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Sample records for ene alas suliko

  1. Interviewer behaviour during oral proficiency interviews : a gender perspective / Edith Reemann, Ene Alas, Suliko Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reemann, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Analüüsitakse intervjueerija käitumise soolisi iseärasusi inglise keele riigieksami suulise keelepädevustesti läbiviimisel, kas on olemas ühele või teisele sugupoolele omaseid käitumismalle ning kas need võiksid mõjutada intervjueeritavat oma oskuste demonstreerimisel

  2. Developing interviewer proficiency : a self-perception survey / Riin Kont-Kontson, Ene Alas, Suliko Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kont-Kontson, Riin

    2013-01-01

    Inglise keele õpetajate hulgas läbi viidud uurimusest, mis näitas, et intervjueerijate arusaam oma kutsestandardist varieerub märkimisväärselt. Probleemide lahendamiseks esitatakse mitmeid koolitusstrateegiaid

  3. Prantsuse keele staatus, roll ja imidž Eestis / Suliko Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiv, Suliko

    2000-01-01

    20. okt. 2000 külastas Tallinna Pedagoogikaülikooli germaani-romaani filoloogia osakonda Prantsuse Kultuurikeskuse prantsuse keele atašee Laurent Pochat. Koos TPÜ prantsuse keele õpetaja Cecile Elizieri ja Suliko Liiviga arutati 2001.a. septembris toimuvat konverentsi "Prantsuse keele staatus, roll ja imidž Eestis"

  4. Ene Ammer / Ene Ammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammer, Ene

    1998-01-01

    ARS-i disainer Ene Ammer õppimisest Tartu kunstikoolis, ERKI-s. Esimestest töödest ARS-is, esimestest näitusekujundustest (elektroonika-alane autorong rändnäitus Moskva tellimisel), personaalnäituste ja messide kujundustest, suurnäituste komplekskujundusest, Olümpianäitusest, viimastest suurnäitustest pikemalt 1988. a. korraldatud Baltikumi ühisnäitusest "Kõik laste heaks" kujundusest. Sisearhitekt Mait Summatavet Ene Ammerist

  5. Ene Ergma / Ene Ergma ; interv. Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ergma, Ene, 1944-

    2007-01-01

    Eesti Vabariigi Riigikogu esimees 2003-2006 Ene Ergma oma lapsepõlvest ja elukutsevalikust, Moskva aastaist, isiksustest teaduses ja poliitikas, poliitilise karjääri algusest ja erakonna valikust, naistest poliitikas

  6. Žene Frankopanke

    OpenAIRE

    Šercer, Marija

    2011-01-01

    Izabravši četrnaest žena koje su rođene kao Frankopanke, ili su udajom dospjele u obitelj Frankopan autorica je ukazala na uvjete u kojima su se ženska djeca udavala. Njihova dob od devet ili dvanaest godina, nedovoljno poznavanje budućega supruga, nepoznavanje sredine u koju su ih udavali, možebitno nepoznavanje jezika, otežavali su život toj nezreloj djeci. Temeljna zadaća ženskoga djeteta bila je rađanje djece i osiguravanje potomstva. Česti porodi su nerijetko dovodili do prerane smrti. T...

  7. Aasta tekstiilikunstnikuks valiti Ene Pars

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Tekstiilikunstnike Liit valis aasta tekstiilikunstnikuks Ene Parsi. Aasta teo 2010 preemia vääriliseks tunnistati Kadri Viires. Preemiakandidaatide näitus avatakse 18. märtsil Tallinnas Hop galeriis

  8. Microbial synthesis of alka(enes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua eWang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Alka(enes are the predominant constituents of gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels. They can be produced naturally by a wide range of microorganisms. Bio- alka(enes can be used as drop-in biofuels. To date, five microbial pathways that convert free fatty acids or fatty acid derivatives into alka(enes have been identified or reconstituted. The discoveries open a door to achieve microbial production of alka(enes with high efficiency. The modules derived from these alka(ene biosynthetic pathways can be assembled as biological parts and synthetic biology strategies can be employed to optimize the metabolic pathways and improve alka(ene production.

  9. A New Era for ALA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Lifer, Evan

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of Elizabeth Martinez, executive director of the American Library Association (ALA). Highlights include her leadership role, historical background of the executive director position, the director's relationship with the executive board, changes in ALA's internal structure, ALA's governing structure, Martinez's role as change…

  10. Ene Sepp esitles esikteost "Medaljon" / Heli Talinurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talinurm, Heli

    2009-01-01

    Ene Sepp esitles 19. veebruaril Rapla Keskraamatukogus oma raamatut, mis pälvis kolmanda koha Eesti Lastekirjanduse Teabekeskuse ja kirjastuse Tänapäev 2008. aasta noorsooromaani võistlusel. Ly Ehini mõtteid, mida Ene Sepa raamat temas tekitas

  11. Delta-ALA urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be used to help diagnose a condition called porphyria . Normal Results Normal value range for adults is ... of urinary delta-ALA may indicate: Lead poisoning Porphyria (several types) A decreased level may occur with ...

  12. Meie maa - Rehemaa / Terje Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Terje

    2005-01-01

    Aiakujundaja Toomas Türk ning käsitööõpetaja ja aiakujundaja Terje Alas on kolinud oma perega elama Raplamaale Rehemaa tallu ja vahendavad vana talu elluäratamist oma uueks koduks. Talukoha valikust, hoonetest, aiast ja esimestest sammudest aia uuendamisel. 7 ill

  13. Fitopreparati za žene u menopauzi

    OpenAIRE

    Peteljak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Menopauza predstavlja kraj fizioloških menstrualnih krvarenja, odnosno kraj reproduktivne dobi žene. Očituje se brojnim vazomotornim smetnjama i psihičkim promjenama. U želji da ublaže simptome menopauze žene posežu za hormonskom nadomjesnom terapijom, a u zadnje vrijeme i brojnim biljnim pripravcima. Ovaj rad daje pregled biljnih vrsta za koje se smatra da bi mogle poslužiti kao alternativa estrogenima za olakšanje simptoma menopauze. Znanstvena istraživanja su pokazala da je biljna vrsta Ci...

  14. preparation of bicyclic lactones using lewis acids catalyzed ene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    INTRODUCTION. The synthesis of the cis-fused bicyclic lactones relies extensively on the Lewis acid catalysed carbonyl-ene reaction which has been widely used to access carbocycles. In 1943 Alder discovered the ene-reaction and classified it in his Nobel Lecture as an “indirect substitution addition” or “ene synthesis" in ...

  15. Priorities for ALA: Yours, Theirs, or Ours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins-Carter, Jane

    1981-01-01

    Addresses issues which bear on the question of whether the membership or the leadership best decides appropriate goals for ALA activities. ALA's attempt to set organizational goals democratically is examined for differences and similarities between its leaders and members. (RAA)

  16. Characterization of d-boroAla as a Novel Broad Spectrum Antibacterial Agent Targeting d-Ala-d-Ala Ligase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putty, Sandeep; Rai, Aman; Jamindar, Darshan; Pagano, Paul; Quinn, Cheryl L.; Mima, Takehiko; Schweizer, Herbert P.; Gutheil, William G.

    2011-01-01

    d-boroAla was previously characterized as an inhibitor of bacterial alanine racemase and d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzymes [Duncan, K., et al Biochemistry 1989, 28:3541–9]. In the present study, d-boroAla was identified and characterized as an antibacterial agent. d-boroAla has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, with MICs down to 8 µg/mL. A structure-function study on the alkyl side chain (NH2-CHR-B(OR’)2) revealed that d-boroAla is the most effective agent in a series including boroGly, d-boroHomoAla, and d-boroVal. l-boroAla was much less active, and N-acetylation completely abolished activity. An LC-MS/MS assay was used to demonstrate that d-boroAla exerts its antibacterial activity by inhibition of d-Ala-d-Ala ligase (DDL). d-boroAla is bactericidal at 1× MIC against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis – which each encode one copy of DDL, and at 4× MIC against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium – which each encode two copies of DDL. d-boroAla demonstrated a frequency of resistance of 8×10−8 at 4× MIC in S. aureus. These results demonstrate that d-boroAla has promising antibacterial activity, and could serve as the lead agent in a new class of DDL targeted antibacterial agents. This study also demonstrates d-boroAla as a possible probe for DDL function. PMID:21827632

  17. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  18. 968-IJBCS-Article-Ene Pascal Chuka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T60

    indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Phenotypic assay of adherent E. coli strains using hep-2 cells on diarrheic children in Rivers State of Nigeria. Pascal Chuka ENE1*, Sam D. ABBEY1, Chukwudi Gregory MADUBUATTAH2 and. Chukwubuike Udoka OKEKE3.

  19. Tipparhitektuur tagasi kinnisvaraturul / Ene Läkk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Läkk, Ene, 1957-

    2008-01-01

    Müüki on pandud Ralf Tamme projekteeritud kuubikmaja Veskimöldres, Vahur Sova funkmaja Pirital, Kalle Rõõmuse eramu Merirahu elamurajoonis, Ene Priimetsa paarismaja Nõmmel, Mart Liho projekteritud maja Nõmmel. Ralf Tamme ja Tõnu Toomparki kommentaarid. Fotod elamutest

  20. Kandidaadid : Ene Ergma versus Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Artiklis vastatakse küsimustele, kes oleksid Kadriorus Ene Ergma ja Toomas Hendrik Ilvese nõunikud, millist sõnumit kannaks nende esimene iseseisvuspäeva kõne, kuidas nad tähistaksid oma võitu presidendivalimistel, kellele nad annaksid Maarjamaa Risti, kuhu nad teeksid oma esimese välisvisiidi

  1. Feminizam ili poslanje žene?

    OpenAIRE

    Mišić, Anto

    2005-01-01

    Premda ni feminizam ni poslanje žene nisu tipično filozofske (metafizičke) teme, filozofsko promišljanje pomaže jasnijem poimanju, žene, njezina odnosa i uloge u društvu. Bez ispravnog shvaćanja ljudske naravi, a ona jednako pripada ženi i muškarcu, lako se upada u jednostranost i isključivost stavova i djelovanja. Premda ljudska narav, osobnost, jednako pripada i muškarcu i ženi, ona se u njima ipak različito ostvaruje. Zbog individualnih razlika, ljudska se narav na različite načine izriče,...

  2. IS-ENES project management - lessons learnt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parinet, Marie; Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie

    2017-04-01

    IS-ENES is the distributed e-infrastructure of models, model data and metadata of the European Network for Earth System Modelling (ENES). It has benefitted from two EC FP7 grants and aims towards further European and national funding to achieve sustainability. We highlight here several challenges related to project management that have risen in the course of these two project-phases spanning 8 years. Some challenges are related to the heterogeneity of the activities within IS-ENES, with different groups working on very diverse activities, not necessarily strictly interdependent. An immediate consequence is the need of implementing and setting up in early phases of the project efficient collection and circulation of information to preserve and reinforce the systemic view of the infrastructure as a whole and the pursuit of common goals, including coordinated provision of services. Toward and beyond such common goals, managing IS-ENES, covering both scientific and more strictly management-related aspects, implies a double-paced approach: besides setting up efficient project workflow, there is the need of setting up longer term objectives. This implies, within the project lifetime, to elaborate and implement a coherent organizational (consistent with scientific goals, funding schemes, research and technology landscape) strategy to pursue these goals beyond the project itself. Furthermore, a series of more generic project management challenges will also be listed and can be gathered around 3 main objectives: ease the internal processes in order to optimize the work, anticipate delays and budget issues, and motivate the project teams by ensuring an efficient internal and external communication.

  3. Sa uurisid ekspressionismi 1960ndatel ja 70ndatel... / Ene Lamp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lamp, Ene

    2005-01-01

    2004. a. ilmunud raamatu "Ekspressionism" eest Eesti Kultuurkapitali suure kunstipreemia (100000 kr.) saanud Ene Lamp ekspressionismi tähenduse muutumiset, ekspressionismi rollist eesti kunstis, oma tulevikuplaanidest

  4. Characterization of d-boroAla as a novel broad-spectrum antibacterial agent targeting d-Ala-d-Ala ligase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putty, Sandeep; Rai, Aman; Jamindar, Darshan; Pagano, Paul; Quinn, Cheryl L; Mima, Takehiko; Schweizer, Herbert P; Gutheil, William G

    2011-11-01

    d-boroAla was previously characterized as an inhibitor of bacterial alanine racemase and d-Ala-d-Ala ligase enzymes (Biochemistry, 28, 1989, 3541). In this study, d-boroAla was identified and characterized as an antibacterial agent. d-boroAla has activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, with minimal inhibitory concentrations down to 8 μg / mL. A structure-function study on the alkyl side chain (NH(2) -CHR-B(OR')(2) ) revealed that d-boroAla is the most effective agent in a series including boroGly, d-boroHomoAla, and d-boroVal. l-boroAla was much less active, and N-acetylation completely abolished activity. An LC-MS / MS assay was used to demonstrate that d-boroAla exerts its antibacterial activity by inhibition of d-Ala-d-Ala ligase. d-boroAla is bactericidal at 1× minimal inhibitory concentration against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, which each encode one copy of d-Ala-d-Ala ligase, and at 4× minimal inhibitory concentration against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, which each encode two copies of d-Ala-d-Ala ligase. d-boroAla demonstrated a frequency of resistance of 8 × 10(-8) at 4× minimal inhibitory concentration in S. aureus. These results demonstrate that d-boroAla has promising antibacterial activity and could serve as the lead agent in a new class of d-Ala-d-Ala ligase targeted antibacterial agents. This study also demonstrates d-boroAla as a possible probe for d-Ala-d-Ala ligase function. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Ene Ergma : riigikogu liikme töökoht on riigikogus / Ene Ergma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ergma, Ene, 1944-

    2007-01-01

    Riigikogu esimees vastab EPL Online'i lugejate küsimustele, mis muuhulgas puudutavad ka president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ideed muuta kaitseväe juhataja ametisse määramise korda. Ene Ergma kiidab ka presidendi kõnet Riigikogu XI koosseisu avaistungil

  6. Ene-Liis Semper kodustab ruume / Ene-Liis Semper ; intervjueerinud Liina Luhats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Semper, Ene-Liis, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Video- ja teatrikunstnik Ene-Liis Semper oma Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 31. dets.-ni 2011 avatud näitusest, mis räägib ajast ja ajalikkusest ning inimesekolemisest selles, oma loomingust, valdkondade vahel liikumisest, tööst NO99 teatris, loomingulistest plaanidest

  7. Thiol-Ene Networks for Photon Upconversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Joseph; Jentsch, Abagail

    Photon upconversion via the mechanism of triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) offers the prospect of employing low-power and non-coherent excitation sources to drive the upconversion process. Solid-state materials capable of TTA present several significant challenges including limited solubility of the required chromophores and reduced molecular diffusion. Owing to the wide range of chemical compositions, tunable mechanical properties, and the ease of processing, polymeric materials have been at the forefront of solid-state materials for TTA. This study focuses on the use of thiol-ene `click' chemistry to create elastomeric films for TTA. Functionalized derivatives of 9,10-diphenylanthracene bearing two vinyl groups were synthesized and covalently incorporated into thiol-ene films, along with palladium (II) octaethylporphine as a sensitizing chromophore. Both emitter and sensitizer concentrations were systematically varied. The network formation was monitored using FTIR measurements and leaching experiments were conducted to quantify the amount of emitter chromophores not bonded into the network. The thermal and mechanical properties of the films were characterized using TGA, DSC, and DMTA. The upconverting performance was gauged using steady-state photoluminescence and lifetime measurements.

  8. Comparison between mALA- and ALA-PDT in the treatment of basal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleier, Peter; Zenk, Witold; Hyckel, Peter; Berndt, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Introduction: The external application of aminoleavulinic acid (ALA), which is a substrate of physiologic cell metabolism, represents a possible treatment option in superficial basal cell carcinomas (BCC). The development of new ALA-esters (mALA) with potential for higher penetration depths promises higher therapeutic success. This research aimed to prove the following hypothesis: The cytotoxic effect of the mALA- photodynamic therapy (mALA-PDT), when compared to the ALA-PDT, leads to a higher clinical success rate. Material and Methods: 24 patients with multiple facial tumors, after having received several local surgical excisions with known histology, were treated with either ALA- or mALA-PDT, during the past two years. In total, 89 basal cell carcinoma, 45 actinic keratoses, 6 keratoacanthoma, and 2 squamous cell carcinomas were treated. ALA-PDT: A thermo gel with 40 % mALA or ALA was applied from a cooled syringe. Three to five hours after gel application the skin was cleaned from any gel residues. Irradiation was done with a diode laser and was performed in two sessions, each 10 min long. After intervals of 2, 4 and 12 weeks, the patients were recalled to assess therapeutic efficacy. This was followed by photographic documentation. Results: More than 80% of the tumors treated primarily were resolved successfully. A recurrence rate of approximately 15% was observed. Three per cent of the tumors showed no reaction to therapy. There were no statistically significant differences between the two therapeutic groups. Discussion: The advantage of the use of ALA lies foremost in the fast metabolic use of the body's own photosensitizer PpIX. There are no known side effects of this therapy. Moreover, external application is superior to systemic application with regard to patient management. The method can be combined with other therapies. Although the mALA should have a better penetration in tumor tissue, the therapeutic outcome is similar to the use of ALA.

  9. ALA glossary of library and information science

    CERN Document Server

    Levine-Clark, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This fourth edition of ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science presents a thorough yet concise guide to the specific words that describe the materials, processes and systems relevant to the field of librarianship.

  10. Balti jaama taha uus elurajoon / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    Põhja-Tallinnas raudteeharude vahelisele maa-alale Balti jaama taha kavandatud elurajoonist. Detailplaneeringu eskiisi tegi Tõnu Laigu. Tallinna üldplaneeringu kohaselt jääb planeeritav ala kesklinna kontakttsooni arenguvööndisse

  11. Towards understanding the tandem mass spectra of protonated oligopeptides. 2: The proline effect in collision-induced dissociation of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiholder, Christian; Suhai, Sándor; Harrison, Alex G; Paizs, Béla

    2011-06-01

    The product ion spectra of proline-containing peptides are commonly dominated by y(n) ions generated by cleavage at the N-terminal side of proline residues. This proline effect is investigated in the current work by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx includes Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp) in an electrospray/quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometer and by quantum chemical calculations on protonated Ala-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala. The CID spectra of all investigated peptides show a dominant y(2) ion (Pro-Ala sequence). Our computational results show that the proline effect mainly arises from the particularly low threshold energy for the amide bond cleavage N-terminal to the proline residue, and from the high proton affinity of the proline-containing C-terminal fragment produced by this cleavage. These theoretical results are qualitatively supported by the experimentally observed y(2)/b(3) abundance ratios for protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp). In the post-cleavage phase of fragmentation the N-terminal oxazolone fragment with the Ala-Ala-Xxx sequence and Pro-Ala compete for the ionizing proton for these peptides. As the proton affinity of the oxazolone fragment increases, the y(2)/b(3) abundance ratio decreases.

  12. An academic with ambition / Ene Ergma ; interv. Kadri Kukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ergma, Ene, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuus Riigikogu asespiikriga käsitletakse kõrghariduse korraldust, professorite rohkust kõrgkoolides, võimalikku kandideerimist Tartu ülikooli rektori kohale, omandatud poliitilisi kogemusi ning ajude äravoolu Eestist. Ene Ergma CV

  13. 5-Ene-4-thiazolidinones - An efficient tool in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminskyy, Danylo; Kryshchyshyn, Anna; Lesyk, Roman

    2017-11-10

    The presented review is an attempt to summarize a huge volume of data on 5-ene-4-thiazolidinones being a widely studied class of small molecules used in modern organic and medicinal chemistry. The manuscript covers approaches to the synthesis of 5-ene-4-thiazolidinone derivatives: modification of the C5 position of the basic core; synthesis of the target compounds in the one-pot or multistage reactions or transformation of other related heterocycles. The most prominent pharmacological profiles of 5-ene derivatives of different 4-thiazolidinone subtypes belonging to hit-, lead-compounds, drug-candidates and drugs as well as the most studied targets have been discussed. Currently target compounds (especially 5-en-rhodanines) are assigned as frequent hitters or pan-assay interference compounds (PAINS) within high-throughput screening campaigns. Nevertheless, the crucial impact of the presence/nature of C5 substituent (namely 5-ene) on the pharmacological effects of 5-ene-4-thiazolidinones was confirmed by the numerous listed findings from the original articles. The main directions for active 5-ene-4-thiazolidinones optimization have been shown: i) complication of the fragment in the C5 position; ii) introduction of the substituents in the N3 position (especially fragments with carboxylic group or its derivatives); iii) annealing in complex heterocyclic systems; iv) combination with other pharmacologically attractive fragments within hybrid pharmacophore approach. Moreover, the utilization of 5-ene-4-thiazolidinones in the synthesis of complex compounds with potent pharmacological application is described. The chemical transformations cover mainly the reactions which involve the exocyclic double bond in C5 position of the main core and correspond to the abovementioned direction of the 5-ene-4-thiazolidinone modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Eksistentsi krõbisev videolint / Janar Ala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ala, Janar, 1979-

    2010-01-01

    Videokunsti näitus "Kõik saab korda" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis 2. jaanuarini 2011, kuraator Maria-Kristiina Soomre. Osalevad järgmised kunstnikud: Marina Abramović, Eija-Liisa Ahtila, Kai Kaljo, Mike Marshall, Ene-Liis Semper, Santeri Tuori, Guido van der Werve. Pikemalt serbia kunstniku Marina Abramović'i ja soome kunstniku Eija-Liisa Ahtila töödest

  15. Hexaarylbiimidazoles as Visible Light Thiol–Ene Photoinitiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Brian H.; Scott, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine if hexaarylbiimidazoles (HABIs) are efficient, visible light-active photoinitiators for thiol–ene systems. We hypothesize that, owing to the reactivity of lophyl radicals with thiols and the necessarily high concentration of thiol in thiol–ene formulations, HABIs will effectively initiate thiol–ene polymerization upon visible light irradiation. Methods UV-vis absorption spectra of photoinitiator solutions were obtained using UV-vis spectroscopy, while EPR spectroscopy was used to confirm radical species generation upon HABI photolysis. Functional group conversions during photopolymerization were monitored using FTIR spectroscopy, and thermomechanical properties were determined using dynamic mechanical analysis. Results The HABI derivatives investigated exhibit less absorptivity than camphorquinone at 469 nm; however, they afford increased sensitivity at this wavelength when compared with bis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)-phenylphosphineoxide. Photolysis of the investigated HABIs affords lophyl radicals. Affixing hydroxyhexyl functional groups to the HABI core significantly improved solubility. Thiol–ene resins formulated with HABI photoinitiators polymerized rapidly upon irradiation with 469 nm. The glass transition temperatures of the thiol–ene resin formulated with a bis(hydroxyhexyl)-functionalized HABI and photopolymerized at room and body temperature were 49.5±0.5°C and 52.2±0.1°C, respectively. Significance Although thiol–enes show promise as continuous phases for composite dental restorative materials, they show poor reactivity with the conventional camphorquinone/tertiary amine photoinitiation system. Conversely, despite their relatively low visible light absorptivity, HABI photoinitiators afford rapid thiol–ene photopolymerization rates. Moreover, minor structural modifications suggest pathways for improved HABI solubility and visible light absorption. PMID:26119702

  16. The diagenetic fate of taraxer-14-ene and oleanene isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Haven, H.L.; Rullkoetter, J. (Institute of Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry, Juelich (West Germany))

    1988-10-01

    The extractable organic matter in Holocene to early Miocene deep-sea sediments from Site 645 (ODP Leg 105) in Baffin Bay contains almost exclusively biological markers of terrigenous origin. Pentacyclic triterpenoids of the {alpha}-(ursene) and {beta}-amyrin (oleanene) type often occur as the most abundant compounds in the aliphatic hydrocarbon, ketone and alcohol fractions of the sediment extract. A specific diagenetic reaction involves the conversion of taraxer-14-ene into olean-12-ene in the upper 700 meters of the sedimentary sequence. The taraxerene-to-oleanene conversion is complete before the onset of isomerization of diasterenes at C-20. In the sediment as well as in laboratory simulation experiments, olean-12-ene further isomerizes to olean-13(18)-ene and olean-18-ene, the latter of which may be the direct precursor of 18{beta}(H)- and 18{alpha}(H)-oleanane found in sediments containing more mature organic matter and in crude oils. The subsurface interconversion of these triterpenoid skeletons indicate that oleanane does not necessarily start life as an oleanoid.

  17. Antiplasmodial activity study of angiotensin II via Ala scan analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana Farias; Bastos, Erick Leite; Torres, Marcelo Der Torossian; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Ioshino, Rafaella Sayuri; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Alves, Flávio Lopes; Miranda, Antonio; Vieira, Renata de Freitas Fischer; Oliveira, Vani Xavier

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) as well as analog peptides shows antimalarial activity against Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium falciparum, but the exact mechanism of action is still unknown. This work presents the solid-phase synthesis and characterization of eight peptides corresponding to the alanine scanning series of AII plus the amide-capped derivative and the evaluation of the antiplasmodial activity of these peptides against mature P. gallinaceum sporozoites. The Ala screening data indicates that the replacement of either the Ile(5) or the His(6) residues causes minor effects on the in vitro antiplasmodial activity compared with AII, i.e. AII (88%), [Ala(6) ]-AII (79%), and [Ala(5) ]-AII (75%). Analogs [Ala(3) ]-AII, [Ala(1) ]-AII, and AII-NH2 showed antiplasmodial activity around 65%, whereas the activity of the [Ala(8) ]-AII, [Ala(7) ]-AII, [Ala(4) ]-AII, and [Ala(2) ]-AII analogs is lower than 45%. Circular dichroism data suggest that AII and the most active analogs adopt a β-fold conformation in different solutions. All AII analogs, except [Ala(4) ]-AII and [Ala(8) ]-AII, show contractile responses and interact with the AT1 receptor, [Ala(5) ]-AII and [Ala(6) ]-AII. In conclusion, this approach is helpful to understand the contribution of each amino acid residue to the bioactivity of AII, opening new perspectives toward the design of new sporozoiticidal compounds. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Engineering an ATP-dependent D-Ala:D-Ala ligase for synthesizing amino acid amides from amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Yuta; Okazaki, Seiji; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2017-05-01

    We successfully engineered a new enzyme that catalyzes the formation of D-Ala amide (D-AlaNH2) from D-Ala by modifying ATP-dependent D-Ala:D-Ala ligase (EC 6.3.2.4) from Thermus thermophilus, which catalyzes the formation of D-Ala-D-Ala from two molecules of D-Ala. The new enzyme was created by the replacement of the Ser293 residue with acidic amino acids, as it was speculated to bind to the second D-Ala of D-Ala-D-Ala. In addition, a replacement of the position with Glu performed better than that with Asp with regards to specificity for D-AlaNH2 production. The S293E variant, which was selected as the best enzyme for D-AlaNH2 production, exhibited an optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 40 °C for D-AlaNH2 production. The apparent K m values of this variant for D-Ala and NH3 were 7.35 mM and 1.58 M, respectively. The S293E variant could catalyze the synthesis of 9.3 and 35.7 mM of D-AlaNH2 from 10 and 50 mM D-Ala and 3 M NH4Cl with conversion yields of 93 and 71.4 %, respectively. This is the first report showing the enzymatic formation of amino acid amides from amino acids.

