WorldWideScience

Sample records for energy access policies

  1. U.S. Policy on Energy Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    billion. Operational energy comprised $15 billion of DoD’s $19 billion bill.31 This includes energy for training , moving, and sustaining military...The Super Power of MAGLEV Windmills,” November 4, 2009, http://www.maglev.net/news/the-super-power-of- maglev -windmills/, (accessed 29 Nov 2012).

  2. Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, I.H.; Kar, Abhishek; Banerjee, Manjushree; Kumar, Preeth; Shardul, Martand; Mohanty, Jeevan; Hossain, Ijaz

    2012-01-01

    Globally, 1.5 billion people lack access to electricity and nearly 3 billion lack access to modern cooking energy options. Of the world’s “energy poor”, 95% are in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Within Asia, almost 80% of electricity-deprived and 86% of biomass-dependent populations are in the “Big 5” countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan. In this paper, we discuss the broad contours of the political economy of energy access in these countries. The political economy is assessed through an examination of three sustainability objectives: accessibility of physical infrastructure; energy service delivery; and conformance to social goals. The key areas of concern include emphasis on supply-driven grid electricity; vested power dynamics favouring affluent and urban areas; unreliability of energy service provision; and misdirected and misappropriated subsidies. The above-mentioned issues are responsible for limiting accelerated achievement of universal energy access in the “Big 5” countries and need to be addressed through innovative approaches. The paper emphasizes the need for firm commitments, policy convergence, and the implementation of 'pro-poor' equitable energy policies through a broad-based energy framework of bench-marked, technology-neutral energy provisioning that ensures reliability and equity. It highlights the need for reorienting of the subsidy regime and incorporating energy service delivery indicators in monitoring and reporting mechanisms. - Highlights: ► Limited emphasis on improved cooking programmes relative to electrification schemes. ► Strong disparity between rural and urban electrification and LPG access. ► Grid extension and subsidy on cooking fuels has limited success. ► Electricity access does not indicate transition to better cooking options. ► Technology neutrality in choosing suitable alternatives may led to improved access. ► There is need to re-orient energy subsidies and incentives.

  3. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  4. Understanding the political economy and key drivers of energy access in addressing national energy access priorities and policies: African Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khennas, Smail

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the key drivers of energy access in North and sub-Saharan Africa which are characterized by huge discrepancies in terms of energy access to modern forms of energy. The paper points out that long term development strategies and large programmes with significant financial resources are essential to achieving substantial results in terms of energy access. The paper argues that building up the energy infrastructure (power plants, grid interconnections and small-scale decentralized energy options in rural areas.) is a pre-condition for economic growth and ultimately for energy access. It underlines that historically there is a trend towards more efficient, convenient and cost effective forms of energy. Low carbon path and above all renewable will therefore play an increasing role in the energy mix in the next couple of decades. Manufacturing of capital goods for the renewable energy industry in Africa will be a key challenge to achieving energy security economic growth and energy access. - Highlights: ► Sharp differences of energy access situation and approaches between North and Sub Saharan Africa. ► Energy infrastructure is a pre-condition to economic growth and energy access. ► Interconnections and small-scale decentralized energy schemes are a good mechanism to increasing energy access. ► However interconnections will only contribute marginally to the urban-rural energy divide. ► Manufacturing of capital goods is a key challenge to economic development.

  5. Policy framework on energy access and key development indicators: ECOWAS interventions and the case of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglina, Moses Kwame; Agbejule, Adebayo; Nyamuame, Godwin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Energy has become the main driver for development as industries grow, agricultural sectors become more modernized, economies boom and countries become wealthy. There are still vast majority of people living under the poverty line especially in the ECOWAS region. The purpose of this study is to explore how improvements in energy access can be a key driver in economic development and progress in the ECOWAS region. Data for the study was obtained from the database of the World Bank. A regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationships between energy access and development indicators. The paper suggests the need for policy makers in the ECOWAS region to focus on targets, such as household access, consumption of electricity, and ease of use instead on supply targets that focus merely on physical coverage. A case on how Ghana is improving energy access is presented. - Highlights: • Energy policies in the ECOWAS region must focus on demand side targets. • Energy policies should target rural and peri-urban areas of the ECOWAS region. • Improved energy access requires a new supply chain energy model.

  6. Energy efficiency and renewable energy policy in the Czech Republic within the framework of accession to the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wees, M.T. van; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Maly, M.

    2002-01-01

    The main barrier for end-use energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic is the lack of a stable political and regulatory framework. Market incentives can only properly work if the market conditions and restrictions are clear and stable. However, no comprehensive policies and regulation have been implemented in the Czech Republic. Although the acquis communautaire of the European Union includes regulation on energy efficiency and renewable energy, this topic remains low on the negotiation agenda for accession. This paper reports on the current situation in the Czech Republic, including the potentials for end-use energy efficiency and renewable energy, on the existing policy and regulatory framework, and on the remaining gaps with the requirements of accession to the European Union. Also, the impact of the recent increase of nuclear capacity on energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic is discussed

  7. The role of discourse and linguistic framing effects in sustaining high carbon energy policy-An accessible introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrase, J. Ivan; Ockwell, David G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide an accessible introduction to the relevance to energy policy of a fundamental insight from the policy sciences. This concerns the role that the linguistic framing of policy problems and solutions can play in sustaining the dominance of existing policy positions. The paper introduces a discourse perspective to understanding the policy process and uses it to analyse four central goals pursued in energy policy: access, security, efficiency and environmental acceptability, drawing on examples from UK policy documents. It introduces readers to how, as well as requiring technical and economic solutions, a transition to a low carbon energy system will also require a 'reframing' of energy policy problems and solutions in a way that either connects with, or overrides the powerful discourses that shape energy policy today.

  8. Sustainable Development of Renewable Energy Mini-grids for Energy Access: A Framework for Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ranjit [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Carvallo, Juan Pablo [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gambhir, Ashwin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We emphasize the importance of concurrently considering all components of a mini-grid policy, designing each component through the lenses of different stakeholders, and fostering mini-grids as an integral part of a country’s electricity access efforts. Policymakers have multiple options, and it is the combination of these in the institutional and financial capacity of the government context that will decide the success of the program. There are no silver bullet solutions, but a thorough understanding of the existing technical and institutional capacities, as well as the stakeholders’ interests and sociocultural context will enable the design of an effective policy instrument.

  9. Administrative tutelage of energy access policies; Tutela regulatoria das politicas de acesso a energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vannucci, Vasconcellos Mariana; Souza, Mendonca Fabiano Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de pos Graduacao em Direito

    2008-07-01

    The change of the position of the State in relation to the economy, although brought the opening of the market to the foreign investments, brought the responsibility of this State in relation to its social aspect. The creation of public policy that could grow the development in the country has been the main goal of the governmental actions, also of its economic planning. This because, when it prevent itself of the direct action in the economy, the State brought for itself the control of some essentials sectors, amongst them the energy sector as well. The energy is a strategical good, the development of a society depends of that, and then, it must be faced as condition to assure the quality of life of the society of direct and indirect form. Therefore the energy is a character of social right, being necessary the implementation of public policies, to not only assure the access of all to the energy, as the rational use of this resource, therefore its it offers assures the independence of a nation in relation to others. It is in this direction that this work searches to analyze the guardianship of the policy of access to the energy by the State, in way this can accomplish the basic objectives of the Constitution, amongst them, the development. (author)

  10. Policies for accelerating access to clean energy, improving health, advancing development, and mitigating climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Smith, Kirk R; Anderson, Dennis; Epstein, Paul R; McMichael, Anthony J; Roberts, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul; Woodcock, James; Woods, Jeremy

    2007-10-06

    The absence of reliable access to clean energy and the services it provides imposes a large disease burden on low-income populations and impedes prospects for development. Furthermore, current patterns of fossil-fuel use cause substantial ill-health from air pollution and occupational hazards. Impending climate change, mainly driven by energy use, now also threatens health. Policies to promote access to non-polluting and sustainable sources of energy have great potential both to improve public health and to mitigate (prevent) climate disruption. There are several technological options, policy levers, and economic instruments for sectors such as power generation, transport, agriculture, and the built environment. However, barriers to change include vested interests, political inertia, inability to take meaningful action, profound global inequalities, weak technology-transfer mechanisms, and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to transform global markets. The need for policies that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate while addressing the energy needs of disadvantaged people is a central challenge of the current era. A comprehensive programme for clean energy should optimise mitigation and, simultaneously, adaption to climate change while maximising co-benefits for health--eg, through improved air, water, and food quality. Intersectoral research and concerted action, both nationally and internationally, will be required.

  11. Paradigms and poverty in global energy policy: research needs for achieving universal energy access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Bazilian, Morgan; Toman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This research letter discusses elements of a long-term interdisciplinary research effort needed to help ensure the maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits of achieving secure universal access to modern energy services. Exclusion of these services affects the lives and livelihoods of billions of people. The research community has an important, but not yet well-defined, role to play.

  12. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rai, Neha [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reber, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muzammil, Maliha [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Mahmood, Tasfiq [International Center for Climate Change and Development, Baridhara (Bangladesh); Kaur, Nanki [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Tesfaye, Lidya [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Mamuye, Simret [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Knuckles, James [Univ. of London (England). Cass Business School; Morris, Ellen [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); de Been, Merijn [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Steinbach, Dave [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Acharya, Sunil [Digo Bikas Inst. (Nepal); Chhetri, Raju Pandit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhushal, Ramesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  13. 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2003-01-01

    13, 14, 15, 16, 17 October 2003 2003-2004 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES Main Auditorium bldg. 500 (Renewable) Energy Policy in the EU Members States and the Accession States D. Reiche / Free University of Berlin, D The aim of this lecture is to discuss the transformation of the energy sectors in the EU with the main focus on obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources. Besides the EU-15 and the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. The factors which influence renewable energy development are described as the path dependencies/starting positions in energy policy (natural conditions for the RES, availability of fossil resources, use of nuclear power), the instruments for promoting renewable energies (as feed-in tariffs or quota obligations), the economic (level of energy prices, for example), technological (i.e. grid capacity), and cognitive environment.

  14. Universalization of access to modern energy services in Indian households-Economic and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B. Sudhakara; Balachandra, P.; Nathan, Hippu Salk Kristle

    2009-01-01

    Provision of modern energy services for cooking (with gaseous fuels) and lighting (with electricity) is an essential component of any policy aiming to address health, education or welfare issues; yet it gets little attention from policy-makers. Secure, adequate, low-cost energy of quality and convenience is core to the delivery of these services. The present study analyses the energy consumption pattern of Indian domestic sector and examines the urban-rural divide and income energy linkage. A comprehensive analysis is done to estimate the cost for providing modern energy services to everyone by 2030. A public-private partnership-driven business model, with entrepreneurship at the core, is developed with institutional, financing and pricing mechanisms for diffusion of energy services. This approach, termed as EMPOWERS (entrepreneurship model for provision of wholesome energy-related basic services), if adopted, can facilitate large-scale dissemination of energy-efficient and renewable technologies like small-scale biogas/biofuel plants, and distributed power generation technologies to provide clean, safe, reliable and sustainable energy to rural households and urban poor. It is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development involving government, NGOs, financial institutions and community groups as stakeholders.

  15. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  16. Instruments and options for environmental policy during the accession process of EU associated countries in the area of environment and energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, M.; Matthes, F.C.; Baer, S.; Oberthuer, S.; Krug, M.; Mez, L.; Tempel, S.

    2001-07-01

    With regard to the leading role of the EU in climate protection policies, it is important to consider the impact of the accession process on EU climate policy. This study includes the analysis of the most important issues related to environment and energy within the accession process, namely: 1) status quo and development of the energy sector and structural CO{sub 2} mitigation options; 2) legal gap assessment and analysis of performance in the accession process; 3) identification of implementation patterns through detailed policy analysis; 4) evaluation of co-operation projects in the field of environment and energy in order to develop new projects that promote the accession process. This volume includes comparative analysis of the five Accession Countries. The detailed analysis of each country is documented in five country reports, each in a separate volume available only on the attached CD. (orig.)

  17. KAUST Open Access policy

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2017-03-07

    The transition to open access (OA) is being driven by funders, libraries, researchers and publishers around the world, and is having an impact on us all. It is inevitable that different countries, organisations and disciplines are moving at different rates towards an OA model, and it is this that we will focus on in this session. Drawing on experiences from across Europe and the Middle East we will provide perspectives from both a global publisher and institutions based in the region. Taylor & Francis take a flexible, evidence-based approach to open access, providing a choice of publication routes for our authors, and a choice of agreements for our library customers. Carolyn will outline some of the open access developments, opportunities and challenges at Taylor & Francis. The library plays a critical role in facilitating open access for their researchers, from managing a repository to providing support and information on the OA publication process to their authors. Janis Tyhurst and Dr Imad Bachir will each give an overview of how this is being managed by their institution. There will be an opportunity for questions and discussion with the panel.

  18. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  19. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  20. Energy policy in Maghreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabah, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents energy policy in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia. Statistical data on fossil fuels reserves and renewable energy sources are given. This paper describes also energy consumption and energy conservation, power generation and interconnected power systems. 5 tabs

  1. Energy and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerici, A.

    2007-01-01

    Energy has taken with his reflections on the environment, the geopolitical aspects and its pervasive use in all activities a crucial role for sustainable development of our planet. The energy in the future will be increasingly a global problem [it

  2. American energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmuntz, L.

    1982-02-22

    US energy policy has oscillated between public- and private-sector responsibility for many years. The history of energy policies reflects the differences in consumption and production of six competing regional interests as well as strong philosophical and economic differences, which allow changes in voting patterns to bring abrupt changes in policy. Other factors affecting US policy are the quality of energy forecasts, the religious fervor of the proponents of a sustainable society, and conflict with some environmental regulations. Energy policies should address a broad range of possible scenarios, with a goal of providing adequate energy at the lowest possible cost and with reasonable security. The Reagan administration will support an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the reform of overseas investment regulations, and the reform of gas and electric utility regulations. It will not support the World Bank energy facility or bilaterial long-term minimum purchase agreement. It may support oil tariffs or price guarantees for domestic prototype facilities. 7 tables.

  3. Energy operations policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    It is reported that energy policy was designed following the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development review of the most pressing energy issues confronting Central and Eastern Europe and the republics of the former Soviet Union. The main features of the policy described in the document set the general framework for the Bank's energy operations. Energy strategies for particular countries are designed as an integral part of the Bank's individual country strategies. Tabs

  4. The French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.; Baulinet, Ch.; Lajoinie, A.

    2001-01-01

    France has to face strong energy challenges: a heavy energy bill, increasing supplies risk, no decreasing CO 2 emissions, deregulation of energy markets, nuclear controversy etc.. In consequence, the French government has defined a voluntaristic energy policy with a better balance between the development of renewable energies and the mastery of energy and without renouncing the advantages of nuclear energy. In parallel, the electric power and natural gas industries have to cope with the deregulation of energy markets and the resulting competition. This issue of 'Energies et Matieres Premieres' newsletter comprises 3 articles. The first one gives a general presentation of the French energy policy ('mobilizing our margins of manoeuvre without renouncing our stakes'): challenges of the energy policy (greenhouse effect, security of supplies, long-term worldwide energy context, European integration, nuclear contestation), stakes for France (evolution of production structure, advantages of the French energy status), renewable energies and energy saving, long-term view of the nuclear industry, managing together the dynamism of competition and the advantages of public utilities. The second article entitled 'energy for everybody: a challenge for the 21. century' is a reprint of the introduction of the information report registered on January 31, 2001 by the commission of production and exchanges of the French national assembly. The third article is a reprint of the summary of conclusions and recommendations of the IEA about the French energy policy. (J.S.)

  5. Japanese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Osamu

    2004-01-01

    Japanese energy situation, policy and the government budget plan for fiscal 2004 are explained. The degree of self-sufficiency of primary energy of Japan is about 4% (about 20% included with nuclear power), very small value. 90% oil, about 50% of energy in Japan, depend on the Middle East. The basic object of energy policy is to realize stabilized supply of energy corresponding to the request of environmental protection and efficiency. Three basic policies of energy plan consisted of 1) securing stabilized supply, 2) adapting to environment and 3) application of market principles. The measures contained 1) countermeasure of energy demand, 2) development, introduction and application of various kinds of energies such as nuclear power, new energy, natural gas and coal, 3) stabilized supply of oil, 4) electric and gas service system and 5) development of researches. (S.Y.)

  6. Community energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Melchor, N.; Redondo Quintela, F.

    1994-01-01

    The twelve Member states of the European Union will attempt to make their national energy policies converge. Nevertheless the basis of the so called ''Community Energy Policy'' is not this convergence but rather the achievement of a new internal market, the Energy Market, where sources and forms of energy may circulate freely between countries. This aim derives from a change of orientation, dating back some years, when market integration was attempted instead of continuing with the mere unification of national policies. In this paper we summarize the most relevant aspects of the liberalization process and give some of its internal and external repercussions on the European Union. (Author)

  7. Educational Access in India. Country Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Policy Brief describes and explains patterns of access to schools in India. It outlines policy and legislation on access to education and provides an analysis of access, vulnerability and exclusion. The quantitative data is supported by a review of research which explains the patterns of access and exclusion. It is based on findings from the…

  8. Energy policy of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2001-01-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  9. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    A common interest in developing a reliable, sustainable and affordable energy system was the main driver for the Nordic energy policy cooperation since the creation of the Nordic Council of Ministers. The diversity of the energy systems in the Nordic countries facilitated this cooperation, not le...

  10. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  12. Energy policy in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidegaard, M.

    2012-12-15

    Denmark has a long tradition of active energy policy, initiated by the first oil crisis in 1973. Over the years, numerous actions have been taken on the basis of a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament - both in order to reduce the energy consumption and in order to increase the share of renewable energy. Now, the cornerstones for the Danish energy future have also been laid. The Danish Government has set the long-term goal to abandon fossil fuels by 2050. An important milestone was reached in March 2012 with an Energy Agreement for the period 2012-2020 - again based on a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament. This Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy. In the present publication, a selection of past and present Danish energy policies is presented, together with the results achieved in terms of energy savings, use of renewables etc. (LN)

  13. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  14. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  15. US energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    After three years in power, the Reagan Administration has been able to reverse much of the US federal government's energy policy measures that had occurred since 1973, particularly the build-up that took place during the Carter presidency. Another change is a repudiation of social equity concerns, which were an important part of the energy policies of the Nixon, Ford and Carter presidencies. Instead of using government to direct energy policy, the Reagan Administration has stressed the pre-eminence of the private sector. One exception is nuclear energy, which the Administration strongly supports. While the Reagan policies implemented have increased economic efficiency and reduced federal-related budgets and staffs, they have caused environmental degradation and hardship on the poor. Yet their greatest implication is that of a nation less well prepared to handle a severe energy shortage. The Administration believes this is not a problem, based on its optimistic expectations of the extent of untapped resources worldwide and the resilience of the free market. (author)

  16. Energy policy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauen, Edvard; Bjoerndalen, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The authors argue that the current energy policy in Norway will inevitably lead to higher and more varying electricity prices in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe. The Energy Act works well, but politicians have not realized that Norway is now an integral part of the power market in Europe. The EU Commission considers that the Nordic model with regional prices in order to utilize the capacity of international (market splitting) is the best

  17. Open Access Policy for CERN Physics Publications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    CERN is committed to Open Access. It represents one of the values written in our Convention sixty years ago and is increasingly important for our Member States.   In the last edition of the Bulletin, this article described how CERN is doing with regards to open access publishing today. On Thursday this week, the Open Access Policy for CERN Physics Publications* was endorsed by the Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) and approved by the Director-General the same day . For any clarifications regarding the policy, please contact the Scientific Information Service library.desk@cern.ch. * A French version of the policy will be made available shortly.

  18. Energy policy and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thur, L.M. (ed.)

    1981-04-01

    Separate abstracts are prepared for six papers presented as the product of an international seminar on Energy Policy and Federalism in North America. Specially commissioned papers for the seminar are presented along with a summary of the discussions. The summary appears in English, French, and Spanish; the other papers are in English. (MCW)

  19. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? Will the current instrument portfolio be able...

  20. Energy access: Revelations from energy consumption patterns in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Leena; Goswami, Anandajit; Diljun, Gaurang Meher; Chaudhury, Saswata

    2012-01-01

    After decades of research on the subject of energy poverty and access and its impact on human development, the issue has finally gained global attention and commitment through the UN Secretary General's initiative on Sustainable Energy for All. However, the issue of what constitutes energy access and how such access can be supported by efficient subsidies remains a key question that does not have simple answers. At what point along the energy consumption and income spectrum does the energy access problem cease to be one of public policy, thereby letting the market take over? Using data from an extensive survey carried out by the Government of India, this paper highlights the complexities and inadequacies of using a normative consumption based approach to determine the scope and scale of interventions required. Factoring in the environmental and social pillars of sustainable development when defining access to modern energy forms would also significantly inform the level of effort involved in meeting the goal of energy access to all. - Highlights: ► Simple head count measures are inadequate to estimate the energy access challenge. ► The income and energy poor populations in a country need not completely overlap. ► Modern energy service delivery mechanisms, ensuring quality, essential for outcomes. ► Need to create enabling environment that empowers making of desired energy choices.

  1. Energy access theme results. Synthesis - compilation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karekezi, S (ed.)

    2004-04-30

    Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD). The GNESD 'Energy Access' Working Group have focused on examining the impact of energy sector reforms on the poor by responding to the following key questions: Have previous energy policy reforms addressed the energy access challenge facing the poor or have the reforms actually contributed to the growing problem of inadequate energy services for the poor in the developing world? Based on rigorous analysis, which are the proven and robust policy options that would lead to improved, cleaner and more sustainable energy services for the poor in the developing countries? (BA)

  2. Review of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986, the 1986 Annual Delegate Conference of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants set up a Working Party to review the Institution's energy policy, including safety and environmental factors. The review is presented in two volumes as the basis for discussion by the members. Volume I is the main report. Section A, the introduction, includes a summary of the detailed conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party. Section B (chapters 4-12) concerns all aspects of nuclear power including fuel reprocessing and waste management. Section C (chapters 13-16) considers the alternatives to nuclear power and Section D (chapters 17-24) looks at the economic and social aspects of energy policy. The appendices, which contain the detailed technical and source information used by the Working Party in reaching its conclusions, are printed separately in Volume II. (UK)

  3. [Energy policy rather than climate policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonenberg, Salomon B

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy and climate policy are two different issues and should not be treated as if they were the same. Whether the climate gets warmer or colder, saving energy and developing sustainable forms of energy production remain of paramount importance because fossil hydrocarbons are likely to be exhausted soon. But climate policy is a fallacy: it is human arrogance to think we can control the climate by reducing emissions and by storing CO2 underground. In spite of rising CO2 levels, the climate has cooled down slightly over the past decade. Since the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) did not predict this, it is questionable whether they can reliably predict warming. Other factors such as solar activity are probably more important for climate than greenhouse gases. The danger of coupling energy policy to climate policy is evident: if the climate cools down, people will lose belief in the greenhouse effect and therefore also lose interest in saving energy.

  4. Time dependent policy-based access control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasilikos, Panagiotis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2017-01-01

    Access control policies are essential to determine who is allowed to access data in a system without compromising the data's security. However, applications inside a distributed environment may require those policies to be dependent on the actual content of the data, the flow of information, while...... also on other attributes of the environment such as the time. In this paper, we use systems of Timed Automata to model distributed systems and we present a logic in which one can express time-dependent policies for access control. We show how a fragment of our logic can be reduced to a logic...... that current model checkers for Timed Automata such as UPPAAL can handle and we present a translator that performs this reduction. We then use our translator and UPPAAL to enforce time-dependent policy-based access control on an example application from the aerospace industry....

  5. Checklist "Open Access Policies": Analysis of the Open Access Policies of Public Universities in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bauer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This checklist provides an overview of the Open Access policies implemented at Austrian universities and extramural research institutions. Furthermore, the polices adopted at nine public universities are analyzed and the respective text modules are categorized thematically. The second part of the checklist presents measures for the promotion of Open Access following the implementation of an Open Access policy.

  6. 49 theses on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1977-01-01

    The theses presented refer to the following subjects: 1) economic growth and energy consumption, 2) energy policy and primary energies, 3) nuclear energy, 4) licensing procedures, 5) administrative problems, 6) international integration of energy policy, and 7) long-term forecasts. (GG) [de

  7. Widening energy access in Africa: Towards energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokona, Youba; Mulugetta, Yacob; Gujba, Haruna

    2012-01-01

    The discussion to widen access to modern energy services has been influential in shaping some of the discussions on energy at the international level. The practice of widening modern energy services access to the poor in Africa is complex, and exacerbated by the dual nature of the energy system across Sub-Saharan Africa where traditional and modern energy systems and practices co-exist. This presents major challenges for policy makers who have to contend with a fragmented energy system, which requires the mobilisation of an array of actors at cross-sectoral levels in order to develop effective institutions and implement innovative policy frameworks. This paper further argues that, the ‘energy access’ discussion needs to take place in the context of energy transitions, giving due consideration to the productive sector as an important vehicle for change. As the link between energy and development is context specific, each African country needs to chart its own energy transition pathway into the future, and there are ample lessons that they can draw from previous energy transitions. - Highlights: ► Lack of access to modern energy services in Africa is an impediment to socio-economic development. ► Widening modern energy services access to the poor in Africa is complex. ► A broader approach to address the ‘energy access’ discourse is required. ► Each African country needs to chart its own energy transition pathway. ► Both fossil and renewable energy systems would be needed for a transition to modern energy sources.

  8. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  9. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  10. Synergies in the Asian energy system: Climate change, energy security, energy access and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Krey, Volker; McCollum, David; Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan

    2012-01-01

    We use the MESSAGE model to examine multiple dimensions of sustainable development for three Asian regions in a set of scenarios developed for the Asian Modelling Exercise. Using climate change mitigation as a starting point for the analysis, we focus on the interaction of climate and energy with technology choice, energy security, energy access, and air pollution, which often have higher policy priority than climate change. Stringent climate policies drive the future energy supply in Asia from being dominated by coal and oil to a more diversified system based mostly on natural gas, coal with CCS, nuclear and renewable energy. The increase in diversity helps to improve the energy security of individual countries and regions. Combining air pollution control policies and universal energy access policies with climate policy can further help to reduce both outdoor and indoor air pollution related health impacts. Investments into the energy system must double by 2030 to achieve stringent climate goals, but are largely offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution abatement. Strong focus on end-use efficiency also helps lowering overall total costs and allows for limiting or excluding supply side technologies from the mitigation portfolio. Costs of additional energy access policies and measures are a small fraction of total energy system costs. - Highlights: ► Half of added investments in energy offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution. ► Costs for achieving universal energy access much smaller than energy system costs. ► Combined emissions and access policies further reduce air pollution impacts on health. ► Strong focus on end-use efficiency allows for more flexibility on energy sources. ► Stringent climate policy can improve energy security of Asian regions.

  11. Public Policies of Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, Yves; Pehlivanian, Sophie; Teissier, Pierre; Chauvin-Michel, Marion; Forget, Marie; Raymond, Roland; Hyun Jin Yu, Julie; Popiolek, Nathalie; Guthleben, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This dossier about the Public Policies of Solar Energy brings together the presentations given in June 2013 at a colloquium organised by the Savoie university of Chambery (France): Introduction (Yves Bouvier, Sophie Pehlivanian); Passive solar energy in the shade of the French energy policy, 1945-1986 (Pierre Teissier); Solar architectures and energy policies in France: from oil crisis to solar crisis (Marion Chauvin-Michel); Sun in media, between promotion and contestation (Sophie Pehlivanian); Public policies of solar energy and territorial jurisdictions: the example of village photovoltaic power plants (Marie Forget); Energy social system and ordinary creative movement (Roland Raymond); The Historical Evolution of South Korea's Solar PV Policies since the 1970's (Julie Hyun Jin Yu, Nathalie Popiolek); Research on solar energy from yesterday to the present day: an historical project (Denis Guthleben); Photovoltaic power: public policies and economical consequences. The French choices in the international context - 1973-2013 (Alain Ricaud)

  12. Enabling innovations in energy access: An African perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Nkomo, Jabavu; Sokona, Youba

    2012-01-01

    Conventional energy technologies and deployment approaches cannot be relied upon to eliminate energy poverty in Africa. Innovations in energy access are necessary. Previous attempts at introducing and scaling up innovative solutions do not sufficiently address dynamic and structural determinants of success. This limits their actual performance as scalable drivers of innovations in technology, policy and institutions. Using technological innovation systems theory, we demonstrate a practical approach to assess the sustainability of innovations in energy access, and develop a framework to guide energy policy makers, clean energy entrepreneurs and energy-development researchers. - Highlights: ► Innovative technologies and policies are needed to expand energy access. ► TIS approach can guide the formulation and deployment of sustainable energy innovations. ► Learning by exploring and doing are the keys to entrepreneurial success. ► Lack of infrastructure and institutional frameworks are major barriers to innovations. ► Government intervention is needed to eliminate barriers to innovations.

  13. NESDIS OSPO Data Access Policy and CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, M. G.; Donoho, N. A.; McNamara, D.; Paquette, J.; Renkevens, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) is the NESDIS office responsible for satellite operations, product generation, and product distribution. Access to and distribution of OSPO data was formally established in a Data Access Policy dated February, 2011. An extension of the data access policy is the OSPO Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Database, which has been in development since 2008 and is reaching a critical level of maturity. This presentation will provide a summary of the data access policy and standard operating procedure (SOP) for handling data access requests. The tangential CRM database will be highlighted including the incident tracking system, reporting and notification capabilities, and the first comprehensive portfolio of NESDIS satellites, instruments, servers, applications, products, user organizations, and user contacts. Select examples of CRM data exploitation will show how OSPO is utilizing the CRM database to more closely satisfy the user community's satellite data needs with new product promotions, as well as new data and imagery distribution methods in OSPO's Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC). In addition, user services and outreach initiatives from the Satellite Products and Services Division will be highlighted.

  14. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  15. Right of access to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Triana, Yanelys; Fariñas Wong, Ernesto Yoel

    2015-01-01

    Energy is essential for the development of our life and for the development of production capacity. However, a number of people worldwide without this living, specifically power. To the extent that increase energy needs for domestic, industrial and agricultural use, each day more indispensable need access to this recognition as a human right or fundamental respect is made, so some questions in this paper are required both denominations, being essential to consider the emergence and evolution of these. An analysis of the international protection they receive the right of access to energy services, although currently there are no international treaties that specifically recognize it also performs a number of initiatives that promote its preservation manifested and recognized in several abstractly legal instruments, such as declarations, covenants and conventions. (full text)

  16. Energy access and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry

    2015-03-01

    With 1.4 billion people lacking electricity to light their homes and provide other basic services, or to conduct business, and all of humanity (and particularly the poor) are in need of a decarbonized energy system can close the energy access gap and protect the global climate system. With particular focus on addressing the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytical framework informed by historical trends and contemporary technological, social, and institutional conditions that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. We find that the current day is a unique moment of innovation in decentralized energy networks based on super-efficient end-use technology and low-cost photovoltaics, supported by rapidly spreading information technology, particularly mobile phones. Collectively these disruptive technology systems could rapidly increase energy access, contributing to meeting the Millennium Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, energy systems.

  17. Energy policies of IEA countries: 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This compilation contains a broad analysis of recent trends and an easily accessible overview of energy policy of the 26 member countries of the International Energy Agency and other key non-member countries such as China, India and Russia, during the last 12 months. The overview section examines trends in energy markets, including an analysis of energy demand and supply, energy prices and energy related CO{sub 2} emissions. It highlights key policy trends across member and non-member countries on energy security, energy market reform, climate change mitigation, energy efficiency, renewables and energy R&D. The book contains a special chapter on energy efficiency, which compares the most successful efficiency policies of member countries on the basis of In-Depth Review findings of the past three years. It also presents the major findings of the World Energy Outlook 2006, key statistical information and brief summaries of major IEA publications released during the past year. In past years summaries of In-Depth Reviews conducted in the cycle covered by this book, as well as Standard Reviews, were published as part of the book. From this year they will only be available from the IEA's website on www.iea.org. Chapter headings are: Executive summary; Energy efficiency; World energy outlook 2006; Energy security; Energy market reform; Climate change; Renewable energy; Technology, research and development; Energy policies in key non-member countries; and Energy balances and key statistical data of IEA countries. 25 figs., 11 tabs., 4 annexes.

  18. Energy policy of Lower Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirche, W.

    1988-01-01

    The government of the Land Lower Saxony in February 1988 submitted a new energy programme intended to define the energy-political boundary data for energy industry and energy consumers, and to bring about the broadest possible consensus for the implementation of this energy policy between politicians, the energy industry and the population. The Minister of Economy of Lower Saxony in his statement refers particularly to the topics nuclear energy and coal, renewable energies, structure of areas to be supplied with energy, and considerations relating to a revision of the antitrust laws. (orig.) [de

  19. An energy policy for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document takes stock on the future energy policy of Europe. It discusses successively the challenges, the sustainability, the security of supply, the competitiveness, a strategic objective to guide europe energy policy, the action plan, the internal energy market, the solidarity between member states and security of supply for oil gas and electricity, a long term commitment to greenhouse gases reduction and the EU emissions trading System, the ambitious program of energy efficiency measures at Community national local and international level, a longer term target for renewable energy, a european strategic energy technology plan, a turn towards a low CO 2 fossil fuel future, the future of Nuclear, an international energy policy that actively pursues europe interests, the effective monitoring and reporting and how taking work forwards. (A.L.B.)

  20. Strategies of Chinese energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, G.

    2007-01-01

    In order to close the growing gap between stagnant domestic production and expanding consumption China has sought to reform its energy sector and diversify both its energy mix and sources. Securing supplies from abroad has become a major drive of the country's foreign policy and China's aggressive pursue of energy security on the international scene has increasing become a major global concern [it

  1. Slovak Republic - energy policy review 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country's EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership. 39 refs., 32 tabs., 4 apps.

  2. Energy pricing policy in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davood Manzoor

    1995-01-01

    Low energy prices in Iran do not reflect economic costs. Further distortions exist in the tariff structures of most energy sources and in their relative prices. Price reform is a key policy element for achieving increased energy conservation and economic substitution. Subsidies should be made transparent and explained by the Government, and, when eliminated, they could be compensated by target measures or direct subsidies for low income households. Price reforms are under way, with some caution though, because of possible political and inflationary consequences. In order to better understand the need for price reforms a brief analysis of the current energy pricing policy is provided there. (author)

  3. Accelerating access to energy services: Way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Hafeezur Rehman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As nearly a fifth of the world's population still lives without access to electricity and double that number with no access to modern cooking technologies, both public and private sector players have invested resources in developing infrastructure to address this energy gap. While there have been exceptional cases like China, Vietnam and Brazil, where the public sector led grid expansion achieved incredible gains in expanding access as to electricity, the general trend over the years in most developing countries has demonstrated that both public and private led approaches have been unsuccessful in independently yielding the desired acceleration and continuity to deliver universal energy access. Despite the inherent benefits of both public and private sector led initiatives, typical systemic inefficiencies and inadequate capacities in both approaches prevent them from fully addressing the principal objective of facilitating energy access for the poor in the long term. Also, even if required investments were adequately capitalized, with the current population growth rate continually outpacing the rate of interventions, the number of people who remained energy poor 15 years hence, would still be the same. Thus, not only is there is a need for providing energy access to the existing population mass, but an equal need to do it fast enough to truly reduce the number of energy poor across the globe. An alternative approach therefore needs to be explored that juxtaposes the social welfare objectives of public sector led initiatives with the enterprise development and growth objectives of the private sector, to support the creation of an enabling ecosystem and a viable value chain that successfully and effectively delivers energy solutions to the last mile. Such a pro-poor hybrid model will essentially address the inefficiencies and inadequacies of both public and private approaches and capitalize on their strengths through a complementary mix of social

  4. Energy policy of North Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueth, G.

    2006-01-01

    Since the year 1990, North Korea suffers internal-policy problems as well as foreign-political problems. The gross domestic investment decreased by 3.8% yearly between the years 1990 and 1998. Many actual problems of North Korea correspond with the energy crisis in this land affecting nearly all sectors of economy and society. This energy crisis was released by the fact, that the former Soviet Union has stopped the supply of primary energy in the year 1991. In the contribution under consideration, the author reports on the energy policy of North Korea. The main themes of this contribution are: (a) Development and characteristics of the energy sector; (b) Crisis of the energy sector; (c) Consequences of the energy crisis in North Korea; (d) Possibilities of the solution of the energy crisis. For the U.S.A. and the international community, the energy crisis offers the possibility to turn North Korea to negotiations by means of remedial measures in the energy sector. In response, North Korea should drop its nuclear energy program. Apart from such positive incentives, the threat of sanctions is conceivable. North Korea imports nearly 70 % of its oil demand from the People's Republic of China. Therefore, China has an great influence on North Korea. The energy crisis of North Korea shows the fatal consequences of a falsely performed energy policy with respect to the population of this land and with respect to the stability and disposing capacity of the political leadership

  5. International study on energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A study, presented in September 2004 at the world energy council congress of Sydney (Australia) by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) evaluates the energy efficiency policies and their impact in 63 countries, and in particular in the developing countries. It has permitted to identify the five most efficient measures about which case studies have been given to subject specialists for thorough analysis. Completed in July 2004, this triennial report has been carried out by the Ademe and the World energy council with the joint collaboration of the Latin American energy organization (Olade) and the Asia Pacific energy research centre (Aperc) under the coordination of Enerdata agency. This short article makes a brief summary of this presentation: energy efficiency at the global scale, transport sector, world power consumption and CO 2 emissions, evaluation of energy efficiency policies and measures (institutions and programmes, efficiency labels and standards for household appliances, innovative financing means, local information centers). (J.S.)

  6. Energy policies of Iea countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Australia, including recommendations on future policy developments. Australia has increased energy production and exports particularly coal, and has contributed to better energy availability, both domestically and in the Asian Region. The country has also made considerable progress towards liberalizing and increasing competition in the electricity and gas markets. These reforms should provide major benefits to consumers in terms of lower prices and greater choice. There remains room for improvement in the areas of energy efficiency and in climate change policies. In these areas especially there is a need for better co-ordination between Commonwealth policies and those of the state governments, which vary widely. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-four Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author)

  7. Do open access data policies inhibit innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a great deal of attention paid recently to the idea of data sharing (Van Noorden 2014, Beardsley 2015, Nature Publishing Group2015, www.copdess.com). However, the vast majority of these arguments are in agreement and present as fait accompli the idea that data are a public good and that therefore, once published, they should become open access. In fact, although there are many good reasons for data sharing, there also are a number of cogent and coherent cases to be made against open-access policies (e.g., Fenichel and Skelly 2015). The goal of this piece is not to debate the relevance or accuracy of the points made in favor of data sharing but to elevate the discussion by pointing out key problems with open-access policies and to identify central issues that, if solved, will enhance the utility of data sharing to science and society.

  8. Energy justice and U.S. energy policy: Case study applications exploring U.S. energy policy through an energy justice framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehoda, Emily W.

