching phenomenon appears when the increasing base excitation suppresses the galloping. The theoretical quenching boundary depends on the forced mode velocity. The quenching region increases with the base acceleration and electrical damping, but decreases with the wind speed. Superior to the base-excitation-alone case, the existence of the aerodynamic force protects the hybrid energy harvester at resonance from damages caused by the excessive large displacement. From the view of the harvested power, the hybrid system surpasses the base-excitation-alone system or the galloping-alone system. This study advances our knowledge on intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the dual-frequency energy harvesting system by taking advantage of the analytical solutions.

  18. Optically nonlinear energy transfer in light-harvesting dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Bradshaw, David S.

    2004-08-01

    Dendrimeric polymers are the subject of intense research activity geared towards their implementation in nanodevice applications such as energy harvesting systems, organic light-emitting diodes, photosensitizers, low-threshold lasers, and quantum logic elements, etc. A recent development in this area has been the construction of dendrimers specifically designed to exhibit novel forms of optical nonlinearity, exploiting the unique properties of these materials at high levels of photon flux. Starting from a thorough treatment of the underlying theory based on the principles of molecular quantum electrodynamics, it is possible to identify and characterize several optically nonlinear mechanisms for directed energy transfer and energy pooling in multichromophore dendrimers. Such mechanisms fall into two classes: first, those where two-photon absorption by individual donors is followed by transfer of the net energy to an acceptor; second, those where the excitation of two electronically distinct but neighboring donor groups is followed by a collective migration of their energy to a suitable acceptor. Each transfer process is subject to minor dissipative losses. In this paper we describe in detail the balance of factors and the constraints that determines the favored mechanism, which include the excitation statistics, structure of the energy levels, laser coherence factors, chromophore selection rules and architecture, possibilities for the formation of delocalized excitons, spectral overlap, and the overall distribution of donors and acceptors. Furthermore, it transpires that quantum interference between different mechanisms can play an important role. Thus, as the relative importance of each mechanism determines the relevant nanophotonic characteristics, the results reported here afford the means for optimizing highly efficient light-harvesting dendrimer devices.

  19. The Precession Index and a Nonlinear Energy Balance Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubincam, David

    2004-01-01

    A simple nonlinear energy balance climate model yields a precession index-like term in the temperature. Despite its importance in the geologic record, the precession index e sin (Omega)S, where e is the Earth's orbital eccentricity and (Omega)S is the Sun's perigee in the geocentric frame, is not present in the insolation at the top of the atmosphere. Hence there is no one-for-one mapping of 23,000 and 19,000 year periodicities from the insolation to the paleoclimate record; a nonlinear climate model is needed to produce these long periods. A nonlinear energy balance climate model with radiative terms of form T n, where T is surface temperature and n less than 1, does produce e sin (omega)S terms in temperature; the e sin (omega)S terms are called Seversmith psychroterms. Without feedback mechanisms, the model achieves extreme values of 0.64 K at the maximum orbital eccentricity of 0.06, cooling one hemisphere while simultaneously warming the other; the hemisphere over which perihelion occurs is the cooler. In other words, the nonlinear energy balance model produces long-term cooling in the northern hemisphere when the Sun's perihelion is near northern summer solstice and long-term warming in the northern hemisphere when the aphelion is near northern summer solstice. (This behavior is similar to the inertialess gray body which radiates like T 4, but the amplitude is much lower for the energy balance model because of its thermal inertia.) This seemingly paradoxical behavior works against the standard Milankovitch model, which requires cool northern summers (Sun far from Earth in northern summer) to build up northern ice sheets, so that if the standard model is correct it must be more efficient than previously thought. Alternatively, the new mechanism could possibly be dominant and indicate southern hemisphere control of the northern ice sheets, wherein the southern oceans undergo a long-term cooling when the Sun is far from the Earth during northern summer. The cold

  20. Post Critical Behaviour of a Simple Non-Linear System in a Cross Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, 3/4 (2011), s. 193-201 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710902; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : limit cycles * dynamic stability * post-critical effects * non-linear dynamics Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  1. Adaptive critic designs for optimal control of uncertain nonlinear systems with unmatched interconnections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiong; He, Haibo

    2018-05-26

    In this paper, we develop a novel optimal control strategy for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems with unmatched interconnections. To begin with, we present a stabilizing feedback controller for the interconnected nonlinear systems by modifying an array of optimal control laws of auxiliary subsystems. We also prove that this feedback controller ensures a specified cost function to achieve optimality. Then, under the framework of adaptive critic designs, we use critic networks to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations associated with auxiliary subsystem optimal control laws. The critic network weights are tuned through the gradient descent method combined with an additional stabilizing term. By using the newly established weight tuning rules, we no longer need the initial admissible control condition. In addition, we demonstrate that all signals in the closed-loop auxiliary subsystems are stable in the sense of uniform ultimate boundedness by using classic Lyapunov techniques. Finally, we provide an interconnected nonlinear plant to validate the present control scheme. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integration of Geometrical and Material Nonlinear Energy Sink with Piezoelectric Material Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Wei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel design by integrating geometrical and material nonlinear energy sink (NES with a piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester under shock excitation, which can realize vibration control and energy harvesting. The nonlinear spring and hysteresis behavior of the NES could reflect geometrical and material nonlinearity, respectively. Two configurations of the piezoelectric device, including the piezoelectric element embedded between the NES mass and the single-degree-of-freedom system or ground, are utilised to examine the energy dissipated by damper and hysteresis behavior of NES and the energy harvested by the piezoelectric element. Similar numerical research methods of Runge-Kutta algorithm are used to investigate the two configurations. The energy transaction measure (ETM is adopted to examine the instantaneous energy transaction between the primary and the NES-piezoelectricity system. And it demonstrates that the dissipated and harvested energy transaction is transferred from the primary system to the NES-piezoelectricity system and the instantaneous transaction of mechanical energy occupies a major part of the energy of transaction. Both figurations could realize vibration control efficiently.

  3. Non-linear absorption for concentrated solar energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O. A; Del Rio, J.A; Huelsz, G [Centro de Investigacion de Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to determine the maximum solar energy that can be transported using SiO{sub 2} optical fibers, analysis of non-linear absorption is required. In this work, we model the interaction between solar radiation and the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber core to determine the dependence of the absorption of the radioactive intensity. Using Maxwell's equations we obtain the relation between the refractive index and the electric susceptibility up to second order in terms of the electric field intensity. This is not enough to obtain an explicit expression for the non-linear absorption. Thus, to obtain the non-linear optical response, we develop a microscopic model of an harmonic driven oscillators with damp ing, based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. We solve this model using experimental information for the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber, and we determine the frequency-dependence of the non-linear absorption and the non-linear extinction of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers. Our results estimate that the average value over the solar spectrum for the non-linear extinction coefficient for SiO{sub 2} is k{sub 2}=10{sup -}29m{sup 2}V{sup -}2. With this result we conclude that the non-linear part of the absorption coefficient of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers during the transport of concentrated solar energy achieved by a circular concentrator is negligible, and therefore the use of optical fibers for solar applications is an actual option. [Spanish] Con el objeto de determinar la maxima energia solar que puede transportarse usando fibras opticas de SiO{sub 2} se requiere el analisis de absorcion no linear. En este trabajo modelamos la interaccion entre la radiacion solar y el nucleo de la fibra optica de SiO{sub 2} para determinar la dependencia de la absorcion de la intensidad radioactiva. Mediante el uso de las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenemos la relacion entre el indice de refraccion y la susceptibilidad electrica hasta el segundo orden en terminos de intensidad del campo electrico. Esto no es

  4. Stretched-exponential relaxation of the nonlinear dielectric effect in a critical binary solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Górny, Michał; Zioło, Jerzy

    1991-01-01

    An experimental confirmation is given of the existence of a stretched-exponential relaxation of the form exp[-(t/τ)x] with x~=0.39 in a binary solution with an upper critical point. The nonlinear dielectric effect (NDE) method was used for this experiment. Results obtained are similar to those reported earlier by Piazza et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1642 (1986); Phys. Rev. B 38, 7223 (1988)] based on the Kerr-effect measurements in solutions with a lower critical point. Studies could be carried out in the immediate vicinity of the critical point, because the application of the NDE is not restricted by the appearance of the critical opalescence.

  5. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of high energy line pipe whip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, L.C.; Kuo, A.Y.; Tang, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    To facilitate potential cost savings in pipe whip protection design, TVA conducted a 1'' high pressure line break test to investigate the pipe whip behavior. The test results are available to EPRI as a data base for a generic study on nonlinear dynamic behavior of piping systems and pipe whip phenomena. This paper describes a nonlinear dynamic analysis of the TVA high energy line tests using ABAQUS-EPGEN code. The analysis considers the effects of large deformation and high strain rate on resisting moment and energy absorption capability of the analyzed piping system. The numerical results of impact forces, impact velocities, and reaction forces at pipe supports are compared to the TVA test data. The pipe whip impact time and forces have also been calculated per the current NRC guidelines and compared. The calculated pipe support reaction forces prior to impact have been found to be in good agreement with the TVA test data except for some peak values at the very beginning of the pipe break. These peaks are believed to be due to stress wave propagation which cannot be addressed by the ABAQUS code. Both the effects of elbow crushing and strain rate have been approximately simulated. The results are found to be important on pipe whip impact evaluation. (orig.)

  6. Nonlinear features of the energy beam-driven instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesur, M.; Idomura, Y.; Garbet, X.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A concern with ignited fusion plasmas is that, as a result of the instabilities they trigger, the high-energy particles eject themselves before they could give their energy to the core to sustain the reaction. Similarities between this class of instabilities and the so-called Berk-Breizman problem motivate us to study a single-mode instability driven by an energetic particle beam. For this purpose, a one dimensional Vlasov simulation is extended to include a Krook collision operator and external damping processes. The code is benchmarked with previous work. The fully nonlinear behavior is recovered in the whole parameter space characterized by an effective relaxation rate ν a and an external damping rate γ d . Steady state, periodic and chaotic behaviors are observed in nonlinear solutions. In the regime above marginal stability where both ν a and γ d are smaller than the linear drive γ L , we observe a good agreement of steady saturation levels between the simulation and theory. Near marginal stability, the role of the normalized relaxation rate ν a /(γ L -γ d ), which is a key parameter to predict the behavior of the solution, is investigated for an initial distribution with relatively small γ L , which correspond to the situation considered in the theory. In the low relaxation rate regime, frequency sweeping events are observed, and the time-evolution of such event is investigated. (author)

  7. An Energy Saving Green Plug Device for Nonlinear Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloul, Albe; Sharaf, Adel; El-Hawary, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents a low cost a FACTS Based flexible fuzzy logic based modulated/switched tuned arm filter and Green Plug compensation (SFC-GP) scheme for single-phase nonlinear loads ensuring both voltage stabilization and efficient energy utilization. The new Green Plug-Switched filter compensator SFC modulated LC-Filter PWM Switched Capacitive Compensation Devices is controlled using a fuzzy logic regulator to enhance power quality, improve power factor at the source and reduce switching transients and inrush current conditions as well harmonic contents in source current. The FACTS based SFC-GP Device is a member of family of Green Plug/Filters/Compensation Schemes used for efficient energy utilization, power quality enhancement and voltage/inrush current/soft starting control using a dynamic error driven fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The device with fuzzy logic controller is validated using the Matlab / Simulink Software Environment for enhanced power quality (PQ), improved power factor and reduced inrush currents. This is achieved using modulated PWM Switching of the Filter-Capacitive compensation scheme to cope with dynamic type nonlinear and inrush cyclical loads..

  8. Nonlinearity and intraday efficiency tests on energy futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Using high frequency data, this paper first time comprehensively examines the intraday efficiency of four major energy (crude oil, heating oil, gasoline, natural gas) futures markets. In contrast to earlier studies which focus on in-sample evidence and assume linearity, the paper employs various nonlinear models and several model evaluation criteria to examine market efficiency in an out-of-sample forecasting context. Overall, there is evidence for intraday market inefficiency of two of the four energy future markets (heating oil and natural gas), which exists particularly during the bull market condition but not during the bear market condition. The evidence is also robust against the data-snooping bias and the model overfitting problem, and its economic significance can be very substantial. (author)

  9. Nonlinearity and intraday efficiency tests on energy futures markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao [Department of Economics, Queens College and the Graduate Center, The City University of New York, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Yang, Jian [The Business School, PO Box 173364, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, CO 80217-3364 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Using high frequency data, this paper first time comprehensively examines the intraday efficiency of four major energy (crude oil, heating oil, gasoline, natural gas) futures markets. In contrast to earlier studies which focus on in-sample evidence and assume linearity, the paper employs various nonlinear models and several model evaluation criteria to examine market efficiency in an out-of-sample forecasting context. Overall, there is evidence for intraday market inefficiency of two of the four energy future markets (heating oil and natural gas), which exists particularly during the bull market condition but not during the bear market condition. The evidence is also robust against the data-snooping bias and the model overfitting problem, and its economic significance can be very substantial. (author)

  10. Non-linear quantum critical dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation ratios far from equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Farzaneh [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Ribeiro, Pedro [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Russian Quantum Center, Novaya Street 100 A, Skolkovo, Moscow Area, 143025 (Russian Federation); Kirchner, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kirchner@correlated-matter.com [Center for Correlated Matter, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Non-thermal correlations of strongly correlated electron systems and the far-from-equilibrium properties of phases of condensed matter have become a topical research area. Here, an overview of the non-linear dynamics found near continuous zero-temperature phase transitions within the context of effective temperatures is presented. In particular, we focus on models of critical Kondo destruction. Such a quantum critical state, where Kondo screening is destroyed in a critical fashion, is realized in a number of rare earth intermetallics. This raises the possibility of experimentally testing for the existence of fluctuation-dissipation relations far from equilibrium in terms of effective temperatures. Finally, we present an analysis of a non-interacting, critical reference system, the pseudogap resonant level model, in terms of effective temperatures and contrast these results with those obtained near interacting quantum critical points. - Highlights: • Critical Kondo destruction explains the unusual properties of quantum critical heavy fermion compounds. • We review the concept of effective temperatures in models of critical Kondo destruction. • We compare effective temperatures found near non-interacting and fully interacting fixed points. • A comparison with non-interacting quantum impurity models is presented.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Borkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the problem of risk assessment in critical energy infrastructure. Firstly the critical infrastructure in energy sector is discussed than risk identification methodology for application to critical infrastructure is proposed. Specific conditions resulting from features of critical infrastructure are addressed in the context of risk assessment procedure. The limits of such a procedure are outlined and critical factors influencing different stages of risk assessment process are researched in view of specificity of the sector.

  12. Nonlinear metamaterials for electromagnetic energy harvesting (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbe Tekam, Gabin Thibaut; Ginis, Vincent; Seetharamdoo, Divitha; Danckaert, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Surrounded by electromagnetic radiation coming from wireless power transfer to consumer devices such as mobile phones, computers and television, our society is facing the scientific and technological challenge to recover energy that is otherwise lost to the environment. Energy harvesting is an emerging field of research focused on this largely unsolved problem, especially in the microwave regime. Metamaterials provide a very promising platform to meet this purpose. These artificial materials are made from subwavelength building blocks, and can be designed by resonate at particular frequencies, depending on their shape, geometry, size, and orientation. In this work, we show that an efficient electromagnetic energy harvester can be design by inserting a nonlinear element directly within the metamaterial unit cell, leading to the conversion of RF input power to DC charge accumulation. The electromagnetic energy harvester operating at microwave frequencies is built from a cut-wire metasurface, which operates as a quasistatic electric dipole resonator. Using the equivalent electrical circuit, we design the parameters to tune the resonance frequency of the harvester at the desired frequency, and we compare these results with numerical simulations. Finally, we discuss the efficiency of our metamaterial energy harvesters. This work potentially offers a variety of applications, for example in the telecommunications industry to charge phones, in robotics to power microrobots, and also in medicine to advance pacemakers or health monitoring sensors.

  13. Characterizing the Effective Bandwidth of Nonlinear Vibratory Energy Harvesters Possessing Multiple Stable Equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyam Mohan Ram, Meghashyam

    In the last few years, advances in micro-fabrication technologies have lead to the development of low-power electronic devices spanning critical fields related to sensing, data transmission, and medical implants. Unfortunately, effective utilization of these devices is currently hindered by their reliance on batteries. In many of these applications, batteries may not be a viable choice as they have a fixed storage capacity and need to be constantly replaced or recharged. In light of such challenges, several novel concepts for micro-power generation have been recently introduced to harness, otherwise, wasted ambient energy from the environment and maintain these low-power devices. Vibratory energy harvesting is one such concept which has received significant attention in recent years. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have been well studied in the literature and their performance metrics have been established, recent research has focused on deliberate introduction of stiffness nonlinearities into the design of these devices. It has been shown that, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth as compared to their linear counterparts, leading to the premise that they can used to improve performance, and decrease sensitivity to variations in the design and excitation parameters. This dissertation aims to investigate this premise by developing an analytical framework to study the influence of stiffness nonlinearities on the performance and effective bandwidth of nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters. To achieve this goal, the dissertation is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of bi-stable energy harvesters possessing a symmetric quartic potential energy function under harmonic excitations and carries out a detailed analysis to define their effective frequency bandwidth. The second part investigates the relative performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under optimal electric loading

  14. Linear and non-linear energy barriers in systems of interacting single-domain ferromagnetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrila, Iulian; Bodale, Ilie; Rotarescu, Cristian; Stancu, Alexandru

    2011-01-01

    A comparative analysis between linear and non-linear energy barriers used for modeling statistical thermally-excited ferromagnetic systems is presented. The linear energy barrier is obtained by new symmetry considerations about the anisotropy energy and the link with the non-linear energy barrier is also presented. For a relevant analysis we compare the effects of linear and non-linear energy barriers implemented in two different models: Preisach-Neel and Ising-Metropolis. The differences between energy barriers which are reflected in different coercive field dependence of the temperature are also presented. -- Highlights: → The linear energy barrier is obtained from symmetry considerations. → The linear and non-linear energy barriers are calibrated and implemented in Preisach-Neel and Ising-Metropolis models. → The temperature and time effects of the linear and non-linear energy barriers are analyzed.

  15. Energy demand forecasting in Iranian metal industry using linear and nonlinear models based on evolutionary algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piltan, Mehdi; Shiri, Hiva; Ghaderi, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigating different fitness functions for evolutionary algorithms in energy forecasting. ► Energy forecasting of Iranian metal industry by value added, energy prices, investment and employees. ► Using real-coded instead of binary-coded genetic algorithm decreases energy forecasting error. - Abstract: Developing energy-forecasting models is known as one of the most important steps in long-term planning. In order to achieve sustainable energy supply toward economic development and social welfare, it is required to apply precise forecasting model. Applying artificial intelligent models for estimation complex economic and social functions is growing up considerably in many researches recently. In this paper, energy consumption in industrial sector as one of the critical sectors in the consumption of energy has been investigated. Two linear and three nonlinear functions have been used in order to forecast and analyze energy in the Iranian metal industry, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are applied to attain parameters of the models. The Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) has been developed based on real numbers, which is introduced as a new approach in the field of energy forecasting. In the proposed model, electricity consumption has been considered as a function of different variables such as electricity tariff, manufacturing value added, prevailing fuel prices, the number of employees, the investment in equipment and consumption in the previous years. Mean Square Error (MSE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) and Mean Absolute Percent Error (MAPE) are the four functions which have been used as the fitness function in the evolutionary algorithms. The results show that the logarithmic nonlinear model using PSO algorithm with 1.91 error percentage has the best answer. Furthermore, the prediction of electricity consumption in industrial sector of Turkey and also Turkish industrial sector

  16. Modelling non-linear effects of dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Benjamin; Baldi, Marco; Pourtsidou, Alkistis

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the capabilities of perturbation theory in capturing non-linear effects of dark energy. We test constant and evolving w models, as well as models involving momentum exchange between dark energy and dark matter. Specifically, we compare perturbative predictions at 1-loop level against N-body results for four non-standard equations of state as well as varying degrees of momentum exchange between dark energy and dark matter. The interaction is modelled phenomenologically using a time dependent drag term in the Euler equation. We make comparisons at the level of the matter power spectrum and the redshift space monopole and quadrupole. The multipoles are modelled using the Taruya, Nishimichi and Saito (TNS) redshift space spectrum. We find perturbation theory does very well in capturing non-linear effects coming from dark sector interaction. We isolate and quantify the 1-loop contribution coming from the interaction and from the non-standard equation of state. We find the interaction parameter ξ amplifies scale dependent signatures in the range of scales considered. Non-standard equations of state also give scale dependent signatures within this same regime. In redshift space the match with N-body is improved at smaller scales by the addition of the TNS free parameter σv. To quantify the importance of modelling the interaction, we create mock data sets for varying values of ξ using perturbation theory. This data is given errors typical of Stage IV surveys. We then perform a likelihood analysis using the first two multipoles on these sets and a ξ=0 modelling, ignoring the interaction. We find the fiducial growth parameter f is generally recovered even for very large values of ξ both at z=0.5 and z=1. The ξ=0 modelling is most biased in its estimation of f for the phantom w=‑1.1 case.

  17. Nonlinear analysis and characteristics of inductive galloping energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, H. L.; Yang, Y. W.; Abdelkefi, A.; Wang, L.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an investigation on analysis and characteristics of aerodynamic electromagnetic energy harvesters. The source of aeroelastic oscillations results from galloping of a prismatic structure. A nonlinear distributed-parameter model is developed representing the dynamics of the transverse degree of freedom and the electric current induced in the coil. Firstly, we perform a linear analysis to study the impacts of the external electrical resistance, magnet placement, electromagnetic coupling coefficient, and internal resistance in the coil on the cut-in speed of instability of the coupled electroaeroelastic system. It is demonstrated that these parameters have significant impacts on cut-in speed of instability of the harvester system. Subsequently, a nonlinear analysis is implemented to explore the influences of these parameters on the output property of the energy harvester. The results show that there exists an optimal external electrical resistance which maximizes the output power of the harvester, and this optimal value varies with the magnet's placement, wind speed, electromagnetic coupling coefficient and internal resistance of the coil. It is also demonstrated that an increase in the distance between the clamped end and the magnet, an increase in the electromagnetic coupling coefficient, and/or a decrease in the internal resistance of the coil are accompanied by an increase in the level of the harvested power and a decrease in the tip displacement of the bluff body which is associated with a resistive-shunt damping effect in the harvester. The implemented studies give a constructive guidance to design and enhance the output performance of aerodynamic electromagnetic energy harvesters.

  18. Analytical description of critical dynamics for two-dimensional dissipative nonlinear maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méndez-Bermúdez, J.A.; Oliveira, Juliano A. de; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-01-01

    The critical dynamics near the transition from unlimited to limited action diffusion for two families of well known dissipative nonlinear maps, namely the dissipative standard and dissipative discontinuous maps, is characterized by the use of an analytical approach. The approach is applied to explicitly obtain the average squared action as a function of the (discrete) time and the parameters controlling nonlinearity and dissipation. This allows to obtain a set of critical exponents so far obtained numerically in the literature. The theoretical predictions are verified by extensive numerical simulations. We conclude that all possible dynamical cases, independently on the map parameter values and initial conditions, collapse into the universal exponential decay of the properly normalized average squared action as a function of a normalized time. The formalism developed here can be extended to many other different types of mappings therefore making the methodology generic and robust. - Highlights: • We analytically approach scaling properties of a family of two-dimensional dissipative nonlinear maps. • We derive universal scaling functions that were obtained before only approximately. • We predict the unexpected condition where diffusion and dissipation compensate each other exactly. • We find a new universal scaling function that embraces all possible dissipative behaviors.

  19. Internal wave energy flux from density perturbations in nonlinear stratifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank M.; Allshouse, Michael R.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.

    2017-11-01

    Tidal flow over the topography at the bottom of the ocean, whose density varies with depth, generates internal gravity waves that have a significant impact on the energy budget of the ocean. Thus, understanding the energy flux (J = p v) is important, but it is difficult to measure simultaneously the pressure and velocity perturbation fields, p and v . In a previous work, a Green's-function-based method was developed to calculate the instantaneous p, v , and thus J , given a density perturbation field for a constant buoyancy frequency N. Here we extend the previous analytic Green's function work to include nonuniform N profiles, namely the tanh-shaped and linear cases, because background density stratifications that occur in the ocean and some experiments are nonlinear. In addition, we present a finite-difference method for the general case where N has an arbitrary profile. Each method is validated against numerical simulations. The methods we present can be applied to measured density perturbation data by using our MATLAB graphical user interface EnergyFlux. PJM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract DE-FG05-80ET-53088. HLS and MRA were supported by ONR Grant No. N000141110701.

  20. Study of critical behavior in concrete during curing by application of dynamic linear and nonlinear means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacouture, Jean-Christoph; Johnson, Paul A; Cohen-Tenoudji, Frederic

    2003-03-01

    The monitoring of both linear and nonlinear elastic properties of a high performance concrete during curing is presented by application of compressional and shear waves. To follow the linear elastic behavior, both compressional and shear waves are used in wide band pulse echo mode. Through the value of the complex reflection coefficient between the cell material (Lucite) and the concrete within the cell, the elastic moduli are calculated. Simultaneously, the transmission of a continuous compressional sine wave at progressively increasing drive levels permits us to calculate the nonlinear properties by extracting the harmonics amplitudes of the signal. Information regarding the chemical evolution of the concrete based upon the reaction of hydration of cement is obtained by monitoring the temperature inside the sample. These different types of measurements are linked together to interpret the critical behavior.

  1. The benefits of noise and nonlinearity: Extracting energy from random vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammaitoni, Luca, E-mail: luca.gammaitoni@pg.infn.it [NiPS Laboratory, Universita di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Neri, Igor; Vocca, Helios [NiPS Laboratory, Universita di Perugia, I-06100 Perugia (Italy)

    2010-10-05

    Nonlinear behavior is the ordinary feature of the vast majority of dynamical systems and noise is commonly present in any finite temperature physical and chemical system. In this article we briefly review the potentially beneficial outcome of the interplay of noise and nonlinearity by addressing the novel field of vibration energy harvesting. The role of nonlinearity in a piezoelectric harvester oscillator dynamics is modeled with nonlinear stochastic differential equation.

  2. On weakly singular and fully nonlinear travelling shallow capillary–gravity waves in the critical regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsotakis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dmitsot@gmail.com [Victoria University of Wellington, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Operations Research, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Dutykh, Denys, E-mail: Denys.Dutykh@univ-savoie.fr [LAMA, UMR 5127 CNRS, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, Campus Scientifique, F-73376 Le Bourget-du-Lac Cedex (France); Assylbekuly, Aydar, E-mail: asylbekuly@mail.ru [Khoja Akhmet Yassawi International Kazakh–Turkish University, Faculty of Natural Science, Department of Mathematics, 161200 Turkestan (Kazakhstan); Zhakebayev, Dauren, E-mail: daurjaz@mail.ru [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Department of Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 050000 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-05-25

    In this Letter we consider long capillary–gravity waves described by a fully nonlinear weakly dispersive model. First, using the phase space analysis methods we describe all possible types of localized travelling waves. Then, we especially focus on the critical regime, where the surface tension is exactly balanced by the gravity force. We show that our long wave model with a critical Bond number admits stable travelling wave solutions with a singular crest. These solutions are usually referred to in the literature as peakons or peaked solitary waves. They satisfy the usual speed-amplitude relation, which coincides with Scott–Russel's empirical formula for solitary waves, while their decay rate is the same regardless their amplitude. Moreover, they can be of depression or elevation type independent of their speed. The dynamics of these solutions are studied as well. - Highlights: • A model for long capillary–gravity weakly dispersive and fully nonlinear water waves is derived. • Shallow capillary–gravity waves are classified using phase plane analysis. • Peaked travelling waves are found in the critical regime. • The dynamics of peakons in Serre–Green–Naghdi equations is studied numerically.

  3. Comparative methods to assess harmonic response of nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesters interfaced with AC and DC circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Chunbo; Tang, Lihua; Harne, Ryan L.

    2018-05-01

    Nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) has been widely investigated during the past few years. Among the majority of these researches, a pure resistive load is used to evaluate power output. To power conventional electronics in practical application, the alternating current (AC) generated by nonlinear PEH needs to be transformed into a direct current (DC) and rectifying circuits are required to interface the device and electronic load. This paper aims at exploring the critical influences of AC and DC interface circuits on nonlinear PEH. As a representative nonlinear PEH, we fabricate and evaluate a monostable PEH in terms of generated power and useful operating bandwidth when it is connected to AC and DC interface circuits. Firstly, the harmonic balance analysis and equivalent circuit representation method are utilized to tackle the modeling of nonlinear energy harvesters connected to AC and DC interface circuits. The performances of the monostable PEH connected to these interface circuits are then analyzed and compared, focusing on the influences of the varying load, excitation and electromechanical coupling strength on the nonlinear dynamics, bandwidth and harvested power. Subsequently, the behaviors of the monostable PEH with AC and DC interface circuits are verified by experiment. Results indicate that both AC and DC interface circuits have a peculiar influence on the power peak shifting and operational bandwidth of the monostable PEH, which is quite different from that on the linear PEH.

  4. Nonlinear field theories and non-Gaussian fluctuations for near-critical many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszynski, J.A.; Dixon, J.M.; Grundland, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    This review article outlines a number of efforts made over the past several decades to understand the physics of near critical many-body systems. Beginning with the phenomenological theories of Landau and Ginzburg the paper discusses the two main routes adopted in the past. The first approach is based on statistical calculations while the second investigates the underlying nonlinear field equations. In the last part of the paper we outline a generalisation of these methods which combines classical and quantum properties of the many-body systems studied. (orig.)

  5. The evolution of an unsteady translating nonlinear rossby-wave critical layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Peter H.; Cowley, Stephen J.

    When a monochromatic Rossby wave is forced on a flow which is slowly varying in time, the location of the critical line, where the phase speed of the wave is equal to that of the flow, also slowly changes. It is shown that this translation can play an important role in the vorticity balance near the critical line. The behavior of the translating critical layer is analyzed for various values of y, a parameter which measures the relative importance of nonlinear advection and translation. First, the vorticity equation in the critical layer is solved numerically in an important special case, where the velocity field in the critical layer is independent of the vorticity distribution and constant in time. The solutions reveal a number of new aspects of the behavior which are introduced by the translation, including the formation of a wake behind the critical layer, and the possibility of "trapping" of fluid particles in the critical layer if y exceeds a threshold value. Viewed in a frame of reference moving with the critical line the vorticity distribution may tend to a steady state, except in a "vorticity front" far downstream in the wake. If streamlines in the critical layer are open this steady state may be a predominantly inviscid one; if they are closed a steady state is possible only with non-zero dissipation. For both the unsteady and steady flows the translation allows the "logarithmic phase jump" across the critical layer, 4, to be non-zero and negative. Hence, even when the viscosity is vanishingly small, the critical layer can act as a strong "absorber" of Eliassen-Palm wave activity. Second, steady-state solutions are obtained numerically for a case when the velocity field in the critical layer is not independent of the vorticity distribution there. The interaction restricts the formation of closed streamlines, and an asymptotic open-streamline solution for large y can be found. The critical layer again acts an absorber of wave activity, but with decreasing e

  6. Energy and Transmissibility in Nonlinear Viscous Base Isolators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Athanasios A.; Manolis, George D.

    2016-09-01

    High damping rubber bearings (HDRB) are the most commonly used base isolators in buildings and are often combined with other systems, such as sliding bearings. Their mechanical behaviour is highly nonlinear and dependent on a number of factors. At first, a physical process is suggested here to explain the empirical formula introduced by J.M. Kelly in 1991, where the dissipated energy of a HDRB under cyclic testing, at constant frequency, is proportional to the amplitude of the shear strain, raised to a power of approximately 1.50. This physical process is best described by non-Newtonian fluid behaviour, originally developed by F.H. Norton in 1929 to describe creep in steel at high-temperatures. The constitutive model used includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity, raised to a non-integer power. The identification of a three parameter Kelvin model, the simplest possible system with nonlinear viscosity, is also suggested here. Furthermore, a more advanced model with variable damping coefficient is implemented to better model in this complex mechanical process. Next, the assumption of strain-rate dependence in their rubber layers under cyclic loading is examined in order to best interpret experimental results on the transmission of motion between the upper and lower surfaces of HDRB. More specifically, the stress-relaxation phenomenon observed with time in HRDB can be reproduced numerically, only if the constitutive model includes a viscous term, that depends on the absolute value of the velocity raised to a non-integer power, i. e., the Norton fluid previously mentioned. Thus, it becomes possible to compute the displacement transmissibility function between the top and bottom surfaces of HDRB base isolator systems and to draw engineering-type conclusions, relevant to their design under time-harmonic loads.

  7. Actor-critic-based optimal tracking for partially unknown nonlinear discrete-time systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiumarsi, Bahare; Lewis, Frank L

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a partially model-free adaptive optimal control solution to the deterministic nonlinear discrete-time (DT) tracking control problem in the presence of input constraints. The tracking error dynamics and reference trajectory dynamics are first combined to form an augmented system. Then, a new discounted performance function based on the augmented system is presented for the optimal nonlinear tracking problem. In contrast to the standard solution, which finds the feedforward and feedback terms of the control input separately, the minimization of the proposed discounted performance function gives both feedback and feedforward parts of the control input simultaneously. This enables us to encode the input constraints into the optimization problem using a nonquadratic performance function. The DT tracking Bellman equation and tracking Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) are derived. An actor-critic-based reinforcement learning algorithm is used to learn the solution to the tracking HJB equation online without requiring knowledge of the system drift dynamics. That is, two neural networks (NNs), namely, actor NN and critic NN, are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. A simulation example is given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Prospects for sustainable energy: a critical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassedy, E.S. Jr

    2000-04-01

    This book explores the historical origins, technical features, marketability, and environmental impacts of the complete range of sustainable energy technologies: solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean-energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel, and energy storage. The aim is to inform policy analysts and decision makers of the options available for sustainable energy production. The book is therefore written so as to be accessible to an audience from a broad range of backgrounds and scientific training. It will also be a valuable supplementary text for advanced courses in environmental studies, energy economics and policy, and engineering

  9. Critical energy infrastructure protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, Angela [Canadian Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, Carleton University (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    In Canada government acknowledged the need to protect energy assets against attacks. However, so far no strategy has been developed. The aim of this report is to present the characteristics of the energy sector in Canada, the threats, and how the government is responding to those threats. The energy sector in Canada is concentrated and diverse and is under not only terrorism or cyber attacks threats but also environmental threats. This report shows that the Government of Canada is focusing on the protection and assurance of important energy infrastructures but that they are facing several challenges resulting in long delays in the adoption of a formal strategy.

  10. Energy Healing for Cancer: A Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agdal, Rita; von Bornemann Hjelmborg, Jacob; Johannessen, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Background: This article explores the evidence base of efficacy and effectiveness of ‘energy healing’ for cancer patients. The term ‘energy healing’ refers to a wide variety of therapies which are based on the premise that the healer transfers energy to the patient. Among the most researched form...... the complex character of potential outcomes, cross-disciplinary methodologies may be relevant. To extend the scope of clinical trials, psychosocial processes should be taken into account and explored, rather than dismissed as placebo....

  11. Unexpected nonlinear effects and critical coupling in NbN superconducting microwave resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, B.; Buks, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:In this work, we have designed and fabricated several NbN superconducting stripline microwave resonators sputtered on sapphire substrates. The low temperature response exhibits strong and unexpected nonlinear effects, including sharp jumps as the frequency or poser are varied, frequency hysteresis loops changing direction as the input power is varied, and others. Contrary to some other superconducting resonators, a simple model of a one-dimensional Duffing resonator cannot account for the experimental results. Whereas the physical origin of the unusual nonlinear response of our samples remains an open question, our intensive experimental study of these effects under varying conditions provides some important insight. We consider a hypothesis according to which Josephson junctions forming weak links between the grains of the NbN are responsible for the observed behavior. We show that most of the experimental results are qualitatively consistent with such hypothesis. While revealing the underlying physics remains an outstanding challenge for future research, the utilization of the unusual nonlinear response for some novel applications is already demonstrated in the present work. In particular an operate the resonator as an inter modulation amplifier and find that the gain can be as high as 15 dB. To the best of our knowledge, inter modulation gain greater than unity has not been reported before in the scientific literature. In another application we demonstrate for the first time that the coupling between the resonator and its feed line can be made amplitude dependent. This novel mechanism allows us to tune the resonator into critical coupling conditions

  12. Improving the Critic Learning for Event-Based Nonlinear $H_{\\infty }$ Control Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; He, Haibo; Liu, Derong

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we aim at improving the critic learning criterion to cope with the event-based nonlinear H ∞ state feedback control design. First of all, the H ∞ control problem is regarded as a two-player zero-sum game and the adaptive critic mechanism is used to achieve the minimax optimization under event-based environment. Then, based on an improved updating rule, the event-based optimal control law and the time-based worst-case disturbance law are obtained approximately by training a single critic neural network. The initial stabilizing control is no longer required during the implementation process of the new algorithm. Next, the closed-loop system is formulated as an impulsive model and its stability issue is handled by incorporating the improved learning criterion. The infamous Zeno behavior of the present event-based design is also avoided through theoretical analysis on the lower bound of the minimal intersample time. Finally, the applications to an aircraft dynamics and a robot arm plant are carried out to verify the efficient performance of the present novel design method.

  13. Critical behavior in earthquake energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanliss, James; Muñoz, Víctor; Pastén, Denisse; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2017-09-01

    We explore bursty multiscale energy dissipation from earthquakes flanked by latitudes 29° S and 35.5° S, and longitudes 69.501° W and 73.944° W (in the Chilean central zone). Our work compares the predictions of a theory of nonequilibrium phase transitions with nonstandard statistical signatures of earthquake complex scaling behaviors. For temporal scales less than 84 hours, time development of earthquake radiated energy activity follows an algebraic arrangement consistent with estimates from the theory of nonequilibrium phase transitions. There are no characteristic scales for probability distributions of sizes and lifetimes of the activity bursts in the scaling region. The power-law exponents describing the probability distributions suggest that the main energy dissipation takes place due to largest bursts of activity, such as major earthquakes, as opposed to smaller activations which contribute less significantly though they have greater relative occurrence. The results obtained provide statistical evidence that earthquake energy dissipation mechanisms are essentially "scale-free", displaying statistical and dynamical self-similarity. Our results provide some evidence that earthquake radiated energy and directed percolation belong to a similar universality class.

  14. A critical assessment of energy accident studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of two studies conducted ten years apart on energy accidents provides important insights into methodological issues and policy implications. Recommendations for further improvements in energy accident studies are developed including accounting for differences between average and incremental accident damages, testing for appropriate levels of aggregation of accidents, making references and databases publicly available, more precisely defining and reporting different types of economic damages, accounting for involuntary and voluntary risks, reporting normalized damages, raising broader public policy and planning implications and updating existing accident databases.

  15. A critical assessment of energy accident studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, Frank A. [Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    A comparison of two studies conducted ten years apart on energy accidents provides important insights into methodological issues and policy implications. Recommendations for further improvements in energy accident studies are developed including accounting for differences between average and incremental accident damages, testing for appropriate levels of aggregation of accidents, making references and databases publicly available, more precisely defining and reporting different types of economic damages, accounting for involuntary and voluntary risks, reporting normalized damages, raising broader public policy and planning implications and updating existing accident databases. (author)

  16. Darcy-Forchheimer flow of Maxwell nanofluid flow with nonlinear thermal radiation and activation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sajid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article is about the study of Darcy-Forchheimer flow of Maxwell nanofluid over a linear stretching surface. Effects like variable thermal conductivity, activation energy, nonlinear thermal radiation is also incorporated for the analysis of heat and mass transfer. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs with convective boundary conditions are first converted into the nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs with the help of similarity transformation, and then the resulting nonlinear ODEs are solved with the help of shooting method and MATLAB built-in bvp4c solver. The impact of different physical parameters like Brownian motion, thermophoresis parameter, Reynolds number, magnetic parameter, nonlinear radiative heat flux, Prandtl number, Lewis number, reaction rate constant, activation energy and Biot number on Nusselt number, velocity, temperature and concentration profile has been discussed. It is viewed that both thermophoresis parameter and activation energy parameter has ascending effect on the concentration profile.

  17. Energy Geographies: Thinking Critically about Energy Issues in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Elvin

    2016-01-01

    Energy issues are becoming increasingly common subjects of instruction in undergraduate- and graduate-level classrooms across a variety of disciplines. The interdisciplinary character of energy studies provides geographers with a great opportunity to present different applied and theoretical approaches to help students conceptualize energy issues…

  18. The Department of Energy nuclear criticality safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felty, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper broadly covers key events and activities from which the Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) evolved. The NCSP maintains fundamental infrastructure that supports operational criticality safety programs. This infrastructure includes continued development and maintenance of key calculational tools, differential and integral data measurements, benchmark compilation, development of training resources, hands-on training, and web-based systems to enhance information preservation and dissemination. The NCSP was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 97-2, Criticality Safety, and evolved from a predecessor program, the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program, that was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, The Need for Critical Experiment Capability. This paper also discusses the role Dr. Sol Pearlstein played in helping the Department of Energy lay the foundation for a robust and enduring criticality safety infrastructure.

  19. Critical impact energy for the perforation of metallic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.Y.; Li, Q.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the empirical formulae used in engineering practice to predict the critical perforation energy of metallic plates struck by rigid projectiles in the sub-ordnance regime. Main factors affecting the critical perforation energy are identified and valid conditions for each empirical formula are compared. Dimensional analysis is conducted to show the dependence of the non-dimensional critical impact energy on other influential non-dimensional numbers. Available empirical formulae are re-expressed in non-dimensional forms. A modified Jowett/AEA equation is proposed to predict the critical perforation energy of a flat-ended short projectile. The present work increases the confidence of using these empirical formulae and can be regarded as a quick guide for ballistic protection design of metallic shields and steel armour plates

  20. Russian atomic energy reaches critical masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A.

    1996-01-01

    With more than 200 malfunctions recorded in the early 1990's the outmoded nuclear reactors in the former Soviet Union are in critical condition. Unfortunatly, there may not be enough money to monitor them, much less update them, says Artiom Ustinov, an expert in the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Moscow. In on short decade, Russia's nuclear research budget has been slashed from $1.5 billion to $250 million. That amount of money simply cannot be stretched far enough to address safety issues, Ustinov says. open-quotes Currently, nuclear reactors in the former Soviet Union pose a greater environmental threat than ever before,close quotes ustinov says. open-quotes In fact, almost half the nuclear power plants operating in Russia today are Chernobyl-like.close quotes and most of these facilities are located in such large industrial centers as Moscow and st. Petersburg, Ustinov says. The future of nuclear power in the Soviet Union remains cloudy, Ustinov concludes. open-quotes It is likely that the legacy of its development will continue to generate electricity-and controversy-in the years ahead.close quotes

  1. Nonlinear methods for load and energy forecasting in local energy systems, especially wind power and photovoltaic systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantz, H.; Ragwitz, M.

    2002-05-01

    The investigations were supported by the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Austin, Texas, the Department of Energy and Semiconductor Engineering of Oldenburg University, and Boreas Energietechnik GmbH in Dresden, Germany [de

  2. Nonlinear analysis and enhancement of wing-based piezoaeroelastic energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar; Ghommem, Mehdi; Nuhait, Abdullah O.; Hajj, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the level of harvested power from aeroelastic vibrations for an elastically mounted wing supported by nonlinear springs. The energy is harvested by attaching a piezoelectric transducer to the plunge degree of freedom. The considered

  3. On Mixed Data and Event Driven Design for Adaptive-Critic-Based Nonlinear $H_{\\infty}$ Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Mu, Chaoxu; Liu, Derong; Ma, Hongwen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, based on the adaptive critic learning technique, the control for a class of unknown nonlinear dynamic systems is investigated by adopting a mixed data and event driven design approach. The nonlinear control problem is formulated as a two-player zero-sum differential game and the adaptive critic method is employed to cope with the data-based optimization. The novelty lies in that the data driven learning identifier is combined with the event driven design formulation, in order to develop the adaptive critic controller, thereby accomplishing the nonlinear control. The event driven optimal control law and the time driven worst case disturbance law are approximated by constructing and tuning a critic neural network. Applying the event driven feedback control, the closed-loop system is built with stability analysis. Simulation studies are conducted to verify the theoretical results and illustrate the control performance. It is significant to observe that the present research provides a new avenue of integrating data-based control and event-triggering mechanism into establishing advanced adaptive critic systems.

  4. Deconfined quantum criticality of the O(3) nonlinear σ model in two spatial dimensions: A renormalization-group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Seok

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition of the O(3) nonlinear σ model without Berry phase in two spatial dimensions. Utilizing the CP 1 representation of the nonlinear σ model, we obtain an effective action in terms of bosonic spinons interacting via compact U(1) gauge fields. Based on the effective field theory, we find that the bosonic spinons are deconfined to emerge at the quantum critical point of the nonlinear σ model. It is emphasized that the deconfinement of spinons is realized in the absence of Berry phase. This is in contrast to the previous study of Senthil et al. [Science 303, 1490 (2004)], where the Berry phase plays a crucial role, resulting in the deconfinement of spinons. It is the reason why the deconfinement is obtained even in the absence of the Berry phase effect that the quantum critical point is described by the XY ('neutral') fixed point, not the IXY ('charged') fixed point. The IXY fixed point is shown to be unstable against instanton excitations and the instanton excitations are proliferated. At the IXY fixed point it is the Berry phase effect that suppresses the instanton excitations, causing the deconfinement of spinons. On the other hand, the XY fixed point is found to be stable against instanton excitations because an effective internal charge is zero at the neutral XY fixed point. As a result the deconfinement of spinons occurs at the quantum critical point of the O(3) nonlinear σ model in two dimensions

  5. Nonlinear model predictive control of a wave energy converter based on differential flatness parameterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a fast constrained optimization approach, which is tailored for nonlinear model predictive control of wave energy converters (WEC). The advantage of this approach relies on its exploitation of the differential flatness of the WEC model. This can reduce the dimension of the resulting nonlinear programming problem (NLP) derived from the continuous constrained optimal control of WEC using pseudospectral method. The alleviation of computational burden using this approach helps to promote an economic implementation of nonlinear model predictive control strategy for WEC control problems. The method is applicable to nonlinear WEC models, nonconvex objective functions and nonlinear constraints, which are commonly encountered in WEC control problems. Numerical simulations demonstrate the efficacy of this approach.