  19. Ene Ergma kihutas Valka 120 kilomeetrit tunnis / Kadi Viljak, Siim Randla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viljak, Kadi

    2003-01-01

    Riigikogu spiiker Ene Ergma kasutas Valga kultuurikeskusesse valijatega kohtumisele jõudmiseks ametiautol vilkurit, mis lubab hoida kiirust vähemalt 120 kilomeetrit tunnis. Novembrikuus on Ene Ergma autojuht registreerinud alarmsõitu kaheksal korral

  20. ALA-Butyrate prodrugs for Photo-Dynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitch, G.; Nudelman, A.; Ehenberg, B.; Rephaeli, A.; Malik, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration has led to many applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer. However, the hydrophilic nature of ALA limits its ability to penetrate the cells and tissues, and therefore the need for ALA derivatives became an urgent research target. In this study we investigated the activity of novel multifunctional acyloxyalkyl ester prodrugs of ALA that upon metabolic hydrolysis release active components such as, formaldehyde, and the histone deacetylase inhibitory moiety, butyric acid. Evaluation of these prodrugs under photo-irradiation conditions showed that butyryloxyethyl 5-amino-4-oxopentanoate (ALA-BAC) generated the most efficient photodynamic destruction compared to ALA. ALA-BAC stimulated a rapid biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human glioblastoma U-251 cells which resulted in generation of intracellular ROS, reduction of mitochondrial activity, leading to apoptotic and necrotic death of the cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by ALA / ALA-BAC followed by PDT equally activate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals and both pathways may occur simultaneously. The main advantage of ALA-BAC over ALA stems from its ability to induce photo-damage at a significantly lower dose than ALA.

  1. Ene ja Tõnis Kask pole valikuga rahul / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Eesti Filmiajakirjanike Ühing andis auhinna Aasta film 2002 mängufilmile "Agent Sinikael" : režissöör Marko Raat. Viimane sai preemiaks 12 000 krooni. Auhinna rahastajad omanimelise fondi kaudu Eesti Rahvuskultuuri Fondi juures Ene ja Tõnis Kask peavad "Nimed marmortahvlil" väljajätmist isegi nominentide hulgast shokeerivaks

  2. ALA Pretreatment Improves Waterlogging Tolerance of Fig Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyan An

    Full Text Available 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural and environmentally friendly plant growth regulator, can improve plant tolerance to various environmental stresses. However, whether ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance is unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of ALA pretreatment on the waterlogging-induced damage of fig (Ficus carica Linn. plants, which often suffer from waterlogging stress. ALA pretreatment significantly alleviated stress-induced morphological damage, increased leaf relative water content (RWC, and reduced leaf superoxide anion ([Formula: see text] production rate and malonaldehyde (MDA content in fig leaves, indicating ALA mitigates waterlogging stress of fig plants. We further demonstrated that ALA pretreatment largely promoted leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic electron transfer ability, and photosynthetic performance index, indicating ALA significantly improves plant photosynthetic efficiency under waterlogging stress. Moreover, ALA pretreatment significantly increased activities of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, root vigor, and activities of root alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, indicating ALA also significantly improves antioxidant ability and root function of fig plants under waterlogging stress. Taken together, ALA pretreatment improves waterlogging tolerance of fig plants significantly, and the promoted root respiration, leaf photosynthesis, and antioxidant ability may contribute greatly to this improvement. Our data firstly shows that ALA can improve plant waterlogging tolerance.

  3. Evidence for distinct dehydrogenase and isomerase sites within a single 3. beta. -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luu-The, V.; Takahashi, Masakazu; de Launoit, Y.; Dumont, M.; Lachance, Y.; Labrie, F. (Laval Univ., Quebec City, Quebec (Canada))

    1991-09-10

    Complementary DNA encoding human 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase (3-{beta}-HSD) has been expressed in transfected GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} with use of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The activity of the expressed protein clearly shows that both dehydrogenase and isomerase enzymatic activities are present within a single protein. However, such findings do not indicate whether the two activities reside within one or two closely related catalytic sites. With use of ({sup 3}H)-5-androstenedione, the intermediate compound in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) transformation into 4-androstenedione by 3{beta}-HSD, the present study shows that 4MA (N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5{alpha}-androstane-17{beta}-carboxamide) and its analogues of 5-androstenedione to 4-androstenedione with an approximately 1,000-fold higher K{sub i} value. The present results thus strongly suggest that dehydrogenase and isomerase activities are present at separate sites on the 3-{beta}-HSD protein. Such data suggest that the irreversible step in the transformation of DHEA to 4-androstenedione is due to a separate site possessing isomerase activity that converts the 5-ene-3-keto to a much more stable 4-ene-3-keto configuration.

  4. Ene Ergma ja Toomas Hendrik Ilves : presidendikampaania kipub palaganiks / Ene Ergma, Toomas Hendrik Ilves ; interv. Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ergma, Ene, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Presidendikandidaadid Ene Ergma ja Toomas Hendrik Ilves annavad omapoolsed hinnangud eelolevatele presidendivalimistele. Vt. samas: Eesti Vabariigi presidendi valimise kord. Vt. ka Riina Martinsoni lühiinterv. Riigikogu liikmete Koit Pikaro, Mark Soosaare, Jaanus Männiku, Väino Linde, Trivimi Velliste, Toomas Alatalu, Aivar Õuna ja Ela Tomsoniga

  5. Ene Ergma : ikka otsitakse ju heledate lokkis juustega tüdrukuid / Ene Ergma ; interv. Märt Kivine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ergma, Ene, 1944-

    2006-01-01

    Res Publica presidendikandidaadi sõnul on Eesti presidendi roll olla Eesti riigi nägu väljapoole. Presidendil on hiiglaslik vastutus, mitte niivõrd palju võimu, ta peab tajuma, kus on ühiskonna valulävi. CV: Ene Ergma

  6. Enhanced ALA-induced fluorescence in hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosst, Ruediger L; Schroeter, Lioba; Gahlen, Johannes

    2005-04-04

    Intraoperative localization of parathyroid glands can be challenging especially in minimally invasive surgery. Fluorescence diagnosis using the photosensitizer aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been described to identify normal parathyroid glands during experimental bilateral neck exploration. The present study evaluated fluorescence differences between hyperplastic and normal parathyroid glands as a precondition for a clinical application of the technique. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) rats with hyperparathyroidism due to hyperplastic parathyroid glands and Wistar rats with normal parathyroid glands were photosensitized by peritoneal lavage with ALA solution. After surgical exposure of thyroid and parathyroid glands the operative site was observed under blue light conditions using the d-light system to assess fluorescence characteristics of each tissue. Fluorescence intensities of parathyroid glands and surrounding thyroid tissue were measured by spectrometry. Parathyroid hormone in serum of the rats was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Observation of the exposed thyroid site showed a subjectively stronger red fluorescence of the parathyroid glands in the PKD rats in comparison to the Wistar rats, whereas thyroid tissue appeared equally fluorescent. In the PKD animals, spectrometric fluorescence intensity was 10 times higher in the parathyroid glands than in the thyroid gland, whereas in the Wistar rats the ratio was 3.2:1. Fluorescence intensity in the parathyroid glands was more than twice in the PKD rats than in the Wistar rats, however slightly lower in the thyroid tissue. ELISA confirmed the pathophysiological change of a hyperparathyroidism with significantly increased serum levels of parathyroid hormone in the PKD rats. Hyperparathyroidism enhances ALA-induced fluorescence of the parathyroid glands. A combined surgical fluorescence strategy may justify a unilateral, minimally invasive approach in selected patients and serve to improve

  7. The comparison between LAC and ALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-heng Chiu

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A good library association serves its members, improves the librarianship, and helps library institutions achieving their missions. This article describes the history, missions and goals, organization structure, membership, financial sources, professional activities, publication, and website of the Library Association of China (LAC and American Library Association (ALA, respectively. Considering social / cultural / political differences between Taiwan and the United Sates, the author then compares these two library associations from the eight factors mentioned above. At the end, suggestions for the LAC are proposed.[Article content in Chinese

  8. 5 küsimust Ene Läkile / Ene Läkk ; interv. Ell-Maaja Randküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Läkk, Ene, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Ene Läkist, kes on alates 2005. aastast interjööri-, disaini- ja arhitektuuriajakirja "Ruum" peatoimetaja. Ene Läkk, Eesti Sisearhitektide Liidu 2005. a. aastapreemia nominent ajakirjandusliku tegevuse eest, ajakirjast "Ruum". Ill.: 6 värv. vaadet, foto ajakirjanikust

  9. Teekond kogunemisest koostööni / Ene Kulasalu, Ene Velström, Koidu Tani-Jürisoo, Mari Karm ; vahendas Mari Karm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Vestlusringis on Avatud Meele Instituudi koolitajad Ene Kulasalu, Ene Velström, Koidu Tani-Jürisoo ja Mari Karm, et arutada koostöö ja selle juhtimise võimalikkust ja vajalikkust, grupi arengufaaside (sõltuvusfaas, konfliktifaas, eraldumisfaas, koostööfaas) toimimist ja nende teadvustamise tähtsust

  10. Ene-Liiz Semper. Anton Litvin. Bogdan Mamonov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Veebruaris Madridis toimunud Euroopa kunstilaada ARCO jaoks Vene saatkonna galerii poolt koostatud kunstinäitus TRINITY toimub nüüd Tallinnas Vene saatkonna galeriis. Kuraatorid Masha ja Andrei Melnikovid. Osalevad Ene-Liis Semper videoga ArtVideo, vene kunstnik Bogdan Mamonov maaliseeriaga "Ma kanoniseerisin oma sõpru" ja vene kunstnik Anton Litvin fotoprojektiga "Punktuatsioon". Madridis näitas Semper videot "Nimetu"

  11. Functional Conducting Polymers via Thiol-ene Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Kathleen E.; Martin, David C.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate here that thiol-ene chemistry can be used to provide side-chain functionalized monomers based on 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (ProDOT) containing ionic, neutral, hydrophobic, and hydrophilic side chains. All reactions gave high yields and purification could generally be accomplished through precipitation. These monomers were polymerized either chemically or electro-chemically to give soluble materials or conductive films, respectively. This strategy provides for facile tuning of...

  12. Spectroscopic assessment of endogenous porphyrins in a rheumatoid arthritis rabbit model after the application of ALA and ALA-Me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudys, R; Kirdaitė, G; Bagdonas, S; Leonavičienė, L; Bradūnaitė, R; Streckytė, G; Rotomskis, R

    2013-02-05

    The sensitization of inflamed knee tissues with endogenous porphyrins was studied by means of fluorescence spectroscopy in an experimental model of rabbit rheumatoid monoarthritis after intraarticular (i.a.) or intravenous (i.v.) injections of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) or ALA methyl ester (ALA-Me). Fluorescence measurements in vivo on the skin of the inflamed knee joint showed the dominance of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The highest fluorescence intensity was registered 2h after i.a. injection of ALA and ALA-Me. Comparative analysis of the PpIX fluorescence spectra ex vivo revealed that more PpIX accumulated in the tissues of the inflamed joint than in the tissues of the control joint, and that ALA-Me induced about five times more PpIX in the inflamed synovium than ALA. Meanwhile, the cartilages of the inflamed and control knee joints also accumulated water-soluble porphyrins. Thus, in vivo and ex vivo spectroscopic assessment of endogenous porphyrins in rabbit rheumatoid arthritis tissues implied that the injection of ALA is more appropriate for the diagnostics of inflammation due to the higher PpIX fluorescence intensity on the skin surface, while ALA-Me is more appropriate for the therapeutic applications due to the higher and more selective accumulation of PpIX in the inflamed synovium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Jüri Ratas: tasulise parkimise ala suurendamine probleeme ei tekita / Jüri Ratas ; interv. Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ratas, Jüri, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna abilinnapea tasulise parkimise ala laiendamisest Tallinna kesklinnas ja sellega kaasnevatest võimalikest probleemidest. Kommenteerib Johannes Pirita. Kaart. Lisa: Rahvaalgatus sõdib tasulise parkimisega

  14. Multi-chamber and multi-layer thiol-ene microchip for cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, H. Y.; Hemmingsen, Mette; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a multi-layer and multi-chamber microfluidic chip fabricated using two different thiol-ene mixtures. Sandwiched between the thiol-ene chip layers is a commercially available membrane whose morphology has been altered with coatings of thiol-ene mixtures. Experiments have been conducted ...... with the microchip and shown that the fabricated microchip is suitable for long term cell culture....

  15. Structure and functional studies of the ribonuclease binase Glu43Ala/Phe81Ala mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitkevich, V A; Schulga, A A; Trofimov, A A; Dorovatovskii, P V; Goncharuk, D A; Tkach, E N; Makarov, A A; Polyakov, K M

    2013-06-01

    Ribonuclease from Bacillus intermedius (binase) is a small basic protein with antitumour activity. The three-dimensional structure of the binase mutant form Glu43Ala/Phe81Ala was determined at 1.98 Å resolution and its functional properties, such as the kinetic parameters characterizing the hydrolysis of polyinosinic acid and cytotoxicity towards Kasumi-1 cells, were investigated. In all crystal structures of binase studied previously the characteristic dimer is present, with the active site of one subunit being blocked owing to interactions within the dimer. In contrast to this, the new mutant form is not dimeric in the crystal. The catalytic efficiency of the mutant form is increased 1.7-fold and its cytotoxic properties are enhanced compared with the wild-type enzyme.

  16. Spatial distribution of trace element of Ala river's sediments, Akure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial distribution of trace element of Ala river's sediments, Akure, Southwestern Nigeria. ... Ife Journal of Science ... Abstract. Thirty six river sediment samples were collected from Ala River, Akure, and were analysed by ICP-MS for 14 chemical elements including Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Mn, As, U, Th, Sr, Cd, V, La, and Cr. The ...

  17. Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence kinetics and localization after topical application of ALA pentyl ester and ALA on hairless mouse skin with UVB-induced early skin cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, J. T.; de Bruijn, H. S.; Beijersbergen van Henegouwen, G. M.; Star, W. M.; Sterenborg, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve the efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT), different ALA derivatives are presently being investigated. ALA esters are more lipophilic and therefore may have better skin penetration properties than ALA, possibly resulting in enhanced

  18. Episteemilise loogika mõningad aspektid / Ene Grauberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grauberg, Ene, 1944-

    2004-01-01

    Episteemiline loogika on modaalse loogika alasüsteemi loogika teooria, mis kasutab episteemilise operaatoreid ...teab,et..., ...eeldab,et.... Tema aineks on neid operaatoreid sisaldavate otsustuste õige organiseerimise reeglid ja tingimused. Varem ilmunud: Metod modelirovanija i nekotorõje filosofskije problemõ istorii i metodologii jestestvoznanija. Tallinn, 1975.

  19. IS-ENES: The Infrastructure for the European Network for Earth System modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie

    2013-04-01

    IS-ENES is the distributed e-infrastructure of models, model data and metadata of the European Network for Earth System Modelling (ENES). This network gathers together the European climate modelling community working on understanding and predicting climate variability and change. It organizes and supports European contributions to international experiments used in assessments of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, such as the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and the Coordinated regional Climate Downscaling Experiments (CORDEX). IS-ENES is supported by FP7 and is entering its second 4-year phase (http://is.enes.org). IS-ENES integrates the European climate modelling community, stimulates common developments of software for models and their environments, fosters the execution and exploitation of high-end simulations, in particular using the European PRACE facilities, and supports the dissemination of model results to the climate research and climate impact communities. The central point of entry to IS-ENES services, the ENES Portal (http://enes.org), integrates information on the European climate models and provides access to models and software environments needed to run and exploit model simulations, such as the climate data operators, as well as to simulation data, metadata and processing utilities. IS-ENES supports the European contribution to the international Earth System Grid Federation data distribution for CMIP5 and CORDEX. In order to help the use of climate model results for impact studies, e.g. in water management, a prototype portal climate4impact (http://www.climate4impact.eu) has been developed providing access to guidance on how to use global climate model results through documentation of use cases, and will be further developed in IS-ENES2. Adaptation to climate change requires strengthening the integration between the climate and hydro-meteorological communities and the e-infrastructure IS-ENES2 might contribute to this

  20. Naknada štete prouzročene kaznenim djelom

    OpenAIRE

    Votić, Antonija

    2016-01-01

    Tema ovog završnog rada je naknada štete prouzročene kaznenim djelom. U tom radu autorica je obuhvatila sljedeća poglavlja; opće i posebne pretpostavke odgovornosti za štetu, subjekte obveznog odnosa odgovornosti za štetu, nadalje vrste odgovornosti, vlastitu odgovornost, odgovornost za drugoga i odgovornost više osoba za istu štetu zatim je objasnila posebne slučajeve odgovornosti, popravljanje štete te uklanjanje opasnosti štete. Autorica je posebnu pozornost pridodala poglavljima o kazn...

  1. Fabrication of a microfluidic cell made of thiol-ene for microarray applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sola, Laura; Gagni, Paola; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of a microfluidic cell completely made of thiol-ene for microarray applications. To overcome the issues related to the hydrophobic nature of the thiol-ene material we have also introduced a new polymeric coating based of N, N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) which is able to ...

  2. Reiljan, Savisaar show who's in charge / Joel Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Eestimaa Rahvaliidu esimees Villu Reiljan ja Eesti Keskerakonna esimees Edgar Savisaar otsustavad uue presidendi üle. Villu Reiljan toetab Arnold Rüütlit. Edgar Savisaare, Ene Ergma, Toomas Hendrik Ilvese ja Riigikogu liikme Ain Seppiku väljaütlemised

  3. Novel Thiol-Ene Hybrid Coating for Metal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Taghavikish

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid anticorrosion coating with dual network of inorganic (Si–O–Si and organic bonds (C–S–C was prepared on metal through an in situ sol-gel and thiol-ene click reaction. This novel interfacial thin film coating incorporates (3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS and 1,4-di(vinylimidazolium butane bisbromide based polymerizable ionic liquid (PIL to form a thiol-ene based photo-polymerized film, which on subsequent sol-gel reaction forms a thin hybrid interfacial layer on metal surface. On top of this PIL hybrid film, a self-assembled nanophase particle (SNAP coating was employed to prepare a multilayer thin film coating for better corrosion protection and barrier performance. The novel PIL hybrid film was characterised for structure and properties using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The corrosion protection performance of the multilayer coating was examined using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The results reveal that this novel double layer coating on metal offers excellent protection against corrosion and has remarkably improved the barrier effect of the coating.

  4. American Library Association (ALA no Second Life (SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richele Grenge Vignoli

    Full Text Available A American Library Association (ALA está inserida no contexto de Realidade Virtual (RV em 3D, por meio de sua atuação no Second Life (SL, com a ALA Island. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar o atendimento virtual a bibliotecários no SL; identificar produtos e serviços que a ALA oferece no SL e analisar sua infraestrutura. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada a análise documental, ação em que a ALA Island foi observada/explorada e estruturada em dados; e o questionário - enviado a uma bibliotecária da ALA Island. Os resultados demonstram que a atuação da ALA no SL tem como propósito central a divulgação de seus projetos, os eventos físicos e os virtuais e o apoio ao bibliotecário em sua vida profissional. A ALA está inserida em diversos recursos da Web 2.0, além do SL, como blogs, wikis, sites de relacionamento, entre outros. Toda a trajetória da ALA foi analisada, assim como as especificidades do seu trabalho realizado para os bibliotecários. Observou-se que o atendimento a bibliotecários no SL é realizado por meio de robôs e indicação de notecards e hiperlinks informativos. No SL, a ALA disponibiliza diversos serviços e produtos aos bibliotecários, como os relacionados com os escritórios, comitês e instituições, além dos serviços e produtos disponíveis no site e no escritório da ALA em Washington-DC e de seus representantes. Os recursos da ALA e do SL, assim como a inserção de bibliotecários em Realidade Virtual (RV precisam ser estudados por meio de pesquisas, para dinamizar e aproximar essa realidade desses profissionais.

  5. Tetramethyl-1-silacycloprop-2-ene: its characterization and reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornett, B.J.

    1980-05-01

    The object of this research is to fully characterize and study some of the reactions of tetramethyl-1-silacycloprop-2-ene. The final characterization of this compound was accomplished by obtaining both Si29 and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The reactions studied included those with fluorenone, acetone, styrene, phenylacetylene, acetonitrile, t-butylcyanide, methyl isocyanate, phenyl azide, and azobenzene. Product analyses suggest that aside from addition reactions tetramethylsilacyclopropene can react either via a radical chain polymerization or an anionic chain polymerization mechanism with the latter being the more prevalent. Other reactions studied included the photolysis of tetramethylsilacyclopropene and its reactions in the presence of Pd(PPh/sub 3/)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/. An appendix includes a study of trimethylsilyl radical disproportionation in the liquid phase to a sila olefin. Trimethylsilyl radicals in solution undergo disproportionation as well as recombination in a 1:5 ratio. The sila olefin formed by disproportionation was trapped by alcohols.

  6. Expression of the alaE gene is positively regulated by the global regulator Lrp in response to intracellular accumulation of l-alanine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Kohei; Sato, Kazuki; Hori, Hatsuhiro; Makino, Yumiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    The alaE gene in Escherichia coli encodes an l-alanine exporter that catalyzes the active export of l-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. In our previous study, alaE expression was shown to increase in the presence of l-alanyl-l-alanine (Ala-Ala). In this study, the global regulator leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) was identified as an activator of the alaE gene. A promoter less β-galactosidase gene was fused to an alaE upstream region (240 nucleotides). Cells that were lacZ-deficient and harbored this reporter plasmid showed significant induction of β-galactosidase activity (approximately 17-fold) in the presence of 6 mM l-alanine, l-leucine, and Ala-Ala. However, a reporter plasmid possessing a smaller alaE upstream region (180 nucleotides) yielded transformants with strikingly low enzyme activity under the same conditions. In contrast, lrp-deficient cells showed almost no β-galactosidase induction, indicating that Lrp positively regulates alaE expression. We next performed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and a DNase I footprinting assay using purified hexahistidine-tagged Lrp (Lrp-His). Consequently, we found that Lrp-His binds to the alaE upstream region spanning nucleotide -161 to -83 with a physiologically relevant affinity (apparent K D , 288.7 ± 83.8 nM). Furthermore, the binding affinity of Lrp-His toward its cis-element was increased by l-alanine and l-leucine, but not by Ala-Ala and d-alanine. Based on these results, we concluded that the gene expression of the alaE is regulated by Lrp in response to intracellular levels of l-alanine, which eventually leads to intracellular homeostasis of l-alanine concentrations. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fluorescence-Guided Resection of Malignant Glioma with 5-ALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadahiro Kaneko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are extremely difficult to treat with no specific curative treatment. On the other hand, photodynamic medicine represents a promising technique for neurosurgeons in the treatment of malignant glioma. The resection rate of malignant glioma has increased from 40% to 80% owing to 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD. Furthermore, ALA is very useful because it has no serious complications. Based on previous research, it is apparent that protoporphyrin IX (PpIX accumulates abundantly in malignant glioma tissues after ALA administration. Moreover, it is evident that the mechanism underlying PpIX accumulation in malignant glioma tissues involves an abnormality in porphyrin-heme metabolism, specifically decreased ferrochelatase enzyme activity. During resection surgery, the macroscopic fluorescence of PpIX to the naked eye is more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging, and the alert real time spectrum of PpIX is the most sensitive method. In the future, chemotherapy with new anticancer agents, immunotherapy, and new methods of radiotherapy and gene therapy will be developed; however, ALA will play a key role in malignant glioma treatment before the development of these new treatments. In this paper, we provide an overview and present the results of our clinical research on ALA-PDD.

  8. Effect of elevating the skin temperature during topical ALA application on in vitro ALA penetration through mouse skin and in vivo PpIX production in human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, Johanna T. H. M.; Boot, Kristian; Vernon, David I.; Brown, Stanley B.; Groenendijk, Laurens; van Rhoon, Gerard C.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2004-01-01

    An approach to induce increased protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) production in aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) of skin lesions is to elevate the skin temperature during topical ALA application. Increased skin temperature may increase the ( depth of) penetration of ALA into the

  9. Surface functionalized thiol-ene waveguides for fluorescence biosensing in microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2013-01-01

    Thiol-ene polymers possess physical, optical, and chemical characteristics thatmake them ideal substrates for the fabrication of optofluidic devices. In this work, thiol-ene polymers are used to simultaneously create microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in one simple moulding step....... The reactive functional groups present at the surface of the thiol-ene polymer are subsequently used for the rapid, one step, site-specific functionalization of the waveguide with biological recognition molecules. It was found that while the bulk properties and chemical surface properties of thiol...... to conjugation with fluorescently labeled streptavidin. Fluorescence excitation was achieved by launching light through the thiol-ene waveguide, revealing bright fluorescent patterns along the channel/waveguide interface...

  10. Kas on plaanis tõsta lasteaia kohatasu? / Jekaterina Kuru, Rain Sangernebo, Ene Tigas ... [jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Küsimusele vastasid Audru lasteaia direktor Jekaterina Kuru, Nõo vallavanem Rain Sangernebo, Põlva Lepatriinu lasteaia direktor Ene Tigas, Juuru vallavalitsuse arendus- ja kultuurispetsialist Aili Normak, Alu lasteaia-algkooli direktor Ülle Riisalu

  11. The final story on the ALA3/ALIS1 complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    The final story on the ALA3/ALIS1 complex. Lisbeth R. Poulsena, Rosa L. López-Marquésa, Alexander Schultza, Stephen C. McDowellb, Juha Okkeric, Dirk Lichtc, Thomas Pomorskic,  Jeffrey F. Harperb, and Michael G. Palmgrena,1 aCentre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National...... in endogenous P4-ATPases. Our results indicated that ALIS1 functions as a true ß-subunit for the Arabidopsis putative flippase ALA3, being required for ATP-dependent phospholipid transport and for genetic complementation of the yeast P4-ATPase gene Drs2, which is involved in vesicle budding from the late Golgi...... mutant were phenotypically analyzed. When grown under 24 h light conditions, mutant plants are significantly smaller than control wild type plants. A decrease in root growth is related to the inability of ala3 plants to release border-like cells from root caps that are damaged during root penetration...

  12. Redox Mediators in Visible Light Photocatalysis: Photocatalytic Radical Thiol?Ene Additions

    OpenAIRE

    Tyson, Elizabeth L.; Niemeyer, Zachary L.; Yoon, Tehshik P.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetically useful radical thiol?ene reactions can be initiated by visible light irradiation in the presence of transition metal polypyridyl photocatalysts. The success of this method relies upon the use of p-toluidine as an essential additive. Using these conditions, high-yielding thiol?ene reactions of cysteine-containing biomolecules can be accomplished using biocompatibile wavelengths of visible light, under aqueous conditions, and with the thiol component as the limiting reagent. We pr...