    This thesis presents three examples of U.S. energy policy and demonstrates how these policies violate the principles of energy justice. First, requiring only Federal agencies to obtain a percentage of energy production from renewables violates the distributive energy justice principle through a lack of a federal renewable energy policy which distributes the potential for unequal electrical grid failure to populations. Second, U.S. energy policy violates the procedural energy justice principle through inequitable participation and poor knowledge dissemination that, in some cases, contributes to stagnant renewable targets during the decision-making process and inequitable distribution of the benefits associated with renewable energy arguably resulting from differential representation of economic groups in policy decision making. Third, the United States' continued reliance on and subsidization of fossil fuel extraction and use, violates the prohibitive energy justice principle by causing physical harm to humans and the environment. Finally, a lack of federal renewable energy policy hinders comprehensive energy policy including diversifying the U.S. renewable energy portfolios. Considering energy policy through the framework of energy justice offers a means of evaluating existing policy and can improve future energy policy decision-making. Demanding energy justice ensures that all populations have equitable distribution, participation, and access to affordable, efficient, and clean energy technologies that contribute to obtaining basic needs.

  9. Nuclear Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-10

    reactor concepts, such as sodium-cooled fast reactors and molten salt reactors, were also to continue. For FY2010, the House Appropriations...provided for uranium enrichment plants, and $18 billion in authority was provided for non-nuclear energy technologies, such as renewable energy.26...2 billion was for carbon capture and sequestration, and $2 billion was for uranium enrichment. The time limits on the loan guarantee authority were

  10. Nuclear energy: French government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the French government policy concerning nuclear energy and alternative sources of energy for the next 10 years. This report overviews the situation of Super-Phenix fast reactor and presents the implications of the 30/12/1999 decree (Bataille's law) about the management of radioactive wastes

  11. Ukraine: energy policy review 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-13

    Ukraine has one of the most energy-intensive economies in the industrialized world. While energy consumption has dropped since the country's independence, reliance on imports, particularly on gas from Russia, has not declined. This dependence increases risks for security of supply. As tension between Ukraine and its main energy supplier has grown in recent years, the country's energy policy is driven by a strong desire to improve domestic energy security and reduce natural gas imports. Energy transit through the Ukraine is significant. Due to its geographic position, the country plays a major role in securing Europe's energy needs: 84% of Russian gas supplies to Europe transit through Ukraine via pipeline. This report addresses how Ukraine can meet its energy challenges. Three priority areas for action identified are: energy efficiency, cost-reflective pricing, and transparency. Efficiency represents not only Ukraine's single best opportunity to improve energy security but is also vital for the country's growth and development. The review covers all aspects of the energy sector, such as energy demand, the policy framework, and sub-sectors including energy efficiency, oil, gas, coal, electricity, district heating and renewable energy.

  12. Alumni access policies in public university libraries | Burclaff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the current library access policies for alumni at a public university system using document analysis, observations and interviews. We found that alumni are specifically addressed in only two library access policies, and borrowing privileges through cards, on-site access and restricted access to electronic ...

  13. Energy policy aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattick, W.

    1980-01-01

    A general survey on the development of the total energy sector of the Federal Republic of Germany is given; the comparative presentations cover up to two decades. After some fundamental remarks on the development of the gross national product, primary energy and gross electricity consumption, as well as on the balance of performance and trade of the FRG with the OPEC countries the consumer behaviour is discussed in particular. This behaviour has scarcely changed between 1973 and 1979. The increasing demand and other omissions in the power plant construction resulting from various causes make stronger efforts in the construction of nuclear power plants necessary. (UA) [de

  14. Nuclear Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    77,000 square miles were significantly contaminated by radioactive cesium.51 Greenpeace issued a report in 2006 estimating that 200,000 deaths in Belarus...Impacts, International Atomic Energy Agency, April 2006. 52 Greenpeace . The Chernobyl Catastrophe: Consequences on Human Health, April 2006, p. 10

  15. Finland's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, A.

    1977-01-01

    In describing Finland's energy political situation, it is pointed out that the climate makes necessary the use of large amounts of energy for heating and Finland's geography also requires the use of large amounts in the communication system. Finnish industry, based on the exploitation and refinement of the natural resources of wood and minerals, also consumes large amounts of energy. Hydroelectric resources, which supplied half the energy esed in the early 1960s, are virtually totally exploited. Oil is imported from the USSR and coal from USSR and Poland on long-term contracts. Nuclear power plants have been purchased from the USSR (the Loviisa 1 and 2 plants) and from Sweden (TVO 1 and 2). The uranium for the latter plants is purchased from Canada and will be enriched in the USSR, while the fuel element manufacture will take place in Sweden. Negotiations with the USSR for the purchase of a 1000 MW nuclear power plant are under way. If future power production is also based on nuclear power, then 30 % of the power in year 2000 will be nuclear. (JIW)

  16. Energy policy; Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkel, Manuel

    2013-07-01

    The energy supply is one of the substantial lifelines of society. A strong potential for conflict, and thus a particular political need for control result from their high importance and the diverging interests of a variety of social groups. [German] Die Energieversorgung ist eine der materiellen Lebensadern einer Gesellschaft. Aus ihrer hohen Bedeutung und den voneinander abweichenden Interessen einer Vielzahl gesellschaftlicher Gruppen ergeben sich ein starkes Konfliktpotenzial und damit ein besonderer politischer Steuerungsbedarf.

  17. Energy Efficiency Policy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beravs, F.

    1998-01-01

    When Slovenia gained its independence in 1991, its energy sector was characterised by largely centralised state planning and artificially low prices maintained by widespread subsidies. Supply side considerations tended to dominate the energy policy and sectoral planning. As a result the final energy intensity in Slovenia was (still albeit declining) considerably higher than the EU average. In order to support economic growth and transition to a modern market economy, integrated and competitive in the European and world market structures, the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia adopted a resolution on the Strategy of Energy Use and Supply of Slovenia in early 1996. In the field of energy use, the long-term strategic orientation is to increase energy efficiency in all sectors of energy consumption. The main objective can be summarised as to secure the provision of reliable and environmentally friendly energy services at least costs. In quantitative terms the Strategy attaches a high priority to energy efficiency and environmental protection and sets the target of improving the overall energy efficiency by 2% p.a. over the next 10 to 15 years. To achieve the target mentioned above the sectoral approach and a number of policy instruments have been foreseen. Besides market based energy prices which will, according to the European Energy Charter, gradually incorporate the cost of environment and social impacts, the following policy instruments will be intensified and budget-supported: education and awareness building, energy consultation, regulations and agreements, financial incentives, innovation and technology development. The ambitious energy conservation objectives represent a great challenge to the whole society. (author)

  18. Energy policy after 2020 : Economic arguments to pursue energy policy for non-climate related reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsis, V.; Koutstaal, P.; Tieben, B.; van Hout, M.; Hof, B.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the contribution of sustainable energy policy and energy saving policy to the public goals of energy policy in the Netherlands. Not surprisingly current discussion about sustainable energy policy focus on the contribution of energy policy to the goals of climate policy,

  19. Municipal energy and climate policy in a liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, H.

    2001-05-01

    as buyers of energy. The purchased energy can then be distributed to e.g. citizens categorised in the low-income group. It is expected that in a liberalised market energy prices will rise. In this competitive market energy companies are probably less willing to continue their service when bills are overdue or adapt their price when energy costs are unevenly high for certain groups. It is in these situations that local governments, using their new possible role as energy buyer and distributor, can make sure that for the lower income group access to energy is guaranteed, thus adding a new component to their social policy, reminiscent of the days before the liberalisation process, when local governments controlled local energy supply. 8 refs

  20. Reforming Romanian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, S.

    1993-01-01

    Success in reforming energy sector depends on the implementation of the programme of economic reform agreed in February 1993. The difficulty of the negotiations between the International Monetary Fund and the Romanian government reflects the wider difficulties faced by the economy as a whole. They can be blamed in part on the legacy of uneconomic and inflexible industrial development and in part on opposition from interest groups which stand to lose from reform. Nonetheless, in spite of hesitant approach, the government does appear committed to the economic reform necessary to establish a market-oriented economy. But as the danger of a financial crisis engendered by the inadequately supported short-term borrowing of foreign exchange becomes urgent, the question is whether economic reform can be now implemented fast enough to protect economic enterprises and saving from a debt crisis. The scope for further delay in implementing the 1993 economic reform programme is fast disappearing. Procrastination should not be allowed to threaten the success of the reforms achieved in the energy and other sectors of the economy. 8 refs., 2 figs

  1. Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy: A critical analysis of China's policy approach to renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Andrews-Speed, Philip; Zhao, Xiaoli; He, Yongxiu

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's policy approach to renewable energies and assesses how effectively China has met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. First we briefly discuss the interactions between these two policies. Then we outline China's key renewable energy and renewable industrial policies and find that China's government has well recognized the need for this policy interaction. After that, we study the achievements and problems in China's wind and solar PV sector during 2005–2012 and argue that China's policy approach to renewable energies has placed priority first on developing a renewable energy manufacturing industry and only second on renewable energy itself, and it has not effectively met the ideal of appropriate interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. Lastly, we make an in-depth analysis of the three ideas underlying this policy approach, that is, the green development idea, the low-carbon leadership idea and indigenous innovation idea. We conclude that Chinas' policy approach to renewable energies needs to enhance the interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy. The paper contributes to a deeper understanding of China's policy strategy toward renewable energies. -- Highlights: •Interactions between renewable energy policy and renewable energy industrial policy are discussed. •China's key renewable energy and renewable energy industrial policies are outlined. •Two empirical cases illustrate China's policy approach to renewable energies. •We argue that China needs to enhance the interactions between the two policies. •Three ideas underlie China's policy approach to renewable energies

  2. European Union Energy Saving Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Y. Kaveshnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses methods of energy efficiency stimulation in the European Union. The author investigates basic areas of the EU activity; in particular, the author estimates results of implementation of the Energy Star program, new provisions of labeling of energy-using products, measures to increase energy efficiency in buildings. The paper also analyzes the provisions of the Directive 2012/27 that is the first EU document, providing for a comprehensive approach to energy saving at all stages: production, transformation and consumption. Today EU policy includes: 7 a general political and regulatory framework laid down by the European action plan on energy efficiency and Directive 2012/27; 2 national action plans on energy efficiency, which should be in line with indicative targets set at the EU level; 3 special EU documents in key areas of energy efficiency (buildings, energy-consuming equipment etc.; 4 accompanying instruments, such as target funding, information dissemination, support of specialized networks. The paper gives a comprehensive analysis of the key methods of implementation of EU policy in the area of energy saving. The author concludes that EU operates within the framework of the open method of coordination. The system of mandatory/voluntary technical standards has allowed to achieve significant success, but indicative planning and monitoring of national actions are not completely effective. In the long term EU policy in the area of energy efficiency is restrained by member states unwillingness to delegate to the European Union a more detailed powers in this field and to give the EU bodies facilities to execute more strict control. In the short term - in conditions of economic crisis, the EU countries are not ready to invest significant budget funds in projects with long payback period.

  3. Institutional analysis for energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Cole, R.J.

    1980-07-01

    This report summarizes principles, techniques, and other information for doing institutional analyses in the area of energy policy. The report was prepared to support DOE's Regional Issues Identification and Assessment (RIIA) program. RIIA identifies environmental, health, safety, socioeconomic, and institutional issues that could accompany hypothetical future scenarios for energy consumption and production on a regional basis. Chapter 1 provides some theoretical grounding in institutional analysis. Chapter 2 provides information on constructing institutional maps of the processes for bringing on line energy technologies and facilities contemplated in RIIA scenarios. Chapter 3 assesses the institutional constraints, opportunities, and impacts that affect whether these technologies and facilities would in fact be developed. Chapters 4 and 5 show how institutional analysis can support use of exercises such as RIIA in planning institutional change and making energy policy choices.

  4. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  5. Energy security and national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    To achieve an energy secure future, energy cannot be viewed as an isolated concern. It is part and parcel of a nation's economic, social, and political context. In the past important implications for the economy and national security have been ignored. Crash programs to deal with oil shortages in the seventies, crashed. In the eighties, oil surplus has been enjoyed. The energy situation could be quite different in the nineties. Statistics on energy supply and consumption of oil, coal, natural gas and electricity from nuclear power show that much progress has been made worldwide. However, about half of the world's oil will come from the Persian Gulf by 1995. Continued low oil prices could raise US imports to 60% of consumption by 1995. Persian Gulf tensions serve as reminders of the link between energy policy and national security policy. Energy policy must be based on market forces and concerns for national security. Strategic oil reserves will expand along with the availability of domestic oil and gas resources. Increased attention to conservation, diversification of energy resources, and use of alternative fuels can help reduce imports. Continued high-risk long term research and development is needed. Improved technology can reduce environmental impacts. Global markets need global cooperation. Energy has emerged as an important aspect of East-West relations. Europeans need to diversify their sources of energy. The soviets have proposed expanded collaboration in magnetic fusion science. A series of initiatives are proposed that together will ensure that economies will not become overly dependent on a single source of energy

  6. Renewable energies and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.; Pierret, Ch.; Lienemann, M.N.

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the interventions of political personalities on the topic of the renewable energies development policies and the necessity of financial incentives which have been discussed during the colloquium of thursday 4 april 2002 at Paris. (A.L.B.)

  7. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  8. Socio-compatible energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Albrecht, G.; Kotte, U.; Peters, H.P.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    The socio-compatibility project comprises three central analytical elements: 1) The arborescent value analysis: Eminent social groups (such as the trade-unions or the ecological institutes) were questioned on their values and criteria applied to evaluate different energy systems. 2) The energy system and scenario impact analysis: Indicators deduced from the arborescent value analysis serve to approximately cover the value dimensions affected by above criteria. 3) Impact analysis weighing executed by a group of arbitrarily chosen citizens. All reflections considered, it is evident that none of the energy policies discussed may claim the title 'socio-compatible'. The individual, i.e. neither scientist nor politician, cannot decide upon the socio-compatibility of one or the other concept. An altogether socially compatible solution accepted and classified as such by different social groups may only crystallize and be set against different options by the political formation of opinion. The studys' primary concern lies in furnishing information, i.e. aids for politicians having to decide on energy policies. Above all the study aimed at finding out about reactions, social protest, opposition or approval to be coped with by those who, having the say in political matters, want to speak up for one of the energy policies under public discussion. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Energy policy and market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    To reduce the dependence on petroleum remains the aim of the energy and economy policy which remains strictly oriented at market economy. Financial incentives granted by the government help to utilize the control function of the prices in energy saving and in the finding of new energy sources. The development of coal refining is continued and the supply with coal guaranteed from the long-term point of view. The structural change in the heat market is to concentrate on the expansion of the district heat supply and the utilization of the heat pump.

  10. Renewable energy policy: Enumerating costs reduces support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Darrick

    2017-08-01

    Renewable energy policies enjoy greater support compared to policies focused explicitly on climate change, and thus present a politically plausible path toward carbon emission reduction. However, new research shows that renewable energy policy support declines when people are informed about the policy costs for home energy bills.

  11. New partnerships and business models for facilitating energy access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, Akanksha; Krithika, P.R.; Palit, Debajit; Rakesh, Smita; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty years since the Rio Summit, the global community is still struggling to develop a world with universal access to sustainable energy services. The discussion on energy and its linkages with sustainable development is at the heart of the debate in achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper discusses the role of innovations in terms of partnerships and business models to enhance energy access, especially for those living at the so-called bottom of pyramid. The role of innovative energy options and policy choices that enable overall operationalization of energy access in developing countries as well as new forms of partnerships and innovative mechanisms that are based on established success, replicability and potential for scaling up has been examined through two case-studies, namely the Lighting a Billion Lives project and India's National Rural Electrification Programme. This paper suggests the need for new forms of public and private sector partnerships, especially the pro-poor ones that are effective in enhancing energy access. - Highlights: ► We analyze the role of new partnerships and innovations in energy access. ► Emerging context of 5Ps in delivery of energy access is used for this analysis. ► LaBL and India's Rural Electrification programme used as examples. ► We recommend the need for pro-poor PPP for enhancing energy access.

  12. Financing low carbon energy access in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujba, Haruna; Thorne, Steve; Mulugetta, Yacob; Rai, Kavita; Sokona, Youba

    2012-01-01

    Modern energy access in Africa is critical to meeting a wide range of developmental challenges including poverty reduction and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite having a huge amount and variety of energy resources, modern energy access in the continent is abysmal, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Only about 31% of the Sub-Saharan African population have access to electricity while traditional biomass energy accounts for over 80% of energy consumption in many Sub-Saharan African countries. With energy use per capita among the lowest in the world, there is no doubt that Africa will need to increase its energy consumption to drive economic growth and human development. Africa also faces a severe threat from global climate change with vulnerabilities in several key areas or sectors in the continent including agriculture, water supply, energy, etc. Low carbon development provides opportunities for African countries to improve and expand access to modern energy services while also building low-emission and climate-resilient economies. However, access to finance from different sources will be critical in achieving these objectives. This paper sets out to explore the financial instruments available for low carbon energy access in Africa including the opportunities, markets and risks in low carbon energy investments in the continent. - Highlights: ► Access to finance will be critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa. ► Domestic finance will be important in leveraging private finance. ► Private sector participation in modern and clean energy in Africa is still low. ► Many financing mechanisms exist for low carbon energy access in Africa. ► The right institutional frameworks are critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa.

  13. Coal and American energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the role of coal in establishing America's energy security. There is no mismatch of subject and keynote, for in the truest sense the author's topic is nothing less than the health and safety of the United States. Both will begin with the way we handle things in the coal mines at the working face. If energy policy were a piece of new equipment, the National Energy Strategy would be the equivalent of specifications---what the new hardware should be capable of doing. The National Energy Security Act of 1991 is the blueprint for the equipment. The hardware still must be assembled, tested and perfected. Undertaken between oil-related U.S. military deployments to stabilize the oil-exporting regions of the Persian Gulf that dominate world markets, the strategy has two objectives. There are multiple threats to America's energy security

  14. IPCC Projections and Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. F.

    2008-05-01

    The United States and other developed nations are embarking on energy policies based on several contested IPCC hypotheses: (1) Climate warming of the last 30 years is anthropogenic, caused by the emission of greenhouse (GH) gases from fossil-fuel burning. (2) Continued use of fossil fuels will double CO2 by 2050 and lead to an unacceptable rise in global temperatures and sea levels. (3) The Kyoto Protocol and unilateral steps to control GH-gas emissions may be ineffective but are essential to inducing the rest of the world (ROW) to follow suit. But if warming is of natural origin rather than anthropogenic, then proposed policy steps will not be able to stop it. Also, sea levels will continue to rise, no matter what may be causing warming. Further, many competent economists believe that a warmer climate will be beneficial, on the whole. The 4th Assessment Report (2007) of the IPCC has been criticized by some as being too conservative in its projections. Others have faulted it for pessimistic projections or for ignoring evidence that contradicts its major conclusions. Most, however, consider the report a good compendium of the current state of climate science. In view of these widely different views by experts, what energy policies make sense? We will discuss (1) control schemes, like Cap & Trade or carbon taxes; (2) alternate fuels (like ethanol, hydrogen, etc); (3) renewable energy sources (hydro, nuclear, wind, solar); (4) carbon sequestration; and (5) energy conservation and efficiency improvements.

  15. Government policy and access to natural gas service in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plourde, A.; Ryan, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Canadian energy policy between the mid-1970's to the mid-1980's, consumers were encouraged to use fuels alternative to oil. The first set of policy issues involved measures to provide consumers with incentives to switch to non-oil-burning equipment, whereas the second set of. policy papers emphasized the expansion of the natural gas distribution system. More than $1 billion have been spent on the gas pipeline expansion project. Consequences of program expenditures in each province were examined. With the exception of Manitoba, it was found that annual net pipeline additions were higher during the program period, indicating that the program policies induced these activities to occur sooner than if the policies were not in place. Kilometres of gas pipeline per individual constructed was highest in Quebec, where construction proceeded mainly between the more densely populated centres. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and Alberta, the program encouraged natural gas pipeline construction in rural areas with lower populations. Without the program, these areas may not have had access to natural gas for a very long time. It was concluded that, in this, and some other instances, public investment had the effect of accelerating developments, or encouraging the completion of projects that otherwise would not have been undertaken. It was suggested that in the future decision-makers consider the costs of changes in activity patterns prior to designing such programs. 2 figs., 1 table

  16. Sustainable cities and energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capello, R.; Nijkamp, P.; Pepping, G.

    1999-01-01

    This book starts out with the optimistic perspective that modern cities can indeed play a strategic role in the necessary pathway to sustainable development, with particular emphasis on the opportunities offered by local energy and environmental initiatives. Our study aims to demonstrate that an urban sustainability policy has many socio-economic benefits, while it also seeks to identify the critical success and failure factors of sustainable city innovations. After a comprehensive review of various opportunities and experiences, attention is focused particularly on renewable energy resources which may offer new potential for the active involvement of local authorities. The study also highlights major impediments regarding the adoption and implementation of renewable energies, in particular, the development of advanced energy-environmental technology in a world dominated by natural (public) monopolies and/or monopolistic competition elements. In this context both theoretical and empirical elements are discussed, as well as institutional aspects. The theory and methodology is tested by a thorough empirical investigation into local renewable energy initiatives in three European countries, viz. Greece, Italy and The Netherlands. Based on an extensive data base, various statistical models are estimated in order to identify the key elements and major driving forces of sustainable development at the city level. And finally, the study is concluded with a long list of applicable and operational policy guidelines for urban sustainability. These lessons are largely based on meta-analytic comparative studies of the various initiatives investigated. (orig.)

  17. EU Policy. A Debate on EU Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.; Kjoelbye, L.; Aaslund, A.; Zwitserloot, R.

    2008-01-01

    Views from four experts in the field of energy on the EU's energy policy, as laid down in the Third Package, are presented. Kjoelbye and Cohen argue about the pros and cons of unbundling, Aaslund defends the policy of reciprocity towards Gazprom, and Zwitserloot warns that Europe's anti-Gazprom policy endangers security of supply

  18. Energy access. Current situation, challenges and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Globally over 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity and 2.6 billion people rely on the traditional use of biomass for cooking. Energy access is one of the major challenges of the 21. century as it is a lever for both economic and human development, at individual and national level. Moreover, energy access represents a high-potential market and offers a lot of opportunities for private companies and industrials. In this publication, ENEA lays out the current situation of energy access (actors, actual and future needs, existing technological solutions, markets). The publication addresses the main issues energy access has to face: energy price, equipment financing, distribution, scale-up, and environmental performances

  19. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  20. A Review of Open Access Self-Archiving Mandate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Gilchrist, Sarah B.; Smith, Nathaniel X. P.; Kingery, Justin A.; Radecki, Jennifer R.; Wilhelm, Marcia L.; Harrison, Keith C.; Ashby, Michael L.; Mahn, Alyson J.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the history of open access (OA) policies and examines the current status of mandate policy implementations. It finds that hundreds of policies have been proposed and adopted at various organizational levels and many of them have shown a positive effect on the rate of repository content accumulation. However, it also detects…

  1. The Trade Union approach to energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaghan, Bill

    1988-01-01

    A report is given by a Trade Union Congress representative to the UK Parliamentary group for Energy Studies on recent developments in TUC energy policy since 1984. The main changes are increasing attention to both public accountability and to environmental aspects of energy policy. Topics covered include nuclear energy, privatization of the electricity supply, the effects on coal and energy policy and long term security. (U.K.)

  2. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The main support scheme to stimulate electricity from renewable energy sources is a feed-in premium scheme. RES-E project developers with installations = 10 kW have to acquire access to this scheme by submitting successful bids in tenders. Subsidies and loans can be obtained by RES-E project developers through successful applications at the Climate Change Special Programme or the Lithuanian Environmental Investment Funds (investment subsidies only). RES-E plants are exempted from excise duty. Consumers with a small PV installation can benefit from net metering. Producers of heating and cooling from renewable energy sources are exempt from environmental pollution tax and are eligible for grants. Moreover, heat suppliers are obliged to purchase all heat produced from renewable energy sources. Renewable transport fuels are promoted through reimbursement of raw materials for bio-fuel production, a bio-fuels (blending) quota scheme as well as exemption from excise tax and environmental pollution tax

  3. Energy-economic policy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanstad, Alan H.

    2018-01-01

    Computational models based on economic principles and methods are powerful tools for understanding and analyzing problems in energy and the environment and for designing policies to address them. Among their other features, some current models of this type incorporate information on sustainable energy technologies and can be used to examine their potential role in addressing the problem of global climate change. The underlying principles and the characteristics of the models are summarized, and examples of this class of model and their applications are presented. Modeling epistemology and related issues are discussed, as well as critiques of the models. The paper concludes with remarks on the evolution of the models and possibilities for their continued development.

  4. Access to medicines: looking for policy and finding corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solongo Jargalsaikhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis aimed to determine whether countries with indicators of robust national drug policy also have good access to medicines, suggesting that policy has a positive effect. The authors also looked into other determinants of the variation in access to medicines across the countries. The study exploited massive data sets from World Health Organization, Health Action International, Transparency International and the World Bank. A sample of 37 low- and middle-income countries was chosen for the analysis. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association of access to medicines with national drug policy and externality variables of governance including corruption. No relationship was found between national drug policy and access to medicines in the public sector. However, this study did find a relationship between one of the governance indicators, control of corruption, and two important variables of access to medicines: generic medicine price and availability in public sector

  5. Access to medicines: looking for policy and finding corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solongo Jargalsaikhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis aimed to determine whether countries with indicators of robust national drug policy also have good access to medicines, suggesting that policy has a positive effect. The authors also looked into other determinants of the variation in access to medicines across the countries. The study exploited massive data sets from World Health Organization, Health Action International, Transparency International and the World Bank. A sample of 37 low- and middle-income countries was chosen for the analysis. Multiple linear regression was used to examine the association of access to medicines with national drug policy and externality variables of governance including corruption. No relationship was found between national drug policy and access to medicines in the public sector. However, this study did find a relationship between one of the governance indicators, control of corruption, and two important variables of access to medicines: generic medicines price and availability in the public sector.

  6. An integrated energy policy for Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tai-Yoo; Kim, Seung-Rae

    1993-01-01

    Economic theory defines a market failure when competitive markets cannot reach an equilibrium maximizing social welfare. One of its most typical examples has proved to be the energy market. Exhaustible energy resources provide the limits to economic growth, at least in the short term. Thus an energy policy for energy importing countries like Korea has been focused on minimizing the negative influences of external energy price shocks to the domestic economy. This study suggests one of the possible directions for an integrated energy policy which seeks to present a flow of policy rules which lead government policy to attain equilibrium, maximizing the national economic benefits by offsetting the market failure

  7. Policy Pathways: Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection.While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  8. XACML to build access control policies for Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Atlam, Hany F.; Alassafi, Madini, Obad; Alenezi, Ahmed; Walters, Robert; Wills, Gary

    2018-01-01

    Although the Internet of things (IoT) brought unlimited benefits, it also brought many security issues. The access control is one of the main elements to address these issues. It provides the access to system resources only to authorized users and ensures that they behave in an authorized manner during their access sessions. One of the significant components of any access control model is access policies. They are used to build the criteria to permit or deny any access request. Building an ef...

  9. Requirements for an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conant, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The central issue facing the US today lies in the rise of oil imports. No supergiant (5 billion barrels) oil discoveries have been made in the US. Production from existing fields is declining. The 1985-86 oil price collapse from $26 to less than $15 per barrel had a disastrous effect on the budgets of smaller oil companies which do most of the exploring, and on the service industry. Budgets for overseas exploration has been generally sustained. Oil prices are not expected to sustain domestic exploration. Gulf oil sources will, in the next five years, supply some 75 percent of all oil in international trade. Without an energy policy, involvement in Middle East oil will grow exponentially, as will the needs of others for Gulf oil. The natural gas situation is different, with a spare producing capacity of one trillion cubic feet this year, which could double next year. Natural gas deregulation has created an unbelievable mess in the requirements of producers/suppliers and purchasers to have dependable business arrangements. Coal is plentiful and will be until the end of time. Public opposition to emission problems and the greenhouse effect are an obstacle to greater use of coal. The nuclear option may be dead, with no new orders since 1978. Statistics are provided on proven world reserves of conventional crude oil, recoverable heavy oils, tar sands, and shale oil; which indicates for the long term an ability to transform the Geopolitics of oil away from the middle east. Energy options require energy R ampersand D, use of Alaskan gas, conservation and efficiency in energy use, strategic reserves, close energy relations with allies, and a government-industry link which insures meeting the US oil needs from the Western Hemisphere

  10. Mandating Access: Assessing the NIH's Public Access Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Staudt, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandated that the full text of NIH-supported articles be made freely available on PubMed Central (PMC) -- the largest and most commonly used repository of biomedical literature. This paper examines how this "PMC mandate" impacted publishing patterns in biomedicine and researcher access to the biomedical literature. Using ~1 million NIH articles and several matched comparison samples, I find that NIH articles are more likely to be published in t...

  11. Expanding Access to Pro-Poor Energy Services in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleri, Ewah Otu; Ugwu, Okechukwu; Onuvae, Precious

    2012-10-15

    Nigeria experiences a remarkable paradox -- the abundance of energy resources and widespread energy poverty. Only about 40% of the population has access to the country’s grid electricity. About 72% of the population depends on traditional fuelwood for cooking. Despite this, government financing of energy services that benefits majority of Nigeria’s population has been grossly inadequate. Private sector investments and donor support have not fared better. This paper examines the current level of energy poverty in Nigeria. It analyses the level of government, private sector and donor funding for energy services that benefit the poor. It further reviews international best practices in expanding access for pro poor energy services. The paper finds a significant decline in political interest for expanding electricity services to rural areas. Even though ambitious policy reforms have commenced, agreed programmes are not implemented effectively. Not only are investments in rural electrification in decline, there is no history of annual budgeting for cooking energy programmes. The paper recommends a number of action points for expanding access to energy services that benefit the poor. These include the development and launching of a new national rural electrification strategy; establishment of a national cooking energy programme; and the development of clear policy incentives to support private sector investment in energy services for the poor. It calls on the Nigerian Central Bank of Nigeria to set aside 10% of the existing power intervention fund for pro poor energy financing; and the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission to establish a clear framework for the utilization of the Consumer Assistance Fund. Other recommendations include the use of a proportion of the Ecological Fund to finance cooking energy; establishment of a donor’s platform on pro poor energy; and the mobilization of civil society in providing community-level energy services.

  12. Towards a European Energy Community: A Policy Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andoura, Sami; Hancher, Leigh; Van Der Woude, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The think tank Notre Europe published its report on the future of European energy policy in April 2010 entitled 'Towards a European Energy Community: A policy proposal'. Initiated by Jacques Delors, this report is the harvest of the work of the Task Force of high-level European experts established by Notre Europe to study the feasibility of a European Energy Community. The report was elaborated by Marc van der Woude and Leigh Hancher as co-chairs and Sami Andoura as Rapporteur. The report gives an overview and assessment of the policies developed at European level so far and examines whether the existing European energy policy is capable of pursuing its three key objectives of 'affordable access to energy'; 'sustainable development' of energy production, transport, and consumption; and 'security-of-supply' in a consistent and credible manner. Relying on the conclusions that the existing European energy policy is suboptimal, the report puts forward a policy proposal for a genuine 'European Energy Community'. It explains why and what type of action is required to develop such Energy Community, identifying both the substantial elements which it should ideally cover and the legal and institutional policy instruments at the EU's disposal for developing it. The report finally examines how this model could be best achieved and develops several recommendations to that effect

  13. Informing the Financing of Universal Energy Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazilian, Morgan; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Gualberti, Giorgio

    Energy poverty is widely recognized as a major obstacle to economic and social development and poverty alleviation. To help inform the design of appropriate and effective policies to reduce energy poverty, we present a brief analysis of the current macro financial flows in the electricity and gas...

  14. Do we need an energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey.

    1992-01-01

    The debate on the two alternatives of planning or the free operation of market forces as a means of securing the nation's energy supply is of obvious political interest in this pre-election period in the United Kingdom. In UK Energy Policy Post Privatisation, the study reported here, the authors argue for an energy policy that is environment driven. (author)

  15. IEA energy policies review: the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-04

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? This publication addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy and Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R and D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  16. Open Access Policy for IDRC-Funded Project Outputs | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Spanish version (PDF, 228 kb). IDRC's open access policy is based on the belief that full social and economic benefits of research in support of development should be available to everyone who could use it – and build on it – to improve people's lives. The policy applies to all outputs resulting from proposals received after ...

  17. Public sector information access policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle Donker, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the digital age geo-information has become embedded in our daily lives, such as navigation systems, community platforms, real estate information and weather forecasts. Everybody uses geo-information for their day-to-day decision making. Therefore, access to geo-information is of vital importance

  18. Energy policies of IEA countries: 1994 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 edition contributes to the IEA's on-going analysis of countries'energy policies and market developments. it reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand and supply, efficiency, technology and environment. This year's Energy Policies includes: - critical reviews of all 23 IEA Member countries, including in-depth reviews of Finland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg and Switzerland; - a synthesis report highlighting major energy policy developments and market trends in IEA Member countries and an overview of significant energy developments elsewhere in the world; -an analysis of trends in key energy indicators over a twenty year period. (authors)

  19. EU Energy Policies Targeting the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL CALANTER

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Activities in the energy sector provide the greatest contribution to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG, which are assigned primary responsibility for producing climate change. The European Union puts great emphasis on the mitigation of the environmental impact of the energy sector, in particular concerning the combat against climate change, this fact being demonstrated by the implementation of policies by the EU in this field. This paper aims to analyse the most important Community energy policies with environmental effects, such as setting of climate and energy targets for 2030, policies on nuclear and renewable energy or measures to increase energy efficiency.

  20. Analysis of Access Control Policies in Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Operating systems rely heavily on access control mechanisms to achieve security goals and defend against remote and local attacks. The complexities of modern access control mechanisms and the scale of policy configurations are often overwhelming to system administrators and software developers. Therefore, mis-configurations are common, and the…

  1. Russia's Energy Policies and Ukraine's NATO Candidacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Imblum, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    .... The emerging interaction between Alliance enlargement and energy policies may yet affect Ukraine's future relationship with NATO as well as Russia and even determine which direction NATO takes...

  2. United States energy policy, 1980--1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report reviews the nation's energy policy over the past several years. It looks at how domestic oil, energy efficiency, natural gas, nuclear energy, and renewable energy resources can help maintain and enhance our energy security. It surveys advances in energy technologies from enhanced oil recovery to new clean coal processes. It also describes the federal research programs in the basic energy sciences and it outlines the environmental issues that may profoundly affect our future energy choices

  3. Renewable energies in the EU-Accession States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiche, Danyel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss obstacles and success conditions for renewable energy sources in the EU-Accession States and to compare them with the framework in the EU-15. Besides the ten states which will join the EU in 2004, Bulgaria and Romania which will probably join in 2007 as well as Turkey are analysed. Most of these countries have had a century-long tradition in the utilisation of RES, primarily in biomass and hydropower. However, the communist regimes were convinced of the superiority of large-scale systems and converted the energy sectors into centralised units. Due to this dominating belief system more decentralised applications such as installations using renewable energies had to close. One crucial driving force for future renewable energy development in the Accession States comes from the stipulations set by the EU. The EU-Directive on the promotion of electricity produced from RES gives the new EU-members targets for their RES-development until 2010. Due to the Directive many Accession States have already begun to pay more attention to the topic and to introduce more systematic policies. Six of the Accession States have introduced minimum tariffs which were one of the main success conditions (besides a stable and sound investment programme as well as favourable background conditions) in the leading wind energy countries Germany and Spain. Beside the external pressure by the EU and other international obligations other driving forces such as the path dependencies in the national energy policies (degree of coal, oil and gas exploitation, nuclear power use, import dependency), the political support schemes for renewable energies, possibilities of obtaining external financial support and the cognitive environment are discussed. Finally similarities and differences between EU-15 and Accession States are worked out

  4. A review on global wind energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Islam, M.R.; Rahim, N.A.; Solangi, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on the environment in addition to limited stock of fossil fuel have forced many countries to inquire into and change to environmentally friendly alternatives that are renewable to sustain the increasing energy demand. Energy policy plays a vital role to mitigate the impacts of global warming and crisis of energy availability. This paper explores the wind energy industry from the point of view of the wind energy policy. It is noticed that energy policy could help increasing wind power generation as well as stimulating the energy industry. It may be stated that without specific energy policy, a country would not be able to solve the acute problems like reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, scarcity of energy, etc. This paper discussed the existing successful energy policies for few selected countries. Based on literatures, it has been found that FIT, RPS, incentives, pricing law and Quota system are the most useful energy policies practiced by many countries around the world. Then, status of wind energy policy for Malaysia was investigated and compared with few selected countries around the world. (author)

  5. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  6. Competing policy packages and the complexity of energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Saunders, Harry

    2014-01-01

    To underscore both the diversity and severity of energy security tradeoffs, this study examines five different energy security policy packages—five distinct strategies aimed at reducing oil dependence, enhancing energy affordability, expanding access to modern energy services, responding to climate change, and minimizing the water intensity of energy production. It identifies both compelling synergies and conflicts between each of the five strategies. The central value of the study is that it turns on its head the widely accepted notion of a “portfolio approach” or “all of the above” strategy to energy policymaking. To make this case, the article begins by elucidating the complexity and multidimensionality of energy security as a concept. It then introduces our five energy security policy packages to illustrate how some energy security objectives complement each other whereas others counteract each other. It concludes by noting that energy security is not an absolute state, and that achieving it only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions, or policy goals and packages, more than others. - Highlights: • Energy security is a complex, multidimensional concept. • Policy packages aimed at achieving energy security often conflict with each other. • Energy security only “works” by prioritizing some dimensions more than others

  7. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  8. Away from adverse winds in energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkes, H.

    1981-10-01

    A member of the central heating industry comments critically on the official energy policy of the Federal government; he claims that energy conservation and optimum use of heating systems in domestic buildings should receive most attention.

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries. 1993 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Energy policies in Member countries's and the international energy situation are highlighted in this 1993 edition. It reviews recent trends and developments in energy demand, conservation and efficiency, supply of primary fuels, environment, technology and R and D. This year's Review also gives an overview of significant developments in key policy areas since the IEA's creation, on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. Member countries' energy policies are reviewed in depth on a four-year cycle. In-depth reviews of the energy policies of Austria, Denmark, Germany, Greece, the United Kingdom and the United States were conducted in 1993. Energy policy developments and supply and demand trends for the other 17 countries are updated from the previous in-depth reviews and summarized in this volume. (authors). figs., tabs

  10. A glance on the German energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    As Germany has decided to phase out nuclear by 2022 while aiming at ambitious objectives in terms of energy savings and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, this report first highlights the interest of such an energy transition. It discusses the immediate consequences of the shutting down of the first eight reactors. It gives an overview of the German energy mix and discusses the objectives and challenges of the energy policy, and how this policy is implemented (by restructuring the electric grid, by building flame-based thermal power stations, by searching for a solution for electricity mass storage, by creating the conditions of an efficient energy saving policy). It discusses the consequences of this policy for the European and French energy policy

  11. Merging Energy Policy Decision Support, Education, and Communication: The 'World Energy' Simulation Role-Playing Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-varga, J. N.; Franck, T.; Jones, A.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.