  6. Pulse reshaping in photonic crystal waveguides and microcavities with Kerr nonlinearity: Critical issues for all-optical switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujic, Dragan; John, Sajeev

    2005-01-01

    We delineate critical issues for 'controlling light with light' in photonic crystal (PC) waveguides coupled to Kerr-nonlinear microresonators. These arise from (a) fundamental trade-off between switching speed and switching intensity threshold inherent in high-quality Q-factor cavities and (b) the dynamical nonlinear oscillation of such cavities in response to incident light pulses. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations of electromagnetic pulse propagation, we consider both (i) a nonlinear Fabry-Perot microresonator (embedded within a PC waveguide) exhibiting a narrow transmission resonance and (ii) a nonlinear point defect (side-coupled to a PC waveguide) exhibiting a narrow reflection spectrum. We describe self-induced switching from transmission to reflection induced by pulse intensity tuning as well as control of pulse transmission induced by the secondary, continuous (cw) laser field propagating through the same PC waveguide. For the Fabry-Perot microresonator, a well-defined self-switching threshold is obtained. However, this is accompanied by considerable temporal and spectral distortion of the pulse caused by the oscillatory nonlinear response of the microresonator. When the quality factor of the microresonator is increased, the switching intensity threshold can be lowered but the pulse transit (switching) time and the pulse distortion are increased. For the side-coupled microresonator, a gradual (not sharp) self-switching behavior as a function of incident intensity is obtained. For both the Fabry-Perot and side-coupled nonlinear microresonators, control of pulse transmission can be achieved by means of a secondary cw laser field. The cw power required for switching with realistic Kerr nonlinearities is in excess of 1 W/μm 2 and may cause optical damage to the semiconducting PC backbone. Both instantaneous and noninstantaneous Kerr-response models are considered. Our results underscore the limitations and trade-offs inherent in the possible

  7. Transient and chaotic low-energy transfers in a system with bistable nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, F., E-mail: francesco.romeo@uniroma1.it [Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, SAPIENZA University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Manevitch, L. I. [Institute of Chemical Physics, RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bergman, L. A.; Vakakis, A. [College of Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61820 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    The low-energy dynamics of a two-dof system composed of a grounded linear oscillator coupled to a lightweight mass by means of a spring with both cubic nonlinear and negative linear components is investigated. The mechanisms leading to intense energy exchanges between the linear oscillator, excited by a low-energy impulse, and the nonlinear attachment are addressed. For lightly damped systems, it is shown that two main mechanisms arise: Aperiodic alternating in-well and cross-well oscillations of the nonlinear attachment, and secondary nonlinear beats occurring once the dynamics evolves solely in-well. The description of the former dissipative phenomenon is provided in a two-dimensional projection of the phase space, where transitions between in-well and cross-well oscillations are associated with sequences of crossings across a pseudo-separatrix. Whereas the second mechanism is described in terms of secondary limiting phase trajectories of the nonlinear attachment under certain resonance conditions. The analytical treatment of the two aformentioned low-energy transfer mechanisms relies on the reduction of the nonlinear dynamics and consequent analysis of the reduced dynamics by asymptotic techniques. Direct numerical simulations fully validate our analytical predictions.

  8. Search for the QCD critical point at SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Anticic, T.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Boimska, B.; Botje, M.; Bracinik, J.; Buncic, P.; Cerny, V.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Genchev, V.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hegyi, S.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kikola, D.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kornas, E.; Korus, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kreps, M.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Levai, P.; Litov, L.; Lungwitz, B.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Peryt, W.; Pikna, M.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Puhlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Szuba, M.; Szymanski, P.; Trubnikov, V.; Utvic, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Yoo, I.K.; Abgrall, N.; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Andrieu, B.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Asryan, A.G.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Boldizsar, L.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Choi, K.-U.; Chung, P.; Cleymans, J.; Derkach, D.A.; Diakonos, F.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Feofilov, G.A.; Ferrero, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Hasegawa, T.; Haungs, A.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, A.S.; Ivashkin, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolev, D.; Kolevatov, R.S.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Kowalski, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Majka, Z.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Matveev, V.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Montaruli, T.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Naumenko, P.A.; Nikolic, V.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Planeta, R.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Przewlocki, P.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sissakian, A.N.; Sorin, A.S.; Staszel, P.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Stroebele, H.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tsenov, R.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vechernin, V.V.; Zipper, W.

    2009-01-01

    Lattice QCD calculations locate the QCD critical point at energies accessible at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). We present average transverse momentum and multiplicity fluctuations, as well as baryon and anti-baryon transverse mass spectra which are expected to be sensitive to effects of the critical point. The future CP search strategy of the NA61/SHINE experiment at the SPS is also discussed.

  9. Real time simulation of nonlinear generalized predictive control for wind energy conversion system with nonlinear observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouari, Kamel; Rekioua, Toufik; Ouhrouche, Mohand

    2014-01-01

    In order to make a wind power generation truly cost-effective and reliable, an advanced control techniques must be used. In this paper, we develop a new control strategy, using nonlinear generalized predictive control (NGPC) approach, for DFIG-based wind turbine. The proposed control law is based on two points: NGPC-based torque-current control loop generating the rotor reference voltage and NGPC-based speed control loop that provides the torque reference. In order to enhance the robustness of the controller, a disturbance observer is designed to estimate the aerodynamic torque which is considered as an unknown perturbation. Finally, a real-time simulation is carried out to illustrate the performance of the proposed controller. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhanced aeroelastic energy harvesting by exploiting combined nonlinearities: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, V C; De M Anicézio, M; De Marqui Jr, C; Erturk, A

    2011-01-01

    Converting aeroelastic vibrations into electricity for low power generation has received growing attention over the past few years. In addition to potential applications for aerospace structures, the goal is to develop alternative and scalable configurations for wind energy harvesting to use in wireless electronic systems. This paper presents modeling and experiments of aeroelastic energy harvesting using piezoelectric transduction with a focus on exploiting combined nonlinearities. An airfoil with plunge and pitch degrees of freedom (DOF) is investigated. Piezoelectric coupling is introduced to the plunge DOF while nonlinearities are introduced through the pitch DOF. A state-space model is presented and employed for the simulations of the piezoaeroelastic generator. A two-state approximation to Theodorsen aerodynamics is used in order to determine the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Three case studies are presented. First the interaction between piezoelectric power generation and linear aeroelastic behavior of a typical section is investigated for a set of resistive loads. Model predictions are compared to experimental data obtained from the wind tunnel tests at the flutter boundary. In the second case study, free play nonlinearity is added to the pitch DOF and it is shown that nonlinear limit-cycle oscillations can be obtained not only above but also below the linear flutter speed. The experimental results are successfully predicted by the model simulations. Finally, the combination of cubic hardening stiffness and free play nonlinearities is considered in the pitch DOF. The nonlinear piezoaeroelastic response is investigated for different values of the nonlinear-to-linear stiffness ratio. The free play nonlinearity reduces the cut-in speed while the hardening stiffness helps in obtaining persistent oscillations of acceptable amplitude over a wider range of airflow speeds. Such nonlinearities can be introduced to aeroelastic energy harvesters (exploiting

  11. Materials, critical materials and clean-energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R.

    2017-07-01

    Modern engineered materials, components and systems depend on raw materials whose properties provide essential functionality to these technologies. Some of these raw materials are subject to supply-chain risks, and such materials are known as critical materials. This paper reviews corporate, national and world perspectives on material criticality. It then narrows its focus to studies that assess "what is critical" to clean-energy technologies. The focus on supply-chain risks is not meant to be alarmist but rather to encourage attention to monitoring these risks and pursuing technological innovation to mitigate the risks.

  12. Experimental verification of a bridge-shaped, nonlinear vibration energy harvester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gafforelli, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.gafforelli@polimi.it; Corigliano, Alberto [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, 20133 (Italy); Xu, Ruize; Kim, Sang-Gook [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    This paper reports a comprehensive modeling and experimental characterization of a bridge shaped nonlinear energy harvester. A doubly clamped beam at large deflection requires stretching strain in addition to the bending strain to be geometrically compatible, which stiffens the beam as the beam deflects and transforms the dynamics to a nonlinear regime. The Duffing mode non-linear resonance widens the frequency bandwidth significantly at higher frequencies than the linear resonant frequency. The modeling includes a nonlinear measure of strain coupled with piezoelectric constitutive equations which end up in nonlinear coupling terms in the equations of motion. The main result supports that the power generation is bounded by the mechanical damping for both linear and nonlinear harvesters. Modeling also shows the power generation is over a wider bandwidth in the nonlinear case. A prototype is manufactured and tested to measure the power generation at different load resistances and acceleration amplitudes. The prototype shows a nonlinear behavior with well-matched experimental data to the modeling.

  13. A nonlinear multi-mode wideband piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester using compliant orthoplanar spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhote, Sharvari, E-mail: sharvari.dhote@mail.utoronto.ca; Zu, Jean; Zhu, Yang [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S-3G8 (Canada)

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, a nonlinear wideband multi-mode piezoelectric vibration-based energy harvester (PVEH) is proposed based on a compliant orthoplanar spring (COPS), which has an advantage of providing multiple vibration modes at relatively low frequencies. The PVEH is made of a tri-leg COPS flexible structure, where three fixed-guided beams are capable of generating strong nonlinear oscillations under certain base excitation. A prototype harvester was fabricated and investigated through both finite-element analysis and experiments. The frequency response shows multiple resonance which corresponds to a hardening type of nonlinear resonance. By adding masses at different locations on the COPS structure, the first three vibration modes are brought close to each other, where the three hardening nonlinear resonances provide a wide bandwidth for the PVEH. The proposed PVEH has enhanced performance of the energy harvester in terms of a wide frequency bandwidth and a high-voltage output under base excitations.

  14. Chaotic Dynamics-Based Analysis of Broadband Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesting Enhanced by Using Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongsheng Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear magnetic forces are always used to enlarge resonant bandwidth of vibration energy harvesting systems with piezoelectric cantilever beams. However, how to determine properly the distance between two magnets is one of the key engineering problems. In this paper, the Melnikov theory is introduced to overcome it. Firstly, the Melnikov state-space model of the nonlinear piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting (PVEH system is built. Based on it, chaotic dynamics mechanisms of achieving broadband PVEH by nonlinearity are exposed by potential function of the unperturbed nonlinear PVEH system. Then the corresponding Melnikov function of the nonlinear PVEH system is defined, based on which two Melnikov necessary conditions of determining the distance are obtained. Finally, numerical simulations are done to testify the theoretic results. The results demonstrate that the distance is closely related to the excitation amplitude and frequency once geometric and material parameters are fixed. Under a single-frequency excitation, the nonlinear PVEH system can generate a periodic vibration around a stable point, a large-amplitude vibration around two stable points, or a chaotic vibration. The proposed method is very valuable for optimally designing and utilizing nonlinear broadband PVEH devices in engineering applications.

  15. Foldover effect and energy output from a nonlinear pseudo-maglev harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecik, Krzysztof; Mitura, Andrzej; Warminski, Jerzy; Lenci, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Dynamics analysis and energy harvesting of a nonlinear magnetic pseudo-levitation (pseudo-maglev) harvester under harmonic excitation is presented in this paper. The system, for selected parameters, has two stable possible solutions with different corresponding energy outputs. The main goal is to analyse the influence of resistance load on the multi-stability zones and energy recovery which can help to tune the system to improve the energy harvesting efficiency.

  16. Adjustable Nonlinear Springs to Improve Efficiency of Vibration Energy Harvesters

    OpenAIRE

    Boisseau, S.; Despesse, G.; Seddik, B. Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Vibration Energy Harvesting is an emerging technology aimed at turning mechanical energy from vibrations into electricity to power microsystems of the future. Most of present vibration energy harvesters are based on a mass spring structure introducing a resonance phenomenon that allows to increase the output power compared to non-resonant systems, but limits the working frequency bandwidth. Therefore, they are not able to harvest energy when ambient vibrations' frequencies shift. To follow sh...

  17. Nonlinear Passive Control of a Wave Energy Converter Subject to Constraints in Irregular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a passive control method of a point absorbing wave energy converter by considering the displacement and velocity constraints under irregular waves in the time domain. A linear generator is used as a power take-off unit, and the equivalent damping force is optimized to improve the power production of the wave energy converter. The results from nonlinear and linear passive control methods are compared, and indicate that the nonlinear passive control method leads to the excitation force in phase with the velocity of the converter that can significantly improve the energy production of the converter.

  18. Evaluation of non-linear blending in dual-energy computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, David R.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Apel, Anja; Huprich, James E.; Siddiki, Hassan; Hough, David M.; Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas G.; Robb, Richard; McCollough, Cynthia; Wittmer, Michael; Eusemann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Dual-energy CT scanning has significant potential for disease identification and classification. However, it dramatically increases the amount of data collected and therefore impacts the clinical workflow. One way to simplify image review is to fuse CT datasets of different tube energies into a unique blended dataset with desirable properties. A non-linear blending method based on a modified sigmoid function was compared to a standard 0.3 linear blending method. The methods were evaluated in both a liver phantom and patient study. The liver phantom contained six syringes of known CT contrast which were placed in a bovine liver. After scanning at multiple tube currents (45, 55, 65, 75, 85, 95, 105, and 115 mAs for the 140-kV tube), the datasets were blended using both methods. A contrast-to-noise (CNR) measure was calculated for each syringe. In addition, all eight scans were normalized using the effective dose and statistically compared. In the patient study, 45 dual-energy CT scans were retrospectively mixed using the 0.3 linear blending and modified sigmoid blending functions. The scans were compared visually by two radiologists. For the 15, 45, and 64 HU syringes, the non-linear blended images exhibited similar CNR to the linear blended images; however, for the 79, 116, and 145 HU syringes, the non-linear blended images consistently had a higher CNR across dose settings. The radiologists qualitatively preferred the non-linear blended images of the phantom. In the patient study, the radiologists preferred non-linear blending in 31 of 45 cases with a strong preference in bowel and liver cases. Non-linear blending of dual energy data can provide an improvement in CNR over linear blending and is accompanied by a visual preference for non-linear blended images. Further study on selection of blending parameters and lesion conspicuity in non-linear blended images is being pursued

  19. Finite element modeling of nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesters with magnetic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadrashta, Deepesh; Yang, Yaowen

    2015-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting from ambient vibrations is a potential technology for powering wireless sensors and low power electronic devices. The conventional linear harvesters suffer from narrow operational bandwidth. Many attempts have been made especially using the magnetic interaction to broaden the bandwidth of harvesters. The finite element (FE) modeling has been used only for analyzing the linear harvesters in the literature. The main difficulties in extending the FE modeling to analyze the nonlinear harvesters involving magnetic interaction are developing the mesh needed for magnetic interaction in dynamic problems and the high demand on computational resource needed for solving the coupled electrical–mechanical–magnetic problem. In this paper, an innovative method is proposed to model the magnetic interaction without inclusion of the magnetic module. The magnetic force is modeled using the nonlinear spring element available in ANSYS finite element analysis (FEA) package, thus simplifying the simulation of nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvesters as an electromechanically coupled problem. Firstly, an FE model of a monostable nonlinear harvester with cantilever configuration is developed and the results are validated with predictions from the theoretical model. Later, the proposed technique of FE modeling is extended to a complex 2-degree of freedom nonlinear energy harvester for which an accurate analytical model is difficult to derive. The performance predictions from FEA are compared with the experimental results. It is concluded that the proposed modeling technique is able to accurately analyze the behavior of nonlinear harvesters with magnetic interaction. (paper)

  20. Properties of Energy Spectra of Molecular Crystals Investigated by Nonlinear Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Huai-Wu

    We calculate the quantum energy spectra of molecular crystals, such as acetanilide, by using discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, containing various interactions, appropriate to the systems. The energy spectra consist of many energy bands, in each energy band there are a lot of energy levels including some higher excited states. The result of energy spectrum is basically consistent with experimental values obtained by infrared absorption and Raman scattering in acetanilide and can also explain some experimental results obtained by Careri et al. Finally, we further discuss the influences of variously characteristic parameters on the energy spectra of the systems.

  1. Robust energy harvesting from walking vibrations by means of nonlinear cantilever beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Jocelyn M.; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Slocum, Alexander H.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work we examine how mechanical nonlinearity can be appropriately utilized to achieve strong robustness of performance in an energy harvesting setting. More specifically, for energy harvesting applications, a great challenge is the uncertain character of the excitation. The combination of this uncertainty with the narrow range of good performance for linear oscillators creates the need for more robust designs that adapt to a wider range of excitation signals. A typical application of this kind is energy harvesting from walking vibrations. Depending on the particular characteristics of the person that walks as well as on the pace of walking, the excitation signal obtains completely different forms. In the present work we study a nonlinear spring mechanism that is composed of a cantilever wrapping around a curved surface as it deflects. While for the free cantilever, the force acting on the free tip depends linearly on the tip displacement, the utilization of a contact surface with the appropriate distribution of curvature leads to essentially nonlinear dependence between the tip displacement and the acting force. The studied nonlinear mechanism has favorable mechanical properties such as low frictional losses, minimal moving parts, and a rugged design that can withstand excessive loads. Through numerical simulations we illustrate that by utilizing this essentially nonlinear element in a 2 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) system, we obtain strongly nonlinear energy transfers between the modes of the system. We illustrate that this nonlinear behavior is associated with strong robustness over three radically different excitation signals that correspond to different walking paces. To validate the strong robustness properties of the 2DOF nonlinear system, we perform a direct parameter optimization for 1DOF and 2DOF linear systems as well as for a class of 1DOF and 2DOF systems with nonlinear springs similar to that of the cubic spring that are physically realized

  2. DNS as critical infrastructure, the energy system case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, E.; Gheorghe, A.V.; Caselli, M.; Coletta, A.; Nai Fovino, I.

    2013-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructures (e.g., power plants, energy grids, oil pipelines, etc.), make nowadays extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As a direct consequence their exposure to cyber-attacks is becoming a matter of public security. In this paper, we analyse a

  3. U.S. Department of Energy - Critical Materials Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    The Critical Materials Strategy builds on the Department’s previous work in this area and provides a foundation for future action. This Strategy is a first step toward a comprehensive response to the challenges before us. We hope it will also encourage others to engage in a dialogue about these issues and work together to achieve our Nation’s clean energy goals.

  4. Spectral energy transfer of atmospheric gravity waves through sum and difference nonlinear interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.M. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Chinese Academey of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment; Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Liu, A.Z.; Li, Z. [Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China)

    2012-07-01

    Nonlinear interactions of gravity waves are studied with a two-dimensional, fully nonlinear model. The energy exchanges among resonant and near-resonant triads are examined in order to understand the spectral energy transfer through interactions. The results show that in both resonant and near-resonant interactions, the energy exchange between two high frequency waves is strong, but the energy transfer from large to small vertical scale waves is rather weak. This suggests that the energy cascade toward large vertical wavenumbers through nonlinear interaction is inefficient, which is different from the rapid turbulence cascade. Because of considerable energy exchange, nonlinear interactions can effectively spread high frequency spectrum, and play a significant role in limiting wave amplitude growth and transferring energy into higher altitudes. In resonant interaction, the interacting waves obey the resonant matching conditions, and resonant excitation is reversible, while near-resonant excitation is not so. Although near-resonant interaction shows the complexity of match relation, numerical experiments show an interesting result that when sum and difference near-resonant interactions occur between high and low frequency waves, the wave vectors tend to approximately match in horizontal direction, and the frequency of the excited waves is also close to the matching value. (orig.)

  5. Nonlinear effects of dark energy clustering beyond the acoustic scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmi, Stefano; Nacir, Diana López; Sefusatti, Emiliano

    2014-01-01

    We extend the resummation method of Anselmi and Pietroni (2012) to compute the total density power spectrum in models of quintessence characterized by a vanishing speed of sound. For standard ΛCDM cosmologies, this resummation scheme allows predictions with an accuracy at the few percent level beyond the range of scales where acoustic oscillations are present, therefore comparable to other, common numerical tools. In addition, our theoretical approach indicates an approximate but valuable and simple relation between the power spectra for standard quintessence models and models where scalar field perturbations appear at all scales. This, in turn, provides an educated guess for the prediction of nonlinear growth in models with generic speed of sound, particularly valuable since no numerical results are yet available

  6. Nonlinear effects of dark energy clustering beyond the acoustic scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmi, Stefano [Department of Physics/CERCA/ISO, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7079 (United States); Nacir, Diana López [The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada costiera 11, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); Sefusatti, Emiliano, E-mail: stefano.anselmi@case.edu, E-mail: dlopez_n@ictp.it, E-mail: emiliano.sefusatti@brera.inaf.it [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Saint Lucia) (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We extend the resummation method of Anselmi and Pietroni (2012) to compute the total density power spectrum in models of quintessence characterized by a vanishing speed of sound. For standard ΛCDM cosmologies, this resummation scheme allows predictions with an accuracy at the few percent level beyond the range of scales where acoustic oscillations are present, therefore comparable to other, common numerical tools. In addition, our theoretical approach indicates an approximate but valuable and simple relation between the power spectra for standard quintessence models and models where scalar field perturbations appear at all scales. This, in turn, provides an educated guess for the prediction of nonlinear growth in models with generic speed of sound, particularly valuable since no numerical results are yet available.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters under simultaneous parametric and external excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fei; Xia, Guanghui; Wang, Jianguo

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of cantilevered piezoelectric beams is investigated under simultaneous parametric and external excitations. The beam is composed of a substrate and two piezoelectric layers and assumed as an Euler-Bernoulli model with inextensible deformation. A nonlinear distributed parameter model of cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters is proposed using the generalized Hamilton's principle. The proposed model includes geometric and inertia nonlinearity, but neglects the material nonlinearity. Using the Galerkin decomposition method and harmonic balance method, analytical expressions of the frequency-response curves are presented when the first bending mode of the beam plays a dominant role. Using these expressions, we investigate the effects of the damping, load resistance, electromechanical coupling, and excitation amplitude on the frequency-response curves. We also study the difference between the nonlinear lumped-parameter and distributed-parameter model for predicting the performance of the energy harvesting system. Only in the case of parametric excitation, we demonstrate that the energy harvesting system has an initiation excitation threshold below which no energy can be harvested. We also illustrate that the damping and load resistance affect the initiation excitation threshold.

  8. Convexity and Weighted Integral Inequalities for Energy Decay Rates of Nonlinear Dissipative Hyperbolic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabau-Boussouira, Fatiha

    2005-01-01

    This work is concerned with the stabilization of hyperbolic systems by a nonlinear feedback which can be localized on a part of the boundary or locally distributed. We show that general weighted integral inequalities together with convexity arguments allow us to produce a general semi-explicit formula which leads to decay rates of the energy in terms of the behavior of the nonlinear feedback close to the origin. This formula allows us to unify for instance the cases where the feedback has a polynomial growth at the origin, with the cases where it goes exponentially fast to zero at the origin. We also give three other significant examples of nonpolynomial growth at the origin. We also prove the optimality of our results for the one-dimensional wave equation with nonlinear boundary dissipation. The key property for obtaining our general energy decay formula is the understanding between convexity properties of an explicit function connected to the feedback and the dissipation of energy

  9. On the Nonlinear Behavior of the Piezoelectric Coupling on Vibration-Based Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration-based energy harvesting with piezoelectric elements has an increasing importance nowadays being related to numerous potential applications. A wide range of nonlinear effects is observed in energy harvesting devices and the analysis of the power generated suggests that they have considerable influence on the results. Linear constitutive models for piezoelectric materials can provide inconsistencies on the prediction of the power output of the energy harvester, mainly close to resonant conditions. This paper investigates the effect of the nonlinear behavior of the piezoelectric coupling. A one-degree of freedom mechanical system is coupled to an electrical circuit by a piezoelectric element and different coupling models are investigated. Experimental tests available in the literature are employed as a reference establishing the best matches of the models. Subsequently, numerical simulations are carried out showing different responses of the system indicating that nonlinear piezoelectric couplings can strongly modify the system dynamics.

  10. The legal imperative to protect critical energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, J.J.M.

    2008-03-15

    Canada's critical infrastructure is comprised of energy facilities, communications centres, finance, health care, food, government and transportation sectors. All sectors face a range of physical or cyber threats from terrorism and natural phenomenon. Failures or disruptions in the sectors can cascade through other systems and disrupt essential services. The power outage in 2003 demonstrated gaps in North America's emergency preparedness. In 2006, al-Qaida called for terrorist attacks on North American oil fields and pipelines, specifically targeting Canada. Studies have confirmed that Canada is vulnerable to attacks on energy infrastructure. Government agencies and the private sector must work ensure the safety of Canada's energy infrastructure, as the primary responsibility of government is the protection of its citizenry. The fulfilment of the government's commitment to national security cannot be achieved without protecting Canada's critical energy infrastructure. However, Canada has not yet provided a framework linking federal government with critical infrastructures, despite the fact that a draft strategy has been under development for several years. It was concluded that governments and the private sector should work together to reduce risks, protect the public, and secure the economy. National security litigation against the government and legal imperatives for energy facility owners and operators were also reviewed. 98 refs., 20 figs.

  11. An Application of Non-Linear Autoregressive Neural Networks to Predict Energy Consumption in Public Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzaga Baca Ruiz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of energy consumption prediction using neural networks over a set of public buildings. Since energy consumption in the public sector comprises a substantial share of overall consumption, the prediction of such consumption represents a decisive issue in the achievement of energy savings. In our experiments, we use the data provided by an energy consumption monitoring system in a compound of faculties and research centers at the University of Granada, and provide a methodology to predict future energy consumption using nonlinear autoregressive (NAR and the nonlinear autoregressive neural network with exogenous inputs (NARX, respectively. Results reveal that NAR and NARX neural networks are both suitable for performing energy consumption prediction, but also that exogenous data may help to improve the accuracy of predictions.

  12. Study of the critical behavior of the O(N) linear and nonlinear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the large N behavior of both the O(N) linear and nonlinear sigma models is presented. The purpose is to investigate the relationship between the disordered (ordered) phase of the linear and nonlinear sigma models. Utilizing operator product expansions and stability analyses, it is shown that for 2 - (lambda/sub R/(M) is the dimensionless renormalized quartic coupling and lambda* is the IR fixed point) limit of the linear sigma model which yields the nonlinear sigma model. It is also shown that stable large N linear sigma models with lambda 0) and nonlinear models are trivial. This result (i.e., triviality) is well known but only for one and two component models. Interestingly enough, the lambda< d = 4 linear sigma model remains nontrivial and tachyonic free

  13. A generic double-curvature piezoelectric shell energy harvester: Linear/nonlinear theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. F.; Hu, S. D.; Tzou, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Converting vibration energy to useful electric energy has attracted much attention in recent years. Based on the electromechanical coupling of piezoelectricity, distributed piezoelectric zero-curvature type (e.g., beams and plates) energy harvesters have been proposed and evaluated. The objective of this study is to develop a generic linear and nonlinear piezoelectric shell energy harvesting theory based on a double-curvature shell. The generic piezoelectric shell energy harvester consists of an elastic double-curvature shell and piezoelectric patches laminated on its surface(s). With a current model in the closed-circuit condition, output voltages and energies across a resistive load are evaluated when the shell is subjected to harmonic excitations. Steady-state voltage and power outputs across the resistive load are calculated at resonance for each shell mode. The piezoelectric shell energy harvesting mechanism can be simplified to shell (e.g., cylindrical, conical, spherical, paraboloidal, etc.) and non-shell (beam, plate, ring, arch, etc.) distributed harvesters using two Lamé parameters and two curvature radii of the selected harvester geometry. To demonstrate the utility and simplification procedures, the generic linear/nonlinear shell energy harvester mechanism is simplified to three specific structures, i.e., a cantilever beam case, a circular ring case and a conical shell case. Results show the versatility of the generic linear/nonlinear shell energy harvesting mechanism and the validity of the simplification procedures.

  14. Global, decaying solutions of a focusing energy-critical heat equation in R4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Stephen; Roxanas, Dimitrios

    2018-05-01

    We study solutions of the focusing energy-critical nonlinear heat equation ut = Δu - | u|2 u in R4. We show that solutions emanating from initial data with energy and H˙1-norm below those of the stationary solution W are global and decay to zero, via the "concentration-compactness plus rigidity" strategy of Kenig-Merle [33,34]. First, global such solutions are shown to dissipate to zero, using a refinement of the small data theory and the L2-dissipation relation. Finite-time blow-up is then ruled out using the backwards-uniqueness of Escauriaza-Seregin-Sverak [17,18] in an argument similar to that of Kenig-Koch [32] for the Navier-Stokes equations.

  15. Materials, critical materials and clean-energy technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggert R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineered materials, components and systems depend on raw materials whose properties provide essential functionality to these technologies. Some of these raw materials are subject to supply-chain risks, and such materials are known as critical materials. This paper reviews corporate, national and world perspectives on material criticality. It then narrows its focus to studies that assess “what is critical” to clean-energy technologies. The focus on supply-chain risks is not meant to be alarmist but rather to encourage attention to monitoring these risks and pursuing technological innovation to mitigate the risks.

  16. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energy: Critical environmental concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Moore-O'Leary, K. A.; Johnston, D. S.; Abella, S.; Tanner, K.; Swanson, A.; Kreitler, J.; Lovich, J.

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists - including those from academia, industry, and government agencies - have only recently begun to quantify trade-off in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥ 1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  17. Geometry effect on energy transfer rate in a coupled-quantum-well structure: nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salavati-fard, T; Vazifehshenas, T

    2014-01-01

    We study theoretically the effect of geometry on the energy transfer rate at nonlinear regime in a coupled-quantum-well system using the balance equation approach. To investigate comparatively the effect of both symmetric and asymmetric geometry, different structures are considered. The random phase approximation dynamic dielectric function is employed to include the contributions from both quasiparticle and plasmon excitations. Also, the short-range exchange interaction is taken into account through the Hubbard approximation. Our numerical results show that the energy transfer rate increases by increasing the well thicknesses in symmetric structures. Furthermore, by increasing spatial asymmetry, the energy transfer rate decreases for the electron temperature range of interest. From numerical calculations, it is obtained that the nonlinear energy transfer rate is proportional to the square of electron drift velocity in all structures and also, found that the influence of Hubbard local field correction on the energy transfer rate gets weaker by increasing the strength of applied electric field. (paper)

  18. Energy Recovery from a Non-Linear Electromagnetic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kęcik Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents study of a pseudo-magnetic levitation system (pseudo-maglev dedicated for energy harvesting. The idea rely on motion of a pseudo-levitating magnet in a coil’s terminal. The study based on real prototype harvester system, which in the pendulum dynamic vibration absorber is applied. For some parameters, the stability loss caused by the period doubling bifurcation is detected. The coexistence of two stable solutions, one of which is much better for energy harvesting is observed. The influence of the pseudo-maglev parameters on the recovered current and stability of the periodic solutions is presented in detail. The obtained results show, that the best energy recovery occurs for the high pseudo-maglev stiffness and close to the coil resistance. The amplitude’s excitation, the load resistances and the coupling coefficient strongly influence on the system’s response.

  19. U.S. Department of Energy Critical Materials Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, D.; Diamond, D.; Li, J.; Sandalow, D.; Telleen, P.; Wanner, B.

    2010-12-01

    This report examines the role of rare earth metals and other materials in the clean energy economy. It was prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) based on data collected and research performed during 2010. Its main conclusions include: (a) Several clean energy technologies -- including wind turbines, electric vehicles, photovoltaic cells and fluorescent lighting -- use materials at risk of supply disruptions in the short term. Those risks will generally decrease in the medium and long term. (b) Clean energy technologies currently constitute about 20 percent of global consumption of critical materials. As clean energy technologies are deployed more widely in the decades ahead, their share of global consumption of critical materials will likely grow. (c) Of the materials analyzed, five rare earth metals (dysprosium, neodymium, terbium, europium and yttrium), as well as indium, are assessed as most critical in the short term. For this purpose, 'criticality' is a measure that combines importance to the clean energy economy and risk of supply disruption. (d) Sound policies and strategic investments can reduce the risk of supply disruptions, especially in the medium and long term. (e) Data with respect to many of the issues considered in this report are sparse. In the report, DOE describes plans to (i) develop its first integrated research agenda addressing critical materials, building on three technical workshops convened by the Department during November and December 2010; (ii) strengthen its capacity for information-gathering on this topic; and (iii) work closely with international partners, including Japan and Europe, to reduce vulnerability to supply disruptions and address critical material needs. DOE will work with other stakeholders -- including interagency colleagues, Congress and the public -- to shape policy tools that strengthen the United States' strategic capabilities. DOE also announces its plan to develop an updated critical

  20. Response analysis and energy transmissibility of a vibration isolation system with real-power nonlinearities under a NMPPF controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dongmei; Xu, Wei; Shi, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. • The primary resonance, dynamical stability and energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. • The sensitivity of the controller parameters on the responses has been analyzed. • In order to suppress the amplitude peak, the feedback parameters have been determined by the frequency response. • The energy transmissibility is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, the nonlinear modified positive position feedback (NMPPF) scheme and the real-power form of restoring and damping forces are combined to improve the response performance of a vibration isolation system. Based on the method of multiple scales, the frequency response, the stability and the energy transmissibility of the real-power vibration isolation system are studied. It is found that the controlled isolation system exhibits a softening behavior for sub-linear restoring force, while it exhibits the two peak response characteristic rather than a hardening behavior for over-linear restoring force. Further, the sensitivity of the feedback parameters on the responses is discussed. The results, compared to the conventional PPF and IRC methods, show that the proposed method is significantly more effective in controlling the steady-state response, and slightly advantageous for the steady-state dynamics control. The effectiveness of this method is also verified by time domain analysis. Then, the suitable feedback and controller parameters are derived by simulation results in which the amplitude peak is suppressed and the resonance stability is maintained. Finally, the energy transmissibility of the vibration isolation system is investigated. The results show that the feedback gain can reduce the whole transmissibility level and greatly suppress vibration

  1. The Energy Transition and the Challenge of Critical Raw Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepesant, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    The geopolitical analyses of energy markets are traditionally focused on fossil fuels, and less on renewable energy sources. Yet the huge development perspectives of these renewable energy sources (representing 2/3 of total net power generation capacity additions in 2016) trigger a need to take into account new challenges and vulnerabilities, related to the availability and affordability of critical raw materials, notably rare earths, which are needed to develop wind turbines, solar panels and energy storage technologies. Stakes are geopolitical, economic and environmental and are reinforced by a geography of resources and production which is concentrated within a few key countries and zones (China, Latin America, Australia, Congo mainly). The role of China in particular is at the core of the attention

  2. Adaptive Actor-Critic Design-Based Integral Sliding-Mode Control for Partially Unknown Nonlinear Systems With Input Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Quan-Yong; Yang, Guang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of integral sliding-mode control for a class of nonlinear systems with input disturbances and unknown nonlinear terms through the adaptive actor-critic (AC) control method. The main objective is to design a sliding-mode control methodology based on the adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method, so that the closed-loop system with time-varying disturbances is stable and the nearly optimal performance of the sliding-mode dynamics can be guaranteed. In the first step, a neural network (NN)-based observer and a disturbance observer are designed to approximate the unknown nonlinear terms and estimate the input disturbances, respectively. Based on the NN approximations and disturbance estimations, the discontinuous part of the sliding-mode control is constructed to eliminate the effect of the disturbances and attain the expected equivalent sliding-mode dynamics. Then, the ADP method with AC structure is presented to learn the optimal control for the sliding-mode dynamics online. Reconstructed tuning laws are developed to guarantee the stability of the sliding-mode dynamics and the convergence of the weights of critic and actor NNs. Finally, the simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Energy dependence of critical state of single-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchenkova, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Equations of critical states of the single-component systems: Psub(cr)(/Psub(o)=(Tsub(cr)/Tsub(o))x0.73, Tsub(cr)=K(Tsub(boil))sup(1.116) and Hsub(cr)(/Hsub(B)=Tsub(sr)/Tsub(B))sup(1.48) where Tsub(B)=1K, Hsub(B)-2 kcal/g-at, K-dimension factor are presented. It is shown that the revealed dependence Hsub(cr)=H(Tsub(cr)) is an energy boundary of a liquid-vapour phase state of the single-component systems beyond limits of which difference between liquid and vapour phases vanishes in increasing the system energy content. The given equations of state are true for all the single-component systems and permit to consider physicomechanical properties of substances in dynamic state depending on external conditions. Critical temperatures and dependences for elements from the most fusible He to infusible W and Re have been calculated

  4. Operationalizing Sustainable Development Suncor Energy Inc: A critical case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergus, Andrew

    The concept of Sustainable Development is often understood as a framework within which organizations are able to move forward in a successful and beneficial manner. However, it is also seen as an ambiguous notion with little substance beyond a hopeful dialogue. If we are to base organizational action upon the concepts of Sustainable Development, it is vital that we comprehend the implications of how the concept is understood at a behavioral level. Industry leaders, competitors, shareholders, and stakeholders recognize Suncor Energy Inc as a leading organization within the Oil and Gas energy field. In particular it has a reputation for proactive thinking and action within the areas of environmental and social responsibility. Through attempting to integrate the ideas of Sustainable Development at a foundational level into the strategic plan, the management of Suncor Energy Inc has committed the organization to be a sustainable energy company. To achieve this vision the organization faces the challenge of converting strategic goals into operational behaviors, a process critical for a successful future. This research focuses on understanding the issues found with this conversion process. Through exploring a critical case, this research illuminates the reality of a best-case scenario. The findings thus have implications for both Suncor Energy Inc and more importantly all other organizations attempting to move in a Sustainable Development direction.

  5. FLUCTUATING ENERGY STORAGE AND NONLINEAR CASCADE IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS CORONAL LOOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, F.; Nigro, G.; Onofri, M.; Veltri, P.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics and the energy balance of large-scale fluctuations in a coronal loop are studied. The loop is represented by a simplified structure where the curvature is neglected and the background magnetic field is uniform. In a previous paper, we studied a similar model where a uniform background density was assumed. The present paper represents a generalization of the previous one and it has the purpose of investigating possible modifications to the large-scale energy balance and dynamics due to a more realistic longitudinally nonuniform density. Large-scale fluctuations are dominated by coherent eigenmodes that nonlinearly couple to produce an energy cascade to smaller scales. Eigenmodes properties are calculated by a simplified linear dissipative model, deriving an expression for the input energy flux that is not substantially modified by the presence of the density inhomogeneity and is independent of dissipation. For typical values of the parameters, the derived input energy flux is comparable with that required to heat the active region corona. Nonlinear couplings are dominated by coherence effects due to the symmetry properties of eigenmodes; the consequences are that the system is in a weakly nonlinear regime that produces fluctuating energy storage in the loop, and that the kinetic and magnetic nonlinear energy fluxes are of the same order, despite the dominance of magnetic energy at large scales. From the energy balance, an expression for the velocity fluctuation is derived, which is valid in the more general case of a nonuniform background density; this estimate is in agreement both with measures of nonthermal velocities in the solar corona and with previous numerical results.

  6. Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, Heidelberg, 69120 Germany (Germany); Baldi, Marco, E-mail: casas@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: mail@marcobaldi.it, E-mail: v.pettorino@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: vollmer@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, Bologna, I-40127 Italy (Italy)

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β{sup 2}, with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications.

  7. Using system theory and energy methods to prove existence of non-linear PDE's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this discussion paper we present an idea of combining techniques known from systems theory with energy estimates to show existence for a class of non-linear partial differential equations (PDE's). At the end of the paper a list of research questions with possible approaches is given.

  8. Fitting and forecasting coupled dark energy in the non-linear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, Santiago; Amendola, Luca; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian; Baldi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range 0z=–1.6 and wave modes below 0k=1 h/Mpc. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and weak lensing (WL). We find that by using information in the non-linear power spectrum, and combining the GC and WL probes, we can constrain the dark matter-dark energy coupling constant squared, β 2 , with precision smaller than 4% and all other cosmological parameters better than 1%, which is a considerable improvement of more than an order of magnitude compared to corresponding linear power spectrum forecasts with the same survey specifications

  9. A nonlinear programming approach to lower bounds for the ground-state energy of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras, I.; Feldmann, D.M.; King, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Lower-bound estimates for the ground-state energy of the helium atom are determined using nonlinear programming techniques. Optimized lower bounds are determined for single-particle, radially correlated, and general correlated wave functions. The local nature of the method employed makes it a very severe test of the accuracy of the wave function

  10. Optimization of piezoelectric cantilever energy harvesters including non-linear effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R; McWilliam, S; Popov, A A

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a versatile non-linear model for predicting piezoelectric energy harvester performance. The presented model includes (i) material non-linearity, for both substrate and piezoelectric layers, and (ii) geometric non-linearity incorporated by assuming inextensibility and accurately representing beam curvature. The addition of a sub-model, which utilizes the transfer matrix method to predict eigenfrequencies and eigenvectors for segmented beams, allows for accurate optimization of piezoelectric layer coverage. A validation of the overall theoretical model is performed through experimental testing on both uniform and non-uniform samples manufactured in-house. For the harvester composition used in this work, the magnitude of material non-linearity exhibited by the piezoelectric layer is 35 times greater than that of the substrate layer. It is also observed that material non-linearity, responsible for reductions in resonant frequency with increases in base acceleration, is dominant over geometric non-linearity for standard piezoelectric harvesting devices. Finally, over the tested range, energy loss due to damping is found to increase in a quasi-linear fashion with base acceleration. During an optimization study on piezoelectric layer coverage, results from the developed model were compared with those from a linear model. Unbiased comparisons between harvesters were realized by using devices with identical natural frequencies—created by adjusting the device substrate thickness. Results from three studies, each with a different assumption on mechanical damping variations, are presented. Findings showed that, depending on damping variation, a non-linear model is essential for such optimization studies with each model predicting vastly differing optimum configurations. (paper)

  11. A method for regulating strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushu Bian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available For an oscillating system, large amplitude indicates strong vibration energy. In this article, modal interaction is used as a useful means to regulate strong nonlinear vibration energy of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion. A method is put forward to migrate and dissipate vibration energy based on modal interaction. By means of multiple-scale perturbation analysis, it is proven that internal resonance can be successfully established between modes of the flexible arm and the vibration absorber. Through examples and analyses, it is verified that this control method is effective in regulating strong vibration energy and can be used to suppress strong nonlinear vibration of the flexible arm undergoing rigid motion.

  12. Nonlinear Effects in Transformation Optics-Based Metamaterial Shields for Counter Directed Energy Weapon Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    employs the in- variance of the Maxwell equations under coordinate transformations to convert the free- space wave solutions in a coordinate... ENERGY WEAPON DEFENSE by Jacob D. Thompson June 2016 Thesis Co-Advisors: James Luscombe Brett Borden Approved for public release; distribution is...2014 to 06-17-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NONLINEAR EFFECTS IN TRANSFORMATION OPTICS-BASED METAMATE- RIAL SHIELDS FOR COUNTER DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPON

  13. Energy decay of a variable-coefficient wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent localized damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Wu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy decay for the Cauchy problem of the wave equation with nonlinear time-dependent and space-dependent damping. The damping is localized in a bounded domain and near infinity, and the principal part of the wave equation has a variable-coefficient. We apply the multiplier method for variable-coefficient equations, and obtain an energy decay that depends on the property of the coefficient of the damping term.

  14. Nonlinear optimal filter technique for analyzing energy depositions in TES sensors driven into saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shank

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed thermal and electrical model of superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs connected to quasiparticle (qp traps, such as the W TESs connected to Al qp traps used for CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Ge and Si detectors. We show that this improved model, together with a straightforward time-domain optimal filter, can be used to analyze pulses well into the nonlinear saturation region and reconstruct absorbed energies with optimal energy resolution.

  15. Urban Systems and Energy Consumptions: A Critical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available City transformations are also due to the development of new energy sources, which have influenced economy and lifestyles, as well as the physical and functional organization of urban systems. Cities are the key place where it is need to act for the achievement of strategic environmental objectives, such as reducing greenhouse gas emissions and energy saving. The hard resolution of these challenges depends on several factors: their multidimensional nature, the change of the economic and settlement development model, and also the complexity of the relationships between the elements that constitute the urban systems and that affect energy consumption. According to this awareness the Project Smart Energy Master for the energy management of territory financed by PON 04A2_00120 R & C Axis II, from 2012 to 2015 has been developed: it is aimed at supporting local authorities in the development of strategies for the reduction of energy consumption through actions designed to change behavior (in terms of use and energy consumption and to improve the energy efficiency of equipment and infrastructure. With the goal of describing some of the results of the methodological phase of this project, this paper proposes a review of the major studies on the issue of energy consumption at the urban scale in the first section; in the second section the outcomes of the first phase of the development of the comprehension/interpretive model related to the identification of the set of physical/environmental variables at urban scale, that most affect the energy consumption, are described; the third makes a critical review of the reference scientific literature, characterised by a too sectoral approach, compared to the complexity of the topic.

  16. DIESYS—dynamically non-linear dielectric elastomer energy generating synergetic structures: perspectives and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I A; Venetsanos, D T; Papaspyridis, F G

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer based generators (DEGs) offer some unique properties over energy generators based on other materials. These properties include high energy density, high efficiency over a broad range of frequencies, low compliance, the ability to produce high strain, large area, low cost films with no toxic materials and wide range environmental tolerance. As further shown in this paper, DEG materials can also exhibit a non-linear dynamic behavior, enhancing broad-band energy transfer. More specifically, dielectric elastomer (DE) energy generating synergetic structures (DIESYS) are considered as dynamic energy absorbers. Two elementary characteristic DIESYS design concepts are examined, leading to a typical antagonistic configuration for in-plane oscillations and a typical synagonistic configuration for out-of-plane oscillations. Originally, all the DE elements of the structure are assumed to be always in tension during all the phases of the harvesting cycle, conforming to the traditional concept of operation of DE structures. As shown in this paper, the traditional always-in-tension concept results in a linear dynamic system response, despite the fact that the implemented (DE) parts are considered to have been made of a non-linear (hyperelastic) material. In contrast, the proposed loose-part concept ensures the appearance of a non-linear broad-band system response, enhancing energy transfer from the environmental source. (paper)

  17. Nonlinear Gravitational Waves as Dark Energy in Warped Spacetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinoud Jan Slagter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We find an azimuthal-angle dependent approximate wave like solution to second order on a warped five-dimensional manifold with a self-gravitating U(1 scalar gauge field (cosmic string on the brane using the multiple-scale method. The spectrum of the several orders of approximation show maxima of the energy distribution dependent on the azimuthal-angle and the winding numbers of the subsequent orders of the scalar field. This breakup of the quantized flux quanta does not lead to instability of the asymptotic wavelike solution due to the suppression of the n-dependency in the energy momentum tensor components by the warp factor. This effect is triggered by the contribution of the five dimensional Weyl tensor on the brane. This contribution can be understood as dark energy and can trigger the self-acceleration of the universe without the need of a cosmological constant. There is a striking relation between the symmetry breaking of the Higgs field described by the winding number and the SO(2 breaking of the axially symmetric configuration into a discrete subgroup of rotations of about 180 ∘ . The discrete sequence of non-axially symmetric deviations, cancelled by the emission of gravitational waves in order to restore the SO(2 symmetry, triggers the pressure T z z for discrete values of the azimuthal-angle. There could be a possible relation between the recently discovered angle-preferences of polarization axes of quasars on large scales and our theoretical predicted angle-dependency and this could be evidence for the existence of cosmic strings. Careful comparison of this spectrum of extremal values of the first and second order φ-dependency and the distribution of the alignment of the quasar polarizations is necessary. This can be accomplished when more observational data become available. It turns out that, for late time, the vacuum 5D spacetime is conformally invariant if the warp factor fulfils the equation of a vibrating

  18. Global format for energy-momentum based time integration in nonlinear dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    A global format is developed for momentum and energy consistent time integration of second‐order dynamic systems with general nonlinear stiffness. The algorithm is formulated by integrating the state‐space equations of motion over the time increment. The internal force is first represented...... of mean value products at the element level or explicit use of a geometric stiffness matrix. An optional monotonic algorithmic damping, increasing with response frequency, is developed in terms of a single damping parameter. In the solution procedure, the velocity is eliminated and the nonlinear...

  19. Non-Linear Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Ferri, Francesco; Beatty, S.

    2014-01-01

    the calculation of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment by a cubic polynomial function fit to laboratory test results. Moreover, moments due to viscous drag are evaluated on the oscillating hemisphere considering the horizontal and vertical drag force components. The influence on the motions of this non.......e. H/λ≤0.02. For steep waves, H/λ≥0.04 however, the relative velocities between the body and the waves increase thus requiring inclusion of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment to effectively predict the dynamics of the wave energy converter. For operation of the device with a passively damping...