  13. Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to immobilize biomolecules at specific locations on the surface of solid supports is central to many biochip applications. This paper reports the rapid one-step photochemical surface patterning of biomolecules in thiol-ene microfluidic chips. Adjusting the stoichiometric ratio of "thi...... photolithography. We also present quantitative data on the number of functional groups available for surface modification on thiol-ene substrates and their stability....

  14. Combined bead polymerization and Cinchona organocatalyst immobilization by thiol–ene addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Fredriksen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report an unusually concise immobilization of Cinchona organocatalysts using thiol–ene chemistry, in which catalyst immobilization and bead polymerization is combined in a single step. A solution of azo initiator, polyfunctional thiol, polyfunctional alkene and an unmodified Cinchona-derived organocatalyst in a solvent is suspended in water and copolymerized on heating by thiol–ene additions. The resultant spherical and gel-type polymer beads have been evaluated as organocatalysts in catalytic asymmetric transformations.

  15. Combined bead polymerization and Cinchona organocatalyst immobilization by thiol-ene addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Kim A; Kristensen, Tor E; Hansen, Tore

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we report an unusually concise immobilization of Cinchona organocatalysts using thiol-ene chemistry, in which catalyst immobilization and bead polymerization is combined in a single step. A solution of azo initiator, polyfunctional thiol, polyfunctional alkene and an unmodified Cinchona-derived organocatalyst in a solvent is suspended in water and copolymerized on heating by thiol-ene additions. The resultant spherical and gel-type polymer beads have been evaluated as organocatalysts in catalytic asymmetric transformations.

  16. Draama 2007. Töörahu / Ene Paaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paaver, Ene, 1963-

    2008-01-01

    Ülevaade 2007. aasta eesti draamast. Pikemalt käsitletakse järgmisi autoreid ja nende näidendeid: Mart Kivastik "Tõnu võitlused", Mart Kivastik "Eesti asi", Mart Kivastik "Sõdur", Mart Kivastik "Kuninga viimane lahing ja ülikooli algus", Mart Kivastik, "Nokia 3310", Andrus Kivirähk "Voldemar", Andrus Kivirähk "Uljas neitsi", Hendrik Toompere "Kommunisti surm", Andres Ehin "Saatuslik kihlvedu ehk Volquin Varbola all", Jan Rahman "Jõujaam", Jaak Kõdar "Muinassaar", Karl Berg "Teekond valguse riiki", Angela Randmets "Lembelood vanas linnas", Toomas Kall "Tähtede sadu", Lauri Vahtre "Muna EÜE", Urmas Espenberg "Kestvad kiiduavaldused", Kalju Saaber "Koduvõõrad", Indrek Hirv "Pauluse kiriku kellad", Katrin Saukas "Võlg", Heidi Sarapuu "Austatud Riigikogu liikmed!", Heidi Sarapuu "Helisev viis", Heidi Sarapuu "Ankur hiivata", Jakob Karu "Vanaema juures", Jim Ashilevi "Nagu poisid vihma käes", Jim Ashilevi "Portselansuits", Eva Koff "Mirr", Jaak Prints "Karaoke", Kati Murutar "Mina, naine!", Ott Aardam "Börs ja Börsitar", Andrus Kivirähk, Jan Rahman, Contra "Kõrts", Mart Kase "Perekond", Villu Tamme "Haned võlgu"; Tiit Ojasoo ja Ene-Liis Semperi "GEP ehk Gorjatshije estonskije parni"

  17. Preparation and Preliminary Dielectric Characterization of Structured C60-Thiol-Ene Polymer Nanocomposites Assembled Using the Thiol-Ene Click Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa M. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-containing materials have the ability to store and release electrical energy. Therefore, fullerenes may ultimately find use in high-voltage equipment devices or as super capacitors for high electric energy storage due to this ease of manipulating their excellent dielectric properties and their high volume resistivity. A series of structured fullerene (C60 polymer nanocomposites were assembled using the thiol-ene click reaction, between alkyl thiols and allyl functionalized C60 derivatives. The resulting high-density C60-urethane-thiol-ene (C60-Thiol-Ene networks possessed excellent mechanical properties. These novel networks were characterized using standard techniques, including infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The dielectric spectra for the prepared samples were determined over a broad frequency range at room temperature using a broadband dielectric spectrometer and a semiconductor characterization system. The changes in thermo-mechanical and electrical properties of these novel fullerene-thiol-ene composite films were measured as a function of the C60 content, and samples characterized by high dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss were produced. In this process, variations in chemical composition of the networks were correlated to performance characteristics.

  18. Ene-Liis Semper : hindan päeva, kui teen ühte asja / Ene-Liis Semper ; interv. Jaanus Kulli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Semper, Ene-Liis, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    Teatri- ja videokunstnik Ene-Liis Semper oma elust ja tööst. Lisaks repliik "Parim päev on tööst prii päev" ja peagi Teater NO99s esietenduvast William Shakespeare'i lavastusest "Muinasjutuline "Perikles"

  19. Simple preparation of thiol-ene particles in glycerol and surface functionalization by thiol-ene chemistry (TEC) and surface chain transfer free radical polymerization (SCT-FRP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Chiaula, Valeria; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Thiol-ene (TE) based polymer particles have traditionally been prepared via emulsion polymerization in water (using surfactants, stabilizers and co-solvents). Here, we present a green and simple alternative with excellent control over particle size, while avoiding the addition of stabilizers...

  20. Simple preparation of thiol-ene particles in glycerol and surface functionalization by thiol-ene chemistry (TEC) and surface chain transfer free radical polymerization (SCT-FRP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Chiaula, Valeria; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    functionalization of excess thiol groups via photochemical thiol-ene chemistry (TEC) resulting in a functional monolayer. In addition, surface chain transfer free radical polymerization (SCT-FRP) was used for the first time to introduce a thicker polymer layer on the particle surface. The application potential...

  1. Functionalization of embedded thiol-ene waveguides for evanescent wave induced fluorescence detection in a microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of functional surface groups inherently present on off-stoichiometric thiol−ene polymers, for site-specific immobilization of biomolecules and detection by evanescent wave-induced fluorescence. An optofluidic chip featuring an embedded thiol−ene waveguide was selectively...... functionalized with biotin using photografting. The biotin was used for immobilization of fluorescently labelled streptavidin, and experiments revealed a linear correlation between streptavidin concentration and fluorescent intensity. To further demonstrate the attractiveness of using thiol−ene for optofluidic...... devices, the optical properties of thiol−ene was evaluated by determining the transparency and refractive index of the cured polymer....

  2. Functionalization of embedded thiol-ene waveguides for evanescent wave-induced fluorescence detection in a microfluidic device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feidenhans, Nikolaj A.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Lafleur, Josiane P.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of functional surface groups inherently present on off-stoichiometric thiol-ene polymers, for site-specific immobilization of biomolecules and detection by evanescent wave-induced fluorescence. An optofluidic chip featuring an embedded thiol-ene waveguide was selectively...... functionalized with biotin using photografting. The biotin was used for immobilization of fluorescently labelled streptavidin, and experiments revealed a linear correlation between streptavidin concentration and fluorescent intensity. To further demonstrate the attractiveness of using thiol-ene for optofluidic...... devices, the optical properties of thiol-ene was evaluated by determining the transparency and refractive index of the cured polymer....

  3. Tornide väljaku müüriäärse ala tulevik endiselt ebaselge / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna linna ja ehitusfirma Restor vaheline tüli linnamüüri äärse maa täisehitamise suhtes Suurtüki kvartalis pole lahendust leidnud. Linnaosavalitsus soovib müüri äärde parki ja tahab algatada ala detaiplaneeringut. Restoril on Plate ja Eppingi torni vahel ridaelamuboksid juba välja ehitatud

  4. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPases ALA6 and ALA7 Impairs Pollen Fitness and Alters the Pollen Tube Plasma Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C McDowell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to create and maintain lipid asymmetry in biological membranes by flipping specific lipids between membrane leaflets. In Arabidopsis, 7 of the 12 Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA family members are expressed in pollen. Here we show that double knockout of ALA6 and ALA7 (ala6/7 results in siliques with a ~2-fold reduction in seed set with a high frequency of empty seed positions near the bottom. Seed set was reduced to near zero when plants were grown under a hot/cold temperature stress. Reciprocal crosses indicate that the ala6/7 reproductive deficiencies are due to a defect related to pollen transmission. In-vitro growth assays provide evidence that that ala6/7 pollen tubes are short and slow, with ~2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length relative to wild-type. Outcrosses show that when ala6/7 pollen are in competition with wild-type pollen, they have a near 0% success rate in fertilizing ovules near the bottom of the pistil, consistent with ala6/7 pollen having short and slow growth defects. The ala6/7 phenotypes were rescued by the expression of either an ALA6-YFP or GFP-ALA6 fusion protein, which showed localization to both the plasma membrane and highly-mobile endomembrane structures. A mass spectrometry analysis of mature pollen grains revealed significant differences between ala6/7 and wild-type, both in the relative abundance of lipid classes and in the average number of double bonds present in acyl side chains. A change in the properties of the ala6/7 plasma membrane was also indicated by a ~10-fold reduction of labeling by lipophilic FM-dyes relative to wild-type. Together, these results indicate that ALA6 and ALA7 provide redundant activities that function to directly or indirectly change the distribution and abundance lipids in pollen, and support a model in which ALA6 and ALA7 are critical for pollen fitness under normal and temperature-stress conditions.

  5. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for Marfey's derivatives of L-Ala, D-Ala, and D-Ala-D-Ala: application to the in vivo confirmation of alanine racemase as the target of cycloserine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamindar, Darshan; Gutheil, William G

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis is the target of several antibacterial agents and is also of interest as a target for future antibacterial agent development. Given the now widespread availability of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) instruments, the development of LC-MS/MS assays for cell wall biosynthesis intermediates would fill a needed gap in the analytical methodology available for antibacterial agent discovery and characterization. An LC-MS/MS assay for several early cell wall intermediates-L-Ala, D-Ala, and D-Ala-D-Ala-has been developed. This method relies on derivatization of bacterial extracts with Marfey's reagent. Marfey's reagent adducts of L-Ala and D-Ala were cleanly separated chromatographically, allowing Marfey's adducts of D-Ala and L-Ala to be separated prior to mass spectrometry (MS) detection and quantitation. The Marfey's adduct of D-Ala-D-Ala was also readily detectable using this same approach. This method shows good linearity (R(2)>0.99), with a lower limit of quantitation of 1 pmol. This assay was demonstrated for characterization of the in vivo effect of cycloserine on Escherichia coli. Cycloserine resulted in a dramatic lowering of both D-Ala and D-Ala-D-Ala levels. Ampicillin had little effect on levels of these three metabolites, consistent with the actions of ampicillin on the later stages of cell wall biosynthesis. These observations indicate that cycloserine inhibits alanine racemase production of D-Ala in E. coli and demonstrates the utility of this assay in directly assessing D-Ala branch targeted antibacterial agents.

  6. Surface modification of cyclomatrix polyphosphazene microsphere by thiol-ene chemistry and lectin recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen; Zhu, Xue-yan; Gao, Qiao-ling; Fang, Fei; Huang, Xiao-jun, E-mail: hxjzxh@zju.edu.cn

    2016-11-30

    Graphical abstract: A new synthetic route leading to polyphosphazene cyclomatrix microsphere with various functional groups has achieved via thiol-ene click modification. Herein, hexacholorocyclophosphazene (HCCP) crosslinked with bisphenol-S and 4,4′-diallyl bisphenol-S to generate broadly dispersed microspheres. Thiol-ene modification under UV irradiation not only presented high efficiency and flexibility for post-functionalization, but also imposed no harm on global morphology and crosslinked skeleton of such microspheres. - Highlights: • Functional polyphosphazene microspheres with high chemical flexibility were synthesized by thiol-ene modification. • Polyphosphazene microspheres possessed high thermal stability. • Glycosylated polyphosphazene microspheres showed affinity to lectin Con-A, which inferred potential application in biomedicine. - Abstract: A new synthetic route leading to functional polyphosphazene cyclomatrix microsphere has been developed via thiol-ene click modification. Hexacholorocyclophosphazene (HCCP) was crosslinked with both bisphenol-S and 4,4′-diallyl bisphenol-S to obtain vinyl polyphosphazene microspheres (VPZM) in order to ensure high crosslinking degree and introduce vinyl moieties. Compared to the microspheres obtained by HCCP and bisphenol-S, the size of VPZM was broadly dispersed from 400 nm to 1.40 μm. Thiol-ene click reactions were carried out to attach functional groups, such as glucosyl, carboxyl, ester and dodecyl groups onto polyphosphazene microspheres, which demonstrated no change in morphology and size after modification. Solid state NMR (SSNMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR) results showed that the vinyl moieties were introduced in the period of crosslinking and functionalization was also successful via click reactions. Moreover, the microspheres presented a little difference in thermal properties after modification. Concanavalin A (Con-A) fluorescent adsorption was also observed for

  7. Thiol-ene functionalized siloxanes for use as elastomeric dental impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Megan A; Jankousky, Katherine C; Bowman, Christopher N

    2014-04-01

    Thiol- and allyl-functionalized siloxane oligomers are synthesized and evaluated for use as a radical-mediated, rapid set elastomeric dental impression material. Thiol-ene siloxane formulations are crosslinked using a redox-initiated polymerization scheme, and the mechanical properties of the thiol-ene network are manipulated through the incorporation of varying degrees of plasticizer and kaolin filler. Formulations with medium and light body consistencies are further evaluated for their ability to accurately replicate features on both the gross and microscopic levels. We hypothesize that thiol-ene functionalized siloxane systems will exhibit faster setting times and greater detail reproduction than commercially available polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) materials of comparable consistencies. Thiol-ene functionalized siloxane mixtures formulated with varying levels of redox initiators, plasticizer, and kaolin filler are made and evaluated for their polymerization speed (FTIR), consistency (ISO4823.9.2), and surface energy (goniometer). Feature replication is evaluated quantitatively by SEM. The Tg, storage modulus, and creep behavior are determined by DMA. Increasing redox initiation rate increases the polymerization rate but at high levels also limits working time. Combining 0.86 wt% oxidizing agent with up to 5 wt% plasticizer gave a working time of 3 min and a setting time of 2 min. The selected medium and light body thiol-ene formulations also achieved greater qualitative detail reproduction than the commercial material and reproduced micrometer patterns with 98% accuracy. Improving detail reproduction and setting speed is a primary focus of dental impression material design and synthesis. Radical-mediated polymerizations, particularly thiol-ene reactions, are recognized for their speed, reduced shrinkage, and 'click' nature. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid and simple preparation of thiol-ene emulsion-templated monoliths and their application as enzymatic microreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P; Senkbeil, Silja; Novotny, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    electron microscopy showed that the methanol-based emulsion templating process resulted in a network of highly interconnected and regular thiol-ene beads anchored solidly inside thiol-ene microchannels. Surface area measurements indicate that the monoliths are macroporous, with no or little micro...

  9. Crosslinking and degradation of step-growth hydrogels formed by thiol-ene photo-click chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Han; Lin, Chien-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Thiol-ene photo-click hydrogels have been used for a variety of tissue engineering and controlled release applications. In this step-growth photopolymerization scheme, multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol) norbornene (PEG4NB) was crosslinked with di-thiol containing crosslinkers to form chemically crosslinked hydrogels. While the mechanism of thiol-ene gelation was well described in the literature, its network ideality and degradation behaviors are not well-characterized. Here, we compared the network crosslinking of thiol-ene hydrogels to Michael-type addition hydrogels and found thiol-ene hydrogels formed with faster gel points and higher degree of crosslinking. However, thiol-ene hydrogels still contained significant network non-ideality, demonstrated by a high dependency of hydrogel swelling on macromer contents. In addition, the presence of ester bonds within the PEG-norbornene macromer rendered thiol-ene hydrogels hydrolytically degradable. Through validating model predictions with experimental results, we found that the hydrolytic degradation of thiol-ene hydrogels was not only governed by ester bond hydrolysis, but also affected by the degree of network crosslinking. In an attempt to manipulate network crosslinking and degradation of thiol-ene hydrogels, we incorporated peptide crosslinkers with different sequences and characterized the hydrolytic degradation of these PEG-peptide hydrogels. In addition, we incorporated a chymotrypsin-sensitive peptide as part of the crosslinkers to tune the mode of gel degradation from bulk degradation to surface erosion. PMID:22708824

  10. 3-(1H-Indol-3-yl-4-(morpholin-4-ylcyclobut-3-ene-1,2-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Grünefeld

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 3-(1H-Indol-3-yl-4-(morpholin-4-ylcyclobut-3-ene-1,2-dione was obtained in good yields (72–82% by nucleophilic substitution of 3-chloro-4-(1H-indol-3-ylcyclobut-3-ene-1,2-dione with morpholine.

  11. Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2013-01-01

    The suitable optical properties of thiol–ene polymers combined with the ease of modifying their surface for the attachment of recognition molecules make them ideal candidates in many biochip applications. This paper reports the rapid one-step photochemical surface patterning of biomolecules...... ! 17 SH nm"2. Biotin alkyne was patterned directly inside thiol–ene microchannels prior to conjugation with fluorescently labelled streptavidin. The surface bound conjugates were detected by evanescent waveinduced fluorescence (EWIF), demonstrating the success of the grafting procedure and its...... potential for biochip applications....

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Fluorinated Hydrophobic UV-Crosslinkable Thiol-Ene Polyurethane Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The polyurethane prepolymer terminated with a double bond was synthesized using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI, hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB, 1,4-butanediol (BDO, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA. Then, a series of innovative UV-curable polyurethane coatings were prepared by blending ene-terminated polyurethane, fluoroacrylate monomer, and multifunctional thiol crosslinker upon UV exposure. The incorporation of fluoroacrylate monomer and multifunctional thiols into polyurethane coatings significantly enhanced the hydrophobic property, mechanical property, pencil hardness, and glossiness of the polyurethane coatings. This method of preparing UV crosslinkable, hydrophobic polyurethane coatings based on thiol-ene chemistry exhibited numerous advantages over other UV photocuring systems.

  13. Accurate charge density of the tripeptide Ala-Pro-Ala with the maximum entropy method (MEM): influence of data resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Kalinowski, Roman; Luger, Peter; van Smaalen, Sander

    2007-08-01

    The accurate electron density of Ala-Pro-Ala is determined by the maximum entropy method (MEM), employing the same reflection data measured at 100 K which was used for a multipole refinement by Kalinowski et al. [(2007), Acta Cryst. Accepted for publication]. Properties of the electron density are compared with the corresponding properties of the static electron density from the multipole model and to the dynamic MEM electron density of trialanine at 20 K. It is thus shown that the increased thermal smearing at 100 K leads to lower electron densities in the bond critical points and atomic charges closer to zero for Ala-Pro-Ala than has been obtained for trialanine at 20 K. The influence of the resolution of the data is investigated by a series of MEM calculations. Atomic charges and atomic volumes are found not to depend on the resolution, but the charge density in the BCPs decreases with decreasing resolution of the dataset. The origin of this dependence is found to lie mostly in the more accurate estimate of the atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) for the higher-resolution datasets. If these effects are taken into account, meaningful information on chemical bonding can be obtained with data at a resolution better than d(min) = 0.63 A. Alternatively, low-resolution X-ray diffraction data can be used in accurate electron-density studies by the MEM, if another source of accurate values of the ADPs is available, e.g. from refinements with multipole parameters from a database of transferable multipole parameters.

  14. Prostatic alpha-linolenic acid (ALA is positively associated with aggressive prostate cancer: a relationship which may depend on genetic variation in ALA metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Azrad

    Full Text Available Previous observational studies have reported associations between prostate cancer and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA. However, few investigations have been able to study this relationship prospectively and in well-controlled settings. Moreover, no studies have determined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that influence ALA metabolism are associated with this common cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between prostatic levels of ALA, SNPs and prostate cancer-specific biomarkers in samples collected from a previous randomized clinical trial conducted using a presurgical model and which tested the effects of flaxseed supplementation, a rich source of ALA, prior to prostatectomy (n = 134. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA was determined and immunohistochemistry was used to assess tumor proliferation rate (Ki67. Prostatic ALA was determined with gas chromatography. Seven previously identified SNPs associated with delta-6 desaturase activity (rs99780, rs174537, rs174545, rs174572, rs498793, rs3834458 and rs968567 were tested for associations with prostatic ALA, PSA and Ki67. Despite consuming seven times more ALA per day, men in the flaxseed arm had similar amounts of prostatic ALA relative to men not consuming flaxseed. In unadjusted analysis, there were significant positive associations between prostatic ALA and PSA (ρ = 0.191, p = 0.028 and Ki67 (ρ = 0.186, p = 0.037. After adjusting for covariates (flaxseed, age, race, BMI and statin-use the association between ALA and PSA remained (p = 0.004 but was slightly attenuated for Ki67 (p = 0.051. We did not observe associations between any of the SNPs studied and prostatic ALA; however, in models for PSA there was a significant interaction between rs498793 and ALA and for Ki67 there were significant interactions with ALA and rs99780 and rs174545. Independent and inverse associations were observed between rs174572 and Ki67. This study

  15. Impact of charged amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of L-alanine exporter, AlaE, of Escherichia coli on the L-alanine export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seryoung; Ihara, Kohei; Katsube, Satoshi; Ando, Tasuke; Isogai, Emiko; Yoneyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The Escherichia coli alaE gene encodes the L-alanine exporter, AlaE, that catalyzes active export of L-alanine using proton electrochemical potential. The transporter comprises only 149 amino acid residues and four predicted transmembrane domains (TMs), which contain three charged amino acid residues. The AlaE-deficient L-alanine non-metabolizing cells (ΔalaE cells) appeared hypersusceptible to L-alanyl-L-alanine showing a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5 µg/ml for the dipeptide due to a toxic accumulation of L-alanine. To elucidate the mechanism by which AlaE exports L-alanine, we replaced charged amino acid residues in the TMs, glutamic acid-30 (TM-I), arginine-45 (TM-II), and aspartic acid-84 (TM-III) with their respective charge-conserved amino acid or a net neutral cysteine. The ΔalaE cells producing R45K or R45C appeared hypersusceptible to the dipeptide, indicating that arginine-45 is essential for AlaE activity. MIC of the dipeptide in the ΔalaE cells expressing E30D and E30C was 156 µg/ml and >10,000 µg/ml, respectively, thereby suggesting that a negative charge at this position is not essential. The ΔalaE cells expressing D84E or D84C showed an MIC >10,000 and 78 µg/ml, respectively, implying that a negative charge is required at this position. These results were generally consistent with that of the L-alanine accumulation experiments in intact cells. We therefore concluded that charged amino acid residues (R45 and D84) in the AlaE transmembrane domain play a pivotal role in L-alanine export. Replacement of three cysteine residues at C22, C28 (both in TM-I), and C135 (C-terminal region) with alanine showed only a marginal effect on L-alanine export.

  16. Mait Agu nimelise stipendiumi pälvivad aastal 2013 Eliisa Sokk ja Ene Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli koreograafia osakond annab Mait Agu nimelist stipendiumi välja viieteistkümnendat korda. Stipendiumi saavad TLÜ koreograafia osakonna 3. kursuse tudeng Eliisa Sokk ja TLÜ koreograafia eriala 2. lennu lõpetaja, tantsuansambli "Sõleke" looja ning juht Ene Jakobson

  17. Preparation of Biomolecule Microstructures and Microarrays by Thiol–ene Photoimmobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinrich, Dirk; Köhn, Maja; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Westerlind, Ulrika; Dehmelt, Leif; Engelkamp, Hans; Christianen, Peter C.M.; Kuhlmann, Jürgen; Maan, Jan C.; Nüsse, Dirk; Schröder, Hendrik; Wacker, Ron; Voges, Edgar; Breinbauer, Rolf; Kunz, Horst; Niemeyer, Christof M.; Waldmann, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    A mild, fast and flexible method for photoimmobilization of biomolecules based on the light-initiated thiol–ene reaction has been developed. After investigation and optimization of various surface materials, surface chemistries and reaction parameters, microstructures and microarrays of biotin,

  18. Patterned Hydrophilization of Nanoporous 1,2‐PB by Thiol‐ene Photochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Anton; Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Ndoni, Sokol

    2011-01-01

    is monitored by FT‐IR, UV–Vis, contact angle, and gravimetry. Overall quantum yields are calculated for the two thiol‐ene “click” reactions in nano‐confinement, neatly revealing their chain‐like nature. Top–down photolithographic patterning is demonstrated, realizing hydrophilic nanoporous “corridors...

  19. On-resin peptide macrocyclization using thiol-ene click chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Aimetti, Alex A.; Shoemaker, Richard K.; Lin, Chien-Chi; Anseth, Kristi S

    2010-01-01

    A versatile and rapid synthetic strategy has been developed for the on-resin cyclization of peptides using thiol-ene photochemistry. This unique method exploits the thiol group of natural cysteine amino acids and allows for various alkenes to be incorporated orthogonal to the peptide backbone.

  20. Efforts toward rapid construction of the cortistatin A carbocyclic core via enyne-ene metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgartner, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    Our efforts toward the construction of the carbocylic core of cortistatin A via an enyne-ene metathesis are disclosed. Interestingly, an attempted S N2 inversion of a secondary mesylate in our five-membered D-ring piece gave a product with retention of stereochemistry. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Functional monolayers on oxide-free silicon surfaces via thiol–ene click chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caipa Campos, Mabel A.; Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes; Zuilhof, Han

    2010-01-01

    Thiol–ene click chemistry was used for the attachment of a variety of functional molecules onto oxide-free Si(111) surfaces using very mild conditions; the efficient nature of this coupling strategy allowed for successful light-induced micropatterning and thus provides a novel route towards

  2. Development of Thermal and Photochemical Strategies for Thiol−Ene Click Polymer Functionalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, Luis M.; Killops, Kato L.; Sakai, Ryosuke; Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes; Damiron, Denis; Drockenmuller, Eric; Messmore, Benjamin W.; Hawker, Craig J.

    2008-01-01

    A series of alkene-functional polymers were synthesized by controlled polymerization techniques in order to investigate and compare the efficiency and orthogonality of both photochemically and thermally initiated thiol−ene click coupling reactions. The copolymers were designed to have single or

  3. DFT Investigation of the Palladium-Catalyzed Ene-Yne Coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Tanner, David Ackland; Skrydstrup, T.

    2010-01-01

    ). Concerning chemoselectivity, the calculations also clarify why the ene-yne coupling is able to dominate over plausible alternative reaction pathways such as alkene homocoupiing and alkyne polymerization. The role of the phosphine ligand at various stages of the catalytic cycle has also been delineated....

  4. Electron swarm parameter measurements of perfluorobut-2-ene (2-C4F8)

    OpenAIRE

    Chachereau, Alise; Franck, Christian M.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, the electron swarm parameters of perfluorobut-2-ene (2-C4F8) mixtures with the buffer gases N2, CO2 and Argon are experimentally investigated. The effective ionization rate constant and electron drift velocity are measured in the entire E/N range up to the critical density-reduced electric field.