    2013-12-01

    To meet international goals for climate change mitigation and adaptation, as well as energy access and equity, there is an urgent need to explore and define energy policy paths forward. Despite this need, students, citizens, and decision-makers often hold deeply flawed mental models of the energy and climate systems. Here we describe a simulation role-playing game, World Energy, that provides an immersive learning experience in which participants can create their own path forward for global energy policy and learn about the impact of their policy choices on carbon dioxide emissions, temperature rise, energy supply mix, energy prices, and energy demand. The game puts players in the decision-making roles of advisors to the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All Initiative (drawn from international leaders from industry, governments, intergovernmental organizations, and citizens groups) and, using a state-of-the-art decision-support simulator, asks them to negotiate a plan for global energy policy. We use the En-ROADS (Energy Rapid Overview and Decision Support) simulator, which runs on a laptop computer in <0.1 sec. En-ROADS enables users to specify many factors, including R&D-driven cost reductions in fossil fuel-based, renewable, or carbon-neutral energy technologies; taxes and subsidies for different energy sources; performance standards and energy efficiency; emissions prices; policies to address other greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, etc.); and assumptions about GDP and population. In World Energy, participants must balance climate change mitigation goals with equity, prices and access to energy, and the political feasibility of policies. Initial results indicate participants gain insights into the dynamics of the energy and climate systems and greater understanding of the potential impacts policies.

  12. Energy policy act 2005 of the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzi, Graziella

    2006-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act 2005 has ended a long energy policy debate in the United States. The new energy legislation aims to assure a stable energy supply and will impact on the structure of the electric sector and the supply of fuels. The paper assesses that while the implications on the electric sector are going to be substantial, those concerning the supply of fuels are expected to bring no significant changes in the present mix of fuels [it

  13. New narratives on Russian renewable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, A.V.; Overland, I.

    2010-01-01

    The article points out the renewable energy potential in Russia in light of the new policy targets development, technical and economic potential as well as limits related to a lack of effectiveness of renewable energy promoting policies. Moreover, the article links the renewable energy development to the liberalization of Russian power sector which actually provides a possibility for market-support mechanisms, such as the green certificates. Renewable energy in Russia also has an important regional dimension, particularly for remote regions. (authors)

  14. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1981-10-01

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.) [pt

  15. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  16. Recommendations for an energy policy for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Over the next few years, Australia must modify its dependence on natural oil and place greater reliance on other fossil fuels and renewable energy sources. The recommendations contained in this report are the result of two years of study, and the long term energy prospects for Australia and energy resource policies for coal, liquid fuels, nuclear energy, solar energy and natural gas are considered in detail. Energy conservation policies and the identification of areas where energy research, development and demonstration need to be undertaken are also covered. (J.R.)

  17. Regulatory policy and the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilland, T. (ed.)

    1993-01-01

    The Centre for the Study of Regulated Industries (CRI) provides a neutral debating forum for parties interested in regulatory matters. This document is composed of the proceedings of a seminar on Regulatory Policy and the Energy Sector held in London in November 1992. The papers cover issues such as the Electricity Supply Price Review, privatization of the United Kingdom coal industry and integrated energy policy, environmental regulation and incentives and the significance of European Commission policies on cross border competition. (UK)

  18. Open Access Journal Policies: A Systematic Analysis of Radiology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Anand; Lobner, Katie; Fritz, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The open access movement has pushed for greater access to scientific knowledge by expanding access to scientific journal articles. There is limited information about the extent to which open access policies have been adopted by radiology journals. We performed a systematic analysis to ascertain the proportion of radiology journals with open access options. A search was performed with the assistance of a clinical informationist. Full and mixed English-language diagnostic and interventional radiology Web of Science journals (impact factors > 1.0) were included. Nuclear medicine, radiation oncology, physics, and solicitation-only journals were excluded. Primary outcome was open access option (yes or no) with additional outcomes including presence or absence of embargo, complete or partial copyright transfer, publication fees, and self-archiving policies. Secondary outcomes included journal citations, journal impact factors, immediacy, Eigenfactor, and article influence scores. Independent double readings were performed with differences resolved by consensus, supplemented by contacting editorial staff at each journal. In all, 125 journals were identified; review yielded 49 journals (39%, mean impact factor of 2.61). Thirty-six of the journals had open access options (73.4%), and four journals were exclusively open access (8.2%). Twelve-month embargoes were most commonly cited (90.6%) with 28.6% of journals stating that they did not require a complete transfer of copyright. Prices for open access options ranged from $750 to $4,000 (median $3,000). No statistically significant differences were found in journal impact measures comparing journals with open access options to journals without open access options. Diagnostic and interventional radiology journals have widely adopted open access options with a few radiology journals being exclusively open access. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy policy formulation and energy administration in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, S.J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The evolvement of the governmental energy administrative mechanisms is discussed. Energy policy formulation and the role of the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs in this regard are outlined. The energy administrative process, with reference to various energy carriers and specific spheres of the South African energy economy is discussed. It is indicated that close co-operation between the public and private energy sectors should result in mutual understanding of each others' practical problems and objectives, and should contribute towards the process of judicious energy policy formulation and administration in the interests of the national well-being

  20. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  1. Expanding Rural Access to Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Services Delivery Project (ESDP) in Sri Lanka was an exemplary renewable energy access programme. Consisting of a Credit Component, a Wind Farm Component and a Capacity Building Component, the $53.8 million ESDP successfully installed 21,000 off-grid Solar Home Systems (SHS), 31...... megawatts (MW) of grid-connected mini-hydro capacity, 574 kilowatts (kW) of off-grid village hydroelectric systems serving 2,897 households, and a 3MW grid-connected wind farm from 1997 to 2002. By the end of 2004, two years after the ESDP’s close, the Sri Lankan renewable energy industry boasted more than...

  2. An energy policy for unified Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, E.

    1992-01-01

    In December 1991 the Federal Government adopted its new overall 'energy-policy-for-unified-Germany' concept. Since the last energy report was submitted in 1986 the unification of Germany, the risks of the greenhouse effect, the progress of European integration, and the radical changes in Central and Eastern Europe and in the former Soviet Union have brought about fundamental energy-policy changes which affect any of the fields and sectors involved. (orig.) [de

  3. EU policy objectives and energy investment decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Alario, Juan

    2007-01-01

    EU energy policies have changed focus in the last few years with a view to substantially reducing energy import dependency and greenhouse gas emissions. The EU Commission has played a leading role in defining the new orientations. The implementation of the EU policy objectives approved by the Council of March 2007 will require a substantial expansion of energy investments. However, the degree of uncertainty affecting investment decisions remains high, notably in relation to the pricing of CO2...

  4. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. By 2014 Finland already surpassed its 2020 target for renewable energy use under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The current feed-in premium system will be discontinued and is expected to be replaced with a competitive technology-neutral tendering scheme, in line with the requirements set in the 2014 State Aid guidelines

  5. Dynamic Spectrum Access: regulations, standards and green radio policy considerations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mfupe, L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available -related requirements of electric utilities so that FCC can advise appropriately on federal smart grid policies and governmental departments on improving the energy-efficiency of their data centres [20]. Table 1 presents a SWOT analysis on green radio policies. IV... Table 1: A summary SWOT analysis of green radio policies. Method vs. Indicator Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Green radio compliance strategies ? Some regulators, telecommunications operators and standardization bodies around...

  6. Renewable energies: public policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazi, Laure; Souletie, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are low-carbon energies available right within our borders, and as such can be of great value in addressing the challenges of climate change and energy security. In 2014, renewable energies accounted for 14.6% of France's gross final energy consumption. The French Energy Transition Act for Green Growth sets renewables targets of 23% and 32% as a share of gross final energy consumption by 2020 and 2030, respectively. However, renewable energies are still more costly than conventional energies. A significant share of this additional cost is borne by energy consumers, particularly in the form of energy taxation and biofuels blending obligations. Public aid is also provided to support heat production from renewable energy sources (RES-H). The two most significant aids available today are the Energy Transition Tax Credit (CITE) and the Heat Fund. Comparing the various types of renewable energies shows sharp disparities in terms of the cost of avoiding one tonne of CO 2 , which ranges from euros 59 to more than euros 500 for electricity production it follows that the cost of the energy transition is likely to vary significantly depending on which renewable energy sources are pushed to the fore. The combustion of biomass for heat production appears to offer an economically efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Of the various renewable technologies available for the production of electricity (with the exception of hydropower, which was excluded from the scope of this study), onshore wind power is the least costly

  7. IEA countries energy policy. Report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The International Energy Agency is interested by the energy policy of its 23 members countries. This book sums up the evolution of energy policy in 1991 and 1992, sticking particularly to energy proposal and demand, to energy efficiency, to interaction between energy and environment, to the energy technology and to research and development activities. The 23 countries are examined regularly. The elaborate examinations refer to the energy policy of each member country to dictate the common orientation of their policy. Ministers meetings of IEA take place regularly. The latest took place in PARIS on the fourth of June 1993 where the ministers confirmed that there were essential elements of the energy policy and that they recommended to all countries to take that in account in the formulation of their strategies. Beyond the examinations by country, this book contains a whole report which throws into relief the main new acts which were happened in the IEA members countries and a glimpse on the evolution of the energy situation in the no members countries. It gives specific data and informations on the governmental budgets allocated to research and development energy activities. 6 annexes, 12 graphs., 5 tabs

  8. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  9. Energy policy in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaak, F.

    1975-01-01

    The implications of energy problem for consumer countries are first expounded, and then EC's energy policy in wide context is explained. The policy has been understood as three inter-related and indivisible elements: the planning of the community's own market; relations with other energy consumers; and, relations with energy producers. Each element must complement and support the other. Descriptions are made over how each of these elements has developed over the last year and a half, how it is developing now, and how it responds to the energy problem. (Mori, K.)

  10. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Hungary, electricity from renewable energy sources is supported by a feed-in-tariff or a market ('green') premium, depending on the capacity and energy source. Household-sized power plants up to 50 kVA can benefit from net metering. In general, subsidy programmes also promote the use of renewable energy sources in the electricity and heating sector. The main support scheme for the use of renewable energy in the transportation sector is a quota system supplemented by a reimbursement of excise duty

  11. European moves to a communal energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klijs, K.

    1978-01-01

    The author has endeavoured to discover whether there is talk of a communal energy policy in the EEC and if so how far are the developments, on what foundation is the policy based and what factors are hindering its realisation. It is concluded that as yet there is scarely any talk of a communual energy policy within the activities of the EEC, although the growing dependence on oil imports is seen as a reason to discuss this policy. The main aim of such a policy is to reduce oil imports from 61% of energy sources in 1973 to 30% in 1985, since the oil from Arab lands is seen as a totally unreliable energy source. A very strong development in nuclear energy is seen as a means of reducing oil imports. The failure of a European energy policy cannot be blamed on the different conceptions of the member states. The choice against oil imports and for nuclear energy is general, and each member is initially trying to make the national energy provision safe. (C.F.)

  12. Japan's new energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    Japan's energy policy is undergoing fundamental changes. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant questions the future contribution of nuclear power in the national energy mix. Growing imports of fossil fuels to replace the lost nuclear capacity inflated energy prices and raise economic and energy security challenges. At the same time, the US shale gas and oil revolution is reshaping the global energy scene. Japan expects to take advantage of the trend to eliminate the 'Asian premium' on natural gas prices and expand cheaper natural gas consumption. These developments have driven the Government of Japan to review its energy policy from scratch and adopt a new Strategic Energy Plan. This new policy has far reaching implications for gas and coal development in Japan but also for the international markets as Japan is the world's largest LNG importer and the second largest coal importer. This document summarizes the key findings of a new report by CEDIGAZ 'Japan's new energy policy: In search for stable and competitive energy supply'. The report analyzes the current changes taking place on the gas and coal markets in Japan, in light of the new energy policy adopted in April 2014, and in particular the decision to restart safe nuclear power plants and push forward electricity market reforms

  13. Energy policy, aid, and the development of renewable energy resources in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have established ambitious renewable energy targets. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by several factors: a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, to attract development assistance in the energy sector, and to strengthen the position of SIDS in climate change negotiations. Here we explore the interplay between the role of aid and energy policy in the development of renewable energy resources in SIDS. We find that the importance of development assistance has implications for the sustainability of renewable energy development, given that funding is not always accompanied by necessary energy policy reforms. We also identify energy efficiency and access to modern energy services as having received insufficient attention in the establishment and structure of renewable energy targets in SIDS, and argue that this is problematic due to the strong economic case for such investments. - Highlights: • SIDS have established the world's most ambitious renewable energy targets. • These are motivated by fossil fuel dependence and climate change vulnerability. • Aid dependence has influenced the ambition of renewable energy targets. • Energy efficiency and energy access have received insufficient attention. • Domestic policy reforms necessary for the achievement of targets has been limited.

  14. Tasks and problems of international energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerberth, R.

    1979-01-01

    International energy policy creates an international 'energy consciousness' which supports the national energy-political efforts, strengthening and directing them. Limited, categorized goals have, in international votings, higher chances of success than global concepts; careful determination is better than quick proceeding. (orig.) [de

  15. New green paper on European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    On March 8, 2006, EU Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso and Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs presented to the public the Green Paper on 'A European Strategy for a Sustainable, Competitive, and Secure Energy', which had been expected for some time. The authors thus underscore the great importance for European development of energy policy. However, the European treaties restrict the competence of the EU in matters of energy policy. The Green Paper is to spark off a broad consultation and discussion process about the potential design of a comprehensive European energy policy. 6 main areas are mentioned in which action needs to be taken: - Energy for growth and employment. - Single energy market and continuity of supply. - Mix of energy resources: sustainable, efficient, divers. - Climate protection. - Innovation in energy technologies. - Coherent foreign policy in matters of energy. 3 key objectives are identified: - Development of renewable and other energy sources also with low CO 2 emissions. - Opening of markets, promotion of investments, energy efficiency. - Continuity of supply. (orig.)

  16. Headings for an EEC common energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.

    1976-01-01

    Although self-sufficiency in energy supplies during the 1980s may make a purely national UK energy policy look attractive, the author argues that it is in the long-term interest of all nine community members if policy is coordinated on an EEC scale. Any possible common energy policy would probably consist of separate policies for coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear power. It would follow the same general principles as the Common Agricultural Policy in maximising production of coal, natural gas and nuclear power but oil would be covered by negotiating with OPEC for current supplies and treating indigenous supplies as a strategic reserve, with Community finance available for development of marginal fields. (author)

  17. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  18. Energy security and climate policy. Assessing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-28

    World energy demand is surging. Oil, coal and natural gas still meet most global energy needs, creating serious implications for the environment. One result is that CO2 emissions, the principal cause of global warming, are rising. This new study underlines the close link between efforts to ensure energy security and those to mitigate climate change. Decisions on one side affect the other. To optimise the efficiency of their energy policy, OECD countries must consider energy security and climate change mitigation priorities jointly. The book presents a framework to assess interactions between energy security and climate change policies, combining qualitative and quantitative analyses. The quantitative analysis is based on the development of energy security indicators, tracking the evolution of policy concerns linked to energy resource concentration. The 'indicators' are applied to a reference scenario and CO2 policy cases for five case-study countries: The Czech Republic, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Simultaneously resolving energy security and environmental concerns is a key challenge for policy makers today. This study helps chart the course.

  19. 3PAC: Enforcing Access Policies for Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bemmel, J.; Wegdam, M.; Lagerberg, K.

    Web Services fail to deliver on the promise of ubiquitous deployment and seamless interoperability due to the lack of a uniform, standards-based approach to all aspects of security. In particular, the enforcement of access policies in a Service Oriented Architecture is not addressed adequately. We

  20. South Dakota Department of Education Data Access Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The South Dakota Department of Education (DOE) collects education records from local schools and districts in accordance with federal and state laws and regulations. This policy document establishes the procedures and protocols for accessing, maintaining, disclosing, and disposing of confidential data records, including data records containing…

  1. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  2. Energy policies of Hungary: 1995 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Great progress has been made towards adapting the energy sector of the Hungarian economy to perform effectively in an increasingly market oriented economy since the last IEA Survey in 1991. This new report reviews progress in restructuring energy industries and developments in energy markets, privatisation policy and regulatory arrangements. it also examines issues of energy supply security and environmental protection. Analysis of energy supply and demand is based on the most authoritative data available and the Survey concludes with a series of recommendations designed to further achievement of the Government's energy policy objectives. The Government is applauded for building emergency oil stocks in line with IEA policy and for progress in industrial restructuring and price reform. At the same time the need to complete price reforms to schedule is underlined and the Government is urged to complete regulatory arrangements well ahead of the planned privatisation of gas and electricity industries to ensure success. (authors). 60 tabs

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. With Ireland's current 'trajectory' of renewable energy growth, it is likely to slightly fall short of its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy target. Ireland initiated a 'moratorium' on its REFIT (Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariff) support scheme in December 2015, with the aim of introducing a revised scheme in 2017 in line with market developments. Grants and tax relief remain in place for renewable heat promotion. An Offshore Renewable Energy Development Plan (OREDP) was introduced in 2014, which sets out Government policy in relation to the sustainable development of Ireland's abundant offshore renewable energy resource

  4. Energy policy and the market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.; Miegel, M.

    1980-01-01

    The consistent supply of the people with cheap energy is one of the biggest challenges of our time. There is hardly any other sphere where the opinions on the correct means and ways are as different as in energy policy. While some people see only the market as a suitable instrument to solve the energy problems, others are of the opinion that the problems can only be solved by planning by the government, quantitative restrictions, and other directive measures. The answer to this question involves long-term results, not only for our future energy policy. Planned economy in the energy section and marketing in all other sections cannot be continued for ever. The clarification of this question is the goal of these lectures and discussions held on the experts' meeting 'energy policy in marketing'. (orig.) [de

  5. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Slovak Republic 2005 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Slovakia has implemented impressive energy reforms over the recent past, a unique performance in Central and Eastern Europe. The 2000 energy policy prioritised market reforms and sectoral policies, notably on energy security and environment, in order to comply with EU requirements, which were largely met at the time of the country’s EU accession in 2004. Also, Slovakia established new regulations, notably cost reflective pricing enforced by an independent energy regulator, thereby attracting significant foreign direct investment. Notably, this rapid transition has occurred without disruption in this key energy transit country. New challenges ahead include strengthening energy security by diversification, opening energy markets and integrating them into the EU, strongly increasing energy efficiency to offset the high economic burden of energy prices and to help better controlling pollution and CO2 emissions in line with EU and international obligations. This review analyses the Slovak energy sector and policies, and provides recommendations for the government. It is a comprehensive assessment of what constitutes a remarkable case study of effective energy reforms in an economy in transition, which has applied for IEA membership.

  6. The application of contrast explanation to energy policy research: UK nuclear energy policy 2002–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances the application of the methodology, contrast explanation, to energy policy research. Research in energy policy is complex and often involves inter-disciplinary work, which traditional economic methodologies fail to capture. Consequently, the more encompassing methodology of contrast explanation is assessed and its use in other social science disciplines explored in brief. It is then applied to an energy policy research topic—in this case, nuclear energy policy research in the UK. Contrast explanation facilitates research into policy and decision-making processes in energy studies and offers an alternative to the traditional economic methods used in energy research. Further, contrast explanation is extended by the addition of contested and uncontested hypotheses analyses. This research focuses on the methods employed to deliver the new nuclear programme of the UK government. In order to achieve a sustainable nuclear energy policy three issues are of major importance: (1) law, policy and development; (2) public administration; and (3) project management. Further, the research identifies that policy in the area remains to be resolved, in particular at an institutional and legal level. However, contrary to the literature, in some areas, the research identifies a change of course as the UK concentrates on delivering a long-term policy for the nuclear energy sector and the overall energy sector. - Highlights: ► Energy policy research is interdisciplinary and needs additional methodological approaches. ► New method of contrast explanation advanced for energy policy research. ► This methodology is based on dialectical learning which examines conflict between sources of data. ► Research example used here is of UK nuclear energy policy. ► Major issues in UK nuclear energy policy are planning law, public administration, and project management

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme: sliding feed-in premium scheme, incentives for small scale solar thermal installations, heat pumps, geothermal and biomass heating plants, quota system in the transport sector

  8. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme in Germany: tendering scheme for RES-E, small power plants up to 100 kW are supported by a feed-in tariff. Market Incentive Programme (MAP) for RES-H, Electric Mobility Strategy for the transport sector

  9. Basis for a healthy energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Shigeaki

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the prices policy for oil adopted by the Brazilian government in the last thirty years is presented. Some recommendations aiming at increasing the internal energy production and decreasing the external dependence are given

  10. Energy Policy Case Study - California: Renewables and Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    The purpose of this document is to present a case study of energy policies in California related to power system transformation and renewable and distributed energy resources (DERs). Distributed energy resources represent a broad range of technologies that can significantly impact how much, and when, electricity is demanded from the grid. Key policies and proceedings related to power system transformation and DERs are grouped into the following categories: 1.Policies that support achieving environmental and climate goals 2.Policies that promote deployment of DERs 3.Policies that support reliability and integration of DERs 4.Policies that promote market animation and support customer choice. Major challenges going forward are forecasting and modeling DERs, regulatory and utility business model issues, reliability, valuation and pricing, and data management and sharing.

  11. Modern energy access to all in rural India: An integrated implementation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.

    2011-01-01

    Expanding energy access to the rural population of India presents a critical challenge for its government. The presence of 364 million people without access to electricity and 726 million who rely on biomass for cooking indicate both the failure of past policies and programs, and the need for a radical redesign of the current system. We propose an integrated implementation framework with recommendations for adopting business principles with innovative institutional, regulatory, financing and delivery mechanisms. The framework entails establishment of rural energy access authorities and energy access funds, both at the national and regional levels, to be empowered with enabling regulatory policies, capital resources and the support of multi-stakeholder partnership. These institutions are expected to design, lead, manage and monitor the rural energy interventions. At the other end, trained entrepreneurs would be expected to establish bioenergy-based micro-enterprises that will produce and distribute energy carriers to rural households at an affordable cost. The ESCOs will function as intermediaries between these enterprises and the international carbon market both in aggregating carbon credits and in trading them under CDM. If implemented, such a program could address the challenges of rural energy empowerment by creating access to modern energy carriers and climate change mitigation. - Highlights: ► Expanding rural energy access in India is critical with majority lacking access to modern energy. ► Innovative and integrated implementation strategy for achieving universal rural energy access. ► Design of an integrated rural energy policy and proposal for new institutional mechanism. ► Establishing rural energy access authorities and energy access funds as supporting mechanisms. ► Bioenergy-based micro-enterprises for delivering energy services at an affordable cost.

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support scheme: sliding feed-in premium scheme which is used to promote RES based electricity, renewable gas and heating purposes is the SDE+ which is structured as feed-in premiums and financed through a levy on the energy bill of end consumers

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The promotion of renewable electricity in Romania relies primarily on a renewable quota scheme. Since 2017 the scheme has been closed for new projects. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted through investment subsidies. Renewable energy sources in the transport sector are promoted by a bio-fuels quota scheme and indirectly through a subsidy scheme for the purchase of electric vehicles

  14. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Luxembourg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support instruments for incentivising electricity from renewable energy sources are feed-in tariffs and feed-in premiums. A subsidy instrument is used as well. Households operating small solar installations are entitled to tax benefits. Renewable heat production is promoted through four subsidy instruments. Renewable transport fuels are promoted by way of a bio-fuels blending quota scheme

  15. Energy efficieny policy and carbon pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Lisa; Moarif, Sara; Levina, Ellina; Baron, Richard

    2011-08-15

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  16. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  17. Public education for energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigren, S.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the changes that took place in 1972-73 in public opinion and political views in Sweden, leading to new attitudes and increasing interest in matters is of energy policy. Although nuclear power was from the beginning the main issue, it became more and more widely recognized that a number of complex and technically difficult problems were involved. In late 1973 the Government decided to prepare a comprehensive energy policy programme for the period 1975-85 and to put this programme before Parliament in the spring of 1975. In order to involve the public in the decision making process, a public education programme was introduced in January 1974. The essentials of this programme are described. The main effort was provided by the adult education associations. These were given financial incentives to start energy study circles and prepared their own study material. Journalist seminars were also arranged. The paper then describes how the public, by its activities in the energy study circles, was given a possibility to influence the formulation of the new Swedish energy policy. It outlines the links between the educational efforts, the discussions in the study circles, and the standpoints ultimately taken by the different political parties on the key energy issues, especially as regards the future role of nuclear power. Finally, it also tries to evaluate to what extent this effort in education and involvement can be expected to react on the implementation of the energy policy programme and on future energy policy decisions

  18. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerny, M. [Ministry of Industry and Trade, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    On February 16, 1992, the Government of the Czech Republic sanctioned, by its Decree No. 112/82, its first Energy Policy. Since that time, a number of conditions have changed: first of all, there was the partition of the former Federal Czechoslovak Republic, then the privatization of most of energy producing corporations, the deregulation of a significant proportion of power and energy commodities, the decision to bring to an end the construction of the Temelin nuclear power station, the creation of conditions for the construction of the Ingoldstadt oil pipeline, etc. These steps, on which the final decisions have been made, have brought about the necessity of updating the existing general Energy Policy. The updated Energy Policy is based on the Programme Statement by the Government of the Czech Republic of July 1992, as well as on other materials associated with energy and power generation, either approved or negotiated by the Government, in particular the State Environmental Policy the Rules of the State Raw Materials Policy, the European Association Agreement, the European Energy Charter, the results of the Uruguayan Round of GATT, the Convention on Climate Changes, the Ecological Action Programme for central and East-European countries, and other international documents that have either been, or are likely to be sanctioned by the Czech Government (especially the European Energy Charter Treaty, and the protocol on Trans-boundary Air Pollution and on Further Reduction of Sulphur Oxide Emissions).

  19. Translanguaging in Self-Access Language Advising: Informing Language Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates language advising in a self-access center (SAC with the purpose of informing language policy. This center is located in a new Japanese university and has shifted from an initially teacher-imposed ‘English-only’ language policy into one which encourages “translanguaging” (Blackledge & Creese, 2010, p. 105 between the students’ and center advisors’ (termed as mentors in this center L1 (Japanese and their L2 (English. Data from audio-recordings of interaction with advisors and students and between students themselves, interviews with mentors, and student questionnaires all reveal how translanguaging occurs in practice and how it helps to create a learning space in which the “local, pragmatic coping tactics” (Lin, 2005, p. 46 of code-switching offer a more viable approach for learning than under its initial monolingual policy. Mentor interviews and student questionnaires indicate generally positive attitudes towards translanguaging; however, some students still favor an ‘English-only’ policy. Conclusions reveal that a looser language policy in the center is emerging in which mentors now guide students towards their own individualized language policies. It is argued in this paper that this “code choice” (Levine, 2011 in language use is therefore aligned more closely to the principles of student-direction in self-access use.

  20. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Sweden surpassed its 2020 nationally binding renewable energy in 2013. Main support measures to promote renewable energy in Sweden consists of a quota system, various tax regulation mechanisms and subsidy schemes. Sweden has a joint support scheme with Norway, thus being the first EU Member State to implement a cooperation mechanism, as defined under the 2009 EU Renewable Energy Directive. The Swedish coalition government has agreed on a target of 100% renewable electricity production by 2040

  1. Dynamic energy models and carbon mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Luke A.

    In this dissertation I examine a specific class of energy models and their implications for carbon mitigation policies. The class of models includes a production function capable of reproducing the empirically observed phenomenon of short run rigidity of energy use in response to energy price changes and long run exibility of energy use in response to energy price changes. I use a theoretical model, parameterized using empirical data, to simulate economic performance under several tax regimes where taxes are levied on capital income, investment, and energy. I also investigate transitions from one tax regime to another. I find that energy taxes intended to reduce energy use can successfully achieve those goals with minimal or even positive impacts on macroeconomic performance. But the transition paths to new steady states are lengthy, making political commitment to such policies very challenging.

  2. Energy supply and energy policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1985-01-01

    The article gives an outline of the problems of energy supply in Switzerland, with some emphasis upon the extent to which Federal and Cantonal constitutions and the functioning of Swiss democracy, notably the relatively frequent recourse to referendums and the strong public interest in conservation and ecology, affect the nature of decisions upon technical matters such as the authorisation and siting of generating plants and the construction of transmission lines. The dominating factor in the energy situation in Switzerland has been and will remain the need to import about 84% of the energy used, mainly in the form of oil, the cost of which is nearly 10% of the total value of all imports. Water power accounts for 13% of the total supply and is approaching the limit of its possible development. The use of energy constantly increases but the political difficulties in the way of providing the consequently necessary resources increase if anything still more rapidly. The resulting difficult situation is discussed in some detail. The author urges the energy industry to view its political difficulties in a positive manner, and to see them rather as a spur to effort than as merely an unwelcome obstacle to private enterprise. (C.J.O.G.)

  3. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  4. Renewable energy policies in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Netto, Carlos Pinto Coelho Amaral

    2013-01-01

    Mestrado em Economia da Empresa e da Concorrência / JEL Codes: Q42; N74 Policies chosen to promote renewables can vary significantly and determine different levels of deployment, efficiency and technological innovation. Instruments in this sector have been mostly directed towards electricity generation and are usually divided into two main types: feed-in tariffs and quota obligations. The former is more frequent in the European Union and is associated with higher levels of deployment, as w...

  5. Energy agreements in Italian foreign policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri Purini, A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing complexity of international relations, involving nations with vastly diverse political and socio-economic frameworks, levels of technology, geography, and environmental policies, are necessitating new Italian government policies which favour multilateral as opposed to conventional bilateral cooperation, especially in that which regards energy agreements. This paper makes this point in examining Italy's vulnerable energy supply and demand situation, the current directions being taken in this nation's foreign policies, and in assessing the key political and socio-economic factors now influencing this nation's world competitiveness in light of pending European unification and the opening up, on a wide scale, of Russian markets to Western nations and Japan

  6. Household energy consumption patterns and its environmental implications: Assessment of energy access and poverty in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malla, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 87% of Nepal's total final energy is consumed by households. This paper analyzes the patterns of household energy use and associated air pollutant emissions in Nepal based on LEAP framework for thirteen analytical regions and three end-uses. Four scenarios involving different growth paths for socio economic and energy system development through the year 2040 are considered. The study finds that household energy use is heterogeneous across the regions and biomass for cooking dominates the country's energy-mix. Households' CO 2 emissions are less significant but their local indoor pollutant emissions will continue to rise in the future. To help strengthen government's commitment to the UN's sustainable energy for all initiative, this study devises an energy development index (EDI) to assess country's energy access and poverty across the regions. The results reveal that the current level of both energy access and energy poverty in the country is below the basic human needs and this situation will improve by little in next 30 years. The paper argues that to improve these situations require more coordinated and innovative plans and policies from the government. The paper suggests that greater emphasis will be needed in reducing dependence of biomass for cooking, promoting domestic alternative energy sources, scaling up biomass improved cookstoves programs and developing periodic regional level energy database. - Highlights: • Household energy use and air pollutant emissions in Nepal are analyzed based on LEAP framework. • Household energy use is heterogeneous across the regions and biomass for cooking dominates country's energy-mix. • Energy Development Index is devised to assess country's energy access and poverty across the regions. • Scaling up RETs and biomass ICS programs are suggested. • Coordination with inter-agencies and ODAs is vital in alleviating energy poverty in Nepal

  7. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  8. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies.

  9. Energy policy and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ducroux, R.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two billion tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) are released in the air each year from the burning of fossil fuels. The problem of these massive emissions of CO 2 and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO 2 emissions worldwide. While enhancing natural carbon sinks (reforestation, soils conservation, etc...) can only buy tune for the next decades, energy savings, CO 2 capture/storage and the development of non-fossil energy sources (hydropower, nuclear, wind power,...) can be highly beneficial. In order to secure future energy needs while stabilizing the CO 2 atmospheric concentration around 550 ppm, the ratio of the CO 2 emitted per unit of energy produced must decrease from 2.6 t CO 2 /toe to 0.5-1.1 t CO 2 /toe by 2100. In a growing world economy, now dependent on fossil fuels for 90% of its energy, this will require a vast increase in the supply of carbon-free power. Among these energy sources, hydropower and nuclear energy (operated under western safety and environmental standards) are the most readily available sources capable of supplying vast amount of energy at a competitive price. Wind power is also to be encouraged, as it is expected to approach the competitiveness threshold soon. The French example, where fossil fuel CO 2 emissions were cut by 27% in a matter of a few years (1979-1986) despite increasing energy consumption, suggests that implementing CO 2 stabilization is technically feasible at a competitive price

  10. Energy Market Liberalisation and Renewable Energy Policies in OECD Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of energy liberalizations on policies that support renewable energy in a long panel of OECD countries. We estimate this effect accounting for the endogeneity of liberalisation related to joint decisions within a country's energy strategy. Using regulation in other industries as instruments, we find that energy liberalisation increases the public support to renewable energy. The effect of liberalisation is the second largest after the effect of per-capita income and is fully driven by reductions in entry barriers, while the effect of privatisation is negative. Finally, our results are robust to dynamic specifications and various policy indicators. (authors)

  11. Guidelines for a sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maichel, G.; Klemmer, P.; Voss, A.; Grill, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The publication contains four contributions of four different authors which elaborate the role, functions and capabilities of policymakers, the energy industry, and the population (consumers) in the process of designing, implementing, enforcing and accepting the paradigms and the framework conditions that will initiate and finally support in concrete terms a transition towards sustainable development in the context of energy demand and energy consumption in Europe. The titles of the four contributions (translated for the purpose of this abstract) are: 1. Regulatory policy and/or a free market system in the energy sector. 2. Self-commitments and self-regulatory approaches in the energy industry. 3. What does it take to establish a system of sustainable energy supply? 4. For an energy policy fit for the future in the 21. century. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Industrial energy efficiency: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    Policies that promote energy efficiency can work; but potential energy savings are unlikely to be realized without effective policy leadership. This article discusses the opportunities in several countries for increasing energy efficiency. Both ''open'' and centrally planned economies could be much more energy efficient. In the United States, for example, the government needs to stimulate energy efficiency. This could be done by sponsoring research to develop new processes, creating favourable financial conditions for investment in efficiency, and making the advantages of energy efficiency technologies better known. International collaboration in sponsoring research and transfer technologies could be of the greatest importance in improving energy efficiency in countries with centrally planned economies, including the Soviet Union, as well as in developing countries. Favourable conditions for achieving both economic development and environmental protection can be created through cooperation on the international level. (author). 24 refs, 4 tabs

  13. Renewable energies and public policies; Energies renouvelables et politiques publiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report presents the full texts of the allocution delivered during the colloquium on the renewable energies and the public policies. It takes stock on the strategical environment and the political will of the renewable energies, the tracks of development in France and the necessity of a law on the renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  14. Political motives in climate and energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Dalen, Hanne Marit; Larsen, Bodil M.

    2012-07-01

    Standard economic theory provides clear guidance on the design of cost-efficient policy in the presence of imperfect markets and externalities. However, observed policies reveal extensive discrepancies between principles and practise. Based on interviews with core politicians from the Norwegian parliament, we investigate causes for the lack of cost efficiency in climate and energy policy. We find that politicians agree with the notion of cost efficiency in principle, but rather than ascribing efficient instruments directed at specific policy goals, they include concerns for industrial and regional development, income distribution and employment in the environmental policy design. Lacking insight in the functioning of economic instruments and perceptions of a non-binding budget constraint also violate the requirements for efficient policy decisions. The findings point to the role of economists and social scientists to communicate the functioning of complex instruments. Improved compensation procedures could help reduce the politicians' incentives to undermine efficiency in order to avoid unwanted distributional effects.(Author)

  15. Climate change policy is an energy problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.; Lightfoot, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    In an important respect the climate change (global warming) problem is an energy problem. Any policy aimed at substantially reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will require large amounts of carbon free energy as substitutes for fossil fuels. No conceivable rates of improvement in energy efficiency and/or changes in lifestyles will obviate the need for vast amounts of carbon free energy if GHG emissions are to be reduced and the atmospheric concentration of carbon eventually stabilized. Where will such large amounts of carbon free energy come from? The renewable energies (solar, wind, biomass) are dilute and enormously land-using. Their potential contribution is seemingly limited in a world in which competing demands for land for food production, living space, leisure activities, ecological preserve, and natural resource production are increasing. Nuclear energy is controversial (fission) or problematic (fusion). Fuel cells require hydrogen which must be produced using some other form of energy. Tapping the earth's mantle with its vast amount of geothermal energy may be a future possibility. The present limitations of existing alternatives to fossil fuels suggest climate change policy should focus to a greater extent on what 'can' be done, rather than the present emphasis on what 'should' be done. Once refocused, the aim of climate policy should be to spur a decades long search for and development of new carbon free energy sources and technologies capable of displacing fossil fuels and of eventually meeting the world's baseload energy requirements. (author)

  16. Global warming: The energy policy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1993-01-01

    Scientific information over the last decade suggests that the world's fossil fuel-based economy now threatens catastrophic changes in the global climate. The authors of this chapter present a practical energy scenario for the year 2030 that involves a 55% cut in carbon dioxide emissions, greatly improved energy efficiency, and an energy production system that relies heavily on alternative energy resources. Specific topic areas covered include the following: global CO 2 emission; energy efficiency; renewable energy resources (biomass, hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal); potential role of natural gas; potential role of hydrogen; government policy considerations

  17. the fiscality, tool of an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This report studies how the fiscality can be an adapted tool for the implementing of the french energy policy. The term fiscality designates here the fiscality of the energy production, consumption and use in the industrial fabrication processes. An evaluation of the french fiscality and the analysis of this accounting are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  18. European energy policy and Italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, A.; Verdelli, A.

    2008-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Italian industry is very sensitive to the rising costs of energy. The European energy policy, if intended as an additional constraint, could deteriorate the situation. It could be, however, a good opportunity for the Italian industry to become more independent from fossil fuels, through an innovatory project at country level [it

  19. Energy policy in a changing social order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the background of energy management and use relative to public policymaking is reviewed. Many of the more-prominent social cross currents, such as: consumerism, resistance to nuclear power, tax rebellion, etc., are identified and described. Conventional and alternate energy policy options are analyzed. 41 refs.

  20. Renewable Energy Policy Dialogue towards 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doukas, Haris; Karakosta, Charikleia; Eichhammer, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    In view of the 2030 energy and climate objectives of the European Union, there is a need to evaluate the different options to shape the future framework for renewable energy sources (RES) policies and targets. The Special Issue focuses in seven papers on the following dimension of this future

  1. Energy efficiency trends and policy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad

    2011-01-01

    The energy dependency of Slovenia is high (52.1%), but it is a little lower than the average energy dependency in the EU 27 (53.8%). Slovenia imports all its petroleum products and natural gas and partly coal and electricity. The energy intensity of Slovenia is higher by about 50% than the average in the EU 27. The target of the EU Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services adopted in 2006 is to achieve a 9% improvement of EE (energy efficiency) within the period 2008-2016. The new target of the EU climate and energy package '20-20-20 plan' is a 20% increase in EE by 2020. Since 1991 the Slovenian government has been supporting energy efficiency activities. The improvement of EE was one of the targets of strategic energy documents ReSROE (Resolution on the Strategy of Use and Supply of Energy in Slovenia from 1996 and ReNEP (Resolution on the National Energy Programme) from 2004 adopted by the Slovenian National Assembly (Parliament) in previous years. The Energy Act adopted in 1999 defines the objective of energy policy as giving priority to EE and utilization of renewable energy sources. The goals of the 'National Energy Action Plan 2008-2016 (NEEAP)' adopted by the Slovenian government in 2008 include a set of energy efficiency improvement instruments in the residential, industrial, transport and tertiary sectors. The target of the NEEAP is to save final energy in the 2008-2016 period, amounting to at least 4261 GWh or 9% of baseline consumption. The indicators of energy efficiency trends show considerable improvement in the period from 1998 to 2007. The improvement of EE was reached in all sectors: manufacturing, transport and households. The paper analyses the structure, trends of energy consumption and energy efficiency indicators by sectors of economic activity. A review of energy efficiency policy and measures is described in the paper.