  20. Adaptive Constrained Optimal Control Design for Data-Based Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Critic-Only Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Biao; Liu, Derong; Wu, Huai-Ning

    2018-06-01

    Reinforcement learning has proved to be a powerful tool to solve optimal control problems over the past few years. However, the data-based constrained optimal control problem of nonaffine nonlinear discrete-time systems has rarely been studied yet. To solve this problem, an adaptive optimal control approach is developed by using the value iteration-based Q-learning (VIQL) with the critic-only structure. Most of the existing constrained control methods require the use of a certain performance index and only suit for linear or affine nonlinear systems, which is unreasonable in practice. To overcome this problem, the system transformation is first introduced with the general performance index. Then, the constrained optimal control problem is converted to an unconstrained optimal control problem. By introducing the action-state value function, i.e., Q-function, the VIQL algorithm is proposed to learn the optimal Q-function of the data-based unconstrained optimal control problem. The convergence results of the VIQL algorithm are established with an easy-to-realize initial condition . To implement the VIQL algorithm, the critic-only structure is developed, where only one neural network is required to approximate the Q-function. The converged Q-function obtained from the critic-only VIQL method is employed to design the adaptive constrained optimal controller based on the gradient descent scheme. Finally, the effectiveness of the developed adaptive control method is tested on three examples with computer simulation.

  1. Study of Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvester with non-linear conditioning circuit using an integrated model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Ali; Rafique, Sajid; Usman Iftikhar, Muhammad; Mahmood Ul Hassan, Khalid; Nasir, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvester (PVEH) consists of a cantilever bimorph with piezoelectric layers pasted on its top and bottom, which can harvest power from vibrations and feed to low power wireless sensor nodes through some power conditioning circuit. In this paper, a non-linear conditioning circuit, consisting of a full-bridge rectifier followed by a buck-boost converter, is employed to investigate the issues of electrical side of the energy harvesting system. An integrated mathematical model of complete electromechanical system has been developed. Previously, researchers have studied PVEH with sophisticated piezo-beam models but employed simplistic linear circuits, such as resistor, as electrical load. In contrast, other researchers have worked on more complex non-linear circuits but with over-simplified piezo-beam models. Such models neglect different aspects of the system which result from complex interactions of its electrical and mechanical subsystems. In this work, authors have integrated the distributed parameter-based model of piezo-beam presented in literature with a real world non-linear electrical load. Then, the developed integrated model is employed to analyse the stability of complete energy harvesting system. This work provides a more realistic and useful electromechanical model having realistic non-linear electrical load unlike the simplistic linear circuit elements employed by many researchers.

  2. Modeling and experimental verification of doubly nonlinear magnet-coupled piezoelectric energy harvesting from ambient vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shengxi; Cao, Junyi; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shengsheng; Lin, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear doubly magnet-coupled energy harvesting system (DMEHS) which could exhibit co-bistable and monostable dynamic characteristics. Its various characteristic responses induced by the magnetic force can be conveniently obtained using the adjustable horizontal distance between two coupled harvesters in the DMEHS. In the case of appropriate relative positions, the DMEHS appears in a co-bistable structure which is different from the traditional bistable structure. Additionally, both the inclination angle of endmost magnets and the displacement perpendicular to the vibration direction are taken into account to calculate the nonlinear magnetic force in the nonlinear electromechanical equations. The numerical investigations show good agreement with experimental results with respect to the output voltage response. Each harvester without magnetic coupling is tested independently to compare with the DMEHS. Both numerical and experimental results also demonstrate the frequency bandwidth and performance enhancements by changing the horizontal distance between the two coupled harvesters. (paper)

  3. Energy decay of a viscoelastic wave equation with supercritical nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanqiu; Rammaha, Mohammad A.; Sakuntasathien, Sawanya

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the asymptotic behavior of the solutions for the history value problem of a viscoelastic wave equation which features a fading memory term as well as a supercritical source term and a frictional damping term: u_{tt}- k(0) Δ u - \\int \\limits _0^{&infty } k'(s) Δ u(t-s) ds +|u_t|^{m-1}u_t =|u|^{p-1}u, { in } Ω × (0,T), u(x,t)=u_0(x,t), \\quad { in } Ω × (-∞,0]), where Ω is a bounded domain in R^3 with a Dirichlét boundary condition and u_0 represents the history value. A suitable notion of a potential well is introduced for the system, and global existence of solutions is justified, provided that the history value u_0 is taken from a subset of the potential well. Also, uniform energy decay rate is obtained which depends on the relaxation kernel -k'(s) as well as the growth rate of the damping term. This manuscript complements our previous work (Guo et al. in J Differ Equ 257:3778-3812, 2014, J Differ Equ 262:1956-1979, 2017) where Hadamard well-posedness and the singularity formulation have been studied for the system. It is worth stressing the special features of the model, namely the source term here has a supercritical growth rate and the memory term accounts to the full past history that goes back to -∞.

  4. An effective description of dark matter and dark energy in the mildly non-linear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Maleknejad, Azadeh, E-mail: matthew.lewandowski@cea.fr, E-mail: azade@ipm.ir, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P. Code. 19538-33511, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    In the next few years, we are going to probe the low-redshift universe with unprecedented accuracy. Among the various fruits that this will bear, it will greatly improve our knowledge of the dynamics of dark energy, though for this there is a strong theoretical preference for a cosmological constant. We assume that dark energy is described by the so-called Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy, which assumes that dark energy is the Goldstone boson of time translations. Such a formalism makes it easy to ensure that our signatures are consistent with well-established principles of physics. Since most of the information resides at high wavenumbers, it is important to be able to make predictions at the highest wavenumber that is possible. The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) is a theoretical framework that has allowed us to make accurate predictions in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper, we derive the non-linear equations that extend the EFTofLSS to include the effect of dark energy both on the matter fields and on the biased tracers. For the specific case of clustering quintessence, we then perturbatively solve to cubic order the resulting non-linear equations and construct the one-loop power spectrum of the total density contrast.

  5. Thermomagnetic instabilities in a vertical layer of ferrofluid: nonlinear analysis away from a critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Pinkee; Suslov, Sergey A, E-mail: ssuslov@swin.edu.au [Department of Mathematics H38, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    A finite amplitude instability has been analysed to discover the exact mechanism leading to the appearance of stationary magnetoconvection patterns in a vertical layer of a non-conducting ferrofluid heated from the side and placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the walls. The physical results have been obtained using a version of a weakly nonlinear analysis that is based on the disturbance amplitude expansion. It enables a low-dimensional reduction of a full nonlinear problem in supercritical regimes away from a bifurcation point. The details of the reduction are given in comparison with traditional small-parameter expansions. It is also demonstrated that Squire’s transformation can be introduced for higher-order nonlinear terms thus reducing the full three-dimensional problem to its equivalent two-dimensional counterpart and enabling significant computational savings. The full three-dimensional instability patterns are subsequently recovered using the inverse transforms The analysed stationary thermomagnetic instability is shown to occur as a result of a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. (paper)

  6. Thermomagnetic instabilities in a vertical layer of ferrofluid: nonlinear analysis away from a critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Pinkee; Suslov, Sergey A

    2016-01-01

    A finite amplitude instability has been analysed to discover the exact mechanism leading to the appearance of stationary magnetoconvection patterns in a vertical layer of a non-conducting ferrofluid heated from the side and placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the walls. The physical results have been obtained using a version of a weakly nonlinear analysis that is based on the disturbance amplitude expansion. It enables a low-dimensional reduction of a full nonlinear problem in supercritical regimes away from a bifurcation point. The details of the reduction are given in comparison with traditional small-parameter expansions. It is also demonstrated that Squire’s transformation can be introduced for higher-order nonlinear terms thus reducing the full three-dimensional problem to its equivalent two-dimensional counterpart and enabling significant computational savings. The full three-dimensional instability patterns are subsequently recovered using the inverse transforms The analysed stationary thermomagnetic instability is shown to occur as a result of a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. (paper)

  7. Critical assessment of Pt surface energy - An atomistic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Seol, Donghyuk; Lee, Byeong-Joo

    2018-04-01

    Despite the fact that surface energy is a fundamental quantity in understanding surface structure of nanoparticle, the results of experimental measurements and theoretical calculations for the surface energy of pure Pt show a wide range of scattering. It is necessary to further ensure the surface energy of Pt to find the equilibrium shape and atomic configuration in Pt bimetallic nanoparticles accurately. In this article, we critically assess and optimize the Pt surface energy using a semi-empirical atomistic approach based on the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method interatomic potential. That is, the interatomic potential of pure Pt was adjusted in a way that the surface segregation tendency in a wide range of Pt binary alloys is reproduced in accordance with experimental information. The final optimized Pt surface energy (mJ/m2) is 2036 for (100) surface, 2106 for (110) surface, and 1502 for (111) surface. The potential can be utilized to find the equilibrium shape and atomic configuration of Pt bimetallic nanoparticles more accurately.

  8. Criticality problems in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The criticality problem is considered for energy dependent neutron transport in an isotropically scattering, homogeneous slab. Under a positivity assumption on the scattering kernel, an expression can be found relating the thickness of the slab to a parameter characterizing production by fission. This is accomplished by exploiting the Perron-Frobenius-Jentsch characterization of positive operators (i.e. those leaving invariant a normal, reproducing cone in a Banach space). It is pointed out that those techniques work for classes of multigroup problems were the Case singular eigenfunction approach is not as feasible as in the one-group theory, which is also analyzed

  9. A nonlinear flow-induced energy harvester by considering effects of fictitious springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guangcheng; Lin, Yueh-Jaw

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a newly proposed energy harvesting approach involving nonlinear coupling effects is demonstrated by utilizing a pair of inducing bluff bodies that are put on both sides of the flag-shaped cantilever beam, and placed in a side-by-side configuration to harvest the energy of the flow. One patch of macro fiber composite is attached to the fixed end of the cantilever beam to facilitate converting the kinetic energy into electric power. It is the first time in recent literature that two fluid dynamic phenomena (i.e. the vortex shedding and the Bernoulli effect) are considered simultaneously in the flow-induced energy harvesting field. The fictitious springs are introduced to explain the nonlinear characteristics of the proposed structure. With the effect of the fictitious springs, the speed range of the flow-induced energy harvester is extended. The proposed structure not only improves the output of the induced-based energy harvester compared to one that has just one cylinder, but can also be utilized in an actual hostile ambient environment. The experimental results for the energy harvester prototype are also investigated. The output power of the energy harvester with two cylinders (D = 25 mm) is measured to be 1.12 μW when the flow speed is 0.325 m s-1 and the center-to-center transverse spacing is 45 mm. This research also delves into the geometric variations of the proposed structure and its optimization.

  10. Dynamic bounds for power and efficiency of non-ideal energy converters under nonlinear transfer laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    2009-01-01

    We present a thermodynamic approach to simulation and modeling of nonlinear energy converters, in particular radiation engines. Novel results are obtained especially for dynamical engines when the temperature of the propelling medium decreases in time due to a continual decrease of the medium's internal energy caused by the power production. Basic thermodynamic principles determine the converter's efficiency and work limits in terms of the entropy production. The real work is a cumulative effect obtained in a system of a resource fluid, a sequence of engines, and an infinite bath. Nonlinear modeling involves dynamic optimization in which the classical expression for efficiency at maximum power is generalized to endoirreversible machines and nonlinear transfer laws. The primary result is a finite-rate generalization of the classical, reversible work potential (exergy). The generalized work function depends on thermal coordinates and a dissipation index, h, i.e. a Hamiltonian of the minimum entropy production problem. This generalized work function implies stronger bounds on work delivered or supplied than the reversible work potential. The role of the nonlinear analyses and dynamic optimization is shown especially for radiation engines. As an example of the kinetic work limit, generalized exergy of radiation fluid is estimated in terms of finite rates, quantified by the Hamiltonian h

  11. Effects of dual-energy CT with non-linear blending on abdominal CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sulan; Wang, Chaoqin; Jiang, Xiao Chen; Xu, Ge

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether non-linear blending technique for arterial-phase dual-energy abdominal CT angiography (CTA) could improve image quality compared to the linear blending technique and conventional 120 kVp imaging. This study included 118 patients who had accepted dual-energy abdominal CTA in the arterial phase. They were assigned to Sn140/80 kVp protocol (protocol A, n = 40) if body mass index (BMI) < 25 or Sn140/100 kVp protocol (protocol B, n = 41) if BMI ≥ 25. Non-linear blending images and linear blending images with a weighting factor of 0.5 in each protocol were generated and compared with the conventional 120 kVp images (protocol C, n = 37). The abdominal vascular enhancements, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and radiation dose were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test, independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean vascular attenuation, CNR, SNR and subjective image quality score for the non-linear blending images in each protocol were all higher compared to the corresponding linear blending images and 120 kVp images (p values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.007) except for when compared to non-linear blending images for protocol B and 120 kVp images in CNR and SNR. No significant differences were found in image noise among the three kinds of images and the same kind of images in different protocols, but the lowest radiation dose was shown in protocol A. Non-linear blending technique of dual-energy CT can improve the image quality of arterial-phase abdominal CTA, especially with the Sn140/80 kVp scanning.

  12. Effects of dual-energy CT with non-linear blending on abdominal CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sulan; Wang, Chaoqin; Jiang, Xiao Chen; Xu, Ge [Dept. of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2014-08-15

    To determine whether non-linear blending technique for arterial-phase dual-energy abdominal CT angiography (CTA) could improve image quality compared to the linear blending technique and conventional 120 kVp imaging. This study included 118 patients who had accepted dual-energy abdominal CTA in the arterial phase. They were assigned to Sn140/80 kVp protocol (protocol A, n = 40) if body mass index (BMI) < 25 or Sn140/100 kVp protocol (protocol B, n = 41) if BMI ≥ 25. Non-linear blending images and linear blending images with a weighting factor of 0.5 in each protocol were generated and compared with the conventional 120 kVp images (protocol C, n = 37). The abdominal vascular enhancements, image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and radiation dose were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance test, independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Mean vascular attenuation, CNR, SNR and subjective image quality score for the non-linear blending images in each protocol were all higher compared to the corresponding linear blending images and 120 kVp images (p values ranging from < 0.001 to 0.007) except for when compared to non-linear blending images for protocol B and 120 kVp images in CNR and SNR. No significant differences were found in image noise among the three kinds of images and the same kind of images in different protocols, but the lowest radiation dose was shown in protocol A. Non-linear blending technique of dual-energy CT can improve the image quality of arterial-phase abdominal CTA, especially with the Sn140/80 kVp scanning.

  13. Dark matter and dark energy: The critical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael S. Turner

    2002-01-01

    Stars account for only about 0.5% of the content of the Universe; the bulk of the Universe is optically dark. The dark side of the Universe is comprised of: at least 0.1% light neutrinos; 3.5% ± 1% baryons; 29% ± 4% cold dark matter; and 66% ± 6% dark energy. Now that we have characterized the dark side of the Universe, the challenge is to understand it. The critical questions are: (1) What form do the dark baryons take? (2) What is (are) the constituent(s) of the cold dark matter? (3) What is the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is causing the Universe to speed up

  14. Nonlinear analysis and enhancement of wing-based piezoaeroelastic energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkefi, Abdessattar

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the level of harvested power from aeroelastic vibrations for an elastically mounted wing supported by nonlinear springs. The energy is harvested by attaching a piezoelectric transducer to the plunge degree of freedom. The considered wing has a low-aspect ratio and hence three dimensional aerodynamic effects cannot be neglected. To this end, the three dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method for the prediction of the unsteady aerodynamic loads is developed. A strong coupling scheme that is based on Hamming\\'s fourth-order predictor-corrector method and accounts for the interaction between the aerodynamic loads and the motion of the wing is employed. The effects of the electrical load resistance, nonlinear torsional spring and eccentricity between the elastic axis and the gravity axis on the level of the harvested power, pitch and plunge amplitudes are investigated for a range of operating wind speeds. The results show that there is a specific wind speed beyond which the pitch motion does not pick any further energy from the incident flow. As such, the displacement in the plunge direction grows significantly and causes enhanced energy harvesting. The results also show that the nonlinear torsional spring plays an important role in enhancing the level of the harvested power. Furthermore, the harvested power can be increased by an order of magnitude by properly choosing the eccentricity and the load resistance. This analysis is helpful in designing piezoaeroelastic energy harvesters that can operate optimally at specific wind speeds. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Modeling and analysis of Galfenol cantilever vibration energy harvester with nonlinear magnetic force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuying; Sun, Shuaishuai; Zheng, Jiaju; Wang, Bowen; Wan, Lili; Pan, Ruzheng; Zhao, Ran; Zhang, Changgeng

    2018-05-01

    Galfenol traditional cantilever energy harvesters (TCEHs) have bigger electrical output only at resonance and exhibit nonlinear mechanical-magnetic-electric coupled (NMMEC) behaviors. To increase low-frequency broadband performances of a TCEH, an improved CEH (ICEH) with magnetic repulsive force is studied. Based on the magnetic dipole model, the nonlinear model of material, the Faraday law and the dynamic principle, a lumped parameter NMMEC model of the devices is established. Comparisons between the calculated and measured results show that the proposed model can provide reasonable data trends of TCEH under acceleration, bias field and different loads. Simulated results show that ICEH exhibits low-frequency resonant, hard spring and bistable behaviors, thus can harvest more low-frequency broadband vibration energy than TCEH, and can elicit snap-through and generate higher voltage even under weak noise. The proposed structure and model are useful for improving performances of the devices.

  16. A multivariate nonlinear mixed effects method for analyzing energy partitioning in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Danfær, Allan Christian; Chwalibog, André

    2010-01-01

    to the multivariate nonlinear regression model because the MNLME method accounted for correlated errors associated with PD and LD measurements and could also include the random effect of animal. It is recommended that multivariate models used to quantify energy metabolism in growing pigs should account for animal......Simultaneous equations have become increasingly popular for describing the effects of nutrition on the utilization of ME for protein (PD) and lipid deposition (LD) in animals. The study developed a multivariate nonlinear mixed effects (MNLME) framework and compared it with an alternative method...... for estimating parameters in simultaneous equations that described energy metabolism in growing pigs, and then proposed new PD and LD equations. The general statistical framework was implemented in the NLMIXED procedure in SAS. Alternative PD and LD equations were also developed, which assumed...

  17. Estimation of bone Calcium-to-Phosphorous mass ratio using dual-energy nonlinear polynomial functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, P; Koukou, V; Martini, N; Nikiforidis, G; Michail, C; Kandarakis, I; Fountos, G; Kounadi, E

    2015-01-01

    In this study an analytical approximation of dual-energy inverse functions is presented for the estimation of the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, which is a crucial parameter in bone health. Bone quality could be examined by the X-ray dual-energy method (XDEM), in terms of bone tissue material properties. Low- and high-energy, log- intensity measurements were combined by using a nonlinear function, to cancel out the soft tissue structures and generate the dual energy bone Ca/P mass ratio. The dual-energy simulated data were obtained using variable Ca and PO 4 thicknesses on a fixed total tissue thickness. The XDEM simulations were based on a bone phantom. Inverse fitting functions with least-squares estimation were used to obtain the fitting coefficients and to calculate the thickness of each material. The examined inverse mapping functions were linear, quadratic, and cubic. For every thickness, the nonlinear quadratic function provided the optimal fitting accuracy while requiring relative few terms. The dual-energy method, simulated in this work could be used to quantify bone Ca/P mass ratio with photon-counting detectors. (paper)

  18. Nonlinear evolution in Quantum Chromodynamics and its application to neutrinos production at very high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasto, A.

    2004-09-01

    This work is a study of the phenomenon of partonic saturation in the high energy collisions of elementary particles. We have observed the geometric scaling property of the deep inelastic electron-proton cross section which can be interpreted as a signal of partonic saturation. This scaling means that the cross section depends only on one scaling variable τ ≅ Q 2 /Q 2 s (x) which is a ratio of the photon virtuality Q 2 and the saturation scale Q 2 s (x) which depends power-like on Bjorken x. The properties of the solution to the linear DGLAP evolution equations have been investigated in the presence of the scaling initial conditions. These conditions are given on the critical line defined as Q 0 =Q 4 s (x). In the fixed strong coupling case scaling is preserved by the DGLAP evolution. When strong coupling is running, geometric scaling is violated because of presence of additional scale Λ QCD . The coefficient responsible for geometric scaling violations has been extracted, which vanishes for very small values of Bjorken x such that Q 2 4 s (x)=Λ 2 QCD . We have analysed numerically nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, which takes into account diagrams responsible for the gluon recombination and describes partonic saturation. The solution to this equation in the case of the infinitely large target has been obtained (1 + 1 dimensions). In the linear case, the solution is plagued by the strong diffusion of the transverse momenta. It turns out that in the nonlinear equation the diffusion to infrared region is strongly suppressed due to the presence of the saturation scale Q s (x). We have also investigated the impact of the nonleading in x effects in this equation such as running coupling and the consistency constraint. In the case of solution to the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation in 3+1 dimensions the power behaviour in impact parameter is present, even if the initial conditions are exponentially falling. This feature causes violation of the Froissart-Martin bound

  19. A critical blow-up exponent in a chemotaxis system with nonlinear signal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Michael

    2018-05-01

    This paper is concerned with radially symmetric solutions of the Keller–Segel system with nonlinear signal production, as given by in the ball for and R  >  0, where f is a suitably regular function generalizing the prototype determined by the choice , , with . The main results assert that if in this setting the number κ satisfies then for any prescribed mass level m  >  0, there exist initial data u 0 with , for which the solution of the corresponding Neumann initial-boundary value problem blows up in finite time. The condition in () is essentially optimal and is indicated by a complementary result according to which in the case , for widely arbitrary initial data, a global bounded classical solution can always be found.

  20. An adaptive critic-based scheme for consensus control of nonlinear multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Ali; Balakrishnan, S. N.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of decentralised consensus control of a network of heterogeneous nonlinear systems is formulated as an optimal tracking problem and a solution is proposed using an approximate dynamic programming based neurocontroller. The neurocontroller training comprises an initial offline training phase and an online re-optimisation phase to account for the fact that the reference signal subject to tracking is not fully known and available ahead of time, i.e., during the offline training phase. As long as the dynamics of the agents are controllable, and the communication graph has a directed spanning tree, this scheme guarantees the synchronisation/consensus even under switching communication topology and directed communication graph. Finally, an aerospace application is selected for the evaluation of the performance of the method. Simulation results demonstrate the potential of the scheme.

  1. Linear and nonlinear causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in China: New evidence based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The energy-growth nexus has important policy implications for economic development. The results from many past studies that investigated the causality direction of this nexus can lead to misleading policy guidance. Using data on China from 1953 to 2013, this study shows that an application of causality test on the time series of energy consumption and national output has masked a lot of information. The Toda-Yamamoto test with bootstrapped critical values and the newly proposed non-linear causality test reveal no causal relationship. However, a further application of these tests using series in different time-frequency domain obtained from wavelet decomposition indicates that while energy consumption Granger causes economic growth in the short run, the reverse is true in the medium term. A bidirectional causal relationship is found for the long run. This approach has proven to be superior in unveiling information on the energy-growth nexus that are useful for policy planning over different time horizons. PMID:29782534

  2. Economics in Criticality and Restoration of Energy Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Gale A.; Flaim, Silvio J.; Folga, Stephen M.; Gotham, Douglas J.; McLamore, Michael R.; Novak, Mary H.; Roop, Joe M.; Rossmann, Charles G.; Shamsuddin, Shabbir A.; Zeichner, Lee M.; Stamber, Kevin L.

    2005-03-01

    Economists, systems analysts, engineers, regulatory specialists, and other experts were assembled from academia, the national laboratories, and the energy industry to discuss present restoration practices (many have already been defined to the level of operational protocols) in the sectors of the energy infrastructure as well as other infrastructures, to identify whether economics, a discipline concerned with the allocation of scarce resources, is explicitly or implicitly a part of restoration strategies, and if there are novel economic techniques and solution methods that could be used help encourage the restoration of energy services more quickly than present practices or to restore service more efficiently from an economic perspective. AcknowledgementsDevelopment of this work into a coherent product with a useful message has occurred thanks to the thoughtful support of several individuals:Kenneth Friedman, Department of Energy, Office of Energy Assurance, provided the impetus for the work, as well as several suggestions and reminders of direction along the way. Funding from DOE/OEA was critical to the completion of this effort.Arnold Baker, Chief Economist, Sandia National Laboratories, and James Peerenboom, Director, Infrastructure Assurance Center, Argonne National Laboratory, provided valuable contacts that helped to populate the authoring team with the proper mix of economists, engineers, and systems and regulatory specialists to meet the objectives of the work.Several individuals provided valuable review of the document at various stages of completion, and provided suggestions that were valuable to the editing process. This list of reviewers includes Jeffrey Roark, Economist, Tennessee Valley Authority; James R. Dalrymple, Manager of Transmission System Services and Transmission/Power Supply, Tennessee Valley Authority; William Mampre, Vice President, EN Engineering; Kevin Degenstein, EN Engineering; and Patrick Wilgang, Department of Energy, Office of

  3. Combined effects of changing-sign potential and critical nonlinearities in Kirchhoff type problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao-Sheng Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for a class of Kirchhoff type problems involving changing-sign potential and critical growth terms. Using the concentration compactness principle and Nehari manifold, we obtain the existence and multiplicity of nonzero non-negative solutions.

  4. Complex motion in nonlinear-map model of elevators in energy-saving traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior and dynamic transitions of elevators in a system for reducing energy consumption. We present a nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of M elevators. The motion of elevators depends on the loading parameter and their number M. The dependence of the fixed points on the loading parameter is derived. The dynamic transitions occur at 2(M-1) stages with increasing the value of loading parameter. At the dynamic transition point, the motion of elevators changes from a stable state to an unstable state and vice versa. The elevators display periodic motions with various periods in the unstable state. In the unstable state, the number of riding passengers fluctuates in a complex manner over various trips. - Highlights: → We propose the nonlinear-map model in energy-saving traffic of elevators. → We study the dynamical behavior and dynamical transitions in the system of elevators. → We derive the fixed point of the nonlinear map analytically. → We clarify the dependence of the motion on the loading parameter and the number.

  5. Complex motion in nonlinear-map model of elevators in energy-saving traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, Takashi, E-mail: tmtnaga@ipc.shizuoka.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Thermal Science, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2011-05-16

    We have studied the dynamic behavior and dynamic transitions of elevators in a system for reducing energy consumption. We present a nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of M elevators. The motion of elevators depends on the loading parameter and their number M. The dependence of the fixed points on the loading parameter is derived. The dynamic transitions occur at 2(M-1) stages with increasing the value of loading parameter. At the dynamic transition point, the motion of elevators changes from a stable state to an unstable state and vice versa. The elevators display periodic motions with various periods in the unstable state. In the unstable state, the number of riding passengers fluctuates in a complex manner over various trips. - Highlights: We propose the nonlinear-map model in energy-saving traffic of elevators. We study the dynamical behavior and dynamical transitions in the system of elevators. We derive the fixed point of the nonlinear map analytically. We clarify the dependence of the motion on the loading parameter and the number.

  6. An improved energy conserving implicit time integration algorithm for nonlinear dynamic structural analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, E.; Rouvray, A.L. de; Nguyen, Q.S.

    1977-01-01

    This study proposes a general nonlinear algorithm stability criterion; it introduces a nonlinear algorithm, easily implemented in existing incremental/iterative codes, and it applies the new scheme beneficially to problems of linear elastic dynamic snap buckling. Based on the concept of energy conservation, the paper outlines an algorithm which degenerates into the trapezoidal rule, if applied to linear systems. The new algorithm conserves energy in systems having elastic potentials up to the fourth order in the displacements. This is true in the important case of nonlinear total Lagrange formulations where linear elastic material properties are substituted. The scheme is easily implemented in existing incremental-iterative codes with provisions for stiffness reformation and containing the basic Newmark scheme. Numerical analyses of dynamic stability can be dramatically sensitive to amplitude errors, because damping algorithms may mask, and overestimating schemes may numerically trigger, the physical instability. The newly proposed scheme has been applied with larger time steps and less cost to the dynamic snap buckling of simple one and multi degree-of-freedom structures for various initial conditions

  7. Critical technical issues and evaluation and comparison studies for inertial fusion energy reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A. (Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Ying, A.Y. (Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Tillack, M.S. (Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Ghoniem, N.M. (Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Waganer, L.M. (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MI (United States)); Driemeyer, D.E. (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MI (United States)); Linford, G.J. (TRW Space and Electronics Div., Redondo Beach, CA (United States)); Drake, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Two inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor design concepts developed in the Prometheus studies were evaluated. Objectives were to identify and characterize critical issues and the R and D required to resolve them, and to establish a sound basis for future IFE technical and programmatic decisions. Each critical issue contains several key physics and engineering issues associated with major reactor components and impacts key aspects of feasibility, safety, and economic potential of IFE reactors. Generic critical issues center around: demonstration of moderate gain at low driver energy, feasibility of direct drive targets, feasibility of indirect drive targets for heavy ions, feasibility of indirect drive targets for lasers, cost reduction strategies for heavy ion drivers, demonstration of higher overall laser driver efficiency, tritium self-sufficiency in IFE reactors, cavity clearing at IFE pulse repetition rates, performance/reliability/lifetime of final laser optics, viability of liquid metal film for first wall protection, fabricability/reliability/lifetime of SiC composite structures, validation of radiation shielding requirements, design tools, and nuclear data, reliability and lifetime of laser and heavy ion drivers, demonstration of large-scale non-linear optical laser driver architecture, demonstration of cost effective KrF amplifiers, and demonstration of low cost, high volume target production techniques. Quantitative evaluation and comparison of the two design options have been made with special focus on physics feasibility, engineering feasibility, economics, safety and environment, and research and development (R and D) requirements. Two key conclusions are made based on the overall evaluation analysis. The heavy-ion driven reactors appear to have an overall advantage over laser-driven reactors.

  8. Critical behaviour of SU(n) quantum chains and topological non-linear σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affleck, I.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver

    1988-01-01

    The critical behaviour of SU(n) quantum ''spin'' chains, Wess-Zumino-Witten σ-models and grassmanian σ-models at topological angle θ = π (of possible relevance to the quantum Hall effect) is reexamined. It is argued that an additional Z n symmetry is generally necessary to stabilize the massless phase. This symmetry is not present for the σ-models for n>2 and is only present for certain representations of ''spin'' chains. (orig.)

  9. Modeling of non-linear CHP efficiency curves in distributed energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Gonçalo

    2015-01-01

    Distributed energy resources gain an increased importance in commercial and industrial building design. Combined heat and power (CHP) units are considered as one of the key technologies for cost and emission reduction in buildings. In order to make optimal decisions on investment and operation...... for these technologies, detailed system models are needed. These models are often formulated as linear programming problems to keep computational costs and complexity in a reasonable range. However, CHP systems involve variations of the efficiency for large nameplate capacity ranges and in case of part load operation......, which can be even of non-linear nature. Since considering these characteristics would turn the models into non-linear problems, in most cases only constant efficiencies are assumed. This paper proposes possible solutions to address this issue. For a mixed integer linear programming problem two...

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of a circular piezoelectric plate for vibratory energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tian-Chen; Yang, Jian; Chen, Li-Qun

    2018-06-01

    Nonlinear behaviors are investigated for a vibration-based energy harvester. The harvester consists of a circular composite plate with the clamped boundary, a proof mass and two steel rings. The lumped parameter model of the harvester is established and the parameters are identified from the experiment. The measured nonlinear behaviors can be approximately described by the lumped model. Both the experimental and the numerical results demonstrate that the circular plate harvester has soft characteristics under low excitation and both hard characteristics and soft characteristics under high excitation. The experimental results show that the output voltage can achieve over 35 V (about 50 mW) and more than 14 Hz of bandwidth with 25 kΩ load resistance.

  11. Vibration mitigation of a bridge cable using a nonlinear energy sink: design and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the design and experiment of a cubic nonlinear energy sink (NES for horizontal vibration mitigation of a bridge cable. Modal analysis of horizontal linear modes of the cable is experimentally performed using accelerometers and displacement sensors. A theoretical simplified 2-dof model of the coupled cable-NES system is used to analytically design the NES by mean of multi-time scale systems behaviours and detection its invariant manifold, equilibrium and singular points which stand for periodic and strongly modulated regimes, respectively. Numerical integration is used to confirm the efficiency of the designed NES for the system under step release excitation. Then, the prototype system is built using geometrical cubic nonlinearity as the potential of the NES. Efficiency of the prototype system for mitigation of horizontal vibrations of the cable under for step release and forced excitations is experimentally demonstrated.

  12. Non-linear Structures in the Non-critical NSR String

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, K.; Ishikawa, H.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the Ward identities of the W ∞ symmetry in the super-Liouville theory coupled to the super-conformal matter of central charge c M =1-2(p-q) 2 /pq. The theory is classified into two chiralities. For the positive chirality, all gravitationally dressed scaling operators are generated from the q-1 repeatedly. After fixing the normalizations of the dressed scaling operators, we find that the Ward identities are expressed in the form of the usual W q algebra constraints as in the bosonic case: W n (k+1) τ=0, (k=1,..,q-1; nεZ≥1- k), where the equations for even and odd n come from the currents in the NS- and the R-sector respectively. The non-linear terms come from the anomalous contributions at the boundaries of moduli space. The negative chirality is defined by interchanging the roles of p and q. Then we get the W p algebra constraints. (orig.)

  13. Energy scales and magnetoresistance at a quantum critical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a Chernova street, Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation); Stephanovich, V.A. [Opole University, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Opole, 45-052 (Poland)

    2009-03-02

    The magnetoresistance (MR) of CeCoIn{sub 5} is notably different from that in many conventional metals. We show that a pronounced crossover from negative to positive MR at elevated temperatures and fixed magnetic fields is determined by the scaling behavior of quasiparticle effective mass. At a quantum critical point (QCP) this dependence generates kinks (crossover points from fast to slow growth) in thermodynamic characteristics (like specific heat, magnetization, etc.) at some temperatures when a strongly correlated electron system transits from the magnetic field induced Landau-Fermi liquid (LFL) regime to the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) one taking place at rising temperatures. We show that the above kink-like peculiarity separates two distinct energy scales in QCP vicinity - low temperature LFL scale and high temperature one related to NFL regime. Our comprehensive theoretical analysis of experimental data permits to reveal for the first time new MR and kinks scaling behavior as well as to identify the physical reasons for above energy scales.

  14. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  15. Reduced-order modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters with nonlinear circuits under complex conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hong-Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Shi, Zhi-Fei; Li, Hong

    2018-04-01

    A fully coupled modeling approach is developed for piezoelectric energy harvesters in this work based on the use of available robust finite element packages and efficient reducing order modeling techniques. At first, the harvester is modeled using finite element packages. The dynamic equilibrium equations of harvesters are rebuilt by extracting system matrices from the finite element model using built-in commands without any additional tools. A Krylov subspace-based scheme is then applied to obtain a reduced-order model for improving simulation efficiency but preserving the key features of harvesters. Co-simulation of the reduced-order model with nonlinear energy harvesting circuits is achieved in a system level. Several examples in both cases of harmonic response and transient response analysis are conducted to validate the present approach. The proposed approach allows to improve the simulation efficiency by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, the parameters used in the equivalent circuit model can be conveniently obtained by the proposed eigenvector-based model order reduction technique. More importantly, this work establishes a methodology for modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters with any complicated mechanical geometries and nonlinear circuits. The input load may be more complex also. The method can be employed by harvester designers to optimal mechanical structures or by circuit designers to develop novel energy harvesting circuits.

  16. Critical Metals in Strategic Low-carbon Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R. L.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, shortages of materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. Consequently, an assessment has been carried out to ascertain whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), especially in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The assessment identified 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. Following a more critical examination, based on the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers, 5 of the 14 metals were pinpointed to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium (for wind technology), and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium (for photovoltaic technologies). In addition, the work has explored potential mitigation strategies, ranging from expanding European output, increasing recycling and reuse to reducing waste and finding substitutes for these metals in their main applications. Furthermore, recommendations are provided which include closely working with the EU's Raw Materials Initiative; supporting efforts to ensure reliable supply of ore concentrates at competitive prices; promoting R&D and demonstration projects on new lower cost separation processes; and promoting the further development of recycling technologies and increasing end-of-life collection

  17. Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Ian L.

    Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively

  18. Constraining Born-Infeld-like nonlinear electrodynamics using hydrogen's ionization energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akmansoy, P.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Natal (Brazil); Medeiros, L.G. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Escola de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2018-02-15

    In this work, the hydrogen's ionization energy was used to constrain the free parameter b of three Born-Infeld-like electrodynamics namely Born-Infeld itself, Logarithmic electrodynamics and Exponential electrodynamics. An analytical methodology capable of calculating the hydrogen ground state energy level correction for a generic nonlinear electrodynamics was developed. Using the experimental uncertainty in the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom, the bound b > 5.37 x 10{sup 20}K(V)/(m), where K = 2, 4√(2)/3 and √(π) for the Born-Infeld, Logarithmic and Exponential electrodynamics respectively, was established. In the particular case of Born-Infeld electrodynamics, the constraint found for b was compared with other constraints present in the literature. (orig.)

  19. Enhanced Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting Using a Multimodal Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiming; Yang, Jin; Zhao, Jiangxin; Zhao, Nian; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we present a multimodal wideband vibration energy harvester designed to scavenge energy from ambient vibrations over a wide frequency range. The harvester consists of a folded cantilever, three magnetoelectric (ME) transducers, and two magnetic circuits. The folded cantilever enables multi-resonant response formed by bending of each stage, and the nonlinear magnetic forces acting on the folded cantilever beam allow further broadening of the frequency response. We also investigate the effects of the position of the ME transducer on the electrical output in order to achieve optimal performance. The experimental results show that the vibration energy harvester exhibited three resonance peaks in a range of 5 Hz to 30 Hz, a wider working bandwidth of 10.1 Hz, and a maximum average power value of 31.58 μW at an acceleration of 0.6 g (with g = 9.8 m/s2).

  20. A Two-Step Hybrid Approach for Modeling the Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maruccio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective hybrid computational framework is described here in order to assess the nonlinear dynamic response of piezoelectric energy harvesting devices. The proposed strategy basically consists of two steps. First, fully coupled multiphysics finite element (FE analyses are performed to evaluate the nonlinear static response of the device. An enhanced reduced-order model is then derived, where the global dynamic response is formulated in the state-space using lumped coefficients enriched with the information derived from the FE simulations. The electromechanical response of piezoelectric beams under forced vibrations is studied by means of the proposed approach, which is also validated by comparing numerical predictions with some experimental results. Such numerical and experimental investigations have been carried out with the main aim of studying the influence of material and geometrical parameters on the global nonlinear response. The advantage of the presented approach is that the overall computational and experimental efforts are significantly reduced while preserving a satisfactory accuracy in the assessment of the global behavior.

  1. A Design of Mechanical Frequency Converter Linear and Non-linear Spring Combination for Energy Harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K; Fujita, T; Kanda, K; Maenaka, K; Badel, A; Formosa, F

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the improvement of energy harvesting from wideband vibration with random change by using a combination of linear and nonlinear spring system is investigated. The system consists of curved beam spring for non-linear buckling, which supports the linear mass-spring resonator. Applying shock acceleration generates a snap through action to the buckling spring. From the FEM analysis, we showed that the snap through acceleration from the buckling action has no relationship with the applied shock amplitude and duration. We use this uniform acceleration as an impulse shock source for the linear resonator. It is easy to obtain the maximum shock response from the uniform snap through acceleration by using a shock response spectrum (SRS) analysis method. At first we investigated the relationship between the snap-through behaviour and an initial curved deflection. Then a time response result for non-linear springs with snap through and minimum force that makes a buckling behaviour were obtained by FEM analysis. By obtaining the optimum SRS frequency for linear resonator, we decided its resonant frequency with the MATLAB simulator

  2. Self-Organized Criticality in Astrophysics The Statistics of Nonlinear Processes in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The concept of ‘self-organized criticality’ (SOC) has been applied to a variety of problems, ranging from population growth and traffic jams to earthquakes, landslides and forest fires. The technique is now being applied to a wide range of phenomena in astrophysics, such as planetary magnetospheres, solar flares, cataclysmic variable stars, accretion disks, black holes and gamma-ray bursts, and also to phenomena in galactic physics and cosmology. Self-organized Criticality in Astrophysics introduces the concept of SOC and shows that, due to its universality and ubiquity, it is a law of nature. The theoretical framework and specific physical models are described, together with a range of applications in various aspects of astrophyics. The mathematical techniques, including the statistics of random processes, time series analysis, time scale and waiting time distributions, are presented and the results are applied to specific observations of astrophysical phenomena.

  3. A single network adaptive critic (SNAC) architecture for optimal control synthesis for a class of nonlinear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Radhakant; Unnikrishnan, Nishant; Wang, Xiaohua; Balakrishnan, S N

    2006-12-01

    Even though dynamic programming offers an optimal control solution in a state feedback form, the method is overwhelmed by computational and storage requirements. Approximate dynamic programming implemented with an Adaptive Critic (AC) neural network structure has evolved as a powerful alternative technique that obviates the need for excessive computations and storage requirements in solving optimal control problems. In this paper, an improvement to the AC architecture, called the "Single Network Adaptive Critic (SNAC)" is presented. This approach is applicable to a wide class of nonlinear systems where the optimal control (stationary) equation can be explicitly expressed in terms of the state and costate variables. The selection of this terminology is guided by the fact that it eliminates the use of one neural network (namely the action network) that is part of a typical dual network AC setup. As a consequence, the SNAC architecture offers three potential advantages: a simpler architecture, lesser computational load and elimination of the approximation error associated with the eliminated network. In order to demonstrate these benefits and the control synthesis technique using SNAC, two problems have been solved with the AC and SNAC approaches and their computational performances are compared. One of these problems is a real-life Micro-Electro-Mechanical-system (MEMS) problem, which demonstrates that the SNAC technique is applicable to complex engineering systems.

  4. An energy-saving nonlinear position control strategy for electro-hydraulic servo systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghestan, Keivan; Rezaei, Seyed Mehdi; Talebi, Heidar Ali; Zareinejad, Mohammad

    2015-11-01

    The electro-hydraulic servo system (EHSS) demonstrates numerous advantages in size and performance compared to other actuation methods. Oftentimes, its utilization in industrial and machinery settings is limited by its inferior efficiency. In this paper, a nonlinear backstepping control algorithm with an energy-saving approach is proposed for position control in the EHSS. To achieve improved efficiency, two control valves including a proportional directional valve (PDV) and a proportional relief valve (PRV) are used to achieve the control objectives. To design the control algorithm, the state space model equations of the system are transformed to their normal form and the control law through the PDV is designed using a backstepping approach for position tracking. Then, another nonlinear set of laws is derived to achieve energy-saving through the PRV input. This control design method, based on the normal form representation, imposes internal dynamics on the closed-loop system. The stability of the internal dynamics is analyzed in special cases of operation. Experimental results verify that both tracking and energy-saving objectives are satisfied for the closed-loop system. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An oscillating wave energy converter with nonlinear snap-through Power-Take-Off systems in regular waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian-tao; Yang, Jian-min; Xiao, Long-fei

    2016-07-01

    Floating oscillating bodies constitute a large class of wave energy converters, especially for offshore deployment. Usually the Power-Take-Off (PTO) system is a directly linear electric generator or a hydraulic motor that drives an electric generator. The PTO system is simplified as a linear spring and a linear damper. However the conversion is less powerful with wave periods off resonance. Thus, a nonlinear snap-through mechanism with two symmetrically oblique springs and a linear damper is applied in the PTO system. The nonlinear snap-through mechanism is characteristics of negative stiffness and double-well potential. An important nonlinear parameter γ is defined as the ratio of half of the horizontal distance between the two springs to the original length of both springs. Time domain method is applied to the dynamics of wave energy converter in regular waves. And the state space model is used to replace the convolution terms in the time domain equation. The results show that the energy harvested by the nonlinear PTO system is larger than that by linear system for low frequency input. While the power captured by nonlinear converters is slightly smaller than that by linear converters for high frequency input. The wave amplitude, damping coefficient of PTO systems and the nonlinear parameter γ affect power capture performance of nonlinear converters. The oscillation of nonlinear wave energy converters may be local or periodically inter well for certain values of the incident wave frequency and the nonlinear parameter γ, which is different from linear converters characteristics of sinusoidal response in regular waves.

  6. Martin Marietta Energy Systems Nuclear Criticality Safety Improvement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speas, I.G.

    1987-01-01

    This report addresses questions raised by criticality safety violation at several DOE plants. Two charts are included that define the severity and reporting requirements for the six levels of accidents. A summary is given of all reported criticality incident at the DOE plants involved. The report concludes with Martin Marietta's Nuclear Criticality Safety Policy Statement

  7. Energy Distribution of a Regular Black Hole Solution in Einstein-Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Radinschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study about the energy momentum of a new four-dimensional spherically symmetric, static and charged, regular black hole solution developed in the context of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics is presented. Asymptotically, this new black hole solution behaves as the Reissner-Nordström solution only for the particular value μ=4, where μ is a positive integer parameter appearing in the mass function of the solution. The calculations are performed by use of the Einstein, Landau-Lifshitz, Weinberg, and Møller energy momentum complexes. In all the aforementioned prescriptions, the expressions for the energy of the gravitating system considered depend on the mass M of the black hole, its charge q, a positive integer α, and the radial coordinate r. In all these pseudotensorial prescriptions, the momenta are found to vanish, while the Landau-Lifshitz and Weinberg prescriptions give the same result for the energy distribution. In addition, the limiting behavior of the energy for the cases r→∞, r→0, and q=0 is studied. The special case μ=4 and α=3 is also examined. We conclude that the Einstein and Møller energy momentum complexes can be considered as the most reliable tools for the study of the energy momentum localization of a gravitating system.

  8. Replacing critical rare earth materials in high energy density magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, R. William

    2012-02-01

    High energy density permanent magnets are crucial to the design of internal permanent magnet motors (IPM) for hybride and electric vehicles and direct drive wind generators. Current motor designs use rare earth permanent magnets which easily meet the performance goals, however, the rising concerns over cost and foreign control of the current supply of rare earth resources has motivated a search for non-rare earth based permanent magnets alloys with performance metrics which allow the design of permanent magnet motors and generators without rare earth magnets. This talk will discuss the state of non-rare-earth permanent magnets and efforts to both improve the current materials and find new materials. These efforts combine first principles calculations and meso-scale magnetic modeling with advance characterization and synthesis techniques in order to advance the state of the art in non rare earth permanent magnets. The use of genetic algorithms in first principle structural calculations, combinatorial synthesis in the experimental search for materials, atom probe microscopy to characterize grain boundaries on the atomic level, and other state of the art techniques will be discussed. In addition the possibility of replacing critical rare earth elements with the most abundant rare earth Ce will be discussed.