  5. Rapid photochemical surface patterning of proteins in thiol-ene based microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Kwapiszewski, Radoslaw; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2012-01-01

    ” and “ene” monomers present in the microfluidic chip bulk material provides a simple and efficient way of tuning the chip’s surface chemistry. Here, thiol-ene chips displaying an excess of functional thiol groups at their surfaces are functionalized with biotin and streptavidin in a controlled fashion using...

  6. Keelemapi katsetamise tagasiside õpetajatelt / Pilvi Alp, Suliko Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alp, Pilvi

    2005-01-01

    Keelemapi Eesti tööversiooni katsetustest Eesti koolides alates 2004. a. septembrist - Pelguranna Gümnaasiumis, Gustav Adolfi Gümnaasiumis, Rahumäe Põhikoolis, Tallinna Inglise Kolledžis, Paide Ühisgümnaasiumis ja Kose Gümnaasiumis

  7. Monitoring blood flow and photobleaching during topical ALA PDT treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Theresa L.; Sunar, Ulas; Foster, Thomas H.; Oseroff, Allan R.

    2009-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using topical aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is currently used as a clinical treatment for nonmelanoma skin cancers. In order to optimize PDT treatment, vascular shutdown early in treatment must be identified and prevented. This is especially important for topical ALA PDT where vascular shutdown is only temporary and is not a primary method of cell death. Shutdown in vasculature would limit the delivery of oxygen which is necessary for effective PDT treatment. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) was used to monitor relative blood flow changes in Balb/C mice undergoing PDT at fluence rates of 10mW/cm2 and 75mW/cm2 for colon-26 tumors implanted intradermally. DCS is a preferable method to monitor the blood flow during PDT of lesions due to its ability to be used noninvasively throughout treatment, returning data from differing depths of tissue. Photobleaching of the photosensitizer was also monitored during treatment as an indirect manner of monitoring singlet oxygen production. In this paper, we show the conditions that cause vascular shutdown in our tumor model and its effects on the photobleaching rate.

  8. A Study of Functional Polymer Colloids Prepared Using Thiol-Ene/Yne Click Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Olivia Z.

    This project demonstrates the first instance of thiol-ene chemistry as the polymerization method for the production of polymer colloids in two-phase heterogeneous suspensions, miniemulsions, and emulsions. This work was also expanded to thiol-yne chemistry for the production of polymer particles containing increased crosslinking density. The utility of thiol-ene and thiol-yne chemistries for polymerization and polymer modification is well established in bulk systems. These reactions are considered 'click' reactions, which can be defined as processes that are both facile and simple, offering high yields with nearly 100% conversion, no side products, easy product separation, compatibility with a diverse variety of commercially available starting materials, and orthogonality with other chemistries. In addition, thiol-ene and thiol-yne chemistry follow a step-growth mechanism for the development of highly uniform polymer networks, where polymer growth is dependent on the coupling of functional groups. These step-growth polymerization systems are in stark contrast to the chain-growth mechanisms of acrylic and styrenic monomers that have dominated the field of conventional heterogeneous polymerizations. Preliminary studies evaluated the mechanism of particle production in suspension and miniemulsion systems. Monomer droplets were compared to the final polymer particles to confirm that particle growth occurred through the polymerization of monomer droplets. Additional parameters examined include homogenization energy (mechanical mixing), diluent species and concentration, and monomer content. These reactions were conducted using photoinitiation to yield particles in a matter of minutes with diameters in the size range of several microns to hundreds of microns in suspensions or submicron particles in miniemulsions. Improved control over the particle size and size distribution was examined through variation of reaction parameters. In addition, a method of seeded suspension

  9. Photodynamic Detection of Peritoneal Metastases Using 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Yonemura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past, peritoneal metastasis (PM was considered as a terminal stage of cancer. From the early 1990s, however, a new comprehensive treatment consisting of cytoreductive surgery and perioperative chemotherapy has been established to improve long-term survival for selected patients with PM. Among prognostic indicators after the treatment, completeness of cytoreduction is the most independent predictors of survival. However, peritoneal recurrence is a main cause of recurrence, even after complete cytoreduction. As a cause of peritoneal recurrence, small PM may be overlooked at the time of cytoreductive surgery (CRS, therefore, development of a new method to detect small PM is desired. Recently, photodynamic diagnosis (PDD was developed for detection of PM. The objectives of this review were to evaluate whether PDD using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA could improve detection of small PM.

  10. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for d-Ala-d-Lac: a key intermediate for vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putty, Sandeep; Vemula, Harika; Bobba, Sudheer; Gutheil, William G

    2013-11-15

    Vancomycin exerts its antibacterial activity by binding to d-Ala-d-Ala in bacterial cell wall precursors. Vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is due to an alternative cell wall biosynthesis pathway in which d-Ala-d-Ala is replaced, most commonly by d-Ala-d-Lac. In this study, we extend our recently developed Marfey's derivatization-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for l-Ala, d-Ala, and d-Ala-d-Ala to d-Ala-d-Lac and apply it to the quantitation of these metabolites in VRE. The first step in this effort was the development of an effective washing method for removing medium components from VRE cells. Mar-d-Ala-d-Lac was well resolved chromatographically from Mar-d-Ala-d-Ala, a prerequisite for MS/MS quantitation of d-Ala-d-Ala and d-Ala-d-Lac. Mar-d-Ala-d-Lac gave similar detection parameters, sensitivity, and linearity as Mar-d-Ala-d-Ala. l-Ala, d-Ala, d-Ala-d-Ala, and d-Ala-d-Lac levels in VRE were then determined in the presence of variable vancomycin levels. Exposure to vancomycin resulted in a dramatic reduction of d-Ala-d-Ala, with a response midpoint at approximately 0.06μg/ml vancomycin and with a broad response profile up to 128μg/ml vancomycin. In contrast, d-Ala-d-Lac was present in the absence of vancomycin, with its level constant up to 128μg/ml vancomycin. This method will be useful for the discovery, characterization, and refinement of new agents targeting vancomycin resistance in VRE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a thiol-ene based screening platform for enzyme immobilization demonstrated using horseradish peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Pinelo, Manuel; Woodley, John

    2017-01-01

    functionalization by thiol-ene chemistry (TEC) resulted in the formation of a functional monolayer in each well, whereas, polymer surface grafts were introduced through surface chain transfer free radical polymerization (SCT-FRP). Enzyme immobilization on the modified surfaces was evaluated by using a rhodamine...... labeled horseradish peroxidase (Rho-HRP) as a model enzyme, and the amount of immobilized enzyme was qualitatively assessed by fluorescence intensity (FI) measurements. Subsequently, Rho-HRP activity was measured directly on the surface. The broad range of utilized surface chemistries permits direct...... correlation of enzymatic activity to the surface functionality and improves the determination of promising enzyme-surface candidates. The results underline the high potential of this system as a screening platform for synergistic immobilization of enzymes onto thiol-ene polymer surfaces. This article...

  12. Hybrid thiol-ene network nanocomposites based on multi(meth)acrylate POSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liguo; Liang, Rendong; Li, Yajie; Liu, Hongzhi; Feng, Shengyu

    2013-09-15

    First, multi(meth)acrylate functionalized POSS monomers were synthesized in this paper. Secondly, FTIR was used to evaluate the homopolymerization behaviors of multi(meth)acrylate POSS and their copolymerization behaviors in the thiol-ene reactions with octa(3-mercaptopropyl) POSS in the presence of photoinitiator. Results showed that the photopolymerization rate of multimethacrylate POSS was faster than that of multiacrylate POSS. The FTIR results also showed that the copolymerizations were dominant in the thiol-ene reactions with octa(3-mercaptopropyl) POSS, different from traditional (meth)acrylate-thiol system, in which homopolymerizations were predominant. Finally, the resulted hybrid networks based on POSS were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, DSC, and TGA. The characterization results showed that hybrid networks based on POSS were homogeneous and exhibited high thermal stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acyloxylation of 1-methoxycyclohex-1-ene and other enol ethers with dimethyl peroxydicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Schank, Kurt; Beck, Horst; Pistorius, Susanne; Rapold, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Acyloxylation of different types of enol ethers (derived from aldehydes and ketones) by dimethyl peroxydicarbonate (DPDC) results in either addition to the double bond or in a formal replacement of an allylic hydrogen by a methoxycarbonyloxy group forming vicinal oxygenated hydrocarbons. 1,3-oxygenated products via monoacyloxylation could not be observed. The results with 1-methoxycyclohex-1-ene (1a) are compared with copper(I)-salt catalyzed acyloxylations by means of tert. butyl peroxycarbo...

  14. Heterofunctional Glycopolypeptides by Combination of Thiol-Ene Chemistry and NCA Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krannig, Kai-Steffen; Schlaad, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Glycopolypeptides are prepared either by the polymerization of glycosylated amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) or by the post-polymerization functionalization of polypeptides with suitable functional groups. Here we present a method for the in-situ functionalization and (co-) polymerization of allylglycine N-carboxyanhydride in a facile one-pot procedure, combining radical thiol-ene photochemistry and nucleophilic ring-opening polymerization techniques, to yield well-defined heterofunctional glycopolypeptides.

  15. Ene-Liis Semper : Kohalolu piiritsoonis = Presence in the border zone / Anu Allas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allas, Anu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Teatri- ja videokunstnik Ene-Liis Semperi peamiselt 1990-ndate aastate videotest, mis on valdavalt rõhutatult lavastuslikud, paisutatult sümbolistlikud või kus on esitatud piirsituatsioone, ahistust ning selle teadlikku eksponeerimist väljakutsena publikule. Iseennast paljastades, alandades ja ohtu seades jääb kunstnik enamasti jahedalt distantseerituks, publikule jääb aga arusaamatuks, kas tegemist on ohvri, kangelanna või osava mänguriga

  16. One-pot, additive-free preparation of functionalized polyurethanes via amine-thiol-ene conjugation

    OpenAIRE

    Espeel, Pieter; Goethals, Fabienne; Driessen, Frank; Nguyen, Le Thu Thi; Du Prez, Filip

    2013-01-01

    A straightforward, isocyanate-free method for the synthesis of functionalized polyurethanes, based on amine-thiol-ene conjugation, was elaborated. Aminolysis of a readily available AB'-urethane monomer, containing both an acrylate (A) and a thiolactone unit (B'), facilitates the preparation of various reactive thiol-acrylates. In situ polymerization via Michael addition proceeds under ambient conditions, yielding polyurethanes with a large variety of chemical functionalities. Side-chain funct...

  17. Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) from Rosa canina, sacha inchi and chia oils may increase ALA accretion and its conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in diverse tissues of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela B, Rodrigo; Barrera R, Cynthia; González-Astorga, Marcela; Sanhueza C, Julio; Valenzuela B, Alfonso

    2014-07-25

    Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential n-3 PUFA; its n-3 LCPUFA derivatives EPA and DHA, which have diverse beneficial effects, are scarce in the human diet. In recent years nontraditional vegetable oils rich in ALA (up to 45%) have been developed as new alternatives to increase ALA consumption. This work evaluated the accretion of ALA, EPA and DHA into the phospholipids extracted from erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, quadriceps and the brain in rats fed sunflower (SFO), canola (CO), Rosa canina (RCO), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, SIO) and chia (Salvia hispánica, ChO) oils. Five experimental groups (n = 12 per group) were fed for 21 days with SFO (1% ALA), CO (10% ALA), RCO (33% ALA), SIO (49% ALA), and ChO (64% ALA). SIO and ChO allowed higher ALA accretion in all tissues, except the brain, and a reduction in the content of arachidonic acid in all tissues except the brain. EPA was increased in erythrocytes, liver, kidney, small intestine, heart and quadriceps, but not in the brain. DHA was increased in the liver, small intestine and brain tissues. Our results demonstrate that ALA, when provided in significant amounts, can be converted into n-3 LCPUFA, mostly DHA in the liver and brain. It is suggested that oils rich in ALA, such as SIO and ChO, are good sources for obtaining higher tissue levels of ALA, also allowing its selective conversion into n-3 LCPUFA in some tissues of the rat.

  18. Thiol-Ene Based Polymer Waveguides Fabricated By Uv-Assisted Soft Lithography For Optofluidic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Guisheng; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a thiol-ene based polymer waveguide, defined by UV-assisted soft lithography, is designed, fabricated and characterized. Waveguides are formed by filling microfluidic channels with a high refractive index liquid mixture of ‘thiol’ and ‘ene’ monomers (e.g., trimethylolpropane tris(3...... thiol-ene based polymers as waveguide core materials for potential optofluidic applications.......In this paper, a thiol-ene based polymer waveguide, defined by UV-assisted soft lithography, is designed, fabricated and characterized. Waveguides are formed by filling microfluidic channels with a high refractive index liquid mixture of ‘thiol’ and ‘ene’ monomers (e.g., trimethylolpropane tris(3......-mercaptopropionate) = ‘thiol’, and 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione = ‘ene’), which can be cured by UV exposure into a solid polymer. The waveguides demonstrated good confinement of light, and a propagation loss of 0.5 dB/cm was obtained. To our best knowledge, this is the first report to employ...

  19. Facile and Efficient Synthesis of Carbosiloxane Dendrimers via Orthogonal Click Chemistry Between Thiol and Ene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhida; Feng, Shengyu; Zhang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    A combination of a thiol-Michael addition reaction and a free radical mediated thiol-ene reaction is employed as a facile and efficient approach to carbosiloxane dendrimer synthesis. For the first time, carbosiloxane dendrimers are constructed rapidly by an orthogonal click strategy without protection/deprotection procedures. The chemoselectivity of these two thiol-ene click reactions leads to a design of a new monomer containing both electron-deficient carbon-carbon double bonds and unconjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. Siloxane bonds are introduced as the linker between these two kinds of carbon-carbon double bonds. Starting from a bifunctional thiol core, the dendrimers are constructed by iterative thiol-ene click reactions under different but both mild reaction conditions. After simple purification steps the fifth dendrimer with 54 peripheral functional groups is obtained with an excellent overall yield in a single day. Furthermore, a strong blue glow is observed when the dendrimer is excited by a UV lamp. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Absence of GABRA1 Ala322Asp mutation in juvenile myoclonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    An Ala322Asp mutation in the GABRA1 gene was recently reported to be responsible for causing the autosomal dominant (AD) form of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in a French-Canadian family. To study if JME families from India exhibiting the AD mode of inheritance carry the Ala322Asp mutation, we examined 35 ...

  1. In memoriam : tõlkija ja diplomaat Arvo Alas 1943-2007

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Taanis suri Eesti kirjanik ja tõlkija, kauaaegne suursaadik Põhjamaades Arvo-Jürgen Alas. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves ütleb oma järelehüüdes, et Arvo Alas tegi oma kirjutiste ja tõlgete abil olulise osa Skandinaavia kultuuripärandist Eesti rahvale kättesaadavaks ja seeläbi tuttavaks

  2. ALA-PDT inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of SCC cells through STAT3 signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Li; Mei, Zhusong; Yang, Zhiyong; Li, Xinji; Cai, Hong; Liu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that apoptosis of carcinoma cells led by photodynamics is mainly intrinsic apoptosis, but whether the extrinsic pathway is involved in the treatment of carcinoma by photodynamic therapy is not confirmed. This research investigated the effect of ALA-PDT on the proliferation and apoptosis of SCC cell A431 and COLO-16, and discussed the role played by JAK/STAT3 signal pathway in this process. Our data showed that the expression levels STAT3 and p-STAT3 protein in the cancer tissue are higher than the corresponding adjacent tissue to carcinoma. The expression level of p-STAT3 in cancerous tissue has a correlation with the tumor size and tissue histopathological differentiation. ALA-PDT could inhibit proliferation of A431 and COLO-16 cells, STAT3 knock down could enhance ALA-PDT's inhibition of cell proliferation, and promote apoptosis induced by ALA-PDT. On the other hand, overexpression of STAT3 has the opposite effect. In addition, ALA-PDT can weaken the protein expression of STAT3 and its target gene Bcl-2 mRNA, and ALA-PDT can strengthen the protein expression of STAT3's target gene Bax mRNA. Overexpression of STAT3 can offset the effect on Bcl-2 and Bax by ALA-PDT; on the other hand, STAT3 knocking down can strengthen ALA-PDT's effect on Bcl-2 and Bax. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Interaction of Vitamin E Intake and Pro12Ala Polymorphism of PPARG with Adiponectin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Perez, Wendy; Torres-Castillo, Nathaly; Perez-Robles, Mariana; Muñoz-Valle, Jose Francisco; Vizmanos-Lamotte, Barbara; Martinez-Lopez, Erika

    2018-02-02

    One of the beneficial effects associated with vitamin E intake is the enhancement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activity and the consequent upregulation of adiponectin expression. The aim of this study was to analyze the adiponectin levels in subjects with the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG according to vitamin E intake. A total of 283 subjects were enrolled. Total vitamin E intake was estimated based on a validated 3-day food consumption record and analyzed using Nutritionist ProTM software. The Pro12Ala polymorphism (rs1801282) was determined by allelic discrimination. The adiponectin levels were measured by an ELISA assay. Vitamin E intake was deficient in all subjects (1.50 ± 1.78 mg/day). Subjects with higher vitamin E intake levels and the Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala genotype had statistically significant higher levels of serum adiponectin than subjects with the Pro12Pro genotype (4.4 [3.2-5.7] vs. 2.7 [2.0-3.5] μg/mL; p = 0.024). Our results suggest that increased consumption of vitamin E should be encouraged since it has been reported that vitamin E promotes adiponectin expression via PPARγ activation. Subjects with Pro12Pro genotype had lower serum adiponectin levels than subjects with Pro12Ala/Ala12Ala genotype; therefore, they might be at higher risk of developing metabolic complications. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. 75 FR 12254 - Official Trail Marker for the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... National Park Service Official Trail Marker for the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Official Insignia, Designation. Authority: National Trails System Act.... SUMMARY: This notice issues the official trail marker insignia of the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail...

  5. Cognitive deficits and ALA-D-inhibition in children exposed to multiple metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Sabrina N; Barth, Anelise; Göethel, Gabriela; Baierle, Marília; Charão, Mariele F; Brucker, Natália; Moro, Angela M; Bubols, Guilherme B; Sobreira, Johanna S; Sauer, Elisa; Rocha, Rafael; Gioda, Adriana; Dias, Ana Cristina; Salles, Jerusa F; Garcia, Solange C

    2015-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to adverse effects of multiple metals exposure. The aim of this study was to assess some metals concentrations such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in whole blood, serum, hair and drinking water samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in rural and urban children. In addition, evaluate the adverse effects of multiple metals exposure on cognitive function and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The cognitive ability assessment was performed by the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test. The ALA-D activity and ALA-D reactivation index (ALA-RE) activity with DTT and ZnCl2 also were determined. Forty-six rural children and 23 urban children were enrolled in this study. Rural children showed percentile IQ scores in the RCPM test significantly decreased in relation to urban children. According to multiple linear regression analysis, the Mn and Fe in hair may account for the cognitive deficits of children. Manganese and Fe in hair also were positively correlated with Mn and Fe in drinking water, respectively. These results suggest that drinking water is possibly a source of metals exposure in children. ALA-D activity was decreased and ALA-RE with DTT and ZnCl2 was increased in rural children in comparison to urban children. Moreover, ALA-D inhibition was correlated with Cr blood levels and ALA-RE/DDT and ALA-RE/ZnCl2 were correlated with levels of Cr and Hg in blood. Thus, our results indicated some adverse effects of children's exposure to multiple metals, such as cognitive deficits and ALA-D inhibition, mainly associated to Mn, Fe, Cr and Hg. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Agentes Locales Ambientales (ALAs: Hacia la ciudad sostenible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín-Herbert, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Any action aimed at improving the quality of life in a city through more sustainable urban models, based on a reference framework such as the Local Agenda 21 or the, calls for changes to its inhabitants' behaviour. The ALAs project drives this change by making the city's youngest inhabitants Leaders of Change. They involve others (school friends, family members, neighbours in direct action in their neighbourhood, making the community participate independently in improving the city’s sustainability and quality of life. To the sequence “awareness- raising - action - monitoring - motivation tools such as our Geographical Information System have been added to support the neighbourhood action strategy by monitoring its efficiency and its effectiveness at meeting targets.Partiendo de un marco de referencia, como la Agenda Local 21 (1 o la Carta de Leipzig (2, cualquier acción encaminada a una mejora en la calidad de vida de una ciudad a través de modelos urbanos más sostenibles, requiere una modificación en las conductas de sus habitantes. El proyecto ALAs, motiva este cambio a través del paso directo a la acción liderada por los más jóvenes a través del Sistema Educativo quien mediante un efecto multiplicador (compañeros, familiares, vecinos y a través de la acción directa en sus barrios, consigue fomentar la participación autónoma de la población en la mejora de la sostenibilidad (3y la calidad de vida de su ciudad. A la secuencia “concienciación - acción - medición - motivación se han incorporado herramientas como el GIS que apoyan la estrategia de acción en los barrios controlando su e! cacia y e! ciencia en la consecución de los objetivos.

  7. PPARg2 Ala¹² variant protects against Graves' orbitopathy and modulates the course of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Adamska, Edyta; Daroszewski, Jacek; Bolanowski, Marek; Oficjalska, Jolanta; Janusz, Przemyslaw; Szalinski, Marek; Frydecka, Irena

    2013-07-01

    Orbital fibroblast differentiation to adipocytes is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g (PPARg)-dependent process essential for pathogenic tissue remodeling in Graves' orbitopathy (GO). PPARg2 Pro¹²Ala polymorphism modulates expression and/or function of the molecule encoded by this gene and is a promising locus of GO. Here, we analyzed associations of PPARg2 Pro¹²Ala with clinical manifestation of GO in 742 Polish Caucasians including 276 Graves' disease (GD) patients. In our study, the Ala¹² allele and Ala¹² variant (Ala¹²Ala and/or Pro¹²Ala genotype) decreased the risk of GO (p = 0.000012 and p = 0.00013). Moreover, Ala¹²Ala genotype was observed only in patients without GO (p = 0.002). GD patients with Ala¹² variant had less active and less severe eye symptoms. Female carriers of the Ala¹² allele rarely developed GO, but the marker was not related to symptoms of GO. The opposite finding was recorded in males, in whom the studied polymorphism was related to activity, but not to the development, of GO. In Ala¹² variant carriers without familial history of thyroid disease, risk of GO was lower than in persons with a familial background. The Ala¹² allele seemed to protect smokers from GO, but in nonsmokers, such a relation was not obvious. A multivariate analysis indicated the Pro¹²Ala marker as an independent risk factor of eye symptoms (p = 0.0001) and lack of Ala increases the risk of GO 3.24-fold. In conclusion, the gain-of-function Ala¹² variant protects against GO and modulates the course of the disease.

  8. Ala Kusreik Ya- Misak Universidad: Building their own Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Asdrubal Avila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of the Cauca Regional Indigenous Council (CRIC in Colombia, during the 1970, as the land reclamation process in Cauca began, and supported by Colombian laws that grant autonomy for indigenous groups in education (elementary and middle school and higher education, “educación propia” or authoctonous education (that acknowledges ancestral native knowledge became a fundamental issue for the indigenous communities of Cauca. In the municipality of Silvia-Cauca, there is a clear example of this. Since 2011, the construction of an indigenous university began, which is open to all people who wish to become part of it no matter their origin. The following article describes how ALA KUSREIK YA- Misak University seeks to build its own educational system to serve as a platform for recovery of the knowledge, identity and culture of the Misak people, and how, to achieve this purpose, the Misak have been intervened both the architecture of the university, as well as the contents that it offers, their worldview and thoughts about being Misak, based upon the principles of hearing, seeing, thinking, and doing.

  9. Correlation between FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo TIAN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the correlation between FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, insulin resistance (IR, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Methods The genotypes of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism were determined in 135 PCOS patients and 116 normal control subjects by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. At the same time, the anthropometry was performed and metabolism indices were measured. Hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia clamp test was performed in 107 PCOS patients and 20 normal control subjects. Results No significant differences were found in allele frequencies and genotype of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism between PCOS and normal control group (P>0.05. Similarly, no significant differences were found in fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2 hour postchallenge glucose (2hPG, fasting plasma insulin (FINS, homeostasis model assessment 2 (HOMA2-IR, glucose metabolic rate during the euglycemia clamp phase (M120-180, free fatty acids (FFA, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C between Thr54Thr, Ala54Thr genotype and Ala54Ala genotype in PCOS group. Conclusion FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism is not associated with the occurrence of PCOS and IR, and glucose and lipid metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.10

  10. Ala307Thr and Asn680Ser polymorphisms of FSHR gene in human reproduction outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Camila Martins; Peluso, Carla; Cordts, Emerson Barchi; de Oliveira, Renato; Christofolini, Denise Maria; Barbosa, Caio Parente; Bianco, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    It is known that some markers of ovarian stimulation can help to personalize the treatment, adjusting the dose of exogenous rFSH, thus preventing excessive wear of the patient. We aimed to evaluate Ala307Thr and Asn680Ser genotypes of the FSHR gene in infertile women and correlate the findings with the results of ovarian response and assisted reproduction outcomes. Cross-sectional study covering 149 infertile women submitted to assisted reproduction treatment. Genotyping of FSHR variants were performed using TaqMan methodology by real time PCR. FSH and estradiol were measured by ELFA. The data was analyzed statistically. The frequencies of the FSHR Ala307Thr and Asn680Ser genotypes considering the ovarian hyper stimulation response also did not differ statistically. Considering assisted reproduction outcomes, we observed that the polymorphism Ala307Thr have a statistical difference for the number of MII oocytes and embryos (p=0,051 and p=0.037, respectively), which the genotype Ala/Ala showed more embryos. The polymorphisms did not determine the FSH and estradiol serum levels and the ovarian response in the assisted reproduction treatment. The polymorphisms Ala307Thr and Asn680Ser did not determine the FSH and estradiol serum levels and the ovarian response in the assisted reproduction treatment. However, we observed that the Ala307Thr may influence the number of embryos produced. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. EKSISTENSI DAN MOTIVASI PRAMUWISATA LOKAL PEREMPUAN DI DAYA TARIK WISATA ALAS KEDATON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ayu Putu Putri Indira Suari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan pramuwisata lokal yang seluruhnya berjenis kelamin perempuan menjadi keunikan tersendiri bagi Alas Kedaton sebagai suatu daya tarik wisata. Bertujuan untuk mengetahui eksistensi pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton serta untuk mengetahui motivasi mereka bekerja sebagai pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton. Jenis data yang digunakan adalah data kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Sedangkan sumber data yakni data primer dan sekunder. Data dikumpulkan melalui observasi, wawancara, kuesioner dan dokumentasi. Informan ditentukan secara purposive sampling. Terdapat 45 responden yang dipilih sebagai sampel dengan menggunakan metode simple random sampling. Dan teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif kualitatif dan deskriptif kuantitatif. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa eksistensi pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton dari awal terbentuknya sampai saat ini dapat dikatakan masih eksis. Meskipun jumlah pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton berkurang dibandingkan ketika awal terbentuknya. Sedangkan motivasi mereka bekerja sebagai pramuwisata lokal di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton adalah untuk memenuhi beberapa kebutuhan seperti physiological needs, safety and security needs, affiliation or acceptance needs, esteem needs, dan self actualization. Dan rata-rata responden menjawab motivasi mereka bekerja sebagai pramuwisata lokal perempuan di daya tarik wisata Alas Kedaton adalah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan afiliasi atau affiliation or acceptance needs.