  2. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Slovenia, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a feed-in tariff (so called 'guaranteed purchase') and a premium tariff (so called 'operating premium'), both granted through a tender procedure. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes are promoted mainly through loans on concessional terms and subsidies. The main incentive for renewable energy use in transport are tax exemptions and subsidies

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Greece, electricity from renewable sources is promoted through feed-in premiums, granted through tenders (as from 2017), feed-in tariffs for limited cases, a preferential tax regime (since 2016) and a net metering scheme. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is incentivised by way of a preferential tax regime and an investment subsidy scheme. The main instrument for renewable energy use in transport is a bio-fuels quota scheme

  4. Ubiquitous access control and policy management in personal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Stassinopoulos, George I.; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2006-01-01

    distributed master devices acting as access points- and also pure peer-to-peer interactions inside the PN. Taking benefit from the modularity and scalability of the design, this solution can be extended into supporting coalitions of different security domains, deriving from the creation of PNs federations.......In this paper the authors present the challenges for enabling Security Policies Management and subsequent Ubiquitous Access Control on the Personal Network (PN) environment. A solution based on Security Profiles is proposed, supporting both partially distributed architectures-having in this case...

  5. Hydrokinetic power for energy access in rural Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Veronica B.; Schaefer, Laura A. [Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ramde, Emmanuel W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Gradoville, Robert T. Jr. [Sustainability and Green Design, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation, Swanson School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Approximately half of Ghana's overall population has access to electricity and, of this, much of it is in urban areas. Often in regions where modern energy is not available, kerosene lamps, for example, are used for indoor lighting. This produces harmful emissions, leading to poor respiratory effects. Implementation of hydrokinetic power (HKP) within nearby streams can provide low impact, robust energy to rural communities. Such a system lends itself to a simple design with ease of maintenance, which can be used as a stand alone power system (SAPS). With Ghana's renewable energy policies coming to fruition, it is sought to establish the economic viability and sustainability of this technology. This paper discusses site selection and the HKP technology in rural areas of Ghana. (author)

  6. Rise of oil prices and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reprints the talk of the press conference given by D. de Villepin, French prime minister, on August 16, 2005 about the alarming rise of oil prices. In his talk, the prime minister explains the reasons of the crisis (increase of worldwide consumption, political tensions in the Middle East..) and presents the strategy and main trends of the French energy policy: re-launching of energy investments in petroleum refining capacities and in the nuclear domain (new generation of power plants), development of renewable energy sources and in particular biofuels, re-launching of the energy saving policy thanks to financial incentives and to the development of clean vehicles and mass transportation systems. In a second part, the prime minister presents his policy of retro-cession of petroleum tax profits to low income workers, and of charge abatement to professionals having an occupation strongly penalized by the rise of oil prices (truckers, farmers, fishermen, taxi drivers). (J.S.)

  7. Basics of energy policy; Grundlagen der Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, D. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    This book displays basics of German and international energy policy. It explains the subject area for newcomers like students as well as for experts from industry, sciences or journalism and is intended to be a valuable source of information and helpfull reference book. It is made purposely in a way to be read section-wise. How is the state of development of special energy sources as coal, wind power or tidal and wave power respectively? Which actors operate in energy policy, what instruments of energy policy can be used by the legislator? The book is supposed to answer those questions. It was tried to achieve a high level of readability and useability by structuring and the use of many pictures and tables. (orig./uke)

  8. The European Energy Policy: Building New Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonneuve, Cecile

    2014-04-01

    The origins of Europe's severe energy policy problems lie in a failed economic approach, which itself can be partly explained by political and ideological causes. This study seeks to address these political issues. Energy is not an exclusively economic issue, far from it. Since taxation and diplomacy are key aspects, energy is necessarily a political issue that policy-makers must handle. From this point of view, 2014 has to be seen as a political opportunity: it needs to be a year for re-founding a common policy fundamentally, based on two principles. First is the principle of realism, which implies re-situating energy policy in its international environment and putting the issue of costs back into the heart of political decision-making. The second principle is solidarity, in other words the clear restatement that there is a European general interest... which is not the sum of 28 national interests, but also that energy should be viewed as a system, and not as a collection of local policies and interests. Europe's common energy policy must retain its long term goal of ensuring the energy transition, but it must review the path to achieving this. This transition cannot be a technical, economic and geopolitical bet, which is presently the case. It has to be a controlled undertaking, implying governance and instruments. More generally, the transition requires a very different state of mind (Section III), compared to today's technocratic and non-cooperative approach (Section II), which has led to the prevailing state of energy chaos in Europe (Section I)

  9. Energy policy and energy market performance: The Argentinean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, Marina

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s Argentina liberalized and privatized the energy system, trending to a total market oriented system and abandoning the use of energy policy. Since 2004, as a result of a boom in energy demand and constrains in energy supply, Argentina has gone through an energy problem mainly related to natural gas and electricity, which derived in energy shutdowns. In this frame, this study explores the role of energy policy and institutions in Argentina, with the aim of discussing whether it has been properly used to contrast the observed lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and the demand of fuels in power generation. The results of the analysis enhance the relevance of regulatory and control authorities, as well as the active use of long run energy policy for the energy system performance in order to avoid coordination failures between subsectors of the system. The relevance of energy consumption for the development process, and the particular characteristics of energy systems require a wide planning perspective. - Highlights: → This paper examines some aspects of the performance of the Argentinean energy system and energy policy. → There is a lack of coordination between fossil energy reserves management and electricity demand. → It is required an improvement of the regulatory framework, and an active role of the regulatory authorities. → A better planning for electricity supply and strengthening aspects related to the linking with other energy chains. → Promoting a systematic exploitation of NG and oil reserves' and increasing the share of RETs in the energy mix.

  10. Institutional and Policy Assessment of Renewable Energy Sector in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Murtaza Ershad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy resources could play a vital role in the sustainable economic, social, and environmental development of Afghanistan. Heavy reliance of rural households on firewood, rising costs of fossil fuels, outdoor and indoor air pollution, and climate change are some of the challenges that can be addressed by diversifying our power production fuel inputs and adopting renewable energy technologies. In order to deploy and scale up renewable energy technologies and improve access to sustainable energy, clear policies and targets and dedicated institutions are crucial. Fortunately, Afghan government with the support of international community is setting ambitious targets for the renewable energy sector and is encouraging national and international investors to take part in the generation, transmission, and distribution of renewable energy especially electricity through Power Purchase Agreements or very cheap land leases. Thus, the objectives of this report are (I to review the existing institutions in the field of renewable energy, (II to review renewable energy policies and targets in Afghanistan, and (III to identify institutional and policy gaps and recommend solutions.

  11. Climate and Energy Policy in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Csete

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy problem has been redefined as one of the most important elements of sustainable development by climate change, adaptation and mitigation. Meeting energy needs is always a current issue in Hungary, irrespective of climate change because of the country’s high dependency on oil and gas imports, limited opportunities to replace them with domestic production, and the pollution associated with using fossil energy sources. Increasing effectiveness and saving energy can provide relatively short-term solutions with bearable costs and a relatively quick return on investment. The aim of the present paper is to give an overview about the climate and energy policy in Hungary with a special focus on the new energy strategy. Energy policy has a pivotal role in the economic recovery plan of the Hungarian government. The National Energy Strategy 2030 taking shape in Hungary takes climate policy into account with respect to adaptation and mitigation and lists renewable energy sources as the second most important tool for achieving strategic goals. As in most countries, it is also possible in Hungary to introduce climate strategy measures with zero social costs. The expedient management of climate change requires the combination of prevention, adaptation and dissemination initiatives. Strategies must meet a dual requirement: they must face the economic risks associated with premature measures, while also considering the adverse effects of delay.

  12. Including environmental concerns in energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, Michel

    2014-05-01

    In this article, the author comments the different impacts on the environment and risks related to energy, provided that all energies have an impact on the environment (renewable energies are generally cleaner than fossil energies) and these impacts can be on human health, ecosystems, buildings, crops, landscapes, and climate change. He comments the efforts made in the search for a higher energetic efficiency, and proposes an overview of the various available tools implemented by environmental policies in the energy sector: regulatory instruments, economic instruments, negotiated agreements, and informational instruments. He comments the implementation of an energetic taxing aimed at developing a greater respect of the environment

  13. Econometric methods for energy planning and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, R.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports on the following: econometric models are often used in energy planning and policy for energy demand analysis at the macro and sectorial levels; estimating income and price elasticities of demand which can be used to analyze effects of growth and price changes; assessing interfuel and interfactor substitutions; forecasting energy demand; and estimating cost functions and forecasting supply. The illustrations in the paper are confined to single equation systems estimated by least squares method as used in analyzing changes in aggregate energy demand and sectorial energy demand. The use of econometric methods is illustrated with the help of empirical studies from a few countries (notably India). 2 tabs

  14. Environmental Policy of Serbia and Challenges of Accession to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Nadić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the environmental policy of the Republic of Serbia within the context of accession conditions to the European Union. The main challenges of environmental integration of the environmental policies of Serbia are: economic challenges, the sustainable development challenge, administrative challenges, democratic deficiency challenges, and political challenges. These challenges, while flaws of the environmental policy in Serbia, are no different than the challenges faced by other Central Eastern European countries during the accession process. However, the influence of the global economic crisis, the constant political crisis and unclear definition of the political scene in Serbia, an incomplete vision of environmental education, as well as too much "green" marketing activities and a lack of true law implementation, are additional factors that make the process of environmental accession of Serbia to the EU even more difficult. Therefore, the harmonization of the Serbian environmental legal frame with the European one must be followed by the harmonization of actions of political institutions, social groups and individual citizens, and the overall democratization of society.

  15. Local government broadband policies for areas with limited Internet access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Arai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite their wide diffusion in developed countries, broadband services are still limited in areas where providing them is not profitable for private telecom carriers. To address this, many local governments in Japan have implemented broadband deployment projects subsidized by the national government. In this paper, we discuss local government broadband policies based on survey data collected from municipalities throughout the country. With the support of national promotion policies, broadband services were rapidly introduced to most local municipalities in Japan during the 2000s. Local government deployment policies helped to reduce the number of areas with no broadband access. A business model based on the Indefeasible Right of Use (IRU contract between a private telecom carrier and a local government has been developed in recent years. Even local governments without the technical capacity to operate a broadband business can introduce broadband services into their territory using the IRU business model.

  16. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted through investment subsidies in combination with a net metering scheme. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted by investment subsidies to enterprises and households respectively. To date, no incentives for production and use of bio-fuels in the transport sector are in place

  17. Gold or green: the debate on open access policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadal, Ernest

    2013-09-01

    The movement for open access to science seeks to achieve unrestricted and free access to academic publications on the Internet. To this end, two mechanisms have been established: the gold road, in which scientific journals are openly accessible, and the green road, in which publications are self-archived in repositories. The publication of the Finch Report in 2012, advocating exclusively the adoption of the gold road, generated a debate as to whether either of the two options should be prioritized. The recommendations of the Finch Report stirred controversy among academicians specialized in open access issues, who felt that the role played by repositories was not adequately considered and because the green road places the burden of publishing costs basically on authors. The Finch Report's conclusions are compatible with the characteristics of science communication in the UK and they could surely also be applied to the (few) countries with a powerful publishing industry and substantial research funding. In Spain, both the current national legislation and the existing rules at universities largely advocate the green road. This is directly related to the structure of scientific communication in Spain, where many journals have little commercial significance, the system of charging a fee to authors has not been adopted, and there is a good repository infrastructure. As for open access policies, the performance of the scientific communication system in each country should be carefully analyzed to determine the most suitable open access strategy.

  18. Biomass and Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Bengt

    2001-01-01

    The use of biomass in Sweden has increased by 44% between 1990 and 1999. In 1999 it was 85 TWh, equivalent to 14% of the total Swedish energy supply. The existence of large forest industry and district heating systems has been an essential condition for this expansion. The tax reform in 1991 seems, however, to have been the most important factor responsible for the rapid bioenergy expansion. Through this reform, the taxation of fossil fuels in district heating systems increased by approximately 30-160%, depending on fuel, whereas bioenergy remained untaxed. Industry is exempted from the energy tax and pays reduced carbon tax. No tax is levied on fossil fuels used for electricity production. Investment grants have existed for biomass-based electricity production but these grants have not been large enough to make biomass-based electricity production economically competitive in a period of falling electricity prices. Despite this, the biomass-based electricity production has increased slightly between 1990 and 1999. A new taxation system aiming at a removal of the tax difference between the industry, district heating and electricity sectors has recently been analysed by the Swedish government. One risk with such a system is that it reduces the competitiveness for biomass in district heating systems as it seems unlikely that the taxes on fossil fuels in the industry and electricity sectors will increase to a level much higher than in other countries. A new system, based on green certificates, for supporting electricity from renewable energy sources has also been proposed by the government.

  19. ''Neighbourhood'' as an international energy policy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Pierre; Campaner, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    Since 2002, the concept of ''neighbourhood'' has been central to the EU thinking about the emergence of a European foreign and security policy. The relations between the EU and the countries that share - or could share in the future - a border with it, but have little or no prospects for full membership, are supposed to be structured by the emerging ''European Neighbourhood Policy'' (ENP). On the receiving end of this policy proposal are a number of countries on the Eastern edge of the Union, in the South Caucasus, East and South of the Mediterranean. The ENP is very much a ''transformationist'' agenda, with very ambitious goals of bringing about long term political and economic reforms in the neighbour countries. The ultimate goal is to promote stability and prosperity on the edges of the Union. The means for that is to exchange gradual integration into the EU common market and direct economic aid against verifiable commitments of political and economic reforms. Many neighbour countries are of great significance as energy producers, energy exporters, or transit countries to the EU. Hence the following two questions: 1) Is there an explicit energy security component - or energy motive - in the ENP. If yes, how is it structured. 2) What are the potential energy security implications of the ENP. In other words: To what extent, and through which mechanisms, would EU energy security be served by a process of economic and political reforms in the neighbour countries. It's worth extending the questioning to the study of the ''neighbourhood'' dimension in the existing EU international energy policy. It appears that the energy security thinking of the EU Commission has long been structured by the concept of ''neighbourhood''. It is then of some importance to study how the development of this policy will be affected by the implementation of the ENP. Beyond that, we develop a critical assessment of ''neighbourhood'' as a concept for energy security policies. Based on a

  20. Access to energy and fuel poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    A first part addresses the issue of access to a modern and sustainable energy in developing countries, notably in rural areas of Africa and Asia. Some experiments are evoked like, for example, the financing and support of an Indonesian NGO for the construction of hydroelectric micro power plants. In this respect, decentralized solutions seem to be the most promising, but also the use of new technologies for lighting equipment using 3 energy sources (electric grid, solar energy, rechargeable battery). The Lighting Africa program is evoked. The second part addresses the issue of fuel poverty, notably in France but also in other European countries (data are provided which indicate the numbers of households unable to pay for a proper heating, or with bad quality housing). The authors outline that fuel poverty is a complex problem which requires both emergency measures and prevention programs on a medium and long term: improvement of energy efficiency in the housing sector in order to reduce consumption, implementation of new and innovating technologies (housing rehabilitation with local and green materials, R and D efforts, and development of smart meters). The economic and social dimensions of this problem of fuel poverty are outlined by members of associations

  1. Effectiveness of energy policy covenants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkgraaf, E.; De Jong, J.M.; Spijkerman, M.; Tanis, O.

    2009-10-01

    The Netherlands are relying heavily on covenants to realize a trend break in energy use and their related emissions. The question rises how effective these covenants really are, how their effectiveness relates to other instruments (such as taxes, regulation and grants) and if their effectiveness depends on the shaping of these covenants. This study answers all these questions based on an analysis of the theoretical and empirical literature and on own empirical research based on OECD data. The main conclusion of the study is that there is little to no evidence that these covenants are really effective. [nl

  2. Economic policy and renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaiss, H.

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the economical conclusions of the 6th Symposium on Solar Thermal Concentrating Technologies which take place at Mojacar (Almeria). Parabolic throughs, Central Receiver Systems, dish stirling and Solar chimneys will commercial utilization by the year 2000. Levalized Energy Cost (Solar) is still higher than conventional (coal). Only the utilization of environmental parameters like ''CO2 avoided'' may contribute to market penetration. Concerning siting, it becomes clear that only those countries below 40 degree latitude, (Madrid, Nepal, Ankara) are acceptable. A desregulation of the electrical market is necessary for solar penetration, mainly in developing countries

  3. Which energy policy for the Trump Administration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hache, Emmanuel; Simoen, Marine

    2017-03-01

    The authors discuss the content and the possible consequences of the US energy policy defined by President Trump. On the medium term, this policy could be higher in carbon, and thus far from world environmental concerns. Consequences of this orientation are discussed regarding the international energy geopolitics, and also American citizen. The authors first discuss the impact of the non conventional oil and gas markets on the American and world energy landscape, and outline the search for energy independence by the USA. They also discuss the effect Trump's decision to bypass the OPEC could have on oil market stability. They comment the decision (and its consequences) of a choice of coal to struggle against de-industrialisation in the US, and outline that this policy in favour of the coal industry will probably not create jobs because of its already well advanced automation, whereas a choice for renewable energies would probably do better in this respect. The authors finally discuss whether Trump energy policy makes sense

  4. Renewable Energy Policy Country Profiles. 2011 version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teckenburg, E.; Rathmann, M.; Winkel, T. [ECOFYS, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ragwitz, M.; Steinhilber, S. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Resch, G.; Panzer, C.; Busch, S. [Energy Economics Group EEG, Technical University Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Konstantinaviciute, I. [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2011-08-15

    The core objective of the project RE-Shaping is to assist Member State (MS) governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC and to guide a European policy for RES in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The effectiveness and the efficiency of current and future RES support schemes is analysed with specific focus on a single European market for renewable electricity products. Current best practices are identified, and (future) costs of RES and the corresponding support necessary to initiate stable growth are assessed. Better integration of RES policies with climate and innovation policy as well as liberalised energy markets will be analysed and promoted. Options for flexibility between Member States will be analysed. The future deployment of RES in each MS will be calculated based on the Green-X model to assist MS in implementing national action plans and to support a long term vision of the European RES policy. The latter will be based on an in-depth analysis of the long term RES potentials and costs. The impact of policies on risks for RES financing will be analysed and improved policies and financing instruments will be proposed.

  5. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Main support policy: Renewable electricity in Bulgaria is promoted primarily through a feed-in tariff scheme. For new projects this scheme is only open for installations up to 30 kW. The grid operator is mandated to the purchase and dispatch electricity at a guaranteed price for eligible generators. The use of renewable energy for heating and cooling is promoted through a subsidy from the European Regional Development Fund and through an exemption for building owners from property tax. Main Bulgarian support scheme for renewable energy in transport is a quota system. There is a professional training programme for RES-installers as well as a building obligation for the use of renewable heating and for the exemplary role of public authorities

  6. Encouraging energy efficiency: Policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Successfully overcoming the barriers to higher energy efficiency requires development of policies designed for specific users and locations. Reform of energy pricing, which entails removing subsidies and beginning internalization of externalities, is critical to give technology producers and users proper signals for investment and management decisions. But while a rise in energy prices increases the amount of energy-efficiency improvement that is cost-effective, it does not remove other barriers that deter investment. Minimum efficiency standards or agreements can raise the market floor, and are important because they affect the entire market in the near-term. But they may not raise the celining very much, and do little to push the efficiency frontier. To accomplish these goals, incentives and other market-development strategies are needed. Utility programs in particular can play a key role in pushing energy efficiency beyond the level where users are likely to invest on their own. Policies, programs, and pricing should complement one another. Pricing reform alone will not overcome the many entrenched barriers to higher energy efficiency, but trying to accelerate energy efficiency improvement without addressing energy pricing problems will lead to limited success. Whether tagerting new equipment or management of existing systems, policies must reflect a thorough understanding of the particular system and an awareness of the motivations of the actors. 25 refs

  7. Evolution of the German energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The author first recalls the main events and decisions regarding the German policy from 1998 to 2011, and notably the decisions related to nuclear energy. He gives the main data of the German energy system (production capacity, production of the different primary sources) and indicates the main characteristics and assumptions of the 2011 turnaround (decision of shutting down 17 nuclear plants by 2022, objectives in terms of renewable energy production and share, of electricity consumption, and of greenhouse gas emission). The author then presents how the law on renewable energies (EEG) operates, indicates energy prices in Germany for individuals and industries and CO 2 emissions per electric sector, and compares them with the French ones. He outlines the need of construction of new energy transport lines, and identifies and comments other implications of the intermittent character of renewable energies in terms of electricity market organisation, of construction of combustion-based thermal plants, and of flexibility requirements. He discusses successes and difficulties of this evolution of energy policy, and the implication of this new policy for the European Union and for border countries

  8. New US energy policy act in force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2005-01-01

    The United States of America is accused by politicians of the German Red-Green federal government, but also by the EU, of not caring enough about climate protection. This allegation is fueled, above all, by the refusal of the United States to sign the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Climate Framework Convention of 1997. However, the US is not idle in this respect. In late July, the United States together with China, India, Japan, South Korea and Australia agreed on an Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. Almost at the same time, on July 29, 2005, after more than five years of debate, the US Congress adopted new energy legislation (A Bill to Ensure Jobs for the Future with Secure and Reliable Energy - the Energy Policy Act of 2005). The holistic aspect in this piece of US legislation covers nearly the whole field of energy policy. The Act encompasses these areas: - energy efficiency, - renewable energies, - oil and natural gas, - clean coal, - nuclear power, - vehicles and fuels, - hydrogen, - electricity, - research and development. With its new Energy Policy Act, the United States has paved the way politically for making energy supply in the world's largest industrialized national securer and safer on a technical basis and less pollutant for the environment and the climate. (orig.)

  9. Update of Energy policy of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The National Energy Directorate from Uruguay called a contest for Update Policy L Energy of Uruguay so as to ensure energy supply at the lowest possible cost, with greater safety and lower environmental impact and taking account efficient use of the Energy. FIEL was selected to carry out the work planned within three months and responding to a broad agenda that included the following points in the order of the Terms of Reference of the contest (TORs): 3.1. Evaluation of the existing energy policy 3.2. relative price optimization fuel 3.3. Optimization of tax policy in fuel 3.4. assessment of cost and benefits of alternative import 3.5. strategic reserve 3.6. Ambiental impacts Identification 3.7. Recommendations to improve the framework regulatory 3.8. Institutional framework for the energy sector in Uruguay 3.9. Evaluation of potential of renewable national energy resources 3.10. Energy efficiency 3.11. Action Plan for the National Energy The report presents and order of the TORs. In the first chapter updates assessment of energy policy presented in the progress report. In point 3.2 approaching the economic costs of the various energy alternatives from the parities import and cost efficient products in non tradable. Along with the environmental costs estimated in Section 3.6 is evaluated in the 3.3 How should the taxes structure to take into account externalities generating energy. In Section 3.4 discusses different options imported and in 3.5 energy supply costs are assessed count a strategic reserve, which Uruguay has decided that it is in the form of capacity thermal generation. In paragraphs 3.7 and 3.8 governing institutions is analyzed and they plan the sector, not only from a regulatory point of view but also the organization Internal DNE. In 3.9 alternatives are discussed renewable resources from national and international studies existentes, and in 3.1 updating the results of a recent study on energy efficiency by the World Bank and the case of an eventual

  10. Policies for 100% Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The official Danish energy policy goal is both to increase the wind power share of electricity consumption from 33% in 2014 to 50% by 2020 and to have a 100% renewable energy based energy system by 2050. This is a huge technological change from stored, scarce and polluting fossil fuels...... to fluctuating, abundant and clean energy sources. “Stored” fossil fuels can be used when needed; fluctuating energy sources must be captured when available and transformed to meet the energy needs of society in the right amounts and at the right time. We are amidst this change. Renewable energy has come of age...... and is no longer a minor technology experimenting in the corner of the energy scene, but has become a large new technology taking away considerable market shares from the old fossil fuel technologies....

  11. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In Portugal, electricity from renewable sources from existing plants is mainly promoted through a feed-in tariff. Support to new RES plants can currently only be remunerated through the open energy market. For RES-H there is currently no direct support mechanism or fiscal benefit in place (as of January 2017); only indirect support. In the transport sector, the main incentives are a bio-fuel quota system and a tax exemption to small producers of bio-fuels

  12. Coordination of innovation, energy and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rave, Tilmann; Triebswetter, Ursula; Wackerbauer, Johann

    2013-01-01

    The present study is dedicated to an investigation of the interplay of innovation, energy and environmental policy and the policy instruments used in each of these fields. A substantial amount of coordination is required in order to bring about the envisaged transformation of Germany's energy supply system and the political goals associated with this, especially given the altered political environment and framework conditions. Failure to act on this need could lead to political goals being missed or frustrated, unnecessary costs or other undesirable side-effects such as unfavourable distribution effects. [de

  13. Lessons Learned from the Energy Policies of IEA Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This information paper provides policy makers and managers, facing tough energy policy challenges, with a wider perspective of how the same issues are being addressed by different IEA member countries. The topics included are: Government structures for co-ordinating energy and climate policies; The use of long-term energy forecasts and scenarios; and Progress in the delivery of key energy security policies.

  14. Demand for Energy and Energy Generation: Does Regional Energy Policy Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul OJEAGA; Odejimi DEBORAH

    2014-01-01

    Does regional energy policy play a role in regional energy generation? What does the implication of the current industrialization trend mean for the generation and the supply process across regions? And to what extent does regional energy policy affect energy security (energy supply risks) in regions? This study investigates the effect of regional energy policy on regional generation characteristics in seven regions of the World using regional panel data from 1980 to 2010 a period of 31 years...

  15. BDI position on energy policy and energy market deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreklau, C.

    2003-01-01

    Secure energy supplies are indispensable for our modern way of life and our economy. Energy policy is a part of economic policy and must be shaped within the magic triangle of objectives, i.e. security, competitiveness, environmental compatibility. As a result of their outstanding role, electricity and natural gas, with respective shares of 70% in industrial energy use and 85% in energy costs, are in the focus of energy policy interest of the Federation of German Industries (BDI). One important development over the past few years has been the deregulation of the markets for electricity and gas. However, the markedly lower electricity rates to be paid by industry, commercial tariff consumers, and private customers are being offset by new burdens arising from government intervention and taxes. Other dirigistic interventions into the energy market by the red-green federal government since 1998, referred to as 'turning point of energy policy', are invalidating what market opening had been achieved. With a view to a sustainable energy policy for the future, BDI pleads in favor of a broad energy mix. In a mix neutral with respect to competition, this includes the classical energy sources, the renewables, and low-cost, environmentally friendly nuclear power. In principle, it is the forces of the market, coupled with responsible action, which are to steer further developments. On a European level, speedy implementation of the opening of the electricity and gas markets, as decided, should be urged. It is important that the leeway won as a result of deregulation not be constrained again by new regulations. More market, less regulation, and more direct responsibility must provide room for a powerful energy supply system under the premises of the triangle of objectives referred to above. (orig.) [de

  16. Renewable energy policies in promoting financing and investment among the East Asia Summit countries: Quantitative assessment and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng; Li, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    Many countries have implemented various policies for renewable energy development ranging from setting power purchase agreements and the legislation of renewable energy requirements to providing incentives and imposing carbon taxes. The evaluation of the effectiveness of such policies, however, is fragmented, which raises a need for a comprehensive analysis. This paper aims to assess whether and how policies promoting renewable energy investment have achieved the intended goals. It employs five broadly defined criteria - market, uncertainty, profitability, technology, and financial resources - to build an index to assess respectively if such policies have helped create a market for renewable energy, maximize potential profits, reduce risks relating to the investment, develop and adopt new technologies, and improve the access to financial resources. Each criterion is reflected by three indicators. Values of each indicator are converted into ordinal values for analysis. The index not only scans comprehensively all relevant renewable energy investment policies in the East Asia Summit countries, but also provides systematic and quantitative measures to compare the effectiveness of policies in these countries with respect to the creation of market, the degree of uncertainty, the potential of profitability, the development and adoption of technology and the accessibility of financial resources. - Highlights: •This paper evaluate renewable energy policies in 16 East Asia Summit countries. •Five criteria are used to build the quantitative index. •They are market, profitability, legislation, technology, and financial resources. •Policy implications are drawn based on the index.

  17. An Adaptive Time-Spread Multiple-Access Policy for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Oikonomou

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensor networks require a simple and efficient medium access control policy achieving high system throughput with no or limited control overhead in order to increase the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumed during transmission attempts. Time-spread multiple-access (TSMA policies that have been proposed for ad hoc network environments, can also be employed in sensor networks, since no control overhead is introduced. However, they do not take advantage of any cross-layer information in order to exploit the idiosyncrasies of the particular sensor network environment such as the presence of typically static nodes and a common destination for the forwarded data. An adaptive probabilistic TSMA-based policy, that is proposed and analyzed in this paper, exploits these idiosyncrasies and achieves higher system throughput than the existing TSMA-based policies without any need for extra control overhead. As it is analytically shown in this paper, the proposed policy always outperforms the existing TSMA-based policies, if certain parameter values are properly set; the analysis also provides for these proper values. It is also shown that the proposed policy is characterized by a certain convergence period and that high system throughput is achieved for long convergence periods. The claims and expectations of the provided analysis are supported by simulation results presented in this paper.

  18. Policy modeling for industrial energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Park, Hi-Chun; Lee, Sang-Gon; Jung, Yonghun; Kato, Hiroyuki; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Nyboer, John; Jaccard, Mark; Nordqvist, Joakim; Boyd, Christopher; Klee, Howard; Anglani, Norma; Biermans, Gijs

    2003-03-01

    The international workshop on Policy Modeling for Industrial Energy Use was jointly organized by EETA (Professional Network for Engineering Economic Technology Analysis) and INEDIS (International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector). The workshop has helped to layout the needs and challenges to include policy more explicitly in energy-efficiency modeling. The current state-of-the-art models have a proven track record in forecasting future trends under conditions similar to those faced in the recent past. However, the future of energy policy in a climate-restrained world is likely to demand different and additional services to be provided by energy modelers. In this workshop some of the international models used to make energy consumption forecasts have been discussed as well as innovations to enable the modeling of policy scenarios. This was followed by the discussion of future challenges, new insights in the data needed to determine the inputs into energy model s, and methods to incorporate decision making and policy in the models. Based on the discussion the workshop participants came to the following conclusions and recommendations: Current energy models are already complex, and it is already difficult to collect the model inputs. Hence, new approaches should be transparent and not lead to extremely complex models that try to ''do everything''. The model structure will be determined by the questions that need to be answered. A good understanding of the decision making framework of policy makers and clear communication on the needs are essential to make any future energy modeling effort successful. There is a need to better understand the effects of policy on future energy use, emissions and the economy. To allow the inclusion of policy instruments in models, evaluation of programs and instruments is essential, and need to be included in the policy instrument design. Increased efforts are needed to better understand the

  19. Energy Policies of Ukraine. 1996 Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Few countries in the world have a more precarious energy situation than Ukraine. A heavy dependence on oil and gas imports, inefficiently-mined coal, and unsafe unsafe nuclear power have left the country vulnerable to energy supply disruptions. Despite some positive moves to restructure the energy sector, Ukraine has not charted a course toward the adoption of a market-oriented, long term energy strategy. This IEA report takes an in-depth look at recent developments and additional steps needed to move Ukraine's energy sector through the difficult transition process, including: a redefinition of the government's energy role; a shift toward market-led business practices in oil and gas production, oil refining and marketing, coal mining and distribution, electricity generation, and gas and power distribution; improved energy security through more diversified energy imports, reliance on domestic coal, and after use of nuclear energy; and a drive to conserve energy and minimise energy waste, in tandem with energy price liberation. Included in this IEA survey are revised data on Ukraine's energy demand, supply, trade and prices. The study offers policy makers and private companies a better understanding of the energy risks and trade-off facing Ukraine in the years ahead. (author). 28 figs., 47 tabs., 8 appends., 8 charts., 3 maps

  20. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  1. Energy Poverty and Policy Coherence in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel; Michaelowa, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Energy poverty is frequently mobilized as a normative argument in international negotiations. Typically, the concrete linkages between political propositions at international level and domestic policies remain ill-defined, and thus invite different stakeholders to make use of terms like “energy...... poverty” for their own purposes. In other words, “energy poverty” remains a contested concept that lends itself to social norm construction. Whether, under these conditions, national policies and their implementation then truly serve the interest of the poor is an open question. Indeed, critics at both...... the international and the national level suggest that political actors in India might hijack salient normative positions on energy poverty in order to advance their own agenda. To assess whether domestic politics are consistent with the pro-poor normative discourse at the international level, we examine (i...

  2. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Italy approved the National Energy Strategy in 2013. It is built around 7 priorities and focusses on a sustainable deployment of renewable energy and stresses the importance of energy efficiency. The Strategy contains targets and measures until 2020 as well as long-term strategies until 2050. In 2013, the green certificate scheme was replaced by other support schemes to promote RES-E, namely different feed-in and premium tariffs. Very large plants are awarded contracts under a tender scheme (auction process). For RESH, there exists a tax regulation scheme and incentive for small RES-H sources. RES-T is promoted by quotas

  3. Mexican energy policy and sustainability indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Ruiz-Mendoza, Belizza Janet; Rodríguez-Padilla, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the Mexican energy policy taking as reference the methodological framework for sustainable energy development proposed by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. This methodology takes eight related indicators to the social, environmental and economic dimensions in order to calculate a general sustainability indicator for the energy sector. In this methodology, the weight of each dimension is different; namely, the social and environmental issues have less relevance than the economic issues. The authors use this methodology because government institutions as the Department of Energy and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources have used some indicators from such a methodology to propose plans, programs, projects and bills. Authors know of the existence of other methodologies about sustainability. Nonetheless, opting for the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's methodology is convenient because this organization is a respectable authority for civil servants from the Mexican institutions. Our objective is just to contrast the sustainability grade of the energy sector between 1990 and 2008 for Mexico whose government started reforms in the 1990s. It concludes that those reforms did not bring about a higher sustainability level for the energy sector. - Highlights: ► We used the OLADE, CEPAL and GTZ's methodology to calculate sustainability indicators for the Mexican energy sector. ► We studied the Mexican energy policy from 1990 to date and presented it. ► Currently, the Mexican energy sector is less sustainable than in 1990.

  4. On FDP energy and nuclear power policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirche, W.

    2002-01-01

    A liberal energy policy as proclaimed by the FDP, the Free Democratic Party, is based on the principle of sustainability and, in equal measure, serves to ensure economic viability, continuity of supply, and environmental as well as societal compatibility. The possibilities open for national action are determined by the framework conditions of globalization and liberalization, and by the contribution of Germany to the implementation of the sustainability goals. Liberal policies take into account the protection of the environment and of the climate. Levies imposed to protect the environment and the climate must serve specific purposes; the present eco-tax has no controlling function whatsoever. Political measures must not seek to impose government conditions, but rather strengthen public awareness of sustainable action. Liberal research policy focuses on the four areas of fossil energy sources, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, renewable energy sources, and new technologies. A balanced energy mix as seen by the FDP constitutes the basic of sufficient, safe, non-polluting, and low-cost energy supply. Nuclear power is, and will continue to be, a component of this energy mix. (orig.) [de

  5. Projecting India's energy requirements for policy formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Karandikar, Vivek; Rana, Ashish; Dani, Prasanna

    2009-01-01

    Energy policy has to have a long-term perspective. To formulate it one needs to know the contours of energy requirements and options. Different approaches have been followed in literature, each with their own problems. A top down econometric approach provides little guidance on policies, while a bottom up approval requires too much knowledge and too many assumptions. Using top-down econometric approach for aggregate overall benchmarking and a detailed activity analysis model, Integrated Energy System Model, for a few large sectors, provides a unique combination for easing the difficulties of policy formulation. The model is described in this paper. Eleven alternate scenarios are built, designed to map out extreme points of feasible options. Results show that even after employing all domestic energy resource to their full potential, there will be a continued rise of fossil fuel use, continued importance of coal, and continued rise of import dependence. Energy efficiency emerges as a major option with a potential to reduce energy requirement by as much as 17%. Scenario results point towards pushing for development of alternative sources. (author)

  6. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Belgium consists of three regions: Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia, each with much autonomy in determining renewable support policies, except for support to offshore wind and hydro power which fall under the competence of the federal government. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted at regional and federal levels mainly through a quota system based on the trade of certificates, complemented by regional support measures. In the three regions small PV installations benefit from net metering. The federal government supports renewable heating and cooling by way of a tax deduction on investment costs. The main support scheme for renewable energy sources used in transport is a quota system under the competence of the federal government

  8. Essays on Energy Technology Innovation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak

    Motivated by global climate change, enhancing innovation systems for energy technologies is seen as one of the largest public policy challenges of the near future. The role of policy in enhancing energy innovation systems takes several forms: public provision of research and develop funding, facilitating the private sector's capability to develop new technologies, and creating incentives for private actors to adopt innovative and appropriate technologies. This dissertation explores research questions that span this range of policies to develop insights in how energy technology innovation policy can be reformed in the face of climate change. The first chapter of this dissertation explores how decision making to allocate public research and development funding could be improved through the integration of expert technology forecasts. I present a framework to evaluate and optimize the U.S. Department of Energy's research and development portfolio of applied energy projects, accounting for spillovers from technical complimentary and competition for the same market share. This project integrates one of the largest and most comprehensive sets of expert elicitations on energy technologies (Anadon et al., 2014b) in a benefit evaluation framework. This work entailed developing a new method for probability distribution sampling that accommodates the information that can be provided by expert elicitations. The results of this project show that public research and development in energy storage and solar photovoltaic technologies has the greatest marginal returns to economic surplus, but the methodology developed in this chapter is broadly applicable to other public and private R&D-sponsoring organizations. The second chapter of this dissertation explores how policies to transfer technologies from federally funded research laboratories to commercialization partners, largely private firms, create knowledge spillovers that lead to further innovation. In this chapter, I study the U

  9. Renewable energy investment: Policy and market impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Wolf Heinrich; Szolgayová, Jana; Fuss, Sabine; Obersteiner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Feedback of decisions to the market: large companies can have an impact on prices in the market. ► Multiple uncertainties: analysis of uncertainties emanating from both markets and environment. ► Policy analysis: impact of uncertainty about the durability of feed-in tariffs. -- Abstract: The liberalization of electricity markets in recent years has enhanced competition among power-generating firms facing uncertain decisions of competitors and thus uncertain prices. At the same time, promoting renewable energy has been a key ingredient in energy policy seeking to de-carbonize the energy mix. Public incentives for companies to invest in renewable technologies range from feed-in tariffs, to investment subsidies, tax credits, portfolio requirements and certificate systems. We use a real options model in discrete time with lumpy multiple investments to analyze the decisions of an electricity producer to invest into new power generating capacity, to select the type of technology and to optimize its operation under price uncertainty and with market effects. We account for both the specific characteristics of renewables and the market effects of investment decisions. The prices are determined endogenously by the supply of electricity in the market and by exogenous electricity price uncertainty. The framework is used to analyze energy policy, as well as the reaction of producers to uncertainty in the political and regulatory framework. In this way, we are able to compare different policies to foster investment into renewables and analyze their impacts on the market.

  10. Energy and transport policy for the eighties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumpf, L.

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasises the role of financing research for the rational usage of energy. Independence of the industry from imports and nuclear power programme to cover the envisaged needs are considered before tackling the subject of financial aid to the railways. The future policy of transport development is also outlined. (I.G.)