  9. Vibration Control of Structures using Vibro-Impact Nonlinear Energy Sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using Vibro-Impact Nonlinear Energy Sinks (VI NESs is one of the novel strategies to control structural vibrations and mitigate their seismic response. In this system, a mass is tuned on the structure floor, so that it has a specific distance from an inelastic constraint connected to the floor mass. In case of structure stimulation, the displaced VI NES mass collides with the  inelastic constraint and upon impacts, energy is dissipated. In the present work, VI NES is studied when its parameters, including clearance and stiffness ratio, are simultaneously optimized. Harmony search as a recent meta-heuristic algorithm is efficiently specialized and utilized for the aforementioned continuous optimization problem. The optimized attached VI NES is thus shown to be capable of interacting with the primary structure over a wide range of frequencies. The resulting controlled response is then investigated, in a variety of low and medium rise steel moment frames, via nonlinear dynamic time history analyses. Capability of the VI NES to dissipate siesmic input energy of earthquakes and their capabilitiy in reducing response of srtructures effectively, through vibro-impacts between the energy sink’s mass and the floor mass, is discussed by extracting several performance indices and the corresponding Fourier spectra. Results of the numerical simulations done on some structural model examples reveal that the optimized VI NES has caused successive redistribution of energy from low-frequency high-amplitude vibration modes to high-frequency low-amplitude modes, bringing about the desired attenuation of the structural responses.

  10. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  11. Is more always better? The nonlinear relationship between energy consumption and wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan Winfrey, Elise Marie

    Policymakers today face rapidly expanding world populations, increasing evidence of environmental degradation and climate change, and mounting economic crises. In this context, they are grappling with the challenge of balancing environmental concerns, economic viability, and the wellbeing of their citizens. Because energy consumption has both positive and negative wellbeing implications, it is unclear whether societal goals to raise standards of living through energy-intensive lifestyles conflict with the social, economic, environmental, and health dimensions of broader wellbeing aspirations. Though there has been a significant amount of research on the long-run environmental consequences of increasing aggregate world energy demand, there is a lack of direct evidence on the relationship between energy consumption and wellbeing. This paper attempts to improve our understanding of the net wellbeing consequences of energy consumption. Specifically, it examines whether there is a nonlinear relationship between per capita energy consumption, as measured alternatively by CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita), electricity consumption (kWh per capita), and total energy consumption (kg of oil equivalent per capita), and wellbeing, as measured by individual life satisfaction aggregated at the country level. Panel and cross-sectional regression analyses are conducted using data from the Gallup World Poll (GWP), integrated European and World Values Surveys (WVS-EVS), and the World Bank DataBank (WBDB). Despite the classic economic assumption that more is always better, this analysis indicates that increasing energy consumption is not always associated with wellbeing improvements. The empirical results provide some suggestive evidence that life satisfaction gains associated with energy consumption may eventually be counterbalanced by the related human and environmental costs. This is valuable information for policymakers trying to balance environmental, energy-security, and

  12. Does more energy consumption bolster economic growth? An application of the nonlinear threshold regression model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.-N.; Hwang, M.J.; Yang, C.W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper separates data extending from 1971 to 2002 into the energy crisis period (1971-1980) and the post-energy crisis period (1981-2000) for 82 countries. The cross-sectional data (yearly averages) in these two periods are used to investigate the nonlinear relationships between energy consumption growth and economic growth when threshold variables are used. If threshold variables are higher than certain optimal threshold levels, there is either no significant relationship or else a significant negative relationship between energy consumption and economic growth. However, when these threshold variables are lower than certain optimal levels, there is a significant positive relationship between the two. In 48 out of the 82 countries studied, none of the four threshold variables is found to be higher than the optimal levels. It is inferred that these 48 countries should adopt a more aggressive energy policy. As for the other 34 countries, at least one threshold variable is higher than the optimal threshold level and thus these countries should adopt energy policies with varying degrees of conservation based on the number of threshold variables that are higher than the optimal threshold levels

  13. Nonlinear bound on unstable field energy in relativistic electron beams and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.; Yoon, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper makes use of Fowler's method [J. Math Phys. 4, 559 (1963)] to determine the nonlinear thermodynamic bound on field energy in unstable plasmas or electron beams in which the electrons are relativistic. Treating the electrons as the only active plasma component, the nonlinear Vlasov--Maxwell equations and the associated global conservation constraints are used to calculate the lowest upper bound on the field energy [ΔE-script/sub F/]/sub max/ that can evolve for the general initial electron distribution function f/sub b//sub / 0 equivalentf/sub b/(x,p,0). The results are applied to three choices of the initial distribution function f/sub b//sub / 0 . Two of the distribution functions have an inverted population in momentum p/sub perpendicular/ perpendicular to the magnetic field B 0 e/sub z/, and the third distribution function reduces to a bi-Maxwellian in the nonrelativistic limit. The lowest upper bound on the efficiency of radiation generation, eta/sub max/ = [ΔE-script/sub F/]/sub max//[V -1 ∫ d 3 x∫ d 3 p(γ-1)mc 2 f/sub b//sub / 0 ], is calculated numerically over a wide range of system parameters for varying degrees of initial anisotropy

  14. A nonlinear structural subgrid-scale closure for compressible MHD. I. Derivation and energy dissipation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlaykov, Dimitar G., E-mail: Dimitar.Vlaykov@ds.mpg.de [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Am Faßberg 17, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Grete, Philipp [Institut für Astrophysik, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Schmidt, Wolfram [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Schleicher, Dominik R. G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Facultad Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Av. Esteban Iturra s/n Barrio Universitario, Casilla 160-C (Chile)

    2016-06-15

    Compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is ubiquitous in astrophysical phenomena ranging from the intergalactic to the stellar scales. In studying them, numerical simulations are nearly inescapable, due to the large degree of nonlinearity involved. However, the dynamical ranges of these phenomena are much larger than what is computationally accessible. In large eddy simulations (LESs), the resulting limited resolution effects are addressed explicitly by introducing to the equations of motion additional terms associated with the unresolved, subgrid-scale dynamics. This renders the system unclosed. We derive a set of nonlinear structural closures for the ideal MHD LES equations with particular emphasis on the effects of compressibility. The closures are based on a gradient expansion of the finite-resolution operator [W. K. Yeo (CUP, 1993)] and require no assumptions about the nature of the flow or magnetic field. Thus, the scope of their applicability ranges from the sub- to the hyper-sonic and -Alfvénic regimes. The closures support spectral energy cascades both up and down-scale, as well as direct transfer between kinetic and magnetic resolved and unresolved energy budgets. They implicitly take into account the local geometry, and in particular, the anisotropy of the flow. Their properties are a priori validated in Paper II [P. Grete et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 062317 (2016)] against alternative closures available in the literature with respect to a wide range of simulation data of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.

  15. Optimization of Thermal Object Nonlinear Control Systems by Energy Efficiency Criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkin, Vladimir A.; Zavyalov, Vladimir A.

    2018-03-01

    This article presents the results of thermal object functioning control analysis (heat exchanger, dryer, heat treatment chamber, etc.). The results were used to determine a mathematical model of the generalized thermal control object. The appropriate optimality criterion was chosen to make the control more energy-efficient. The mathematical programming task was formulated based on the chosen optimality criterion, control object mathematical model and technological constraints. The “maximum energy efficiency” criterion helped avoid solving a system of nonlinear differential equations and solve the formulated problem of mathematical programming in an analytical way. It should be noted that in the case under review the search for optimal control and optimal trajectory reduces to solving an algebraic system of equations. In addition, it is shown that the optimal trajectory does not depend on the dynamic characteristics of the control object.

  16. Latest astronomical constraints on some non-linear parametric dark energy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiqiang; Pan, Supriya; Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2018-04-01

    We consider non-linear redshift-dependent equation of state parameters as dark energy models in a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. To depict the expansion history of the universe in such cosmological scenarios, we take into account the large-scale behaviour of such parametric models and fit them using a set of latest observational data with distinct origin that includes cosmic microwave background radiation, Supernove Type Ia, baryon acoustic oscillations, redshift space distortion, weak gravitational lensing, Hubble parameter measurements from cosmic chronometers, and finally the local Hubble constant from Hubble space telescope. The fitting technique avails the publicly available code Cosmological Monte Carlo (COSMOMC), to extract the cosmological information out of these parametric dark energy models. From our analysis, it follows that those models could describe the late time accelerating phase of the universe, while they are distinguished from the Λ-cosmology.

  17. Communication: modeling charge-sign asymmetric solvation free energies with nonlinear boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P; Knepley, Matthew G

    2014-10-07

    We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley "bracelet" and "rod" test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, "Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes," J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405-2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry.

  18. Communication: Modeling charge-sign asymmetric solvation free energies with nonlinear boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley “bracelet” and “rod” test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, “Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405–2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry

  19. Communication: Modeling charge-sign asymmetric solvation free energies with nonlinear boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Knepley, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley “bracelet” and “rod” test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, “Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405–2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry. PMID:25296776

  20. Communication: Modeling charge-sign asymmetric solvation free energies with nonlinear boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Knepley, Matthew G. [Computation Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    We show that charge-sign-dependent asymmetric hydration can be modeled accurately using linear Poisson theory after replacing the standard electric-displacement boundary condition with a simple nonlinear boundary condition. Using a single multiplicative scaling factor to determine atomic radii from molecular dynamics Lennard-Jones parameters, the new model accurately reproduces MD free-energy calculations of hydration asymmetries for: (i) monatomic ions, (ii) titratable amino acids in both their protonated and unprotonated states, and (iii) the Mobley “bracelet” and “rod” test problems [D. L. Mobley, A. E. Barber II, C. J. Fennell, and K. A. Dill, “Charge asymmetries in hydration of polar solutes,” J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 2405–2414 (2008)]. Remarkably, the model also justifies the use of linear response expressions for charging free energies. Our boundary-element method implementation demonstrates the ease with which other continuum-electrostatic solvers can be extended to include asymmetry.

  1. A New Energy-Based Method for 3-D Finite-Element Nonlinear Flux Linkage computation of Electrical Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Ritchie, Ewen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D finite-element models (FEMs) of electrical machines. Accurate computation of the nonlinear flux linkage in 3-D FEM is not an easy task. Compared to the existing energy-perturbation method, the new technique......-perturbation method. The new method proposed is validated using experimental results on two different permanent magnet machines....

  2. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  3. Progress in electrical energy storage system:A critical review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haisheng Chen; Thang Ngoc Cong; Wei Yang; Chunqing Tan; Yongliang Li; Yulong Ding

    2009-01-01

    Electrical energy storage technologies for stationary applications are reviewed.Particular attention is paid to pumped hydroelectric storage,compressed air energy storage,battery,flow battery,fuel cell,solar fuel,superconducting magnetic energy storage, flywheel, capacitor/supercapacitor,and thermal energy torage.Comparison is made among these technologies in terms of technical characteris-tics,applications and deployment status.

  4. Nonlinear energy transfer and current sheet development in localized Alfvén wavepacket collisions in the strong turbulence limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniero, J. L.; Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.

    2018-02-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence is responsible for transferring energy from large scales driven by violent events or instabilities, to smaller scales where turbulent energy is ultimately converted into plasma heat by dissipative mechanisms. The nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating Alfvén waves, denoted Alfvén wave collisions, drives this turbulent energy cascade, as recognized by early work with incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Recent work employing analytical calculations and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of Alfvén wave collisions in an idealized periodic initial state have demonstrated the key properties that strong Alfvén wave collisions mediate effectively the transfer of energy to smaller perpendicular scales and self-consistently generate current sheets. For the more realistic case of the collision between two initially separated Alfvén wavepackets, we use a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation to show here that these key properties persist: strong Alfvén wavepacket collisions indeed facilitate the perpendicular cascade of energy and give rise to current sheets. Furthermore, the evolution shows that nonlinear interactions occur only while the wavepackets overlap, followed by a clean separation of the wavepackets with straight uniform magnetic fields and the cessation of nonlinear evolution in between collisions, even in the gyrokinetic simulation presented here which resolves dispersive and kinetic effects beyond the reach of the MHD theory.

  5. Nonlinear model dynamics for closed-system, constrained, maximal-entropy-generation relaxation by energy redistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beretta, Gian Paolo

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a nonlinear model for relaxation by energy redistribution within an isolated, closed system composed of noninteracting identical particles with energy levels e i with i=1,2,...,N. The time-dependent occupation probabilities p i (t) are assumed to obey the nonlinear rate equations τ dp i /dt=-p i ln p i -α(t)p i -β(t)e i p i where α(t) and β(t) are functionals of the p i (t)'s that maintain invariant the mean energy E=Σ i=1 N e i p i (t) and the normalization condition 1=Σ i=1 N p i (t). The entropy S(t)=-k B Σ i=1 N p i (t)ln p i (t) is a nondecreasing function of time until the initially nonzero occupation probabilities reach a Boltzmann-like canonical distribution over the occupied energy eigenstates. Initially zero occupation probabilities, instead, remain zero at all times. The solutions p i (t) of the rate equations are unique and well defined for arbitrary initial conditions p i (0) and for all times. The existence and uniqueness both forward and backward in time allows the reconstruction of the ancestral or primordial lowest entropy state. By casting the rate equations in terms not of the p i 's but of their positive square roots √(p i ), they unfold from the assumption that time evolution is at all times along the local direction of steepest entropy ascent or, equivalently, of maximal entropy generation. These rate equations have the same mathematical structure and basic features as the nonlinear dynamical equation proposed in a series of papers ending with G. P. Beretta, Found. Phys. 17, 365 (1987) and recently rediscovered by S. Gheorghiu-Svirschevski [Phys. Rev. A 63, 022105 (2001);63, 054102 (2001)]. Numerical results illustrate the features of the dynamics and the differences from the rate equations recently considered for the same problem by M. Lemanska and Z. Jaeger [Physica D 170, 72 (2002)]. We also interpret the functionals k B α(t) and k B β(t) as nonequilibrium generalizations of the thermodynamic-equilibrium Massieu

  6. The influence of compressibility on nonlinear spectral energy transfer - Part 2: Effect on hypersonic boundary layer transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Ankita; Girimaji, Sharath

    2017-11-01

    We examine the effect of compressible spectral energy transfer in the nonlinear regime of transition to turbulence of hypersonic boundary layers. The nature of spectral energy transfer between perturbation modes is profoundly influenced by two compressibility mechanisms. First and foremost, the emergence of nonlinear pressure-dilatation mechanism leads to kinetic-internal energy exchange within the perturbation field. Such interchange is absent in incompressible flow as pressure merely reorients the perturbation amplitude vector while conserving kinetic energy. Secondly, the nature of triadic interactions also changes due to variability in density. In this work, we demonstrate that the efficiency of nonlinear spectral energy transfer is diminished in compressible boundary layers. Emergence of new perturbation modes or `broad-banding' of the perturbation field is significantly delayed in comparison to incompressible boundary layer undergoing transition. A significant amount of perturbation energy is transformed to internal energy and thus unavailable for `tripping' the flow into turbulent state. These factors profoundly change the nature of the nonlinear stage of transition in compressible boundary layer leading to delayed onset of full-fledged turbulence.

  7. Global Well-Posedness for Cubic NLS with Nonlinear Damping

    KAUST Repository

    Antonelli, Paolo

    2010-11-04

    We study the Cauchy problem for the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, perturbed by (higher order) dissipative nonlinearities. We prove global in-time existence of solutions for general initial data in the energy space. In particular we treat the energy-critical case of a quintic dissipation in three space dimensions. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  8. A multi-harmonic generalized energy balance method for studying autonomous oscillations of nonlinear conservative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Nidish Narayanaa; Krishna, I. R. Praveen; Padmanabhan, C.

    2018-05-01

    The Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) is a frequency-domain based approximation approach used for obtaining the steady state periodic behavior of forced dynamical systems. Intrinsically these systems are non-autonomous and the method offers many computational advantages over time-domain methods when the fundamental period of oscillation is known (generally fixed as the forcing period itself or a corresponding sub-harmonic if such behavior is expected). In the current study, a modified approach, based on He's Energy Balance Method (EBM), is applied to obtain the periodic solutions of conservative systems. It is shown that by this approach, periodic solutions of conservative systems on iso-energy manifolds in the phase space can be obtained very efficiently. The energy level provides the additional constraint on the HBM formulation, which enables the determination of the period of the solutions. The method is applied to the linear harmonic oscillator, a couple of nonlinear oscillators, the elastic pendulum and the Henon-Heiles system. The approach is used to trace the bifurcations of the periodic solutions of the last two, being 2 degree-of-freedom systems demonstrating very rich dynamical behavior. In the process, the advantages offered by the current formulation of the energy balance is brought out. A harmonic perturbation approach is used to evaluate the stability of the solutions for the bifurcation diagram.

  9. A non-linear 3D printed electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, P; Roy, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel electromagnetic energy harvester that exploits the low flexural modulus of ABS and comprises of a nonlinear mechanism to enhance the generated power and bandwidth. The device is printed using desktop additive manufacturing techniques (3D printing) that use thermoplastics. It has a ‘V’ spring topology and exhibits a softening spring non-linearity introduced through the magnetic arrangement, which introduces a monostable potential well. A model is presented and measurements correspond favourably. The produced prototype generates a peak power of approximately 2.5mW at a frame acceleration of 1g and has a power bandwidth of approximately 1.2→1.5Hz and 3.5→3.9Hz during up and down sweeps respectively. The device has a power density of 0.4mW/cm 3 at a frame acceleration of 1g and a density of 0.04mW/cm 3 from a generated power of 25μW at 0.1g. (paper)

  10. Linear and Nonlinear Causality between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico 1965–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gómez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the causal link between aggregated and disaggregated levels of energy consumption and economic growth in Mexico between 1965 and 2014, with the presence of structural breaks stemming from the series. To that end, unit root with structural breaks, cointegration, and linear and nonlinear causality tests are employed. The results show that there is a long-run relationship between production, capital, labor, and energy, and linear causal links from total and disaggregated energy consumption to economic growth. A nonlinear causality also exists from energy consumption, the transport sector, capital, and labor to output. These results support the growth hypothesis, which maintains that energy is an important input factor for economic activity and that energy conservation policies impact the economic growth in Mexico.

  11. Energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roundy, Shad; Tola, Jeffry

    2014-01-01

    We present an energy harvester for environments that rotate through the Earth’s gravitational field. Example applications include shafts connected to motors, axles, propellers, fans, and wheels or tires. Our approach uses the unique dynamics of an offset pendulum along with a nonlinear bistable restoring spring to improve the operational bandwidth of the system. Depending on the speed of the rotating environment, the system can act as a bistable oscillator, monostable stiffening oscillator, or linear oscillator. We apply our approach to a tire pressure monitoring system mounted on a car rim. Simulation and experimental test results show that the prototype generator is capable of directly powering an RF transmission every 60 s or less over a speed range of 10 to 155 kph. (paper)

  12. Complex motion in nonlinear-map model of elevators in energy-saving traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior and dynamic transitions of elevators in a system for reducing energy consumption. We present a nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of M elevators. The motion of elevators depends on the loading parameter and their number M. The dependence of the fixed points on the loading parameter is derived. The dynamic transitions occur at 2(M-1) stages with increasing the value of loading parameter. At the dynamic transition point, the motion of elevators changes from a stable state to an unstable state and vice versa. The elevators display periodic motions with various periods in the unstable state. In the unstable state, the number of riding passengers fluctuates in a complex manner over various trips.

  13. Finding structure in the dark: Coupled dark energy, weak lensing, and the mildly nonlinear regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Vinicius; González, Mariana Carrillo; Krause, Elisabeth; Trodden, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We reexamine interactions between the dark sectors of cosmology, with a focus on robust constraints that can be obtained using only mildly nonlinear scales. While it is well known that couplings between dark matter and dark energy can be constrained to the percent level when including the full range of scales probed by future optical surveys, calibrating matter power spectrum emulators to all possible choices of potentials and couplings requires many computationally expensive n-body simulations. Here we show that lensing and clustering of galaxies in combination with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) are capable of probing the dark sector coupling to the few percent level for a given class of models, using only linear and quasilinear Fourier modes. These scales can, in principle, be described by semianalytical techniques such as the effective field theory of large-scale structure.

  14. Energy harvester for rotating environments using offset pendulum and nonlinear dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundy, Shad; Tola, Jeffry

    2014-10-01

    We present an energy harvester for environments that rotate through the Earth’s gravitational field. Example applications include shafts connected to motors, axles, propellers, fans, and wheels or tires. Our approach uses the unique dynamics of an offset pendulum along with a nonlinear bistable restoring spring to improve the operational bandwidth of the system. Depending on the speed of the rotating environment, the system can act as a bistable oscillator, monostable stiffening oscillator, or linear oscillator. We apply our approach to a tire pressure monitoring system mounted on a car rim. Simulation and experimental test results show that the prototype generator is capable of directly powering an RF transmission every 60 s or less over a speed range of 10 to 155 kph.

  15. Shaping Microwave Fields Using Nonlinear Unsolicited Feedback: Application to Enhance Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Hougne, Philipp; Fink, Mathias; Lerosey, Geoffroy

    2017-12-01

    Wave-front shaping has emerged over the past decade as a powerful tool to control wave propagation through complex media, initially in optics and more recently also in the microwave domain with important applications in telecommunication, imaging, and energy transfer. The crux of implementing wave-front shaping concepts in real life is often its need for (direct) feedback, requiring access to the target to focus on. Here, we present the shaping of a microwave field based on indirect, unsolicited, and blind feedback which may be the pivotal step towards practical implementations. With the example of a radio-frequency harvester in a metallic cavity, we demonstrate tenfold enhancement of the harvested power by wave-front shaping based on nonlinear signals detected at an arbitrary position away from the harvesting device.

  16. Non-linear sputtering effects induced by MeV energy gold clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussofiane-Baudin, K.; Brunelle, A.; Chaurand, P.; Della-Negra, S.; Depauw, J.; Le Beyec, Y.; Hakansson, P.

    1993-09-01

    Gold clusters Au n + with 1 < n ≤ 4, accelerated to MeV energies at the Orsay tandem accelerator, have been used to induce secondary ion emission from the surface of thin organic and inorganic films. A non-linear enhancement of the secondary ion yields is observed when cluster impacts are compared to single atom impacts at the same velocity. It has been shown that the collective effects propagate in the solid over a depth larger than 2000 A. The equilibrium charge state of cluster constituents after their passage through a thin carbon foil (1000 A) has been measured. The mean value for the cluster constituents is the same as for single atoms at the same velocity. (authors). 41 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. The Non-Linear Effect of Chinese Financial Developments on Energy Supply Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, oversupply coal and coal-based power in China poses a great challenge to energy structure optimization and emissions reduction. The energy industry, however, is closely linked to the financial sector. In view of this, using a non-linear Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR model, this paper examines the threshold effects of financial developments on energy supply structures for 17 energy supply provinces in China observed over 2000–2014. The main results are: (1 The ratio of coal supply (LCSR specification is seen to be a four-regime PSTR model with added value in the financial industry/GDP (LFIR as the threshold variable. The LFIR and LCSR show a positive correlation, and the elastic coefficients change between 0.02 and ~0.085; the impact of financial institutions’ loan balance/GDP (LLAN on LCSR takes on an inverse U-shaped curve: first positive, then negative, and again positive with the financial crisis in 2008 as the turning point; (2 The ratio of thermal power generation (LTPG specification is seen to be a two-regime PSTR model with investment in the coal industry/GDP (LCIR as the threshold variable. Results show that LFIR has a negative effect on LTPG, and the coefficients in the low regime tend to be 0.344%, then gradually decrease to 0.051% in the high regime. The influence of LLAN on the LTPG is positive before and negative after the financial crisis. The influence of the foreign direct investment GDP proportion (LFDI, the degree of financial openness on the LCSR and LTPG both remain negative. Therefore, in the process of formulating energy conservation policies and adjusting energy-intensive industrial structures, the government should fully consider the effect of financial developments.

  18. A critical assessment of renewable energy usage in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The displacement of non-renewable fossil fuels by renewable energy resources has occurred at a low rate in the USA. But a large number of drivers is expected to cause significant expansion of the US renewable energy industry in the near future. Included among the extrinsic drivers, or those that are not directly related to renewable energy resources, are reductions in natural gas and crude oil supplies and the OPEC Effect. An assessment of petroleum crude oil and natural gas consumption and reserves supports the position that supply problems and significant cost increases will start to occur in the first and second quarters of this century. Among the intrinsic drivers, or those that are directly related to renewable energy resources, are global warming and specific government incentives and mandates such as Renewable Portfolio and Fuel Standards that require the commercial use of renewable energy resources. The increasing US dependence on imported crude oil and environmental and political issues will drive the growth of the renewable energy industry and result in the gradual phase-out of what can be called the Fossil Fuel Era. By the end of this century, the dominant commercial energy mix in the USA is projected to include major contributions by renewable energy resources to help satisfy energy and fuel demands. Practical solutions to the problems of disposing of spent nuclear fuels and the development of clean coal applications will enable these energy resources to afford major contributions also

  19. Nonlinear dynamics of circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etemadpour, R.; Dorranian, D., E-mail: doran@srbiau.ac.ir [Laser Laboratory, Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehri Javan, N. [Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of a circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in the magnetized plasmas whose constituents are superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons is studied theoretically. A nonlinear equation which describes the dynamics of the slowly varying amplitude is obtained using a relativistic two-fluid model. Based on this nonlinear equation and taking into account some nonlinear phenomena such as modulational instability, self-focusing and soliton formation are investigated. Effect of the magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons on these phenomena is considered. It is shown that the nonthermality and superthermality of particles can substantially change the nonlinearity of medium.

  20. Nonlinear dynamics of circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in a magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etemadpour, R.; Dorranian, D.; Sepehri Javan, N.

    2016-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a circularly polarized laser pulse propagating in the magnetized plasmas whose constituents are superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons is studied theoretically. A nonlinear equation which describes the dynamics of the slowly varying amplitude is obtained using a relativistic two-fluid model. Based on this nonlinear equation and taking into account some nonlinear phenomena such as modulational instability, self-focusing and soliton formation are investigated. Effect of the magnetized plasma with superthermal ions and mixed nonthermal high-energy tail electrons on these phenomena is considered. It is shown that the nonthermality and superthermality of particles can substantially change the nonlinearity of medium.

  1. Criticality safety validation of MCNP5 using continuous energy libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salome, Jean A.D.; Pereira, Claubia; Assuncao, Jonathan B.A.; Veloso, Maria Auxiliadora F.; Costa, Antonella L.; Silva, Clarysson A.M. da

    2013-01-01

    The study of subcritical systems is very important in the design, installation and operation of various devices, mainly nuclear reactors and power plants. The information generated by these systems guide the decisions to be taken in the executive project, the economic viability and the safety measures to be employed in a nuclear facility. Simulating some experiments from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, the code MCNP5 was validated to nuclear criticality analysis. Its continuous libraries were used. The average values and standard deviation (SD) were evaluated. The results obtained with the code are very similar to the values obtained by the benchmark experiments. (author)

  2. Energy poverty policies in the EU: A critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Petrova, Saska; Sarlamanov, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Once confined to the UK context – where it was struggling to receive political recognition for years – the concept of energy (or fuel) poverty is slowly entering the EU's agenda, where it has crept into a number of regulatory documents and policy proposals. Using evidence gathered from an international workshop and semi-structured interviews with decision-makers, experts and advocacy activists in Brussels and Sofia, this paper explores the adoption of policies aimed at addressing energy poverty within (i) the organisational context of the EU; and (ii) national state institutions in Bulgaria – a member state facing considerable problems at the energy affordability – social inequality nexus. While the former are largely nascent and poorly co-ordinated, the latter have already been implemented de jure to a significant extent. However, many unresolved issues surrounding their de facto implementation remain. At the same time, national policy makers remain largely unaware of the existence of direct energy poverty related initiatives at the EU level. - Highlights: ► This paper explores the adoption of energy poverty policies within the EU and Bulgaria. ► We establish the existence of a range of nascent efforts to address the issue at EU level. ► Bulgaria has been good at implementing EU energy poverty relevant directives. ► However, policy makers speak a different language when it comes to direct energy poverty action.

  3. Nonlinear ionization of many-electron systems over a broad photon-energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karamatskou, Antonia

    2015-11-01

    Rapid developments in laser technology and, in particular, the advances in the realm of free-electron lasers have initiated tremendous progress in both theoretical and experimental atomic, molecular and optical physics. Owing to high intensities in combination with short pulse durations we can enter the utterly nonlinear regime of light-matter interaction and study the dynamics and features of matter under extreme conditions. The capabilities of X-ray free-electron laser sources have promoted the importance of nonlinear optics also in the X-ray regime. I show in my thesis how we can exploit the nonlinear response regime to reveal hidden information about resonance structures that are not resolved in the weak-field regime. This prospect points to many applications for future investigations of various complex systems with free-electron lasers. In the present thesis the interaction of atomic closed-shell systems with ultrashort and strong laser pulses is investigated. Over a broad photon-energy range the characteristics of the atomic shell are studied with a particular focus on the nonlinear response regime and on electron correlation effects. Several computational extensions of the XCID package for multi-electron dynamics are presented and their applications in various studies are demonstrated; a completely new capability of the numerical method is realized by implementing the calculation of photoelectron spectra and by calculating eigenstates of the many-electron Hamiltonian. The field of study within the present work encompasses (1) the strong-field regime, where the question of the adiabatic character in tunneling ionization is discussed and analyzed, especially for the case of few-cycle pulses; (2) the XUV regime, in which we show for the first time that the collectivity in resonant excitation reveals new information; and (3) the (hard) x-ray regime, which is highly relevant for x-ray free-electron laser experiments, and where we show how important two

  4. Effects of zonal flows on correlation between energy balance and energy conservation associated with nonlinear nonviscous atmospheric dynamics in a thin rotating spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, Ranis N.

    2018-03-01

    The nonlinear Euler equations are used to model two-dimensional atmosphere dynamics in a thin rotating spherical shell. The energy balance is deduced on the basis of two classes of functorially independent invariant solutions associated with the model. It it shown that the energy balance is exactly the conservation law for one class of the solutions whereas the second class of invariant solutions provides and asymptotic convergence of the energy balance to the conservation law.

  5. Nonlinear network model analysis of vibrational energy transfer and localisation in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sarah E.; Cole, Daniel J.; Chin, Alex W.

    2016-11-01

    Collective protein modes are expected to be important for facilitating energy transfer in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex of photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria, however to date little work has focussed on the microscopic details of these vibrations. The nonlinear network model (NNM) provides a computationally inexpensive approach to studying vibrational modes at the microscopic level in large protein structures, whilst incorporating anharmonicity in the inter-residue interactions which can influence protein dynamics. We apply the NNM to the entire trimeric FMO complex and find evidence for the existence of nonlinear discrete breather modes. These modes tend to transfer energy to the highly connected core pigments, potentially opening up alternative excitation energy transfer routes through their influence on pigment properties. Incorporating localised modes based on these discrete breathers in the optical spectra calculations for FMO using ab initio site energies and excitonic couplings can substantially improve their agreement with experimental results.

  6. Recent Progress in Piezoelectric Conversion and Energy Harvesting Using Nonlinear Electronic Interfaces and Issues in Small Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Guyomar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing an up-to-date review of nonlinear electronic interfaces for energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations using piezoelectric coupling. The basic principles and the direct application to energy harvesting of nonlinear treatment of the output voltage of the transducers for conversion enhancement will be recalled, and extensions of this approach presented. Latest advances in this field will be exposed, such as the use of intermediate energy tanks for decoupling or initial energy injection for conversion magnification. A comparative analysis of each of these techniques will be performed, highlighting the advantages and drawbacks of the methods, in terms of efficiency, performance under several excitation conditions, complexity of implementation and so on. Finally, a special focus of their implementation in the case of low voltage output transducers (as in the case of microsystems will be presented.

  7. Energy use management: the critical issues of interdependency and indeterminateness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davos, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The translation of energy concerns into effective policies under a democratic regime is currently impaired by two interrelated factors: (1) the interdependency of energy goals with most of society's other concerns and (2) the indeterminateness of both the scientific evidence and public interest. Some of the manifestations of the failure to address these factors are the prevailing energy policy uncertainties and the polarization of values, issues and research efforts. Awareness of this reality has not prevented, however, the suggestion of policies the majority of which either neglect the synergistic effect of the factors or depend for their legitimization on principles incompatible with democratic decision-making. I suggest that systematic examination of the web of interdependencies and of the scientific and public interest indeterminateness supports the assertion that the effectiveness of energy use management will depend on: (i) supplementing quantitative research with qualitative evaluation of scientific and public values; (ii) synthesizing the findings of the numerous currently performed analyses; and (iii) substituting the paternalistic dictates of scientists and special interest groups as the basis for policy decision-making with a participatory process that will aim to maximize the accord among all interested in, and/or impacted by, energy policies. (author)

  8. Energy use management: The critical issues of interdependency and indeterminateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davos, C A

    1982-01-01

    The translation of energy concerns into effective policies under a democratic regime is currently impaired by two interrelated factors: the interdependency of energy goals with most of society's other concerns and the indeterminateness of both the scientific evidence and public interest. Some of the manifestations of the failure to address these factors are the prevailing energy policy uncertainties and the polarization of values, issues and research efforts. Awareness of this reality has not prevented, however, the suggestion of policies the majority of which either neglect the synergistic effect of the factors or depend for their legitimization on principles incompatible with democratic decision-making. Systematic examination of the web of interdependencies and of the scientific and public interest indeterminateness supports the assertion that the effectiveness of energy use management will depend on: supplementing quantitative research with qualitative evaluation of scientific and public values; synthesizing the findings of the numerous currently performed analyses; and substituting the paternalistic dictates of scientists and special interest groups as the basis for policy decision-making with a participatory process that will aim to maximize the accord among all interested in, and/or impacted by, energy policies.

  9. Energy use management: the critical issues of interdependency and indeterminateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davos, C A [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)

    1982-01-01

    The translation of energy concerns into effective policies under a democratic regime is currently impaired by two interrelated factors: (1) the interdependency of energy goals with most of society's other concerns and (2) the indeterminateness of both the scientific evidence and public interest. Some of the manifestations of the failure to address these factors are the prevailing energy policy uncertainties and the polarization of values, issues and research efforts. Awareness of this reality has not prevented, however, the suggestion of policies the majority of which either neglect the synergistic effect of the factors or depend for their legitimization on principles incompatible with democratic decision-making. I suggest that systematic examination of the web of interdependencies and of the scientific and public interest indeterminateness supports the assertion that the effectiveness of energy use management will depend on: (i) supplementing quantitative research with qualitative evaluation of scientific and public values; (ii) synthesizing the findings of the numerous currently performed analyses; and (iii) substituting the paternalistic dictates of scientists and special interest groups as the basis for policy decision-making with a participatory process that will aim to maximize the accord among all interested in, and/or impacted by, energy policies.

  10. High-energy-neutron damage in Nb3Sn: changes in critical properties, and damage-energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, C.L. Jr.; Parkin, D.M.; Guinan, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    Filamentary wires of Nb 3 Sn have been irradiated with fission-reactor, 14.8-MeV, and d-Be neutrons and the changes in critical properties measured. The changes observed scale reasonably well with the calculated damage energies for the irradiations. A critical dose for operation of these conductors in fusion-magnet applications is determined to be 0.19 eV/atom damage energy or 0.0019 dpa

  11. Experimental verificatio of load resistance switching for global stabilization of high-energy response of a nonlinear wideband electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T; Masuda, A; Sanada, T

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental verification of a self-excitation control of a resonance- type vibration energy harvester with a Duffing-type nonlinearity which is designed to perform effectively in a wide frequency range. For the conventional linear vibration energy harvester, the performance of the power generation at the resonance frequency and the bandwidth of the resonance peak are trade-off. The resonance frequency band can be expanded by introducing a Duffing-type nonlinear oscillator in order to enable the harvester to generate larger electric power in a wider frequency range. However, since such nonlinear oscillator can have multiple stable steady-state solutions in the resonance band, it is difficult for the nonlinear harvester to maintain the high performance of the power generation constantly. The principle of self-excitation and entrainment has been utilized to provide the global stability to the highest-energy solution by destabilizing other unexpected lower-energy solutions by introducing a switching circuit of the load resistance between positive and the negative values depending on the response amplitude of the oscillator. It has been experimentally validated that this control law imparts the self-excitation capability to the oscillator to show an entrainment into the highest-energy solution. (paper)

  12. Long-term energy futures: the critical role of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper briefly reviews the results of a 5-year study conducted by IIASA jointly with the World Energy Council (WEC) on long term-energy perspectives. After summarizing the study's main findings, the paper addresses the crucial role of technological change in the evolution of long-term energy futures and in responding to key long-term uncertainties in the domains of energy demand growth, economics, as well as environmental protection. Based on most recent empirical and methodological findings, long-term dynamics of technological change portray a number of distinct features that need to be taken account of in technology and energy policy. First, success of innovation efforts and ultimate outcomes of technological are uncertain. Second, new, improved technologies are not a free good, but require continued dedicated efforts. Third, technological knowledge (as resulting from R and D and accumulation of experience, i.e. technological learning) exhibits characteristics of (uncertain) increasing returns. Forth, due to innovation - diffusion lags, technological interdependence, and infrastructure needs (network externalities), rates of change in large-scale energy systems are necessarily slow. This implies acting sooner rather than later as a contigency policy to respond to long-term social, economic and environmental uncertainties, most notably possible climate change. Rather than picking technological 'winners' the results of the IIASA-WEC scenario studies are seen most appropriate to guide technology and R and D portfolio analysis. Nonetheless, robust persistent patterns of technological change invariably occur across all scenarios. Examples of primising groups of technologies are given. The crucial importance of meeting long-energy demand in developing countries, assuring large-scale infrastructure investments, maintaining a strong and diversified R AND D protfolio, as well as to dvise new institutional mechnisms for technology development and diffusion for instance

  13. Community Energy : a critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Tineke; Scholtens, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the literature regarding community energy. We investigate the appearance of studies in the literature and the geographical orientation of the case studies, as well as the actual journals where the articles are published. We relate the articles to the theoretical approaches that are being

  14. Energy Neutral Wireless Bolt for Safety Critical Fastening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Biruk B; Rossi, Maurizio; Brunelli, Davide

    2017-09-26

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are now capable of powering the abundant low power electronics from very small (just a few degrees Celsius) temperature gradients. This factor along with the continuously lowering cost and size of TEGs, has contributed to the growing number of miniaturized battery-free sensor modules powered by TEGs. In this article, we present the design of an ambient-powered wireless bolt for high-end electro-mechanical systems. The bolt is equipped with a temperature sensor and a low power RF chip powered from a TEG. A DC-DC converter interfacing the TEG with the RF chip is used to step-up the low TEG voltage. The work includes the characterizations of different TEGs and DC-DC converters to determine the optimal design based on the amount of power that can be generated from a TEG under different loads and at temperature gradients typical of industrial environments. A prototype system was implemented and the power consumption of this system under different conditions was also measured. Results demonstrate that the power generated by the TEG at very low temperature gradients is sufficient to guarantee continuous wireless monitoring of the critical fasteners in critical systems such as avionics, motorsport and aerospace.

  15. Energy Neutral Wireless Bolt for Safety Critical Fastening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk B. Seyoum

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric generators (TEGs are now capable of powering the abundant low power electronics from very small (just a few degrees Celsius temperature gradients. This factor along with the continuously lowering cost and size of TEGs, has contributed to the growing number of miniaturized battery-free sensor modules powered by TEGs. In this article, we present the design of an ambient-powered wireless bolt for high-end electro-mechanical systems. The bolt is equipped with a temperature sensor and a low power RF chip powered from a TEG. A DC-DC converter interfacing the TEG with the RF chip is used to step-up the low TEG voltage. The work includes the characterizations of different TEGs and DC-DC converters to determine the optimal design based on the amount of power that can be generated from a TEG under different loads and at temperature gradients typical of industrial environments. A prototype system was implemented and the power consumption of this system under different conditions was also measured. Results demonstrate that the power generated by the TEG at very low temperature gradients is sufficient to guarantee continuous wireless monitoring of the critical fasteners in critical systems such as avionics, motorsport and aerospace.

  16. Studies in nonlinear problems of energy. Progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matkowsky, B.J.

    1992-07-01

    Emphasis has been on combustion and flame propagation. The research program was on modeling, analysis and computation of combustion phenomena, with emphasis on transition from laminar to turbulent combustion. Nonlinear dynamics and pattern formation were investigated in the transition. Stability of combustion waves, and transitions to complex waves are described. Combustion waves possess large activation energies, so that chemical reactions are significant only in thin layers, or reaction zones. In limit of infinite activation energy, the zones shrink to moving surfaces, (fronts) which must be found during the analysis, so that (moving free boundary problems). The studies are carried out for limiting case with fronts, while the numerical studies are carried out for finite, though large, activation energy. Accurate resolution of the solution in the reaction zones is essential, otherwise false predictions of dynamics are possible. Since the the reaction zones move, adaptive pseudo-spectral methods were developed. The approach is based on a synergism of analytical and computational methods. The numerical computations build on and extend the analytical information. Furthermore, analytical solutions serve as benchmarks for testing the accuracy of the computation. Finally, ideas from analysis (singular perturbation theory) have induced new approaches to computations. The computational results suggest new analysis to be considered. Among the recent interesting results, was spatio-temporal chaos in combustion. One goal is extension of the adaptive pseudo-spectral methods to adaptive domain decomposition methods. Efforts have begun to develop such methods for problems with multiple reaction zones, corresponding to problems with more complex, and more realistic chemistry. Other topics included stochastics, oscillators, Rysteretic Josephson junctions, DC SQUID, Markov jumps, laser with saturable absorber, chemical physics, Brownian movement, combustion synthesis, etc.

  17. Nonlinear saturation of wave packets excited by low-energy electron horseshoe distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, C; Volokitin, A

    2013-05-01

    Horseshoe distributions are shell-like particle distributions that can arise in space and laboratory plasmas when particle beams propagate into increasing magnetic fields. The present paper studies the stability and the dynamics of wave packets interacting resonantly with electrons presenting low-energy horseshoe or shell-type velocity distributions in a magnetized plasma. The linear instability growth rates are determined as a function of the ratio of the plasma to the cyclotron frequencies, of the velocity and the opening angle of the horseshoe, and of the relative thickness of the shell. The nonlinear stage of the instability is investigated numerically using a symplectic code based on a three-dimensional Hamiltonian model. Simulation results show that the dynamics of the system is mainly governed by wave-particle interactions at Landau and normal cyclotron resonances and that the high-order normal cyclotron resonances play an essential role. Specific features of the dynamics of particles interacting simultaneously with two or more waves at resonances of different natures and orders are discussed, showing that such complex processes determine the main characteristics of the wave spectrum's evolution. Simulations with wave packets presenting quasicontinuous spectra provide a full picture of the relaxation of the horseshoe distribution, revealing two main phases of the evolution: an initial stage of wave energy growth, characterized by a fast filling of the shell, and a second phase of slow damping of the wave energy, accompanied by final adjustments of the electron distribution. The influence of the density inhomogeneity along the horseshoe on the wave-particle dynamics is also discussed.

  18. Reducing cooling energy consumption in data centres and critical facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Gareth

    Given the rise of our everyday reliance on computers in all walks of life, from checking the train times to paying our credit card bills online, the need for computational power is ever increasing. Other than the ever-increasing performance of home Personal Computers (PC's) this reliance has given rise to a new phenomenon in the last 10 years ago. The data centre. Data centres contain vast arrays of IT cabinets loaded with servers that perform millions of computational equations every second. It is these data centres that allow us to continue with our reliance on the internet and the PC. As more and more data centres become necessary due to the increase in computing processing power required for the everyday activities we all take for granted so the energy consumed by these data centres rises. Not only are more and more data centres being constructed daily, but operators are also looking at ways to squeeze more processing from their existing data centres. This in turn leads to greater heat outputs and therefore requires more cooling. Cooling data centres requires a sizeable energy input, indeed to many megawatts per data centre site. Given the large amounts of money dependant on the successful operation of data centres, in particular for data centres operated by financial institutions, the onus is predominantly on ensuring the data centres operate with no technical glitches rather than in an energy conscious fashion. This report aims to investigate the ways and means of reducing energy consumption within data centres without compromising the technology the data centres are designed to house. As well as discussing the individual merits of the technologies and their implementation technical calculations will be undertaken where necessary to determine the levels of energy saving, if any, from each proposal. To enable comparison between each proposal any design calculations within this report will be undertaken against a notional data facility. This data facility will

  19. Characterization of high density SiPM non-linearity and energy resolution for prompt gamma imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regazzoni, V.; Acerbi, F.; Cozzi, G.; Ferri, A.; Fiorini, C.; Paternoster, G.; Piemonte, C.; Rucatti, D.; Zappalà, G.; Zorzi, N.; Gola, A.

    2017-07-01

    Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) (Trento, Italy) has recently introduced High Density (HD) and Ultra High-Density (UHD) SiPMs, featuring very small micro-cell pitch. The high cell density is a very important factor to improve the linearity of the SiPM in high-dynamic-range applications, such as the scintillation light readout in high-energy gamma-ray spectroscopy and in prompt gamma imaging for proton therapy. The energy resolution at high energies is a trade-off between the excess noise factor caused by the non-linearity of the SiPM and the photon detection efficiency of the detector. To study these effects, we developed a new setup that simulates the LYSO light emission in response to gamma photons up to 30 MeV, using a pulsed light source. We measured the non-linearity and energy resolution vs. energy of the FBK RGB-HD e RGB-UHD SiPM technologies. We considered five different cell sizes, ranging from 10 μm up to 25 μm. With the UHD technology we were able to observe a remarkable reduction of the SiPM non-linearity, less than 5% at 5 MeV with 10 μm cells, which should be compared to a non-linearity of 50% with 25 μm-cell HD-SiPMs. With the same setup, we also measured the different components of the energy resolution (intrinsic, statistical, detector and electronic noise) vs. cell size, over-voltage and energy and we separated the different sources of excess noise factor.

  20. Financing Renewable Energy Projects in Developing Countries: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donastorg, A.; Renukappa, S.; Suresh, S.

    2017-08-01

    Access to clean and stable energy, meeting sustainable development goals, the fossil fuel dependency and depletion are some of the reasons that have impacted developing countries to transform the business as usual economy to a more sustainable economy. However, access and availability of finance is a major challenge for many developing countries. Financing renewable energy projects require access to significant resources, by multiple parties, at varying points in the project life cycles. This research aims to investigate sources and new trends in financing RE projects in developing countries. For this purpose, a detail and in-depth literature review have been conducted to explore the sources and trends of current RE financial investment and projects, to understand the gaps and limitations. This paper concludes that there are various internal and external sources of finance available for RE projects in developing countries.