  12. Design rules for modulation-doped AlAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoon Jang; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Kamburov, D.; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    2017-07-01

    Owing to their multivalley, anisotropic, energy band structure, two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) in modulation-doped AlAs quantum wells (QWs) provide a unique platform to investigate electron interaction physics and ballistic transport. Indeed, a plethora of phenomena unseen in other 2DESs have been observed over the past decade. However, a foundation for sample design is still lacking for AlAs 2DESs, limiting the means to achieve optimal quality samples. Here, we present a systematic study on the fabrication of modulation-doped AlAs and GaAs QWs over a wide range of AlxGa1 -xAs barrier alloy compositions. Our data indicate clear similarities in modulation doping mechanisms for AlAs and GaAs, and provide guidelines for the fabrication of very high quality AlAs 2DESs. We highlight the unprecedented quality of the fabricated AlAs samples by presenting the magnetotransport data for low-density (≃1 ×1011cm-2 ) AlAs 2DESs that exhibit high-order fractional quantum Hall signatures.

  13. An orthogonal, one-pot, simultaneous UV-mediated route to thiol-ene/sol-gel film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chemtob

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel combination of orthogonal reactions based on UV-driven thiol–ene and alkoxysilyl condensation reactions to form a single-step route toward thioether-bridged silsesquioxane films. Our chemical strategy consists of using two bifunctional (methacrylate (E and propanethiol (T trimethoxysilyl precursors containing two complementary functional moieties for thiol-ene coupling and sol-gel process. The reaction kinetics revealed that c.a. 85% of thiol and ene conversions were consumed concomitantly. Meanwhile, a complete hydrolysis was accomplished, affording ultimately a high degree of condensation (81%. Emphasis was placed on differences of mechanical properties between sol-gel hybrids resulting from thiol-ene reaction (E-T mixture and ene homopolymerization (E only using scratch test measurements. For the methacrylate system, the formation of thioether linkages within a vitreous silica network emerged as a useful strategy for the formation of a uniform, low-stress and flexible crosslinked hybrid structure. Enhanced mechanical properties were manifested by an expanded elastic domain, and better resistance to cracking. Moreover, there are clear indications that mechanical properties can be easily tuned upon varying the ratio of the two hybrid precursors.

  14. Advantages and drawbacks of Thiol-ene based resins for 3D-printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonards, Holger; Engelhardt, Sascha; Hoffmann, Andreas; Pongratz, Ludwig; Schriever, Sascha; Bläsius, Jana; Wehner, Martin; Gillner, Arnold

    2015-03-01

    The technology of 3D printing is conquering the world and awakens the interest of many users in the most varying of applications. New formulation approaches for photo-sensitive thiol-ene resins in combination with various printing technologies, like stereolithography (SLA), projection based printing/digital light processing (DLP) or two-photon polymerization (TPP) are presented. Thiol-ene polymerizations are known for its fast and quantitative reaction and to form highly homogeneous polymer networks. As the resins are locally and temporally photo-curable the polymerization type is very promising for 3D-printing. By using suitable wavelengths, photoinitiator-free fabrication is feasible for single- and two photon induced polymerization. In this paper divinyl ethers of polyethylene glycols in combination with star-shaped tetrathiols were used to design a simple test-system for photo-curable thiol-ene resins. In order to control and improve curing depth and lateral resolution in 3D-polymerization processes, either additives in chemical formulation or process parameters can be changed. The achieved curing depth and resolution limits depend on the applied fabrication method. While two-/multiphoton induced lithography offers the possibility of micron- to sub-micron resolution it lacks in built-up speed. Hence single-photon polymerization is a fast alternative with optimization potential in sub-10-micron resolution. Absorber- and initiator free compositions were developed in order to avoid aging, yellowing and toxicity of resulting products. They can be cured with UV-laser radiation below 300 nm. The development at Fraunhofer ILT is focusing on new applications in the field of medical products and implants, technical products with respect to mechanical properties or optical properties of 3D-printed objects. Recent process results with model system (polyethylene glycol divinylether/ Pentaerithrytol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionat), Raman measurements of polymer conversion

  15. Roll-to-plate fabrication of microfluidic devices with rheology-modified thiol-ene resins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkbeil, Silja; Aho, Johanna; Yde, Leif

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the replication possibilities of microfluidic channels by UV-roll-to-plate fabrication were investigated and a study of rheology-modified thiol-ene for the application in such a UV-roll-to-plate setup was conducted. The system allows the manufacture of channels with aspect ratios...... microfluidic channels with 40 × 95 μm cross-sectional dimensions. Moreover, deeper (90 μm) channels can be fabricated with highly viscous resins based on thiol-terminated oligomers. As a demonstration, capillary electrophoresis chips were prepared and tested for a simple separation of two fluorescent dyes....

  16. Sadama ala planeering = Harbour area master plan / Ivan Sergejev, Helen Rebane, Karina Niinepuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sergejev, Ivan, 1987-

    2010-01-01

    EKA arhitektuuri ja linnaplaneerimise osakonna IV kursuse 2009-2010 õppeaastal erialase projekteerimise raames kavandatud planeeringu eesmärgiks on tihendada Tallinna sadama ala ning arendada sellest välja mitmekesine ja efektiivne linnaruum

  17. Aminolevulinic Acid (ALA as a Prodrug in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Golab

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminolevulinic acid (ALA is an endogenous metabolite normally formed in the mitochondria from succinyl-CoA and glycine. Conjugation of eight ALA molecules yields protoporphyrin IX (PpIX and finally leads to formation of heme. Conversion of PpIX to its downstream substrates requires the activity of a rate-limiting enzyme ferrochelatase. When ALA is administered externally the abundantly produced PpIX cannot be quickly converted to its final product - heme by ferrochelatase and therefore accumulates within cells. Since PpIX is a potent photosensitizer this metabolic pathway can be exploited in photodynamic therapy (PDT. This is an already approved therapeutic strategy making ALA one of the most successful prodrugs used in cancer treatment.

  18. Conversion of the agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS into JavaScript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sredojević, Dejan; Vidaković, Milan; Okanović, Dušan; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows generation of JavaScript code from code written in agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS. ALAS is an agent-oriented domain-specific language for writing software agents that are executed within XJAF middleware. Since the agents can be executed on various platforms, they must be converted into a language of the target platform. We also try to utilize existing tools and technologies to make the whole conversion process as simple as possible, as well as faster and more efficient. We use the Xtext framework that is compatible with Java to implement ALAS infrastructure - editor and code generator. Since Xtext supports Java, generation of Java code from ALAS code is straightforward. To generate a JavaScript code that will be executed within the target JavaScript XJAF implementation, Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is used.

  19. Optimizing Flood and Sediment Management of Spate Irrigation In Aba'ala Plains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebrehiwot, K.; Mehari Haile, A.; Fraiture, de C.M.S.; Demissie Chulkalla, A.; Embaye, T.G.

    2015-01-01

    The Aba’ala spate irrigation systems, traditional and modern, have experienced different set of floodwater and sediment management problems. Despite the dire need of alternative spate irrigation system layout, operational strategy and locally maintainable structures, efforts made to manage

  20. Tight-binding analysis of the electronic states in AlAs with N isoelectronic impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, M., E-mail: masafumi.jo@riken.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mano, T.; Sakuma, Y.; Sakoda, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-03-28

    Incorporation of nitrogen (N) atoms into III–V semiconductors significantly changes their electronic structures. The aim of this study was to assess the electronic states in AlAs that contained N impurities. An sp{sup 3}s{sup *} tight-binding model along with valence-force-field strain calculations were used to obtain the energy levels in N-doped AlAs. The calculations showed that an isolated N atom formed a resonant state above the conduction band edge in AlAs. In contrast, NN{sub 1}[110] and NN{sub 4}[220] pairs formed bound states inside the band gap. The formation of two bound states was consistent with the photoluminescence spectrum of N δ-doped AlAs.

  1. The effects of the heme precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA on REV-ERBα activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Yamashita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear receptor, REV-ERBα, has a key role in circadian rhythms and requires heme as its ligand. The present study determined whether the heme precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, affects REV-ERBα and its target genes. When exposed to ALA, the human lung diploid cell line, WI-38, exhibited activation of REV-ERBα and repression of the transcription of REV-ERBα target genes, including BMAL1, an essential component of the circadian oscillator. Moreover, co-incubation of sodium ferrous citrate (SFC and ALA also activated REV-ERBα and repressed the transcription of REV-ERBα target genes. These results indicate that ALA regulates human circadian rhythms via REV-ERBα.

  2. Association between Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD Val-9Ala) genotypes with the risk of generalized aggressive periodontitis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, E; Moradi, M-T; Yari, K; Mousavi, S A R; Kahrizi, D

    2015-12-19

    Generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) is a subtype of periodontal diseases that characterized by rapid destruction of periodontal supporting tissues. The MnSOD Val-9Ala mutation of manganese superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD Val-9Ala) and its correlation with periodontal diseases has been studied in different populations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible association of MnSODVal-9Ala polymorphism with periodontitis disease in sample of GAP patients in Iran for the first time. Following a GAP examination, 50 GAP patients and 100 healthy individuals were recruited. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes and the MnSODVal-9Ala polymorphismwas detected using PCR-RFLP method. The frequency of Ala/Ala, Ala/Val and Val/Val genotypes in healthy individuals were 25, 66 and 9%, respectively. In periodontitis patients, frequencies were as Ala/Ala (12%), Ala/Val (50%) and Val/Val (38%) genotypes. There was a significant positive association between distribution of MnSOD Val-9Ala genotypes and the risk of periodontitis disease (pperiodontitis disease.

  3. Ekologi Makan Ikan Glyptothorax Major (Blgr) (Bagaridae, Siluriformes) Di Sungai Alas, Aceh Tenggara

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmatika, Ike; WIRJOATMODJO, SOETIKNO

    1988-01-01

    IKE RACHMATIKA & SOETIKNO WIRJOATMODJO.1988.Feeding ecology of Glyptothorax major Blgr) (Bagaridae, Silurifoimes) in the Ala River,South East Aceh. Berita Biologi. 3(8): 396 399.A study on the feeding ecology of Glyptothorax major (Blgr) was conducted in the Alas River South East Aceh, Sumatra during early dry season, January 1983.Index of Preponderance analysis showed that this species is a benthic-insect feeder It was found that the food habit of immature and mature fish is slightly differe...

  4. Synthesis of 2-ene-1,4-diols by a new cascade-opening of 1,3-diepoxides: towards an efficient synthesis of dihydroxytaxoid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldegunde, María J; Castedo, Luis; Granja, Juan R

    2009-01-01

    Taxing taxanes: A new method for the preparation of alk-2-ene-1,4-diols from 1,3-dienes, especially for geometrical constrained derivatives, via dioxirane derivative formation followed by Ti(III)-induced oxirane ring opening, is described. The strategy has been very efficiently implemented to the construction of the 11-ene-10,13-diol moiety present in taxol derivatives.

  5. A study of parallelism of the occlusal plane and ala-tragus line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Katayoun; Sadr, Makan

    2009-01-01

    Orientation of the occlusal plane is one of the most important clinical procedures in prostho-dontic rehabilitation of edentulous patients. The aim of this study was to define the best posterior reference point of ala-tragus line for orientation of occlusal plane for complete denture fabrication. Fifty-three dental students (27 females and 26 males) with complete natural dentition and Angel's Class I occlusal relationship were selected. The subjects were photographed in natural head position while clenching on a Fox plane. After tracing the photographs, the angles between the following lines were measured: the occlusal plane (Fox plane) and the superior border of ala-tragus, the occlusal plane (Fox plane) and the middle of ala-tragus as well as the occlusal plane (Fox plane) and the inferior border of ala-tragus. Descriptive statistics, one sample t-test and independent t-test were used. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. There was no parallelism between the occlusal plane and ala-tragus line with three different posterior ends and one sample t-test showed that the angles between them were significantly different from zero (pparallel to the occlusal plane. The superior border of the tragus is suggested as the posterior reference for ala-tragus line.

  6. Improve efficacy of topical ALA-PDT by calcipotriol through up-regulation of coproporphyrinogen oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Chen, Jia-Haur; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Huang, Zheng; Lee, Jeng-Woei; Liu, Chung-Ji; Chang, Junn-Liang; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2014-09-01

    Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (topical ALA-PDT) is effective for treating oral precancerous lesions. The aim of this in vivo and in vitro study was to examine whether the efficacy of topical ALA-PDT could be further improved by calcipotriol (CAL). Precancerous lesions in the buccal pouch of hamsters were induced by dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Lesions were treated with multiple topical ALA-PDT with or without CAL pretreatment. ALA-induced protoporphyrine IX (PpIX) was monitored by in situ fluorescence measurement. The effect of CAL on heme-related enzymes (CPOX, PPOX, and FECH) were examined in an in vitro model using human squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells (SCC4, SAS) using Western blots. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that PpIX reached its peak level in precancerous epithelial cells of buccal pouch at 2.5 or 3.5h without or with CAL pretreatment, respectively. Both treatment regimens showed similar response rates, but the complete response was achieved after 5 times of ALA-PDT and 3 times of CAL-ALA-PDT (pPDT in treating precancerous lesions, likely through the increase in CPOX level and in PpIX production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Topical application of ALA PDT for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ling-Lin; Su, Lina; Guo, Ming-Xia; Huang, Zheng

    2009-06-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)- medicated photodynamic therapy (ALA PDT) for the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Methods: Sixteen Chinese patients with moderate to severe facial acne were treated with 1-3 courses of ALA PDT. ALA cream (3%) was freshly prepared and applied to acne lesions for 3-4 h. The lesions were irradiated by a 635 nm diode laser at dose levels of 60 - 80 J/cm2 at 100 mW/cm2. Clinical assessments were conducted before and after treatment up to 3 months. Results: All patents showed response to ALA PDT. Complete clearance was seen in 10 patients (62.5%) and partial clearance in 6 patients (37.5%). One case showed recurrence after complete clearance at 2 months and another two showed recurrence after complete clearance at 3 months. However, the number of new lesions were significantly reduced. Adverse effects were minimal. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary clinical study is encouraging. ALA PDT is a simple, safe and useful therapeutic option for the treatment of moderate to severe acne. Further studies to evaluate the treatment with a larger number of patients and for a longer period of follow-up are needed.

  8. Ultrastructural changes seen after ALA-IPL photorejuvenation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmur, Ellen S; Phelps, Robert; Goldberg, David J

    2005-03-01

    Intense pulse light (IPL) treatment currently represents one of the most popular non-ablative photodamage skin treatments. Recent anecdotal evidence suggests that aminolevulonic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy using IPL as a light source is superior to IPL alone for photorejuvenation. Seven adult subjects (six women, one man) with minimal photodamage were treated with full face IPL treatment. Half of the face was pre-treated with topical ALA. Pre-and post-treatment biopsies were analyzed for changes in collagen by electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis. An increase in type I collagen fibers was seen after treatment in all subjects. There was a greater increase in type I collagen formation in those subjects who were pre-treated with topical ALA. This small pilot study is the first to focus on the ultrastructural changes seen after ALA-IPL photorejuvenation. We found a greater shift toward type I collagen synthesis in the ALA-IPL group compared to the IPL group. The addition of ALA to IPL treatment for photorejuvenation may be superior to IPL alone.

  9. Use of a continuous-flow microreactor for thiol-ene functionalization of RAFT-derived poly(butyl acrylate)

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbergh, Joke; Junkers, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the synthesis of functionalized RAFT-derived poly(n-butyl acrylate) polymers via the use of a continuous-flow microreactor, in which aminolysis as well as thiol-ene reactions are executed in reaction times of just 20 minutes. Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (M-n = 3800 g mol(-1), PDI = 1.10) with a trithiocarbonate end group was prepared via a conventional RAFT process. The polymer was then functionalized via aminolysis/thiol-ene reactions in the micro-flow reactor with isobornyl ...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of thiol-ene functionalized siloxanes and evaluation of their polymerization kinetics, network properties, and dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Megan A.

    We explored formation-structure-property relationships in thiol-ene functionalized oligosiloxanes to create crosslinked networks. Specifically, nine oligomers were synthesized, three with thiol-functional silane repeats and three with allyl-functional silane repeats. Structural variations in each oligomer were systematically induced through the incorporation of non-reactive repeats bearing either diphenyl or di-n-octyl moieties, and the oligomer molecular weight was limited by the presence of monofunctional silane condensation species. The molecular weights and chain compositions of all oligomers were ascertained and subsequently used in the evaluation of network properties formed upon photopolymerization of thiol- and ene-functional reactants. Polymerization kinetics of the thiol-ene functionalized siloxanes were also investigated using photoinitiation owing to the spatial and temporal control afforded by this technique. In particular, the effects of the viscosity of the ene-functionalized oligomer and the degree of thiol functionalization on the observed polymerization rate were determined. Results showed that the speed of polymerization varied with changes to the rate-limiting step, which was heavily influenced by neighboring non-reactive functionalities. Moreover, the thiol-ene reaction was found to exhibity unimolecular termination exclusively in siloxane-based systems. Proposed use of the thiol-ene functionalized siloxane system as a dental impression material necessitated the development of a redox initiation scheme. Evaluation of the benzoylperoxide/dimethyl-p-toluidine redox pair in traditional systems showed bulk thiol-ene polymerizations comparable to photoinitiation with the added advantage of uninhibited depth control, as also demonstrated in small molecule thiol-ene coupling reactions initiated by this same redox system. Application of the redox pair to the siloxane system allowed for the viscoelastic properties as well as the feature replication

  11. Advanced functionalization of polyhydroxyalkanoate via the UV-initiated thiol-ene click reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Kenji; Iwamoto, Kosuke; Satoh, Yasuharu; Sakai, Ryosuke; Satoh, Toshifumi; Dairi, Tohru

    2016-05-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) incorporating vinyl-bearing 3-hydroxyalkanoates were prepared in 8.5-12.9 g L(-1) yield. The molar ratios (0-16 mol%) of the vinyl-bearing 3-hydroxyalkanoate derivatives were controlled by the continuous feeding of undecylenate at various concentrations. Subsequently, the PHAs were functionalized by UV-initiated thiol-ene click reaction and chemical modification. (1)H NMR spectra suggested that 3-mercaptopropionic acid and 2-aminoethanethiol were successfully introduced into the vinyl-bearing PHA. Subsequently, chemical modification using fluorescein or a fibronectin active fragment (GRGDS) was attempted. The former yielded a PHA derivative capable of emitting fluorescence under UV irradiation, which was useful for determining the miscibility of PHA in a composite film comprising poly-ʟ-lactic acid (PLLA) and PHA. In the latter case, PHA bearing GRGDS peptides exhibited cell adhesiveness, suggesting that its biocompatibility was improved upon peptide introduction. Taken together, the UV-initiated thiol-ene click reaction was demonstrated to be useful in PHA modification.

  12. Self-Healing Photocurable Epoxy/thiol-ene Systems Using an Aromatic Epoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Acosta Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and efficient method to obtain self-healing epoxy resins is discussed. This method is based on the use of a thiol-disulfide oligomer obtained by partial oxidation of a multifunctional thiol using a hypervalent iodine (III compound as oxidant. The oligomer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC. The oligomer was a joint component of the thiol-ene system along with a tetra-allyl-functionalized curing agent. The kinetics of the photopolymerization of diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA revealed that conversions of the epoxy groups as high as 80% were achieved in only 15 minutes by increasing the concentration of the thiol-ene system in the formulation. The disulfide bonds introduced in the copolymer using the thiol-disulfide oligomer allowed the repairing of the test specimens in as little as 10 minutes when the specimens were heated at 80°C or for 500 minutes at room temperature. The analysis of the mechanical properties using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA showed that the specimens displayed a healing efficiency up to 111% compared with the unhealed specimens, depending on the amount of polythioethers present in the copolymer.

  13. Combination therapies in adjuvant with topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    In Taiwan, oral cancer has becomes the fastest growth male cancer disease due to the betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle of people. In order to eliminate the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 10 to 12 weeks. Cancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA-mediated PDT. Before PDT, fluorescence spectroscopy was used to determine when ALA reached its peak level in the lesional epithelial cells after topical application of ALA gel. We found that ALA reached its peak level in precancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The cancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 150 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm fiber-guided light device. Visual examination demonstrated that adjuvant topical ALA -mediated PDT group has shown better therapeutic results in compared to those of non-adjuvant topical ALA-mediated PDT group for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch precancerous lesions.

  14. Effects of ALA-PDT on HPV16-immortalized cervical epithelial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S X; Ren, X Y; Pan, Y L; Guan, D D; Liu, S; Zou, X Y; Shi, C G; Li, Y Z; Zhang, Y Z

    2017-01-01

    Current treatments for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) type are mainly surgical interventions. However, such treatments are associated with adverse side effects and pose risks for future pregnancies. In order to reduce the requirement for excisional procedures, an effective and noninvasive therapy is needed for women at reproductive age. ALA-PDT has proved to be effective in the treatment of HPV-associated disease in several clinical investigations. In this study, the anti-proliferative effect of ALA-PDT was investigated in HPV16-immortalized cervical epithelial H8 cells. CCK-8 assay was used to measure cytotoxicity in H8 cells. The IC50 of ALA-PDT on H8 cells was about 120.75 ± 1.18 µM. We have now evaluated the mechanism by which ALA-PDT induces cell death. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining showed a significant dose-dependent induction of apoptosis by ALA-PDT in H8 cells, associated with accumulation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. Furthermore, ALA-PDT down-regulates expression of HPV E6/E7 oncogene as well as up-regulate tumor suppressor RbAp48 protein. Together, our data provides a basis for understanding and developing ALA-PDT as a cure for HPV infection-associated diseases and prevention of cervical cancer.

  15. Stimulation of dendritic cells by DAMPs in ALA-PDT treated SCC tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojie; Ji, Jie; Zhang, Haiyan; Fan, Zhixia; Zhang, Linglin; Shi, Lei; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-12-29

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) not only kills tumor cells directly but also rapidly recruits and activates immune cells favoring the development of antitumor adaptive immunity. It is believed that Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) can induce anti-tumor immune responses through dangerous signals damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In this study, we investigated the effect of ALA-PDT induced DAMPs on immune cells. We focused on the stimulation of dendritic cells by major DAMPs, enhanced the expression of calreticulin (CRT), heat shock proteins 70 (HSP70), and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), either individually or in combination. We evaluated in vitro and in vivo expressions of DAMPs induced by ALA-PDT using immunohistochemistry, western blot, and ELISA in a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) mouse model. The role of DAMPs in the maturation of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells was detected by FACS and ELISA. Our results showed that ALA-PDT enhanced the expression of CRT, HSP70, and HMGB1. These induced DAMPs played an important part in activating DCs by PDT-treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (increase of surface expression of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86) and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12). Furthermore, injecting ALA-PDT-treated tumor cells into naïve mice resulted in complete protection against cancer cells of the same origin. Our findings indicate that ALA-PDT can increase DAMPs and enhance tumor immunogenicity, providing a promising strategy for inducing a systemic anticancer immune response.

  16. Crystallization of tholeiitic basalt in Alae Lava Lake, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, D.L.; Wright, T.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1966-01-01

    The eruption of Kilauea Volcano August 21-23, 1963, left 600,000 cubic meters of basaltic lava in a lava lake as much as 15 meters deep in Alae pit crater. Field studies of the lake began August 27 and include repeated core drilling, measurements of temperature in the crust and melt, and precise level surveys of the lake surface. The last interstitial melt in the lake solidified late in September 1964; by mid August 1965 the maximum temperature was 690??C at a depth of 11.5 meters. Pumice air-quenched from about 1140??C contains only 5 percent crystals - clinopyroxene, cuhedral olivine (Fo 80), and a trace of plagioclase, (An 70). Drill cores taken from the zone of crystallization in the lake show that olivine continued crystallizing to about 1070??C; below that it reacts with the melt, becoming corroded and mantled by pyroxene and plagioclase. Below 1070??C, pyroxene and plagioclase crystallized at a constant ratio. Ilmenite first appeared at about 1070??C and was joined by magnetite at about 1050??C; both increased rapidly in abundance to 1000??C. Apatite first appeared as minute needles in interstitial glass at 1000??C. Both the abundance and index of refraction of glass quenched from melt decreased nearly linearly with falling temperature. At 1070??C the quenched lava contains about 65 percent dark-brown glass with an index of 1.61; at 980??C it contains about 8 percent colorless glass with an index of 1.49. Below 980??C, the percentage of glass remained constant. Progressive crystallization forced exsolution of gases from the melt fraction; these formed vesicles and angular pores, causing expansion of the crystallizing lava and lifting the surface of the central part of the lake an average of 19.5 cm. The solidified basalt underwent pneumatolitic alteration, including deposition of cristobalite at 800??C, reddish alteration of olivine at 700??C, tarnishing of ilmenite at 550??C, deposition of anhydrite at 250??C, and deposition of native sulfur at 100??C

  17. Kas erivajadustega lapsed saavad õigel ajal abi? / Ene Mägi, Urve Raudsepp-Alt, Ale Sprenk, Peeter Aas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad: Tallinna Ülikooli Kasvatusteaduste Instituudi eri- ja sotsiaalpedagoogika osakonna juhataja Ene Mägi, Tallinna Haridusameti üldhariduse osakonna peaspetsialist Urve Raudsepp-Alt, Krabi põhikooli direktor Ale Sprenk, Põlva Maavalitsuse haridus-, kultuuri- ja sotsiaalosakonna juhataja Peeter Aas

  18. Mida teie oma tervise heaks teete? / Ly Jagor, Ülle Mihhailova, Ene Pill, Katrin Käbin...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Küsimusele vastavad Pärnu Õppenõustamiskeskuse psühholoog Ly Jagor, Maasika lasteaia juhataja asetäitja Ülle Mihhailova, Tallinna Perekeskuse ja Tähetorni lastekeskuse psühholoog Ene Pill, Tallinna Nõmme Noortemaja väikelaste ringijuht Katrin Käbin, Tääksi Põhikooli õpetaja Silva Kolk

  19. Photoinduced thiol-ene polymerization reaction for fast preparation of macroporous hybrid monoliths and their application in capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongshan; Ou, Junjie; Lin, Hui; Liu, Zheyi; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-08-25

    Hybrid monoliths with a macroporous structure were prepared within a few minutes via a photoinduced thiol-ene polymerization reaction, the surfaces of which showed hydrophobic character. The monolithic column demonstrated good separation performance towards alkylbenzenes, peptides, proteins and BSA tryptic digest in cLC.