  11. What energy policy for the European Union?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The energy question is becoming ever more important. Proper management of energy resources is a strategic challenge that will determine our economic development and even the preservation of our way of life. Looking further into the future, failure to grasp energy-related problems could be seriously prejudicial to the future of our planet (global warming). Because of the rise in prices of fossil fuels resulting from the gradual exhaustion of resources and the political instability reigning in the principal production zones, the disputes over gas between Russia and certain former Soviet republics, massive electricity blackouts, etc, public opinion is now particularly sensitive to these new threats and is looking to decision-makers, at both national and European level, to draw up policies capable of responding to these concerns. Over the past two years, European institutions have in fact taken an increasing number of initiatives in the energy field. This work has, in particular, identified the following three major objectives: - combating global warming, which implies the definition of an energy mix compatible with environmental constraints (reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases), - ensuring security of supply, an ever-growing concern, given the growing dependency of EU Member States on imports of energy, and - safeguarding the competitiveness of the European economy. Despite this work, the only tangible achievement in the energy field in Europe, and one that is still incomplete, concerns the liberalisation of the gas and electricity markets. Apart from the fact that this policy is sometimes badly perceived by European populations, being regarded as responsible for the current rise in prices, Europe cannot be satisfied with tackling just this aspect of affairs. In this respect, energy provides an opportunity to re-launch the construction of Europe both internally (drawing up of a joint agreement regarding energy options, R and D programmes, energy saving, etc

  12. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2004-11-01

    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  13. Implementing the data preservation and open access policy in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassila-Perini, K; Lampén, T; Luukka, P; Alverson, G; Cabrillo, I; Calderon, A; Marco, J; Colling, D; Huffman, A; Hildreth, M; McCauley, T; Sonnenschein, L

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of the CMS policy on long-term data preservation, re-use and open access has started. Current practices in providing data additional to published papers and distributing simplified data-samples for outreach are promoted and consolidated. The first measures have been taken for analysis and data preservation for the internal use of the collaboration and for open access to part of the data. Two complementary approaches are followed. First, a virtual machine environment, which will pack all ingredients needed to compile and run a software release with which the legacy data was reconstructed. Second, a validation framework, maintaining the capability not only to read the old raw data, but also to reprocess them with an updated release or to another format to help ensure long-term reusability of the legacy data.

  14. World Energy Outlook - 2050: Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghouri, Salman Saif

    2007-07-01

    The paper analyzes the historical trends, resource distribution and forecasts the regional total primary energy consumption (TPEC) to 2050. The purpose is to provide a most probable path so that appropriate policies can be made to enhance/slowdown the energy consumption without hampering economic growth. Global TPEC is most likely to reach 763-1259 Quadrillion Btu (QBtu) to 2050 with reference case trending between and stood at 978 QBtu. By 2050 the equation of TPEC is expected to be tilted in favor of developing countries when their share is increased from 47 percent in 2003 to 59 percent. Asia developing region becomes the largest consumer of TPEC; however on per capita basis it remains the lowest after Africa. The forecast gives some guidance to policy makers. Which policy measures should be taken to ensure availability of predicted level of energy resources? How should we mobilize sizeable investment to increase the expected production/capacity/logistic both in the producing and consuming countries? Simultaneously, what strategic measures should be taken: to improve energy efficiency/conservation, development/promotion of renewable sources of energies and check population growth to downward shift the probable TPEC path without compromising economic growth, productivity and quality of life? (auth)

  15. Economy and ecology in energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppler, E.

    1981-01-01

    The basic theses of alternative energy policy are: it is more simple, less dangerous, cheaper, more environmentally-minded, easier and quicker to realize the curbing of the demand for energy than to increase the supply. It is therefore also more sensible from the ecological and economic point of view to save petroleum directly than to substitute it by nuclear power. It is not only more difficult, more dangerous, more expensive, and less environmentally-minded to substitute petroleum by nuclear power than to save petroleum and other forms of energy directly but it is also more difficult to realize all that within shorter periods. (orig./HP) [de

  16. The diversity of European energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    If many European Union countries have engaged in a mutation of their energy system, the direction chosen may be different from one country to the other with different specific goals, starting from different initial energy mixes and involving different financial and industrial means. The German 'Energiewende' (the 'energy turn'), the Spanish 'Sostenibilidad Energetica' or the British 'Climate Change Bill' are unique initiatives which, without coordination, can lead to detrimental consequences on the European power system. These policies represent as many experiences to meditate on in order to identify the advantages and drawbacks of these different approaches as well as their respective impact on the European power system and on markets operation

  17. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Mid-2016 Poland revamped its national support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources, started to phase out a certificates-backed renewable electricity quota scheme, and put in place a feed-in tariff/feed-in premium (FiT/FiP) system in place with the support levels being determined by approved tender bids. Furthermore, a fiscal and soft loan instrument is used for supplementary support. Three subsidy instruments and a soft loan instrument are deployed for the promotion of renewable heat. Renewable energy in transport is promoted through a bio-fuels quota scheme

  18. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is promoted through a premium tariff (and a guaranteed feed-in tariff for installations of less than 30 kW), allocated through tenders. Soft loans and subsidies for renewable energy projects are also provided. Renewable energy sources for heating purposes only are not promoted through a national support scheme. A training programme for RES installers aims at promoting the development, installation and usage of power generating and heating installations based on renewables. The main promotion scheme in the field of renewable transport fuels is a bio-fuels quota scheme. Additionally, the state provides bio-fuels incentives taking the form of a tax credits mechanism

  19. Energy policy options for Illinois. Proceedings. [26 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-six papers presented at the Fifth Annual Oil Illinois Energy Conference are categorized into five sections, namely: An overview of U.S. and Illinois Energy Policy; Energy Policy; Conservation--Solar--Biomass and Solid Wastes; Energy Policy; Petroleum and Natural Gas; Energy Policy; Coal and Electric Utilities; and Economic and Consumer Concerns. One paper, A Perspective on Long-Range Nuclear Energy Options, by William O. Harms has previously appeared in EAPA 4: 1364. (MCW)

  20. The Role of Policy Makers and Institutions in the Energy Sector: The Case of Energy Infrastructure Governance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Edomah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigating the linkages and consequences of the policy decision process in the governance of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. It attempts to gain a better understanding of the role of policy makers and institutions in the provision of energy infrastructure in Nigeria. Using a combination of semi-structured interviews and documentary evidences from published literature, this study reveals three essential areas where the policy-making processes (and therefore policy makers intervene in the provision of energy infrastructure. These are: (1 granting access to historical data; (2 regulations; and (3 permitting/issuance of licenses. This study also reveals three major unintended consequences of the policy decision processes and institutions in the governance of energy infrastructure provisions in Nigeria, which are: (1 government financing corruption in the energy sector; (2 economic delusion; and (3 uncontrolled growth in energy demand driven more by export and not local internal demand.

  1. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  2. Energy policy and alternative energy in Malaysia: Issues and challenges for sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tick Hui; Pang, Shen Yee; Chua, Shing Chyi

    2010-01-01

    Energy is essential to the way we live. Whether it is in the form of oil, gasoline or electricity, a country's prosperity and welfare depends on having access to reliable and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices. However, it is also one of the benefits taken for granted by many people, knowing little about the impact of electricity on their lives. Having dependent mainly on oil and gas for half a century, Malaysia has started to realize the importance to adopt renewable energy in the energy mix and continuously reviewed its energy policy to ensure sustainable energy supply and security. This paper examines and discusses the intricacy of the existing and new energy policies, issues and challenges in Malaysia. The overall approach in addressing the energy issues and challenges will continue to focus on adequacy, quality, security and sustainability of both non-renewable and renewable energy supply in the country's development and the promotion and implementation of its energy efficiency programs. The recently launched National Green Technology Policy is also discussed. (author)

  3. Agrofuels' role in the EU energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricase, C.; Lombardi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Over last years, growing concerns related to climate changes and to the necessity of a certain and guarantee energy supply have been generating considerations that will induce to a substantial review of the current European economic and energy system. In such a developing context, governments and economic operators have been giving an important role to bio energy as an instrument to lower polluting emissions, to diversify energy supply and to increase the value of rural areas. This was also emphasized by the European Union through specific measures and incentives. The aim of this paper is to analyse the current agrofuel' role (biodiesel and bio ethanol) in the EU energy policy, considering the problems related to their use as underlined by the lively discussion at international level [it

  4. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  5. German energy policy in deregulated Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    2000-01-01

    The author argues in favor of a more fact-oriented German energy policy: Firstly, German energy policy must accept the new European framework of a market economy. This means that German utilities must no longer be burdened with the implementation of political objectives. The German power industry needs a level playing field for competition on a European scale. Consequently, also the European partner countries should not limit themselves to the minimum conditions of the Single Market Directive in opening their markets. Secondly, German energy policy must develop new forms of cooperation with the power industry so as to maintain domestic employment and the addition of value despite considerably stronger competitive pressure. Also the conflicting targets of sustainability, continuity of supply, and economic viability must not only be discussed, but must be turned into productive approaches. Thirdly, this means that there must be no inadmissible solution in matters nuclear. If the German power industry is to remain strong, in the interest of domestic jobs and opportunities for the future, it must not lose any more domestic market share to other European companies. Fourthly, we need a new energy policy which takes cognizance of the results of market development in a more rational, less emotional way. In this respect, it should be limited henceforth to supporting renewable energies and technologies so as to enhance energy efficiency in line with market requirements. Fifthly, German energy policy must not commit the mistake of enforcing deregulation and, at the same time, exempting large segments of the market from competition. Thus, the planned expansion of renewable energies, and the increase in cogeneration to more than thirty percent of the German electricty generation, by way of quotas and revenues for electricity from these sources fed into the public grid, are incompatible with competition in Europe. The electricity tax within the framework of the eco tax, the

  6. Public involvement in danish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refslund Poulsen, N.; Breinholt Larsen, F.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary investigation on ''Public involvment in the Danish energy policy. The nuclear power issue'' was carried out as part of the project on ''Public involvment in decision-making related to science and technology'' performed by the Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry of the OECD in Paris. The historical development of Danish energy policy is briefly described. An account is given of the nuclear controversy, and the development of public opinion is outlined. The public debate has been very widespread and intense, by far the most comprehensive debate since that concerning the European Communities. Assuming that the development of public opinion reflects the relative success or failure of the contending parties, the opponents of nuclear energy seem to have done best. Opinion polls showed some marked deviations among the electorate according to different variables. The most striking were those observed in relation to sex, age, education, and political preferences. One chapter treats the attitude of public authorities to extended public involvment, and special accounts are given of the Energy Information Committee, and the Energy Council. Finally the prime movers of the nuclear debate are dealt with, in particular the Organization for Information on Nuclear Energy OOA, which opposes nuclear power. (B.P.)

  7. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  8. Southeast Regional Clean Energy Policy Analysis (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, J.

    2011-04-01

    More than half of the electricity produced in the southeastern states is fuelled by coal. Although the region produces some coal, most of the states depend heavily on coal imports. Many of the region's aging coal power facilities are planned for retirement within the next 20 years. However, estimates indicate that a 20% increase in capacity is needed over that time to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most common incentives for energy efficiency in the Southeast are loans and rebates; however, total public spending on energy efficiency is limited. The most common state-level policies to support renewable energy development are personal and corporate tax incentives and loans. The region produced 1.8% of the electricity from renewable resources other than conventional hydroelectricity in 2009, half of the national average. There is significant potential for development of a biomass market in the region, as well as use of local wind, solar, methane-to-energy, small hydro, and combined heat and power resources. Options are offered for expanding and strengthening state-level policies such as decoupling, integrated resource planning, building codes, net metering, and interconnection standards to support further clean energy development. Benefits would include energy security, job creation, insurance against price fluctuations, increased value of marginal lands, and local and global environmental paybacks.

  9. Environmental considerations in Vietnam's energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui, X.H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy conservation is at the centre of an environmental debate in Vietnam, whose rapidly growing economy in recent years has resulted in rising energy consumption and environmental degradation. This article reviewed the actual state of Vietnam's energy system, with consideration of the country's energy policies and their impact on the environment. Vietnam's energy resources consist of a vast network of rivers that hold potential for hydroelectric power; reserves that are proven to have oil, natural gas and coal; and, other renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. The energy sector plays a major role in the economic and social aspects of the country. Since its economic reform, coal and crude oil exports have brought in foreign money to the national revenue. Vietnam exploits four commercial types of energy, namely coal, oil, natural gas and hydroelectricity. These traditional energy sources play a major role in providing energy for the rural and mountainous regions in the country. The increase in energy demand in Vietnam is currently greater than that of its gross national product. The energy intensity in Vietnam is 1.5 times greater than that of Thailand, and twice the average world consumption. Energy demands are increasing at a regular rate due to a low rate of energy efficiency and to growth in industrialization and modernization. In addition, the government provides subsidies to the already low price of energy. It was concluded that although Vietnam has a low rate of energy consumption compared to other regions of the world, there exists a serious imbalance between energy use and economic and social growth. This imbalance could have a negative impact on fossil resources and the environment, especially if the high demand for energy is maintained. Presently, all negative impacts on the environment are related to the energy sector. An environmental assessment and strategic proposals to manage this problem locally and globally, have constituted the

  10. Renewable energies and public policies; Energies renouvelables et politiques publiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, Y. [Ministere de l' Amenagement du Territoire et de l' Environnement, 75 - Paris (France); Pierret, Ch. [Ministere de l' Industrie, 75 - Paris (France); Lienemann, M.N. [Ministere de l' Urbanisme, du Logement et des Transports, 75 - Paris (France)

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the interventions of political personalities on the topic of the renewable energies development policies and the necessity of financial incentives which have been discussed during the colloquium of thursday 4 april 2002 at Paris. (A.L.B.)

  11. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources of energy is stimulated by a feed-in tariff scheme which includes elements of a renewable quota scheme and tendering. Since 2011 this scheme only applies to pre-existing RES-E installations and is closed for new RES-E projects. Moreover, the present main RES-E support scheme is being evaluated which may result in reforms within short. Small-scale renewable generation, notably PV, is stimulated by net metering. On the other hand, since January 2014 a tax for subsidised electricity generators is in place. Renewable heating and cooling is promoted by fiscal instruments. To date, renewable transport fuels are promoted through a tax mechanism as well

  12. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Malta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Malta's RES target for 2020 is 10%. By 2015, Malta had reached a RES share of 5%. Due to several major technology-related developments, Malta has revised the originally planned RES mix presented in its 2010 NREAP. Whilst offshore wind is no longer expected to contribute to reaching the target, installation of solar PV systems is given higher priority. Malta uses a combination of feed-in tariffs, grant schemes and a quota obligation on the share of bio-fuels delivered on the market to promote renewable energy sources

  13. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. On October 2015, a new support scheme (the 'Regimen Retributivo Especifico') was established in Spain. The aim was to grant a specific remuneration regime for new biomass plants located in the mainland electricity system and for wind energy plants. The allocation of the referred specific remuneration regime has been done through a competitive call for tenders. A tax regulation mechanism for investments related to RESE plants is in place. There is a tax credit for solar thermal and for bio-fuels in transport. Furthermore a quota system for bio-fuels is in place. RES-E operators are entitled to grid connection, priority dispatch against the grid operator. Currently no support schemes for RES-H and C are in place in Spain

  14. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. In the United Kingdom RES-E are supported through a feed-in tariff, Contracts for Difference scheme, a quota system and tax regulation mechanism. For RES-H and C a subsidy and price-based mechanisms are available for supporting RES-H installations. Furthermore, a quota system for biofuels and a grant scheme for transport is in place. A training programme for RES-E plant installers is in place, as well as a certification programme for RES-E installations. An overarching Renewable Energy Roadmap relating to RES-E has been laid down and implemented

  15. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The main support scheme for electricity from renewable energy sources is a feed-in tariff scheme. For operators of photovoltaics (PV) and onshore wind installations an investment subsidy instrument is available as well. Besides, the sale of generated renewable electricity is incentivized by an exemption from excise duty. Also renewable heat production installations are eligible for an investment subsidy instrument. For renewable transport fuels a bio-fuels quota scheme is on place. Moreover, producers/suppliers of bio-fuels and petroleum fuels blended with bio-fuels benefit from a fiscal incentive

  16. An european policy of the energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This report aims to precise the main dynamics which give structure to the public action in the domain of the energy in Europe. It shows: how the european initiatives which tend to integrate the different national policies, are poorly developed; a new european model of regulation to articulate the liberalization dynamic with the other objectives of national interest; scenari of global integration. (A.L.B.)

  17. Nuclear energy - perception, policy and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemeny, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    The arguments in favour of nuclear power are presented. It is argued that the impact of nuclear energy on the world is already substantial and that the risks have been overstated. The public perception of nuclear technology in general is often shaped by poor education, a hostile, sensation-seeking media and confusion between the peaceful nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear weapons. Nuclear policy in Australia is reviewed

  18. Preferential treatment and exemption policy impacts energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doelle, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the preferential treatment and exemption policy of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for State and State Agencies which creates an anticompetitive and restraint of trade attitude in California against the development of alternative energy resources by the private sector when such development competes directly with state owned power generation under the State Water and Central Valley Water Projects, particularly in the area of water and power supply. The existing state water policy fails to address the effects of global warming and the adverse potential of the greenhouse effect in California, i.e. rising tides can seriously impact sea water intrusion problems of the San Francisco Bay-Delta Area by not only flooding agricultural lands in the Delta and Central Valley, but impacting the supply of water to large population areas in Southern and Northern California, especially when coupled with drought conditions. The California investigative research results herein reported demonstrates the fallacy of a preferential treatment and exemption policy in a free market economy, especially when such policy creates the potential for excessive state budget burdens upon the public in the face of questionable subsidies to special interest, i.e., allowing the resulting windfall profits to be passed onto major utilities and commingled at the expense of public interest so as to undermine the financial means for development of alternative energy resources. The cited Congressional and State Legislative Laws which provide the ways and means to resolve any energy or water resource problems are only as good as the enforcement and the commitment by the executive branch of government and the lawmakers to up-hold existing laws

  19. Strategy for energy policy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, T.

    2012-01-01

    UK Energy Policy is leading the world in showing how governments can effectively respond to the now widely accepted challenges of security of supply, low-carbon generation and pragmatic implementation. Confidence in the UK as place to invest in new nuclear is very high-there are already 3 developers who have between them already invested over 1 billion, 5 sites are planned to be developed and between 10 and 12 new reactors are planned to be built. To be clear, this is by far the largest commitment to new nuclear in the Western World and swamps in other countries. This achievement is a combination of vision, continuity, political consensus and a group of ministers and officials who are clear in the goals for the long-term sustain ability of an energy policy that will dramatically affect the lives of many generations to come. Recognising the multi-generational obligations and consequences of government policy's key to ensuring that this investment continues, together with the maintenance of the trust that investors have developed in the management of energy policy by the UK government. There is no doubt in the commitment of the UK government to delivering the safe, secure and low-carbon energy future of the UK. The opportunities for businesses and high-quality job creation are undoubted-all that now has to happen is for developers, reactor vendors, construction companies and communities to show how they can together deliver the cheapest form of low-carbon base load to time and to cost and to the benefit of local communities and the UK economy. the world is watching for the UK to show how it can be done. (Author)

  20. Green Innovations: Reducing Energy Poverty and Inequitable Access

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela P. Stoycheva

    2012-01-01

    Access to basic services is a universal human right, and access to a decent ?quality? of water, energy and food are key to sustainable human development. With them, people?s capabilities, opportunities and basic freedoms can expand exponentially. This interconnectedness between the quantity and quality of resources is expressed in the definition of energy access by the UN Secretary General in his declaration of 2012 as the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All and the launch of the...

  1. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  2. Energy management under policy and technology uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylock, Steven M.; Seager, Thomas P.; Snell, Jeff; Bennett, Erin R.; Sweet, Don

    2012-01-01

    Energy managers in public agencies are subject to multiple and sometimes conflicting policy objectives regarding cost, environmental, and security concerns associated with alternative energy technologies. Making infrastructure investment decisions requires balancing different distributions of risks and benefits that are far from clear. For example, managers at permanent Army installations must incorporate Congressional legislative objectives, executive orders, Department of Defense directives, state laws and regulations, local restrictions, and multiple stakeholder concerns when undertaking new energy initiatives. Moreover, uncertainty with regard to alternative energy technologies is typically much greater than that associated with traditional technologies, both because the technologies themselves are continuously evolving and because the intermittent nature of many renewable technologies makes a certain level of uncertainty irreducible. This paper describes a novel stochastic multi-attribute analytic approach that allows users to explore different priorities or weighting schemes in combination with uncertainties related to technology performance. To illustrate the utility of this approach for understanding conflicting policy or stakeholder perspectives, prioritizing the need for more information, and making investment decisions, we apply this approach to an energy technology decision problem representative of a permanent military base. Highlights: ► Incorporate disparate criteria with uncertain performance. ► Analyze decisions with contrasting stakeholder positions. ► Interactively compare alternatives based on uncertain weighting. ► User friendly multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tool.

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. Electricity from renewable sources is mainly promoted through feed-in premiums (FiP). In addition, investment subsidies are available for biogas/biomass-based RES-E and wind power installations. Renewable heat is stimulated through investment subsidies to CHP plants generating renewable heat and electricity, as well as subsidies for private heat consumers. Renewable transport fuels are currently mainly incentivised by way of a support scheme to promote the purchase of electric cars that use power produced from renewable energy sources. Recently, a measure for supporting bio-methane in the transport sector has been adopted. Generally, a number of investment subsidy schemes are in place to promote the development, installation and use of renewable energy production installations. However, certain subsidy conditions still have to be announced and implemented. The total amount of financial support to be allocated to renewable energy and energy efficiency related projects during period 2014-2020 will be over euro 490 million. The current administratively determined FiP scheme is set to be replaced by an auction-based scheme within short

  4. Public utility regulation and national energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, P.

    1980-09-01

    The linkage between Public Utility Commission (PUC) regulation, the deteriorating financial health of the electric utility industry, and implementation of national energy policy, particularly the reduction of foreign petroleum consumption in the utility sector is examined. The role of the Nation's utilities in the pursuit of national energy policy goals and postulates a linkage between PUC regulation, the poor financial health of the utility industry, and the current and prospective failure to displace foreign petroleum in the utility sector is discussed. A brief history of PUC regulation is provided. The concept of regulatory climate and how the financial community has developed a system of ranking regulatory climate in the various State jurisdictions are explained. The existing evidence on the hypothesis that the cost of capital to a utility increases and its availability is reduced as regulatory climate grows more unfavorable from an investor's point of view is analyzed. The implications of this cost of capital effect on the electric utilities and collaterally on national energy policy and electric ratepayers are explained. Finally various State, regional and Federal regulatory responses to problems associated with PUC regulation are examined.

  5. Energy policy - dialogue with the citizen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillessen, H.

    1977-01-01

    The attempt made by the Federal government to enter a dialogne with the citizen on prerequisites and objectives of energy policy has met with a conflicting response. On the one hand a lot of citizens have welcomed the fact that the sector of energy policy being socially as relevant as that is being discussed in detail and in public. On the other hand, especially representatives of citizens' initiatives fear that the dialogne will be degradaded to a mere hearing unless it leads to a bitter participation of the citizen in the process of will formation concerning decisions being socially obligatory. The confrontations on energy policy have clearly shown that new forms of the formation of political will are being demanded with an increasing emphasis. In the meantime risks involved in industrial civilization are being recognized as being dangerous to their lives by many people, and doubts concerning the ability of traditional institutions and procedures to meet present and future challenges are increasing. Simultaneously there is resistance against bureaucratic patronizing as well as against party dependence being too strong and dependent interest of the state. Many of those who are affected by a faulty development and by unbearable things - due to the way in which governmental and private economic problems are tackled - demand new forms of will formation concerning the mediation of social needs and political responsibilities. (orig.) [de

  6. The energy autonomy: a new policy for the renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, H.

    2007-01-01

    The energy question is central to control the climatic change and avoid the wars resulting from the foreign resources dependence. But how act for a real energy autonomy? The author explains many ideas and reveals the real stakes of the question. It is time to change now, before the fossil fuels dry up and the nuclear cannot hide its dangerous and expensive face. In this framework, a policy in favor of the energy auto-sufficiency is an action in favor of the peace. (A.L.B.)

  7. Energy research shows the way to sustainable energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatthard, T.

    2000-01-01

    This article takes a look at the work of the Swiss research programme on energy economics basics that aims to provide advice for policy makers. The programme investigates not only the technological but also the social and economic factors to be taken into consideration. In particular, the article reviews the programme's work on promotion strategies for sustainability in the energy area in connection with a proposed levy on energy. Examples are given of possible implementation strategies concerning new and existing buildings. The responsibilities of the parties to be involved in the implementation of promotional measures such as cantonal authorities, professional associations and agencies are discussed

  8. National Energy Policy and Climate Change Prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Mallant, R.K.A.M.; Van der Wart, R.; Muradin-Szweykowska, M.

    1992-06-01

    Climate change prevention has become one of the major concerns of environmental policy in the Netherlands. The Dutch government has set definite targets for CO 2 emissions in the coming decade. These targets and the measures necessary to reach them are described in the paper. In addition, the technical feasibility of realizing the Toronto objective of a 20% reduction in CO 2 emissions by the year 2005 in the Netherlands is discussed. It appears that energy conservation options are most crucial for the short-term, but that eventually new supply technologies are needed to obtain drastic reductions in the long term. The increased need for research and development efforts has led to two innovative research programmes on sustainable energy development in the Netherlands. The ENGINE (ENergy Generation In the Natural Environment) programme is implemented by the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) and addresses the specific problems associated with the three major components of supply: cleanliness in the case of fossil fuels, safety in the case of nuclear energy, and costs in the case of renewable sources. The complementary SYRENE (SYstem integration of Renewable ENergy and End use) is implemented by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment (NOVEM) and addresses the system aspects of sustainable energy development. The objectives and approaches of these two programmes are briefly presented. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  9. Energy policy in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1997-01-01

    The outlook of world energy markets was described with a focus on the prospects for oil and gas supply and reserves. Implications of this outlook for energy policy-making were discussed. The three major projections of world primary energy demand were described. According to these projections world primary energy demand will grow steadily. Demand is expected to rise 46 per cent between now and 2010. Fossil-based fuels will account for almost 90 per cent of total primary energy demand in 2010 which is about the same share as today. A structural shift in the shares of different regions in world commercial energy demand is likely to occur, i.e. the OECD share of world energy demand will fall in favour of that of the developing regions. It was also projected that oil will remain the dominant fuel with a share of about 40 per cent in 2010. World gas demand was also projected to grow at an average annual rate of 3 per cent over the outlook period. The rising fossil fuel consumption implies rising greenhouse gas emissions. It was noted that by 2010, without active policy intervention to change the course of energy demand, the world energy-related carbon emissions could be almost 50 per cent greater than 1990 levels. It was suggested that the main role for governments should be to establish a framework to enable competitive energy markets to function efficiently while ensuring that energy security and environmental concerns are addressed. Emergency response measures should be maintained in relation to oil, and the implications of growing dependence on imports of oil and gas from remote and potentially insecure countries should be monitored. The role of government should also include regulation of the environmental consequences of energy supply and use at the local, regional and global level. Government should also regulate the natural monopoly elements of the grid-based industries. There is also a role for government in continuing to encourage research and development

  10. A review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a review of Ghana’s energy sector national energy statistics and policy framework is done to create awareness of the strategic planning and energy policies of Ghana’s energy sector that will serve as an informative tool for both local and foreign investors, help in national decision-making for the efficient development and utilization of energy resources. The review of Ghana’s energy sector policy is to answer the question, what has been done so far? And what is the way forward? The future research in Ghana cannot progress without consulting the past. In order to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all, Ghana has begun expanding her economy with the growing Ghanaian population as a way to meet the SDG (1, which seeks to end poverty and improve well-being. There are a number of intervention strategies by Ghana’s Energy sector which provides new, high-quality, and cost-competitive energy services to poor people and communities, thus alleviating poverty. Ghana’s Energy sector has initiated the National Electrification Scheme, a Self-Help Electrification Program, a National Off-grid Rural Electrification Program, and a Renewable Energy Development Program (REDP. The REDP aims to: assess the availability of renewable energy resources, examine the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of promising renewable energy technologies, ensure the efficient production and use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources, and develop an information base that facilitates the establishment of a planning framework for the rational development and the use of the Ghana’s renewable energy resources.

  11. Values in reasoning on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaska, P.; Kantola, I.; Kasanen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Energy policy at the present time is a controversial issue with value loaded but hidden assumptions and controdictory views between proponents and opponents. The hidden or even open value contradictions between people acting on the policy formulation as experts or participating in public discussion, hinder attainment of common understanding of the situation and the choices available as well as rational decision making. Diversified subjects of energy issues followed with logical argumentation by different people and with controversial views as presented in public or in the value panel of the research project, have been described and analysed in a novel way in this research. A previously developed cognitive mapping technique has been applied in presenting the logical substructures of argumentation. However, controversality of energy policy does not stem only from the values but equally from other sources of possible contradictory views, such as erraneous or partial data, contingential information or invalid logic. Energy discussion is not devoid of these pitfalls, not necessarily even when the so-called experts express their views and recommendations. The report analyses some important themes. The message of the research, if any, is about how to consider the value arguments in a rational way and how to 'solve' value contradictions for decision making or how to make decisions on energy in a rational way under value contradictions. It is concluded that the remedy is in conscious elaborations on these contradictions and detection of them from other relevant information and furthermore, in the development of communicative rationality instead of and side by side with the more commonly adapted technical rationality

  12. Energy Transition Dynamics; Understanding Policy Resistance in the Dutch Energy System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Various countries seek to establish an energy transition, a structural change towards a more sustainable energy system. Countries implement a combination of energy policies aimed at establishing an energy transition, but these policies frequently result in unintended negative consequences. This

  13. Public education for energy policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigren, S.

    1977-01-01

    A brief review is given of the changes that took place in 1972-1973 in public opinion and political views in Sweden, leading to new attitudes and increasing interest in matters of energy policy. Although nuclear power was from the beginning the main issue, it became more and more widely recognized that a number of complex and technically difficult problems were involved. In late 1973, the Government decided to prepare a comprehensive energy policy programmme for the period 1975-1985 and to put this programme before Parliament in the spring of 1975. In order to involve the public in the decision-making process, a public education programme was introduced in January 1974. The essentials of this programme are described. The main effort was provided by the adult education associations, which were given financial incentives to start energy study circles and prepared their own study material. Journalist seminars were also arranged. The paper outlines the links between the educational efforts, the discussions in the study circles, and the standpoints ultimately taken by the different political parties on the energy issues. (author)

  14. Rural Health Care Access and Policy in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Roger; Kam, Sophia M; Regalado, Sophie M

    2016-01-01

    Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote inhabitants experience lower life expectancy and poorer health status. Nowhere is the worldwide shortage of health professionals more pronounced than in rural areas of developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) includes a disproportionately large number of developing countries; therefore, this article explores SSA in depth as an example. Using the conceptual framework of access to primary health care, sustainable rural health service models, rural health workforce supply, and policy implications, this article presents a review of the academic and gray literature as the basis for recommendations designed to achieve greater health equity. An alternative international standard for health professional education is recommended. Decision makers should draw upon the expertise of communities to identify community-specific health priorities and should build capacity to enable the recruitment and training of local students from underserviced areas to deliver quality health care in rural community settings.

  15. Energy policy decision making and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, L.

    1989-09-01

    By the example of nuclear the author demonstrates the interactions of short-term fluctuations on the world energy market, energy forecasts, specific events and discussions on energy policy both within political parties and in the general public, and draws conclusions which are valid beyond the Federal Republic of Germany: An analysis of the general public's attitude towards nuclear energy shows two initial phases, i.e. euphoria and scepticism/ideology/agitation. The early eighties, then, led to a third phase - realism. Up to 1983 a consensus prevailed between the leading political parties in Germany regarding the basic energy-policy objective of minimizing the supply risk by providing for a well-balanced use of all available energy sources. The resulting attitude had a positive bearing on the public opinion: more than two thirds of the population were in favour of nuclear. In the mid-eighties, the development of nuclear was by and large completed in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as in the United States and other western industrialized countries and the capacity of nuclear power plants is considered sufficient for the years to come. In addition, abundant long-term reserves of domestic lignite and hardcoal are available: this also should have furnished a good reason to envisage calmly the issues of power supply. Instead, we are again facing emotional discussions on the acceptance of nuclear. Public opinion in the Federal Republic of Germany has changed since the Social Democrats followed the example of the Ecologists and advocated a rapid withdrawal from nuclear. In a recent poll four-fifths of the persons asked did not rule out the possibility of a major accident in a German power station. The wish to ignore today's energy supply problems by escaping into a supposedly safe but yet distant and vague future is part of every public debate. Technical and scientific issues are examined no longer in this global context. Predictions of experts and counter

  16. Strategies for Success: Open Access Policies at North American Educational Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruin, Christine; Sutton, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the paucity of quantitative and qualitative data from North American educational institutions that have pursued open access policies, the authors devised a survey to collect information on the characteristics of these institutions, as well as the elements of the open access policies, the methods of promoting these policies, faculty…

  17. STEPS TOWARDS A NEW RENEWABLE ENERGY PUBLIC POLICY IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea ZAMFIR

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the steps towards a new renewable energy public policy in Romania, with an eye to reveal the main actions and measures needed. Therefore, this study reveals firstly the key arguments for changing the public policy in the field of renewable energy, and secondly, the core directions and measures for a modern policy in the field of renewable energy. The results of this study may be helpful for further research regarding the adjustment of the renewable energy public policy.

  18. China's renewable energy policy: Commitments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Yin Haitao; Li Shoude

    2010-01-01

    The passing of the Renewable Energy Law (REL) in 2005 demonstrated China's commitment to renewable energy development. In the 3 years after the REL, China's renewable electricity capacity grew rapidly. From 2006 to 2008, China's wind capacity installation more than doubled every year for 3 years in a row. However, three facts prevent us from being optimistic about China's renewable electricity future. First, considered as a share of total capacity, renewable electricity capacity is decreasing instead of increasing. This is due simply to the rapid growth of fossil fuel capacity. Second, a significant amount of renewable generation capacity is wasted because it is not connected to the electricity grid. Finally, renewable electricity plants are running at a low level of efficiency. Based on an in-depth analysis of China's existing renewable energy policy, we suggest that these challenges should be dealt with by introducing a market-based mandatory renewable portfolio requirement coupled with strong regulatory monitoring of grid enterprises.

  19. Energy sector reforms status of Danish energy policy - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullev, L.

    2000-01-01

    The new millennium brings change and new ways of thinking to the energy sector. Today the sector faces new challenges which it must deal with at a time where increasing market liberalisation and increasing internalisation is creating completely new frameworks for the sector. The Danish tradition of progressive energy policy action plans is the best possible basis on which to build. The target remains set. Energy policy must create the framework for structuring future energy systems so as to ensure that they are sustainable. Over many years there have been numerous initiatives to transfer consumption to cleaner energy sources, which has now led to a steady reduction in CO 2 emissions. The government places great importance on a continuation of this current development, both short term and long term. The adoption of the Electricity Reform in spring 1999 was an important step in the right direction. The government can, with great satisfaction, conclude that an agreement has now been made with most of the Parliament regarding a Gas reform, modernisation of the heat Supply Act and a new Energy Saving Act. In addition to this, the agreement also includes a follow up to the Electricity Reform concerning utilisation of biomass, offshore wind turbines, harmonisation of costs for priority electricity production, private generator's payment to priority electricity and the establishment of a market for electricity based on renewable. (author)

  20. Energy policy, ethics, and a return to civility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    For the past decade or so government, business and the general public have been concerned with framing a coherent set of energy policies that will meet our present responsibilities and secure an adequate and diversified energy future of a nation. Thinking about these policies and the possible sources of energy supply that we might be able to rely on has involved, in addition to the customary technical and commercial considerations, certain ethical issues as well. In this context the author discusses, 1) energy policy, price deregulation and distributive justice, 2) energy policy, social policy and basic goods, 3) the energy-environment-safety debate and 4) nuclear waste management

  1. Integral energy policy; Politica energetica integral

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan Navarrete, Gerardo [Programa Universitario de Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The guidelines of energy policy are normative directions that govern the energy sector and its relations with different objects, these guidelines must be in agreement with the national objectives so that they collaborate to its accomplishment. Camara Nacional de la Industria y Trasnformacion (CANACINTRA) and the University Program of Energy made a diagnosis and long term prospective of the Energy Sector. With the design of five possible growth scenarios to year 2030 the total demand of energy required for the 2030 was calculated with the purpose of determining the mixture of the primary energy sources to satisfy the projected demand. With such data a decalogue of recommendations was formulated that appeal for better policies of organization and action, promotions and forecasts to obtain an optimal national performance, competitive at international level. [Spanish] Los lineamientos de politica energetica son orientaciones normativas que rigen el sector energetico y sus relaciones con distintos objetos, estos lineamientos deben estar a tono con los objetivos nacionales de modo que colaboren a su realizacion. Camara Nacional de la Industria de Transformacion (CANACINTRA) y el Programa Universitario de Energia realizaron un diagnostico y prospectiva a largo plazo del sector energia. Con el diseno de cinco posibles escenarios de crecimiento al 2030 se calculo la demanda total de energia requerida para el 2030 con el fin de determinar la mezcla de energeticos primarios para satisfacer la demanda proyectada. Con tales datos se conformo un decalogo de recomendaciones que apelan a mejores politicas de organizacion y accion, fomentos y previsiones para lograr un optimo desempeno energetico nacional, competitivo a nivel internacional.

  2. 41 CFR 101-25.112 - Energy conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., which has been established pursuant to Public Law 94-163, Energy Policy and Conservation Act. (b) With... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Energy conservation...-General Policies § 101-25.112 Energy conservation policy. (a) Agency officials responsible for procurement...