  1. Nonlinear modeling, strength-based design, and testing of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large dynamic loads for rotorcraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadenham, Stephen; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    There has been growing interest in enabling wireless health and usage monitoring for rotorcraft applications, such as helicopter rotor systems. Large dynamic loads and acceleration fluctuations available in these environments make the implementation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters a very promising choice. However, such extreme loads transmitted to the harvester can also be detrimental to piezoelectric laminates and overall system reliability. Particularly flexible resonant cantilever configurations tuned to match the dominant excitation frequency can be subject to very large deformations and failure of brittle piezoelectric laminates due to excessive bending stresses at the root of the harvester. Design of resonant piezoelectric energy harvesters for use in these environments require nonlinear electroelastic dynamic modeling and strength-based analysis to maximize the power output while ensuring that the harvester is still functional. This paper presents a mathematical framework to design and analyze the dynamics of nonlinear flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large base acceleration levels. A strength-based limit is imposed to design the piezoelectric energy harvester with a proof mass while accounting for material, geometric, and dissipative nonlinearities, with a focus on two demonstrative case studies having the same linear fundamental resonance frequency but different overhang length and proof mass values. Experiments are conducted at different excitation levels for validation of the nonlinear design approach proposed in this work. The case studies in this work reveal that harvesters exhibiting similar behavior and power generation performance at low excitation levels (e.g. less than 0.1g) can have totally different strength-imposed performance limitations under high excitations (e.g. above 1g). Nonlinear modeling and strength-based design is necessary for such excitation levels especially when using resonant cantilevers with no

  2. An experimentally validated model for geometrically nonlinear plucking-based frequency up-conversion in energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathpalia, B.; Tan, D.; Stern, I.; Erturk, A.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that plucking-based frequency up-conversion can enhance the power output in piezoelectric energy harvesting by enabling cyclic free vibration at the fundamental bending mode of the harvester even for very low excitation frequencies. In this work, we present a geometrically nonlinear plucking-based framework for frequency up-conversion in piezoelectric energy harvesting under quasistatic excitations associated with low-frequency stimuli such as walking and similar rigid body motions. Axial shortening of the plectrum is essential to enable plucking excitation, which requires a nonlinear framework relating the plectrum parameters (e.g. overlap length between the plectrum and harvester) to the overall electrical power output. Von Kármán-type geometrically nonlinear deformation of the flexible plectrum cantilever is employed to relate the overlap length between the flexible (nonlinear) plectrum and the stiff (linear) harvester to the transverse quasistatic tip displacement of the plectrum, and thereby the tip load on the linear harvester in each plucking cycle. By combining the nonlinear plectrum mechanics and linear harvester dynamics with two-way electromechanical coupling, the electrical power output is obtained directly in terms of the overlap length. Experimental case studies and validations are presented for various overlap lengths and a set of electrical load resistance values. Further analysis results are reported regarding the combined effects of plectrum thickness and overlap length on the plucking force and harvested power output. The experimentally validated nonlinear plectrum-linear harvester framework proposed herein can be employed to design and optimize frequency up-conversion by properly choosing the plectrum parameters (geometry, material, overlap length, etc) as well as the harvester parameters.

  3. Energy harvesting with stacked dielectric elastomer transducers: Nonlinear theory, optimization, and linearized scaling law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutcuoglu, A.; Majidi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Using principles of damped harmonic oscillation with continuous media, we examine electrostatic energy harvesting with a "soft-matter" array of dielectric elastomer (DE) transducers. The array is composed of infinitely thin and deformable electrodes separated by layers of insulating elastomer. During vibration, it deforms longitudinally, resulting in a change in the capacitance and electrical enthalpy of the charged electrodes. Depending on the phase of electrostatic loading, the DE array can function as either an actuator that amplifies small vibrations or a generator that converts these external excitations into electrical power. Both cases are addressed with a comprehensive theory that accounts for the influence of viscoelasticity, dielectric breakdown, and electromechanical coupling induced by Maxwell stress. In the case of a linearized Kelvin-Voigt model of the dielectric, we obtain a closed-form estimate for the electrical power output and a scaling law for DE generator design. For the complete nonlinear model, we obtain the optimal electrostatic voltage input for maximum electrical power output.

  4. Evaluating optimal CNR as a preset criteria for nonlinear moidal blending of dual energy CT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, D. R., III; Apel, A.; Fletcher, J. G.; Guimaraes, L. S.; Eusemann, C. E.; Robb, R. A.

    2009-02-01

    Nonlinear blending of dual-energy CT data is available on current scanners. Selection of the blending parameters can be time-consuming and challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine if the Contrast-To-Noise Ratio (CNR) may be used ti automatic select of blending parameters. A Bovine liver was built with six syringes filled with varying concentrations of CT contrast yielding six 140kV HU levels (15, 47, 64, 79, 116, and 145). The phantom was scanned using 95 mAs @ 140kV and 404mAs @ 80 kV. The 80 and 140 kV datasets were blended using a modified sigmoid (moidal) function which requires two parameters - level and width. Every combination of moidal level and width was applied to the data, and the CNR was calculated as (mean(syringe ROI) - mean(liver ROI)) / STD(water). The maximum CNR was determined for each of the 6 HU levels. Pairs of blended images were presented in a blind manner to observers. Nine comparisons for each of the 6 HU settings were made by a staff radiologist, a resident, and a physicist. For each comparison, the observer selected the more "visually appealing" image. Outcomes from the study were compared using the Fisher Sign Test statistic. Analysis by observer showed a statistical (penergy CT data may provide consistency across radiologists and facilitate the clinical review process.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Critical Wave Energy Thresholds at Natural and Created Coastal Wetlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    This technical note presents an evaluation of the wave climate at eight natural and created coastal wetland sites in an effort to identify the existence of critical wave energy thresholds for long-term marsh stability...

  6. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  7. Solar energy in food processing-a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswara, Amruta R; Ramakrishnarao, M

    2013-04-01

    Increasing population and high cost of fuels have created opportunities for using alternate energies for post-harvest processing of foods. Solar food processing is an emerging technology that provides good quality foods at low or no additional fuel costs. A number of solar dryers, collectors and concentrators are currently being used for various steps in food processing and value addition. Society for Energy, Environment and Development (SEED) developed Solar Cabinet Dryer with forced circulation which has been used for dehydration and development of value added products from locally grown fruits, vegetables, leafy greens and forest produce. Drying under simulated shade conditions using UV-reducing Blue filter helps retain nutrients better. Its simple design and ease of handling makes SEED Solar Dryer an ideal choice for application of food processing in rural settings, closer to where the harvest is produced, eliminating the need for expensive transportation or storage of fresh produce. It also creates employment opportunities among the rural population, especially women. Other gadgets based on solar collectors and concentrators currently being used at various steps of food processing are reviewed.

  8. Some critical environmental issues of the energy discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    There are two complementary approaches to studying the environmental effects of fuel use and energy conversion. The first is to be completely systematic and to follow through each technology in great detail, and itemise each impact, whether large or small. The second, followed here, is to pick out those items that either dominate the risk or impact, or dominate the public perception therefore, and try to understand them in some detail. I pick the following that I believe are the most important environmental issues today: 1 What is the effect of particulate air pollution on today's levels? 2 What is the probability that carbon dioxide emissions will cause global warming? 3 Can we use this energy source in a sustainable fashion over several millennia? I will spend much of the space on a discussion of these three. However, there are a number of other items that some group or another think are important. They must also be considered to sufficient extent to persuade everyone involved that indeed they are less important. These include: 4 What is the probability and effect of a severe nuclear power accident? 5 Why is there public concern about nuclear waste although it is not justified by the calculations? 6 Why are hydroelectric dams not as universally popular as they were? 7 Can we avoid the proliferation of bombs using plutonium if we have a nuclear power program? 8 Can we reduce the cost of electricity from nuclear power to what is was 25 years ago? (Author)

  9. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Chemistry Program: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry has reviewed OHER's Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). This report contains the committee's evaluation and critique arising from that review. The review process included a two-day symposium held at the National Academy of Sciences on September 25 and 26, 1990, that focused on presenting the ACP's current components, recent scientific accomplishments, and scientific plans. Following the symposium, committee members met in a one-day executive session to formulate and outline this report. In undertaking this review, OHER and ACP management requested that the committee attempt to answer several specific questions involving the program's technical capability and productivity, its leadership and organization, and its future direction. These questions are given in the Appendix. This report represents the committee's response to the questions posed in the Appendix. Chapter I explores the committee's view of the role that atmospheric chemistry could and should assume within the DOE and its prospective National Energy Strategy. Chapter 2 assesses the current ACP, Chapter 3 presents recommendations for revising and strengthening it, and Chapter 4 restates the committee's conclusions and recommendations

  10. All-Optical Control of Linear and Nonlinear Energy Transfer via the Zeno Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jiang, Liang; Tang, Hong X.

    2018-05-01

    Microresonator-based nonlinear processes are fundamental to applications including microcomb generation, parametric frequency conversion, and harmonics generation. While nonlinear processes involving either second- (χ(2 )) or third- (χ(3 )) order nonlinearity have been extensively studied, the interaction between these two basic nonlinear processes has seldom been reported. In this paper we demonstrate a coherent interplay between second- and third- order nonlinear processes. The parametric (χ(2 ) ) coupling to a lossy ancillary mode shortens the lifetime of the target photonic mode and suppresses its density of states, preventing the photon emissions into the target photonic mode via the Zeno effect. Such an effect is then used to control the stimulated four-wave mixing process and realize a suppression ratio of 34.5.

  11. Necessity for Industry-Academic Economic Geology Collaborations for Energy Critical Minerals Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzman, M.

    2012-12-01

    Economic geology is a highly interdisciplinary field utilizing a diverse set of petrologic, geochemical, geophysical, and tectonic data for improved scientific understanding of element migration and concentration in the crust (ore formation). A number of elements that were once laboratory curiosities now figure prominently in new energy technologies (e.g. wind turbines, solar energy collectors). If widely deployed, such technologies have the capacity to transform the way we produce, transmit, store, and conserve energy. To meet domestic and worldwide renewable energy needs these systems must be scaled from laboratory, to demonstration, to widespread deployment. Such technologies are materials intensive. If widely deployed, the elements required by these technologies will be needed in significant quantities and shortage of these "energy critical elements" could significantly inhibit the adoption of otherwise game changing energy technologies. It is imperative to better understand the geology, metallurgy, and mining engineering of critical mineral deposits if we are to sustainably develop these new technologies. There is currently no consensus among federal and state agencies, the national and international mining industry, the public, and the U.S. academic community regarding the importance of economic geology to secure sufficient energy critical elements to undertake large-scale renewable energy development. Available federal funding for critical elements focuses on downstream areas such as metallurgy, substitutions, and recycling rather than primary deposits. Undertaking the required research to discover and mine critical element deposits in an environmentally friendly manner will require significant partnering with industry due to the current lack of federal research support.

  12. Resource Allocation of Security-Critical Tasks with Statistically Guaranteed Energy Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Ke; Ma, Yue

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in resource allocation for energy constrained and security-critical embedded systems. Tasks in such systems need to be successfully executed under certain energy budget and be robust against serious security threatens. Different to former energy minimal scheduling...... energy slack ratio. The proposed algorithm is very efficient in both time and space dimensions, and achieves good solutions. Extensive simulations demonstrate the superiority of our algorithm over other approaches....

  13. Vibro-Impact Energy Analysis of a Geared System with Piecewise-Type Nonlinearities Using Various Parameter Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yun Yoon

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Torsional systems with gear pairs such as the gearbox of wind turbines or vehicle driveline systems inherently show impact phenomena due to clearance-type nonlinearities when the system experiences sinusoidal excitation. This research investigates the vibro-impact energy of unloaded gears in geared systems using the harmonic balance method (HBM in both the frequency and time domains. To achieve accurate simulations, nonlinear models with piecewise and clearance-type nonlinearities and drag torques are defined and implemented in the HBM. Next, the nonlinear frequency responses are examined by focusing on the resonance areas where the impact phenomena occur, along with variations in key parameters such as clutch stiffness, drag torque, and inertias of the flywheel and the unloaded gear. Finally, the effects of the parameters on the vibro-impacts at a specific excitation frequency are explained using bifurcation diagrams. The results are correlated with prior research by defining the gear rattle criteria with key parameters. This article suggests a method to simulate the impact phenomena in torsional systems using the HBM and successfully assesses vibro-impact energy using bifurcation diagrams.

  14. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Decentralized control of transmission rates in energy-critical wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Li; Shihada, Basem

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the decentralized optimization of delay and energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless network. The goal is to minimize the energy consumption of energy-critical nodes and the overall packet transmission delay of the network. The transmission rates of energy-critical nodes are adjustable according to the local information of nodes, i.e., the length of packets queued. The multi-hop network is modeled as a queueing network.We prove that the system performance is monotone w.r.t. (with respect to) the transmission rate, thus the “bang-bang” control is an optimal control. We also prove that there exists a threshold type control policy which is optimal. We propose a decentralized algorithm to control transmission rates of these energy-critical nodes. Some simulation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  16. Environment-assisted Quantum Critical Effect for Excitation Energy Transfer in a LH2-type Trimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Xu, Bo

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we are investigating excitation energy transfer (EET) in a basic unit cell of light-harvesting complex II (LH2), named a LH2-type trimer. Calculation of energy transfer efficiency (ETE) in the framework of non-Markovian environment is also implemented. With these achievements, we theoretically predict the environment-assisted quantum critical effect, where ETE exhibits a sudden change at the critical point of quantum phase transition (QPT) for the LH2-type trimer. It is found that highly efficient EET with nearly unit efficiency may occur in the vicinity of the critical point of QPT.

  17. Identification of the low-energy excitations in a quantum critical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Heitmann

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We have identified low-energy magnetic excitations in a doped quantum critical system by means of polarized neutron scattering experiments. The presence of these excitations could explain why Ce(Fe0.76Ru0.242Ge2 displays dynamical scaling in the absence of local critical behavior or long-range spin-density wave criticality. The low-energy excitations are associated with the reorientations of the superspins of fully ordered, isolated magnetic clusters that form spontaneously upon lowering the temperature. The system houses both frozen clusters and dynamic clusters, as predicted by Hoyos and Vojta [Phys. Rev. B 74, 140401(R (2006].

  18. Analysis and monitoring of energy security and prediction of indicator values using conventional non-linear mathematical programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vital'evna Bykova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the concept of energy security and a system of indicators for its monitoring. The indicator system includes more than 40 parameters that reflect the structure and state of fuel and energy complex sectors (fuel, electricity and heat & power, as well as takes into account economic, environmental and social aspects. A brief description of the structure of the computer system to monitor and analyze energy security is given. The complex contains informational, analytical and calculation modules, provides applications for forecasting and modeling energy scenarios, modeling threats and determining levels of energy security. Its application to predict the values of the indicators and methods developed for it are described. This paper presents a method developed by conventional nonlinear mathematical programming needed to address several problems of energy and, in particular, the prediction problem of the security. An example of its use and implementation of this method in the application, "Prognosis", is also given.

  19. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkić, Dževad

    1999-06-01

    Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/ dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H ++H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pad

  20. Critical validity assessment of theoretical models: charge-exchange at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    1999-01-01

    Exact comprehensive computations are carried out by means of four leading second-order approximations yielding differential cross sections dQ/dΩ for the basic charge exchange process H + +H(1s)→H(1s)+H + at intermediate and high energies. The obtained extensive set of results is thoroughly tested against all the existing experimental data with the purpose of critically assessing the validity of the boundary corrected second-Born (CB2), continuum-distorted wave (CDW), impulse approximation (IA) and the reformulated impulse approximation (RIA). The conclusion which emerges from this comparative study clearly indicates that the RIA agrees most favorably with the measurements available over a large energy range 25 keV-5 MeV. Such a finding reaffirms the few-particle quantum scattering theory which imposes several strict conditions on adequate second-order methods. These requirements satisfied by the RIA are: (i) normalisations of all the scattering wave functions, (ii) correct boundary conditions in both entrance and exit channels, (iii) introduction of a mathematically justified two-center continuum state for the sum of an attractive and a repulsive Coulomb potential with the same interaction strength, (iv) inclusion of the multiple scattering effects neglected in the IA, (v) a proper description of the Thomas double scattering in good agreement with the experiments and without any unobserved peak splittings. Nevertheless, the performed comparative analysis of the above four approximations indicates that none of the methods is free from some basic shortcomings. Despite its success, the RIA remains essentially a high-energy model like the other three methods under study. More importantly, their perturbative character leaves virtually no room for further systematic improvements, since the neglected higher-order terms are prohibitively tedious for practical purposes and have never been computed exactly. To bridge this gap, we presently introduce the variational Pade

  1. Single-wave-number representation of nonlinear energy spectrum in elastic-wave turbulence of the Föppl-von Kármán equation: energy decomposition analysis and energy budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2014-12-01

    A single-wave-number representation of a nonlinear energy spectrum, i.e., a stretching-energy spectrum, is found in elastic-wave turbulence governed by the Föppl-von Kármán (FvK) equation. The representation enables energy decomposition analysis in the wave-number space and analytical expressions of detailed energy budgets in the nonlinear interactions. We numerically solved the FvK equation and observed the following facts. Kinetic energy and bending energy are comparable with each other at large wave numbers as the weak turbulence theory suggests. On the other hand, stretching energy is larger than the bending energy at small wave numbers, i.e., the nonlinearity is relatively strong. The strong correlation between a mode a(k) and its companion mode a(-k) is observed at the small wave numbers. The energy is input into the wave field through stretching-energy transfer at the small wave numbers, and dissipated through the quartic part of kinetic-energy transfer at the large wave numbers. Total-energy flux consistent with energy conservation is calculated directly by using the analytical expression of the total-energy transfer, and the forward energy cascade is observed clearly.

  2. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromer, Neil A., E-mail: nafromer@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Resnick Sustainability Institute (United States); Diallo, Mamadou S., E-mail: diallo@wag.caltech.edu [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Graduate School of Energy, Environment, Water and Sustainability (EEWS) (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies.

  3. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromer, Neil A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies

  4. Nanotechnology and clean energy: sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, Neil A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.

    2013-11-01

    Advances in nanoscale science and engineering suggest that many of the current problems involving the sustainable utilization and supply of critical materials in clean and renewable energy technologies could be addressed using (i) nanostructured materials with enhanced electronic, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties and (ii) nanotechnology-based separation materials and systems that can recover critical materials from non-traditional sources including mine tailings, industrial wastewater and electronic wastes with minimum environmental impact. This article discusses the utilization of nanotechnology to improve or achieve materials sustainability for energy generation, conversion and storage. We highlight recent advances and discuss opportunities of utilizing nanotechnology to address materials sustainability for clean and renewable energy technologies.

  5. Critical and precious materials consumption and requirement in wind energy system in the EU 27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junbeum; Guillaume, Bertrand; Chung, Jinwook; Hwang, Yongwoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Critical and precious materials requirement in the wind energy system in the EU 27 by 2020. - Highlights: • The critical and precious materials consumption were calculated in wind energy system in the EU 27. • The future requirement of critical and precious materials was estimated in the EU 27 by 2020. • Fluorspar, silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum are the mainly used and required materials. • This research approach could be applied to other industrial sectors as well as other renewable technology. - Abstract: Critical materials as well as rare earth elements and precious metals such as platinum, gold and silver are used significantly for computer hard disk drives, mobile phones, hybrid electric vehicles, batteries, renewable energy system and many other applications. It is therefore important to quantify and estimate both current stocks and flows of such materials, as well as future requirement for industries and economies. In this study, which is focused on wind energy system in the European Union (EU) 27, the current consumption and future requirement of critical and precious materials were calculated and estimated using the wind power production dataset from ecoinvent and data from National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). It is shown that fluorspar has been the most consumed material to date, and will probably be the most required material in the future. Among other critical and valuable materials, the main materials used for current wind energy system are silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum. These materials will also be required significantly by 2020 for the wind energy system in the EU 27. It is argued that these results should be connected to the future energy and material policy and management

  6. Non-linear, non-monotonic effect of nano-scale roughness on particle deposition in absence of an energy barrier: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (<1 μm) than for colloids and was numerically simulated using a Convective-Diffusion model and experimentally validated. Inclusion of flow field and hydrodynamic retardation effects explained particle deposition profiles better than when only the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) force was considered. This work provides 1) a first comprehensive framework for describing the hydrodynamic impacts of nano-scale surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition.

  7. Effect of linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of thermoelectric properties on the energy conversion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    The new thermal rate equations were built up by taking the linear and non-linear components in the temperature dependences of the Seebeck coefficient α, the electrical resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of a thermoelectric (TE) material into the thermal rate equations on the assumption that their temperature dependences are expressed by a quadratic function of temperature T. The energy conversion efficiency η for a single TE element was formulated using the new thermal rate ones proposed here. By applying it to the high-performance half-Heusler compound, the non-linear component in the temperature dependence of α among those of the TE properties has the greatest effect on η, so that η/η 0 was increased by 11% under the condition of T = 510 K and ΔT = 440 K, where η 0 is a well-known conventional energy conversion efficiency. It was thus found that the temperature dependences of TE properties have a significant influence on η. When one evaluates the accurate achievement rate of η exp obtained experimentally for a TE generator, therefore, η exp should be compared with η the estimated from the theoretical expression proposed here, not with η 0 , particularly when there is a strong non-linearity in the temperature dependence of TE properties.

  8. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs.

  9. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs

  10. Optical nonlinearity and bistability in the bound exciton energy range of CdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenig, T.; Gutowski, J.

    1988-01-01

    Under high excitation conditions thick CdS samples show pronounced broad-band nonlinear transmission in the bound exciton region and up to a wavelength of about 515 nm at cryo-temperatures. This behavior is only explainable in a model based on impurity neutralization and bound exciton creation. The suitability of these nonlinearities to yield optical bistability will be shown. Bistable operation is investigated in dependence of crystal thickness, impurity concentration, excitation density, wavelength, and temperature. A strong correlation to acceptor-bound exciton generation is obtained, and the explanation of this bistable operation fits well with that of the above mentioned transmission behavior. (author)

  11. A mass-energy preserving Galerkin FEM for the coupled nonlinear fractional Schrödinger equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoyu; Huang, Chengming; Li, Meng

    2018-04-01

    We consider the numerical simulation of the coupled nonlinear space fractional Schrödinger equations. Based on the Galerkin finite element method in space and the Crank-Nicolson (CN) difference method in time, a fully discrete scheme is constructed. Firstly, we focus on a rigorous analysis of conservation laws for the discrete system. The definitions of discrete mass and energy here correspond with the original ones in physics. Then, we prove that the fully discrete system is uniquely solvable. Moreover, we consider the unconditionally convergent properties (that is to say, we complete the error estimates without any mesh ratio restriction). We derive L2-norm error estimates for the nonlinear equations and L^{∞}-norm error estimates for the linear equations. Finally, some numerical experiments are included showing results in agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  12. Critical phenomena and their effect on thermal energy storage in supercritical fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobold, Gustavo M.; Da Silva, Alexandre K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •High power thermal energy storage using supercritical fluids. •Influence of property variation on energy and power density. •Multi-fluid analysis and generalization for several storage temperatures. •Cost, heat transfer and energy density evaluation for high temperature storage. -- Abstract: Large-scale implementation of concentrated solar power plants requires energy storage systems if fossil sources are to be fully replaced. While several candidates have appeared, most still face major issues such as cost, limited energy density and material compatibility. The present paper explores the influence of property variation in the proximity of the critical point on thermal energy storage using supercritical fluids (sTES) from thermodynamic and heat transfer standpoints. Influence of thermodynamic operational parameters on energy density of isobaric and isochoric sTES and their optima is discussed, showing that the energy density results from a competition between average specific heat and loaded density. Moreover, sTES is shown to be applicable to virtually any storage temperature, depending only on the fluid’s critical point. Finally, a heat transfer and energy density comparison to other existing storage mechanisms is presented and supercritical water is shown to be competitive for high temperature thermal energy storage.

  13. On the structure of critical energy levels for the cubic focusing NLS on star graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, Riccardo; Noja, Diego; Cacciapuoti, Claudio; Finco, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    We provide information on a non-trivial structure of phase space of the cubic nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) on a three-edge star graph. We prove that, in contrast to the case of the standard NLS on the line, the energy associated with the cubic focusing Schrödinger equation on the three-edge star graph with a free (Kirchhoff) vertex does not attain a minimum value on any sphere of constant L 2 -norm. We moreover show that the only stationary state with prescribed L 2 -norm is indeed a saddle point. (fast track communication)

  14. Nonlinear Modeling and Coordinate Optimization of a Semi-Active Energy Regenerative Suspension with an Electro-Hydraulic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farong Kou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to coordinate the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of energy regenerative suspension, this paper proposes a structure of a vehicle semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA. In light of the proposed concept, a specific energy regenerative scheme is designed and a mechanical properties test is carried out. Based on the test results, the parameter identification for the system model is conducted using a recursive least squares algorithm. On the basis of the system principle, the nonlinear model of the semi-active energy regenerative suspension with an EHA is built. Meanwhile, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control strategy of the system is designed. Then, the influence of the main parameters of the EHA on the damping performance and energy regenerative performance of the suspension is analyzed. Finally, the main parameters of the EHA are optimized via the genetic algorithm. The test results show that when a sinusoidal is input at the frequency of 2 Hz and the amplitude of 30 mm, the spring mass acceleration root meam square value of the optimized EHA semi-active energy regenerative suspension is reduced by 22.23% and the energy regenerative power RMS value is increased by 40.51%, which means that while meeting the requirements of vehicle ride comfort and driving safety, the energy regenerative performance is improved significantly.

  15. Invited Article: Multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Zhou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband supercontinuum generation in the visible, near-IR, and short-wavelength mid-IR. Here we conduct an experiment where a mid-IR crystal is pumped in the mid-IR. The crystal is cut for noncritical interaction, so the three-wave mixing of a single mid-IR femtosecond pump source leads to highly phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation. This self-acting cascaded process leads to the formation of a self-defocusing soliton at the mid-IR pump wavelength and after the self-compression point multiple octave-spanning supercontinua are observed. The results were recorded in a commercially available crystal LiInS2 pumped in the 3-4 μm range with 85 fs 50 μJ pulse energy, with the broadest supercontinuum covering 1.6-7.0 μm. We measured up 30 μJ energy in the supercontinuum, and the energy promises to scale favorably with an increased pump energy. Other mid-IR crystals can readily be used as well to cover other pump wavelengths and target other supercontinuum wavelength ranges.

  16. Utilizing an Energy Management System with Distributed Resources to Manage Critical Loads and Reduce Energy Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    significant impact that energy usage has on their operations and their ability to conduct sustained expeditionary operations. In austere environments...efficiency and reduce environmental impact is to power the fuel cell using hydrogen obtained by electrolysis of water from a renewable energy source...look at other DR. Using microturbines and other natural gas cogeneration ( energy and heat) power generation systems is a more affordable way of

  17. Catchment organisation, free energy dynamics and network control on critical zone water flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, E.; Ehret, U.; Kleidon, A.; Jackisch, C.; Scherer, U.; Blume, T.

    2012-04-01

    as that these flow structures organize and dominate flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments during rainfall driven conditions at various scales: - Surface connected vertical flow structures of anecic worm burrows or soil cracks organize and dominated vertical flows at the plot scale - this is usually referred to as preferential flow; - Rill networks at the soil surface organise and dominate hillslope scale overland flow response and sediment yields; - Subsurface pipe networks at the bedrock interface organize and dominate hillslope scale lateral subsurface water and tracer flows; - The river net organizes and dominates flows of water, dissolved matter and sediments to the catchment outlet and finally across continental gradients to the sea. Fundamental progress with respect to the parameterization of hydrological models, subscale flow networks and to understand the adaptation of hydro-geo ecosystems to change could be achieved by discovering principles that govern the organization of catchments flow networks in particular at least during steady state conditions. This insight has inspired various scientists to suggest principles for organization of ecosystems, landscapes and flow networks; as Bejans constructural law, Minimum Energy Expenditure , Maximum Entropy Production. In line with these studies we suggest that a thermodynamic/energetic treatment of the catchment is might be a key for understanding the underlying principles that govern organisation of flow and transport. Our approach is to employ a) physically based hydrological model that address at least all the relevant hydrological processes in the critical zone in a coupled way, behavioural representations of the observed organisation of flow structures and textural elements, that are consistent with observations in two well investigated research catchments and have been tested against distributed observations of soil moisture and catchment scale discharge; to simulate the full concert of hydrological

  18. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X H; Ji, J; Qian, S Y

    2018-01-02

    Objective: To analyze the resting energy expenditure and optimal energy supply in different age groups of critically ill children on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods: Patients on mechanical ventilation hospitalized in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from March 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled prospectively. Resting energy expenditure of patients was calculated by US Med Graphic company critical care management (CCM) energy metabolism test system after mechanical ventilation. Patients were divided into three groups:10 years. The relationship between the measured and predictive resting energy expenditure was analyzed with correlation analysis; while the metabolism status and the optimal energy supply in different age groups were analyzed with chi square test and variance analysis. Results: A total of 102 patients were enrolled, the measured resting energy expenditure all correlated with predictive resting energy expenditure in different age groups (10 years ( r= 0.5, P= 0.0) ) . A total of 40 cases in group, including: 14 cases of low metabolism (35%), 14 cases of normal metabolism (35%), and 12 cases of high metabolism (30%); 45 cases in 3-10 years group, including: 22 cases of low metabolism (49%), 19 cases of normal metabolism (42%), 4 cases of high metabolism (9%); 17 cases in > 10 years group, including: 12 cases of low metabolism (71%), 4 cases of normal metabolism (23%), 1 case of high metabolism (6%). Metabolism status showed significant differences between different age groups ( χ (2)=11.30, P age groups ( F= 46.57, Pgroup, (184±53) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in 3-10 years group, and (120±30) kJ/ (kg⋅d) in > 10 years group. Conclusion: The resting energy metabolism of the critically ill children on mechanical ventilation is negatively related to the age. The actual energy requirement should be calculated according to different ages.

  20. A study of energy dissipation and critical speed of granular flow in a rotating cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Sergiu C.; Sinnott, Mathew D.; Semercigil, S. Eren; Turan, Özden F.

    2014-12-01

    Tuned vibration absorbers may improve the safety of flexible structures which are prone to excessive oscillation magnitudes under dynamic loads. A novel absorber design proposes sloshing of granular material in a rotating cylinder where the granular material is the energy dissipating agent. As the conventional dissipative elements require maintenance due to the nature of their function, the new design may represent a virtually maintenance free alternative. The angular speed of the cylinder containing particles has a critical centrifuging speed, after which particles remain permanently in contact with the walls and there can be no further dissipation. Until the critical speed, however, dissipation increases proportionally with the angular speed. It is then vital to know the value of the critical speed as the limit of dissipation. The focus of the present study is on determination of the critical centrifuge speed. This critical speed is also of practical importance in bulk-material handling rotary mills, such as dryers and crushers. Experiments and numerical simulations, using Discrete Element Method, are used to determine the critical centrifuging speed. In addition, predictions are given and guidelines are offered for the choice of material properties to maximize the energy dissipation. As a result of a parametric study, the coefficient of friction is found to have the greatest significance on the centrifuging speed.

  1. The algebra of the energy-momentum tensor and the Noether currents in classical non-linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forger, M.; Mannheim Univ.; Laartz, J.; Schaeper, U.

    1994-01-01

    The recently derived current algrbra of classical non-linear sigma models on arbitrary Riemannian manifolds is extended to include the energy-momentum tensor. It is found that in two dimensions the energy-momentum tensor θ μv , the Noether current j μ associated with the global symmetry of the theory and the composite field j appearing as the coefficient of the Schwinger term in the current algebra, together with the derivatives of j μ and j, generte a closed algebra. The subalgebra generated by the light-cone components of the energy-momentum tensor consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra, with central charge c=0, reflecting the classical conformal invariance of the theory, but the current algebra part and the semidirect product structure are quite different from the usual Kac-Moody/Sugawara type contruction. (orig.)

  2. Basic concepts in dosimetry. A critical analysis of the concepts of ionizing radiation and energy imparted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The concepts of ionizing radiation and energy imparted defined by the ICRU in 1971 (Radiation Quantities and Units, Report 19, International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Washington, D.C., 1971) are critically analyzed. It is found that the definitions become more consistent by changing them at two points. Charged particles with insufficient kinetic energy to ionize by collision but which are capable of initiating nuclear and elementary particle transformations are suggested to be classified as ionizing particles. In addition, the expressions ''the energy released'' or the ''energy expended'' in a nuclear or elementary particle transformation are suggested to be specified as ''the change in rest-mass energy of nuclei and elementary particles.'' Then the ionization caused by, for instance, nuclear reactions contributes to the energy imparted and the Q-value of an excitation or deexcitation of the electron structure, regarded as an elementary particle transformation, is zero

  3. The troposphere-to-stratosphere transition in kinetic energy spectra and nonlinear spectral fluxes as seen in ECMWF analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, A. B. H.; Erler, A. R.; Shepherd, T. G.

    2012-04-01

    We present spectra, nonlinear interaction terms, and fluxes computed for horizontal wind fields from high-resolution meteorological analyses made available by ECMWF for the International Polar Year. Total kinetic energy spectra clearly show two spectral regimes: a steep spectrum at large scales and a shallow spectrum in the mesoscale. The spectral shallowing appears at ~200 hPa, and is due to decreasing rotational power with height, which results in the shallower divergent spectrum dominating in the mesoscale. The spectra we find are steeper than those observed in aircraft data and GCM simulations. Though the analyses resolve total spherical harmonic wavenumbers up to n = 721, effects of dissipation on the fluxes and spectra are visible starting at about n = 200. We find a weak forward energy cascade and a downscale enstrophy cascade in the mesoscale. Eddy-eddy nonlinear kinetic energy transfers reach maximum amplitudes at the tropopause, and decrease with height thereafter; zonal mean-eddy transfers dominate in the stratosphere. In addition, zonal anisotropy reaches a minimum at the tropopause. Combined with strong eddy-eddy interactions, this suggests flow in the tropopause region is very active and bears the greatest resemblance to isotropic turbulence. We find constant enstrophy flux over a broad range of wavenumbers around the tropopause and in the upper stratosphere. A relatively constant spectral enstrophy flux at the tropopause suggests a turbulent inertial range, and that the enstrophy flux is resolved. A main result of our work is its implications for explaining the shallow mesoscale spectrum observed in aircraft wind measurements, GCM studies, and now meteorological analyses. The strong divergent component in the shallow mesoscale spectrum indicates unbalanced flow, and nonlinear transfers decreasing quickly with height are characteristic of waves, not turbulence. Together with the downscale flux of energ y through the shallow spectral range, these

  4. Size fluctuations of near critical and Gibbs free energy for nucleation of BDA on Cu(001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Daniel; van Gastel, Raoul; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2012-01-01

    We present a low-energy electron microscopy study of nucleation and growth of BDA on Cu(001) at low supersaturation. At sufficiently high coverage, a dilute BDA phase coexists with c(8×8) crystallites. The real-time microscopic information allows a direct visualization of near-critical nuclei,

  5. Searching for the QCD Critical Point with the Energy Dependence of pt Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, John; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    If systems produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions pass near the QCD critical point while cooling, the correlation length of the system may diverge due to the phenomena of critical opalescence. The transverse momentum distribution, being related to the state variable temperature, might be sensitive to this change in correlation length. Non-monotonic behavior with changing incident energy or centrality of any transverse momentum observable that is sensitive to the correlation length could thus be indicative of the QCD critical point. Accordingly, we report measurements related to transverse momentum fluctuations such as as a function of event centrality and incident energy for Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV using the STAR detector at RHIC. The results are compared to UrQMD model predictions and previous experimental measurements.

  6. The Effect of Material Property on the Critical Velocity of Randomly Excited Nonlinear Axially Travelling Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abedi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the critical axial speeds of three types of sigmoid, power law and exponential law functionally graded plates for both isotropic and orthotropic cases are obtained via a completely analytic method. The plates are subjected to lateral white noise excitation and show evidence of large deformations. Due to randomness, the conventional deterministic methods fail and a statistical approach must be selected. Here, the probability density function is evaluated analytically for prescribed plates and used to investigate the critical axial velocity of them. Specifically the effect of in-plane forces, mean value of lateral load and the material property on the critical axial speed are studied and discussed for both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates. Since the governing equation is transformed to a non dimensional format, the results can be used for a wide range of plate dimensions. It is shown that the material heterogeneity palys an essential and significant role in increasing or decreasing the critical speed of both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates.

  7. Targeted energy transfer in laminar vortex-induced vibration of a sprung cylinder with a nonlinear dissipative rotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Antoine; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2017-07-01

    We computationally investigate the dynamics of a linearly-sprung circular cylinder immersed in an incompressible flow and undergoing transverse vortex-induced vibration (VIV), to which is attached a rotational nonlinear energy sink (NES) consisting of a mass that freely rotates at constant radius about the cylinder axis, and whose motion is restrained by a rotational linear viscous damper. The inertial coupling between the rotational motion of the attached mass and the rectilinear motion of the cylinder is ;essentially nonlinear;, which, in conjunction with dissipation, allows for one-way, nearly irreversible targeted energy transfer (TET) from the oscillating cylinder to the nonlinear dissipative attachment. At the intermediate Reynolds number Re = 100, the NES-equipped sprung cylinder undergoes repetitive cycles of slowly decaying oscillations punctuated by intervals of chaotic instabilities. During the slowly decaying portion of each cycle, the dynamics of the cylinder is regular and, for large enough values of the ratio ε of the NES mass to the total mass (i.e., NES mass plus cylinder mass), can lead to significant vortex street elongation with partial stabilization of the wake. As ε approaches zero, no such vortex elongation is observed and the wake patterns appear similar to that for a sprung cylinder with no NES. We apply proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to the velocity flow field during a slowly decaying portion of the solution and show that, in situations where vortex elongation occurs, the NES, though not in direct contact with the surrounding fluid, has a drastic effect on the underlying flow structures, imparting significant and continuous passive redistribution of energy among POD modes. We construct a POD-based reduced-order model for the lift coefficient to characterize energy transactions between the fluid and the cylinder throughout the slowly decaying cycle. We introduce a quantitative signed measure of the work done by the fluid on the

  8. Effects of geometric non-linearity on energy release rates in a realistic wind turbine blade cross section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Bitsche, Robert; Belloni, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Most wind turbine rotor blades comprise several adhesively connected sub-components typically made from glass fibre reinforced polymer composite materials. It is a well-known fact that wind turbine blades are prone to fail in their adhesive joints. However, owing to the complexity...... of their structural behaviour, little is known about the root causes of adhesive joint failure. This paper investigates the effects of geometrical non-linearity on energy release rates (ERRs) of transversely oriented cracks present in the adhesive joints of a wind turbine rotor blade. Utilising a computationally...

  9. Chaos and Structures in Nonlinear Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    In recent decades, the concepts and applications of chaos, complexity, and nonlinear dynamics have profoundly influenced scientific as well as literary thinking. Some aspects of these concepts are used in almost all of the geophysical disciplines. Chaos and Structures in Nonlinear Plasmas, written by two respected plasma physicists, focuses on nonlinear phenomena in laboratory and space plasmas, which are rich in nonlinear and complex collective effects. Chaos is treated only insofar as it relates to some aspects of nonlinear plasma physics.At the outset, the authors note that plasma physics research has made fundamental contributions to modern nonlinear sciences. For example, the Poincare surface of section technique was extensively used in studies of stochastic field lines in magnetically confined plasmas and turbulence. More generally, nonlinearity in plasma waves and wave-wave and wave-particle interactions critically determines the propagation of energy through a plasma medium. The book also makes it clear that the importance of understanding nonlinear waves goes beyond plasma physics, extending to such diverse fields as solid state physics, fluid dynamics, atmospheric physics, and optics. In space physics, non-linear plasma physics is essential for interpreting in situ as well as remote-sensing data.

  10. Engineering Synthesis of Nonlinear Spatial Selection with Artificial Intelligence Elements to Suppress Critical Interference of Background in Aviation and Space-Based Opto-Electronic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Levshin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The previous authors’ works have shown that the system of quasi-optimal linear spatial filtering, due to the restriction of this class of filters, related to the superposition principle, has very limited capacity to suppress the most critical interference spatially inhomogeneous background. Such partial suppression does not meet extreme approach requirements for providing high probability characteristics to detect small targets in the most difficult background conditions.In this regard, there is a conclusion that it is necessary to find a different approach, in which the result of the system operation in complex background does not depend on the level of the background noise at the input. This article performs an engineering synthesis of the system with the artificial visual intelligence elements, which recognizes a class of the small-sized radiating objects with the suppression of the most critical interference through nonlinear topological selection.Consideration of this problem begins with the formation of the filter-discriminator aperture, which is a basis for this theory, «echoing» with the theory of optimal nonlinear filtering spatial Poisson processes. Thus, formation of the optimized nonlinear filter structure is based on the optimal linear filter (Wiener filter structure. As a result, there are three versions of filter apertures (4-, 8- and 16-connected ones, with one of which later providing operations of the object shape discrimination. The focus of the article is, mainly, on the 8-connected aperture, as the average in balance of efficiency and complexity option.The article pays considerable attention to development of signs and algorithms to select the objects by size and shape. It shows that selection on a uniform background is possible by the maximum value of the first derivative and to separate the most critical form of Markov’s field inhomogeneities and background brightness, as the fragments of component boundaries of

  11. A Critical Plane-energy Model for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Haoyang

    A new critical plane-energy model is proposed in this thesis for multiaxial fatigue life prediction of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials. Brief review of existing methods, especially on the critical plane-based and energy-based methods, are given first. Special focus is on one critical plane approach which has been shown to work for both brittle and ductile metals. The key idea is to automatically change the critical plane orientation with respect to different materials and stress states. One potential drawback of the developed model is that it needs an empirical calibration parameter for non-proportional multiaxial loadings since only the strain terms are used and the out-of-phase hardening cannot be considered. The energy-based model using the critical plane concept is proposed with help of the Mroz-Garud hardening rule to explicitly include the effect of non-proportional hardening under fatigue cyclic loadings. Thus, the empirical calibration for non-proportional loading is not needed since the out-of-phase hardening is naturally included in the stress calculation. The model predictions are compared with experimental data from open literature and it is shown the proposed model can work for both proportional and non-proportional loadings without the empirical calibration. Next, the model is extended for the fatigue analysis of heterogeneous materials integrating with finite element method. Fatigue crack initiation of representative volume of heterogeneous materials is analyzed using the developed critical plane-energy model and special focus is on the microstructure effect on the multiaxial fatigue life predictions. Several conclusions and future work is drawn based on the proposed study.

  12. The effect of Moidal non-linear blending function for dual-energy CT on CT image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Yang Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the difference between linear blending and non-linear blending function for dual-energy CT, and to evaluate the effect on CT image quality. Methods: The model was made of a piece of fresh pork liver inserted with 5 syringes containing various concentrations of iodine solutions (16.3, 26.4, 48.7, 74.6 and 112.3 HU). Linear blending images were automatically reformatted after the model was scanned in the dual-energy mode. Non-linear blending images were reformatted using the software of optimal contrast in Syngo workstation. Images were divided into 3 groups, including linear blending group, non-linear blending group and 120 kV group. Contrast noise ratio (CNR) were measured and calculated respectively in the 3 groups and the different figure of merit (FOM) values between the groups were compared using one-way ANOVA. Twenty patients scanned in the dual-energy mode were randomly selected and the SNR of their liver, renal cortex, spleen, pancreas and abdominal aorta were measured. The independent sample t test was used to compare the difference of signal to noise ratio (SNR) between linear blending group and non linear blending group. Two readers' agreement score and single-blind method were used to investigate the conspicuity difference between linear blending group and non linear blending group. Results: With models of different CT values, the FOM values in non-linear blending group were 20.65± 8.18, 11.40±4.25, 1.60±0.82, 2.40±1.13, 45.49±17.86. In 74.6 HU and 112.3 HU models, the differences of the FOM values observed among the three groups were statistically significant (P<0.05), which were 0.30±0.06 and 14.43±4.59 for linear blending group, and 0.22±0.05 and 15.31±5.16 for 120 kV group. And non-linear blending group had a better FOM value. The SNR of renal cortex and abdominal aorta were 19.2±5.1 and 36.5±13.9 for non-linear blending group, while they were 12.4±3.8 and 22.6±7.0 for linear blending group. There were statistically

  13. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  14. Rethinking the measurement of energy poverty in Europe: A critical analysis of indicators and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Harriet; Bouzarovski, Stefan; Snell, Carolyn

    2017-08-01

    Energy poverty - which has also been recognised via terms such as 'fuel poverty' and 'energy vulnerability' - occurs when a household experiences inadequate levels of energy services in the home. Measuring energy poverty is challenging, as it is a culturally sensitive and private condition, which is temporally and spatially dynamic. This is compounded by the limited availability of appropriate data and indicators, and lack of consensus on how energy poverty should be conceptualised and measured. Statistical indicators of energy poverty are an important and necessary part of the research and policy landscape. They carry great political weight, and are often used to guide the targeting of energy poverty measures - due to their perceived objectivity - with important consequences for both the indoor and built environment of housing. Focussing on the European Union specifically, this paper critically assesses the available statistical options for monitoring energy poverty, whilst also presenting options for improving existing data. This is examined through the lens of vulnerability thinking, by considering the ways in which policies and institutions, the built fabric and everyday practices shape energy use, alongside the manner in which energy poor households experience and address the issue on a day-to-day basis.

  15. A Critical SUMO1 Modification of LKB1 Regulates AMPK Activity during Energy Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Ritho, Joan

    2015-07-23

    SUMOylation has been implicated in cellular stress adaptation, but its role in regulating liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major upstream kinase of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is unknown. Here, we show that energy stress triggers an increase in SUMO1 modification of LKB1, despite a global reduction in both SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 conjugates. During metabolic stress, SUMO1 modification of LKB1 lysine 178 is essential in promoting its interaction with AMPK via a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) essential for AMPK activation. The LKB1 K178R SUMO mutant had defective AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function, inducing death in energy-deprived cells. These results provide additional insight into how LKB1-AMPK signaling is regulated during energy stress, and they highlight the critical role of SUMOylation in maintaining the cell’s energy equilibrium.

  16. A Critical SUMO1 Modification of LKB1 Regulates AMPK Activity during Energy Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Ritho, Joan; Arold, Stefan T.; Yeh, Edward  T.H.

    2015-01-01

    SUMOylation has been implicated in cellular stress adaptation, but its role in regulating liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major upstream kinase of the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is unknown. Here, we show that energy stress triggers an increase in SUMO1 modification of LKB1, despite a global reduction in both SUMO1 and SUMO2/3 conjugates. During metabolic stress, SUMO1 modification of LKB1 lysine 178 is essential in promoting its interaction with AMPK via a SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) essential for AMPK activation. The LKB1 K178R SUMO mutant had defective AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function, inducing death in energy-deprived cells. These results provide additional insight into how LKB1-AMPK signaling is regulated during energy stress, and they highlight the critical role of SUMOylation in maintaining the cell’s energy equilibrium.

  17. Phonon-induced enhancement of the energy gap and critical current of superconducting aluminum films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligson, D.; Clarke, J.

    1983-01-01

    Enhancements of the energy gap Δ and the critical current I/sub c/ have been induced in thin superconducting aluminum films near the transition temperature T/sub c/ by pulses of phonons at approximately 9 GHz. In terms of the change in temperature Vertical BardeltaT/T/sub c/Vertical Bar necessary to produce the same enhancement in equilibrium, the gap enhancement increased smoothly with phonon power at fixed temperature and decreasing temperature at fixed phonon power; however, very close to T/sub c/ the enhancement rolled off. At relatively low phonon powers, the data were in good agreement with the theory of Eckern, Schmid, Schmutz, and Schoen, but at higher power levels the data fell markedly below the predictions of the theory. The critical-current enhancements in terms of Vertical BardeltaT/T/sub c/Vertical Bar were always larger than the gap enhancements at the same temperature and phonon power. At fixed phonon power the critical-current enhancements were nearly independent of temperature, except very close to T/sub c/ where the enhancement became small. The inclusion of the nonequilibrium quasiparticle distribution and the kinetic energy of the supercurrent in the theory relating the critical-current enhancement to the gap enhancement did not resolve the discrepancies between the two enhancements. It appears likely that there is an additional mechanism for critical-current enhancement that has not yet been identified

  18. Nonlinear dielectric thin films for high-power electric storage with energy density comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kui; Chen, Shuting; Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Yu, Shuhui; Tay, Francis Eng Hock; Sritharan, Thirumany; Lu, Li

    2011-09-01

    Although batteries possess high energy storage density, their output power is limited by the slow movement of charge carriers, and thus capacitors are often required to deliver high power output. Dielectric capacitors have high power density with fast discharge rate, but their energy density is typically much lower than electrochemical supercapacitors. Increasing the energy density of dielectric materials is highly desired to extend their applications in many emerging power system applications. In this paper, we review the mechanisms and major characteristics of electric energy storage with electrochemical supercapacitors and dielectric capacitors. Three types of in-house-produced ferroic nonlinear dielectric thin film materials with high energy density are described, including (Pb(0.97)La(0.02))(Zr(0.90)Sn(0.05)Ti(0.05))O(3) (PLZST) antiferroelectric ceramic thin films, Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-)PbTiO(3) (PZN-PMN-PT) relaxor ferroelectric ceramic thin films, and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based polymer blend thin films. The results showed that these thin film materials are promising for electric storage with outstandingly high power density and fairly high energy density, comparable with electrochemical supercapacitors.