  20. Efficient Functionalization of Oxide-Free Silicon(111) Surfaces: Thiol–yne versus Thiol–ene Click Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhairamadgi, N.S.; Gangarapu, S.; Caipa Campos, M.A.; Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2013-01-01

    Thiol-yne click (TYC) chemistry was utilized as a copper-free click reaction for the modification of alkyne-terminated monolayers on oxide-free Si(111) surfaces, and the results were compared with the analogous thiol–ene click (TEC) chemistry. A wide range of thiols such as

  1. Luuletus Halbdeutschis ja mõned küsimused substraadi kohta / Ilse Lehiste ; tlk. Ene-Reet Soovik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehiste, Ilse, 1922-2010

    2000-01-01

    Jacob Johann Malmi poolsaksakeelne satiiriline luuletus "Die Oberpalsche Freundschaft" aastast 1818 - luuletuse substraatkeelte eesti ja baltisaksa vokaalide ja konsonantsüsteemi ning grammatilise struktuuri võrdlus. Ilmunud: A poem in Halbdeutsch and some questions concerning substratum // Word 21, 1965, lk. 55-69. Tõlk. Ene-Reet Soovik

  2. Surface Modification of Poly(divinylbenzene) Microspheres via Thiol-Ene Chemistry and Alkyne-Azide Click Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldmann, Anja S.; Walther, Andreas; Nebhani, Leena; Joso, Raymond; Ernst, Dominique; Loos, Katja; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Barner, Leonie; Mueller, Axel H. E.; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the functionalization of cross-linked poly(divinylbenzene) (pDVB) microspheres using both thiol-ene chemistry and azide-alkyne click reactions. The RAFT technique was carried out to synthesize SH-functionalized poly(N-isopropylacrylimide) (pNIPAAm) and utilized to generate pNIPAAm

  3. Does Pro12Ala Polymorphism Enhance the Physiological Role of PPARγ2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D are two major public health problems that have motivated the scientific community to investigate the high contribution of genetic factors to these disorders. The peroxisome proliferator activated by gamma 2 (PPARγ2 plays an important role in the lipid metabolism. Since PPARγ2 is expressed mainly in adipose tissue, a moderate reduction of its activity influences the sensitivity to insulin, diabetes, and other metabolic parameters. The present study aims to contribute to the elucidation of the impact of the Pro12Ala polymorphism associated with T2D and obesity through a meta-analysis study of the literature that included approximately 11500 individuals, from which 3870 were obese and 7625 were diabetic. Statistical evidence supports protective effect in T2D of polymorphism Pro12Ala of PPARγ2 (OR = 0.702 with 95% CI: 0.622; 0.791, P<0.01. Conversely the same polymorphism Pro12Ala of PPARγ2 seems to favor obesity since 1.196 more chance than nonobese was found (OR = 1.196 with 95% CI: 1.009; 1.417, P<0.004. Our results suggest that Pro12Ala polymorphism enhances both adipogenic and antidiabetogenic physiological role of PPARγ. Does Pro12Ala polymorphism represent an evolutionary step towards the stabilization of the molecular function of PPARγ transcription factor signaling pathway?

  4. Efficacy and safety of topical ALA-PDT in the treatment of EMPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhang, Xing-Cun; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Hai-Lin; Lu, Yuan-Gang; Fan, Dong-Li

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a successful treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers in clinical practice. More and more doctors use PDT to cure the patients with skin cancer, especially in the elder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical PDT using aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) in the treatment of Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) and its role in surgical improvements. A total of 38 cases were included in this study. Lesions were located in the scrotum and the penis. Thirty-one cases had surgical resection of the lesions followed by ALA-PDT (combination of PDT and surgery group). Seven cases received ALA-PDT without receiving surgical resection because the surgery is extremely difficult or the patients refused surgery (simple PDT group). Each tumor lesion was irradiated with 120J/cm(2) using a 635-nm laser for 15min. A total of 3 times of assisted ALA-PDT was applied after surgery. In the combination group, there was no recurrence in 6 months after treatment. In another group, recurrence occurred in 1 case in 6 months. All patients were able to complete the treatment protocol, with well cosmetic results and no moderate adverse reactions. As an assistive therapy after tumor resection, ALA-PDT can reduce the excision range of the tumor lesions and will play more important role in the treatment of EMPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sideroblastic anemia: functional study of two novel missense mutations in ALAS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Manuel; Moreno-Carralero, María-Isabel; Morado-Arias, Marta; Fernández-Jiménez, María-Cristina; de la Iglesia Iñigo, Silvia; Morán-Jiménez, María-José

    2016-05-01

    X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is a disorder characterized by decreased heme synthesis and mitochondrial iron overload with ringed sideroblasts in bone marrow. XLSA is caused by mutations in the erythroid-specific gene coding 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2). Anemia in XLSA is extremely variable, characteristically microcytic and hypochromic with poikilocytosis, and the red blood cell distribution width is increased and prominent dimorphism of the red cell population. Anemia in XLSA patients responds variably to supplementation with pyridoxine. We report four patients with XLSA and three mutations in ALAS2: c.611G>A (p.Arg204Gln), c.1218G>T (p.Leu406Phe) and c.1499A>G (p.Tyr500Cys). The in silico predictions of three ALAS2 mutations and the functional consequences of two ALAS2 mutations were assessed. We performed in silico analysis of these mutations using ten different softwares, and all of them predicted that the p.Tyr500Cys mutation was deleterious. The in vitro prokaryotic expression showed that the p.Leu406Phe and p.Tyr500Cys mutations reduced the ALAS2 specific activity (SA) to 14% and 7% of the control value, respectively. In view of the results obtained in this study, a clear relationship between genotype and phenotype cannot be established; clinical variability or severity of anemia may be influenced by allelic variants in other genes or transcription factors and environmental conditions.

  6. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated photodynamic therapy of bladder cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickweiler, Sonja; Krieg, Rene C.; Stepp, Herbert G.; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Knuechel, Ruth

    1999-02-01

    Topical application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) can be effectively used for photodynamic therapy and diagnosis of superficial bladder cancer. Administration of the heme precursor ALA leads to the selective accumulation of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in certain types of tissue. The aim of this study was to determine the cellular PPIX concentration and the effect of photodynamic therapy mediated by ALA on two bladder cancer cell lines (RT4, J82) and a fibroblast cell line (N1). Following incubation with ALA the kinetics of cellular PPIX were examined using flow cytometry combined with extraction. The cancer cell lines showed considerably higher PPIX concentrations than the fibroblast cell line: RT4 1030, J82 710, and N1 110 ng PPIX/mg protein. Photodynamic therapy was performed with an incoherent light source (580 - 740 nm, 40 mW/cm2, 30 J/cm2). In contrast to the fibroblast cell line, which was resistant to photodynamic therapy, the cancer cell lines were effectively killed following the treatment as determined by MTT assay. This study suggests that ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy may be effective in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Based on these findings, this therapeutic method should be further evaluated clinically.

  7. D2-Thr92Ala, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopciuc, Lucia Maria; Caracostea, Gabriela; Hazi, Georgeta; Nemeti, Georgiana; Stamatian, Florin

    2017-02-01

    To identify if there is a relationship between the deiodinase D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant, thyroid hormone levels and biochemical hypothyroidism in preeclampsia. We genotyped 125 women with preeclampsia and 131 normal pregnant women using PCR-RFLP. Serum thyroid hormone levels were determined using ELISA. Our study showed higher TSH and FT4 levels and lower FT3 levels in women with preeclampsia compared to normal pregnant women, with statistical significance for women with mild and severe preeclampsia. The risk to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), mild or severe preeclampsia was increased in carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele. TSH and FT4 levels were significantly higher and FT3 levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic women with severe preeclampsia if they carried the D2-Ala92 allele compared to non-carriers. Pregnant women with PIH and mild preeclampsia, carriers of at least one D2-Ala92 allele, delivered at lower gestational age neonates with a lower birth weight compared to non-carriers, but the results were statistically significant only in severe preeclampsia. The D2-Thr92Ala genetic variant is associated with the severity and the obstetric outcome of preeclampsia, and it also influences thyroid hormone levels. The study demonstrates non-thyroidal biochemical hypothyroidism - as a result of deiodination effects due to D2 genotypes.

  8. Protective Effect of ALA in Crushed Optic Nerve Cat Retinal Ganglion Cells Using a New Marker RBPMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanling; Wang, Wenyao; Liu, Jessica; Huang, Xin; Liu, Ruixing; Xia, Huika; Brecha, Nicholas C; Pu, Mingliang; Gao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    In this study we first sought to determine whether RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS) can serve as a specific marker for cat retina ganglion cells (RGCs) using retrograde labeling and immunohistochemistry staining. RBPM was then used as an RGC marker to study RGC survival after optic nerve crush (ONC) and alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) treatment in cats. ALA treatment yielded a peak density of RBPMS-alpha cells within the peak isodensity zone (>60/mm2) which did not differ from ONC retinas. The area within the zone was significantly enlarged (control: 2.3%, ONC: 0.06%, ONC+ALA: 0.1%). As for the 10-21/mm2 zone, ALA treatment resulted in a significant increase in area (control: 34.5%, ONC: 12.1%, ONC+ALA: 35.9%). ALA can alleviate crush-induced RGC injury.

  9. Highly stretchable thermoset fibers and nonwovens using thiol-ene photopolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Elliot, Steven M; Lane, Austin P; Ellison, Christopher J

    2014-08-27

    In this report, we describe the preparation and characterization of a new class of thermoset fibers with high elongation and elastic recovery. Integrating UV-activated thiol-ene photopolymerization and electrospinning, we demonstrate an environmentally friendly single step approach to convert small monomeric precursor molecules into highly elastic fibers and nonwoven mats. The fibers were derived by in situ photopolymerization of a trifunctional vinyl ether monomer and a tetrafunctional thiol. Although thermosets often offer good chemical and thermal stability, these fibers also have a high average elongation at break of 62%. The elastomeric nature of these vinyl-ether based fibers can be partly attributed to their subambient Tg and partly to the cross-link density, monomer structure, and resulting network homogeneity. Nonwoven mats of these fibers were also stretchable and exhibited a much higher elongation at break of about 85%. These thermoset stretchable fibers could have potential applications as textile, biomedical, hot chemical filtration, and composite materials.

  10. Photolithographic fabrication of solid–liquid core waveguides by thiol-ene chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagar, Kaushal Shashikant; Gopalakrishnan, Nimi; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2011-01-01

    . The generated refractive index contrast between the patterned water-filled volume and the surrounding empty hydrophobic porous polymer allows for light confinement within the water-filled volume—the solid–liquid core. The presented fabrication process is simple and fast. It allows a high degree of flexibility...... are comparable with literature values for state-of-the-art liquid-core waveguide devices. The demonstrated waveguide function added to the nanoporous polymer with a very high internal surface area makes the system interesting for many applications in different areas, such as diagnostics and bio-chemical sensing.......In this work we demonstrate an efficient and cleanroom compatible method for the fabrication of solid–liquid core waveguides based on nanoporous polymers. We have used thiol-ene photo-grafting to tune and pattern the hydrophilicity of an originally hydrophobic nanoporous 1, 2-polybutadiene...

  11. Hydrophobic thiol-ene surfaces fabricated via plasma activation and photo polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champathet, P.; Ervithayasuporn, V.; Osotchan, T.; Dangtip, S.

    2017-09-01

    Alumina, such as glazed alumina for electrical insulator, operated in an open field subjects to a very harsh condition; resulting in lifetime shortening. Coating hydrophobic layer on alumina surface can help prolonging its lifetime. In this study, 25 ×25 mm alumina sheets were used as substrates. The hydrophobic composite polymers were prepared from (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane(MPTMS), 2,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2,4,6,8tetravinylcyclotetra siloxane(TMTVSi), pentaerythritoltetra(3-mercaptopropionate)(PETMP), 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phe nylaceto phenone(photoinitiator) and heptadecafluorodecylmethacrylate(HEFDMA) via the thiol-ene reaction. The alumina sheets were first activated by dielectric-barrier discharge plasma to improve its adhesion. All the polymers were found to optimize at the ratio of (MPTMS:TMTVSi:PETMP:HDFDMA) to 4:2:1:2 for coating on the alumina substrate. To enhance polymerization, 2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylaceto phenome was also used as a photoinitiator A proper mixing sequence in the thiol-ene reaction results in film with excellent surface retention after prolong soaking in solvent such as acetone. FTIR shows that S-H and C=C functional groups have significantly changed after photopolymerization and thermally cured. The static contact angle increase from mere 53.0°±1.5° of the uncoated substrate to 120.0°±1.2° after coating. SEM shows the film with clear appearance of a few-micron thick. Under AFM, the coated surface roughness was about 9.3 nm with evenly distributed spikes of a few nanometer in height. The cross-cut test also confirmed the film was very smooth and none of the square of the films detached.

  12. Hydrophobic Coatings by Thiol-Ene Click Functionalization of Silsesquioxanes with Tunable Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirè, Sandra; Bottone, Davide; Callone, Emanuela; Maniglio, Devid; Génois, Isabelle; Ribot, François

    2017-08-08

    The hydrolysis-condensation of trialkoxysilanes under strictly controlled conditions allows the production of silsesquioxanes (SSQs) with tunable size and architecture ranging from ladder to cage-like structures. These nano-objects can serve as building blocks for the preparation of hybrid organic/inorganic materials with selected properties. The SSQs growth can be tuned by simply controlling the reaction duration in the in situ water production route (ISWP), where the kinetics of the esterification reaction between carboxylic acids and alcohols rules out the extent of organosilane hydrolysis-condensation. Tunable SSQs with thiol functionalities (SH-NBBs) are suitable for further modification by exploiting the simple thiol-ene click reaction, thus allowing for modifying the wettability properties of derived coatings. In this paper, coatings were prepared from SH-NBBs with different architecture onto cotton fabrics and paper, and further functionalized with long alkyl chains by means of initiator-free UV-induced thiol-ene coupling with 1-decene (C10) and 1-tetradecene (C14). The coatings appeared to homogeneously cover the natural fibers and imparted a multi-scale roughness that was not affected by the click functionalization step. The two-step functionalization of cotton and paper warrants a stable highly hydrophobic character to the surface of natural materials that, in perspective, suggests a possible application in filtration devices for oil-water separation. Furthermore, the purification of SH-NBBs from ISWP by-products was possible during the coating process, and this step allowed for the fast, initiator-free, click-coupling of purified NBBs with C10 and C14 in solution with a nearly quantitative yield. Therefore, this approach is an alternative route to get sol-gel-derived, ladder-like, and cage-like SSQs functionalized with long alkyl chains.

  13. Amino acid-incorporated polymer network by thiol-ene polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yokose

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Triallyl L-alanine (A3A and triallyl L-phenylalanine (A3F were synthesized by reactions of L-alanine and L-phenylalanine with allyl bromide in the presence of sodium hydroxide, respectively. Thiol-ene thermal polymerization of A3A or A3F with pentaerythritol-based primary tetrathiol (pS4P or pentaerythritol-based secondary tetrathiol (S4P at allyl/SH 1/1 in the presence of 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile produced an amino acid-incorporated polymer network (A3ApS4P, A3A-S4P or A3F-S4P. Although the thermally cured resins were homogeneous and flat films, the corresponding thiol-ene photopolymerization did not give a successful result. Degree of swelling for each thermally cured film in N,Ndimethylformamide was much higher than that in water. The glass transition and 5% weight loss temperatures (Tg and T5 of A3F-pS4P and A3F-S4P were higher than those of A3A-pS4P and A3A-S4P, respectively. Also, A3F-pS4P and A3F-S4P exhibited much higher tensile strengths and moduli than A3A-pS4P and A3A-S4P did, respectively. Consequently, A3FpS4P displayed the highest Tg (38.7°C, T5 (282.0°C, tensile strength (9.5 MPa and modulus (406 MPa among all the thermally cured resins.

  14. Supplementation of milled chia seeds increases plasma ALA and EPA in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fuxia; Nieman, David C; Sha, Wei; Xie, Guoxiang; Qiu, Yunping; Jia, Wei

    2012-06-01

    Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m²) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA.

  15. Assessment of ALA-induced PpIX production in porcine skin pretreated with microneedles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Phamilla Gracielli Sousa; Campos de Menezes, Priscila Fernanda; Fujita, Alessandra Keiko Lima; Escobar, André; Barboza de Nardi, Andrigo; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S

    2015-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used for skin treatments of premalignant and cancer lesions and recognized as a non-invasive technique that combines tissue photosensitization and subsequent exposure to light to induce cell death. However, it is limited to the treatment of superficial lesions, mainly due to the low cream penetration. Therefore, the improvement of transdermal distribution of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is needed. In this study, the kinetics and homogeneity of production of ALA-induced PpIX after the skin pre-treatment with microneedles rollers of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mm length were investigated. An improvement in homogeneity and production of PpIX was shown in a porcine model. Widefield fluorescence imaging three hours after the topical application of ALA-cream in the combined treatment with microeedles rollers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Swern Oxidation of Bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-diol and Its Pyrazine-fused Derivatives: An Improved Synthesis of Bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dione and An Unexpected Ring-Opening Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuri Kobayashi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available An improved synthesis of bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dione by Swern oxidation of bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-diol, and an unexpected ring-opening reaction by the Swern oxidation of pyrazine-fused congeners are described.

  17. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) effects on developmental competence of equine preantral follicles in short-term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, R G; Silva, C B; González, S M; Oliveira, R L; Max, M C; Lisboa, L A; Barreiros, T R R; Santos, M M; Sarapião, F D; Gastal, E L; Seneda, M M

    2018-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the development and morphology of preantral follicles, as well as the proliferative activity of granulosa cells, was assessed after short-term culture. Ovaries (n = 5) of five seasonal anestrous mares were harvested in a local abattoir. At the laboratory, nine ovarian fragments (5 × 5 × 1 mm) from each animal were used. One fragment was immediately fixed in Bouin and subjected to histological and immunohistochemistry (proliferating cell nuclear antigen, PCNA) analyses (noncultured group; D0 = day 0). The other eight fragments were cultured in situ for two (D2) or six (D6) days in MEM(+) or MEM(+) plus ALA (50, 100, or 250 μM). After culture, fragments were subjected to histology and PCNA analyses. After two days of culture, ALA 50 and ALA 100 had the greatest (P  0.05) from the fresh noncultured control group. Furthermore, the total percentage of normal follicles was greater (P < 0.05) in the ALA 50 and ALA 100 than in the MEM-D2 group. After six days of culture, the highest (P < 0.05) proliferative activity of granulosa cells in developing follicles was observed for the groups MEM(+) (92.9%), ALA 50 (100%), and ALA 100 (96.4%). In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that (1) ALA 50 and ALA 100 preserved the morphological integrity of equine primordial follicles for up two days of culture, and (2) granulosa cells of developing follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue and cultured for up to six days in MEM(+) with or without ALA were highly stained by PCNA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluorogenic substrate [Ala-Pro](2)-cresyl violet but not Ala-Pro-rhodamine 110 is cleaved specifically by DPPIV activity: A study in living Jurkat cells and CD26/DPPIV-transfected Jurkat cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonacker, Emil; Elferink, Sjoerd; Bardai, Abdennasser; Fleischer, Bernard; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorogenic substrates [Ala-Pro](2)-cresyl violet and Ala-Pro-rhodamine 110 have been tested for microscopic detection of protease activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) in living cells. DPPIV activity is one of the many functions of the multifunctional or moonlighting protein CD26/DPPIV. As a

  19. Glacier lake outburst floods caused by glacier shrinkage: case study of Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz Ala Too, northern Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakov, D.; Erochin, S. A.; Harbor, J.; Ivanov, M.; Rogozhina, I.; Stroeven, A. P.; Usubaliev, R.

    2012-12-01

    Changes in glacier extent and runoff in Central Asia increase socio-economic stress and may result in political conflict between donors of freshwater (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) and recipients of freshwater (Uzbekistan, China). Glaciers in the Pamir and Tian Shan regions have experienced an unprecedented downwasting due to regional climate changes over the past decades. This is because air temperature increases are in some areas accompanied by a decrease in precipitation. Such conditions have already resulted in a reduction of glacier runoff, especially in the northern and western Tian Shan, and an increase of the number and area of glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan. Even though glacial lakes in the mountains are in general relatively small and located far from densely populated areas, their outbursts often produce destructive debris flows. Such debris flows are especially common in Kyrgyzstan because of its steep river channels and abundance of Holocene and Quaternary glacier deposits that can be remobilized. The glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) in the Shakhimardan river catchment in 1999, for example, resulted in 100 fatalities in Uzbekistan, and the GLOF from the Zyndan glacial lake led to substantial economic losses in 2009. According to the latest inventory, there are more than 350 glacial lakes in Kyrgyzstan of which about 70 occur in the Kyrgyz Ala Too. The Ala-Archa valley is among the most important glacierized catchments in Kyrgyzstan. Despite the presence of a relatively small glacier-covered area of 36 km2, the Ala-Archa river is of critical importance to the Bishkek area, its agriculture, and its population which currently exceeds one million. GLOFs are therefore a threat to both numerous settlements of touristic value in the Ala-Archa headwaters and to Bishkek. The Teztor lake in the Adygene catchment of the Ala-Archa river system experienced an outburst during 1988 and 2005. On the early morning of July 31, 2012, this lake began draining through a dam

  20. Light Fractionation Significantly Increases the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy Using BF-200 ALA in Normal Mouse Skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. de Bruijn (Riette); S. Brooks (Sander); A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel (Angélique); T.L.M. ten Hagen (Timo); E.R.M. de Haas (Ellen); D.J. Robinson (Dominic)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractBACKGROUND: Light fractionation significantly increases the efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the nano-emulsion based gel formulation BF-200. PDT using BF-200 ALA has recently been clinically approved and is under investigation in several

  1. Association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma gene and strength athlete status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Maciejewska-Karlowska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 12Ala allele of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma gene (PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism produces a decreased binding affinity of the PPARγ2 protein, resulting in low activation of the target genes. The 12Ala allele carriers display a significantly improved insulin sensitivity that may result in better glucose utilisation in working skeletal muscles. We hypothesise that the PPARG 12Ala allele could be associated with strength athlete status in Polish athletes. METHODOLOGY: The genotype distribution of PPARG Pro12Ala was examined in 660 Polish athletes. The athletes were stratified into four subgroups: endurance, strength-endurance, sprint-strength and strength. Control samples were prepared from 684 unrelated sedentary volunteers. A χ(2 test was used to compare the PPARG Pro12Ala allele and genotype frequencies between the different groups of athletes and control subjects. Bonferroni's correction for multiple testing was applied. RESULTS: A statistically significant higher frequency of PPARG 12Ala alleles was observed in the subgroup of strength athletes performing short-term and very intense exertion characterised by predominant anaerobic energy production (13.2% vs. 7.5% in controls; P = 0.0007. CONCLUSION: The PPARG 12Ala allele may be a relevant genetic factor favouring strength abilities in professional athletes, especially in terms of insulin-dependent metabolism, a shift of the energy balance towards glucose utilisation and the development of a favourable weight-to-strength ratio.

  2. The association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARg gene and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schow, Trine

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between the Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome-proliferator-activator receptor gamma PPARg -2 and physical activity in the association with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg m-2) was explored in 901 women and 903 men between 30 and 75 years participating in a population survey of cardiovascula...

  3. Modulatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on insulin sensitivity in obese PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, A D; Shefer, K; Della Casa, D; Prati, A; Napolitano, A; Manzo, A; Despini, G; Simoncini, T

    2017-10-31

    To evaluate the efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on hormonal and metabolic parameters of obese PCOS patients. A group of 32 obese PCOS patients were selected after informed consent. 20 patients referred to have first grade relatives with diabetes type I or II. Hormonal and metabolic parameters as well as OGTT were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ALA integrative administration (400 mg per os every day). ALA administration significantly decreased insulin, glucose, BMI and HOMA index. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin response to OGTT decreased both as maximal response (Δmax) and as AUC. PCOS with diabetes relatives showed the decrease also of triglyceride and GOT. Interestingly in all PCOS no changes occurred on all hormonal parameters involved in reproduction such as LH, FSH, and androstenedione. ALA integrative administration at a low dosage as 400 mg daily improved the metabolic impairment of all PCOS patients especially in those PCOS with familiar diabetes who have a higher grade of risk of NAFLD and predisposition to diabetes.

  4. Properties of Soils in River Katsina-Ala Catchments Area, Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil samples were collected from Northern part of River Katsina-Ala catchment's area used for fadama farming by random sampling using the soil map of Benue State as a guide. Surface sampling (0-20cm) and subsurface (21-200cm) sampling were taken for analysis. Nine profile pits were dug covering about 100ha.

  5. Volikogu kergitas kruntide alghinna Olümpia vastas 240 miljoni kroonini / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Tallinna linnavolikogu tõstis 26. jaanuari istungil Juhkentali 1b, 3d ja 3e kruntide avaliku enampakkumise alghinna 78 miljonilt kroonilt 240 miljonile. Kruntidele on lubatud ehitada üks kuni 30-korruseline ning mitu 3-8 korruselist hoonet. Kaart: Ala detailplaneering

  6. Solid state and solution conformation of [Ala7]-phalloidin: a synthetic phallotoxin analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, G; Falcigno, L; Saviano, M; D'Auria, G; Bruno, B M; Campanile, T; Paolillo, L

    2001-04-01

    Phallotoxins are toxic compounds produced by poisonous mushroom Amanita phalloides and belong to the class of bicyclic peptides with a transannular thioether bridge. Their intoxication mechanism in the liver involves a specific binding of the toxins to F-actin that, consequently, prevents the depolymerization equilibrium with G-actin. Even though the conformational features of phallotoxins have been worked out in solution, the exact mechanism of interaction with F-actin is still unknown. In this study a toxic phalloidin synthetic derivative, bicyclo(Ala1-D-Thr2-Cys3-cis-4-hydroxy-Pro4-Ala5-2-mercapto-Trp6-Ala7)(S-3-->6) has been synthesized. A substitution at position 7. with an Ala residue replaces the 4,5-dihydroxy-Leu present in the natural phalloidin. This analogue has formed crystals suitable for X-ray analysis, and represents the first case for such a class of compounds. The solid-state structure as well as the solution conformation have been evaluated. NMR techniques have been used to extract interproton distances as restraints in subsequent molecular dynamics calculations. Finally, a direct comparison between structures in solution and in the solid state is presented.

  7. Strain-accelerated HF etching of AlAs for epitaxial lift-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, M.M.J.; Schermer, J.J.; Bauhuis, G.J.; Niftrik, A.T.J. van; Larsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Epitaxial lift-off (ELO) is a process which allows for the separation of a single crystalline III/V thin film or device from the substrate it was deposited on. This process is based on the selective etching of an intermediate AlAs release layer in an aqueous HF solution. The lateral etch rate of the

  8. Threshold effects of PDT in the normal rat colon with ALA photosensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmann, Helmut; Mlkvy, Peter; Davies, Claire; MacRobert, Alexander J.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1995-03-01

    Early clinical results of PDT on colon tumors using up to 60 mg/kg ALA given orally (comparable to 30 mg/kg if given i.v.) with light doses of 50 J showed only superficial necrosis. We investigated whether this could be due to subthreshold tissue concentrations of Protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) or suboptimal light treatment schedules. Normal Wistar rats were sensitized with 25 - 400 mg/kg ALA given i.v. and irradiated with 100 mW red light at 630 nm (copper vapor pumped dye laser) 10 - 200 J delivered via a fiber placed touching the colon mucosa at laparotomy at the time of peak PP IX concentration (1 - 4 hours depending on the dose used). Animals were killed 3 days later and the diameter of mucosal necrosis measured. No lesion was seen with 25 mg/kg. Increasing the ALA dose from 50 - 400 mg/kg, the lowest light dose to produce a lesion of > 5 mm fell from 100 J to 25 J. If ALA doses for rats and humans are comparable (which is likely) these results suggest that the drug and light doses used clinically are close to the thresholds levels, so better clinical results may be achieved by increasing the value of one or both.