  3. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  4. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  5. The Paris-Nairobi climate initiative. Access to clean energy for all in Africa and countries vulnerable to climate change. Access to energy, sustainable development and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The first part of this report highlights the importance of a universal access to energy, the role of public policies and renewable energies, the need to implement sustainable economic models for energy services, and indicates the major objectives and essential actions for these purposes. The second part outlines the weakness of electricity production in Africa, the degradation of the energy mix balance, the vulnerability to climate change, and the fact that Africa, like other countries vulnerable to climate change, possess huge and unexploited renewable energy resources (biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind). The third part proposes an approach to energy services by developing sustainable cooking, supplying energy to support rural development and to poles of economic growth, by developing sustainable cities (notably in transports and buildings), and by developing national and regional electricity grids. The last part addresses the issue of energy financing in developing countries

  6. No sustainable development without an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhras, G.

    2000-01-01

    The energy crisis of 1973, and again during the 1980s, prompted industrialized countries to adopt measures to reduce energy usage and to encourage conservation practices. Energy consumption in the transportation field was particularly high. However, after a while, some of the measures were either dropped or not enforced and our energy utilization continued to intensify. It soon became apparent that a different approach was required. At the Rio Conference in 1992, the idea of sustainable development was introduced with the objective to reduce global warming. The utilization of fossil fuels amplifies the emissions of greenhouse gases resulting in global warming which threatens the entire environment and also the health of citizens, particularly those living in cities. In 1997, 160 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. Canada committed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 6 per cent compared to 1990 levels, and this between 2008 and 2012. It is obvious that drastic steps are needed in order for Canada to meet this commitment. After an extensive analysis of the situation by various committees, it was concluded that activities related to the transportation of people in particular contribute greatly to the emission of greenhouse gases. The results also indicate that solutions need to be found to reduce energy consumption. The author recommended the adoption of intelligent structures and materials which imitate biological systems in a predictable manner to optimize certain functions. He also recommended a better integration of energy policy with the basic principles of sustainable development. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. For electricity from renewable sources of energy main support instruments are feed-in tariffs (FIPs) and feed-in premiums (FiPs). Operators of renewable energy installation have to make a choice for either the applicable FiT or the corresponding FiP. Except for hydro installations with a capacity of 10 MW, the FiT/FiP scheme has been closed for new installations generating electricity from renewables. Hydro power installations with a size ≤ 10 MW are also eligible for subsidies. Installations for production of renewable heat can apply for subsidies granted by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and are exempt from real estate tax. A renewable heating obligation for buildings is in place and a regulation on the use of renewable heating by public authorities. The main support scheme for renewable transport fuels is a renewable transport quota scheme. This scheme obliges companies importing or producing gasoline or automotive diesel to ensure that bio-fuels make up a defined percentage of their overall annual sales volume of automotive fuels. Besides, bio-fuels are exempt from a consumption tax

  8. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-09-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. The European Union aims to achieve a 20% share (with legally binding national targets) of its final energy consumption from RES by 2020, and at least a 27% share (not broken down into nationally binding targets) by 2030. Key instruments at EU level to promote RES include directives, such as the 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) is also intended to support RES. The European Commission has also adopted state aid guidelines to ensure that support schemes to promote RES at national level are compatible with EU competition law and internal market rules. Further instruments are research, development and innovation funding programmes, such as Horizon2020, the Innovation Fund, and the NER300 programme. RES are also supported through regional development funds as well as through grants and loans for RES projects and related infrastructure from the European Investment Bank (EIB) and the European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI). A recast directive on the promotion of RES in the period 2020- 2030 is to be adopted along with governance rules to ensure that the EU-wide RES target for 2030 is met

  9. The Role of Secure Access to Sustainable Energy in Reducing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy is a basic necessity for survival and a key input to economic and social development. In spite of large scale expansion in energy service provision, more than two billion people across the world lack access to modern energy services. Lack of energy services is correlated with many of the elements of poverty, such as ...

  10. Global panorama of energy access: Current situation, challenges and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galichon, Ines; Lacroix, Olivier; Wiedmer, Damien

    2014-07-15

    Globally 1.3 billion people do not have access to electricity. If this figure is projected to decline 1 billion by 2030, the global population who relies on the traditional use of biomass for cooking is expected to substantially increase, from 2.6 billion to 2.7 billion people. In its commitment to energy access, ENEA published a synthesis on the current situation and the further development perspectives of energy access worldwide, a crucial issue of human and economic development and an opportunity for the private sector. This synthesis present the ecosystem of the actors involved in the improvement of energy access and the technical solutions that serve the needs of this high-potential market. The five main challenges energy access has to address are presented in this publication: energy prices, equipment financing, distribution, change of scale and environmental performances.

  11. Modeling and Recognizing Policy Conflicts with Resource Access Requests on Protected Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raik Kuhlisch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses potential clashes between different types of security policies that regulate resource access requests on clinical patient data in hospitals by employees. Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC is proposed as a proper means for such regulation. A proper representation of ABAC policies must include a handling of policy attributes among different policy types. In this article, we propose a semantic policy model with predefined policy conflict categories. A conformance verification function detects erroneous, clashing or mutually susceptible rules early during the policy planning phase. The model and conflicts are used in a conceptual application environment and evaluated in a technical experiment during an interoperability test event.

  12. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  13. Transparency of Biobank Access in Canada: An Assessment of Industry Access and the Availability of Information on Access Policies and Resulting Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Shannon G; Axler, Renata E; Lemmens, Trudo

    2017-12-01

    A key issue impacting public trust in biobanks is how these resources are utilized, including who is given access to biobank data and samples. To assess the conditions under which researchers are given access to Canadian biobanks, we reviewed websites and contacted Canadian biobanks to determine the availability of information on access policies and procedures; research resulting from access biobank data and samples; and conditions on private industry access to biobanks. We also conducted expert interviews with key Canadian stakeholders ( n = 11) to obtain their perspectives on biobank transparency and access policies. Among 21 Canadian biobanks, there was wide variation in the access information made publicly available, and the majority of these allowed access by industry applicants. Biobanks should be governed by the principles of transparency, accountability, and accessibility, and attention must be given to the conditions around the commercialization of biobank-based research.

  14. Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziębik Andrzej

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.

  15. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F.

    2003-08-01

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  16. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F

    2003-08-15

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  17. Financing off-grid sustainable energy access for the poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glemarec, Yannick

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of public instruments in promoting private finance to achieve off-grid sustainable energy access. Renewable energy technologies are increasingly becoming the cheapest solutions for off-grid energy access. The dramatic uptake of mobile phones in developing countries shows how quickly decentralized services can develop on a commercial basis under the right conditions, and raises the prospect that private finance could also drive decentralized energy access for the poor. Indeed, there are already a number of instances of clean energy solutions – such as solar portable lights, household biogas units or solar home systems – that have managed to scale-up through leveraging private finance. However, the experience gained from first-generation market development projects show that, in almost all cases, significant public resources have been necessary to increase the affordability of clean energy technologies, provide access to financing for the poor, and remove non-economic barriers. Such public interventions may be funded by international public finance, domestic budgets and carbon finance. Despite mounting fiscal constraints facing governments worldwide, the emergence of new sources of climate finance and the political momentum in support of energy subsidy reforms, as well as new programming modalities, offer opportunities to leverage additional resources to achieve universal energy access by 2030. - Highlights: ► Renewable energy is increasingly the cheapest solution for off-grid energy access. ► Universal access to energy now depends less on technology and more business models. ► Substantial public finance will still be required to support universal energy access.

  18. Europe running out of energy - For a common energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derdevet, M.

    2009-01-01

    The year 2009 was marked by the European elections and the general public was wondering about the usefulness of the European Union. The author speaks in favour of a reversal of this idea and fights for the implementation of a common energy policy. He demonstrates how the European Union can act in this way for the benefit of all European citizens. The book shows up the stakes of the present day world indissociable from the energy topics: volatility of oil prices, economical and financial crisis, rise of new competitive powers for supplies, rise of global risks (greenhouse effect, pollution), geopolitical tensions (Iraq, Russian-Ukrainian crisis, Georgia crisis..). The author shows how the creation of a European energy community, a solidarity mechanism based on a powerful market and public utility, would allow to overcome these main challenges of the 21. century. (J.S.)

  19. Consequences of the Swedish energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almstroem, P.

    2000-01-01

    Sweden is unique among the industrialised nations of the world to be affected by a decision that puts its whole future and welfare at risk. The parliamentary decision on energy policy made in spring 1997, is considered a highly unfortunate one. The decision to start a premature phasing-out of nuclear power is especially serious. In order to transform Sweden into an ecological model country, the 'transition program' was launched by the Government. It proposed investments in reducing the electricity consumption and research and development of new energy technology renewable energy sources which produced no results. It is also important to reconsider the environmental consequences of the closure of Barsebaeck NPP. A comparison of emissions in Sweden and Denmark, which has no NPPs reveals that Denmark emits 10 times more carbon dioxide and 20 times more sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The renewable energy sources will become commercially competitive in the future, but meanwhile the Kyoto objective can be reached only by continuing to use nuclear power as long as it is commercially competitive and as long as there are no other ecologically sustainable systems

  20. Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

    2009-07-01

    State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

  1. Policy Pathways: Joint Public-Private Approaches for Energy Efficiency Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This Policy Pathway outlines, through the experiences and lessons learned from country examples, the critical elements to put in place a public-private partnership to finance energy efficiency. It focuses on three mechanisms - dedicated credit lines, risk guarantees, and energy performance service contracts and presents the planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating phases of implemention. Accelerating and scaling up private investment in energy efficiency is crucial to exploit the potential of energy efficiency. However many barriers remain to private investment such as access to capital, uncertainty of future energy prices, transaction costs, perceived higher risk, and lack of knowledge. As part of the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations, the IEA recommends that governments support private investment in energy efficiency. A joint public-private approach can use public finance and regulatory policy to support the scaling up of private investment in energy efficiency.

  2. Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman Mohamed, Abdul; Lee, Keat Teong

    2006-01-01

    Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. Concentrated efforts are being undertaken to ensure the sustainability of energy resources, both depletable and renewable. The aim of this paper is to describe the various energy policies adopted in Malaysia to ensure long-term reliability and security of energy supply. The role of both, non-renewable and renewable sources of energy in the current Five-Fuel Diversification Strategy energy mix will also be discussed. Apart from that, this paper will also describe the various alternative energy and the implementation of energy efficiency program in Malaysia

  3. Essays on Environmental Policy in Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomhower, Judson Paul

    Producing and consuming energy involves costly environmental externalities, which are addressed through a wide range of public policy interventions. This dissertation examines three economic questions that are important to environmental regulation in energy. The first chapter measures the effect of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. The second chapter measures additionality in an appliance replacement rebate program. Finally, the third chapter focuses on the environmental impacts of subsidizing electricity production from forest-derived biomass fuels. The first chapter measures the incentive effect of limited liability. When liability is limited by bankruptcy, theory says that firms will take excessive environmental and public health risks. In the long run, this "judgment-proof problem'' may increase the share of small producers, even when there are economies of scale. I use quasi-experimental variation in liability exposure to measure the effects of bankruptcy protection on industry structure and environmental outcomes in oil and gas extraction. Using firm-level data on the universe of Texas oil and gas producers, I examine the introduction of an insurance mandate that reduced firms' ability to avoid liability through bankruptcy. The policy was introduced via a quasi-randomized rollout, which allows me to cleanly identify its effects on industry structure. The insurance requirement pushed about 6% of producers out of the market immediately. The exiting firms were primarily small and were more likely to have poor environmental records. Among firms that remained in business, the bond requirement reduced oil production among the smallest 80% of firms by about 4% on average, which is consistent with increased internalization of environmental costs. Production by the largest 20% of firms, which account for the majority of total production, was unaffected. Finally, environmental outcomes, including those

  4. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, H.

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa. (author)

  5. Renewable energy policy in South Africa: policy options for renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Harald

    2005-01-01

    Investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency is important to reduce the negative economic, social and environmental impacts of energy production and consumption in South Africa. Currently, renewable energy contributes relatively little to primary energy and even less to the consumption of commercial energy. This article examines policy options for promoting renewable electricity. Feed-in tariffs guarantee prices for developers, but lack certainty on the amount of renewable electricity such laws would deliver under local conditions. Portfolio standards set a fixed quantity, which would guarantee diversity of supply. The question is whether the incremental upfront cost to be paid by society may be unacceptably high, compared to future health and environmental benefits. A renewables obligation combines the setting of a target with a tendering process, but may be bureaucratic to administer. Neither setting targets or regulating prices alone, however, will be sufficient. Power purchase agreements, access to the grid and creating markets for green electricity are some supporting activities that should be considered. Given that renewable electricity technologies have to compete with relatively low electricity tariffs, funding will be needed. Possible sources, both locally and internationally, are identified. The extent to which these are utilised will determine the future mix of renewable energy in South Africa

  6. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: European Union 2008 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    For the first time, the IEA has reviewed the energy policies of the European Union which shape the energy use of almost 500 million citizens in 27 EU member countries. A unique entity governed under complex and almost constantly evolving structures, the EU constitutes a challenge for energy policy makers. Its energy policy has a global impact, not only because of its 16% share of world energy demand, but also because of the EU leadership in addressing climate change. Strong policy drives are underway in the EU to achieve the completion of the internal energy market, increase renewable energy supply, reduce CO2 emissions and make the EU more energy-efficient. Concerns about security of supply have also led to a greater focus on improved energy relations with supplier countries, and new institutional structures are being put in place. How much progress has been made in the field of security, internal market and external energy policies? And in which of these areas has the EU already implemented a fully integrated policy? IEA Energy Policies Review: The European Union - 2008 addresses these questions and also analyses the impact of the most recent major EU policy measures, in particular the Energy & Climate Package of January 2008 and the 3rd Liberalisation Package of September 2007. This book finds that both of these proposals are highly ambitious. But implementing them and reviewing both volume and allocation of energy R&D will be necessary to achieve a sustainable energy future in a fully competitive integrated EU energy market.

  7. Open Access Transmission and Renewable Energy Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, K.

    1996-09-01

    In April 1996, the Federal Regulatory Commission (PERC) approved Orders 888 and 889 and released a draft rule for public comment on capacity reservation tariffs (CRTs). Order No. 888 requires electric utilities to file transmission tariffs that would allow transmission access to third parties who want to conduct wholesale transactions, and Order No. 889 requires transmission-owning utilities to set up open access, same-time information systems (OASIS), using commercial software and Internet protocols. This paper discusses these Orders in detail, as well as some of the issues before FERC with implications for renewables, which include: transmission pricing; transmission terms and conditions; reassignment of transmission capacity; defining state and FERC jurisdiction over transmission and distribution; the pricing of ancillary services; and the adoption and implementation of independent system operators.

  8. Energy Efficiency Policy Developments: September 2011-September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member and key non-member countries over the period from September 2011 to September 2012. The report provides an overview of energy efficiency policy developments across the seven sectors covered by the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations (25 EEPR) – Cross-sectoral activities, Buildings, Appliances and Equipment, Lighting, Transport, Industry and Energy Providers.

  9. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Oteri, F.; Tegen, S.; Doris, E.

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets--like human capital and modern infrastructure--as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  10. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA). State Policy and the Pursuit of Renewable Energy Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Future manufacturing of renewable energy equipment in the United States provides economic development opportunities for state and local communities. However, demand for the equipment is finite, and opportunities are limited. U.S. demand is estimated to drive total annual investments in renewable energy equipment to $14-$20 billion by 2030. Evidence from leading states in renewable energy manufacturing suggests that economic development strategies that target renewable energy sector needs by adapting existing policies attract renewable energy manufacturing more than strategies that create new policies. Literature suggests that the states that are most able to attract direct investment and promote sustained economic development can leverage diverse sets of durable assets—like human capital and modern infrastructure–as well as low barriers to market entry. State marketing strategies for acquiring renewable energy manufacturers are likely best served by an approach that: (1) is multi-faceted and long-term, (2) fits within existing broad-based economic development strategies, (3) includes specific components such as support for renewable energy markets and low barriers to renewable energy deployment, and (4) involves increased differentiation by leveraging existing assets when applicable.

  11. Local authorities in the context of energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Polonara, Fabio; Brandoni, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Several measures to boost the energy system towards a low-carbon future can be planned and implemented by local authorities, such as energy-saving initiatives in public buildings and lighting, information campaigns, and renewable energy pilot projects. This work analyzes the public administration's role in energy and climate policies by assessing carbon-lowering measures for properties and services managed directly by local governments in central Italy. Both short- and long-term schemes were considered in the analysis of local authority energy strategies. The MARKAL-TIMES energy model was applied to long-term energy planning to assess the effect of low-carbon initiatives on public-sector energy consumption up to 2030. Two energy scenarios were built, i.e. a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on current or soon-to-be-adopted national policies, and an Exemplary Public Scenario (EPS) including some further virtuous local policies suggested by local authorities. Our results show that a 20% primary energy reduction can be achieved with respect to the baseline year by means of short-term energy policies (5-year time span), while a primary energy saving of about 30% can be reached with longer-term energy policies (25-year time span), even after taking the increase in energy demand into account. This work goes to show the part that local governments can play in energy policy and their contribution to the achievement of climate goals. - Highlights: ► Assessment of Local Administration (LA) role in energy and climate policy. ► Analysis of both short-term and long-term carbon lowering measures. ► Use of MARKAL-TIMES model generator for long-term energy analysis. ► 20% primary energy reduction can be reached with short-term energy policies. ► 30% primary energy reduction can be reached with longer-term energy policies.

  12. Energy policies and regulatory bodies : their respective roles, challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, R.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation outlined the measures that Quebec's Energy Office has taken to update and optimize its energy policy to one that is based on transparency and public consultation. The last energy policy created in 1996 focused on North-American and international energy trade and the deregulation of energy markets. The policy at that time was meant to ensure the population had necessary energy services at the best possible cost as well as promoting economic development while respecting environmental balance. The new energy policy is based on these same principles, while incorporating the electricity sector, petroleum products and natural gas sector. It is designed to ensure that Quebec residents have a secure energy supply that is safe, reliable, accessible and effective. The Office identified 5 basic issues that were taken into account when considering an energy policy that is in the interest of Quebecers from a social, economic and environmental point of view. These were: (1) diversification of energy sources, (2) increased reliability, (3) balance between electricity supply and demand, (4) appropriate energy prices, and (5) sustainable development. This presentation described the roles of the principle stakeholders in the energy strategy, including the government, energy companies, consumer groups and environmental groups. tabs., figs

  13. Access to energy: 2000 and after

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conant, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    Mr. Conant says the US will remain dependent on foreign oil until well into the next century in spite of increased research and development on renewable energy resources. Nuclear energy will be required to help fuel the transition period. The petroleum era might be prolonged somewhat by improved recovery techniques and new discoveries of reserves. Competition for fossil and nuclear resources can easily lead to confrontation. There has been a change in world energy politics as oil shifted from a commercial commodity traded by private (Western) oil companies into a strategic raw material controlled by sovereign (mostly Middle East) governments. The balance of power has shifted as the major suppliers changed from colonialism to idependence. Mr. Conant questions the right of any nation or group of nations to withhold vital supplies. Some sort of international supervision over energy and food supplies may become necessary, however difficult to accomplish. As the greatest single consumer and the world's largest producer of energy, the US will have to play a leading role in fashioning such an arrangement. 90 references.

  14. Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) have been collaborating on a joint project ''Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'' with technical assistance by ENERDATA (France). The latest report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in nearly 70 countries around the world, with a specific focus on five policy measures: mandatory energy audits, ESCO's, energy incentives for cars, energy efficiency obligations for utilities, and 'packages of measures' for solar water heaters. The report describes the implemented measures and identifies those proven most effective.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Renewable Energy Use and Policies: Global and Turkish Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmure Övül Arıoğlu Akan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of renewable energy sources (RES has become inevitable, not only due to the increasing scarcity of fossil fuels, but also to sustain life on Earth. Consequently, countries have started developing renewable energy policies individually and as part of global organizations and networks, such as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, the European Union (EU and the International Energy Agency (IEA. Turkey is a developing OECD member country and in the accession process to the EU. Thus, the renewable energy policies should be aligned with those of the EU. Moreover, despite the substantial amount and wide range of RES, it is still in a position to import more than half of its energy demand. In the light of these facts, this study aims to analyze and compare the renewable energy policies in Turkey with those adopted worldwide to lay out possible solutions regarding its energy problems.

  16. Access to energy for the poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntjens, E.; Van Bussel, F.; Raats, M.

    2005-01-01

    Paper dealing with the topic E nergy consumption and economic development (in developed / wealthy and undeveloped / poor regions; energy price, social influence and energy efficiency. 'Brothers and sisters, I want to tell you this. The greatest thing on earth is to have the love of God in your heart, and the next greatest thing is to have electricity in your house.' In the early 1940s a farmer, who had just been connected to the electric grid, gave witness in a rural church in the United States of America(author)

  17. National Target of Energy conservation and Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, S.R. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    This study investigates impacts of energy saving policies on the national economy in Korea. An energy saving policy for a specific sector causes changes in energy consumption patterns of a target sector as well as the others. In addition to its positive bearing on energy consumption, such policy can change energy prices, output, employment, consumer price levels, and resources allocation in the economy. In this context, successful analyses of energy saving policies need to consider such interactions to develop and evaluate the best policy alternatives. Thus, this study employs a Korean computable general equilibrium model to analyze optimal energy saving targets, and corresponding programs for each sector in the economy. The R and D investment policy in the energy sector is the most effective one since it is projected to increase real GNP and GDP, decreasing energy consumption. The policy is accordingly considered as one of so-called no-regret policies. And, the policy is evaluated to be appropriate for the energy intensive industries and transportation sectors. The government loan program for energy efficiency improvement is also predicted to raise GNP although it may have a negative impact on trade balance. And, the policy is observed to be suitable for the transportation and household sectors. An energy saving effort with energy taxation is found to be cost-effective since its marginal cost of energy conservation is estimated to be much lower than about 80,000 won per ton of oil equivalent, the estimated benefit of energy conservation. It is recommended, however, that an additional energy tax be implemented with care, given the high level of existing energy taxes. The effectiveness of energy efficiency standards in the transportation, household, and commercial sectors varies depending on how prices of relevant energy using equipments and appliances change in response to the standards. Energy saving policies are adequately formulated and implemented for all the

  18. An Object-Oriented Approach to Security Policies and their Access Controls for Database Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    access control requiremnts is a messy task. It may result in a system less reliable and secure than building a new system from scratch. Further, we have...means to specify access control requirments for the need-to-know policy. B. Actions as Access Priviledges and Queries in an Object-Class Hierarchy The...database. Access priviledges include read. update. append, delete. etc. An access query is a logical expression of predicates defining the parn of a data

  19. Energy policy and the high price of energy; Politique energetique et energie chere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, D. [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, Dir. Generale de l' Energie et des Matieres Premieres, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-08-15

    Ever rising energy prices can mainly be set down to insufficient investments at various points in the chain of production. In combination with geopolitical or climatic circumstances, this spawns uncertainty about how energy will reach final consumers. France's energy policy act of 13 July 2005 has set four principal orientations: control the demand for energy, diversify the supply (by increasing recourse to replenishable sources and by keeping the nuclear option open), develop research and, in general, improve the security of supply lines. In January 2006, the French government published a memorandum in order to 're-launch a European energy policy in view of sustainable development. (author)

  20. Policy, Institutional and Programme Readiness for Solar Energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response, policies and institutions have emerged to promote solar energy. This study investigates policy, institutional and programme readiness to embrace solar energy uptake in the country. The study reveals that South Africa has put in place numerous initiatives, like the Renewable Energy Independent Power ...

  1. In an Age of Open Access to Research Policies: Physician and Public Health NGO Staff Research Use and Policy Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Laura L; Holzmeyer, Cheryl; Maggio, Lauren A; Steinberg, Ryan M; Willinsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Through funding agency and publisher policies, an increasing proportion of the health sciences literature is being made open access. Such an increase in access raises questions about the awareness and potential utilization of this literature by those working in health fields. A sample of physicians (N=336) and public health non-governmental organization (NGO) staff (N=92) were provided with relatively complete access to the research literature indexed in PubMed, as well as access to the point-of-care service UpToDate, for up to one year, with their usage monitored through the tracking of web-log data. The physicians also participated in a one-month trial of relatively complete or limited access. The study found that participants' research interests were not satisfied by article abstracts alone nor, in the case of the physicians, by a clinical summary service such as UpToDate. On average, a third of the physicians viewed research a little more frequently than once a week, while two-thirds of the public health NGO staff viewed more than three articles a week. Those articles were published since the 2008 adoption of the NIH Public Access Policy, as well as prior to 2008 and during the maximum 12-month embargo period. A portion of the articles in each period was already open access, but complete access encouraged a viewing of more research articles. Those working in health fields will utilize more research in the course of their work as a result of (a) increasing open access to research, (b) improving awareness of and preparation for this access, and (c) adjusting public and open access policies to maximize the extent of potential access, through reduction in embargo periods and access to pre-policy literature.

  2. Canadian energy policy and the struggle for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    This book examined selected energy policy issues and challenges confronting Canadians over the last two decades. The aim of the book was to provide an analysis of how energy policy has evolved. The book presents an overview of energy policy and its relationship to sustainable development. Politico-economic contexts were reviewed, including the changing nature of national and continental energy markets, energy policy and sustainable development. The difficulties in evaluating the environment in energy policy were discussed. Issues concerning electricity restructuring in Canada were reviewed, with reference to Canada-US electricity trade and the climate change agenda. Alberta's oil and gas industry and the Kyoto Protocol were also examined, with reference to voluntary measures to address climate change. Issues concerning stewardship, indigenous peoples and petroleum-based economic development in the north were reviewed, as well as northern gas pipeline policy and sustainable development. Conclusions and recommendations were made concerning the following 6 analytical and practical energy policy and governance challenges facing the current government: Kyoto Protocol implementation challenges; energy security; northern pipelines and concerns with Aboriginal peoples and sustainable northern development; electricity restructuring and the limits of regulatory-market design; energy science and technology and innovation policy links; and prospects for turning the struggle for sustainable development in the energy policy field into something closer to an actual achievement. 37 refs

  3. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  4. Financing investments in renewable energy: the impacts of policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Pickle, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilising renewable energy technologies (RETs) are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on RET financing. This paper reviews the power plant financing process for renewable energy projects, estimates the impact of financing terms on levelised energy costs, and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and financing. We review five case studies of renewable energy policies, and find that one of the key reasons that RET policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy policies. The case studies specifically show that policies that do no provide long-term stability or that have negative secondary impacts on investment decisions will increase financing costs, sometimes dramatically reducing the effectiveness of the program. Within U.S. electricity restructuring proceedings, new renewable energy policies are being created, and restructuring itself is changing the way RETs are financed. As these new policies are created and implemented, it is essential that policymakers acknowledge the financing difficulties faced by renewables developer and pay special attention to the impacts of renewables policy design on financing. As shown in this paper, a renewables policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums. (Author)

  5. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 2: energy planning and policy, energy conservation and rational use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The theme energy policy, regulation and sustainable development chosen for the 8. Brazilian congress on energy to be held in Rio de Janeiro from 30 November of 1999 to 02 December of 1999, specifically means the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme theme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; and renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  6. Energy policies in the European Union. Germany's ecological tax reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welfens, P.J.J.; Jungmittag, A.; Meyer, B.; Jasinski, P.

    2001-01-01

    The chapters discuss the following aspects: 1. Energy policy as a strategic element of economic policy in dynamic open economies. 2. Phasing out nuclear energy and core elements of sustainable energy strategy. 3. Ecological tax reform: Theory, modified double dividend and international aspects. 4. The policy framework in Europe and Germany. 5. Optimal ecological tax reform: Options and recommendations for an EU-action plan. 6. Conclusions. (orig./CB)

  7. Do Your School Policies Provide Equal Access to Computers? Are You Sure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Phyllis A.; Schubert, Jane G.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines how school policies can unintentionally perpetuate gender discrimination in student computer use and access. Describes four areas of administrative policies that can cause inequities and provides ways for administrators to counteract these policies. Includes discussion of a program to balance computer use, and an abstract of an article…

  8. Interactions of Policies for Renewable Energy and Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper explores the relationships between climate policy and renewable energy policy instruments. It shows that, even where CO2 emissions are duly priced, specific incentives for supporting the early deployment of renewable energy technologies are justified by the steep learning curves of nascent technologies. This early investment reduces costs in the longer term and makes renewable energy affordable when it needs to be deployed on a very large scale to fully contribute to climate change mitigation and energy security. The paper also reveals other noteworthy interaction effects of climate policy and renewable policy instruments on the wholesale electricity prices in deregulated markets, which open new areas for future research.

  9. Phase Two European Energy Policy Project. European energy and climate policy - Time for something new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    During 2014, European energy and climate change policy has moved centre stage. The annexation of Crimea and the destabilization of Eastern Ukraine have raised tensions with Russia to levels not seen since the Cold War. The EU has responded with an energy security plan, and sanctions. Developments elsewhere have further complicated matters. In the Middle East, the rapid advances of ISIS (now called the Islamic State), the internal conflicts in Libya, the war in Gaza, and the continuing negotiations with Iran on nuclear matters suggest that early optimism about the 'Arab Spring' was at best misplaced, and chronic instability has returned. In the US, the energy revolution continues to change the geopolitics of oil and gas, with the early skepticism about the scale of the changes and the shift towards North American energy independence giving way to recognition that the changes are permanent and profound - for both global energy markets and Europe. The full implications of the end of the commodity super-cycle are both profound for European energy policy and very poorly understood. Commodity prices have tumbled, with oil prices falling below $80 a barrel. On climate change, there is almost certainly not going to be a continuation of the Kyoto style international framework after the Paris conference in December 2015. Chinese emissions per head have now exceeded those of the Europeans, and it is at last being recognized that the climate change problem is one in which China, not the EU, is centre stage. China has announced that it does not intend to cap its carbon emissions until after 2030, by which time they may peak anyway - from a very much higher base after another decade and a half of increases. The Paris conference will see a series of 'pledges' and 'commitments' very much on the pattern of the Copenhagen Accord, not the credible, enforceable legally binding measures that had been proposed at the Durban Conference of the Parties in 2011

  10. Todays energy fiscal policy in France and in Europe. Energy fiscal policy: the projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanne, H.; David, L.

    1999-01-01

    The observatory of Energy from the French general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) of the ministry of economy, finance and industry, has carried out a comparative study of the specific fiscal system relative to the energy products (electric power, natural gas, petroleum products, automotive fuels) in France and in the European Union. The first part of this paper presents a summary of this study. The second part of this paper concerns the use of the fiscal policy as a tool for the reduction of CO 2 and greenhouse gases emissions in order to respect the contractual agreements of the Kyoto conference. A taxation of the energy consumption of companies is considered in order to penalize the polluting companies, and to encourage the development of techniques and measures for the abatement of pollution. A rapid statement of the fiscal policies of other European countries in this domain is presented as comparison. Details concerning the application of energy taxes to French companies are discussed: existing taxes, targeting, establishment, rate, special cases. (J.S.)

  11. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  12. Essays on environmental policies, corruption, and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Soham

    This thesis consists of four essays. The first essay looks at pollution taxation under capital mobility, and analyzes the role of pre-commitment by countries to their pollution tax rate. A polluting firm sells its product in two countries, and can locate and produce in a single country or in both countries. Due to the discrete-choice nature of the firm's location problem, the countries' welfare functions are discontinuous in their pollution tax rate. We show that when the countries cannot pre-commit to their pollution tax, the firm can still engender tax competition between them by strategically locating in both the countries. Moreover, pre-commitment pollution taxation may not be welfare improving for the countries, although it always makes the firm better off. The second essay studies the effect of liberalization on corruption. Corruptible inspectors enforce an environmental regulation on firms, and are monitored by an honest regulator. Liberalization not only increases the variety of goods and the marginal utility of accepting a bribe, but also puts pressure on the regulator to curb corruption. The interaction of these two effects can cause corruption to initially increase with liberalization, and then decrease beyond a threshold. Moreover, equilibrium corruption is lower when the regulator is able to pre-commit to her monitoring frequency. The third essay analyzes optimal labeling (information revelation) procedures for hidden attributes of credence goods. Consumers are heterogeneous in their preference for the hidden attribute, and producers can either self-label their products, or have them certified by a third party. The government can impose self or third-party labeling requirements on either the "green" or the "brown" producers. When corrupt producers can affix spurious labels, the government needs to monitor them. A mandatory self-labeling policy is shown to generally dominate mandatory third-party labeling. The fourth essay develops formulas for

  13. Providing clean energy and energy access through cooperatives

    CERN Document Server

    Studies, International Institute of Labour

    2013-01-01

    This publication is a collection of case studies on cooperatives in energy production, distribution and consumption as a contribution to the on-going search for ways in which the goal of sustainable Energy for All can be turned into a reality.

  14. Energy efficiency survey in Nigeria. A guide to developing policy and legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyigue, Etiosa; Agho, Matthew; Edevbaro, Agharese; Godfrey, Ogbemudia Osamuyi; Uyigue, Osazee Paul; Okungbowa, Ose Golden

    2009-09-15

    In Nigeria, experts have asserted that Nigeria can save up to half of the energy currently consumed in the country if energy is efficiently utilized. The major challenge has been that energy policy in Nigeria has undermined the importance and gains of energy efficiency to the environment and economic growth. In the midst of the prevailing energy crisis in Nigeria, energy efficiency will play a pivotal role in ensuring access to energy. Efficiency is not only cheaper than all other options; it also leads to growth in jobs and personal income. By reducing energy bills, it frees up money that can be spent elsewhere in the economy. It appears that the concept of energy efficiency seems to be poorly developed in Nigeria. Having discovered the policy gaps in the Nigerian system on energy efficiency, the Community Research and Development Centre designed and embarked on a research that will help to provide guideline for developing policy and legislation in the energy sector. We discovered that there is absence of research materials and data that will guide and strengthen regulatory measures to use energy efficiently in Nigeria. Hence the research was embarked upon to elicit information that will guide the development of energy efficiency policy which will in turn strengthen regulatory measures to use energy efficiently in Nigeria. In this study, we are focusing on the management of electricity; though energy efficiency is applicable to other forms of energy. Another objective of the study is to identify commercially and behaviorally low-cost ways of reducing energy consumption in the residential, public and private sectors in Nigeria. The information from this study, we believe will help to develop energy efficiency policy document applicable in Nigeria. The research will also help to identify renewable energy potential in the different regions of Nigeria. This document will also serve as a training manual for conferences and workshops.

  15. Heterogeneous Policies, Heterogeneous Technologies: The Case of Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main findings show that lowering entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation than privatisation and un-bundling, but its effect varies across technologies, being stronger in technologies characterised by the potential entry of small, independent power producers. Additionally, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, the ratification of the Kyoto protocol - determining a more stable and less uncertain policy framework - amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation. (authors)

  16. Impact of Energy Market Liberalisation of Energy Efficiency Policies and Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerovac, K.

    2001-01-01

    Evolving liberalisation and market forces transform the mindset of energy industry as well as energy consumers. Within the new environment, energy will be generated, traded and consumed like other commodities. Competition and new incentives have a profound influence on energy efficiency incentives and policies. This report aims at identifying the effects of liberalisation on energy efficiency and potential energy policy implications. The report addresses energy efficiency issues throughout the energy cycle from generation, transmission to consumption.(author)

  17. Energy, environment and economics: greenhouse policy in the balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkenfeld, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Taking New South Wales as a case study, this paper reviews the government's major economic and environmental concerns, and analyses how they bear on energy and greenhouse policy options. The government's economic strategy emphasises the continuing importance of primary resources, minerals processing and energy-intensive manufacturing, where the State is perceived to have a competitive advantage because of its extensive coal resources. The implications of these trends for the energy utilities and for greenhouse energy policy are analysed. 22 refs., 1 tab

  18. Progress Implementing the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Significantly improving energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. Meetings of G8 leaders and IEA ministers reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic challenges. Many IEA publications have also documented the essential role of energy efficiency. For example, the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports identify energy efficiency as the most significant contributor to achieving energy security, economic and environmental goals. Energy efficiency is clearly the “first fuel” in the delivery of energy services in the coming low-carbon energy future. To support governments in their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations to these summits is known as the ‘IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations’ because it covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and energy utilities. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save as much as 7.6 giga tonnes (Gt) CO2/year by 2030 – almost 1.5 times the current annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the United States. The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations were developed to address policy gaps and priorities. This has two implications. First, the recommendations do not cover the full range of energy efficiency policy activity possible. Rather, they focus on priority energy efficiency policies identified by IEA analysis. Second, while IEA analysis, the energy efficiency professional literature and engagement with experts clearly demonstrate the broad benefits of these IEA priority measures, the recommendations are not weighted to reflect the different energy end-use make up of different

  19. Energy policy and the role of bioenergy in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars J.; Pisarek, Marcin; Buriak, Jerzy; Oniszk-Poplawska, Anna; Bucko, Pawel; Ericsson, Karin; Jaworski, Lukasz

    2006-01-01

    Poland, as many other countries, has ambitions to increase the use of renewable energy sources. In this paper, we review the current status of bioenergy in Poland and make a critical assessment of the prospects for increasing the share of bioenergy in energy supply, including policy implications. Bioenergy use was about 4% (165 PJ) of primary energy use (3900 PJ) and 95% of renewable energy use (174 PJ) in 2003, mainly as firewood in the domestic sector. Targets have been set to increase the contribution of renewable energy to 7.5% in 2010, in accordance with the EU accession treaty, and to 14% in 2020. Bioenergy is expected to be the main contributor to reaching those targets. From a resource perspective, the use of bioenergy could at least double in the near term if straw, forestry residues, wood-waste, energy crops, biogas, and used wood were used for energy purposes. The long-term potential, assuming short rotation forestry on potentially available agricultural land is about one-third, or 1400 PJ, of current total primary energy use. However, in the near term, Poland is lacking fundamental driving forces for increasing the use of bioenergy (e.g., for meeting demand increases, improving supply security, or further reducing sulphur or greenhouse gas emissions). There is yet no coherent policy or strategy for supporting bioenergy. Co-firing with coal in large plants is an interesting option for creating demand and facilitating the development of a market for bioenergy. The renewable electricity quota obligation is likely to promote such co-firing but promising applications of bioenergy are also found in small- and medium-scale applications for heat production. Carbon taxes and, or, other financial support schemes targeted also at the heating sector are necessary in the near term in order to reach the 7.5% target. In addition, there is a need to support the development of supply infrastructure, change certain practices in forestry, coordinate RD and D efforts, and

  20. Energy policy. Developing strategies for energy policies in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, Judy A.; Fowler, James A.; Kime, Barry R.; McLaughlin, Brian T.; Price, Margaret W.; Adams, Charles M.; Grace, Paul O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; McGee, William F.

    1990-06-01

    protection and economic growth. On April 2, 1990, DOE issued its interim report on the national energy strategy, which outlined goals for the strategy, obstacles to achieving the goals, and options for resolving these obstacles. Between April and December 1990, DOE plans to analyze the information in the interim report along with other data to develop energy strategy options. These options will be considered for inclusion in the strategy to be released by the President in January 1991. The effort to develop a national energy strategy is a step in the right direction toward addressing the nation's future energy needs and the environmental and budgetary implications that should be considered when developing energy policies

  1. National Open Access Policy of India (Draft) Ver. 3

    OpenAIRE

    Open Access India

    2017-01-01

    A draft ‘National Open Access Policy’ for India was prepared to be submitted to: Ministries Human Resource Development and Science & Technology, Government of India on 14th February, 2017, the 15th anniversary of the BOAI (Budapest open access Initiative).

  2. Policies and programs for sustainable energy innovations renewable energy and energy efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jisun; Iskin, Ibrahim; Taha, Rimal; Blommestein, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This volume features research and case studies across a variety of industries to showcase technological innovations and policy initiatives designed to promote renewable energy and sustainable economic development. The first section focuses on policies for the adoption of renewable energy technologies, the second section covers the evaluation of energy efficiency programs, and the final section provides evaluations of energy technology innovations. Environmental concerns, energy availability, and political pressure have prompted governments to look for alternative energy resources that can minimize the undesirable effects for current energy systems.  For example, shifting away from conventional fuel resources and increasing the percentage of electricity generated from renewable resources, such as solar and wind power, is an opportunity to guarantee lower CO2 emissions and to create better economic opportunities for citizens in the long run.  Including discussions of such of timely topics and issues as global...

  3. Energy policy and trend in European Union (EU). Part 2; Europe rengo (EU) no energy seisaku, doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezawa, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the recent energy policy in the EU region. In 1992, the EU Commission employed a strategy for realizing a single energy market. In 1994, the Council of Ministers adopted directives for liberating the permission condition of survey, exploration and development of hydrocarbons. The EU Commission employed a three stage approach for liberating the gas and electric power market. The Transit and Pricing Directives in the first stage consists of three directives of electric power transit, gas transit and pricing transparency. In the second stage, Third-Party Access (TPA) system is to be introduced. An analysis in the third stage depends on the results in the second stage. Are also described the CO2 and energy tax, emission of greenhouse gases, and integrated pollution prevention and control. Furthermore, the energy efficiency and the Trans-European Networks are described. Finally, are referred the regulations which control the activities of energy companies, and the national assistance policies in the energy division.