  19. Innovation information seeking and innovation adoption: Facilities and plant managers' energy outlook comparing linear to nonlinear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Joseph J.

    One focal point of concern, policy and a new research will involve identifying individual and organizational facilitative and obstructive factors within the context of energy innovation diffusion in the U.S. This interdisciplinary intersection of people, technology and change is one of serious consequence and has broad implications that span national security, energy infrastructure, the economy, organizational change, education and the environment. This study investigates facilities and plant managers' energy innovation information seeking and energy adoption evolution. The participants are managers who consume more electrical energy than all other groups in the world and are among the top users of natural gas and oil in the United States. The research calls upon the Theory of Planned Behavior, the Diffusion of Innovations and nonlinear dynamics in a study of adoption patterns for 13 energy-related innovations. Cusp catastrophe models and power laws were compared to linear multiple regression to examine and characterize data. Findings reveal that innovation adoption and information seeking differences are slight between private and public sector facilities and plant managers and that the group as a whole may resist change. Of the 13 innovations, some exhibit very strong cusp catastrophe distributions while support for multiple linear regression and the power law were found.

  20. Spatial and temporal patterns of bank failure during extreme flood events: Evidence of nonlinearity and self-organised criticality at the basin scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C. J.; Croke, J. C.; Grove, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    Non-linearity in physical systems provides a conceptual framework to explain complex patterns and form that are derived from complex internal dynamics rather than external forcings, and can be used to inform modeling and improve landscape management. One process that has been investigated previously to explore the existence of self-organised critical system (SOC) in river systems at the basin-scale is bank failure. Spatial trends in bank failure have been previously quantified to determine if the distribution of bank failures at the basin scale exhibit the necessary power law magnitude/frequency distributions. More commonly bank failures are investigated at a small-scale using several cross-sections with strong emphasis on local-scale factors such as bank height, cohesion and hydraulic properties. Advancing our understanding of non-linearity in such processes, however, requires many more studies where both the spatial and temporal measurements of the process can be used to investigate the existence or otherwise of non-linearity and self-organised criticality. This study presents measurements of bank failure throughout the Lockyer catchment in southeast Queensland, Australia, which experienced an extreme flood event in January 2011 resulting in the loss of human lives and geomorphic channel change. The most dominant form of fluvial adjustment consisted of changes in channel geometry and notably widespread bank failures, which were readily identifiable as 'scalloped' shaped failure scarps. The spatial extents of these were mapped using high-resolution LiDAR derived digital elevation model and were verified by field surveys and air photos. Pre-flood event LiDAR coverage for the catchment also existed allowing direct comparison of the magnitude and frequency of bank failures from both pre and post-flood time periods. Data were collected and analysed within a GIS framework and investigated for power-law relationships. Bank failures appeared random and occurred

  1. Thickness-dependent dispersion parameters, energy gap and nonlinear refractive index of ZnSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Deo; Shaaban, E.R.; Shapaan, M.; Mohamed, S.H.; Othman, A.A.; Verma, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined experimental and theoretical researches on ZnSe Thin Films. • The film thickness and refractive index were determined using envelope method. • The absorption coefficient and the energy gap were calculated. • Dispersion parameters were determined using Wemple-DiDomenico relation. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were calculated. - Abstract: Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films with different thicknesses were evaporated onto glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that both the film and powder have cubic zinc-blende structure. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and band gap were evaluated in transparent region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The optical transition of the films was found to be allowed, where the energy gap increased from 2.576 to 2.702 eV with increasing film thickness. Also, the refractive index value increase with increasing film thickness. The refractive indices evaluated through envelope method were extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range. Additionally, the dispersion of refractive index was determined in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. Third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined for different thickness of ZnSe thin films.

  2. Thickness-dependent dispersion parameters, energy gap and nonlinear refractive index of ZnSe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Deo [School of Computer Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, SMVD University, Kakryal, Katra 182320, J& K (India); Shaaban, E.R., E-mail: esam_ramadan2008@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71542 (Egypt); Shapaan, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azahar University, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, S.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag (Egypt); Othman, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Verma, K.D., E-mail: kdverma1215868@gmail.com [Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh 202001, U.P. (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Combined experimental and theoretical researches on ZnSe Thin Films. • The film thickness and refractive index were determined using envelope method. • The absorption coefficient and the energy gap were calculated. • Dispersion parameters were determined using Wemple-DiDomenico relation. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were calculated. - Abstract: Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films with different thicknesses were evaporated onto glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that both the film and powder have cubic zinc-blende structure. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and band gap were evaluated in transparent region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The optical transition of the films was found to be allowed, where the energy gap increased from 2.576 to 2.702 eV with increasing film thickness. Also, the refractive index value increase with increasing film thickness. The refractive indices evaluated through envelope method were extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range. Additionally, the dispersion of refractive index was determined in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. Third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined for different thickness of ZnSe thin films.

  3. Nonlinear optical and multiphoton processes for in situ manipulation and conversion of photons: applications to energy and healthcare (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Paras N.

    2017-02-01

    Chiral control of nonlinear optical functions holds a great promise for a wide range of applications including optical signal processing, bio-sensing and chiral bio-imaging. In chiral polyfluorene thin films, we demonstrated extremely large chiral nonlinearity. The physics of manipulating excitation dynamics for photon transformation will be discussed, along with nanochemistry control of upconversion in hierarchically built organic chromophore coupled-core-multiple shell nanostructures which enable introduce new, organic-inorganic energy transfer routes for broadband light harvesting and increased upconversion efficiency via multistep cascaded energy transfer. We are pursuing the applications of photon conversion technology in IR harvesting for photovoltaics, high contrast bioimaging, photoacoustic imaging, photodynamic therapy, and optogenetics. An important application is in Brain research and Neurophotonics for functional mapping and modulation of brain activities. Another new direction pursued is magnetic field control of light in in a chiral polymer nanocomposite to achieve large magneto-optic coefficient which can enable sensing of extremely weak magnetic field due to brain waves. Finally, we will consider the thought provoking concept of utilizing photons to quantify, through magneto-optics, and augment - through nanoptogenetics, the cognitive states, thus paving the path way to a quantified human paradigm.

  4. Criticality problems for slabs and spheres in energy dependent neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victory, H.D. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The steady-state equation for energy-dependent neutron transport in isotropically scattering slabs and spheres is formulated as an integral equation. The Perron-Frobenius-Jentzsch theory of positive operators is used to analyze criticality problems for transport in slab and spherical media consisting of core and reflector. In addition, with an adroit selection of diffusion-like solutions, this theory is used to obtain an expression relating the critical radius of a homogeneous sphere to a parameter characterizing fission production. 21 refs

  5. On the curve of critical exponents for nonlinear elliptic problems in the case of a zero mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'yasov, Ya. Sh.

    2017-03-01

    For semilinear elliptic equations -Δ u = λ| u| p-2 u-| u| q-2 u, boundary value problems in bounded and unbounded domains are considered. In the plane of exponents p × q, the so-called curves of critical exponents are defined that divide this plane into domains with qualitatively different properties of the boundary value problems and the corresponding parabolic equations. New solvability conditions for boundary value problems, conditions for the stability and instability of stationary solutions, and conditions for the existence of global solutions to parabolic equations are found.

  6. Sustainability of utility-scale solar energycritical ecological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore-O'Leary, Kara A.; Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Johnston, Dave S.; Abella, Scott R.; Tanner, Karen E.; Swanson, Amanda C.; Kreitler, Jason R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2017-01-01

    Renewable energy development is an arena where ecological, political, and socioeconomic values collide. Advances in renewable energy will incur steep environmental costs to landscapes in which facilities are constructed and operated. Scientists – including those from academia, industry, and government agencies – have only recently begun to quantify trade-offs in this arena, often using ground-mounted, utility-scale solar energy facilities (USSE, ≥1 megawatt) as a model. Here, we discuss five critical ecological concepts applicable to the development of more sustainable USSE with benefits over fossil-fuel-generated energy: (1) more sustainable USSE development requires careful evaluation of trade-offs between land, energy, and ecology; (2) species responses to habitat modification by USSE vary; (3) cumulative and large-scale ecological impacts are complex and challenging to mitigate; (4) USSE development affects different types of ecosystems and requires customized design and management strategies; and (5) long-term ecological consequences associated with USSE sites must be carefully considered. These critical concepts provide a framework for reducing adverse environmental impacts, informing policy to establish and address conservation priorities, and improving energy production sustainability.

  7. Critical rate of energy loss for registration of charged particles in cellulose nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoefel, T.M.J.; Sachett, I.A.

    1979-09-01

    Cellulose nitrate films LR-115 type II (Kodak-Pathe) have been exposed, at right angles, to alpha-particle beams in the energy range 2.5 - 5.5 MeV. From measurements of both through etched track density, a critical rate of energy lo ss for track registration of (0.85 +- 0.05) MeV cm 2 /mg has been derived, which corresponds to a critical alpha-particle energy of (4.6 +- 0.4) MeV. These results are compatible with those obtained by other authors whenever similar etching conditions are used. The concepts of threshold rate of energy loss and a threshold energy for etched-track formation are introduced, and their values are obtained from the experiment as being (0.80 +- 0.05) MeV cm 2 /mg and (5.1 +- 0.4) Mev, respectively. In addition, the present work provides a suitable set of useful, reference data for further applications of such plastic nuclear track detector in problems concerned with the detection of low-energy alpha particles. (Author) [pt

  8. Low-frequency wideband vibration energy harvesting by using frequency up-conversion and quin-stable nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Zhang, Qichang; Wang, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This work presents models and experiments of an impact-driven and frequency up-converted wideband piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester with a quintuple-well potential induced by the combination effect of magnetic nonlinearity and mechanical piecewise-linearity. Analysis shows that the interwell motions during coupled vibration period enable to increase electrical power output in comparison to conventional frequency up-conversion technology. Besides, the quintuple-well potential with shallower potential wells could extend the harvester's operating bandwidth to lower frequencies. Experiments demonstrate our proposed approach can dramatically boost the measured power of the energy harvester as much as 35 times while its lower cut-off frequency is two times lower than that of a conventional counterpart. These results reveal our proposed approach shows promise for powering portable wireless smart devices from low-intensity, low-frequency vibration sources.

  9. Nonlinear Dynamics and Bifurcation Behavior of a 2-DOF Spring Resonator with End Stopper for Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Aroudi A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the model of a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF spring resonator with end stopper for an energy harvesting application is presented. Then we characterize its nonlinear dynamical behavior by numerical simulations when some suitable parameters are varied. The system is formed by two resonators subject to external vibrational excitation and with an end stopper. We present the continuous time dynamical model of the system in the form of a switched fourth order differential equation. Harmonic vibrations are considered as the main ambient energy source for the system and its frequency response representing the RMS value of the displacement is first computed. The dynamical behavior is unveiled by computing state-space trajectories, timedomain series and FFT spectra and frequency response as the excitation amplitude is varied.

  10. Optimal and robust control of a class of nonlinear systems using dynamically re-optimised single network adaptive critic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shivendra N.; Padhi, Radhakant

    2018-01-01

    Following the philosophy of adaptive optimal control, a neural network-based state feedback optimal control synthesis approach is presented in this paper. First, accounting for a nominal system model, a single network adaptive critic (SNAC) based multi-layered neural network (called as NN1) is synthesised offline. However, another linear-in-weight neural network (called as NN2) is trained online and augmented to NN1 in such a manner that their combined output represent the desired optimal costate for the actual plant. To do this, the nominal model needs to be updated online to adapt to the actual plant, which is done by synthesising yet another linear-in-weight neural network (called as NN3) online. Training of NN3 is done by utilising the error information between the nominal and actual states and carrying out the necessary Lyapunov stability analysis using a Sobolev norm based Lyapunov function. This helps in training NN2 successfully to capture the required optimal relationship. The overall architecture is named as 'Dynamically Re-optimised single network adaptive critic (DR-SNAC)'. Numerical results for two motivating illustrative problems are presented, including comparison studies with closed form solution for one problem, which clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and benefit of the proposed approach.

  11. High-energy fiber lasers at non-traditional colours, via intermodal nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Chen, Y.; Steinvurzel, P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose exploiting intermodal four-wave mixing for energy-scalable tuneable fiber lasers, hitherto restricted to low powers, constrained by dispersion-tailoring limitations in PCFs. Conversion over an octave, at mJ-energy-levels, appears feasible.......We propose exploiting intermodal four-wave mixing for energy-scalable tuneable fiber lasers, hitherto restricted to low powers, constrained by dispersion-tailoring limitations in PCFs. Conversion over an octave, at mJ-energy-levels, appears feasible....

  12. Advanced applications of tunable ferrofluids in energy systems and energy harvesters: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul, M.A.; Doroodchi, Elham; Azizian, Reza; Moghtaderi, Behdad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Current developments in ferrofluids are reviewed. • The effects of unique features of ferrofluids on thermal properties are studied. • Applications of tunable magnetic nanofluids in energy harvesters are discussed. • Future research on ferrofluid based electromagnetic energy harvesters are suggested. - Abstract: Ferrofluids or Magnetic nanofluids (MNFs) are the suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles and non-magnetic base fluid. The heat transfer performance of a magnetic nano-suspension is influenced by the strength and orientation of an applied magnetic field. The main attraction of these types of nanofluids is that they not only enhance the fluids’ thermophysical properties but also possess both magnetic characteristics like the other magnetic materials and flow ability similar to any other fluids. Such an exclusive feature enables to control heat transfer, fluid flow and movement of the nanoparticles by using the external magnetic fields. This review paper summarises the recent investigations of magnetic nanofluids with the aim of identifying the effects of major parameters on the performance of heat transfer. In addition, this study also acknowledged the novel application of ferrofluids in the electromagnetic energy harvesters, and its challenges as well as the potentiality in the future research.

  13. Nonlinear adaptive control of grid-connected three-phase inverters for renewable energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdian-Dehkordi, N.; Namvar, M.; Karimi, H.; Piya, P.; Karimi-Ghartemani, M.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) units are often interfaced to the main grid using power electronic converters including voltage-source converters (VSCs). A VSC offers dc/ac power conversion, high controllability, and fast dynamic response. Because of nonlinearities, uncertainties, and system parameters' changes involved in the nature of a grid-connected renewable DG system, conventional linear control methods cannot completely and efficiently address all control objectives. In this paper, a nonlinear adaptive control scheme based on adaptive backstepping strategy is presented to control the operation of a grid-connected renewable DG unit. As compared to the popular vector control technique, the proposed controller offers smoother transient responses, and lower level of current distortions. The Lyapunov approach is used to establish global asymptotic stability of the proposed control system. Linearisation technique is employed to develop guidelines for parameters tuning of the controller. Extensive time-domain digital simulations are performed and presented to verify the performance of the proposed controller when employed in a VSC to control the operation of a two-stage DG unit and also that of a single-stage solar photovoltaic system. Desirable and superior performance of the proposed controller is observed.

  14. Activity of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for compiling the consensus standard on nuclear criticality safety control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Tadakuni

    2003-01-01

    Activity of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan for compiling the consensus standard on nuclear criticality safety control is presented. The standard recommends an enhancement of nuclear criticality safety throughout a life cycle of facility in terms of a concept of 'barriers against criticality'. (author)

  15. Critical experiments analyses by using 70 energy group library based on ENDF/B-VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, Yoshihisa; Matsumoto, Hideki [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center; Huria, H.C.; Ouisloumen, M.

    1998-03-01

    The newly developed 70-group library has been validated by comparing kinf from a continuous energy Monte-Carlo code MCNP and two dimensional spectrum calculation code PHOENIX-CP. The code employs Discrete Angular Flux Method based on Collision Probability. The library has been also validated against a large number of critical experiments and numerical benchmarks for assemblies with MOX and Gd fuels. (author)

  16. Rare earths and energy critical elements: a roadmap and strategy for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharadwaj, Mridula Dixit; Balasubramanian, N.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to summarise and update the report 'Rare Earths (RE) and Energy Critical Elements (ECE): A Roadmap and Strategy for India' released in July 2012. The background to the report is as follows. The Ministry of Mines (MoM), Government of India constituted a steering committee in August 2011 to develop a strategy paper on status and availability of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and Energy Critical Elements (ECE). The race to find alternatives to RE by the use of supercomputers and genetic algorithms will be described. Many of the ECE eg. gallium, germanium, indium, selenium and tellurium are by-products of main metals: aluminium, copper, zinc and tin. Their production is restricted by that of main metals. Saline brine and subsoil bitterns are sources of lithium. Uranium, and niobium alloying with zirconium are critical to nuclear energy. Exploration, applications, recycling and recovery of these elements will be discussed. Our report and presentation lay stress on novel routes that emphasise self-reliance and not merely economic viability and also provide short, medium and long term options along with proposals for specific policy and legislative interventions

  17. Comparison of linear, mixed integer and non-linear programming methods in energy system dispatch modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, three frequently used operation optimisation methods are examined with respect to their impact on operation management of the combined utility technologies for electric power and DH (district heating) of eastern Denmark. The investigation focusses on individual plant operation...... differences and differences between the solution found by each optimisation method. One of the investigated approaches utilises LP (linear programming) for optimisation, one uses LP with binary operation constraints, while the third approach uses NLP (non-linear programming). The LP model is used...... as a benchmark, as this type is frequently used, and has the lowest amount of constraints of the three. A comparison of the optimised operation of a number of units shows significant differences between the three methods. Compared to the reference, the use of binary integer variables, increases operation...

  18. Non-linear vibrating systems excited by a nonideal energy source with a large slope characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Carbajal, Javier; Domínguez, Jaime

    2017-11-01

    This paper revisits the problem of an unbalanced motor attached to a fixed frame by means of a nonlinear spring and a linear damper. The excitation provided by the motor is, in general, nonideal, which means it is affected by the vibratory response. Since the system behaviour is highly dependent on the order of magnitude of the motor characteristic slope, the case of large slope is considered herein. Some Perturbation Methods are applied to the system of equations, which allows transforming the original 4D system into a much simpler 2D system. The fixed points of this reduced system and their stability are carefully studied. We find the existence of a Hopf bifurcation which, to the authors' knowledge, has not been addressed before in the literature. These analytical results are supported by numerical simulations. We also compare our approach and results with those published by other authors.

  19. Analysis of nonlinear vibrations and stability of rotating asymmetrical nano-shafts incorporating surface energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodousi, Maryam; Shahgholi, Majid; Payganeh, Gholamhassan

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present work is to investigate the nonlinear vibrations of the rotating asymmetrical nano-shafts by considering surface effect. In order to compute the surface stress tensor, the surface elasticity theory is used. The governing nonlinear equations of motion are obtained with the aid of variational approach. Bubnov-Galerkin is a very effective method for exploiting the reduced-order model of the equations of motion. The averaging method is employed to analyze the reduced-order model of the system. For this purpose, the well-known Van der Pol transformation in the complex form and angle-action transformation are utilized. The effect of surface stress on the forward and backward speeds, steady state responses of the system, fixed points, close orbits and stability of the solutions is examined. The preliminary results of the research show that the absolute values of forward and backward whirling speeds in the presence of surface effect with positive residual surface stress are higher than those of regarding the system without surface effect and in the presence of surface effect with negative residual surface stress. In addition, it is seen that the undamped rotating asymmetrical nano-shaft, for specified value of detuning parameter, in the absence or presence of surface effect has various number of stable and unstable periodic solutions. Besides, there is different number of separatrix (homoclinic orbit type). Furthermore, bifurcations, number of solutions and their stability for damped rotating asymmetrical nano-shaft are investigated. Also, the above results have been obtained for rotating symmetrical nano-shaft.

  20. Chaos, self-organized criticality, and SETAR nonlinearity: An analysis of purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta., T2N 1N4 (Canada)]. E-mail: Serletis@ucalgary.ca; Shahmoradi, Asghar [Faculty of Economics, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    This paper uses monthly observations for the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States over the recent flexible exchange rate period (from January 1, 1973 to August 1, 2004) to test purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States using unit root and stationarity tests. Moreover, given the apparent random walk behavior in the real exchange rate, various tests from dynamical systems theory, such as for example, the Nychka et al. [Nychka DW, Ellner S, Ronald GA, McCaffrey D. Finding chaos in noisy systems. J Roy Stat Soc B 1992;54:399-426] chaos test, the Li [Li W. Absence of 1/f spectra in Dow Jones average. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 1991;1:583-97] self-organized criticality test, and the Hansen [Hansen, B.E. Inference when a nuisance parameter is not identified under the null hypothesis. Econometrica 1996;64:413-30] threshold effects test are used to distinguish between stochastic and deterministic origin for the real exchange rate.

  1. Chaos, self-organized criticality, and SETAR nonlinearity: An analysis of purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Shahmoradi, Asghar

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses monthly observations for the real exchange rate between Canada and the United States over the recent flexible exchange rate period (from January 1, 1973 to August 1, 2004) to test purchasing power parity between Canada and the United States using unit root and stationarity tests. Moreover, given the apparent random walk behavior in the real exchange rate, various tests from dynamical systems theory, such as for example, the Nychka et al. [Nychka DW, Ellner S, Ronald GA, McCaffrey D. Finding chaos in noisy systems. J Roy Stat Soc B 1992;54:399-426] chaos test, the Li [Li W. Absence of 1/f spectra in Dow Jones average. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 1991;1:583-97] self-organized criticality test, and the Hansen [Hansen, B.E. Inference when a nuisance parameter is not identified under the null hypothesis. Econometrica 1996;64:413-30] threshold effects test are used to distinguish between stochastic and deterministic origin for the real exchange rate

  2. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming approach to the optimal design of heat network in a polygeneration energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Pei; Zhou, Zhe; Ma, Linwei; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of heat streams with HRSG in a polygeneration system is studied. • A mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is proposed to optimize heat network. • Operating parameters and heat network configuration are optimized simultaneously. • The optimized heat network highly depends on the HRSG type and model specification. - Abstract: A large number of heat flows at various temperature and pressure levels exist in a polygeneration plant which co-produces electricity and chemical products. Integration of these external heat flows in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) has great potential to further enhance energy efficiency of such a plant; however, it is a challenging problem arising from the large design space of heat exchanger network. In this paper, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is developed for the design optimization of a HRSG with consideration of all alternative matches between the HRSG and external heat flows. This model is applied to four polygeneration cases with different HRSG types, and results indicate that the optimized heat network mainly depends on the HRSG type and the model specification

  3. Head-On Beam-Beam Interactions in High-Energy Hadron Colliders. GPU-Powered Modelling of Nonlinear Effects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160109; Støvneng, Jon Andreas

    2017-08-15

    The performance of high-energy circular hadron colliders, as the Large Hadron Collider, is limited by beam-beam interactions. The strength of the beam-beam interactions will be higher after the upgrade to the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider, and also in the next generation of machines, as the Future Circular Hadron Collider. The strongly nonlinear force between the two opposing beams causes diverging Hamiltonians and drives resonances, which can lead to a reduction of the lifetime of the beams. The nonlinearity makes the effect of the force difficult to study analytically, even at first order. Numerical models are therefore needed to evaluate the overall effect of different configurations of the machines. For this thesis, a new code named CABIN (Cuda-Accelerated Beam-beam Interaction) has been developed to study the limitations caused by the impact of strong beam-beam interactions. In particular, the evolution of the beam emittance and beam intensity has been monitored to study the impact quantitatively...

  4. Modeling and Nonlinear Control of Fuel Cell / Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Storage System for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Fadil, Hassan; Giri, Fouad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of controlling hybrid energy storage system (HESS) for electric vehicle. The storage system consists of a fuel cell (FC), serving as the main power source, and a supercapacitor (SC), serving as an auxiliary power source. It also contains a power block for energy...

  5. Energy and momentum balance in nonlinear interactions of resonant and nonresonant waves in turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, S.V.; Nambu, Mitsuhiro

    1995-01-01

    From investigations of resonant interactions of particles and waves in turbulent plasmas it is well known that not only resonant particles contribute to expressions for the wave energy and momentum providing conservation of these quantities for closed systems. In particular, it was demonstrated that contribution of the nonresonant particles is very important for the energy conservation in the quasilinear theory: although the nonresonant terms do not appear in the diffusion equation, they contribute to the wave energy (and, in general, wave momentum) ensuring the conservation of total energy (and momentum) in the system. We note that the real part of the dielectric permittivity ε ωk as well as the wave frequency ω k of the resonant waves do not depend on time in the quasilinear approximation since only nonresonant particles (which distribution is constant) contribute to them. The resonant wave amplitude, however, is the function on time, and changing of the wave energy is completely balanced by the corresponding change of the resonant particle energy. If in the system there are only nonresonant waves, and it is closed (i.e., there is no energy exchange with some external sources or sinks), the system is stationary and the nonresonant wave as well as particle energy are not changing

  6. Continuous-energy version of KENO V.a for criticality safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, Michael E.; Greene, N. Maurice; Petrie, Lester M.

    2003-01-01

    KENO V.a is a multigroup Monte Carlo code that solves the Boltzmann transport equation and is used extensively in the criticality safety community to calculate the effective multiplication factor of systems with fissionable material. In this work, a continuous-energy or pointwise version of KENO V.a has been developed by first designing a new continuous-energy cross-section format and then by developing the appropriate Monte Carlo transport procedures to sample the new cross-section format. In order to generate pointwise cross sections for a test library, a series of cross-section processing modules were developed and used to process 50 ENDF/B-6 Release 7 nuclides for the test library. Once the cross-section processing procedures were in place, a continuous-energy version of KENO V.a was developed and tested by calculating 21 critical benchmark experiments. The point KENO-calculated results for the 21 benchmarks are in agreement with calculated results obtained with the multigroup version of KENO V.a using the 238-group ENDF/B-5 and 199-group ENDF/B-6 Release 3 libraries. Based on the calculated results with the prototypic cross-section library, a continuous-energy version of the KENO V.a code has been successfully developed and demonstrated for modeling systems with fissionable material. (author)

  7. Critical energy barrier for capillary condensation in mesopores: Hysteresis and reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, Tatsumasa; Tanaka, Hideki; Miyahara, Minoru T.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary condensation in the regime of developing hysteresis occurs at a vapor pressure, P cond , that is less than that of the vapor-like spinodal. This is because the energy barrier for the vapor-liquid transition from a metastable state at P cond becomes equal to the energy fluctuation of the system; however, a detailed mechanism of the spontaneous transition has not been acquired even through extensive experimental and simulation studies. We therefore construct accurate atomistic silica mesopore models for MCM-41 and perform molecular simulations (gauge cell Monte Carlo and grand canonical Monte Carlo) for argon adsorption on the models at subcritical temperatures. A careful comparison between the simulation and experiment reveals that the energy barrier for the capillary condensation has a critical dimensionless value, W c * = 0.175, which corresponds to the thermal fluctuation of the system and depends neither on the mesopore size nor on the temperature. We show that the critical energy barrier W c * controls the capillary condensation pressure P cond and also determines a boundary between the reversible condensation/evaporation regime and the developing hysteresis regime.

  8. Critical energy barrier for capillary condensation in mesopores: Hysteresis and reversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Tatsumasa; Tanaka, Hideki; Miyahara, Minoru T.

    2016-04-01

    Capillary condensation in the regime of developing hysteresis occurs at a vapor pressure, Pcond, that is less than that of the vapor-like spinodal. This is because the energy barrier for the vapor-liquid transition from a metastable state at Pcond becomes equal to the energy fluctuation of the system; however, a detailed mechanism of the spontaneous transition has not been acquired even through extensive experimental and simulation studies. We therefore construct accurate atomistic silica mesopore models for MCM-41 and perform molecular simulations (gauge cell Monte Carlo and grand canonical Monte Carlo) for argon adsorption on the models at subcritical temperatures. A careful comparison between the simulation and experiment reveals that the energy barrier for the capillary condensation has a critical dimensionless value, Wc* = 0.175, which corresponds to the thermal fluctuation of the system and depends neither on the mesopore size nor on the temperature. We show that the critical energy barrier Wc* controls the capillary condensation pressure Pcond and also determines a boundary between the reversible condensation/evaporation regime and the developing hysteresis regime.

  9. Cost-Optimal Analysis for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings Design and Optimization: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the recast of the EPBD European Directive 2010/31/EU, many studies on the cost-effective feasibility of nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEBs were carried out either by academic research bodies and by national bodies. In particular, the introduction of the cost-optimal methodology has given a strong impulse to research in this field. This paper presents a comprehensive and significant review on scientific works based on the application of cost-optimal analysis applications in Europe since the EPBD recast entered into force, pointing out the differences in the analyzed studies and comparing their outcomes before the new recast of EPBD enters into force in 2018. The analysis is conducted with special regard to the methods used for the energy performance assessment, the global cost calculation, and for the selection of the energy efficiency measures leading to design optimization. A critical discussion about the assumptions on which the studies are based and the resulting gaps between the resulting cost-optimal performance and the zero energy target is provided together with a summary of the resulting cost-optimal set of technologies to be used for cost-optimal NZEB design in different contexts. It is shown that the cost-optimal approach results as an effective method for delineating the future of NZEB design throughout Europe while emerging criticalities and open research issues are presented.

  10. ALICE EMCal Reconstructable Energy Non-Linearity From Test Beam Monte Carlo

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Thomas Michael

    2017-01-01

    Calorimeters play many important roles in modern high energy physics detectors, such as event selection, triggering, and precision energy measurements. EMCal, in the case of the ALICE experiment provides triggering on high energy jets, improves jet quenching study measurement bias and jet energy resolution, and improves electron and photon measurements [3]. With the EMCal detector in the ALICE experiment taking on so many important roles, it is important to fully understand, characterize and model its interactions with particles. In 2010 SPS and PS electron test beam measurements were performed on an EMCal mini-module [2]. Alongside this, the test beam setup and geometry was recreated in Geant4 by Nico [1]. Figure 1 shows the reconstructable energy linearity for the SPS test beam data and that obtained from the test beam monte carlo, indicating the amount of energy deposit as hits in the EMCal module. It can be seen that for energies above ∼ 100 GeV there is a significant drop in the reconstructableenergym...

  11. Separation-induced boundary layer transition: Modeling with a non-linear eddy-viscosity model coupled with the laminar kinetic energy equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahostergios, Z.; Yakinthos, K.; Goulas, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present an effort to model the separation-induced transition on a flat plate with a semi-circular leading edge, using a cubic non-linear eddy-viscosity model combined with the laminar kinetic energy. A non-linear model, compared to a linear one, has the advantage to resolve the anisotropic behavior of the Reynolds-stresses in the near-wall region and it provides a more accurate expression for the generation of turbulence in the transport equation of the turbulence kinetic energy. Although in its original formulation the model is not able to accurately predict the separation-induced transition, the inclusion of the laminar kinetic energy increases its accuracy. The adoption of the laminar kinetic energy by the non-linear model is presented in detail, together with some additional modifications required for the adaption of the laminar kinetic energy into the basic concepts of the non-linear eddy-viscosity model. The computational results using the proposed combined model are shown together with the ones obtained using an isotropic linear eddy-viscosity model, which adopts also the laminar kinetic energy concept and in comparison with the existing experimental data.

  12. Geometric scaling in ultrahigh-energy neutrino scattering and nonlinear perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Magno V.T.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that in ultrahigh-energy inelastic neutrino-nucleon(nucleus) scattering the cross sections for the boson-hadron(nucleus) reactions should exhibit geometric scaling on the single variable τ A =Q 2 /Q sat,A 2 . The dependence on energy and atomic number of the charged/neutral current cross sections are encoded in the saturation momentum Q sat,A . This fact allows an analytical computation of the neutrino scattering on nucleon/nucleus at high energies, providing a theoretical parameterization based on the scaling property

  13. Low-Frequency MEMS Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester With Corona-Charged Vertical Electrets and Nonlinear Stoppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.; Cottone, F.; Boisseau, S.; Galayko, D.; Marty, F.; Basset, P.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports for the first time a MEMS electrostatic vibration energy harvester (e-VEH) with corona-charged vertical electrets on its electrodes. The bandwidth of the 1-cm2 device is extended in low and high frequencies by nonlinear elastic stoppers. With a bias voltage of 46 V (electret@21 V + DC external source@25 V) between the electrodes, the RMS power of the device reaches 0.89 μW at 33 Hz and 6.6 μW at 428 Hz. The -3dB frequency band including the hysteresis is 223∼432 Hz, the one excluding the hysteresis 88∼166 Hz. We also demonstrate the charging of a 47 μF capacitor used for powering a wireless and autonomous temperature sensor node with a data transmission beyond 10 m at 868 MHz.

  14. Non-linear multi-objective model for planning water-energy modes of Novosibirsk Hydro Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsova, O. K.; Artamonova, A. V.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a non-linear multi-objective model for planning and optimizing of water-energy modes for the Novosibirsk Hydro Power Plant (HPP) operation. There is a very important problem of developing a strategy to improve the scheme of water-power modes and ensure the effective operation of hydropower plants. It is necessary to determine the methods and criteria for the optimal distribution of water resources, to develop a set of models and to apply them to the software implementation of a DSS (decision-support system) for managing Novosibirsk HPP modes. One of the possible versions of the model is presented and investigated in this paper. Experimental study of the model has been carried out with 2017 data and the task of ten-day period planning from April to July (only 12 ten-day periods) was solved.

  15. An Actuator Control Unit for Safety-Critical Mechatronic Applications with Embedded Energy Storage Backup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an actuator control unit (ACU with a 450-J embedded energy storage backup to face safety critical mechatronic applications. The idea is to ensure full operation of electric actuators, even in the case of battery failure, by using supercapacitors as a local energy tank. Thanks to integrated switching converter circuitry, the supercapacitors provide the required voltage and current levels for the required time to guarantee actuator operation until the system enters into safety mode. Experimental results are presented for a target application related to the control of servomotors for a robotized prosthetic arm. Mechatronic devices for rehabilitation or assisted living of injured and/or elderly people are available today. In most cases, they are battery powered with lithium-based cells, providing high energy density and low weight, but at the expense of a reduced robustness compared to lead-acid- or nickel-based battery cells. The ACU of this work ensures full operation of the wearable robotized arm, controlled through acceleration and electromyography (EMG sensor signals, even in the case of battery failure, thanks to the embedded energy backup unit. To prove the configurability and scalability of the proposed solution, experimental results related to the electric actuation of the car door latch and of a robotized gearbox in vehicles are also shown. The reliability of the energy backup device has been assessed in a wide temperature range, from −40 to 130 °C, and in a durability test campaign of more than 10,000 cycles. Achieved results prove the suitability of the proposed approach for ACUs requiring a burst of power of hundreds of watts for only a few seconds in safety-critical applications. Alternatively, the aging and temperature characterizations of energy backup units is limited to supercapacitors of thousands of farads for high power applications (e.g., electric/hybrid propulsion and with a temperature range limited to

  16. On the energy-momentum tensor in non-linear σ-models with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, H.; Otto, H.J.

    1987-10-01

    We study the renormalization properties of the energy-momentum tensor in a σ-model with torsion. Our normal product version contains besides the classical expression and the trace anomaly an off diagonal term proportional to the squared torsion. Specialized to a group manifold this term is crucial to reproduce the correct perturbative expansion of the energy-momentum tensor in Sugawara form. (orig.)

  17. Energy and angular responses of the criticality accident detector using a plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi

    2006-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories, operates a spent fuel reprocessing plant and MOX (Plutonium-Uranium Mixed Oxide) fuel fabrication plants. Criticality accident detectors have been installed in these facilities. The detector, the Toshiba RD120, is composed of a plastic scintillator coupled to a photomultiplier tube, and an operational amplifier. The alarm triggering point is set to 1.0-3.6 mGy·h -1 in photon dose rate to detect the minimum accident of concern. However, a plastic scintillator is principally sensitive not only to primary photons but also to neutrons by secondary photons and heavy charged particles produced in the detector itself. The authors calculated energy and angular responses of the RD120 criticality accident detector to photons and neutrons using Monte Carlo computer codes. The response to primary photons was evaluated with the MCNP-4B and EGS4 calculations, and photon and X-ray irradiation experiments. The response to neutrons that produce secondary photons and heavy charged particles from neutron interactions was computed using the MCNP-4B and SCINFUL, respectively. As a result, reliable response functions were obtained. These results will be a great help in reassessing the coverage area and in determining the appropriate triggering dose rate level in criticality accidents. (author)

  18. Design of a non-linear power take-off simulator for model testing of rotating wave energy devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M.F.P.; Henriques, J.C.C.; Lopes, Miguel C.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Dente Antonio [CIE3 - Center for Innovation in Electrical and Energy Engineering, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    Eddy current brakes provide a versatile way of simulating the power take-off system (PTO) in the model testing of wave energy converters at small scale. These are based on the principle that a conductive material moving perpendicularly to a magnetic field generates a braking force proportional to its velocity. This was applied in the design of the PTO simulator of a bottom-hinged flap wave energy converter model, at 1/16 scale. The efforts put into the accurate dynamic simulation of the device led to the development of a controllable PTO simulator, which can be applied to other small scale rotating wave energy device models. A special power source was built to provide the required controllable current intensity to feed the magnetic field generating coils. Different non-linear damping PTO characteristic curves can be simulated by basing the current control on real-time velocity measurement. The calibration of the system was done by connecting the device to a constant rotating speed motor and measuring the resistent torque produced by the PTO with a torquemeter for different values of current intensity through the coils.

  19. Phonon-induced enhancements of the energy gap and critical current in superconducting aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligson, D.

    1983-01-01

    The enhancement of the energy gap, Δ, and critical current, i/sub c/, in superconducting aluminum thin films were under the influence of 8 to 10 GHz phonons. The phonons were generated by piezoelectric transduction of a 1 kW microwave pulse of about 1 μsec duration. By means of a quartz delay line, the phonons were allowed to enter the aluminum only after the microwaves had long since disappeared. The critical current was measured in long narrow Al strips, in which the current flow is 1-dimensional and well described by Ginsburg-Landau theory. To measure Δ the Al film was used as one electrode in a superconductor-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction whose current-voltage characteristic gave Δ directly. For the measurements of i/sub c/, the total critical current was measured in the presence of the phonon perturbation. For the measurements of Δ the change of Δ away from its equilibrium value was measured. In both cases the first measurements of enhancement of these macroscopic variables under phonon irradiation is reported. The gap-enhancement was found to be in good agreement with theory, but only for relatively and surprisingly low input power. The critical current measurements are predicted to be in rough agreement with the Δ measurements but this was not observed

  20. Efficient start–up energy management via nonlinear control for eco–traction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becherif, M.; Ramadan, H.S.; Ayad, M.Y.; Hissel, D.; Desideri, U.; Antonelli, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable HPS for the train start-up within feeding durations. • Dynamic modelling of the modern HPS applied to traction systems. • Port-Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) design for supercapacitors’ charge/discharge operation. • Experimental validation and applicability of HPSs for energy management in eco-tractions. - Abstract: Electrochemical capacitors, called supercapacitors (SCs) or ultracapacitors, are devices conveniently used for embedded electrical energy management owing to their huge capacitance, low internal resistance and flexible control through power electronic conversion. This paper proposes a main power supply of hybrid Wind Generator (WG)–SC within the train station for feeding the traction onboard SC through specified limited feeding transit durations. Onboard SCs provide the train with the requested start–up self–energy. The hybrid WG–SCs system is an environmental–friendly source that enables the independency on national grid and guarantees an efficient bidirectional power transfer for energy management with enhanced dynamic performance. Therefore, the dynamic modelling and the experimental analysis of the modern hybrid WG–SCs used for managing the charge/discharge operation of SCs at Unity Power Factor (UPF) mode are presented. For this purpose, the Port–Controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) methodology is deduced and explicitly presented. Simulation results, via MATLAB™, reveal that the proposed PCH control methodology can be successfully implemented to ensure acceptable system dynamic behavior. Numerical results are validated with experimental measurements to investigate the significance of the PCH approach for the energy management operation in eco-tractions.

  1. Nonlinear theory of surface-wave--particle interactions in a cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dengra, A.; Palop, J.I.F.

    1994-01-01

    This work is an application of the specular reflection hypothesis to the study of the nonlinear surface-wave--particle interactions in a cylindrical plasma. The model is based on nonlinear resolution of the Vlasov equation by the method of characteristics. The expression obtained for the rate of increase of kinetic energy per electron has permitted us to investigate the temporal behavior of nonlinear collisionless damping for different situations as a function of the critical parameters

  2. Nonlinear electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during electroporation

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Peigang

    2012-01-01

    A nonlinear electroporation (EP) model is proposed to study the electro-mechanobiological behavior of cell membrane during EP, by taking the nonlinear large deformation of the membrane into account. The proposed model predicts the critical transmembrane potential and the activation energy for EP, the equilibrium pore size, and the resealing process of the pore. Single-cell EP experiments using a micro EP chip were conducted on chicken red blood cells at different temperatures to determine the activation energy and the critical transmembrane potential for EP. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Critical technical issues and evaluation and comparison studies for inertial fusion energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.Y.; Tillack, M.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Linford, G.J.; Drake, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The critical issues, evaluation and comparison of two inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor design concepts developed in the Prometheus studies are presented. The objectives were (1) to identify and characterize the critical issues and the R and D required to solve them, and (2) to establish a sound basis for future IFE technical and programmatic decisions by evaluating and comparing the different design concepts. Quantitative evaluation and comparison of the two design options have been made with special focus on physics feasibility, engineering feasibility, economics, safety and environment, and research and development (R and D) requirements. Two key conclusions are made based on the overall evaluation analysis: (1) The heavy-ion driven reactors appear to have an overall advantage over laser-driven reactors; and: (2) The differences in scores are not large and future results of R and D could change the overall ranking of the two IFE concepts

  4. Solution for Nonlinear Three-Dimensional Intercept Problem with Minimum Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henzeh Leeghim

    2013-01-01

    a minimum-energy application, which then generates both the desired initial interceptor velocity and the TOF for the minimum-energy transfer. The optimization problem is formulated by using the classical Lagrangian f and g coefficients, which map initial position and velocity vectors to future times, and a universal time variable x. A Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is introduced for iteratively solving the problem. A generalized problem formulation is introduced for minimizing the TOF as part of the optimization problem. Several examples are presented, and the results are compared with the Hohmann transfer solution approaches. The resulting minimum-energy intercept solution algorithm is expected to be broadly useful as a starting iterative for applications spanning: targeting, rendezvous, interplanetary trajectory design, and so on.

  5. Detection of Parametric Roll Resonance on Ships from Indication of Nonlinear Energy Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galeazzi, Roberto; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    The detection of the onset of parametric roll resonance on ships is of a central importance in order to activate specific control strategies able to counteract the large roll motion. One of the main priorities is to have detectors with a small detection time, such that warnings can be issued when...... the roll oscillations are about 5◦. This paper proposes two different detection approaches: the first one based on sinusoidal detection in white gaussian noise; the second one utilizes an energy flow indicator in order to catch the onset of parametric roll based upon the transfer of energy from heave...... and pitch to roll. Both detectors have been validated against experimental data of a scale model of a container vessel excited with both regular and irregular waves. The detector based on the energy flow indicator proved to be very robust to different scenarios (regular/irregular waves) since it does...

  6. Resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients: Evaluation methods and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Soncini Sanches

    Full Text Available Summary Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis. The nutritional needs of this population are therefore complex, and determining the resting energy expenditure is essential to adjust the nutritional supply and to plan a proper diet, ensuring that energy requirements are met and avoiding complications associated with overfeeding and underfeeding. Several evaluation methods of EE in this population have been described, but all of them have limitations. Such methods include direct calorimetry, doubly labeled water, indirect calorimetry (IC, various predictive equations, and, more recently, the rule of thumb (kcal/kg of body weight. Currently, IC is considered the gold standard.

  7. Nonlinear Modeling and Characterization of the Villari Effect and Model-guided Development of Magnetostrictive Energy Harvesters and Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhangxian

    The Villari effect, through which mechanical energy is transferred to magnetic energy in magnetostrictive materials can be utilized in energy harvester and damper designs. Significant research has been conducted on two magnetostrictive materials, Terfenol-D (TbxDy1-xFe2.0, x ≈ 0.3) and Galfenol (Fe1-xGax, 0.15 ≤ x ≤ 0.3), due to their high magnetomechanical coupling. Both materials have strengths and weaknesses. Terfenol-D exhibits low eddy current loss, but it is brittle and difficult to machine. Terfenol-D also provides higher magnetostriction while requiring a large magnetic field. On the other hand, Galfenol is mechanically robust, and thus can be machined, welded, and formed into complex geometries. However, due to its severe eddy current effect, lamination is necessary in high frequency applications. This work first characterized the Villari effect of Galfenol in terms of the piezo-magnetic constant d33* and hysteresis loss. The stress-flux density loops of oriented, polycrystalline Fe18.4Ga81.6 Galfenol were measured at quasi-static and dynamic regimes (up to 800 Hz). Advanced modeling tools are necessary for magnetostrictive device development. On the material level, this work proposed a dynamic, discrete energy-averaged (DEA) model incorporating time-dependent volume fractions into the static DEA framework. This dynamic DEA model took eddy current loss, mechanical loss, and pinning site loss into account and accurately simulated the measured Villari effect up to 600 Hz. On the system level, this work integrated a hysteresis static DEA model with a 3D finite element (FE) framework, and accurately modeled stress-flux density minor loops in a quasi-static state. Based on the assumption that the magnetostriction and magnetization are uniaxial, this work also proposed an efficient 2D FE framework describing nonlinear magnetostrictive responses via interpolation functions. This enhanced knowledge of the Villari effect facilitates magnetostrictive vibration

  8. A non-linear steady state characteristic performance curve for medium temperature solar energy collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, P. C.; Norton, B.

    A numerical simulation model was employed to investigate the effects of ambient temperature and insolation on the efficiency of compound parabolic concentrating solar energy collectors. The limitations of presently-used collector performance characterization curves were investigated and a new approach proposed.

  9. Parametric resonance energy exchange and induction phenomenon in a one-dimensional nonlinear oscillator chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, K.

    2000-11-01

    We study analytically the induction phenomenon in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam β oscillator chain under initial conditions consisting of single mode excitation. Our study is based on the analytical computation of the largest characteristic exponent of an approximate version of the variational equation. The main results can be summarized as follows: (1) the energy density ɛ scaling of the induction time T is given by T~ɛ-1, and T becomes smaller for higher-frequency mode excitation; (2) there is a threshold energy density ɛc such that the induction time diverges when ɛ∞ (3) the threshold ɛc vanishes as ɛc~N-2 in the limit N-->∞ (4) the threshold ɛc does not depend on the mode number k that is excited in the initial condition; (5) the two modes k+/-m have the largest exponential growth rate, and m increases with increasing ɛ as m/N=3βɛ/π. The above analytical results are thoroughly verified in numerical experiments. Moreover, we discuss the energy exchange process after the induction period in some energy density regimes, based on the numerical results.