  9. Hey, Small Spender: An Insider's Guide to Navigating ALA's Chicago Conference on the Cheap

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Journal, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an insider's guide to navigating the American Library Association's (ALA) annual conference in Chicago on July 9-15. As for the extracurricular activities, Chicago has a lot to offer. This article provides tips from the arts and entertainment bible "Time Out Chicago" on where to go and what to do (on a limited…

  10. Efficacy of topical ALA-PDT combined with excision in the treatment of skin malignant tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-gang; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Ya-dong; Zhang, Xing-cun; Gao, Yang; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jun-bo; Li, Guo-ling

    2014-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a successful treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers in clinical practice. In China, more and more doctors use PDT to cure the patients with skin cancer, especially in the elder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical PDT using aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) combined with excision in the treatment of skin malignant tumor and its role in surgical improvements. A total of 58 cases including 32 cases of BCC, 13 cases of Bowen's disease, 8 cases of Paget's disease and 5 cases of SCC were included in this study. All cases were treated with topical ALA-PDT after surgery. Each tumor region was irradiated with 120 J/cm(2) using a 635-nm laser for 15 min. A total of 3 times of assisted ALA-PDT was applied after surgery. There was no recurrence in 6 months after treatment. Only 5 cases of Paget's disease and 2 cases of SCC experienced disease recurrence in 1 year. All patients were able to complete the treatment protocol, with well cosmetic results and no moderate adverse reactions. As an assistive therapy after tumor resection, ALA-PDT can reduce the excision range of the tumor lesions. However, its role in the reduction of recurrence rate remains to be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy of 3.6% topical ALA-PDT for the treatment of severe acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S-Q; Xia, R-S; Li, F; Cao, L; Fan, H; Fan, Y; Yang, L-J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of severe acne vulgaris. A total of 125 patients with Pillsbury III-IV severe facial acne were treated with 3 courses of ALA-PDT with an interval of 2 weeks. ALA gel (3.6%) was applied topically to acne lesions for 1.5 h. The lesions were irradiated by a LED light of 633 nm with a light intensity of 66 mW/cm² and a light dose of 126 J/cm². Patients were evaluated for efficacy and safety at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 after the initial treatment. The total effective rates were 1.6%, 24.8%, 68.8%, 89.6% and 88.8% at the 2- 4- 6- 8- and 12-week after the initial treatment respectively. The clinical outcomes were the best at 4 weeks after the final treatment. The best effective rate and cure rate were 89.6% and 44% respectively. 26 patients and 16 patients showed apparent exacerbation of acne lesions before the 2nd and 3rd treatment respectively, but all of them showed good or excellent improvement after 3-course treatment. Adverse reactions were mild and transient. 3.6% ALA-PDT is a simple, safe and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of severe acne vulgaris.

  12. The challenges of theatre workshop in Katsina-Ala and Oju Colleges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to identify the challenges of theatre workshop at Katsina-Ala and Oju Colleges of Education in Benue State with a view of overcoming them. In doing this, the researchers adopted the primary and secondary methods of carrying out research with interviews, focus group discussion (FGD) and library ...

  13. Karakteristik Habitat Banteng (Bos Javanicus D'Alton, 1823) Di Resort Rowobendo Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    OpenAIRE

    Purnomo, Danang Wahyu; Pudyatmoko, Satyawan

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentasi habitat dan perburuan liar telah menyebabkan penurunan populasi alami Banteng. Sementara itu, sistem pengelolaan habitat di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo tidak sesuai dengan karakter tiap-tiap tipe habitat yang ada. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi karakter habitat yang dapat memberikan informasi tentang pemilihan habitat oleh Banteng dan faktor-faktor yang memengaruhinya. Karakter habitat diestimasi menggunakan dua ...

  14. X-linked Sideroblastic Anemia in a Malay Boy With ALAS2 S568G Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, Thomas A K; Bhattacharyya, Rajat

    2017-07-01

    Dimorphism in peripheral blood film was noted in a 16 year old Malay boy with anemia who was eventually diagnosed with X-linked sideroblastic anemia. A mutation in ALAS2 S568G was identified which has not been described previously in a Malay ethnic group.

  15. Arhitektid : Pirita tee äärde kerkib linna sekkumata kaos / Askur Alas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Arhitektuuribüroo Kosmos liikmete Villem Tomiste ja Mihkel Tüüri Pirita tee äärse ala arhitektuurse tuleviku analüüs. Töö on näitusel "Tallinn tuleb!" Laste Maailma galeriis. Lisatud Pirita tee detailplaneeringuid

  16. The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues Rosa Laura López-Marqués1, Lisbeth Rosager Poulsen1, Katharina Meffert2, Thomas Pomorski2, Michael Gjedde Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation...

  17. Isolated cleft of the ala nasi: A report of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rajesh Jinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial clefts other than cleft lip & palate are reported to be 1.4 to 4.9 per 100,000 live births. Of these, clefts of nose are usually associated with other clefts. Isolated cleft of Ala is rare, 0.7% of all clefts reported by Monasterio. In an analysis of photographic records of 3,500 consecutive patients with craniofacial clefts including cleft lip & palate registered with us between 1985- 2012 which were accessed through our data base, 13 patients with nasal clefts were identified, seven out of which had Isolated cleft of the Ala. All were treated by a rotation flap of the Ala with good results with the longest follow up of 14Yrs. The authors have emphasised the rarity of the condition and presented a simple surgical procedure for correction. In the opinion of the authors this very simple procedure which can be performed by the junior surgeon gives a good long term result in the management of cleft Ala.

  18. ALA-PDT mediated DC vaccine for skin squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Fan, Zhixia; Zhou, Feifan; Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Peiru; Yang, Degang; Zhang, Linglin; Wang, Xiuli; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Dendritic cell (DC) based vaccine has emerged as a promising immunotherapy for cancers. However, most DC vaccines so far have only achieved limited success in cancer treatment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an established cancer treatment strategy, can cause immunogenic apoptosis to induce an effective antitumor immune response. In this study, we developed a DC-based cancer vaccine using immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT. The maturation of DCs induced by PDT-treated apoptotic cells was evaluated. The anti-tumor immunity of ALA-PDT-DC vaccine was tested with mouse model. We observed the maturations of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT treated tumor cells, including phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, DC80, and CD86), and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secret INF-Υ and IL-12). ALA-PDT-DC vaccine mediated by apoptotic cells provided protection against tumor in mice, far stronger than that of DC vaccine obtained from freeze/thaw treated tumor cells. Our results indicate that immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells can be more effective in enhancing DC-based cancer vaccine, which could improve the clinical application of PDT- DC vaccines.

  19. 5-ALA Fluorescence Image Guided Resection of Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Eljamel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is one of the most deadly cancers in humans. Despite recent advances in anti-cancer therapies, most patients with GBM die from local disease progression. Fluorescence image guided surgical resection (FIGR was recently advocated to enhance local control of GBM. This is meta-analyses of 5-aminolevulinic (5-ALA induced FIGR. Materials: Review of the literature produced 503 potential publications; only 20 of these fulfilled the inclusion criteria of this analysis, including a total of 565 patients treated with 5-ALA-FIGR reporting on its outcomes and 800 histological samples reporting 5-ALA-FIGR sensitivity and specificity. Results: The mean gross total resection (GTR rate was 75.4% (95% CI: 67.4–83.5, p < 0.001. The mean time to tumor progression (TTP was 8.1 months (95% CI: 4.7–12, p < 0.001. The mean overall survival gain reported was 6.2 months (95% CI: −1–13, p < 0.001. The specificity was 88.9% (95% CI: 83.9–93.9, p < 0.001 and the sensitivity was 82.6% (95% CI: 73.9–91.9, p < 0.001. Conclusion: 5-ALA-FIGR in GBM is highly sensitive and specific, and imparts significant benefits to patients in terms of improved GTR and TTP.

  20. Mida suudab muusikateraapia? / Melanie Voigt, Esa Ala-Ruona ; inetrvjueerinud Kristel Kossar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Voigt, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemias toimunud Euroopa Muusikateraapia Konföderatsiooni peaassambleel ja sümpoosionil ettekannetega esinenud muusikaterapeudid Malanie Voigt Saksamaalt ja Esa Ala-Ruona Soomest räägivad tööst puuetega lastega ja tööstressist ning heliilmast

  1. Effectiveness and safety of ALA-IPL in treating actinic keratoses and photodamage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, David K; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2004-01-01

    Photorejuvenation involves the use of a light source or laser in reversing the signs of aging. The Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) has demonstrated effectiveness in treating signs of photodamage. Photodynamic therapy is a relatively new and promising treatment for actinic keratoses. To determine the effectiveness of ALA-IPL in treating actinic keratoses as well as reversing the signs of aging. A retrospective trial of 17 patients treated with ALA-IPL. Patients were evaluated for improvement of telangiectasias, blotchy pigment, fine wrinkles, coarseness of skin and number of actinic keratoses. All side effects were recorded. 68% of actinic keratoses resolved after one treatment. There was a 55% improvement in telangiectasias, a 48% improvement in pigmentary irregularities and a 25% improvement in coarseness of skin texture. There was minimal change in fine wrinkle appearance. Side effects were minimal including mild erythema and edema for 3-5 days on average. No infections were noted. ALA-IPL treatment is effective in treating both actinic keratoses and signs of photodamage. In this study, we achieved significant improvement after just one treatment. ALA-IPL is a safe, effective way to treat both actinic keratoses and photodamage with little down time.

  2. Experimental contribution to lead pollution research: urinary ALA in apulia cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, D.; Gentile, G.

    1976-04-30

    The ALA-urinary level in cattle in Apulia (Italy) in areas near roads and industrial pollution sources and in relatively uncontaminated rural area was examined. The levels found were within the limits considered normal, and no significant differences were found between the two classes of samples.

  3. Ene-yne Cross-Metathesis for the Preparation of 2,3-Diaryl-1,3-dienes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem K. Abderrezak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ene-yne cross-metathesis from alkynes and ethylene is a useful method to produce substituted conjugated butadiene derivatives. If this method has been used with aliphatic alkynes, it has however never been used starting from diarylacetylenes as internal alkynes. We show that the ene-yne cross-metathesis catalyzed by the second generation Hoveyda ruthenium catalyst provides the 2,3-diarylbuta-1,3-dienes under 3 atm of ethylene at 100 °C. The scope and limitations of the reaction have been evaluated starting from unsymmetrical functionalized diarylacetylene derivatives hence leading to unsymmetrical 2,3-diarylbuta-1,3-dienes in a straightforward and environmentally acceptable manner.

  4. Treatment of lip florid papillomatosis with topical ALA-PDT combined with curettage: Outcome and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Jia; Lu, Yuan-Gang

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a successful treatment in clinical practice. PDT is increasingly used to cure the patients with skin cancer, especially in the elder. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcome and safety of PDT with aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) combined with surgical curettage for lip florid papillomatosis. In this study, 4 cases of lip florid papillomatosis were treated with topical aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) combined with curettage. First, the warts were removed with the patient under local anesthesia. The depth of the ablation and curettage reached the dermal layer. Then, the first session of PDT was performed after 2days. Ten percent 5-ALA cream was applied to lesional skin with occlusive dressing for a 3-h incubation period and the lesions of warts were irradiated for 10min by using a 635-nm laser beam of 177mW/cm2 intensity. The ALA-PDT was repeated after 1 and 3 weeks and two other treatments applied if necessary. Follow-up evaluation was performed at our outpatient clinic at 3 and 6 months after completion of therapy. After three PDT sessions following surgical curettage, 3 patients were cured at 3 months off treatment, one cases relapsed, corresponding to a recurrent rate of 25%. There was no other recurrence at 6 months off treatment. The satisfaction rate of patients was 95% at 3 month and 100% at 6 months after treatment. The combined treatment of topical ALA-PDT and curettage was proven to be safe and effective in lip florid papillomatosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Emplazamiento hacia el ENE del manto de Los Reales (Alpujarrides occidentales: criterios estructurales y de petrofábrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tubía, J. M.

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Los Reales nappe rests over Ojén nappe to the North of Sierra Alpujata. The nappe contact zone shows a intense plastic deformation with mylonitic rocks, The deformation decreases progressively going away from the contacto The structural study of footwall and hangingwall roen permits to attribute this deformation to the Los Reales nappe emplacement over that of Ojén. The foliation and stretching lineation distributions show a WSW-ENE shear direction. The mylonite microstructural characteristics and the enstatite crystalline preferred orientations in the basal peridotites give a mear sense in according that, Los Reales nappe is displaced, in their present position, from the WSW towards the ENE.

    El manto de Los Reales descansa sobre el manto de Ojén, al norte de Sierra Alpujata. La zona de contacto entre mantos exhibe una intensa deformación plástica con rocas miloníticas; la deformación disminuye progresivamente al alejarse del contacto. El estudio estructural de las rocas infra y suprayacentes al contacto permite atribuir esta deformación al emplazamiento del manto de Los Reales sobre el de Ojén. , Las distribuciones de la foliación y de la lineación, de estiramiento indican una dirección de cizallamiento WSW-ENE. Las características microestructurales de las milonitas y las orientaciones preferentes cristalinas de la enstatita en las peridotitas basales proporcionan un sentido de cizallamiento tal que el manto de Los Reales se ha desplazado, en su posición actual, desde el WSW hacia el ENE.

  6. Vanemad mäletavad / Lain, Janet; Usin, Vello; Usin, Astra; Tiit, Birgit; Kuusk, Eneli; Kuusk, Vilja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Mõisaküla Keskkooli õpilased kogusid 2004. a. sügisel projekti "Mulgi murde päevad Mõisaküla koolis" raames vanemate inimeste mälestusi nende noorpõlvest ja kooliajast. Janet Lain pani kirja vanaisa Vello Usina ja vanaema Astra Usina mälestusi; Birgit Tiit ema Milvi Tiidu mälestusi ja Eneli Kuusk ema Vilja Kuuse mälestusi

  7. Interaction between succinyl CoA synthetase and the heme-biosynthetic enzyme ALAS-E is disrupted in sideroblastic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyama, Kazumichi; Sassa, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The first and the rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis is δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS), which is localized in mitochondria. There are 2 tissue-specific isoforms of ALAS, erythroid-specific (ALAS-E) and nonspecific ALAS (ALAS-N). To identify possible mitochondrial factors that modulate ALAS-E function, we screened a human bone marrow cDNA library, using the mitochondrial form of human ALAS-E as a bait protein in the yeast 2-hybrid system. Our screening led to the isolation of the β subunit of human ATP-specific succinyl CoA synthetase (SCS-βA). Using transient expression and coimmunoprecipitation, we verified that mitochodrially expressed SCS-βA associates specifically with ALAS-E and not with ALAS-N. Furthermore, the ALAS-E mutants R411C and M426V associated with SCS-βA, but the D190V mutant did not. Because the D190V mutant was identified in a patient with pyridoxine-refractory X-linked sideroblastic anemia, our findings suggest that appropriate association of SCS-βA and ALAS-E promotes efficient use of succinyl CoA by ALAS-E or helps translocate ALAS-E into mitochondria. PMID:10727444

  8. Aptamer-based organic-silica hybrid affinity monolith prepared via "thiol-ene" click reaction for extraction of thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Jin-cheng; Lian, Hong-zhen; Chen, Hong-yuan

    2015-06-01

    A novel strategy for preparing aptamer-based organic-silica hybrid monolithic column was developed via "thiol-ene" click chemistry. Due to the large specific surface area of the hybrid matrix and the simplicity, rapidness and high efficiency of "thiol-ene" click reaction, the average coverage density of aptamer on the organic-silica hybrid monolith reached 420 pmol μL(-1). Human α-thrombin can be captured on the prepared affinity monolithic column with high specificity and eluted by NaClO4 solution. N-p-tosyl-Gly-Pro-Arg p-nitroanilide acetate was used as the sensitive chromogenic substrate of thrombin. The thrombin enriched by this affinity column was detected with a detection of limit of 0.01 μM by spectrophotometry. Furthermore, the extraction recovery of thrombin at 0.15 μM in human serum was 91.8% with a relative standard deviation of 4.0%. These results indicated that "thiol-ene" click chemistry provided a promising technique to immobilize aptamer on organic-inorganic hybrid monolith and the easily-assembled affinity monolithic material could be used to realize highly selective recognition of trace proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. ENED-GEM: A Conceptual Framework Model for Psychological Enjoyment Factors and Learning Mechanisms in Educational Games about the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjællingsdal, Kristoffer S; Klöckner, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    Based on a thorough review of psychological literature, this article seeks to develop a model of game enjoyment and environmental learning (ENvironmental EDucational Game Enjoyment Model, ENED-GEM) and delineate psychological processes that might facilitate learning and inspire behavioral change from educational games about the environment. A critically acclaimed digital educational game about environmental issues (Fate of the World by Red Redemption/Soothsayer Games) was used as a case study. Two hundred forty-nine reviews of the game from the popular gaming and reviewing platform known as Steam were analyzed by means of a thematic content analysis in order to identify key player enjoyment factors believed to be relevant to the process of learning from games, as well as to gain an understanding of positive and negative impressions about the game's general content. The end results of the thematic analysis were measured up to the suggested ENED-GEM framework. Initial results generally support the main elements of the ENED-GEM, and future research into the importance of these individual core factors is outlined.

  10. ENED-GEM: A Conceptual Framework Model for Psychological Enjoyment Factors and Learning Mechanisms in Educational Games about the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjællingsdal, Kristoffer S.; Klöckner, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    Based on a thorough review of psychological literature, this article seeks to develop a model of game enjoyment and environmental learning (ENvironmental EDucational Game Enjoyment Model, ENED-GEM) and delineate psychological processes that might facilitate learning and inspire behavioral change from educational games about the environment. A critically acclaimed digital educational game about environmental issues (Fate of the World by Red Redemption/Soothsayer Games) was used as a case study. Two hundred forty-nine reviews of the game from the popular gaming and reviewing platform known as Steam were analyzed by means of a thematic content analysis in order to identify key player enjoyment factors believed to be relevant to the process of learning from games, as well as to gain an understanding of positive and negative impressions about the game’s general content. The end results of the thematic analysis were measured up to the suggested ENED-GEM framework. Initial results generally support the main elements of the ENED-GEM, and future research into the importance of these individual core factors is outlined. PMID:28701988

  11. Spray-deposition and photopolymerization of organic-inorganic thiol-ene resins for fabrication of superamphiphobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Kendrick, Laken L; Heusser, Hannele; Webb, Jamie C; Sparks, Bradley J; Goetz, James T; Guo, Wei; Stafford, Christopher M; Blanton, Michael D; Nazarenko, Sergei; Patton, Derek L

    2014-07-09

    Superamphiphobic surfaces, exhibiting high contact angles and low contact angle hysteresis to both water and low surface tension liquids, have attracted a great deal attention in recent years because of the potential of these materials in practical applications such as liquid-resistant textiles, self-cleaning surfaces, and antifouling/anticorrosion coatings. In this work, we present a simple strategy for fabricating of superamphiphobic coatings based on photopolymerization of hybrid thiol-ene resins. Spray-deposition and UV photopolymerization of thiol-ene resins containing hydrophobic silica nanoparticles and perfluorinated thiols provide a multiscale topography and low-energy surface that endows the surface with superamphiphobicity. The wettability and chemical composition of the surfaces were characterized by contact-angle goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The hierarchical roughness features of the thiol-ene surfaces were investigated with field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Droplet impact and sandpaper abrasion tests indicate the coatings respectively possess a robust antiwetting behavior and good mechanical durability.

  12. Superhydrophobic and Slippery Lubricant-Infused Flexible Transparent Nanocellulose Films by Photoinduced Thiol-Ene Functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiaqi; Fang, Wenwen; Welle, Alexander; Feng, Wenqian; Filpponen, Ilari; Rojas, Orlando J; Levkin, Pavel A

    2016-12-14

    Films comprising nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) are suitable substrates for flexible devices in analytical, sensor, diagnostic, and display technologies. However, some major challenges in such developments include their high moisture sensitivity and the complexity of current methods available for functionalization and patterning. In this work, we present a facile process for tailoring the surface wettability and functionality of NFC films by a fast and versatile approach. First, the NFC films were coated with a layer of reactive nanoporous silicone nanofilament by polycondensation of trichlorovinylsilane (TCVS). The TCVS afforded reactive vinyl groups, thereby enabling simple UV-induced functionalization of NFC films with various thiol-containing molecules via the photo "click" thiol-ene reaction. Modification with perfluoroalkyl thiols resulted in robust superhydrophobic surfaces, which could then be further transformed into transparent slippery lubricant-infused NFC films that displayed repellency against both aqueous and organic liquids with surface tensions as low as 18 mN·m-1. Finally, transparent and flexible NFC films incorporated hydrophilic micropatterns by modification with OH, NH2, or COOH surface groups, enabling space-resolved superhydrophobic-hydrophilic domains. Flexibility, transparency, patternability, and perfect superhydrophobicity of the produced nanocellulose substrates warrants their application in biosensing, display protection, and biomedical and diagnostics devices.

  13. Polysiloxane-based luminescent elastomers prepared by thiol-ene "click" chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yujing; Lu, Haifeng; Xue, Lei; Wang, Xianming; Wu, Lianfeng; Feng, Shengyu

    2014-09-26

    Side-chain vinyl poly(dimethylsiloxane) has been modified with mercaptopropionic acid, methyl 3-mercaptopropionate, and mercaptosuccinic acid. Coordinative bonding of Eu(III) to the functionalized polysiloxanes was then carried out and crosslinked silicone elastomers were prepared by thiol-ene curing reactions of these composites. All these europium complexes could be cast to form transparent, uniform, thin elastomers with good flexibility and thermal stability. The networks were characterized by FTIR, NMR, UV/Vis, and luminescence spectroscopy as well as by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The europium elastomer luminophores exhibited intense red light at 617 nm under UV excitation at room temperature due to the (5)D0 →(7)F2 transition in Eu(III) ions. The newly synthesized luminescent materials offer many advantages, including the desired mechanical flexibility. They cannot be dissolved or fused, and so they have potential for use in optical and electronic applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Thiol-Ene Clickable Gelatin: A Platform Bioink for Multiple 3D Biofabrication Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertlein, Sarah; Brown, Gabriella; Lim, Khoon S; Jungst, Tomasz; Boeck, Thomas; Blunk, Torsten; Tessmar, Joerg; Hooper, Gary J; Woodfield, Tim B F; Groll, Juergen

    2017-11-01

    Bioprinting can be defined as the art of combining materials and cells to fabricate designed, hierarchical 3D hybrid constructs. Suitable materials, so called bioinks, have to comply with challenging rheological processing demands and rapidly form a stable hydrogel postprinting in a cytocompatible manner. Gelatin is often adopted for this purpose, usually modified with (meth-)acryloyl functionalities for postfabrication curing by free radical photopolymerization, resulting in a hydrogel that is cross-linked via nondegradable polymer chains of uncontrolled length. The application of allylated gelatin (GelAGE) as a thiol-ene clickable bioink for distinct biofabrication applications is reported. Curing of this system occurs via dimerization and yields a network with flexible properties that offer a wider biofabrication window than (meth-)acryloyl chemistry, and without additional nondegradable components. An in-depth analysis of GelAGE synthesis is conducted, and standard UV-initiation is further compared with a recently described visible-light-initiator system for GelAGE hydrogel formation. It is demonstrated that GelAGE may serve as a platform bioink for several biofabrication technologies by fabricating constructs with high shape fidelity via lithography-based (digital light processing) 3D printing and extrusion-based 3D bioprinting, the latter supporting long-term viability postprinting of encapsulated chondrocytes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Iron complexes of tetramine ligands catalyse allylic hydroxyamination via a nitroso–ene mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Porter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II complexes of the tetradentate amines tris(2-pyridylmethylamine (TPA and N,N′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl-N,N′-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (BPMEN are established catalysts of C–O bond formation, oxidising hydrocarbon substrates via hydroxylation, epoxidation and dihydroxylation pathways. Herein we report the capacity of these catalysts to promote C–N bond formation, via allylic amination of alkenes. The combination of N-Boc-hydroxylamine with either FeTPA (1 mol % or FeBPMEN (10 mol % converts cyclohexene to the allylic hydroxylamine (tert-butyl cyclohex-2-en-1-yl(hydroxycarbamate in moderate yields. Spectroscopic studies and trapping experiments suggest the reaction proceeds via a nitroso–ene mechanism, with involvement of a free N-Boc-nitroso intermediate. Asymmetric induction is not observed using the chiral tetramine ligand (+-(2R,2′R-1,1′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl-2,2′-bipyrrolidine ((R,R′-PDP.

  16. Characterization of the Ala62Pro polymorphic variant of human cytochrome P450 1A1 using recombinant protein expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Heon; Kang, Sukmo [College of Veterinary Medicine, BK21plus Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research, and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Mi Sook [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung-Duck [College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jinseo; Rhee, Sangkee [College of Agriculture of Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Doug-Young, E-mail: dyryu@snu.ac.kr [College of Veterinary Medicine, BK21plus Program for Creative Veterinary Science Research, and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 is a heme-containing enzyme involved in detoxification of hydrophobic pollutants. Its Ala62Pro variant has been identified previously. Ala62 is located in α-helix A of CYP1A1. Residues such as Pro and Gly are α-helix breakers. In this study, the Ala62Pro variant was characterized using heterologous expression. E. coli expressing the Ala62Pro variant, and the purified variant protein, had lower CYP (i.e. holoenzyme) contents than their wild-type (WT) equivalents. The CYP variant from E. coli and mammalian cells exhibited lower 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (EROD) and benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation activities than the WT. Enhanced supplementation of a heme precursor during E. coli culture did not increase CYP content in E. coli expressing the variant, but did for the WT. As for Ala62Pro, E. coli expressing an Ala62Gly variant had a lower CYP content than the WT counterpart, but substitution of Ala62 with α-helix-compatible residues such as Ser and Val partially recovered the level of CYP produced. Microsomes from mammalian cells expressing Ala62Pro and Ala62Gly variants exhibited lower EROD activities than those expressing the WT or Ala62Val variant. A region harboring α-helix A has interactions with another region containing heme-interacting residues. Site-directed mutagenesis analyses suggest the importance of interactions between the two regions on holoenzyme expression. Together, these findings suggest that the Ala62Pro substitution leads to changes in protein characteristics and function of CYP1A1 via structural disturbance of the region where the residue is located. - Highlights: • Ala62 is located in α-helix A of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1. • Pro acts as an α-helix breaker. • A variant protein of CYP1A1, Ala62Pro, had lower heme content than the wild-type. • The variant of CYP1A1 had lower enzyme activities than the wild-type.