  4. Beyond taxation: Discourse around energy policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Takahiro; Tsuboyama, Yuki; Hara, Yoritoshi

    2016-01-01

    Energy policy literature tends to emphasise the impact of taxation on energy preference. However, the present case concerning extremely low acceptance of diesel cars in Japan could not be explained by taxation. As a possible factor, the paper sheds light upon discourse around the energy policy. The policy aimed to characterise diesel technology as emitting particulate matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx). The paper contributes to extending the existing understanding of the role of public policy by embracing the linguistic interactions complemented by visualisation. - Highlights: • Taxation cannot explain extremely low acceptance of diesel fuelled cars in Japan. • Explore meaning attachment process. • Complementarity between cost-benefit evaluation and meaning attachment.

  5. Internationalisation of information services for publishers' open access policies: the DINI multilingual integration layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It is essential for the strategy of open access self-archiving that scientific authors are given comprehensive information on publisher copyright policies. DINI, the German Initiative for Networked Information, has developed a German (and potentially multilingual) interface to the English SHERPA/RoMEO service to provide additional information on German publishers' open access policies. As a next step, this interface was enhanced to an integration layer combining different sources on publisher copyright policies. This integration layer can be used in many different contexts. Together with the SHERPA/RoMEO team, DINI aims to build an international support structure for open access information. PMID:18662383

  6. Essays on the Impacts of Geography and Institutions on Access to Energy and Public Infrastructure Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibong, Belinda

    While previous literature has emphasized the importance of energy and public infrastructure services for economic development, questions surrounding the implications of unequal spatial distribution in access to these resources remain, particularly in the developing country context. This dissertation provides evidence on the nature, origins and implications of this distribution uniting three strands of research from the development and political economy, regional science and energy economics fields. The dissertation unites three papers on the nature of spatial inequality of access to energy and infrastructure with further implications for conflict risk , the historical institutional and biogeographical determinants of current distribution of access to energy and public infrastructure services and the response of households to fuel price changes over time. Chapter 2 uses a novel survey dataset to provide evidence for spatial clustering of public infrastructure non-functionality at schools by geopolitical zone in Nigeria with further implications for armed conflict risk in the region. Chapter 3 investigates the drivers of the results in chapter 2, exploiting variation in the spatial distribution of precolonial institutions and geography in the region, to provide evidence for the long-term impacts of these factors on current heterogeneity of access to public services. Chapter 4 addresses the policy implications of energy access, providing the first multi-year evidence on firewood demand elasticities in India, using the spatial variation in prices for estimation.

  7. Policies for advancing energy efficiency and renewable energy use in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, Howard; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre; Tolmasquim, Mauricio

    2004-01-01

    This article first reviews energy trends and energy policy objectives in Brazil. It then proposes and analyzes 12 policy options for advancing energy efficiency and renewable energy use. The policies are analyzed as a group with respect to their impacts on total energy supply and demand as well as CO 2 emissions. It is determined that the policies would provide a broad range of benefits for Brazil including reducing investment requirements in the energy sector, cutting energy imports, lowering CO 2 emissions, and providing social benefits. (Author)

  8. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); de la Rue de Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Amann, Jennifer Thorne [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, D.C. (United States); Staniaszek, Dan [Sustainability Consulting Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-26

    This report addresses the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions and the greatest opportunity to reduce these emissions. The IPCC 4th Assessment Report estimates that globally 35% to 40% of all energy-related CO2 emissions (relative to a growing baseline) result from energy use in buildings. Emissions reductions from a combination of energy efficiency and conservation (using less energy) in buildings have the potential to cut emissions as much as all other energy-using sectors combined. This is especially the case for China, India and other developing countries that are expected to account for 80% or more of growth in building energy use worldwide over the coming decades. In short, buildings constitute the largest opportunity to mitigate climate change and special attention needs to be devoted to developing countries.

  9. Energy supply in the emerging regulatory/policy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, M. P.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses the previous decades' swinging pendulum of energy policy as it described national need and the ability of our institutions to represent consumer interests. Today's energy policy is a product of 20 years of regulation written by competing and sometimes politicized interests.

  10. 77 FR 60380 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business....S. companies to participate in a Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable, which will be held on... roundtable, the delegation will travel to the northeast region for site visits. Participating companies will...

  11. 77 FR 64487 - Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy Policy Business... coordinating a Renewable Energy Policy Business Roundtable, which will be held on December 3, 2012 in Tokyo in.... Following the Roundtable, the delegation will travel to Fukushima Prefecture and Sendai for site visits...

  12. EU Energy Policy and Future European Energy Markets: Consequences for the Central and East European States

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita M. Balmaceda

    2002-01-01

    This working paper explores the European Union vector in the Central and East European (CEE) energy situation, in particular in terms of the CEE countries' energy relationship with Russia. Attention is paid not only to concrete EU energy policies but also to the larger question of European energy markets. EU policies impact the CEE states' energy relationship with Russia through specific EU requirements vis-à-vis the candidate countries, through the side-effects of other EU policies, through ...

  13. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Van Ruijven, Bas J; Van Vuuren, Detlef P; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku

    2013-01-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US$ 2005 65–86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially. (letter)

  14. Pathways to achieve universal household access to modern energy by 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Shonali; van Ruijven, Bas J.; Nagai, Yu; Riahi, Keywan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Brew-Hammond, Abeeku; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa

    2013-06-01

    A lack of access to modern energy impacts health and welfare and impedes development for billions of people. Growing concern about these impacts has mobilized the international community to set new targets for universal modern energy access. However, analyses exploring pathways to achieve these targets and quantifying the potential costs and benefits are limited. Here, we use two modelling frameworks to analyse investments and consequences of achieving total rural electrification and universal access to clean-combusting cooking fuels and stoves by 2030. Our analysis indicates that these targets can be achieved with additional investment of US200565-86 billion per year until 2030 combined with dedicated policies. Only a combination of policies that lowers costs for modern cooking fuels and stoves, along with more rapid electrification, can enable the realization of these goals. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of accounting for varying demands and affordability across heterogeneous household groups in both analysis and policy setting. While the investments required are significant, improved access to modern cooking fuels alone can avert between 0.6 and 1.8 million premature deaths annually in 2030 and enhance wellbeing substantially.

  15. Energy Burden and the Need for Integrated Low-Income Housing and Energy Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Diana; Bird, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    Using detailed sociological and public health qualitative interview data, we demonstrate that energy poverty is more pervasive, and results in a greater energy burden for low-income tenants, than many policymakers would assume. This is due in part to a lack of funding, policy non-coordination, and a lack of understanding of the social and economic benefits of energy conservation, energy education, and flexible utility billing policies. Examining LIHEAP, weatherization, utility, and housing assistance policies, we suggest that a coordinated, regional approach to home energy and housing policy that integrates programs in each area will provide a more coherent policy solution.

  16. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine the development of EU energy security policy, focusing on gas. ► We examine changes in European Commission competence in energy policy. ► The European Commission has gained increased competence in the internal market. ► In the external dimension of EU energy policy Member States retain competence. ► The European Commission has had qualified success as a policy entrepreneur

  17. Adjudication accessibility of the solar energy with GIS tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Rybár

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Constantly increase prise of oil and natural gas at the world market, increase consumption of electric power forces people to look for new energy sources. Concentration to renewable energy is an attention of specialist and non-professional public. The solar energy is one of the renewable energy. A lot of different factors influence as possibilities using the solar energy. For adjudication possibilities using solar energy is needed to know and calculate quantity accessibility of radiation and its energy for potential locality. This calculation is determined by geographic location, critical time, climatic and meteorological conditions, and position study plain. GIS tools can be very useful for this calculation. Created digital terrain model of Košice fold is used for the adjudication accessibility solar energy. The basic attribute of digital terrain model is used, such as possibilities deduce more parameters like slope and aspect. Basic location parameter of adjudication plain by determine accessibility of the solar radiation is a slope β and an azimuth plain normale An.

  18. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  19. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  20. Heterogeneous policies, heterogeneous technologies: The case of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main finding is that, compared to privatisation and unbundling, reducing entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation, but that its effect varies across technologies and is stronger in technologies characterised by potential entry of small, independent power producers. In addition, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, ratification of the Kyoto protocol, which determined a more stable and less uncertain policy framework, amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation. - Highlights: • We study the effect of market regulation and energy policy on renewable technologies. • Reducing entry barriers is a significant driver of renewable energy innovation. • The Kyoto protocol amplifies the effect of both energy policy and liberalisation. • These effects are heterogeneous across technologies and stronger for wind.

  1. Policy and advice for a sustainable energy future. The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werff, T.T.

    2000-01-01

    The VROM Council offered to host a workshop (27-28 October 2000) for a group of European environmental advisory bodies. This meeting is meant as a kick-off for a working group on energy and climate change. The workshop may help to develop standpoints of the advisory bodies on the basis of shared knowledge of problem perceptions and proposed solutions in other EU countries. This may increase the common denominator and thus promote common EU policies. The proposed title for this workshop is: Reconciling a sustainable energy future with the liberalisation and privatisation of the European energy market One of the participating councils from each country is expected to draft a report on the policies directed at a sustainable energy future in their respective countries. These reports should include the following elements of the national policies and relevant proposals of the councils: a brief description of the current energy supply and a lookout on sustainable development in the energy sector; .a description of the liberalisation and privatisation of the energy market, including the institutional reform (government involvement), juridical changes and realisation path and, if applicable, how the share of non fossil energy generation is enlarged; a description of how in the future a sustainable energy supply will be promoted, including (options for) policy strategies, measures and instruments; and a description of the European Union (EU) policy that is conditional for the realisation of these national policies. The VROM Council has asked CE to produce the report for the Netherlands. The report is organised as follows. Chapter 2 gives a brief description of the current Dutch energy and CO2 characteristics. Chapter 3 gives an overview of Dutch energy policy and chapter 4 an overview of Dutch climate policy. The chapters 5-7 give the views of the various councils on energy and climate policy (AER, VROMRaad, and SER). The final chapter, chapter 8, gives some suggestions for

  2. National Renewable Energy Policy in a Global World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Minji

    Increasing trade of renewable energy products has significantly contributed to reducing the costs of renewable energy sources, but at the same time, it has generated protectionist policies, which may negatively affect the trend of the cost reduction. Although a few recent studies examined the rise of renewable energy protectionism and trade disputes, they are limited in addressing the conflict between the original goal of traditional renewable energy policies and the new protectionist policies under the globalized renewable energy industry. To fill this gap, this dissertation explores how the globalized renewable energy industry has changed national renewable energy policies. Through three analyses, three aspects of the globalized renewable energy industry are examined: the rise of multinational corporations, international interactions among actors, and the changes of the global and domestic market conditions. First analysis investigates how multinational renewable energy corporations have affected national policies. A content analysis of the annual reports of 15 solar photovoltaic multinational corporation shows that solar multinationals have been influenced by national policies and have adapted to the changes rather than having attempted to change national policies. Second analysis examines how diverse actors have framed renewable energy trade issues through a network analysis of the Chinese solar panel issue in the United States. The result shows that the Chinese solar panel issue was framed differently from the traditional environmental frame of renewable energy, being dominated by multinational corporations headquartered in other countries. Third analysis explores what has caused the increasing diversity in national renewable energy policies through the case studies of the U.S. and South Korea. The result reveals that the globalization of solar industry has affected the diversification of solar policies in two countries by generating both challenges, which

  3. Deciding the Future: Energy Policy Scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    This WEC study is bottom-up regional view of our energy future focusing on policies to ensure energy sustainability. Experts from five regions and all energy domains worked together to produce four different scenarios to predict how differing levels of cooperation and government involvement would affect the energy future of the world.

  4. Policy framework for utilisation. A pillar of better accessibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The goals and frameworks for traffic and transport policy for the Netherlands to 2020 are described in the Mobility Document. Whereas government policy previously viewed mobility as a problem or as something permissible, the assumption is now that mobility is a must. Mobility, for people as well as goods, is a prerequisite for society and the economy to function well. The Mobility Document contains ambitious goals to deal with current and anticipated traffic and transport problems: door to door, faster, cleaner and safer. Three interrelated pillars are to help achieve these goals: Building, Pricing and Utilisation. Work is being done on the Building and Pricing pillars; Utilisation is elaborated further in this policy framework. The Policy Framework for Utilisation is an elaboration of the Mobility Document for the 2008-2020 period and aims for faster, cleaner, safer travel from door to door. The purpose of this policy framework is to describe the direction of development of utilisation, in terms of content as well as process, to indicate actions that are required and to provide perspective on the expected effects. The policy framework is in line with current developments or plans, caters to new opportunities (technological and otherwise), encourages the innovative potential of the market and provides room for joint ventures between the government and the market. It will result in actions for the short term and provide direction for activities and developments for the longer term

  5. Access to essential medicines in Pakistan: policy and health systems research concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehla Zaidi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Inadequate access to essential medicines is a common issue within developing countries. Policy response is constrained, amongst other factors, by a dearth of in-depth country level evidence. We share here i gaps related to access to essential medicine in Pakistan; and ii prioritization of emerging policy and research concerns. METHODS: An exploratory research was carried out using a health systems perspective and applying the WHO Framework for Equitable Access to Essential Medicine. Methods involved key informant interviews with policy makers, providers, industry, NGOs, experts and development partners, review of published and grey literature, and consultative prioritization in stakeholder's Roundtable. FINDINGS: A synthesis of evidence found major gaps in essential medicine access in Pakistan driven by weaknesses in the health care system as well as weak pharmaceutical regulation. 7 major policy concerns and 11 emerging research concerns were identified through consultative Roundtable. These related to weaknesses in medicine registration and quality assurance systems, unclear and counterproductive pricing policies, irrational prescribing and sub-optimal drug availability. Available research, both locally and globally, fails to target most of the identified policy concerns, tending to concentrate on irrational prescriptions. It overlooks trans-disciplinary areas of policy effectiveness surveillance, consumer behavior, operational pilots and pricing interventions review. CONCLUSION: Experience from Pakistan shows that policy concerns related to essential medicine access need integrated responses across various components of the health systems, are poorly addressed by existing evidence, and require an expanded health systems research agenda.

  6. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  7. Climate change and energy policy in Chile: Up in smoke?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundaca T, Luis

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an ex-post assessment of the climate and energy policy developments in Chile emerging from a neoliberal economic model, during the period 1971–2007. First, correlation and regression analyses were performed to analyse historical CO 2 emissions as a product of demographic, economic and energy-wide drivers. Then I estimate indicators related to CO 2 emissions, energy use and economic activity. In the light of empirical results, I identify policy instruments and structural issues. Finally, I present a comparative analysis of Chile and other Latin American countries. Statistical tests show that variability of CO 2 emissions is explained mostly by GDP per capita (‘affluence’) than any other tested variable. Indicators show that the diversification and decarbonisation of the energy mix has been a major policy challenge. With two notable exceptions (hydro and natural gas), the CO 2 intensity of the energy supply mix suggests no effective policies, while energy security crises triggered negative carbon effects and increased prices. No clear policies to promote energy efficiency can be identified until 2005. Explicit policy instruments to promote renewable energy are only recognised after 2004. The results strongly suggest that Chile lacked of policies to effectively decarbonise its energy–economy system. - Highlight: ► The first paper that quantitatively assesses key drivers of CO 2 emissions in Chile. ► It examines energy and climate policy development during the period 1971–2007. ► GDP per capita (‘affluence’) is the main determinant of CO 2 emissions. ► Diversification and decarbonisation of energy mix has been a major policy challenge. ► Policy approach under analysed period not suited for a low-carbon economy.

  8. Governance, technology, and equity: An integrated policy framework for energy efficient housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg; Deda, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Transforming the housing stock to a low energy performance is a key priority in the context of sustainable development and a post-carbon transition. However, in terms of its practical implementation it, firstly, faces a number of complex institutional barriers, while, secondly, involves a risk of being dominated by a narrow technocratic agenda for energy/carbon reduction that may overtake the socially progressive pursuits of housing policy. Energy efficiency strategies for the residential sector must, therefore, be multidimensional, fully synergised with housing policy, and incorporating the principles of equity, access and a balanced geographical development. This paper discusses a strategic policy framework, which was designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to address those important needs in international policy. The document – Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE Region – outlines a number of goals, targets and actions structured at three dimensions: (i) governance and finance, (ii) technological advancement, and (iii) access and affordability. The Action Plan provides a comprehensive and integrated framework, based on which governments can shape their own pathways towards a sustainable low-energy residential sector. - Highlights: ► Residential sector has a large potential for energy and carbon reduction. ► Energy efficiency for housing must be reconciled with socially oriented housing policy. ► Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE region is presented. ► The Plan offers an integrated framework for sustainable transition to low-energy housing. ► Governance, technology, and equitable access are three key elements of the framework.

  9. ESCAPE. Energy Security and ClimAte Policy Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessels, J.R.; Bakker, S.J.A.

    2005-05-01

    Climate change and energy supply security policy are currently not integrated in most countries, despite possible synergies. The ESCAPE approach suggests that linking climate change policy with security of energy supply could improve climate change policy at both a national and international level. The report explores the interaction between policies of energy security and climate change and the options of inclusion of energy security issues into national and international post-2012 climate negotiations. It emphasises the importance of the US in this regard and takes a close look at US energy policy documents. It appears that current US energy policy is not directed towards reducing its reliance on imported fossil fuel, even though the government has a strong preference for this. This study shows that measures to reduce import dependency are mostly synergetic with climate policy and gives some options that can be implemented. On an international level, linkages of energy security into post-2012 climate policy may be possible in sectoral bottom-up approaches or technology frameworks. As well, inclusion of a security of supply criterion in international emission trading instruments may provide potential benefits

  10. A look at the European domestic and foreign energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    After having defined the main characteristics of energy considered as a good (a private good, a product of first necessity, a redistributed product, a strategic good), the author presents the actors of the European energy policy: European authorities, member state governments, firms (operators and big consumers), and households. He presents the European domestic energy policy which comprises three main themes: the creation of a domestic market, the taking of government commitments for 2020 into account, and the emission trading scheme. He identifies and comments the three main objectives of the European foreign energy policy: supply security, struggle against climate change, and support to the less developed countries

  11. EU Energy Policy in a Supply-constrained World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, J.; Van der Linde, C.

    2008-10-01

    Energy is quickly becoming an issue of integration and disintegration of the EU and will perhaps turn out to be the ultimate litmus test of political and economic unity in the EU, as energy issues are increasingly intertwined with wider security issues on the continent. Very often, economic issues are elevated to the political-strategic level, serving a different agenda than merely contributing to the energy policy agenda of the EU. The challenges to the EU and its member states in the energy sector are many: some issues are part of the wider geopolitical and geo-economic agenda, but some are also the product of the new EU that emerged after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The enlargement with member states that are asymmetrically dependent on oil and gas supplies mainly from Russia has further emphasised the growth of structural energy import dependency. Moreover, the new member states did not have the benefit of introducing the energy 'acquis', i.e. liberalisation, in a period of ample supply and relatively low prices. From 2004 onwards, energy has become tighter and more politicised. It was these developments that also uncovered the calculated risk of the old member states to embark on liberalisation without putting a crisis management policy into place. With the increasing worries about the security of supply and the asymmetric exposure of Eastern Europe to a single supplier, energy security issues also began to dominate the internal policy debates both in energy and in external relations. The new developments require the EU member states to consider how and to what extent their external energy policies should also be merged into a more EU-wide approach, if they can agree on the common risks that need to be averted and the common benefits gained, and if and how a crisis mechanism for fuels other than oil is needed to manage the perceived increased security of supply risks. Moreover, they should also consider the internal market design they set out to implement and

  12. Electricity access for geographically disadvantaged rural communities--technology and policy insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, Akanksha; Ranganathan, Malini; Mohanty, Parimita

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to weigh the issues and options for increasing electricity access in remote and geographically challenged villages in interior Rajasthan, the desertstate in Western India where power sector reforms are currently underway. By first providing an overview of reforms and various electrification policy initiatives in India, the paper then analyzes the specific problems as studied at the grass-roots level with respect to rural electricity access and the use of off-grid renewables. Finally, it discusses interventions that could facilitate access to electricity by suggesting a sequential distributed generation (DG)-based approach, wherein consecutive DG schemes--incorporating the requisite technological, financial, and institutional arrangements--are designed depending on the developmental requirements of the community. In essence, this approach fits under the broader need to understand how the three 'Rs'- rural electrification (the process), power sector reforms (the catalyst), and the use of renewable energy technologies (the means) - could potentially converge to meet the needs of India's rural poor

  13. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  14. Energy policy of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecina, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the state and perspectives of energy production in the Czech Republic up to 2030 year. Share of energy consumption as well as perspectives of nuclear energy are discussed

  15. Policy Enabling Environment for Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-09

    Interest in renewable energy (RE) procurement in new markets is on the rise. Corporations are increasing their commitments to procuring RE, motivated by an interest in using clean energy sources and reducing their energy expenses. Many large companies have facilities and supply chains in multiple countries, and are interested in procuring renewable energy in the grids where they use energy. The policy environment around the world plays a key role in shaping where and how corporations will invest in renewables. This fact sheet details findings from a recent 21st Century Power Partnership report, Policies to Enable Corporate Renewable Energy Sourcing Internationally.

  16. A Linux-Based Approach to Low-Cost Support of Access Control Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, Paul

    1999-01-01

    .... Systems that enforce Mandatory Access Control (MAC) policies are known to reduce some known security weaknesses, but such systems have seen limited use within the United States Government, and they are rarely applied in the private sector...

  17. Free Education for Open Learning: Open educational policies, strategies & access for all

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Invited Speech at the Moscow International Education Fair 2016, Moscow, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 15 April): "Free Education for Open Learning: Open educational policies, strategies & access for all"

  18. Energy savings in drastic climate change policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoard, Stephane; Wiesenthal, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a climate change policy scenario compatible with long-term sustainable objectives set at EU level (6th Environment Action Plan). By setting ambitious targets for GHG emissions reduction by 2030, this normative scenario relies on market-based instruments and flexible mechanisms. The integrated policy that is simulated (i.e. addressing energy, transport, agriculture and environmental impacts) constitutes a key outlook for the next 5-year report of the European Environment Agency (EEA). This scenario highlights what it would take to drastically curb EU GHG emissions and how much it might cost. The findings show that such a 'deep reduction' climate policy could work as a powerful catalyst for (1) substantial energy savings, and (2) promoting sustainable energy systems in the long term. The implications of this policy lever on the energy system are many-fold indeed, e.g. a substantial limitation of total energy demand or significant shifts towards energy and environment-friendly technologies on the supply side. Clear and transparent price signals, which are associated with market-based instruments, appear to be a key factor ensuring sufficient visibility for capital investment in energy efficient and environment-friendly options. Finally it is suggested that market-based policy options, which are prone to lead to win-win situations and are of particular interest from an integrated policy-making perspective, would also significantly benefit from an enhanced energy policy framework

  19. US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Robert K.; McGowan, Elizabeth; Onysko, Ganna; Scheer, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future.

  20. Policy of Tariff Protection in the Light of WTO Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Burim Gashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tariff rates are crucial instrument of trade policy. This paper covers several important issues related to the reforms of this area. First part of the paper explains the key features of tariffs as protection instrument: different policy takers and opposite economic interests; benefits and adverse effects; alternative measures of protection; dependence of tariff policy on the development priorities and the welfare effects, etc. This document explains main World Trade Organization requirements concerning protection policy such as primary role of tariffs, restricted set of non-tariff instruments, limited scope of safeguard measures, comparison on the legal development in the field until now, and an indication of further legislation changes necessary in the period of adjustment. It also gives main elements of the customs-reform strategy: choice and concentration of goals and priorities; criteria for preparation of the alternative scenarios; solving convergence problems; defining conditionality for alternative solutions and interdependence of relevant externalities. The goal of the paper is to give recommendation for trade policy reform in our country necessarily to become member of World Trade Organization.

  1. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  2. Policy modeling for energy efficiency improvement in US industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We are at the beginning of a process of evaluating and modeling the contribution of policies to improve energy efficiency. Three recent policy studies trying to assess the impact of energy efficiency policies in the United States are reviewed. The studies represent an important step in the analysis of climate change mitigation strategies. All studies model the estimated policy impact, rather than the policy itself. Often the policy impacts are based on assumptions, as the effects of a policy are not certain. Most models only incorporate economic (or price) tools, which recent studies have proven to be insufficient to estimate the impacts, costs and benefits of mitigation strategies. The reviewed studies are a first effort to capture the effects of non-price policies. The studies contribute to a better understanding of the role of policies in improving energy efficiency and mitigating climate change. All policy scenarios results in substantial energy savings compared to the baseline scenario used, as well as substantial net benefits to the U.S. economy

  3. TOWARDS A COMMON ENERGY POLICY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Inotai

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy policy issues have got increasing relevance in the strategic orientation of the European Union (EU in general, and in identifying specific economic policy tasks, in particular. Steadily high energy (oil and gas prices in the last years constitute one factor. However, global political and security issues of growing degree of uncertainty, the level of dependence on imported energy and, not less importantly, the forecasts of growing external dependence of the EU in this field have substantially contributed to the upgrading of the energy question. Finally, the liberalization of the single market, not least in the crucial area of energy supply and the enlargement of the EU by 12 new members, with specific composition of production and not less specific pattern of imports of energy, enhanced the importance of energy in the enlarged EU, with a view to shape and implement a common energy policy.

  4. Medium Access Control in Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon

    Focusing on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) that are powered by energy harvesting, this dissertation focuses on energy-efficient communication links between senders and receivers that are alternating between active and sleeping states of operation. In particular, the focus lies on Medium Access......, collision avoidance, provision of Quality of Service (QoS) and security. Focusing on the particular requirements of an energy harvesting application, the dissertation continues with the presentation of a MAC protocol, named ODMAC, which extends the receiver-initiated paradigm with several energy......-efficient features that aim to adapt the consumed energy to match the harvested energy, distribute the load with respect to the harvested energy, decrease the overhead of the communication, address the requirements for collision avoidance, prioritize urgent traffic and secure the system against beacon replay attacks...

  5. Implementing an Open Access Policy – Modeling KAUST in the Region

    KAUST Repository

    Baessa, Mohamed A.

    2014-11-12

    The presentation will discuss different open access approaches, and what can well-fit academic and governmental institutions. As a case study of KAUST, presenters will discuss how it can be initiated in a university set-up, how to get academic stakeholder engaged with support, and how the final stage is reached. Details about the KAUST Open Access Policy for research articles, theses and dissertations and the required tools and workflow to implement the policies will be highlighted.

  6. Open Access Policies of Research Funders: The Case Study of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF)

    OpenAIRE

    Tonto, Yaşar; Doğan, Güleda; Al, Umut; Madran, Orçun

    2015-01-01

    The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is the main funder for basic research in Austria. FWF has been instrumental in promoting Open Access in Austria and elsewhere and possesses a strong Open Access policy for the research it funds. This case study presents FWF as a good practice of an effective funder policy on account of its comprehensive strategy and multi-faceted approach for implementing and supporting it.

  7. Energy policies of IEA countries: Australia 2005 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-16

    The report reviews Australia's energy policies and makes recommendations to the government on future policy development. The IEA commends the efficiency and security of the Australian energy market but recommends that the country will have to substantially alter future energy supply and/or demand behaviour if it wants to moderate emission levels and work within any future global climate change mitigation programme. 23 figs., 27 tabs., 3 annexes.

  8. Universal access to electricity in Burkina Faso: scaling-up renewable energy technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moner-Girona, M.; Bódis, K.; Huld, T.; Kougias, I.; Szabó, S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the status quo of the power sector in Burkina Faso, its limitations, and develops a new methodology that through spatial analysis processes with the aim to provide a possible pathway for universal electricity access. Following the SE4All initiative approach, it recommends the more extensive use of distributed renewable energy systems to increase access to electricity on an accelerated timeline. Less than 5% of the rural population in Burkina Faso have currently access to electricity and supply is lacking at many social structures such as schools and hospitals. Energy access achievements in Burkina Faso are still very modest. According to the latest SE4All Global Tracking Framework (2015), the access to electricity annual growth rate in Burkina Faso from 2010 to 2012 is 0%. The rural electrification strategy for Burkina Faso is scattered in several electricity sector development policies: there is a need of defining a concrete action plan. Planning and coordination between grid extension and the off-grid electrification programme is essential to reach a long-term sustainable energy model and prevent high avoidable infrastructure investments. This paper goes into details on the methodology and findings of the developed Geographic Information Systems tool. The aim of the dynamic planning tool is to provide support to the national government and development partners to define an alternative electrification plan. Burkina Faso proves to be paradigm case for the methodology as its national policy for electrification is still dominated by grid extension and the government subsidising fossil fuel electricity production. However, the results of our analysis suggest that the current grid extension is becoming inefficient and unsustainable in order to reach the national energy access targets. The results also suggest that Burkina Faso’s rural electrification strategy should be driven local renewable resources to power distributed mini-grids. We find that

  9. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  10. Gender Perspective on Access to Energy in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Daskalova, Victoria Ivanova; Feenstra, Mariëlle Henriëtte; Franceschelli, Nicolo

    2017-01-01

    This study, commissioned by the European Parliament Policy Department for Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs, presents an overview of the situation within the EU with regard to the way energy poverty is experienced by women and men and explores through a gender lens existing EU legislation

  11. The German energy policy. Future prospects and new economic opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    This document presents some key information and figures about the German energy policy: share of renewable energy sources in the German energy mix by 2050, societal commitments of citizens, towns and regions as pillars of the energy transition, research and innovation: the keys of a successful energy transition in Germany, the coalition contract and the 2014-2017 government priorities, a safe, affordable and ecological energy transition, renewable energies guidance towards market economy, grids as central and vital elements of the energy transition, the electricity market and the new framework for renewable energies, new economic models to be exploited for smart grids, a change of paradigm with 'smart markets'

  12. Central and Eastern European Social Policy and European Union Accession: Time for Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Lendvai

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union enlargement and accession are reflexive of both EU and post-communist social policies. There is a unique “dialogue“ going on, indicative of fundamental aspects of post-communist, post-transitional social policy. It is also a 'mirror' that reflects shortcomings of governance, and often presents a neglected institutional landscape. Therefore, the Europeanisation of social policy is an essential transformation process for post-communist countries whereby a new language and new concepts are introduced, the outlines of new social-policy governance emerge and enter the space in which social policy is formulated and considered.

  13. Energy access and living standards: some observations on recent trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Narasimha D.; Pachauri, Shonali

    2017-02-01

    A subset of Sustainable Development Goals pertains to improving people’s living standards at home. These include the provision of access to electricity, clean cooking energy, improved water and sanitation. We examine historical progress in energy access in relation to other living standards. We assess regional patterns in the pace of progress and relative priority accorded to these different services. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa would have to undergo unprecedented rates of improvement in energy access in order to achieve the goal of universal electrification by 2030. World over, access to clean cooking fuels and sanitation facilities consistently lag improved water and electricity access by a large margin. These two deprivations are more concentrated among poor countries, and poor people in middle income countries. They are also correlated to health risks faced disproportionately by women. However, some Asian countries have been able to achieve faster progress in electrification at lower income levels compared to industrialized countries’ earlier efforts. These examples offer hope that future efforts need not be constrained by historical rates of progress.

  14. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  15. Building on strengths: Canada's energy policy framework. Insights from the Canadian Energy Forums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses Canada's energy policy and insights from the Canadian Energy Forums. The Energy Council of Canada held a series of Canadian Energy Forums leading up to Canada hosting the World Energy Congress Montreal 2010 in September. The Cross-Canada Forums focused upon specific regions of Canada and obtained from governments, industry and other stake holders, perspectives and planned policy actions to address present and future energy challenges.

  16. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  17. Compatibility of the SE4ALL Energy Efficiency Objective with Renewable Energy, Energy Access, and Climate Mitigation Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregg, Jay Sterling; Balyk, Olexandr; Solér, Ola

    is reinforced by the renewable energy objective, but not by the universal access objective. Achieving the energy efficiency objective is made cheaper (in terms of the net present value of investment costs) when the renewable energy target is also achieved. However, achieving both the renewable energy and energy...

  18. Automated energy conserving cover for refrigerated cabinet access openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, F.F.

    1984-01-01

    An automatically operated flexible barrier cover for the access openings of refrigerated display cabinets. The barrier cover limits the contact between the refrigerated air within the cabinet and the ambient air. The barrier cover can be moved over the access opening during non-customer use time periods when the retail food outlet is closed. The barrier cover can be arranged as a unitary assembly which can be manufactured and sold separately from the display cabinet as a retrofit device to effect energy savings. The flexible barrier cover can be stored in a reeled-up position or can be arranged as a folded flexible barrier which can be fanned out across the access opening. Various traction means are provided for moving the flexible barrier across the access opening

  19. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  20. Guiding principles for energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The principles of energy policy in Schleswig-Holstein set forward in this brochure are neither an energy programme nor a descriptive report on the policy of the day. Rather, they are intended to mark the energy-political frame of action within which the government of the Land will more. At the same time their purpose is to provide a medium-term orientation for politics and the power economy, consumers and producers. They are thus consciously made to contrast with political trends conceiving energy policy first of all as a plan-dependent activity. With these guiding principles the government of the Land consistantly continues an energy policy it has exposed in detail in its answer to the Question submitted by the CDU parliamentary party on December 8, 1980. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Report of a Policy Forum: Weather, Climate, and Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-07-01

    The report of a policy forum on Weather, Climate, and Energy presents findings and recommendations that, if implemented, could position the energy sector, the providers of weather and climate science and services, and energy consumers to mange more cooperatively and effectively the production, distribution, and consumption of electrical power and fossil fuels. Recent U.S. experience with a series of energy shortages encouraged the AMS Atmospheric Policy Program to join with the University of Oklahoma in the development of a forum to address the issues connected with responding to those shortages. Nearly 100 representatives from the public, private, and academic portions of the energy production sector, the meteorological community, political and corporate leaders, weather risk management analysts, and policy makers met on October 16-17, 2001 to discuss these policy issues.

  2. Environmental Policies, Product Market Regulation and Innovation in Renewable Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesta, Lionel; Vona, Francesco; Nicolli, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the effectiveness of policies in favor of innovation in renew- able energy under different levels of competition. Using information regarding renewable energy policies, product market regulation and high-quality green patents for OECD countries since the late 1970's, we develop a pre-sample mean count-data econometric specification that also accounts for the endogeneity of policies. We find that renewable energy policies are significantly more effective in fostering green innovation in countries with deregulated energy markets. We also find that public support for renewable energy is crucial only in the generation of high-quality green patents, whereas competition enhances the generation of green patents irrespective of their quality. (authors)

  3. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates include China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Mali and South Africa. Researchers will examine the regulatory ...

  4. Web Accessibility Policies and Practices at American Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, William; Trerise, Sharon; VanLooy, Sara; Lee, Camille; Bruyere, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Community colleges are increasingly using the Internet for admissions and financial aid applications. The use of online processes has serious implications for students with disabilities, such as visual and learning problems, who may encounter difficulties with the Web sites if they are not designed in an accessible and usable way. A survey of…

  5. Open-Access Colleges Responsible for Greatest Gains in Graduation Rates. Policy Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The largest gains in graduation rates over the past decade have been accomplished at open-access or nearly open-access colleges and universities. In addition, states could see even bigger increases if they directed their policies and supports toward improving graduation rates at these nonselective institutions. These findings from the author's…

  6. Combining apps targeting professionals and senior citizens to improve housing accessibility and influence housing provision policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Iwarsson, Susanne; Lunn, Tine Bieber

    2015-01-01

    Two separate apps that address the increasingly important issue of accessible housing for senior citizens have been developed in different project settings. One of the apps was developed to facilitate the process for professional raters to assess housing accessibility in the context of individual...... and influence housing provision policies....

  7. 77 FR 44515 - Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Policy Regarding Access to Airports From Residential Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... policies, restrictions, and/or requirements to be imposed on fly-in guests who taxi from the airport... a legal right of access from the property to the airport (e.g., by easement or contract) in.... Because the ability of some sponsors to control access has been compromised as a result of legal rights...

  8. The German energy policy: between national requirements and community exigencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the strategic and economic stakes that are associated with the security of energy supplies, the German federal government has made of this question one of the priorities of its european presidency. In this note, the author observes a radical change in the German energy policy with the future phaseout of nuclear energy and the perspectives of Russian gas supply. The author also reviews the challenges of the elaboration of a European energy policy, with certain member States refusing to transfer their sovereignty in the energy domain, and the large split between national requirements and community exigencies in this field

  9. Renewable energy. From marginal to mainstream. Policy Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veum, K.C.; Uslu, A.; De Coninck, H.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    This policy brief aims to instigate a debate on the broader enabling conditions required to move renewable energy from marginal shares in the European energy system to a mainstream role. It does so by posing seven key questions related to public movement, the political-industrial complex, resources and sustainability, grids and markets, finance, legal procedures and overall policy. These questions require short- to medium-term attention to keep a long-term renewable energy system within the realm of possibilities. This policy brief also provides ECN's initial reflections on how these key questions could be addressed, and indicates which relevant expertise it can bring to the table.

  10. Energy policy in Italy and perspectives for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot-Giorgetti, M.; Lamquet, O.

    2000-08-01

    In Europe the energy sector is moving to a community policy oriented on the competition opening of the market (Internal Energy Market Program), by national initiatives of liberalization and privatization of the energy production and distribution and also the environmental policy. In this context the italian Government is moving towards a survey and regulation organism and aims today to implement measures allowing a correct and quality operating of the market. This document presents a state of the art of the italian market and the perspectives for 2010. It enhances also the innovative projects according the environmental policy. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy policy of France; Politique energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, H

    2001-07-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  12. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  13. European energy policy and Italian national rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    In light of energy market upheavals expected as a result of the up-coming European free trade market, impacts on existing Italian energy legislation, currently hinging on the monopolistic activities of ENEL, (Italian National Electricity Board) are examined. The various aspects dealt with include: legal implications of the integration, under monopolistic and deregulated national energy market scenarios, of new legislation, on the production and distribution of renewable energy sources, with existing energy legislation; the combined effects of strong competition in a new international energy market and energy supply vulnerability due strong dependence on OPEC supplied petroleum; Italian regional economic unbalance due to the possible introduction, in a deregulated European electric power market, of a common carrier system of electric power distribution, that due to Italy's particular geography is expected to be controlled by a firm locatednear the northern border; power pooling legislation and rate structure transparency in a deregulated energy market

  14. Policy Means for 100 % Renewable Energy in Denmark Before 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2010-01-01

    (renewable energy and energy efficiency). Less attention has been given to efficient policy means, the concept of limits to growth and the need for a new economic paradigm – including ecological economics. These points are central in the Danish project: ”Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis...

  15. Strategic technology policy as a supplement to renewable energy standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Greaker, Mads; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2018-01-01

    In many regions, renewable energy targets are a primary decarbonization policy. Most of the same jurisdictions also subsidize the manufacturing and/or deployment of renewable energy technologies, some being sufficiently aggressive as to engender WTO disputes. We consider a downstream energy-using

  16. Senate works: law project on the energy policy (first reading)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This synthesis of the Senate works on the law project on the energy policy, comments each article of the law text. It concerns: the energy demand control, the renewable energies, the equilibrium and the quality of the transport and distribution networks of electric power, taxation and financial incentives. (A.L.B.)