  10. Effect of nonlinear energy transport on neoclassical tearing mode stability in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2017-05-01

    An investigation is made into the effect of the reduction in anomalous perpendicular electron heat transport inside the separatrix of a magnetic island chain associated with a neoclassical tearing mode in a tokamak plasma, due to the flattening of the electron temperature profile in this region, on the overall stability of the mode. The onset of the neoclassical tearing mode is governed by the ratio of the divergences of the parallel and perpendicular electron heat fluxes in the vicinity of the island chain. By increasing the degree of transport reduction, the onset of the mode, as the divergence ratio is gradually increased, can be made more and more abrupt. Eventually, when the degree of transport reduction passes a certain critical value, the onset of the neoclassical tearing mode becomes discontinuous. In other words, when some critical value of the divergence ratio is reached, there is a sudden bifurcation to a branch of neoclassical tearing mode solutions. Moreover, once this bifurcation has been triggered, the divergence ratio must be reduced by a substantial factor to trigger the inverse bifurcation.

  11. Basic studies for the solution of the criticality equation: two groups of energy and one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto Aghina, L.O. de.

    1994-12-01

    This work collects six basic studies for the numerical solution of the criticality equation for thermal reactors. Use is made of the diffusion theory for two groups of energy and one dimension, applicable to bare reactors, bare equivalent, infinite bare equivalent and reflected reactors. These studies were written in Mathcad 4.0/WIN programming, a practical form for use by the researchers and operators working with the Argonaut Reactor at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN). (author). 11 refs, 20 figs, 8 tabs

  12. Effect of Various Excitation Conditions on Vibrational Energy in a Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Torsional System with Piecewise-Type Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yun Yoon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behaviors in practical driveline systems for wind turbines or vehicles are inherently affected by multiple nonlinearities such as piecewise-type torsional springs. However, various excitation conditions with different levels of magnitudes also show strong relationships to the dynamic behaviors when system responses are examined in both frequency and time domains. This study investigated the nonlinear responses of torsional systems under various excitations by using the harmonic balance method and numerical analysis. In order to understand the effect of piecewise-type nonlinearities on vibrational energy with different excitations, the nonlinear responses were investigated with various comparisons. First, two different jumping phenomena with frequency up- and down-sweeping conditions were determined under severe excitation levels. Second, practical system analysis using the phase plane and Poincaré map was conducted in various ways. When the system responses were composed of quasi-periodic components, Poincaré map analysis clearly revealed the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and thus it is suggested to investigate complicated nonlinear dynamic responses in practical driveline systems.

  13. A survey of critical research areas in the energy segment of restructured electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanduri, Vishnu; Das, Tapas K.

    2009-01-01

    Availability of a large volume of recent literature on deregulated (a.k.a. restructured) electricity markets underscores the importance of the research needs to ensure proper design and functioning of the markets. Researchers have made significant contributions fueling the evolution of the fundamental market design changes that have taken place since the beginning of the restructuring process. Due to the vast scope, existing survey papers are focused on particular facets of deregulated electricity markets. We adopt a similar approach by focusing on the most important research areas related to the energy market. The contributions of the survey paper lie in the novel approach used in classifying the literature based on critical research areas. Some areas of research such as auction based pricing, bidding strategy formulation, market equilibria, and market power are reviewed in a different light than other existing survey papers. We conclude by providing some future research directions for the energy markets. (author)

  14. High-performance sensorless nonlinear power control of a flywheel energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amodeo, S.J.; Chiacchiarini, H.G.; Solsona, J.A.; Busada, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) can be used to store and release energy in high power pulsed systems. Based on the use of a homopolar synchronous machine in a FESS, a high performance model-based power flow control law is developed using the feedback linearization methodology. This law is based on the voltage space vector reference frame machine model. To reduce the magnetic losses, a pulse amplitude modulation driver for the armature is more adequate. The restrictions in amplitude and phase imposed by the driver are also included. A full order Luenberger observer for the torque angle and rotor speed is developed to implement a sensorless control strategy. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance.

  15. Combining high frequency data with non-linear models for forecasting energy market volatility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Křehlík, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 1 (2016), s. 222-242 ISSN 0957-4174 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : artificial neural networks * realized volatility * multiple-step-ahead forecasts * energy markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 3.928, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/E/barunik-0456185.pdf

  16. Validation of the Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Criticality-Safety Analysis System MVP and JENDL-3.2 Using the Internationally Evaluated Criticality Benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    Validation of the continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality-safety analysis system, comprising the MVP code and neutron cross sections based on JENDL-3.2, was examined using benchmarks evaluated in the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments'. Eight experiments (116 configurations) for the plutonium solution and plutonium-uranium mixture systems performed at Valduc, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and other facilities were selected and used in the studies. The averaged multiplication factors calculated with MVP and MCNP-4B using the same neutron cross-section libraries based on JENDL-3.2 were in good agreement. Based on methods provided in the Japanese nuclear criticality-safety handbook, the estimated criticality lower-limit multiplication factors to be used as a subcriticality criterion for the criticality-safety evaluation of nuclear facilities were obtained. The analysis proved the applicability of the MVP code to the criticality-safety analysis of nuclear fuel facilities, particularly to the analysis of systems fueled with plutonium and in homogeneous and thermal-energy conditions

  17. On the non-linear nature of the variation, with intensity, of high energy cathode sputtering, and the variation of the latter with temperature (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassignol, C.; Ranc, G.

    1960-01-01

    A new cathode sputtering theory at high energy is presented which has been elaborated in taking in account the non-linearity of this phenomenon with the density of the impinging ions. This theory allows to predict the influence of target temperature on the rate of cathode sputtering. This influence is experimentally demonstrated. (author) [fr

  18. H∞ Balancing for Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In previously obtained balancing methods for nonlinear systems a past and a future energy function are used to bring the nonlinear system in balanced form. By considering a different pair of past and future energy functions that are related to the H∞ control problem for nonlinear systems we define

  19. A New Energy-Critical Plane Damage Parameter for Multiaxial Fatigue Life Prediction of Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yong Yu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of fracture critical components of an aircraft engine, accurate life prediction of a turbine blade to disk attachment is significant for ensuring the engine structural integrity and reliability. Fatigue failure of a turbine blade is often caused under multiaxial cyclic loadings at high temperatures. In this paper, considering different failure types, a new energy-critical plane damage parameter is proposed for multiaxial fatigue life prediction, and no extra fitted material constants will be needed for practical applications. Moreover, three multiaxial models with maximum damage parameters on the critical plane are evaluated under tension-compression and tension-torsion loadings. Experimental data of GH4169 under proportional and non-proportional fatigue loadings and a case study of a turbine disk-blade contact system are introduced for model validation. Results show that model predictions by Wang-Brown (WB and Fatemi-Socie (FS models with maximum damage parameters are conservative and acceptable. For the turbine disk-blade contact system, both of the proposed damage parameters and Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT model show reasonably acceptable correlations with its field number of flight cycles. However, life estimations of the turbine blade reveal that the definition of the maximum damage parameter is not reasonable for the WB model but effective for both the FS and SWT models.

  20. Critical insight into the influence of the potential energy surface on fission dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, K.; Schmitt, C.; Wieleczko, J. P.; Ademard, G.; Nadtochy, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is dedicated to a careful investigation of the influence of the potential energy surface on the fission process. The time evolution of nuclei at high excitation energy and angular momentum is studied by means of three-dimensional Langevin calculations performed for two different parametrizations of the macroscopic potential: the Finite Range Liquid Drop Model (FRLDM) and the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD) prescription. Depending on the mass of the system, the topology of the potential throughout the deformation space of interest in fission is observed to noticeably differ within these two approaches, due to the treatment of curvature effects. When utilized in the dynamical calculation as the driving potential, the FRLDM and LSD models yield similar results in the heavy-mass region, whereas the predictions can be strongly dependent on the Potential Energy Surface (PES) for medium-mass nuclei. In particular, the mass, charge, and total kinetic energy distributions of the fission fragments are found to be narrower with the LSD prescription. The influence of critical model parameters on our findings is carefully investigated. The present study sheds light on the experimental conditions and signatures well suited for constraining the parametrization of the macroscopic potential. Its implication regarding the interpretation of available experimental data is briefly discussed.

  1. Rare earth elements-critical resources for green energy and digital technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.

    2013-01-01

    High technology and environment applications of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) have grown dramatically in diversity and importance over the past few decades. The REE forms largest economical coherent group in the periodic table. The versatility and specialty of the REE has given them a level of technological, environment and economical importance. As technological applications of REE have multiplied over the past several decades, the demand for them has increased dramatically. The green energy is the segment, which is largely contributed in its performance by the REE. The increasing concern about the impact of green house gases around the globe has made countries to explore clean energy technologies to reduce emissions. India has ambitious plans for generating solar power of 30,000 MW and wind energy of 50,000 MW by 2013. Critical component with respect to wind energy is the high strength rare earth permanent magnet, while in hybrid electrical motors REEs like lanthanum are used in LiMH battery pack

  2. Constrained Optimal Stochastic Control of Non-Linear Wave Energy Point Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Chen, Jian-Bing; Kramer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    to extract energy. Constrains are enforced on the control force to prevent large structural stresses in the floater at specific hot spots with the risk of inducing fatigue damage, or because the demanded control force cannot be supplied by the actuator system due to saturation. Further, constraints...... are enforced on the motion of the floater to prevent it from hitting the bottom of the sea or to make unacceptable jumps out of the water. The applied control law, which is of the feedback type with feedback from the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the floater, contains two unprovided gain...

  3. Systems of transversal sections near critical energy levels of hamiltonian systems in $Mathbb{R}^{4}$

    CERN Document Server

    de, Naiara V

    2018-01-01

    In this article the authors study Hamiltonian flows associated to smooth functions H:\\mathbb R^4 \\to \\mathbb R restricted to energy levels close to critical levels. They assume the existence of a saddle-center equilibrium point p_c in the zero energy level H^{-1}(0). The Hamiltonian function near p_c is assumed to satisfy Moser's normal form and p_c is assumed to lie in a strictly convex singular subset S_0 of H^{-1}(0). Then for all E \\gt 0 small, the energy level H^{-1}(E) contains a subset S_E near S_0, diffeomorphic to the closed 3-ball, which admits a system of transversal sections \\mathcal F_E, called a 2-3 foliation. \\mathcal F_E is a singular foliation of S_E and contains two periodic orbits P_2,E\\subset \\partial S_E and P_3,E\\subset S_E\\setminus \\partial S_E as binding orbits. P_2,E is the Lyapunoff orbit lying in the center manifold of p_c, has Conley-Zehnder index 2 and spans two rigid planes in \\partial S_E. P_3,E has Conley-Zehnder index 3 and spans a one parameter family of planes in S_E \\setmin...

  4. Evaluation of the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations with continuous-energy and multigroup cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Min-Han; Wang, Jui-Yu [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Sheu, Rong-Jiun, E-mail: rjsheu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering System and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Department of Engineering System and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kung-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan is a helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor designed and operated for the future development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two detailed full-core models of HTTR have been established by using SCALE6 and MCNP5/X, respectively, to study its neutronic properties. Several benchmark problems were repeated first to validate the calculation models. Careful code-to-code comparisons were made to ensure that two calculation models are both correct and equivalent. Compared with experimental data, the two models show a consistent bias of approximately 20–30 mk overestimation in effective multiplication factor for a wide range of core states. Most of the bias could be related to the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section library or incomplete modeling of impurities in graphite. After that, a series of systematic analyses was performed to investigate the effects of cross sections on the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations, with special interest in the comparison between continuous-energy and multigroup results. Multigroup calculations in this study were carried out in 238-group structure and adopted the SCALE double-heterogeneity treatment for resonance self-shielding. The results show that multigroup calculations tend to underestimate the system eigenvalue by a constant amount of ∼5 mk compared to their continuous-energy counterparts. Further sensitivity studies suggest the differences between multigroup and continuous-energy results appear to be temperature independent and also insensitive to burnup effects.

  5. Evaluation of the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations with continuous-energy and multigroup cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang, Min-Han; Wang, Jui-Yu; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Liu, Yen-Wan Hsueh

    2014-01-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) in Japan is a helium-cooled graphite-moderated reactor designed and operated for the future development of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Two detailed full-core models of HTTR have been established by using SCALE6 and MCNP5/X, respectively, to study its neutronic properties. Several benchmark problems were repeated first to validate the calculation models. Careful code-to-code comparisons were made to ensure that two calculation models are both correct and equivalent. Compared with experimental data, the two models show a consistent bias of approximately 20–30 mk overestimation in effective multiplication factor for a wide range of core states. Most of the bias could be related to the ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section library or incomplete modeling of impurities in graphite. After that, a series of systematic analyses was performed to investigate the effects of cross sections on the HTTR criticality and burnup calculations, with special interest in the comparison between continuous-energy and multigroup results. Multigroup calculations in this study were carried out in 238-group structure and adopted the SCALE double-heterogeneity treatment for resonance self-shielding. The results show that multigroup calculations tend to underestimate the system eigenvalue by a constant amount of ∼5 mk compared to their continuous-energy counterparts. Further sensitivity studies suggest the differences between multigroup and continuous-energy results appear to be temperature independent and also insensitive to burnup effects

  6. Energy decay for wave equations of phi-Laplacian type with weakly nonlinear dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Guesmia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first we prove the existence of global solutions in Sobolev spaces for the initial boundary value problem of the wave equation of $phi$-Laplacian with a general dissipation of the form $$ (|u'|^{l-2}u''-Delta_{phi}u+sigma(t g(u'=0 quadext{in } Omegaimes mathbb{R}_+ , $$ where $Delta_{phi}=sum_{i=1}^n partial_{x_i}igl(phi (|partial_{x_i}|^2partial_{x_i}igr$. Then we prove general stability estimates using multiplier method and general weighted integral inequalities proved by the second author in [18]. Without imposing any growth condition at the origin on $g$ and $phi$, we show that the energy of the system is bounded above by a quantity, depending on $phi$, $sigma$ and $g$, which tends to zero (as time approaches infinity. These estimates allows us to consider large class of functions $g$ and $phi$ with general growth at the origin. We give some examples to illustrate how to derive from our general estimates the polynomial, exponential or logarithmic decay. The results of this paper improve and generalize many existing results in the literature, and generate some interesting open problems.

  7. Dark matter-baryon segregation in the nonlinear evolution of coupled dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainini, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The growth and virialization of spherical top-hat fluctuations, in coupled dark energy models, causes segregation between dark matter (DM) and baryons, as the gravitational infall into the potential well proceeds more slowly for the baryons than for DM. As a consequence, after attaining their turnaround and before full virialization, halos have outer layers rich of baryons. Accordingly, a natural ambiguity exists on the definition of the virial density contrast. In fact, when the outer baryon layers infall onto the DM-richer core, they carry with them DM materials outside the original fluctuation; hence, no time exists when all materials originally belonging to the fluctuation--and only they--have virialized. Baryon-DM segregation can have various astrophysical consequences on different length scales. The smallest halos may loose up to 50% of the original baryonic contents and become hardly visible. Subhalos in cluster-size halos may loose much baryonic materials, which could then be observed as intracluster light. Isolated halos, in general, can be expected to have a baryon component richer than the cosmological proportions, due to the cosmic enrichement of baryons lost in small halo encounters

  8. Phenomena of nonlinear oscillation and special resonance of a dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure rotary joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianwen; Niu, Junyang; McCoul, David; Ren, Zhi; Pei, Qibing

    2015-03-01

    The dielectric elastomer minimum energy structure can realize large angular deformations by a small voltage-induced strain of the dielectric elastomer, so it is a suitable candidate to make a rotary joint for a soft robot. Driven with an alternating electric field, the joint deformation vibrational frequency follows the input voltage frequency. However, the authors find that if the rotational inertia increases such that the inertial torque makes the frame deform over a negative angle, then the joint motion will become complicated and the vibrational mode will alter with the change of voltage frequency. The vibration with the largest amplitude does not occur while the voltage frequency is equal to natural response frequency of the joint. Rather, the vibrational amplitude will be quite large over a range of other frequencies at which the vibrational frequency is half of the voltage frequency. This phenomenon was analyzed by a comparison of the timing sequences between voltage and joint vibration. This vibrational mode with the largest amplitude can be applied to the generation lift in a flapping wing actuated by dielectric elastomers.

  9. Size Fluctuations of Near Critical Nuclei and Gibbs Free Energy for Nucleation of BDA on Cu(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Daniel; van Gastel, Raoul; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2012-07-01

    We present a low-energy electron microscopy study of nucleation and growth of BDA on Cu(001) at low supersaturation. At sufficiently high coverage, a dilute BDA phase coexists with c(8×8) crystallites. The real-time microscopic information allows a direct visualization of near-critical nuclei, determination of the supersaturation and the line tension of the crystallites, and, thus, derivation of the Gibbs free energy for nucleation. The resulting critical nucleus size nicely agrees with the measured value. Nuclei up to 4-6 times larger still decay with finite probability, urging reconsideration of the classic perception of a critical nucleus.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics and control strategies: On a energy harvester vibrating system with a linear form to non-ideal motor torquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Pontes B. R.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the research of a vibrating model of an energy harvester device, including the nonlinearities in the model of the piezoelectric coupling and the non-ideal excitation. We show, using numerical simulations, in the analysis of the dynamic responses, that the harvested power is influenced by non-linear vibrations of the structure. Chaotic behavior was also observed, causing of the loss of energy throughout the simulation time. Using a perturbation technique, we find an approximate analytical solution for the non-ideal system. Then, we apply both two control techniques, to keep the considered system, into a stable condition. Both the State Dependent Ricatti Equation (SDRE control as the feedback control by changing the energy of the oscillator, were efficient in controlling of the considered non-ideal system.

  11. Multiple-octave spanning high-energy mid-IR supercontinuum generation in bulk quadratic nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Bright and broadband coherent mid-IR radiation is important for exciting and probing molecular vibrations. Using cascaded nonlinearities in conventional quadratic nonlinear crystals like lithium niobate, self-defocusing near-IR solitons have been demonstrated that led to very broadband...

  12. Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jazar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear Approaches in Engineering Applications focuses on nonlinear phenomena that are common in the engineering field. The nonlinear approaches described in this book provide a sound theoretical base and practical tools to design and analyze engineering systems with high efficiency and accuracy and with less energy and downtime. Presented here are nonlinear approaches in areas such as dynamic systems, optimal control and approaches in nonlinear dynamics and acoustics. Coverage encompasses a wide range of applications and fields including mathematical modeling and nonlinear behavior as applied to microresonators, nanotechnologies, nonlinear behavior in soil erosion,nonlinear population dynamics, and optimization in reducing vibration and noise as well as vibration in triple-walled carbon nanotubes. This book also: Provides a complete introduction to nonlinear behavior of systems and the advantages of nonlinearity as a tool for solving engineering problems Includes applications and examples drawn from the el...

  13. Comparison of linear and non-linear models for predicting energy expenditure from raw accelerometer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoye, Alexander H K; Begum, Munni; Henning, Zachary; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2017-02-01

    This study had three purposes, all related to evaluating energy expenditure (EE) prediction accuracy from body-worn accelerometers: (1) compare linear regression to linear mixed models, (2) compare linear models to artificial neural network models, and (3) compare accuracy of accelerometers placed on the hip, thigh, and wrists. Forty individuals performed 13 activities in a 90 min semi-structured, laboratory-based protocol. Participants wore accelerometers on the right hip, right thigh, and both wrists and a portable metabolic analyzer (EE criterion). Four EE prediction models were developed for each accelerometer: linear regression, linear mixed, and two ANN models. EE prediction accuracy was assessed using correlations, root mean square error (RMSE), and bias and was compared across models and accelerometers using repeated-measures analysis of variance. For all accelerometer placements, there were no significant differences for correlations or RMSE between linear regression and linear mixed models (correlations: r  =  0.71-0.88, RMSE: 1.11-1.61 METs; p  >  0.05). For the thigh-worn accelerometer, there were no differences in correlations or RMSE between linear and ANN models (ANN-correlations: r  =  0.89, RMSE: 1.07-1.08 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.88, RMSE: 1.10-1.11 METs; p  >  0.05). Conversely, one ANN had higher correlations and lower RMSE than both linear models for the hip (ANN-correlation: r  =  0.88, RMSE: 1.12 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.86, RMSE: 1.18-1.19 METs; p  linear models for the wrist-worn accelerometers (ANN-correlations: r  =  0.82-0.84, RMSE: 1.26-1.32 METs. Linear models-correlations: r  =  0.71-0.73, RMSE: 1.55-1.61 METs; p  models offer a significant improvement in EE prediction accuracy over linear models. Conversely, linear models showed similar EE prediction accuracy to machine learning models for hip- and thigh

  14. Modeling the high-energy electronic state manifold of adenine: Calibration for nonlinear electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenov, Artur, E-mail: Artur.Nenov@unibo.it; Giussani, Angelo; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K. [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); Rivalta, Ivan [Université de Lyon, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Cerullo, Giulio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, IFN-CNR, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Mukamel, Shaul [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States); Garavelli, Marco, E-mail: marco.garavelli@unibo.it, E-mail: marco.garavelli@ens-lyon.fr [Dipartimento di Chimica “G. Ciamician,” Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, IT-40126 Bologna (Italy); Université de Lyon, CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2015-06-07

    Pump-probe electronic spectroscopy using femtosecond laser pulses has evolved into a standard tool for tracking ultrafast excited state dynamics. Its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart is becoming an increasingly available and promising technique for resolving many of the limitations of pump-probe caused by spectral congestion. The ability to simulate pump-probe and 2D spectra from ab initio computations would allow one to link mechanistic observables like molecular motions and the making/breaking of chemical bonds to experimental observables like excited state lifetimes and quantum yields. From a theoretical standpoint, the characterization of the electronic transitions in the visible (Vis)/ultraviolet (UV), which are excited via the interaction of a molecular system with the incoming pump/probe pulses, translates into the determination of a computationally challenging number of excited states (going over 100) even for small/medium sized systems. A protocol is therefore required to evaluate the fluctuations of spectral properties like transition energies and dipole moments as a function of the computational parameters and to estimate the effect of these fluctuations on the transient spectral appearance. In the present contribution such a protocol is presented within the framework of complete and restricted active space self-consistent field theory and its second-order perturbation theory extensions. The electronic excited states of adenine have been carefully characterized through a previously presented computational recipe [Nenov et al., Comput. Theor. Chem. 1040–1041, 295-303 (2014)]. A wise reduction of the level of theory has then been performed in order to obtain a computationally less demanding approach that is still able to reproduce the characteristic features of the reference data. Foreseeing the potentiality of 2D electronic spectroscopy to track polynucleotide ground and excited state dynamics, and in particular its expected ability to provide

  15. Bio-Reclamation of Strategic and Energy Critical Metals from Secondary Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Ilyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metals with an average crustal abundance of <0.01 ppm, which are high in supply shortage due to soaring demand, can, under the excessive environmental risk and <1% recycling rate of their production, be termed as ‘critical’ in a limited geo-boundary. A global trend to the green energy and low carbon technologies with geopolitical scenario is challenging for the sustainable reclamation of these metals from secondary resources. Among the available processes, bio-reclamation can be a sustainable technique for extracting and concentrating these metals. Therefore, in the present paper, the potential reclamation of critical metals (including rare earth elements, precious metals, and a common nuclear fuel element, uranium via their interaction with microbe/s has been reviewed.

  16. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong

    2015-09-21

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  17. Probing Critical Point Energies of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Surprising Indirect Gap of Single Layer WSe 2

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih Kang

    2015-01-01

    By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.

  18. Criticality analysis of thermal reactors for two energy groups applying Monte Carlo and neutron Albedo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, Andre Miguel Barge Pontes Torres

    2005-01-01

    The Albedo method applied to criticality calculations to nuclear reactors is characterized by following the neutron currents, allowing to make detailed analyses of the physics phenomena about interactions of the neutrons with the core-reflector set, by the determination of the probabilities of reflection, absorption, and transmission. Then, allowing to make detailed appreciations of the variation of the effective neutron multiplication factor, keff. In the present work, motivated for excellent results presented in dissertations applied to thermal reactors and shieldings, was described the methodology to Albedo method for the analysis criticality of thermal reactors by using two energy groups admitting variable core coefficients to each re-entrant current. By using the Monte Carlo KENO IV code was analyzed relation between the total fraction of neutrons absorbed in the core reactor and the fraction of neutrons that never have stayed into the reflector but were absorbed into the core. As parameters of comparison and analysis of the results obtained by the Albedo method were used one dimensional deterministic code ANISN (ANIsotropic SN transport code) and Diffusion method. The keff results determined by the Albedo method, to the type of analyzed reactor, showed excellent agreement. Thus were obtained relative errors of keff values smaller than 0,78% between the Albedo method and code ANISN. In relation to the Diffusion method were obtained errors smaller than 0,35%, showing the effectiveness of the Albedo method applied to criticality analysis. The easiness of application, simplicity and clarity of the Albedo method constitute a valuable instrument to neutronic calculations applied to nonmultiplying and multiplying media. (author)

  19. Nonlinear dynamics in Nuclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    1997-01-01

    The paper represents an extensive study of the nonlinear beam dynamics in the Nuclotron. Chromatic effects, including the dependence of the betatron tunes on the amplitude, and chromatic perturbations have been investigated taking into account the measured field imperfections. Beam distortion, smear, dynamic aperture and nonlinear acceptance have been calculated for different particle energies and betatron tunes

  20. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1997-10-01

    The Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) was originally constructed during 1980 and was designed to be a clean free-field geometry, right-circular, cylindrically symmetric critical assembly employing U(5%)O 2 F 2 solution as fuel. A second version of SHEBA, employing the same fuel but equipped with a fuel pump and shielding pit, was commissioned in 1993. This report includes data and operating experience for the 1993 SHEBA only. Solution-fueled benchmark work focused on the development of experimental measurements of the characterization of SHEBA; a summary of the results are given. A description of the system and the experimental results are given in some detail in the report. Experiments were designed to: (1) study the behavior of nuclear excursions in a low-enrichment solution, (2) evaluate accidental criticality alarm detectors for fuel-processing facilities, (3) provide radiation spectra and dose measurements to benchmark radiation transport calculations on a low-enrichment solution system similar to centrifuge enrichment plants, and (4) provide radiation fields to calibrate personnel dosimetry. 15 refs., 37 figs., 10 tabs

  1. The carbon footprint of acute care: how energy intensive is critical care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, A S; Paddle, J J; Taylor, T J; Tillyard, A

    2014-09-01

    Climate change has the potential to threaten human health and the environment. Managers in healthcare systems face significant challenges to balance carbon mitigation targets with operational decisions about patient care. Critical care units are major users of energy and hence more evidence is needed on their carbon footprint. The authors explore a methodology which estimates electricity use and associated carbon emissions within a Critical Care Unit (CCU). A bottom-up model was developed and calibrated which predicted the electricity consumed and carbon emissions within a CCU based on the type of patients treated and working practices in a case study in Cornwall, UK. The model developed was able to predict the electricity consumed within CCU with an error of 1% when measured against actual meter readings. Just under half the electricity within CCU was used for delivering care to patients and monitoring their condition. A model was developed which accurately predicted the electricity consumed within a CCU based on patient types, medical devices used and working practice. The model could be adapted to enable it to be used within hospitals as part of their planning to meet carbon reduction targets. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Critical Factors Influencing Viability of Wave Energy Converters in Off-Grid Luxury Resorts and Small Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksel Botne Sandberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines technical and non-technical factors that are critical to the viability of commercialization of wave energy converters in off-grid luxury resorts and small utilities. Critical factors are found by investigating Levelized Cost of Energy, and using the tools PESTEL and Porter’s five competitive forces. Identified factors are then applied on three business cases to investigate their impact on viability. The results show that one of the main challenges facing off-grid commercialization is the few wave energy converter units installed per location, negating the economy of scale that large wave energy farms count on to achieve competitive cost levels. In addition, factors like current cost of energy, available wave resources, distance from shore, infrastructure, supply chain logistics, and electricity demand are found to be deciding factors for viability. Despite these challenges, it is found that there are potentially viable off-grid business cases for commercialization of wave energy converters.

  3. Nonlinear drift tearing mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenyj, L.M.; Kuznetsova, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nonlinear study of magnetic perturbation development under single-mode conditions in collision-free plasma in configurations with the magnetic field shear is investigated. Results are obtained with regard of transverse component of electrical field and its effect on ion dynamics within wide range of ion Larmor radius value and values of magnetic field shear. Increments of nonlinear drift tearing mode are obtained and it is shown that excitation drastic conditions of even linearly stable modes are possible. Mechanism of instability nonlinear stabilization is considered and the value of magnetic island at the saturation threshold is estimeted. Energy of nonlinear drift tearing mode is discussed

  4. Nonlinear image blending for dual-energy MDCT of the abdomen: can image quality be preserved if the contrast medium dose is reduced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Marin, Daniele; Alfaro-Cordoba, Marcela; Eusemann, Christian D; Scribano, Emanuele; Blandino, Alfredo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the image quality of a dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique at reduced load of contrast medium with a simulated 120-kVp linear blending technique at a full dose during portal venous phase MDCT of the abdomen. Forty-five patients (25 men, 20 women; mean age, 65.6 ± 9.7 [SD] years; mean body weight, 74.9 ± 12.4 kg) underwent contrast-enhanced single-phase dual-energy CT of the abdomen by a random assignment to one of three different contrast medium (iomeprol 400) dose injection protocols: 1.3, 1.0, or 0.65 mL/kg of body weight. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and noise at the portal vein, liver, aorta, and kidney were compared among the different datasets using the ANOVA. Three readers qualitatively assessed all datasets in a blinded and independent fashion. Nonlinear blended images at a 25% reduced dose allowed a significant improvement in CNR (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), compared with simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. No statistically significant difference existed in CNR and noise between the nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose and the simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. Nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose were considered in all cases to have acceptable image quality. The dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique allows reducing the dose of contrast medium up to 50% during portal venous phase imaging of the abdomen while preserving image quality.

  5. Braking wind in Australia. A critical evaluation of the renewable energy target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, Scott

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a critical evaluation of Australia's new Renewable Energy Target (RET) program with respect to its capacity to support wind power development. Four structural flaws associated with the RET which undermine its effectiveness as a catalyst for technological change in the electricity sector are discussed: (1) the inclusion of waste coal mine gas (WCMG) as an eligible fuel source which acts as an indirect coal industry subsidy, (2) program duration which is too short and ill-structured, (3) a multiplier that is well-intended to support small-scale renewable technologies but which creates 'phantom capacity', and (4) the capped target of 45,000 GWh which will stymie long-term wind power market investment. The paper concludes with recommendations which stress the importance of passing effective Carbon Pollution Renewable Scheme (CPRS) legislation to offset the weaknesses associated with the RET. If an effective CPRS cannot be implemented, the paper recommends that amendments be made to the RET to (1) remove WCMG from the list of approved alternative energy sources, and (2) extend the RET targets to reach 120,000 GWh by 2030. (author)

  6. Growth of pipelines : the critical enabler in achieving our energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacInnis, D.

    2005-01-01

    Issues concerning pipeline infrastructure and development in relation to the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) were discussed. Ninety-five per cent of the crude oil and natural gas produced in Canada is transported by members of CEPA, which represents 2.4 mm bbl/d of oil and 16.2 Bcf/d of gas. Assets of CEPA's members are worth over CDN$20 billion, with a projected capital investment of CDN$20 billion over the next 20 years. Growth in consumer demand and issues concerning security of North American gas supply to 2025 were discussed. It was anticipated that while new sources of gas will be more costly, new supply will contribute to more moderate prices. New infrastructure needs will build on existing systems. However, timely investment will be critical to connect to supply markets. North American natural gas transmission and distribution networks will require investments of approximately $US301 billion. Ineffective regulatory processes, labour shortages and the search for competitively priced capital will result in higher energy costs to consumers. Issues concerning pipeline construction projects in Alaska and northern Canada were reviewed. The projected economic benefits of pipeline construction were examined, including details of employment created through pipeline investment. The costs to Canadian consumers of delaying pipeline construction were also outlined. It was concluded that efficient and effective policies and regulations are needed to secure energy supply in a timely manner. In addition, a competitive investment environment is needed, in which safety and sustainability are balanced by economic viability and productive trade relationships. tabs., figs

  7. Partitioning of the nonfixed excess energy and the reverse critical energy in CH2OH + --> CHO + +H2: A classical trajectory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae Geol; Kim, Myung Soo; Park, Seung C.

    1996-04-01

    Dynamics of the four-centered elimination reaction CH2OH+→CHO++H2 has been investigated over the internal energy range 4.6-5.9 eV using the classical trajectory method. A realistic semiempirical potential reported previously [J. Chem. Phys. (in press, 1996)] has been used for the calculation. It has been found that the disposal of the nonfixed excess energy at the transition state and of the reverse critical energy can be considered independently as manifest in the sum rule analysis. The former is determined statistically while the latter dynamically. Based on the above idea, a method to determine the kinetic energy release distribution originating only from the reverse critical energy has been developed.

  8. Critical Nuclei Size, Rate, and Activation Energy of H2 Gas Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Sean R; Edwards, Martin A; Ren, Hang; White, Henry S

    2018-03-21

    Electrochemical measurements of the nucleation rate of individual H 2 bubbles at the surface of Pt nanoelectrodes (radius = 7-41 nm) are used to determine the critical size and geometry of H 2 nuclei leading to stable bubbles. Precise knowledge of the H 2 concentration at the electrode surface, C H 2 surf , is obtained by controlled current reduction of H + in a H 2 SO 4 solution. Induction times of single-bubble nucleation events are measured by stepping the current, to control C H 2 surf , while monitoring the voltage. We find that gas nucleation follows a first-order rate process; a bubble spontaneously nucleates after a stochastic time delay, as indicated by a sudden voltage spike that results from impeded transport of H + to the electrode. Hundreds of individual induction times, at different applied currents and using different Pt nanoelectrodes, are used to characterize the kinetics of phase nucleation. The rate of bubble nucleation increases by four orders of magnitude (0.3-2000 s -1 ) over a very small relative change in C H 2 surf (0.21-0.26 M, corresponding to a ∼0.025 V increase in driving force). Classical nucleation theory yields thermodynamic radii of curvature for critical nuclei of 4.4 to 5.3 nm, corresponding to internal pressures of 330 to 270 atm, and activation energies for nuclei formation of 14 to 26 kT, respectively. The dependence of nucleation rate on H 2 concentration indicates that nucleation occurs by a heterogeneous mechanism, where the nuclei have a contact angle of ∼150° with the electrode surface and contain between 35 and 55 H 2 molecules.

  9. Ex-Post Critical Evaluations of Energy Policies in Malaysia from 1970 to 2010: A Historical Institutionalism Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir F. N. Abdul-Manan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ex-post evaluations of energy policies in Malaysia between 1970 and 2010 were conducted. The developments of energy policies in Malaysia were traced from the early 1970s with the introduction of the country’s first energy-related policy all the way to 2010 with the country’s first endeavour towards a biobased energy system. Analyses revealed that many of the policies were either: (1 directly responding to changes in global/domestic socioeconomic and political events, or (2 provided visions to guide developments of the energy sector in alignment with the country’s growth agenda. Critical examinations of the country’s actual energy consumptions during these 40 years were also conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these energy-related policies. Three noteworthy successes in Malaysia’s energy landscape are: (1 the formation of PETRONAS as the national oil and gas company; (2 reduction of country’s over-reliance on oil as a single source of energy by significantly growing the production and use of natural gas in a short span of time; and (3 creation of a thriving oil and gas value chain and ecosystem in the country. However, the country is still critically dependent on scarce petroleum resources, despite having an abundance of renewable reserves. Progress towards renewable energy has been too little and too slow.

  10. Consistency Study About Critical Thinking Skill of PGSD Students (Teacher Candidate of Elementary School) on Energy Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, M. D.; Raharjo, S. B.; Saputro, S.; Mulyani, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to examine the consistency of critical thinking ability of PGSD students in Energy material. The study population is PGSD students in UNS Surakarta. Samples are using cluster random sampling technique obtained by 101 students. Consistency of student’s response in knowing the critical thinking ability of PGSD students can be used as a benchmark of PGSD students’ understanding to see the equivalence of IPA problem, especially in energy material presented with various phenomena. This research uses descriptive method. Data are obtained through questionnaires and interviews. The research results that the average level of critical thinking in this study is divided into 3 levels, i.e.: level 1 (54.85%), level 2 (19.93%), and level 3 (25.23%). The data of the research result affect to the weak of students’ Energy materials’ understanding. In addition, indicators identify that assumptions and arguments analysis are also still low. Ideally, the consistency of critical thinking ability as a whole has an impact on the expansion of students’ conceptual understanding. The results of the study may become a reference to improve the subsequent research in order to obtain positive changes in the ability of critical thinking of students who directly improve the concept of students’ better understanding, especially in energy materials at various real problems occured.

  11. On the determination of the energy of antiprotonic X-rays by critical absorption and the theoretical discussion of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joedicke, B.

    1985-06-01

    This work examines the possibility of measuring the energies of antiprotonic X-rays by critical absorption. Scanning the periodic table many isotopes are found where the energy of an antiprotonic X-ray coincides with a K-absorption-edge of a chemical element. Those candidates where the energy can be measured with high accuracy are discussed here. Also a computer program which calculates transition energies of antiprotonic atoms is examined. Necessary additions are listed and the corrections are shown. In combination with this program the candidates are the basis for a precise determination of the mass of the antiproton. (orig.) [de

  12. Calculating the metabolizable energy of macronutrients: a critical review of Atwater's results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, M Judith; Márquez-Sandoval, Fabiola; Ramírez-Anguiano, Ana C; Velasco-Ramírez, Sandra F; Macedo-Ojeda, Gabriela; González-Ortiz, Luis J

    2017-01-01

    The current values for metabolizable energy of macronutrients were proposed in 1910. Since then, however, efforts to revise these values have been practically absent, creating a crucial need to carry out a critical analysis of the experimental methodology and results that form the basis of these values. Presented here is an exhaustive analysis of Atwater's work on this topic, showing evidence of considerable weaknesses that compromise the validity of his results. These weaknesses include the following: (1) the doubtful representativeness of Atwater's subjects, their activity patterns, and their diets; (2) the extremely short duration of the experiments; (3) the uncertainty about which fecal and urinary excretions contain the residues of each ingested food; (4) the uncertainty about whether or not the required nitrogen balance in individuals was reached during experiments; (5) the numerous experiments carried out without valid preliminary experiments; (6) the imprecision affecting Atwater's experimental measurements; and (7) the numerous assumptions and approximations, along with the lack of information, characterizing Atwater's studies. This review presents specific guidelines for establishing new experimental procedures to estimate more precise and/or more accurate values for the metabolizable energy of macronutrients. The importance of estimating these values in light of their possible dependence on certain nutritional parameters and/or physical activity patterns of individuals is emphasized. The use of more precise values would allow better management of the current overweight and obesity epidemic. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Mid-infrared source with 0.2 J pulse energy based on nonlinear conversion of Q-switched pulses in ZnGeP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haakestad, Magnus W; Fonnum, Helge; Lippert, Espen

    2014-04-07

    Mid-infrared (3-5 μm) pulses with high energy are produced using nonlinear conversion in a ZnGeP(2)-based master oscillator-power amplifier, pumped by a Q-switched cryogenic Ho:YLF oscillator. The master oscillator is based on an optical parametric oscillator with a V-shaped 3-mirror ring resonator, and the power amplifier is based on optical parametric amplification in large-aperture ZnGeP(2) crystals. Pulses with up to 212 mJ energy at 1 Hz repetition rate are obtained, with FWHM duration 15 ns and beam quality M(2) = 3.

  14. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of a Critical Telecommunications Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D.; Atcitty, C.; Zuffranieri, J.; Arent, D.

    2006-03-01

    Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages, as documented by analyses of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) outage reports by the National Reliability Steering Committee (under auspices of the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions). There are two major issues that are having increasing impact on the sensitivity of the power distribution to telecommunication facilities: deregulation of the power industry, and changing weather patterns. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. But does the diversity in power sources actually increase the reliability of offered power to the office equipment, or does the complexity of installing and managing the extended power system induce more potential faults and higher failure rates? This report analyzes a system involving a telecommunications facility consisting of two switch-bays and a satellite reception system.

  15. Critical energy in the cyclotron heating of ions in a mirror machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of heating in the plasma sources where the geometry of the magnetic field forms a magnetic mirror as it is the case of the Ecr sources type, for maintaining the reload, it continues being an actual important problem. There are two methods for the analysis of this problem. The first of these methods is the stochastic mechanism of a particle where it is considered the existence of three characteristic frequencies as the cyclotron frequency, the electromagnetic field frequency and the transit frequency. The second method is that related with the non linear interaction of waves where the collective effects of the particles are the most important. In this work, in the Hamiltonian formalism, the stochastic mechanism in the cyclotron heating is analysed. It is considered the particular case of a plasma source with an external magnetic field, type mirror where a TE 11 electromagnetic wave is injected. The critical energy in the resonance mixing is calculated by the Poincare mapping method. The heterogeneity of the magnetic field is analysed. (Author)

  16. Nuclear criticality safety and time reactivity enhancement aspects of energy amplifier system devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondelle, Matera (Italy). Direzione INFO

    1995-12-01

    As far as the Rubbia`s and colleagues proposal of innovating Energy Amplifier system (E.A.s.) device driven by a particle beam accelerator is concerned, four basic topics are comprised in the present paper: (1) A short outline of the nuclear aspects of Th-U and U-Pu fuel cycles regarding their general breeding and efficiency features. (2) The needed nuclear criticality control requirements have been studied in terms of safety regulating parameters on the basis of the ThO2 mixed oxides selected as fuel kind for the E.A.s. device technology development. Particular attention is devoted to time evolution of neutron multiplication factor since delayed development of the 233U buildup and so system reactivity are expected in the Th-U cycle. (3) Code E.A.s. device irradiation and post-irradiation modelling for determining higher actinides buildup, fission products formation and fuel consumption trends as function of time, system enrichment degree and flux level parameters. (4) The confirmation, on the basis of the same specific power irradiation, of expected actinides waste obtainment cleaner than the one deriving from the U-Pu cycle utilization. For this end, a model comparison of equivalent enriched fissile nuclides in both cycles has been devised as having, within the range of 0-700 days, ten irradiation periods of about 53 MW/ton specific power and equivalent cooling time post-irradiation periods.

  17. Impact of distributed energy resources on the reliability of a critical telecommunications facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David; Zuffranieri, Jason V.; Atcitty, Christopher B.; Arent, Douglas (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO)

    2006-03-01

    This report documents a probabilistic risk assessment of an existing power supply system at a large telecommunications office. The focus is on characterizing the increase in the reliability of power supply through the use of two alternative power configurations. Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. The analysis is based on a hierarchical Bayesian approach and focuses on the failure probability associated with each of three possible facility configurations, along with assessment of the uncertainty or confidence level in the probability of failure. A risk-based characterization of final best configuration is presented.

  18. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy, but they sure are fun.

  19. A journey from nuclear criticality methods to high energy density radflow experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-08

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a nuclear weapons laboratory supporting our nation's defense. In support of this mission is a high energy-density physics program in which we design and execute experiments to study radiationhydrodynamics phenomena and improve the predictive capability of our largescale multi-physics software codes on our big-iron computers. The Radflow project’s main experimental effort now is to understand why we haven't been able to predict opacities on Sandia National Laboratory's Z-machine. We are modeling an increasing fraction of the Z-machine's dynamic hohlraum to find multi-physics explanations for the experimental results. Further, we are building an entirely different opacity platform on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF), which is set to get results early 2017. Will the results match our predictions, match the Z-machine, or give us something entirely different? The new platform brings new challenges such as designing hohlraums and spectrometers. The speaker will recount his history, starting with one-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear criticality methods in graduate school, radiative transfer methods research and software development for his first 16 years at LANL, and, now, radflow technology and experiments. Who knew that the real world was more than just radiation transport? Experiments aren't easy and they are as saturated with politics as a presidential election, but they sure are fun.

  20. Determination of the Critical Stress Associated with Dynamic Phase Transformation in Steels by Means of Free Energy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodualdo Aranas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The double differentiation method overestimates the critical stress associated with the initiation of dynamic transformation (DT because significant amounts of the dynamic phase must be present in order for its effect on the work hardening rate to be detectable. In this work, an alternative method (referred to here as the free energy method is presented based on the thermodynamic condition that the driving force is equal to the total energy obstacle during the exact moment of transformation. The driving force is defined as the difference between the DT critical stress (measured in the single-phase austenite region and the yield stress of the fresh ferrite that takes its place. On the other hand, the energy obstacle consists of the free energy difference between austenite and ferrite, and the work of shear accommodation and dilatation associated with the phase transformation. Here, the DT critical stresses in a C-Mn steel were calculated using the free energy method at temperatures ranging from 870 °C to 1070 °C. The results show that the calculated critical stress using the present approach appears to be more accurate than the values measured by the double differentiation method.

  1. Nonlinear resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  2. Seasonal Thermal-Energy Storage: A Critical Review on BTES Systems, Modeling, and System Design for Higher System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lanahan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Buildings consume approximately ¾ of the total electricity generated in the United States, contributing significantly to fossil fuel emissions. Sustainable and renewable energy production can reduce fossil fuel use, but necessitates storage for energy reliability in order to compensate for the intermittency of renewable energy generation. Energy storage is critical for success in developing a sustainable energy grid because it facilitates higher renewable energy penetration by mitigating the gap between energy generation and demand. This review analyzes recent case studies—numerical and field experiments—seen by borehole thermal energy storage (BTES in space heating and domestic hot water capacities, coupled with solar thermal energy. System design, model development, and working principle(s are the primary focus of this analysis. A synopsis of the current efforts to effectively model BTES is presented as well. The literature review reveals that: (1 energy storage is most effective when diurnal and seasonal storage are used in conjunction; (2 no established link exists between BTES computational fluid dynamics (CFD models integrated with whole building energy analysis tools, rather than parameter-fit component models; (3 BTES has less geographical limitations than Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES and lower installation cost scale than hot water tanks and (4 BTES is more often used for heating than for cooling applications.

  3. Synergy of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions of Chinese industries: A critical assessment of energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shaohui; Worrell, Ernst; Crijns-Graus, Wina

    2015-01-01

    In China, industrial energy use accounts for two thirds of total energy consumption, and this is expected to remain the same in the medium and long-term. China has embarked on a path towards more sustainable energy use to meet domestic (e.g. air quality) and global needs (e.g. climate change), and to sustain its economic welfare. However, most energy-economy models for China have shown limitations to evaluate policy instruments and technology diffusion in industries, in relation to the multiple policy goals. In this paper, the advantages and weaknesses of 19 current energy models for China are evaluated, including important co-benefits as reduced air pollutant emissions. Results show that the co-benefits of energy use and emission policies are rarely modeled on industrial level. Based on the critical assessment of the state-of-the-art energy models, we develop recommendations for modeling industrial energy use, with an emphasis on improved incorporation of (economic, environmental and energy) policy effects, technology representation, co-benefit modeling, and uncertainty analysis. - Highlights: • This study evaluates 19 the state-of-the-art energy models on different level. • The co-benefits of different policies are rarely reported in energy models. • Technology plays a key role in models when assessing the co-benefits. • The integrated models provide a better understanding to evaluate the co-benefits. • The directions to improve the accuracy of the current energy models are presented.

  4. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  5. Investigation and optimization of transverse non-linear beam dynamics in the high-energy storage ring HESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welsch, Dominic Markus

    2010-03-10

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is part of the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is planned as a major extension to the present facility of the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt. The HESR will provide antiprotons in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c for the internal target experiment PANDA. The demanding requirements of PANDA in terms of beam quality and luminosity together with a limited production rate of antiprotons call for a long beam life time and a minimum of beam loss. Therefore, an effective closed orbit correction and a sufficiently large dynamic aperture of the HESR are crucial. With this thesis I present my work on both of these topics. The expected misalignments of beam guiding magnets have been estimated and used to simulate the closed orbit in the HESR. A closed orbit correction scheme has been developed for different ion optical settings of the HESR and numerical simulations have been performed to validate the scheme. The proposed closed orbit correction method which uses the orbit response matrix has been benchmarked at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich. A chromaticity correction scheme for the HESR consisting of sextupole magnets has been developed to reduce tune spread and thus to minimize the emittance growth caused by betatron resonances. The chromaticity correction scheme has been optimized through dynamic aperture calculations. The estimated field errors of the HESR dipole and quadrupole magnets have been included in the non-linear beam dynamics studies. Investigations concerning their optimization have been carried out. The ion optical settings of the HESR have been improved using dynamic aperture calculations and the technique of frequency map analysis. The related diffusion coefficient was also used to predict long-term stability based on short-term particle tracking. With a reasonable reduction of the quadrupole magnets field errors and a

  6. Full 3D modelling of pulse propagation enables efficient nonlinear frequency conversion with low energy laser pulses in a single-element tripler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardaś, Tomasz M.; Nejbauer, Michał; Wnuk, Paweł; Resan, Bojan; Radzewicz, Czesław; Wasylczyk, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Although new optical materials continue to open up access to more and more wavelength bands where femtosecond laser pulses can be generated, light frequency conversion techniques are still indispensable in filling the gaps on the ultrafast spectral scale. With high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser sources (oscillators) tight focusing is necessary for a robust wave mixing and the efficiency of broadband nonlinear conversion is limited by diffraction as well as spatial and temporal walk-off. Here we demonstrate a miniature third harmonic generator (tripler) with conversion efficiency exceeding 30%, producing 246 fs UV pulses via cascaded second order processes within a single laser beam focus. Designing this highly efficient and ultra compact frequency converter was made possible by full 3-dimentional modelling of propagation of tightly focused, broadband light fields in nonlinear and birefringent media.

  7. Fuel poverty and energy efficiency obligations – A critical assessment of the supplier obligation in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenow, Jan; Platt, Reg; Flanagan, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency obligations (or white certificates) are increasingly used to reduce carbon emissions. While the energy efficiency obligations were originally intended as carbon reduction and not fuel poverty policies, due to recognition of the potential for regressive outcomes they often include provisions for vulnerable and low-income customers. Intuitively, reducing carbon emissions and alleviating fuel poverty seem to be two sides of the same coin. There are, however, considerable tensions between the two when addressed through energy efficiency obligations, particularly arising from the potentially regressive impacts of rising energy prices resulting from such obligations, but also the complexity of targeting fuel poor households and the implications for deliverability. Despite those tensions, the UK government decided to use energy efficiency obligations, the supplier obligation, as the main policy for reducing fuel poverty. In light of the proposals, this paper provides an analysis of the main tensions between carbon reduction and fuel poverty alleviation within energy efficiency obligations, outlines the fuel poverty provisions of the British Supplier Obligation, assesses its rules for identifying the fuel poor, and provides a critical analysis of the planned policy changes. Based on this analysis, alternative approaches to targeting fuel poverty within future supplier obligations are proposed. - Highlights: • First comprehensive analysis of energy savings obligations and fuel poverty. • Systematic comparison of targeting efficiency of fuel poverty programmes. • Critical analysis of fuel poverty provisions in British supplier obligations. • Proposal of a new approach to targeting fuel poverty within energy savings obligations

  8. The official website of the U.S. department of energy's nuclear criticality safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.; Heinrichs, D.; Lee, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Scott, L. [SAIC, Solana Beach, CA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) mission is to provide sustainable expert leadership, direction, and the technical infrastructure necessary to develop, maintain, and disseminate the essential technical tools, training, and data to support safe, efficient fissionable material operations within the DOE. The NCSP Website site makes a variety of information available to the criticality safety practitioner, including reference materials, training modules and links to related sites. It assists criticality safety personnel to keep abreast of NCSP activities or current developments in criticality safety via a 'What's New' section within the Website. Convenient access to the many useful features of the Website is available via drop-down menus. The Website is also available to non-DOE and international professionals tasked with ensuring safe operations involving fissionable nuclear materials. (author)

  9. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas

    1996-01-01

    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  10. Performance of JEF2.2 based continuous energy cross sections in predicting the multiplication factor of critical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, T.M.; de Leege, P.F.A.; Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The continuous energy representation of cross sections for neutronics calculations avoids the requirement of resonance self shielding and the assumptions about the neutron spectrum used for weighing cross sections, required in the preparation of a multigroup cross sections library. The cross sections library prepared for a particular temperature of the nuclide is valid irrespective of the environment of the nuclide and can be used in calculations for many types of reactors. It is comparatively easier to incorporate them in Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport. The Monte Carlo code MCNP is capable of using a continuous energy representation of nuclear cross sections in simulation of neutron or photon transport. The ACER module of NJOY is able to generate the continuous energy cross section of any nuclide in a format that can be used by MCNP, from any evaluated data file in ENDF/B format. Continuous energy cross sections prepared from the evaluated data file JEF2.2 was used to analyse some standard critical benchmarks and also the critical configuration of the HOR, a 2 MW research reactor at Delft, the Netherlands. Results show that continuous energy cross sections prepared from JEF2.2 evaluated file predicts the multiplication factor of critical systems very close to unity. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Non-critically phase-matched second harmonic generation and third order nonlinearity in organic crystal glucuronic acid γ-lactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Katturi, Naga Krishnakanth; Soma, Venugopal Rao; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2017-12-01

    The linear, second order, and third order nonlinear optical properties of glucuronic acid γ-lactone single crystals were investigated. The optic axes and principal dielectric axes were identified through optical conoscopy and the principal refractive indices were obtained using the Brewster's angle method. Conic sections were observed which is perceived to be due to spontaneous non-collinear phase matching. The direction of collinear phase matching was determined and the deff evaluated in this direction was 0.71 pm/V. Open and closed aperture Z-scan measurements with femtosecond pulses revealed high third order nonlinearity in the form of self-defocusing, two-photon absorption, as well as saturable absorption.

  12. The critical role of the industrial sector in reaching long-term emission reduction, energy efficiency and renewable targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fais, Birgit; Sabio, Nagore; Strachan, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new industrial modelling approach in a whole energy systems model is developed. • The contribution of UK industry to long-term energy policy targets is analysed. • Emission reductions of up to 77% can be achieved in the UK industry until 2050. • The UK industry sector is essential for achieving the overall efficiency commitments. • UK industry can make a moderate contribution to the expansion of renewable energies. - Abstract: This paper evaluates the critical contribution of the industry sector to long-term decarbonisation, efficiency and renewable energy policy targets. Its methodological novelty is the incorporation of a process-oriented modelling approach based on a comprehensive technology database for the industry sector in a national energy system model for the UK (UKTM), allowing quantification of the role of both decarbonisation of upstream energy vectors and of mitigation options in the industrial sub-categories. This enhanced model is then applied in a comparative policy scenario analysis that explores various target dimensions on emission mitigation, renewable energy and energy efficiency at both a national and European level. The results show that ambitious emission cuts in the industry sector of up to 77% until 2050 compared to 2010 can be achieved. Moreover, with a reduction in industrial energy demand of up to 31% between 2010 and 2050, the sector is essential for achieving the overall efficiency commitments. The industry sector also makes a moderate contribution to the expansion of renewable energies mostly through the use of biomass for low-temperature heating services. However, additional sub-targets on renewable sources and energy efficiency need to be assessed critically, as they can significantly distort the cost-efficiency of the long-term mitigation pathway.

  13. The Dual Role of Vegetation as a Constraint on Mass and Energy Flux into the Critical Zone and as an Emergent Property of Geophysical Critical Zone Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, P. D.; Swetnam, T. L.; Barnard, H. R.; Singha, K.; Harpold, A.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial patterns in vegetation long have been used to scale both landsurface-atmosphere exchanges of water and carbon as well as to infer subsurface structure. These pursuits typical proceed in isolation and rarely do inferences gained from one community propagate to related efforts in another. Perhaps more importantly, vegetation often is treated as an emergent property of landscape-climate interactions rather than an active modifier of both critical zone structure and energy fluxes. We posit that vegetation structure and activity are under utilized as a tool towards understanding landscape evolution and present examples that begin to disentangle the role of vegetation as both an emergent property and an active control on critical zone structure and function. As climate change, population growth, and land use changes threaten water resources worldwide, the need for the new insights vegetation can provide becomes not just a basic science priority, but a pressing applied science question with clear societal importance. This presentation will provide an overview of recent efforts to address the dual role of vegetation in both modifying and reflecting critical zone structure in the western North American forests. For example, interactions between topography and stand scale vegetation structure influence both solar radiation and turbulence altering landscape scale partitioning of evaporation vs transpiration with major impacts of surface water supply. Similarly, interactions between topographic shading, lateral redistribution of plant available water, and subsurface storage create a mosaic of drought resistance and resilience across complex terrain. These complex interactions between geophysical and vegetation components of critical zone structure result in predictable patterns in catchment scale hydrologic partitioning within individual watersheds while simultaneously suggesting testable hypotheses for why catchments under similar climate regimes respond so

  14. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This document contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE non-reactor nuclear facilities. Adherence to these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24

  15. Nonlinearity and disorder: Classification and stability of nonlinear impurity modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Bang, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects produced by competition of two physical mechanisms of energy localization in inhomogeneous nonlinear systems. As an example, we analyze spatially localized modes supported by a nonlinear impurity in the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation and describe three types of no...... the case of a power-law nonlinearity in detail. We discuss several scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of the nonlinear impurity modes, including the mode decay or switching to a new stable state, and collapse at the impurity site....

  16. Shielding for Critical Organs and Radiation Exposure Dose Distribution in Patients with High Energy Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Sung Sil; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2002-01-01

    transected into transverse 36 slices of 2.5cm thickness. Photon dose was measured using a Capintec PR-06C ionization chamber with Capintec 192 electrometer (Capintec Inc., Ramsey, NJ), TLD(VICTOREEN 5000. LiF) and film dosimetry V-Omat, Kodak). In case of fetus, the dosimeter was placed at a depth of 10cm in this phantom at 100cm source to axis distance and located centrally 15cm from the inferior edge of the 30cm x 30cm 2 x-ray beam irradiating the Rando phantom chest wall. A acryl bridge of size 40 cm x 40 cm 2 and a clear space of about 20 cm was fabricated and placed on top of the rectangular polystyrene phantom representing the abdomen of the patient. The lead pot for testicle shielding was made as various shape, sizes, thickness and supporting stand. The scattered photon with and without shielding were measured at the representative position of the fetus and testicle. Measurement of radiation scattered dose outside fields and critical organs, like fetus position and testicle region, from chest or pelvic irradiation by large field of high energy radiation beam was performed using an ionization chamber and film dosimetry. The scattered doses outside field were measured 5 - 10% of maximum doses in fields and exponentially decrease from field margins. The scattered photon dose received the fetus and testicle from thorax field irradiation was measured about 1 mGy/Gy of photon treatment dose. Shielding construction to reduce this scattered dose was investigated using lead sheet and blocks. Lead pot shield for testicle reduced the scatter dose under 10 mGy when photon beam of 60 Gy was irradiated in abdomen region. The scattered photon dose is reduced when the lead shield was used while the no significant reduction of scattered photon dose was observed and 2-3 mm lead sheets reduced the skin dose under 80% and almost electron contamination. The results indicate that it was possible to improve shielding to reduce scattered photon for fetus and testicle when a young patients

  17. Shielding for Critical Organs and Radiation Exposure Dose Distribution in Patients with High Energy Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Sung Sil; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    transected into transverse 36 slices of 2.5cm thickness. Photon dose was measured using a Capintec PR-06C ionization chamber with Capintec 192 electrometer (Capintec Inc., Ramsey, NJ), TLD(VICTOREEN 5000. LiF) and film dosimetry V-Omat, Kodak). In case of fetus, the dosimeter was placed at a depth of 10cm in this phantom at 100cm source to axis distance and located centrally 15cm from the inferior edge of the 30cm x 30cm{sup 2} x-ray beam irradiating the Rando phantom chest wall. A acryl bridge of size 40 cm x 40 cm{sup 2} and a clear space of about 20 cm was fabricated and placed on top of the rectangular polystyrene phantom representing the abdomen of the patient. The lead pot for testicle shielding was made as various shape, sizes, thickness and supporting stand. The scattered photon with and without shielding were measured at the representative position of the fetus and testicle. Measurement of radiation scattered dose outside fields and critical organs, like fetus position and testicle region, from chest or pelvic irradiation by large field of high energy radiation beam was performed using an ionization chamber and film dosimetry. The scattered doses outside field were measured 5 - 10% of maximum doses in fields and exponentially decrease from field margins. The scattered photon dose received the fetus and testicle from thorax field irradiation was measured about 1 mGy/Gy of photon treatment dose. Shielding construction to reduce this scattered dose was investigated using lead sheet and blocks. Lead pot shield for testicle reduced the scatter dose under 10 mGy when photon beam of 60 Gy was irradiated in abdomen region. The scattered photon dose is reduced when the lead shield was used while the no significant reduction of scattered photon dose was observed and 2-3 mm lead sheets reduced the skin dose under 80% and almost electron contamination. The results indicate that it was possible to improve shielding to reduce scattered photon for fetus and testicle when a young

  18. Higher moments of net kaon multiplicity distributions at RHIC energies for the search of QCD Critical Point at STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Amal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the measurements of the various moments mean (M, standard deviation (σ skewness (S and kurtosis (κ of the net-Kaon multiplicity distribution at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at RHIC in an effort to locate the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as also to the correlation length of the system. A non-monotonic behavior of these variable indicate the presence of the critical point. In this work we also present the moments products Sσ, κσ2 of net-Kaon multiplicity distribution as a function of collision centrality and energies. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments of net-Kaons and their products have been compared with it0s Poisson expectation and with simulations from AMPT which does not include the critical point. From the measurement at all seven available beam energies, we find no evidence for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for √sNN below 200 GeV.

  19. Effects of oxygen content on the pinning energy and critical current in the granular (Hg, Re)-1223 superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, C.A.C.; Orlando, M.T.D.; Fernandes, A.A.R.; Oliveira, F.D.C.; Simonetti, D.S.L.; Fardin, J.F.; Belich, H.; Ferreira, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hg 0.82 Re 0.18 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 8+d polycrystalline samples, with different oxygen content, were investigated by ac resistance measurements under different applied magnetic field (up to 3 A/m) and critical current measurements. The intergrain and intragrain regions have shown an improvement in the pinning energy and critical current density, as considering the precursor preparation with 10% of O 2 and 90% of Ar (optimal doped). In addition, the samples presented S-I-S junctions type as considering Ambegaokar-Baratoff theory

  20. Fully nonlinear time-domain simulation of a backward bent duct buoy floating wave energy converter using an acceleration potential method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Rok Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A floating Oscillating Water Column (OWC wave energy converter, a Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB, was simulated using a state-of-the-art, two-dimensional, fully-nonlinear Numerical Wave Tank (NWT technique. The hydrodynamic performance of the floating OWC device was evaluated in the time domain. The acceleration potential method, with a full-updated kernel matrix calculation associated with a mode decomposition scheme, was implemented to obtain accurate estimates of the hydrodynamic force and displacement of a freely floating BBDB. The developed NWT was based on the potential theory and the boundary element method with constant panels on the boundaries. The mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian (MEL approach was employed to capture the nonlinear free surfaces inside the chamber that interacted with a pneumatic pressure, induced by the time-varying airflow velocity at the air duct. A special viscous damping was applied to the chamber free surface to represent the viscous energy loss due to the BBDB's shape and motions. The viscous damping coefficient was properly selected using a comparison of the experimental data. The calculated surface elevation, inside and outside the chamber, with a tuned viscous damping correlated reasonably well with the experimental data for various incident wave conditions. The conservation of the total wave energy in the computational domain was confirmed over the entire range of wave frequencies.

  1. High Energy Laser Beam Propagation in the Atmosphere: The Integral Invariants of the Nonlinear Parabolic Equation and the Method of Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The method of moments is used to define and derive expressions for laser beam deflection and beam radius broadening for high-energy propagation through the Earth s atmosphere. These expressions are augmented with the integral invariants of the corresponding nonlinear parabolic equation that describes the electric field of high-energy laser beam to propagation to yield universal equations for the aforementioned quantities; the beam deflection is a linear function of the propagation distance whereas the beam broadening is a quadratic function of distance. The coefficients of these expressions are then derived from a thin screen approximation solution of the nonlinear parabolic equation to give corresponding analytical expressions for a target located outside the Earth s atmospheric layer. These equations, which are graphically presented for a host of propagation scenarios, as well as the thin screen model, are easily amenable to the phase expansions of the wave front for the specification and design of adaptive optics algorithms to correct for the inherent phase aberrations. This work finds application in, for example, the analysis of beamed energy propulsion for space-based vehicles.

  2. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  3. Solution High-Energy Burst Assembly (SHEBA) results from subprompt critical experiments with uranyl fluoride fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappiello, C.C.; Butterfield, K.B.; Sanchez, R.G.; Bounds, J.A.; Kimpland, R.H.; Damjanovich, R.P.; Jaegers, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were performed to measure a variety of parameters for SHEBA: behavior of the facility during transient and steady-state operation; characteristics of the SHEBA fuel; delayed-critical solution height vs solution temperature; initial reactor period and reactivity vs solution height; calibration of power level vs reactor power instrumentation readings; flux profile in SHEBA; radiation levels and neutron spectra outside the assembly for code verification and criticality alarm and dosimetry purposes; and effect on reactivity of voids in the fuel

  4. A Critical Review on the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan of Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem Elrefaei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Egypt, as with other developing countries, faces a major energy security problem, which strongly impacts all national plans for economic development. A sound energy strategy is crucially needed, and should be based on two pillars: first, boosting the production of clean energy from various renewable and non-renewable sources, and second, managing and rationalizing energy demand, with related reforms. Some steps were taken by previous Egyptian governments regarding these two pillars. In February 2008, the Ministry of Electricity and Energy of Egypt put a target of 20% of electricity to come from renewable energy resources by 2020. In July 2012, the Ministerial Cabinet approved both the Egyptian Solar Plan targeting 3500 MW of solar energy by 2027, and the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP to reduce energy consumption 5% during the period from 2012-2015 compared to the average consumption of the previous 5 years. We believe that these plans will not bring their expected fruits unless they are well orchestrated with other sectoral development plans in areas such as agriculture, transport, housing and services, amongst others. This paper aims to investigate the Egyptian NEEAP and assess whether the adopted national energy efficiency plan and the associated policies on all other development sectors adopted by the government have sound implications. We aim to find out whether the development policies with a focus on energy policy are set in an integrated or fragmented way.

  5. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  6. A Critical Review of Validation, Blind Testing, and Real- World Use of Alchemical Protein-Ligand Binding Free Energy Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Robert; Wang, Lingle; Mobley, David L; Friesner, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Protein-ligand binding is among the most fundamental phenomena underlying all molecular biology, and a greater ability to more accurately and robustly predict the binding free energy of a small molecule ligand for its cognate protein is expected to have vast consequences for improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical drug discovery. We briefly reviewed a number of scientific and technical advances that have enabled alchemical free energy calculations to recently emerge as a preferred approach, and critically considered proper validation and effective use of these techniques. In particular, we characterized a selection bias effect which may be important in prospective free energy calculations, and introduced a strategy to improve the accuracy of the free energy predictions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Principle of Minimum Energy in Magnetic Reconnection in a Self-organized Critical Model for Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang, Nastaran; Safari, Hossein; Wheatland, Michael S.

    2018-05-01

    Solar flares are an abrupt release of magnetic energy in the Sun’s atmosphere due to reconnection of the coronal magnetic field. This occurs in response to turbulent flows at the photosphere that twist the coronal field. Similar to earthquakes, solar flares represent the behavior of a complex system, and expectedly their energy distribution follows a power law. We present a statistical model based on the principle of minimum energy in a coronal loop undergoing magnetic reconnection, which is described as an avalanche process. We show that the distribution of peaks for the flaring events in this self-organized critical system is scale-free. The obtained power-law index of 1.84 ± 0.02 for the peaks is in good agreement with satellite observations of soft X-ray flares. The principle of minimum energy can be applied for general avalanche models to describe many other phenomena.

  8. Law of coastal zones and marine renewable energies: a critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordereaux, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Even before the development of offshore wind energy along the French coasts, marine renewable energies raise many problems of the environmental, industrial and economic, research and political levels. Legal issues are then strongly emerging and have a determining role to play before the deployment of these marine renewable energies. Thus, the author discusses the relationship and interaction between these energies and legal instruments: the French 'Loi Littoral' (Coastlines Act), some specific planning documents (PLUs or town planning local plans, SMVM or scheme for sea valorisation), and the regime of the maritime public domain. As a conclusion, the author wanders whether wind farms should be implanted further offshore

  9. Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golove, W.H.; Eto, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1996-03-01

    This report reviews current perspectives on market barriers to energy efficiency. Ratepayer-funded utility energy-efficiency programs are likely to change in scope, size, and nature as the deregulation process proceeds; the authors research focuses on understanding to what extent some form of future intervention may be warranted and how they might judge the success of particular interventions, especially those funded by ratepayers. They find that challenges to the existence of market barriers have, for the most part, failed to provide a testable alternative explanation for evidence suggesting that there is a substantial ``efficiency gap`` between a consumer`s actual investments in energy efficiency and those that appear to be in the consumer`s own interest. They then suggest that differences of opinion about the appropriateness of public policies stem not from disputes about whether market barriers exist, but from different perceptions of the magnitude of the barriers, and the efficacy and (possibly unintended) consequences of policies designed to overcome them. They conclude that there are compelling justifications for future energy-efficiency policies. Nevertheless, in order to succeed, they must be based on a sound understanding of the market problems they seek to correct and a realistic assessment of their likely efficacy. This understanding can only emerge from detailed investigations of the current operation of individual markets.

  10. Key Barriers to the Implementation of Solar Energy in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, D.; Suresh, S.; Renukappa, S.; Oloke, D.

    2017-08-01

    Nigeria, potentially, has abundant sunshine throughout the year, making it full thirst for solar energy generation. Even though, the country’s solar energy projects have not realised a fair result over the years, due to many barriers associated with initiatives implementation. Therefore, the entire power sector remains incapacitated to generate, transmit and distribute a clean, affordable and sustainable energy to assist economic growth. The research integrated five African counterpart’s solar energy initiatives, barriers, policies and strategies adopted as a lesson learned to Nigeria. Inadequate solar initiative’s research, lack of technological know-how, short-term policies, lack of awareness and political instability are the major barriers that made the implementation of solar initiatives almost impossible in Nigeria. The shock of the barriers therefore, constitutes a major negative contribution to the crippling of the power sector in the state. Future research will concentrate on initiatives for mitigating solar and other renewable energy barriers.

  11. Validation of Nuclear Criticality Safety Software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The validation documented in this report is based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992, and was completed in June 1993. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Martin Marietta Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM 3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. When the validation results are treated as a single group, there is 95% confidence that 99.9% of future calculations of similar critical systems will have a calculated K eff > 0.9616. Based on this result the Portsmouth Nuclear Criticality Safety Department has adopted the calculational acceptance criteria that a k eff + 2σ ≤ 0.95 is safety subcritical. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25

  12. Very high temperature gas-cooled reactor critical facility for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Noriyuki

    1985-01-01

    The outline of the critical facility, its construction, the results of the basic studies and experiments on the graphite material, and the results obtained from the test conducted on the overall functions of the critical facility were reported. With the completion of the critical facility, it has been made possible to demonstrate the establishment of the manufacturing techniques and product-quality guarantee for extremely pure isotropic graphite in addition to the reliability of the structural design and analytical techniques for the main unit of the critical facility. It is expected that the present facility will prove instrumental in the verification of the nuclear safety of the very high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor and in the acquisition of experimental data on the reactor physics pertaining to the improvement of the reactor characteristics. The tasks which remain to be accomplished hereafter are the improvements of the performance and quality features with regard to the oxidization of graphite, the heat-resisting structural materials, and the welded structures. (Kubozono, M.)

  13. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  14. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Neutral Vanadium (V i)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of the neutral vanadium atom, V i, have been compiled. Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentage compositions for the levels are included where available, as well as wavelengths calculated from the energy levels (Ritz wavelengths). Wavelengths are reported for 3985 transitions, and 549 energy levels are determined. The observed relative intensities normalized to a common scale are provided.

  15. A critical review on energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and economic (4-E) analysis of thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The growing energy supply, demand has created an interest towards the plant equipment efficiency and the optimization of existing thermal power plants. Also, a thermal power plant dependency on fossil fuel makes it a little bit difficult, because of environmental impacts has been always taken into consideration. At present, most of the power plants are going to be designed by the energetic performance criterion which is based on the first law of thermodynamics. Sometimes, the system energy ba...

  16. Critical currents and energy dissipation in Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windte, C.V.

    1993-09-01

    The critical current density j c of patterned YBaCuO thin film samples and the electric field E seen by the superconductor were calculated from data of magnetization loops, external magnetic field sweeps and relaxation, respectively. Data were taken at 77 K up to external magnetic fields of 150 mT with a sensitive Hall probe detecting the magnetic fields of the screening currents of the sample. The E(j) characteristic could be determined over six decades of magnitude of E (10 -7 μV/cm -1 μV/cm). These characteristics permit the comparison with theoretical pictures: They are incompatible with Kim-Andersons flux-creep and a power law behaviour. The characteristics are compatible with the vortex-glass or the collective pinning ansatz. There exists a limiting critical current beyond no known theoretical picture describes the E(j) characteristic. (orig.) [de

  17. Nonlinear relativistic plasma resonance: Renormalization group approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metelskii, I. I., E-mail: metelski@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalev, V. F., E-mail: vfkvvfkv@gmail.com [Dukhov All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Bychenkov, V. Yu., E-mail: bychenk@lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    An analytical solution to the nonlinear set of equations describing the electron dynamics and electric field structure in the vicinity of the critical density in a nonuniform plasma is constructed using the renormalization group approach with allowance for relativistic effects of electron motion. It is demonstrated that the obtained solution describes two regimes of plasma oscillations in the vicinity of the plasma resonance— stationary and nonstationary. For the stationary regime, the spatiotemporal and spectral characteristics of the resonantly enhanced electric field are investigated in detail and the effect of the relativistic nonlinearity on the spatial localization of the energy of the plasma relativistic field is considered. The applicability limits of the obtained solution, which are determined by the conditions of plasma wave breaking in the vicinity of the resonance, are established and analyzed in detail for typical laser and plasma parameters. The applicability limits of the earlier developed nonrelativistic theories are refined.

  18. Biogas energy from family-sized digesters in Uganda: Critical factors and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walekhwa, Peter N.; Mugisha, Johnny; Drake, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Dependence on fossil energy sources is increasingly becoming unsustainable due to ecological and environmental problems and rapid depletion. Biogas energy could augment these conventional energy sources but despite its advantages and favourable conditions for its production, biogas energy use in Uganda remains low due to technical, economic and socio-cultural impediments. Based on primary data on households in Central and Eastern Uganda and the use of logistic regression, this study analyses factors affecting the adoption of biogas energy in Uganda. The empirical results suggest that the probability of a household adopting biogas technology increases with decreasing age of head of household, increasing household income, increasing number of cattle owned, increasing household size, male head of household and increasing cost of traditional fuels. In contrast, the likelihood of adoption decreases with increasing remoteness of household location and increasing household land area. Policy options and recommendations including educational and awareness campaigns on biogas benefits and successes, the provision of financial and non-financial incentives to households and establishment of an institutional framework could bolster wider biogas energy acceptance in Uganda.

  19. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, Transition Probabilities, and Intensities of Singly Ionized Vanadium (V ii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saloman, Edward B. [Dakota Consulting, Inc., 1110 Bonifant Street, Suite 310, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Kramida, Alexander [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The energy levels, observed spectral lines, and transition probabilities of singly ionized vanadium, V ii, have been compiled. The experimentally derived energy levels belong to the configurations 3 d {sup 4}, 3 d {sup 3} ns ( n  = 4, 5, 6), 3 d {sup 3} np , and 3 d {sup 3} nd ( n  = 4, 5), 3 d {sup 3}4 f , 3 d {sup 2}4 s {sup 2}, and 3 d {sup 2}4 s 4 p . Also included are values for some forbidden lines that may be of interest to the astrophysical community. Experimental Landé g -factors and leading percentages for the levels are included when available, as well as Ritz wavelengths calculated from the energy levels. Wavelengths and transition probabilities are reported for 3568 and 1896 transitions, respectively. From the list of observed wavelengths, 407 energy levels are determined. The observed intensities, normalized to a common scale, are provided. From the newly optimized energy levels, a revised value for the ionization energy is derived, 118,030(60) cm{sup −1}, corresponding to 14.634(7) eV. This is 130 cm{sup −1} higher than the previously recommended value from Iglesias et al.

  20. Phonon-induced enhancements of the energy gap and critical current in superconducting aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligson, D.

    1983-05-01

    8 to 10 GHz phonons were generated by piezoelectric transduction of a microwave and by means of a quartz delay line, were allowed to enter the aluminum only after the microwaves had long since disappeared. The maximum enhancements detected were [deltaT/T/sub c/] = -0.07, for i/sub c/ and [deltaT/T/sub c/] = -0.03 for Δ. The power- and temperature-dependence (0.82 less than or equal to T/T/sub c/ less than or equal to 0.994) of the enhancements were compared with the prediction of a theory given by Eliashberg. The gap-enhancement was in good agreement with the theory only for low input lower. The critical current measurements are predicted to be in rough agreement with the Δ measurements but this was not observed. The magnitude of the critical current enhancements was typically more than twice the observed gap enhancements. The measured critical current enhancement was relatively independent of temperature whereas the gap enhancement decreased rapidly as the temperature was lowered

  1. Universality in an information-theoretic motivated nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwani, R; Tabia, G

    2007-01-01

    Using perturbative methods, we analyse a nonlinear generalization of Schrodinger's equation that had previously been obtained through information-theoretic arguments. We obtain analytical expressions for the leading correction, in terms of the nonlinearity scale, to the energy eigenvalues of the linear Schrodinger equation in the presence of an external potential and observe some generic features. In one space dimension these are (i) for nodeless ground states, the energy shifts are subleading in the nonlinearity parameter compared to the shifts for the excited states; (ii) the shifts for the excited states are due predominantly to contribution from the nodes of the unperturbed wavefunctions, and (iii) the energy shifts for excited states are positive for small values of a regulating parameter and negative at large values, vanishing at a universal critical value that is not manifest in the equation. Some of these features hold true for higher dimensional problems. We also study two exactly solved nonlinear Schrodinger equations so as to contrast our observations. Finally, we comment on the possible significance of our results if the nonlinearity is physically realized

  2. The influence of the directional energy distribution on the nonlinear dispersion relation in a random gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.

  3. Dual Energy Computed Tomography to Evaluate Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Transcatheter Arterial Chemo-Embolization: Comparison between the Linear Blending and Nonlinear Moidal Blending Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Kim, Hyeong Wook; Lee, Daun; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Jin Woong; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Seon, Hyun Ju

    2012-01-01

    To compare the linear blending image with the nonlinear moidal blending image using dual energy CT for the evaluation of the viable portion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). One-hundred and twenty three HCC patients incompletely treated after TACE were enrolled in this study. The dual energy mode (80 kVp and Sn140 kVp) was only applied in the late arterial phase scanning. A paired t-test was used to compare the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the image noise between the two blending images. Lesion conspicuity, image sharpness, image noise and the overall image quality between the two blending images were compared using the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-ranks test. The lesion-to-liver CNR was significantly higher on the moidal blending image (5.6 ± 3.2) than on the linear blending image (2.7 ± 1.6) (p < 0.001). The image noise was significantly lower on the moidal blending image (10.9 ± 3.5) than on the linear blending image (17.5 ± 5.5) (p < 0.001). The lesion conspicuity and overall image quality were significantly better on the moidal blending image for both reviewers (p < 0.001). However, with respect to image sharpness, the linear blending image was significantly better for both reviewers (p < 0.01). The nonlinear moidal blending image of dual energy CT showed an increased lesion-to-liver CNR, decreased noise and improved overall image quality for the evaluation of the viable portion of HCC after TACE.

  4. A critical analysis of energy efficiency improvement potentials in Taiwan's cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Chang, Yi-Lin; Fleiter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The cement industry is the second most energy-intensive sector in Taiwan, which underlines the need to understand its potential for energy efficiency improvement. A bottom-up model-based assessment is utilized to conduct a scenario analysis of energy saving opportunities up to the year 2035. The analysis is supported by detailed expert interviews in all cement plants of Taiwan. The simulation results reveal that by 2035, eighteen energy efficient technologies could result in 25% savings for electricity and 9% savings for fuels under the technical diffusion scenario. This potential totally amounts to about 5000 TJ/year, of which 91% can be implemented cost-effectively assuming a discount rate of 10%. Policy makers should support a fast diffusion of these technologies. Additionally, policy makers can tap further saving potentials. First, by decreasing the clinker share, which is currently regulated to a minimum of 95%. Second, by extending the prohibition to build new cement plants by allowing for replacement of existing capacity with new innovative plants in the coming years. Third, by supporting the use of alternative fuels, which is currently still a niche in Taiwan. - Highlights: •We analyze energy efficiency improvement potentials in Taiwan's cement industry. •Eighteen process-specific technologies are analyzed using a bottom-up model. •Our model systematically reflects the diffusion of technologies over time. •We find energy-saving potentials of 25% for electricity and 9% for fuels in 2035. •91% of the energy-saving potentials can be realized cost-effectively.

  5. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q

  6. A critical review on energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and economic (4-E analysis of thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing energy supply, demand has created an interest towards the plant equipment efficiency and the optimization of existing thermal power plants. Also, a thermal power plant dependency on fossil fuel makes it a little bit difficult, because of environmental impacts has been always taken into consideration. At present, most of the power plants are going to be designed by the energetic performance criterion which is based on the first law of thermodynamics. Sometimes, the system energy balance is not sufficient for the possible finding of the system imperfections. Energy losses taking place in a system can be easily determined by using exergy analysis. Hence, it is a powerful tool for the measurement of energy quality, thereby helps to make complex thermodynamic systems more efficient. Nowadays, economic optimization of plant is also a big problem for researchers because of the complex nature. At a viewpoint of this, a comprehensive literature review over the years of energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and economic (4-E analysis and their applications in thermal power plants stimulated by coal, gas, combined cycle and cogeneration system have been done thoroughly. This paper is addressed to those researchers who are doing their research work on 4-E analysis in various thermal power plants. If anyone extracts an idea for the development of the concept of 4-E analysis using this article, we will achieve our goal. This review also indicates the scope of future research in thermal power plants.

  7. Study of a Steel’s Energy Absorption System for Heavy Quadricycles and Nonlinear Explicit Dynamic Analysis of its Behavior under Impact by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Campos, José Ángel; Segade Robleda, Abraham; Vilán Vilán, José Antonio; García Nieto, Paulino José; Blanco Cordero, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Current knowledge of the behavior of heavy quadricycles under impact is still very poor. One of the most significant causes is the lack of energy absorption in the vehicle frame or its steel chassis structure. For this reason, special steels (with yield stresses equal to or greater than 350 MPa) are commonly used in the automotive industry due to their great strain hardening properties along the plastic zone, which allows good energy absorption under impact. This paper presents a proposal for a steel quadricycle energy absorption system which meets the percentages of energy absorption for conventional vehicles systems. This proposal is validated by explicit dynamics simulation, which will define the whole problem mathematically and verify behavior under impact at speeds of 40 km/h and 56 km/h using the finite element method (FEM). One of the main consequences of this study is that this FEM–based methodology can tackle high nonlinear problems like this one with success, avoiding the need to carry out experimental tests, with consequent economical savings since experimental tests are very expensive. Finally, the conclusions from this innovative research work are given. PMID:28793607

  8. Study of a Steel’s Energy Absorption System for Heavy Quadricycles and Nonlinear Explicit Dynamic Analysis of its Behavior under Impact by FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel López Campos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the behavior of heavy quadricycles under impact is still very poor. One of the most significant causes is the lack of energy absorption in the vehicle frame or its steel chassis structure. For this reason, special steels (with yield stresses equal to or greater than 350 MPa are commonly used in the automotive industry due to their great strain hardening properties along the plastic zone, which allows good energy absorption under impact. This paper presents a proposal for a steel quadricycle energy absorption system which meets the percentages of energy absorption for conventional vehicles systems. This proposal is validated by explicit dynamics simulation, which will define the whole problem mathematically and verify behavior under impact at speeds of 40 km/h and 56 km/h using the finite element method (FEM. One of the main consequences of this study is that this FEM–based methodology can tackle high nonlinear problems like this one with success, avoiding the need to carry out experimental tests, with consequent economical savings since experimental tests are very expensive. Finally, the conclusions from this innovative research work are given.

  9. A critical inquiry into the objection of Moeller to his energy-momentum complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, D.

    1985-01-01

    In the year 1958 Mueller derived an energy-momentum complex to attain the localizability of the energy in gravitational fields. However, three years later after extensive investigations he himself raised an objection to his expression showing that the corresponding energy-momentum vector of a closed physical system does not transform like a free 4-vector with respect to a Lorentz transformation. An inquiry into the objection of Mueller is carried through at full length. Surprisingly it turns out that the equation on which he based his objection originates from a misinterpretation. Moreover, the argument given by him to explain the alleged failure of his expression proves to be incomplete. Complementing the argument, the objection of Mueller is no longer tenable. (author)

  10. GPU-Powered Modelling of Nonlinear Effects due to Head-On Beam-Beam Interactions in High-Energy Hadron Colliders.

    CERN Document Server

    Furuseth, Sondre

    2017-01-01

    The performance of high-energy circular hadron colliders, as the Large Hadron Collider, is limited by beam-beam interactions. The strongly nonlinear force between the two opposing beams causes diverging Hamiltonians and resonances, which can lead to a reduction of the lifetime of the beams. The nonlinearity makes the effect of the force difficult to study analytically, even at first order. Numerical models are therefore needed to evaluate the overall effect of different configurations of the machines. This report discusses results from an implementation of the weak-strong model, studying the effects of head-on beam-beam interactions. The assumptions has been shown to be valid for configurations where the growth and losses of the beam are small. The tracking has been done using an original code which applies graphic cards to reduce the computation time. The bunches in the beams have been modelled cylindrically symmetrical, based on a Gaussian distribution in three dimensions. This choice fits well with bunches...

  11. Balancing for Unstable Nonlinear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A previously obtained method of balancing for stable nonlinear systems is extended to unstable nonlinear systems. The similarity invariants obtained by the concept of LQG balancing for an unstable linear system can also be obtained by considering a past and future energy function of the system. By

  12. THE SECURITY OF CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE AGE OF MULTIPLE ATTACK VECTORS: NATO’S MULTI-FACETED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dumitru Ducaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current NATO threat landscape is characterized by a combination or “hybrid blend” of unconventional emerging challenges (like cyber and terrorist attacks and re-emerging conventional ones (like Russia’s recent military resurgence and assertiveness, that led to the illegal annexation of Crimea and destabilization in Eastern Ukraine. While the resurgence of the Russian military activity pushed the Alliance in the direction of re-discovering its deterrence and collective defence role, the new, not-traditional, trans-national and essentially non-military treats that generate effects below the threshold of an armed attack require a new paradigm shift with a focus on resilience although the protection of critical energy infrastructure is first and foremost a national responsibility, NATO can contribute to meeting the infrastructure protection challenge on many levels. Given the fact that its core deterrence and defence mandate relies in a great measure on the security of Allies’ energy infrastructure NATO’s role and actions in reducing the vulnerabilities and strengthening the resilience of such infrastructure can only increase. A multi-faceted, multi-stakeholder and networked approach is needed to be able to strengthen defences and resilience of critical infrastructure such as energy. Understanding and defending against cyber or terrorist threat vectors, increased situational awareness, education, training, exercises, trusted partnerships as well as increasing strategic security dialogue and cooperation are key for such a comprehensive/network approach to the challenge.

  13. Onset of deconfinement and search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter at CERN SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Rybczyński, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The exploration of the QCD phase diagram particularly the search for a phase transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom and possibly a critical endpoint, is one of the most challenging tasks in present heavy-ion physics. As observed by the NA49 experiment, several hadronic observables in central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS show qualitative changes in their energy dependence. These features are not observed in elementary interactions and indi- cate the onset of a phase transition in the SPS energy range. The existence of a critical point is expected to result in the increase of event-by-event fluctuations of various hadronic observables provided that the freeze-out of the measured hadrons occurs close to its location in the phase di- agram and the evolution of the final hadron phase does not erase the fluctuations signals. Further information about the existence and nature of a phase transition in the SPS energy range can be gained from the studies of event-by-event fluctuations of final stat...

  14. Critical Metals in Strategic Energy Technologies. Assessing Rare Metals as Supply-Chain Bottlenecks in Low-Carbon Energy Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, R.L.; Tzimas, E.; Kara, H.; Willis, P.; Kooroshy, J.

    2011-11-01

    Due to the rapid growth in demand for certain materials, compounded by political risks associated with the geographical concentration of the supply of them, a shortage of these materials could be a potential bottleneck to the deployment of low-carbon energy technologies. In order to assess whether such shortages could jeopardise the objectives of the EU's Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan), an improved understanding of these risks is vital. In particular, this report examines the use of metals in the six low-carbon energy technologies of SET-Plan, namely: nuclear, solar, wind, bioenergy, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and electricity grids. The study looks at the average annual demand for each metal for the deployment of the technologies in Europe between 2020 and 2030. The demand of each metal is compared to the respective global production volume in 2010. This ratio (expressed as a percentage) allows comparing the relative stress that the deployment of the six technologies in Europe is expected to create on the global supplies for these different metals. The study identifies 14 metals for which the deployment of the six technologies will require 1% or more (and in some cases, much more) of current world supply per annum between 2020 and 2030. These 14 metals, in order of decreasing demand, are tellurium, indium, tin, hafnium, silver, dysprosium, gallium, neodymium, cadmium, nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium and selenium. The metals are examined further in terms of the risks of meeting the anticipated demand by analysing in detail the likelihood of rapid future global demand growth, limitations to expanding supply in the short to medium term, and the concentration of supply and political risks associated with key suppliers. The report pinpoints 5 of the 14 metals to be at high risk, namely: the rare earth metals neodymium and dysprosium, and the by-products (from the processing of other metals) indium, tellurium and gallium. The report explores a

  15. Nonlinear systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drazin, P. G

    1992-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theories of bifurcation and chaos. It treats the solution of nonlinear equations, especially difference and ordinary differential equations, as a parameter varies...

  16. Balancing for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    We present a method of balancing for nonlinear systems which is an extension of balancing for linear systems in the sense that it is based on the input and output energy of a system. It is a local result, but gives 'broader' results than we obtain by just linearizing the system. Furthermore, the

  17. A critical overview of industrial energy decoupling programs in six developing countries in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luken, Ralph A.; Piras, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In reviewing the journal literature on the decoupling of energy use and industrial output in the Asian region, particularly with respect to developing countries, we found little information about most country programs other than for China and India and only one article that compared the programs of these two countries. For this reason, we used diverse sources to identify the key programmatic features that have contributed, but clearly are not totally responsible for, decoupling achievements of two countries ( China and Thailand) and then, on the basis of these findings, reviewed emerging industrial energy decoupling programs in four other countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam). We found that the design of the two successful on-going decoupling programs have common features, which are setting an explicit target for decoupling of energy use and industrial output, a government program that offers financial incentives and imposes specific auditing and reporting requirements and involvement of the manufacturing sector in designing and implementing targets as they apply to individual enterprises. We also found that the emerging programs in the other four countries lack some or all of these essential programmatic features. - Highlights: → We reviewed two on-going and four emerging industrial energy decoupling programs. → These six Asian developing countries have very different rates of decoupling. → The two successful on-going programs share three common features. → These are quantitative targets, supportive programs and industry involvement. → The four emerging programs lack some or all of these features.

  18. The Potential Energy Density in Transverse String Waves Depends Critically on Longitudinal Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The question of the correct formula for the potential energy density in transverse waves on a taut string continues to attract attention (e.g. Burko 2010 "Eur. J. Phys." 31 L71), and at least three different formulae can be found in the literature, with the classic text by Morse and Feshbach ("Methods of Theoretical Physics" pp 126-127) stating…

  19. Executive summary of NIH workshop on the Use and Biology of Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Camp, Kathryn M; Haggans, Carol J; Deuster, Patricia A; Haverkos, Lynne; Maruvada, Padma; Witt, Ellen; Coates, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Sales of energy drinks in the United States reached $12.5 billion in 2012. Emergency department visits related to consumption of these products have increased sharply, and while these numbers remain small relative to product sales, they raise important questions regarding biological and behavioral effects. Although some common ingredients of energy drinks have been extensively studied (e.g., caffeine, B vitamins, sugars, inositol), data on other ingredients (e.g., taurine) are limited. Summarized here are data presented elsewhere in this issue on the prevalence and patterns of caffeine-containing energy drink use, the effects of these products on alertness, fatigue, cognitive functions, sleep, mood, homeostasis, as well as on exercise physiology and metabolism, and the biological mechanisms mediating the observed effects. There are substantial data on the effects of some energy drink ingredients, such as caffeine and sugars, on many of these outcomes; however, even for these ingredients many controversies and gaps remain, and data on other ingredients in caffeine-containing energy drinks, and on ingredient interactions, are sparse. This summary concludes with a discussion of critical gaps in the data and potential next steps. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Volatility Spillovers between Energy and Agricultural Markets: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Chang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subsequent volatility or covolatility in another asset, among alternative energy commodities, such as oil, gasoline and ethanol across different markets, have been analysed using a variety of univariate and multivariate models, estimation techniques, data sets, and time frequencies. A similar comment applies to the separate theoretical and empirical analysis of a wide range of agricultural commodities and markets. Given the recent interest and emphasis in bio-fuels and green energy, especially bio-ethanol, which is derived from a range of agricultural products, it is not surprising that there is a topical and developing literature on the spillovers between energy and agricultural markets. Modelling and testing spillovers between the energy and agricultural markets has typically been based on estimating multivariate conditional volatility models, specifically the Baba, Engle, Kraft, and Kroner (BEKK and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC models. A serious technical deficiency is that the Quasi-Maximum Likelihood Estimates (QMLE of a Full BEKK matrix, which is typically estimated in examining volatility spillover effects, has no asymptotic properties, except by assumption, so that no valid statistical test of volatility spillovers is possible. Some papers in the literature have used the DCC model to test for volatility spillovers. However, it is well known in the financial econometrics literature that the DCC model has no regularity conditions, and that the QMLE of the parameters of DCC has no asymptotic properties, so that there is no valid statistical testing of volatility spillovers. The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the theory and practice in testing for volatility spillovers