  17. The EU must triple its energy saving policy effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Harmsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such

  18. Renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi: Drivers and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezher, Toufic; Dawelbait, Gihan; Abbas, Zeina

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and fossil fuel depletion are the main drivers for the recent focus on Renewable Energy (RE) resources. However, since the high cost of RE technologies is the main obstacle facing the diffusion of RE power generation, economic and political intervention is inevitable. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE) population and economic growth are the main causes of a sharp increase of energy demand. Two key related factors highlight the need to establish a RE sector: first the UAE has one of the highest carbon footprint in the world and second, the rate of depletion of its main energy generation resource – fossil fuel. In this study, we present a review of overall policies in sixty-one countries, focusing on their efforts to adopt RE resources in the power sector, and on their implementation of fundamental policies implemented. Furthermore, we investigate the applicability to Abu Dhabi UAE of the main RE policies implemented worldwide. As a result of our analysis, we recommend the implementation of a mixed policy of Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) and the Quota system for RE electricity generation in order for the UAE to meet its 7% target by 2020. - Highlights: ► Comprehensive review of renewable energy policy mechanisms. ► Summarizes the renewable energy policy adoptions, targets, and installed capacity in many countries. ► Gives recommendations on renewable energy policy options for Abu Dhabi, an oil rich country.

  19. Adaptive Media Access Control for Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Dragoni, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    ODMAC (On-Demand Media Access Control) is a recently proposed MAC protocol designed to support individual duty cycles for Energy Harvesting — Wireless Sensor Networks (EH-WSNs). Individual duty cycles are vital for EH-WSNs, because they allow nodes to adapt their energy consumption to the ever......-changing environmental energy sources. In this paper, we present an improved and extended version of ODMAC and we analyze it by means of an analytical model that can approximate several performance metrics in an arbitrary network topology. The simulations and the analytical experiments show ODMAC's ability to satisfy...

  20. Anti-corruption Policy in Croatia: Benchmark for EU Accession

    OpenAIRE

    Grubiša, Damir

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author analyses the anti-corruption policy in Croatia as part of a wider awareness-rising process in transition countries. After the collapse of Communism, corruption spread quickly in post-Communist countries as a result of exogenous factors such as the export of corruption by the most developed countries seeking to find new markets, and endogenous factors such as hasty privatization and the creation of new political elites caught in the web of various c...

  1. Renewable energy policy. Into the mainstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Renewable energy today is at a critical stage of development: renewable technologies are maturing, and costs for some technologies are in the competitive range. Beyond the energy they produce, renewable energy technologies offer a variety of other benefits towards the achievement of sustainable development goals. This promise has led to all IEA governments to support their greater development. But, while renewables markets are growing strongly, additional steps must be taken to accelerate the achievement of sustainable, large-scale markets. This report by the IEA's Renewable Energy Working Party outlines those steps, and the benefits of moving renewable energy into the mainstream

  2. An accessibility solution of cloud computing by solar energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Priščáková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a modern innovative technology of solution of a problem with data storage, data processing, company infrastructure building and so on. Many companies worry over the changes by the implementation of this solution because these changes could have a negative impact on the company, or, in the case of establishment of new companies, this worry results from an unfamiliar environment. Data accessibility, integrity and security belong among basic problems of cloud computing. The aim of this paper is to offer and scientifically confirm a proposal of an accessibility solution of cloud by implementing of solar energy as a primary source. Problems with accessibility rise from power failures when data may be stolen or lost. Since cloud is often started from a server, the server dependence on power is strong. Modern conditions offer us a new, more innovative solution regarding the ecological as well as an economical company solution. The Sun as a steady source of energy offers us a possibility to produce necessary energy by a solar technique – solar panels. The connection of a solar panel as a primary source of energy for a server would remove its power dependence as well as possible failures. The power dependence would stay as a secondary source. Such an ecological solution would influence the economical side of company because the energy consumption would be lower. Besides a proposal of an accessibility solution, this paper involves a physical and mathematical solution to a calculation of solar energy showered on the Earth, a calculation of the panel size by cosines method and a simulation of these calculations in MATLAB conditions.

  3. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  4. Energy: another policy is possible in France; Energie: une autre politique est possible en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Since many years the energy policy of some european countries, usually founded on the energy supply, the fossil fuels and the nuclear power, moves particularly under the environmental preoccupations. The examples of the United Kingdom, the Germany and the Belgium are presented and discussed. Scenario are then proposed for the french energy policy. (A.L.B.)

  5. Energy policies of IEA countries. Sweden 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Sweden, including recommendations on future policy developments. Electricity is a focal point of Sweden's energy policy. After a shift in the energy mix to favour electricity in the early 1970's, nuclear and hydro power each make up about half of the electricity supply. Two key events have occurred since then: the 1980 referendum, which calls for the phase-out of all nuclear plants by 2010; the recent restructuring and liberalization of the electricity sector with the creation of a Nordic electricity market. In this context, the report argues the case for making a decision now on the nuclear issue to clarify Sweden's electricity future. Other key issues highlighted in the report include Sweden's use of economic policy instruments such as a carbon tax to achieve energy and environment goals, and the adequacy and effectiveness of government efforts to promote biofuels and energy efficiency. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author). 13 figs., 9 tabs., 4 appends

  6. Australian health policy on access to medical care for refugees and asylum seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Gifford, Sandra M; Bice, Sara J

    2005-01-01

    Since the tightening of Australian policy for protection visa applicants began in the 1990s, access to health care has been increasingly restricted to asylum seekers on a range of different visa types. This paper summarises those legislative changes and discusses their implications for health policy relating to refugees and asylum seekers in Australia. Of particular concern are asylum seekers on Bridging Visas with no work rights and no access to Medicare. The paper examines several key questions: What is the current state of play, in terms of health screening and medical care policies, for asylum seekers and refugees? Relatedly, how has current policy changed from that of the past? How does Australia compare with other countries in relation to health policy for asylum seekers and refugees? These questions are addressed with the aim of providing a clear description of the current situation concerning Australian health policy on access to medical care for asylum seekers and refugees. Issues concerning lack of access to appropriate health care and related services are raised, ethical and practical issues are explored, and current policy gaps are investigated. PMID:16212674

  7. Energy policy under the aspect of international economic interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    A few introductory remarks on the status of and on prospects fo the world energy economy as well as on reasons given for the necessity of a world-wide coordination of energy policy and economic policy are followed by an explanation of the policy led by oil extracting countries and of the endeavour of western industrialized countries to reduce oil imports. Even if the state of utilizing nuclear energy does not yet present a sufficient alternative, the international nuclear energy continues to be directed towards this goal. Seen from an international viewpoint, relieving contributions are to be expected from energy-conservation-actions and from the development of regenerative energy sources. (UA) [de

  8. Renewable energy policy and electricity market reforms in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherni, Judith A.; Kentish, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the potential effectiveness of the renewable energy policy in China and its regulatory Law framework. It frames the option of renewable energy technology within the background of the long-lasting electricity problems that China has faced including serious supply shortages, reliance on coal, and severe environmental contamination. Its dual administrative and ownership system based on state and privately owned industry is discussed together with the market reform measures adopted in the sector. Current renewable energy policy is analysed, and the scope of the 2005 Renewable Energy Promotion Law is investigated. This is conducted within the context of the electricity sector reform that China adopted, and its effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy. This study draws upon primary information collected from interviews with stakeholders on the policy adequacy, and identifies three main types of shortcomings that have interfered with a more successful expansion of renewable energy in China

  9. The dynamics of energy policy in Lebanon when research, politics, and policy fail to intersect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodr, Hiba; Uherova Hasbani, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an exploratory study on energy policymaking in Lebanon aiming at investigating the contributing factors to the absence of evidence-informed policy by analyzing the relation between energy-related research and policy. It uses a qualitative approach in which two complementary types of data sources are employed. Data was mainly obtained from in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with 40 key stakeholders. The data was further enhanced by an extensive review of related documents available in the public domain as well as research-related activities. Data were analyzed using iterative thematic content analysis which findings served to illustrate the theoretical perspectives in the relevant prevailing literature on linking policy and research. This paper suggests that the politicization of energy policy, the nature of the generated evidence and the lack of communication of evidence among policy actors as well as the weak and non-institutionalized links between researchers and policymakers have posed as an obstacle to an effective, efficient and evidence-based policy. There is a dearth of academic studies that have investigated this issue from a policy perspective. The analysis lays the foundation for much needed future studies on the country's energy policy by identifying the participants, mapping out the process and providing policy recommendations. - Highlights: • We study energy policymaking in Lebanon. • We analyze the relation between research and policy. • We identify contributing factors to the absence of evidence-informed policy. • The politicization of policy and nature of research have posed as obstacles. • Evidence of non-institutionalized links between researchers and policymakers

  10. Energy Conservation Guidebook : to be Used in Conjunction with the Energy Conservation Policies October 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    This guidebook is an instrument for implementing BPA`s Energy Conservation Policies established through the concensus of the four Area Office Managers and the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Energy Resources. As technical support for, and elaboration of, the Energy Conservation Policies, the Guidebook follows the format of the Policies themselves. The Guidebook tackles each section of the Policies in order, again assigning roles and responsibilities where appropriate, enlarging on policy issues and, where appropriate, outlining data considerations. The sections in order are: conservation load reduction, cost-effectiveness limits, BA management targets, consumer contributions, utility contribution, program verification, and program evaluation.

  11. Public opinion and environmental policy output: a cross-national analysis of energy policies in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brilé; Böhmelt, Tobias; Ward, Hugh

    2017-11-01

    This article studies how public opinion is associated with the introduction of renewable energy policies in Europe. While research increasingly seeks to model the link between public opinion and environmental policies, the empirical evidence is largely based on a single case: the US. This limits the generalizability of findings and we argue accordingly for a systematic, quantitative study of how public opinion drives environmental policies in another context. Theoretically, we combine arguments behind the political survival of democratic leaders with electoral success and environmental politics. Ultimately, we suggest that office-seeking leaders introduce policies that seem favorable to the domestic audience; if the public prefers environmental protection, the government introduces such policies in turn. The main contribution of this research is the cross-country empirical analysis, where we combine data on the public’s environmental attitudes and renewable energy policy outputs in a European context between 1974 and 2015. We show that as public opinion shifts towards prioritizing the environment, there is a significant and positive effect on the rate of renewable energy policy outputs by governments in Europe. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic, quantitative study of public opinion and environmental policies across a large set of countries, and we demonstrate that the mechanisms behind the introduction of renewable energy policies follow major trends across European states.

  12. Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Yamashita, Noriaki; Tan, Vincent; Irie, Risa; Van Staden, Maryke; Zimmermann, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This report complements the REN21 Renewables Global Status Report by providing more detailed information at the city and local levels about policies and activities to promote renewable energy. It is intended to facilitate dialogue and illuminate pathways for future policies and actions at the local level. This 'working draft' version is intended to solicit comments and additional information

  13. Energy efficiency policies in China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappoz, Loic; Laponche, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    Most papers dealing with energy efficiency policies focus on the policies and measures implemented in OECD countries and this may lead one to think that only the 'rich' countries are developing efforts in this field. International experience shows that emerging countries and even poor developing countries understand that energy efficiency is a prerequisite for their economic and environmentally friendly development. Among these countries, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam have implemented particularly interesting policies, some of which were launched several decades ago. Moreover the Agence Francaise de developpement (AFD) has active cooperation programs in these five countries. This study describes the current situation and recent trends in final energy demand in these countries as well as the policies and measures they are implementing in the field of end-use energy efficiency. (authors)

  14. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  15. Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 significantly affected federal and state underground storage tank programs, required major changes to the programs, and is aimed at reducing underground storage tank releases to our environment.

  16. Actual problems in the energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1979-01-01

    The opening section deals with the oil problem and mentions the small, but necessary part which Switzerland can play. Obviously, larger countries can play a more important part. The next section covers the global conception of energy. In this Switzerland must become less dependent on oil and develop its hydraulic and wood resources as well as nuclear energy, heat pumps etc. Energy taxes may be necessary. Some market restraints are mentioned and discussed. A section then follows on nuclear energy and alternatives such as wind and biogas. Normal thermal power stations are said to be very wasteful of potential heat energy. Some risks are thought to be necessary, following the increased use of nuclear energy. (G.V.D.)

  17. Substitute energy resource policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umehara, Katsuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Japan depends 88% of energy resources and 99.8% of petroleum on imports. The solution of energy problems is now made internationally. As the means for Japan, there are the substitution of other resources for petroleum and its promotion. However, this involves the considerable funds for the development and utilization, which must be borne by the people in the form of tax. For governmental financing, a special account must be set up for the particular purpose. In the research and development of new energy resources, new institution is required. The following matters are described: petroleum shortage coming even in 1980s, the international need of substitute energy development, the need for establishing measures for substitute energy resources, acquisition of the funds, special-account governmental financing, and an institute of new energy development. (author)

  18. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described

  19. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  20. Vietnam's energy sector: A review of current energy policies and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien Minh Do; Sharma, Deepak

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of market-oriented economy in 1986, Vietnam has made noticeable socio-economic progress. In this progress, the energy sector has played a vital role. This role is likely to deepen in the years to come as Vietnam strives to achieve even higher levels in economic progress. Such deepening in the role of energy, this paper argues, will heighten concerns about the security of energy supply, and economic, environmental, social and political consequences. In order to address these issues, Vietnam has over the last decade, developed a suite of energy policies. A deeper review of these policies suggests that they are typified by economic-growth orientation, exclusive focus on a single-sector or single issue, and largely neglect the significance of cross-sectoral and cross-thematic issues arising from the interdependencies between energy, economy, and the polity at large. The existing energy policy settings are, therefore, unlikely to be able to provide a satisfactory redress to the challenges noted above. This paper provides an overview of the current energy policies with a view to identify areas where further policy effort is needed in order to facilitate a sustainable development of the Vietnamese energy sector. - Highlights: → Identifying challenges faced by the Vietnamese energy sector. → Analyzing limitations of the existing energy policy settings (policies, strategies and institutions) in addressing these challenges. → Developing recommendations on improving the existing energy policy settings to provide a satisfactory redress for the challenges noted above.

  1. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Poland [Polish version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Poland has made commendable efforts to develop a solid energy policy framework over the last years. As energy security is a high policy priority, the country is enhancing gas supply security by building an LNG terminal, expanding underground storage capacity and increasing domestic gas production. Polish plans for developing electricity and gas cross-border links will also contribute to regional security of supply. In addition, the government has announced an ambitious nuclear programme by 2030, envisaging the first unit to enter operation by 2022. Other achievements include energy intensity improvements, an increased share of renewables and a stronger focus on energy research and development (R&D). Despite these positive developments, there is room for improving Poland’s energy strategy. First, a more integrated energy and climate policy is needed to put Poland firmly on a low-carbon path while enhancing energy security. Second, energy policy could put more emphasis on promoting competition to make the energy markets more efficient. Decarbonising Poland’s power sector will be a particularly significant challenge requiring huge investments. Coal accounts for 55% of Polish primary energy supply and 92% of electricity generation, raising significant climate change and environmental challenges. To this end, Poland’s efforts to improve energy efficiency and to diversify the country’s energy mix are praiseworthy and should be pursued. The government’s attention to R&D on clean coal technologies, including carbon capture and storage (CCS) is also encouraging. The government could put more focus on the positive role that gas can play in decarbonising the electricity mix, especially if Poland’s potential resources of unconventional gas are confirmed. To tap these resources, it will be vital to put the necessary legal and regulatory framework in place. This in-depth review analyses the energy challenges facing Poland and provides sectoral critiques and

  2. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  3. Consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Ester, P.; Mindell, C.; Schopman, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overview of consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands and analyses them in terms of program objectives, conservation strategies, program instruments, context elements, and impacts on energy consumption, on consumers' lifestyles and on the environment. Part 1 briefly outlines the energy situation in the Netherlands. Diversification of energy sources and conservation of energy use are the main themes of Dutch energy policy. Controversial issues are the export volume of natural gas and the acceptability of nuclear energy. Part 2 describes and evaluates a number of consumer energy conservation programs. A broad range of programs is presented, including governmental programs (mass media compaigns, the national insulation program), initiatives from consumer organizations and environmental groups, as well as projects on the community level. Part 3 summarizes the main findings and suggests some policy recommendations. The climate of opinion in the Netherlands appears to be quite favorable towards energy conservation. The commitment to conserve, however, is not very strong. Given the broad variety of conservation programs the necessity of coordination is emphasized. As consumers tend to be weakly represented in the program agencies, it is recommended to extend or introduce their participation. Particular attention is given to the lack of evaluation studies. Usually, program impacts are unknown. The desirability of utilizing community level indicators in the assessment of energy conservation policy is underlined. (orig.)

  4. Indian offshore wind energy policy - lessons from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, S.; Dhingra, T. [Univ. of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun (India)

    2012-07-01

    Indian Economy is growing at 8% for the past few years and is expected to continue this momentum into the foreseeable future. To sustain this growth, power sector needs to build additional generation capacity at an unprecedented pace. However, continued dependence on fossil fuels (especially Coal and Oil) to power the growth of electricity generation capacity, is hardly sustainable in the long run. The reasons are well known - Environmental concerns, depleting fossil fuel resources, excessive dependency on Oil imports - that it hardly merits repetition. Renewable Energy source forms a miniscule portion (25 GW, {approx} 12%) of India's overall Energy consumption today (202 GW). The share of wind energy (17 GW) is 67% of the total renewable energy basket. But the contribution from offshore wind farms is non-existent, as all the wind energy generated in India is only through onshore Wind farms. India needs a policy framework to encourage the development of offshore wind farms. Several European countries, most notably the UK, Germany and Denmark, have effective offshore wind energy policies that have helped them to accelerate the growth of their offshore wind energy sector. This paper does an exhaustive study to identify the building blocks of a successful offshore wind energy policy initiative adopted by selected European countries, which can be leveraged by India to articulate its own offshore wind energy policy. This paper also suggests a model to predict the log-odds of growth of offshore wind energy sector in India. (Author)

  5. Fusion: A necessary component of US energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correll, D.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    US energy policy must ensure that its security, its economy, or its world leadership in technology development are not compromised by failure to meet the nation's electrical energy needs. Increased concerns over the greenhouse effect from fossil-fuel combustion mean that US energy policy must consider how electrical energy dependence on oil and coal can be lessened by conservation, renewable energy sources, and advanced energy options (nuclear fission, solar energy, and thermonuclear fusion). In determining how US energy policy is to respond to these issues, it will be necessary to consider what role each of the three advanced energy options might play, and to determine how these options can complement one another. This paper reviews and comments on the principal US studies and legislation that have addressed fusion since 1980, and then suggests a research, development, and demonstration program that is consistent with the conclusions of those prior authorities and that will allow us to determine how fusion technology can fit into a US energy policy that takes a balanced, long term view of US needs. 17 refs

  6. Assessing of energy policies based on Turkish agriculture:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Cengiz; Nisa Mencet, M.; Ozkan, Burhan

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the current energy status of Turkey and the effects of national energy policies on Turkish agricultural support policies are discussed for both current and future requirements. Turkey is an energy-importing country producing 30 mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) energy but consuming 80 mtoe. The energy import ratio of Turkey is 65-70% and the majority of this import is based on petroleum and natural gas. Furthermore, while world energy demand increases by 1.8% annually, Turkey's energy demand increases by about 8%. Although energy consumption in agriculture is much lower than the other sectors in Turkey, energy use as both input and output of agricultural sector is a very important issue due to its large agricultural potential and rural area. Total agricultural land area is 27.8 million hectares and about 66.5% of this area is devoted for cereal production. On the other hand, Turkey has over 4 million agricultural farm holdings of which 70-75% is engaged in cereal production. Machinery expenses, mainly diesel, constitute 30-50% of total variable expenses in cereal production costs. It is observed that energy policies pursued in agriculture have been directly affected by diesel prices in Turkey. Therefore, support policy tools for using diesel and electricity in agriculture are being pursued by the Turkish government

  7. Who formulates renewable-energy policy? A Swedish example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uba, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    A broad participation by stakeholders and an extensive reliance on expert advice are often seen as preconditions for a legitimate and successfully implemented renewable energy policy. However, we have lacked systematic data for testing this argument. This article's contribution is to examine the actors who take part in the making of Swedish energy policy with the help of data on the composition of various committees of inquiry over the last twenty years (1988-2009). Swedish renewable energy policy is often characterised with words like 'pioneering' and 'forerunner', suggesting that the policy-making process in this area engages many different experts and stakeholders. Our data give only some support to this argument. Results point to a noteworthy predominance of politicians, civil servants, and representatives of state agencies within the policy-process. Producers of uranium and fossils based energy have been engaged more often than producers of renewable energy. Experts have played a prominent role, but this is mostly due to the participation of expert bureaucrats rather than of scientists. The study suggests that a better understanding of the making of energy policy, both in Sweden and elsewhere, requires greater attention to the networks and role of various state employees.

  8. Territory and energy: policies, scales and tools for mobilization, knowledge and local action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanard, Camille

    2011-01-01

    The thesis is about French local authorities' energy policies, and more particularly about regional policies. In a context of reassessment of fossil fuel-based energy systems, local authorities have a key role to play. Indeed, energy systems are complex and require to act locally, in order to keep fair access for consumers and to adapt supply to needs and uses. In the same way, environmental constraints and sustainable exploitation of local resources involve to have a good knowledge of territory and of local energy potential. But, local authorities do not know much about boundaries and about components of territorial energy systems. The main purpose of the thesis is to determine structure and behaviour of these energy systems in order to identify public policy incentive levers at local scale. The first part of the thesis deals with the links between land uses, actors' behaviours, political choices and energy consumptions. Here, we point out the specific interest of geography and territorial approach to treat energy issue, both for land planning and for actors' mobilization. In the second part, we identify policy instruments which local authorities should dispose and actions they should implement in order to develop energy saving and renewables. Then, the third part is more specific to regional level. The analysis of two French planning instruments (Regional Plans for Climate, Air and Energy and Regional Energy Observatories), shows the interest of this scale which could, with its position between national and local levels, contribute to improve knowledge of territories, to coordinate local actions and to develop energy policies adapted to local specificities [fr

  9. Energy policies of IEA countries - Switzerland. 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-26

    Switzerland is entering decisive times in its energy policy. In 2008, the country should see remarkable advance in electricity market reform. Support for renewable electricity is set to increase massively. Decisions on post-Kyoto targets are getting closer, and a CO{sub 2} tax will be introduced for heating and process fuels. Plus, new measures to increase energy efficiency and the broader use of renewable energy are high on the political agenda. Since the last in-depth review in 2003, Switzerland has made progress in most areas of energy policy. Still, more work remains to be done. Maintaining sufficient electricity capacity implies even stronger policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. At the same time, the country will also need to decide which sources to use for large-scale power supply. High dependency on oil can become a burden in a post-Kyoto world. In particular, Switzerland's climate policy should focus more on reducing emissions from private car use, the largest and fastest-growing emitter. Current measures have not proven effective, and the costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions are being distorted across sectors. Switzerland's world-class energy R and D is expected to more than halve energy needs per capita by the second half of this century. This ambitious goal needs to be supported by consistent policies on energy efficiency and climate change. This book takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Switzerland and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future.

  10. Energy policies of IEA countries: Germany 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The IEA report takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Germany, and through comparisons with good examples in other IEA countries, provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future. Few countries can have as great an impact on energy policy in Europe as Germany. Its large size and strategic location make it a critical component of the region's energy markets - as a result, sound energy policies and strong energy market design are a necessity. In these respects, Germany continues to make notable progress. The country has continued to reform its electricity and natural gas markets, set a timetable to phase out coal subsidies, is meeting key climate and environmental targets and is bringing energy, efficiency and environment to the top of the world agenda with its presidencies of both the G8 and European Union. The International Energy Agency (IEA) praises these efforts. Nevertheless, work remains to be done to further improve German energy policies and markets. The planned phase-out of nuclear power over the coming years would have major impacts on the country's energy mix, raising concerns about energy security, economic efficiency and environmental sustainability for the country and for Europe as a whole. Furthermore, though progress has been made, more needs to be done to set a truly level playing field for competition to develop in gas and electricity markets, which means effective unbundling of transport activities and a strongly empowered regulatory authority. Finally, the country's environmental policies, though helping meet ambitious goals, are expensive - and sometimes various policies work at cross-purposes. 22 figs., 27 tabs., 4 apps.

  11. Energy policy - way out and wrong way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The way out, i.e. the right solution of the energy supply problem, is solar energy. The wrong way are high-temperature reactors and nuclear fusion. Arguments are put forward that nuclear fusion, considered an alternative to the harmful nuclear fission even by some nuclear opponents, is in fact equally harmful. (qui)

  12. 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations. 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA recommends that G8 leaders adopt and urgently implement this package of measures to significantly enhance energy efficiency. This package was developed under the Gleneagles G8 Plan of Action, which mandates the pursuit of a clean, clever and competitive energy future.

  13. Energy resources in foreign policy: a theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Česnakas, Giedrius

    2010-01-01

    This article examines which theory of international relations is best suited for the analysis of energy resources in international relations. The article suggests that realism paradigm theories might provide a useful starting point from a descriptive method in the studies of energy resources in foreign policy. The idealism paradigm downplays the strategic importance of energy resources, and suggests simplified view that statesmen are economically rational actors. Realism suggests that energy ...

  14. Energy efficiency policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector

  15. Energy efficient policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector. (author)

  16. Energy saving by firms. Decision-making, barriers and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2001-01-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically, whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors

  17. Analyzing policy support instruments and regulatory risk factors for wind energy deployment-A developers' perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, Sonja; Praessler, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A transition to a renewable energy system is high on the policy agenda in many countries. A promising energy source for a low-carbon energy future is wind. Policy-makers can attract wind energy development by providing attractive policy frameworks. This paper argues that apart from the level of financial support, both the risks stemming from the regulatory environment (legal security, administrative process and grid access) and the ability to finance projects play a critical role in determining the attractiveness of the development environment. It sheds light on how project developers trade off these different aspects and to what extent the attractiveness of a certain policy framework increases with the introduction of specific measures. Conjoint analysis is employed to provide empirical evidence on the preference of wind energy developers in the EU and the US. The analysis shows that developers' preferences are very similar across the studied regions and for different types of developers. Which policy measures could be most valuable depends on the specific existing environment. In some southeastern European countries, a reduction of administrative process duration may yield the highest utility gains, whereas, in the US, improvements in grid access regulation and an increase in remuneration levels may be more effective. - Highlights: → Paper suggests conjoint analysis as scenario tool for estimating potential effects of specific policy measures. → It provides a quantitative, empirical dataset of 119 onshore wind energy developers' preferences. → Results suggest that the aspects 'Legal security' and 'Remuneration' are important attributes. → Cluster analyses yields slightly different preferences for developers from EU and US.

  18. Sustainable energy policy in Honduras. Diagnosis and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Wilfredo C.; Ojeda, Osvaldo A.; Flores, Marco A.; Rivas, Francisco R.

    2011-01-01

    In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State of Honduras has taken the lead for the development of a long-term sustainable energy policy. This energy policy must be able to develop various energy sources and guide both, the government and the private sector, to the planning and development of alternative energy sources and sustainable growth of the Honduran economy. In this paper, the various energy diagnoses and the potential for changing the Honduran energy mix are presented, as well as the investment required for sustainable management of the energy sector. Furthermore, the objectives of the energy policy and plan up to the year 2030 are presented, outlining the investment possibilities for the energy sector development, showing their costs and timeframes. (author)

  19. Is blending of energy and climate policy instruments always desirable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Flamos, A.; Grafakos, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an application of the Energy and Climate Policy Interactions (ECPI) decision support tool for the qualitative ex-ante assessment of ten (10) combinations of energy and climate policy instruments addressing energy end users. This tool consists of four (4) methodological steps, where policymakers set preferences that determine the outcome of policy instruments interactions. Initially, interacting policy instruments are broken down in into their design characteristics, referring to parameters that describe functions of each instrument. Policymakers can express in a merit order the significance they attribute to these characteristics when designing a policy instrument. Evaluation criteria for assessing these instruments individually are used and policymakers can assign weights on them expressing their preferences. An overall assessment of combined policy instruments based on these steps have illustrated policy interactions added value per criterion and overall. The user of the tool takes useful insights as regards the most preferable combinations of policy instruments, the less preferable ones and those who are conflicting.

  20. Papers of the Public Policy Forum conference : Fueling our future : strategic energy policy opportunities for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Public Policy Forum is a unique organization in Canada which promotes excellence in public policy development due to its firm belief that high quality government is fundamental in the competitive global economy. This conference provided a forum to discuss recent developments in the oil markets and energy policies from a public policy perspective. Trends in global energy supply and demand were also reviewed with emphasis on issues such as industry consolidation, regulatory reform and oil pricing. The presentations examined the world energy outlook in terms of fossil fuel consumption, demand growth in developing countries, energy security, and how to reduce greenhouse gases for sustainable development. This conference featured 20 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Energy poverty policies in the EU: A critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Petrova, Saska; Sarlamanov, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Once confined to the UK context – where it was struggling to receive political recognition for years – the concept of energy (or fuel) poverty is slowly entering the EU's agenda, where it has crept into a number of regulatory documents and policy proposals. Using evidence gathered from an international workshop and semi-structured interviews with decision-makers, experts and advocacy activists in Brussels and Sofia, this paper explores the adoption of policies aimed at addressing energy poverty within (i) the organisational context of the EU; and (ii) national state institutions in Bulgaria – a member state facing considerable problems at the energy affordability – social inequality nexus. While the former are largely nascent and poorly co-ordinated, the latter have already been implemented de jure to a significant extent. However, many unresolved issues surrounding their de facto implementation remain. At the same time, national policy makers remain largely unaware of the existence of direct energy poverty related initiatives at the EU level. - Highlights: ► This paper explores the adoption of energy poverty policies within the EU and Bulgaria. ► We establish the existence of a range of nascent efforts to address the issue at EU level. ► Bulgaria has been good at implementing EU energy poverty relevant directives. ► However, policy makers speak a different language when it comes to direct energy poverty action.

  2. Energy sector methane recovery and use: the importance of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Kerr; Michelle Hershman

    2009-08-15

    To raise awareness about appropriate policy options to advance methane recovery and use in the energy sector, the IEA has conducted a series of analyses and studies over the past few years. This report continues IEA efforts by providing policy makers with examples and best practices in methane mitigation policy design and implementation. This report offers an overview of four types of methane mitigation projects that have the strongest links to the energy sector: oil and gas methane recovery and reduction of leaks and losses; coal mine methane; landfill methane; and manure methane recovery and use. It identifies successful policies that have been used to advance these important projects. This information is intended to guide policy makers as they search for low-cost, near-term solutions to climate change. 38 refs., 10 figs., 1 app.

  3. Energy policies for low carbon sustainable transport in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.R.; Dhar, Subash

    2015-01-01

    equivalent to 2 °C stabilization. Accounting for heterogeneity of national transport systems, these papers use diverse methods, frameworks and models to assess the response of the transport system to environmental policy, such as a carbon tax, as well as to a cluster of policies aimed at diverse development......Transformation of Asia's transport sector has vital implications for climate change, sustainable development and energy indicators. Papers in this special issue show how transport transitions in Asia may play out in different socio-economic and policy scenarios, including a low carbon scenario...... measures. Authors therefore advocate policies that target multiple dividends vis-à-vis carbon mitigation, energy security and local air quality. Whereas four papers focus on emissions mitigation policies, one paper examines challenges to adapt fast growing transport infrastructures to future climate change...

  4. Renewable Energy Innovation Policy. Success Criteria and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy technology (RET) innovation involves new, improved processes, as well as strategies to accelerate RET development, ranging from breakthroughs with basic technology inventions and improved research, development and deployment (RDD) systems, to improved market mechanisms and commercialisation. In order to achieve RET innovation, a country needs to put in place the right policy approaches, frameworks, governance and policy instruments. This working paper was compiled to assist countries with policy development in order to strengthen renewable energy innovation, primarily through a discussion of design criteria for innovation policy frameworks. The report identifies broad success criteria for innovation policy in the sector and suggests strategic policy approaches to advance RET innovation in the context of constrained options, competition for resources, and national economic development goals. For renewable energy innovation policy regimes to be succeed, they must satisfy two broad criteria: (a) promotion of sustained multi-stakeholder engagement around an achievable, shared vision; and (b) appropriate positioning of a country or region to anticipate and benefit from renewable energy technology flows.

  5. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  6. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  7. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  8. Energy policies of IEA countries 2003. 2003 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This volume contains an analysis of developments in energy policies in the Member countries of the International Energy Agency. It features an overview of major trends in the energy markets, notably the renewed interest in energy security on the part of policy-makers. The study describes how, during the period before and during the war in Iraq, the IEA successfully worked to secure oil supply. 2003 was also a year when growing gas demand and rising import dependency in most IEA Member countries obliged energy policy makers to look at the longer term issue of security of gas supply. In addition to these external developments, an internal dimension of energy security arose in the context of electricity and gas market reform. The book also describes the efforts by countries having ratified the Kyoto Protocol to implement the agreements and the trend of energy R and D policies, as well as developments in energy security and energy market reform in major non-OECD countries. It includes: summaries of the in-depth reviews of Austria, Hungary, Italy, Ireland, Japan and Switzerland conducted from October 2002 to June 2003. The full reviews are published separately

  9. A review of China`s energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Duan, N. [Environment Management Institute, Beijing (China); Zhijie, H. [Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  10. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka [University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations. (author)

  11. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations

  12. How to implement and organize the universal access to energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, S.; Clerc, M.

    2007-07-01

    In a world where energy is going to become a rare and strategic commodity for developed countries, it is becoming extremely important to implement and organise universal access to energy for those populations of developing countries who lack it. This is a fundamental issue if we want to avoid the large migrations, tensions and conflicts that will most definitely occur in a world where some have everything and others nothing. In the field of access to energy, as in many others relating to development, financial problems could be reduced, for example by publi-private partnership. In fact, the amounts spent on aid and assisting with the conesquences of a lack of energy are much greater than the amounts necessary to take energy to those without it. This is a political problem, one of organisation and governance at an international level. As representatives of society, and having observed in the field - in the very midst of these populations - the sometimes disastrous consequences of decisions taken without these factors, we have drawn up this plan of action and these proposals in which companies have a key role to play. (auth)

  13. Energy policy. Energiepolitik. Ein deutsch-lateinamerikanischer Dialog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakainski, M.

    1981-01-01

    The present publication is a documentation of the international technical meeting 'Energy Supply for Latin America: State-of-affairs, Problems and Possible Solutions in Ecuador', a joint conference by the Konrad Adenauer-Stiftung and the Instituto Nacional de Energia of Ecuador held at Quito in May 1980. It was the aim of this meeting to expand and to intensify the German-Latin American dialog in the field of energy supply by the help of specific analyses concerning the two countries. The German energy policy within the system of social economy was to be introduced beyond the field of energy industry and technology in order to expand the basis of discussion for future decisions on energy policy in Ecuador. The technical meeting is part of a supporting programme of the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. It aims at supporting the young government of Ecuador which for the first time had been elected democratically in formulating and developing a rational energy policy. The introductory lectures give a survey of the problems and possible solutions of the world energy supply and determine the position of energy policy in Latin America, in Ecuador and the F.R. of Germany, the latter emphasizing structural policy in the energy sector. An essential problem for Ecuador is the insufficient information basis for decisions in the field of energy. The contributions of part two are to meet this deficiency without being able to sufficiently cope with all fields within the framework of the given possibilities. Renewable energy sources have different chances of utilization in Ecuador. They are considered in part three of the book and assessed from the technical and economical print of view. Finally, selected technologies for energy utilization, taking into account the topical issues of Ecuador, are presented.

  14. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslund, A. [Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  15. Report of the written responses on National Energy Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    A Public Notice appeared in the March 2, 1977 edition of The Federal Register inviting the American people to comment on and make recommendations for the President's National Energy Policy. The Notice, signed by James R. Schlesinger, sought comment on eight broad areas of policy; but it also encouraged citizens to address the issues that most concerned them and to do so in their own style. The eight broad areas of energy policy are: conservation, imported energy, supply development, environment, Federal regulation, intergovernmental relations, citizen participation, and hardships. By April 1, 27,898 letters, telegrams, packages, mailgrams, and position papers had been received, 18,721 of these from the general public. Every letter was carefully read and reviewed. The policy issues mentioned in the Public Notice are listed with tables and brief descriptions of the responses. The tables also indicate consensus or the lack of it. (ERA citation 04:036682)

  16. Renewable: what public policies for which energies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    The French and european legislative system put in place is an advance for the renewable energy source development. A planning on several years for investments in power generation, a development for offshore wind power and the simplification of administrative procedures for wind power plant operation are so many ways to improve the renewable energy sources development. For the moment, only wind power seems prioritized but it is not sure it can be developed as much as it has been anticipated. (N.C.)

  17. Energy policy - key of the future of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, E.

    1979-01-01

    Following some introductory, general remarks on the demand for energy and the expected increase in energy requirements up to the year 2000, the book concentrates on the discussion of the political aspects of energy policy within the framework of the European Communities. Emphasis is placed on the necessity to improve the cooperation between the member states of the European Community in order to achieve an optimum utilization of the energy sources available within the Community, and to further improve methods and means of energy conservation and energy storage as well as the methods of managing crises and promoting research work in the field of power generation. The final discussions are devoted to the guidelines set by the socialists' parliamentary group within the European Parliament with regard to energy policy. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 MKO [de

  18. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro/MWh up to over 100 Euro/MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro/MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro/MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved. (author)

  19. Evaluating investments in renewable energy under policy risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatzert, Nadine; Vogl, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    The considerable amount of required infrastructure and renewable energy investments expected in the forthcoming years also implies an increasingly relevant contribution of private and institutional investors. In this context, especially regulatory and policy risks have been shown to play a major role for investors when evaluating investments in renewable energy and should thus also be taken into account in risk assessment and when deriving risk-return profiles. In this paper, we provide a stochastic model framework to quantify policy risks associated with renewable energy investments (e.g. a retrospective reduction of a feed-in tariff), thereby also taking into account energy price risk, resource risk, and inflation risk. The model is illustrated by means of simulations and scenario analyses, and it makes use of expert estimates and fuzzy set theory for quantifying policy risks. Our numerical results for a portfolio of onshore wind farms in Germany and France show that policy risk can strongly impact risk-return profiles, and that cross-country diversification effects can considerably decrease the overall risk for investors. - Highlights: •Quantification of policy risks associated with renewable energy investments. •Results emphasize that policy risk has a major impact on risk and return. •Study of the cross-country diversification potential. •Cross-country diversification can considerably decrease the risk for an investor.

  20. Energy policy and trend in European Union (EU); Europe rengo (EU) no energy seisaku, doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezawa, S. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the legal and system framework of energy policy in EU. It also summarizes the previous progress for the establishment of a single energy market. Organization, which deals with energy policy within EU, consists of Commission, Council of Ministers and European Parliament. The policy decision method in EU is classified into six ways due to the proposal and decision of the Commission and Council of Ministers. The establishment of a single market for energy products and services is included in a concept of so-called common market. Coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear energy are included in the energy market. The purpose of establishment of a single energy market is to promote a free and fair competition. The target of Competition Policy Commission in the energy division is to establish the enhanced competition, stable supply and maintenance of public services, compatibly. Furthermore, the current status of private management and reconstruction in EU is described.