  17. Preclinical Development of a Subcutaneous ALAS1 RNAi Therapeutic for Treatment of Hepatic Porphyrias Using Circulating RNA Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute hepatic porphyrias are caused by inherited enzymatic deficiencies in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Induction of the first enzyme 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1 by triggers such as fasting or drug exposure can lead to accumulation of neurotoxic heme intermediates that cause disease symptoms. We have demonstrated that hepatic ALAS1 silencing using siRNA in a lipid nanoparticle effectively prevents and treats induced attacks in a mouse model of acute intermittent porphyria. Herein, we report the development of ALN-AS1, an investigational GalNAc-conjugated RNAi therapeutic targeting ALAS1. One challenge in advancing ALN-AS1 to patients is the inability to detect liver ALAS1 mRNA in the absence of liver biopsies. We here describe a less invasive circulating extracellular RNA detection assay to monitor RNAi drug activity in serum and urine. A striking correlation in ALAS1 mRNA was observed across liver, serum, and urine in both rodents and nonhuman primates (NHPs following treatment with ALN-AS1. Moreover, in donor-matched human urine and serum, we demonstrate a notable correspondence in ALAS1 levels, minimal interday assay variability, low interpatient variability from serial sample collections, and the ability to distinguish between healthy volunteers and porphyria patients with induced ALAS1 levels. The collective data highlight the potential utility of this assay in the clinical development of ALN-AS1, and in broadening our understanding of acute hepatic porphyrias disease pathophysiology.

  18. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (1-38 and its analog (Acetyl-[Ala15, Ala20] PACAP 38-polyamide reverse methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Tlili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate both functionally and structurally bronchodilator effects of Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP38 and acetyl-[Ala15, Ala20] PACAP38-polyamide, a potent PACAP38 analog, in rats challenged by methacholine (MeCh. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 inhaled respectively aerosols of saline or increasing doses of MeCh (0.5, 1, 2.12, 4.25, 8.5, 17, 34 and 68mg/L. The other groups received terbutaline (Terb (250 µg/rat (10-6 M, PACAP38 (50 µg/rat (0.1 mM or PACAP38 analog (50 µg/rat associated to MeCh from the dose of 4.25 mg/L. Total lung resistances (RL were recorded before and 2 min after MeCh administration by pneumomultitest equipment. MeCh administration induced a significant and a dose-dependent increase (p<0.05 of RL compared to control rats. Terb, PACAP38 and PACAP38 analog reversed significantly the MeCh-induced bronchial constriction, smooth muscle (SM layer thickness and bronchial lumen mucus abundance. PACAP38 analog prevents effectively bronchial smooth muscle layer thickness, mucus hypersecretion and lumen decrease. Therefore, it may constitute a potent therapeutic bronchodilator.

  19. Polymorphism of MnSOD (Val16Ala gene in pregnancies with blighted ovum: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiyeh Moshtaghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blighted ovum is one of the most common reasons for abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD is an important antioxidant enzyme in the human immune system. The gene is located on 6q25 chromosome and acts on mitochondrial matrix. In the case of mutation or inactivity of this enzyme, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA will severely be destructed. The most common polymorphism of its gene is Val16Ala. Objective: The aim was to investigate a possible mutation in pregnant women who had abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy due to blighted ovum. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 34 women were entered as the case and control groups, respectively. Genome DNA was extracted from saliva samples and its genotype was determined using Tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: In the case group, 16 (48% cases had Val/Val genotype, 17 (50% were heterozygote and had Val/Ala genotype, and 1 (2% had Ala/Ala genotype. Among controls, 7 (22% items had Val/Val genotype, 6 (17% had Val/Ala genotype, and 21 (61% had Ala/Ala genotype. The frequency of TT, CT, and CC genotypes was 48%, 50%, and 2% in case group and 22%, 17%, and 61% in control group, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between Val16Ala polymorphism of MnSOD gene and blighted ovum (p= 0.0003. Conclusion: It has concluded that a significant relationship exists between Val16Ala polymorphism of MnSOD gene and blighted ovum.

  20. Synthesis and conformational study of silk model polypeptides [Ala-Gly] 12 by solid-state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Satoshi; Santos, Andres; Ishii, Osamu; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Kunieda, Shingo; Kimura, Hideaki; Shoji, Akira

    2003-04-01

    A series of well-defined model polypeptides of Bombyx mori silk fibroin, [Ala-Gly] n ( n=12 and 5-9), [Ala d4Gly] 12 and [Gly d2Ala] 12, (where Ala, Gly, Ala d4 and Gly d2 denote L-alanine, glycine, 2,3,3,3-deuterated L-alanine and 2,2-deuterated glycine residues, respectively), were successfully synthesized by an automatic solid phase peptide synthesizer. Followed by treatment with 9 M lithium bromide (LiBr) solution to convert their conformation from the silk II to the silk I form. We determined the intrinsic 1H, 13C and 15N NMR chemical shifts of Ala and Gly residues, characteristic to the silk I and silk II forms in Bombyx mori, by high-resolution and solid-state 13C CP-MAS, 1H CRAMPS, 1H- 13C HETCOR and 15N CP-MAS NMR measurements. Next, we demonstrated that it is necessary at least 12 amino acid residues ( n=6) in the [Ala-Gly] n-I series for the formation of stable silk I form by 13C CP-MAS NMR. Finally, we found that the intrinsic 1H and 13C chemical shifts of the specific deuterium labeled polypeptides, [Ala d4-Gly] 12 and [Gly d2-Ala] 12, cause a meaningful chemical shift displacement, suggesting that the deuterium interacts with proton and/or carbon atoms in the solid state. Thus, the selective deuterium labeling has a potential to useful for the structural analysis by 1H NMR in the solid state.

  1. ALA Inhibits ABA-induced Stomatal Closure via Reducing H2O2 and Ca2+ Levels in Guard Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yuyan; Liu, Longbo; Chen, Linghui; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a newly proved natural plant growth regulator, is well known to improve plant photosynthesis under both normal and stressful conditions. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Stomatal closure is one of the major limiting factors for photosynthesis and abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone in provoking stomatal closing. Here, we showed that ALA significantly inhibited ABA-induced stomatal closure using wild-type and ALA-overproducing transgenic Arabidopsis (YHem1). We found that ALA decreased ABA-induced H2O2 and cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in guard cells with stomatal bioassay, laser-scanning confocal microscopy and pharmacological methods. The inhibitory effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was similar to that of AsA (an important reducing substrate for H2O2 removal), CAT (a H2O2-scavenging enzyme), DPI (an inhibitor of the H2O2-generating NADPH oxidase), EGTA (a Ca-chelating agent), and AlCl3 (an inhibitor of calcium channel). Furthermore, ALA inhibited exogenous H2O2- or Ca2+-induced stomatal closure. Taken together, we conclude that ALA inhibits ABA-induced stomatal closure via reducing H2O2, probably by scavenging, and Ca2+ levels in guard cells. Moreover, the inhibitive effect of ALA on ABA-induced stomatal closure was further confirmed in the whole plant. Finally, we demonstrated that ALA inhibits stomatal closing, but significantly improves plant drought tolerance. Our results provide valuable information for the promotion of plant production and development of a sustainable low-carbon society. PMID:27148309

  2. Photo-initiated thiol-ene click reactions as a potential strategy for incorporation of [M(I)(CO)3]+ (M = Re, (99m)Tc) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Thomas R; Lyon, Patrice A; Silva-Lopez, Elsa; Twamley, Brendan; Benny, Paul D

    2013-03-18

    Click reactions offer a rapid technique to covalently assemble two molecules. In radiopharmaceutical construction, these reactions can be utilized to combine a radioactive metal complex with a biological targeting molecule to yield a potent tool for imaging or therapy applications. The photo-initiated radical thiol-ene click reaction between a thiol and an alkene was examined for the incorporation of [M(I)(CO)3](+) (M = Re, (99m)Tc) systems for conjugating biologically active targeting molecules containing a thiol. In this strategy, a potent chelate system, 2,2'-dipicolylamine (DPA), for [M(I)(CO)3](+) was functionalized at the central amine with a terminal alkene linker that was explored with two synthetic approaches, click then chelate and chelate then click, to determine the flexibility and applicability of the thiol-ene click reaction to specifically incorporate ligand systems and metal complexes with a thiol containing molecule. In the click then chelate approach, the thiol-ene click reaction was carried out with the DPA chelate followed by complexation with [M(I)(CO)3](+). In the chelate then click approach, the alkene functionalized DPA chelate was first complexed with [M(I)(CO)3](+) followed by the conduction of the thiol-ene click reaction. Initial studies utilized benzyl mercaptan as a model thiol for both strategies to generate the identical product from either route to provide information on reactivity and product formation. DPA ligands functionalized with two unique linker systems (allyl and propyl allyl ether) were prepared to examine the effect of the proximity of the chelate or complex on the thiol-ene click reaction. Both the thiol-ene click and coordination reactions with Re, (99m)Tc were performed in moderate to high yields demonstrating the potential of the thiol-ene click reaction for [M(I)(CO)3](+) incorporation into thiol containing biomolecules.

  3. Γ-X intervalley transfer in single AlAs barriers under hydrostatic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Y.; Beerens, J.; Cury, L. A.; Liu, H. C.; Buchanan, M.

    1993-04-01

    We have investigated the contribution of Γ-X intervalley transfer to the tunneling current in single AlAs barrier heterostructures grown on a GaAs substrate by measuring I-V characteristics at low temperature and under hydrostatic pressure up to 9 kbar. The application of hydrostatic pressure affects the contribution of the Γ-X transfer process to the total tunneling current at a given bias voltage. Experimental results are compared with current-voltage characteristics calculated with a model taking into account the Γ-X transfer at heterointerfaces. Only transfer processes involving the longitudinal X valley in AlAs are considered in the calculations. Very good agreement is found for low bias conditions at all pressures.

  4. The miniband spectrum in (AlAs) sub M (GaAs) sub N (111)

    CERN Document Server

    Karavaev, G F; Egunov, R M

    2002-01-01

    The electron states for energies in the conduction band of (AlAs) sub M (GaAs) sub N (111) superlattices with M >= N (N < 10) are considered. The properties of such superlattices are mainly determined by electrons of X-valley in AlAs and L-valley in GaAs. The calculations are carried out on the basis of the envelope-function model of interface band mixing. Miniband spectra, symmetry and localization of wave functions, and also probabilities of the interminiband infrared absorption are defined and analyzed. It is shown that the latter have a significant magnitude not only at light polarization along the superlattice growth axis, but also at normal incidence of a light wave to the surface. The analysis has been normal incidence of a light wave to the surface. The analysis has shown the importance of consideration of X sub 5 -states belonging to the valence band for infrared absorption

  5. Rolled-Up Nanotech: Illumination-Controlled Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of AlAs Sacrificial Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costescu Ruxandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of illumination on the hydrofluoric acid etching of AlAs sacrificial layers with systematically varied thicknesses in order to release and roll up InGaAs/GaAs bilayers was studied. For thicknesses of AlAs below 10 nm, there were two etching regimes for the area under illumination: one at low illumination intensities, in which the etching and releasing proceeds as expected and one at higher intensities in which the etching and any releasing are completely suppressed. The “etch suppression” area is well defined by the illumination spot, a feature that can be used to create heterogeneously etched regions with a high degree of control, shown here on patterned samples. Together with the studied self-limitation effect, the technique offers a way to determine the position of rolled-up micro- and nanotubes independently from the predefined lithographic pattern.

  6. Politsei otsib salapärast ameeriklannat / Askur Alas, Janar Filippov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alas, Askur, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Infopress 1. juuni nr. 22. lk. 160-161. Politsei otsib taga ameeriklannat, kes võis filmida Dmitri Ganini tapmist. 26.-27. aprillil Tallinnas Woodstocki baari vandaalide eest kaitsnud isikud kirjeldavad toonaseid sündmusi ning D. Ganini ja tema sõbra Olegi osa neis. Vt. samas: Askur Alas, Krister Kivi. Ganin sai nuga pärast esimese kiirabi lahkumist. Tallinna kiirabi tegevus kriisiperioodil

  7. Treatment of perianal condyloma acuminate with topical ALA-PDT combined with curettage: outcome and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuan-gang; Yang, Ya-dong; Wu, Jin-jin; Lei, Xia; Cheng, Qiong-hui; He, Yang; Yang, Wen

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcome and safety of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) combined with surgical curettage for perianal condyloma acuminata. Condyloma acuminata is the most common sexually transmitted disease, with a high relapse rate, especially in the perianal area. The outcomes of many treatment methods for perianal genital warts are not satisfactory. In this study, 40 cases of perianal condyloma acuminata were treated with topical aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) combined with curettage. First, the warts were removed with the patient under local anesthesia. The depth of the ablation and curettage reached the dermal layer. Then, the first session of PDT was performed after 2 days. Ten percent 5-ALA cream was applied to lesional skin with occlusive dressing for a 3-h incubation period and the lesions of warts were irradiated for 10 min by using a 635-nm laser beam of 177 mW/cm(2) intensity. The ALA-PDT was repeated after 1 and 3 weeks. Follow-up evaluation was performed at our outpatient clinic at 1 and 3 months after completion of therapy. Before treatment and at each follow-up visit, the lesions were photographed; the treatment outcome was evaluated as recurrence rate, and patient satisfaction was surveyed. After three PDT sessions following surgical curettage, all 40 patients were cured and there was no recurrence at 1 month off treatment. At 3 months off treatment, six cases relapsed, corresponding to a recurrent rate of 15%. The satisfaction rate of patients was 100% at 1 month and 95% at 3 months after treatment. Combination of surgical curettage and topical PDT has been proven to be a safe and effective procedure, and may offer a wide clinical application for the treatment of perianal condyloma acuminata.

  8. First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs : numerical supplement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2012-04-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in aluminum arsenide, AlAs, as computed by density functional theory. This Report serves as a numerical supplement to the results published in: P.A. Schultz, 'First principles predictions of intrinsic defects in Aluminum Arsenide, AlAs', Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 1370 (2011; SAND2011-2436C), and intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  9. Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS: Reliability and Validity in a Nationwide Sample of Greek Educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntina Kourmousi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS validity and reliability in a sample of 3955 Greek educators. The sample was randomly split and an exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted in the even subsample to evaluate the scale’s construct validity. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was performed in the odd subsample to confirm the three-factor model identified by the EFA. The chi square test (χ2 of the model was significant (p < 0.05, due to the large sample size. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA, the comparative fit index (CFI and the goodness of fit index (GFI values were 0.079, 0.969 and 0.960, respectively, further supporting the fit of the three-factor model. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test internal consistency reliability and was satisfactory exceeding 0.72 for ALAS subscales. The intercorrelations of the three subscales were all positive and significant (p < 0.001, ranging from 0.20 to 0.42. Student’s t-tests and the computation of effect sizes revealed that women scored higher on Listening Skill and Conversation Opportunity, while principals and participants trained on mental health promotion scored higher on all three subscales. The analyses confirmed the three-factor model of ALAS and demonstrated its validity and reliability in measuring Greek teachers’ active listening attitudes.

  10. The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager

    physiological function.   1 Poulsen, L.R; López-Marqués, R.L et al. (2008) The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 localizes to the Golgi and requires a ß-subunit to function in lipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation. The Plant Cell, vol. 20, 658-676. 2 Gomès, E. et al. (2000) Chilling tolerance......  The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues Rosa Laura López-Marqués1, Lisbeth Rosager Poulsen1, Katharina Meffert2, Thomas Pomorski2, Michael Gjedde Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation......, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark 2Humboldt-University Berlin, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science I, Institute of Biology, 10115 Berlin, Germany In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana 12 P4-ATPases are present, named ALA1 to 12...

  11. Studying the potential role of ALIS proteins on the functionality of ALA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager; Meffert, Katharina

    physiological function.   1 Poulsen, L.R; López-Marqués, R.L et al. (2008) The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 localizes to the Golgi and requires a ß-subunit to function in lipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation. The Plant Cell, vol. 20, 658-676. 2 Gomès, E. et al. (2000) Chilling tolerance......The plant P4-ATPase ALA2 is involved in flipping of phosphatidylserine analogues Rosa Laura López-Marqués1, Lisbeth Rosager Poulsen1, Katharina Meffert2, Thomas Pomorski2, Michael Gjedde Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation......, Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark 2Humboldt-University Berlin, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science I, Institute of Biology, 10115 Berlin, Germany In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana 12 P4-ATPases are present, named ALA1 to 12...

  12. Characterization of a TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159-ala Human Lymphoblast Clone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chyall, L.: Gauny, S.; Kronenberg, A.

    2006-01-01

    TK6 cells are a well-characterized human B-lymphoblast cell line derived from WIL-2 cells. A derivative of the TK6 cell line that was stably transfected to express a mutated form of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL (TK6-Bcl-xL gly-159- ala clone #38) is compared with the parent cell line. Four parameters were evaluated for each cell line: growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency, and frequency of spontaneous mutation to 6‑thioguanine resistance (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase locus) or trifluorothymidine resistance (thymidine kinase locus). We conclude that the mutated Bcl-xL protein did not affect growth under normal conditions, plating efficiency or spontaneous mutation frequencies at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus. Results at the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus were inconclusive. A mutant fraction for TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells exposed to 150cGy of 160kVp x-rays was also calculated. Exposure to x-irradiation increased the mutant fraction of TK6‑Bcl-xL gly-159-ala clone #38 cells.

  13. C27-C30 neohop-13(18)-enes and their saturated and aromatic derivatives in sediments: Indicators for diagenesis and water column stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Schouten, Stefan; Volkman, John K.

    2014-05-01

    A limited suite of C27, C29 and C30 rearranged hopenes identified as neohop-13(18)-enes have been reported in immature Recent and ancient marine/lacustrine sediments and their presence has been explained by dehydration and isomerisation of ubiquitous hopanols or hopenes. Here we investigated the source and fate of neohop-13(18)-enes in a range of Recent and ancient sediments. The analysis of δ13C values of hop-17(21)-ene and neohop-13(18)-ene in Arabian Sea surface sediments, in the Monterey Formation and in immature Cenomanian black shales show that they differ by 2-3‰, suggesting that the C30 neohop-13(18)-ene has a source different from those of the non-rearranged C30 hopenes. A new member of the family of neohop-13(18)-enes, the C28 hopene 28,30-dinorhop-13(18)-ene, was identified based on comparison of its mass spectral data with that of other members of the family of neohopenes. Its occurrence explains the formation of a series of orphan aromatic hopanoids bearing an ethyl group at C-21, known to occur in high concentrations in some organic-rich ancient sediments. Circumstantial evidence for this formation pathway is provided by identical δ13C values for the C28 28,30-dinorhop-13(18)-ene and two aromatic hopanoids in two Cretaceous black shales. Relatively abundant C28 28,30-dinorhopene and related aromatic derivatives were present in ancient sediments where the distribution of other biomarkers (i.e. isorenieratene derivatives) indicated a stratified palaeo water column. Therefore, it is suggested that these compounds are derived from bacteria dwelling at or below the chemocline and may be used as indicators of stratified water bodies in the past. 28,30-Dinorhop-13(18)-ene may also be a precursor of the unusual C28 desmethylhopane 28,30-dinorhopane found in high concentrations in anoxic sediments and a limited suite of crude oils, which is consistent with the proposal that it too ultimately derives from bacteria living at the oxic-anoxic interface.

  14. Association of the Pro12Ala Polymorphism with the Metabolic Parameters in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira Zaki

    2017-06-01

    CONCLUSION: The PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphism might contribute to the risk of PCOS and abnormal metabolic parameters and could be considered as a biomarker for early diagnosis and clinic prediction of metabolic complications.

  15. Growth optimization and characterization of high mobility two-dimensional electron systems in AlAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Shivaji

    2009-02-15

    In this work two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) based on AlAs/AlGaAs heterostructures doped with Si are investigated. The electrons are confined in AlAs quantum wells (QWs) sandwiched between AlGaAs buffers. Analytical calculations and simulations for AlAs QWs are presented in the first chapter. The results show a cross-over width, above which the wide (001)-oriented QWs show double valley occupancy and wide (110)-oriented QWs show single valley occupancy. We solve the Schroedinger equation analytically for anisotropic masses. The solution shows the orientation dependence of the elliptical cyclotron orbit due to the anisotropic mass. We also present an introduction to the Landau level crossings based on g{sup *}m{sup *} product. In the next chapter, we present experimental results for the double-valley (001)-oriented AlAs QWs. We present the different structures of the deep AlAs QWs along with the low temperature magnetotransport data for these QWs. Thereafter, we present the results on shallow AlAs QWs. We achieved a mobility of 4.2 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/Vs at 330 mK for the deep backside doped AlAs QW. For the shallow QWs, we achieved a mobility of2.3 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/Vs at 330 mK, for a density of 2.9 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. From the magneto-transport data, we see evidence of the double-valley occupation for the (001)-oriented AlAs wide QWs. In the next chapter, we present experimental results for the single-valley (110)-oriented AlAs QWs. We deduced the donor binding energy and the doping efficiency for this facet from a doping series of double-sided doped QWs. Thereafter, we designed different structures for the (110)-oriented AlAs QWs, which we present along with their respective low temperature magneto-transport data. We measured one of the double-sided doped AlAs QWs at very high magnetic fields and low temperatures, down to 60 mK. At the end of the chapter, we present a spike feature observed in the magneto-transport data of these QWs. This

  16. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism in lead exposed Bangladeshi children and its effect on urinary aminolevulinic acid (ALA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasmin, Saira, E-mail: rimzim1612@yahoo.com [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Furusawa, Hana [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ahmad, Sk. Akhtar [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences, 125/1, Darus Salam, Mirpur, Dhaka 1216 (Bangladesh); Faruquee, M.H. [Department of Public Health, State University of Bangladesh, 77 Satmasjid Road, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Watanabe, Chiho [Department of Human Ecology, School of International Health, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Background and objective: Lead has long been recognized as a harmful environmental pollutant. People in developing countries like Bangladesh still have a higher risk of lead exposure. Previous research has suggested that the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) genotype can modify lead toxicity and individual susceptibility. As children are more susceptible to lead-induced toxicity, this study investigated whether the ALAD genotype influenced urinary excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA) among children exposed to environmental lead in Bangladesh. Methods: Subjects were elementary schoolchildren from a semi-urban industrialized area in Bangladesh. A total of 222 children were studied. Blood and urine were collected to determine ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels and urinary aminolevulinic acid (U-ALA). Results: The mean BPb level was 9.7 µg/dl for the study children. BPb was significantly positively correlated with hemoglobin (p<0.01). In total, allele frequency for ALAD 1 and 2 was 0.83 and 0.17 respectively. The mean U-ALA concentration was lower in ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers than ALAD1-1 carriers for boys (p=0.001). But for girls, U-ALA did not differ significantly by genotype (p=0.26). When U-ALA was compared by genotype at the same exposure level in a multiple linear regression analysis, boys who were ALAD1-2/2-2 carriers still had a lower level of U-ALA compared to ALAD1-1carriers. Conclusion: This study provides information about the influence of ALAD polymorphism and its association with U-ALA in Bangladeshi children. Our results indicate that the ALAD1-2/2-2 genotype may have a protective effect in terms of U-ALA for environmentally lead exposed boys. - Highlights: • High blood lead level for the environmentally exposed schoolchildren. • BPb was significantly correlated with U-ALA and Hb. • Effect of ALAD genotype on U-ALA is differed by sex. • Lower U-ALA in ALAD2 than ALAD1 carriers only for boys at same exposure.

  17. Role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on active oxygen-scavenging system in NaCl-treated spinach (Spinacia oleracea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Eiji; Kondo, Kensuke; Parvez, Mohammad Masud; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Watanabe, Keitaro; Tanaka, Kiyoshi

    2003-09-01

    ALA is a key precursor in the biosynthesis of porphyrins such as chlorophyll and heme, and was found to induce temporary elevations in the photosynthesis rate, APX, and CAT; furthermore, treatment with ALA at a low concentration might be correlated to the increase of NaCl tolerance of spinach plants. The photosynthetic rate and the levels of active oxygen-scavenging system in the 3rd leaf of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) plants grown by foliar treatment with 0, 0.18, 0.60 and 1.80 mmol/L 5-aminolevulinic acid under 50 and 100 mmol/L NaCl were analyzed. Plants treated with 0.60 and 1.80 mmol/L ALA showed significant increases in the photosynthetic rate at 50 and 100 mmol/L NaCl, while that of 0.18 mmol/L ALA did not show any changes at 50 mmol/L NaCl and a gradual decrease at 100 mmol/L NaCl. In contrast, the rate with 0 mmol/L ALA showed reduction at both concentrations of NaCl. The increase of hydrogen peroxide content by treatment with 0.60 and 1.80 mmol/L ALA were more controlled than that of 0 mmol/L ALA under both NaCl conditions. These ALA-treated spinach leaves also exhibited a lower oxidized/reduced ascorbate acid ratio and a higher reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio than the 0 mmol/L-treated spinach leaves when grown at both NaCl conditions. With regard to the antioxidant enzyme activities in the leaves, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were enhanced remarkably, most notably at day 3, by treatment with 0.60 and 1.80 mmol/L ALA under both NaCl conditions in comparison to that of 0 and 0.18 mmol/L ALA. These data indicate that the protection against oxidative damage by higher levels of antioxidants and enzyme activities, and by a more active ascorbate-glutathione cycle related to the increase of the photosynthesis rate, could be involved in the increased salt tolerance observed in spinach by treatment with 0.60 to 1.80 mmol/L ALA with NaCl.

  18. Valor educativo y generalización del grupo "Alas por la vida" Educational value and generalization of "Alas por la Vida"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Hugo Cantero Ronquillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En el tratamiento del cáncer de mama, además de la agresión quirúrgica, en ocasiones mutilante, seguida o precedida por las molestias inherentes a los tratamientos oncoespecíficos, a veces persisten "heridas", que aunque invisibles, no siempre cierran totalmente, y afectan durante mucho tiempo, o toda la vida, a un grupo importante de pacientes y familiares cercanos. El proyecto "Alas por la vida" propone nuevas alternativas en el tratamiento de la mujer con cáncer de mama, que puedan prepararla para una nueva etapa, y vivir con el estatus de enferma crónica, que no refleje invalidez en el desempeño de sus funciones, que alcance la recuperación de su equilibrio biopsicosocial, y, consecuentemente, el disfrute de una adecuada calidad de vida. Mediante intercambios entre sobrevivientes de la enfermedad, familiares y profesionales, charlas científicas, sesiones de preguntas y respuestas, reflexiones de operadas en su lucha contra el cáncer de mama y también de sus esposos, así como con actividades socioculturales, etc., se han logrado resultados muy positivos por este grupo, lo que se refleja en encuestas realizadas a tal efecto. El Grupo de Apoyo a Pacientes Mastectomizadas "Alas por la vida", ha resultado ser un instrumento muy útil para elevar la autoestima y mejorar la calidad de vida de las sobrevivientes, que a la vez ha fortalecido y humanizado nuestra lucha contra el cáncer de mama, y se han aglutinando crecientemente más seguidores en esta noble causa, por lo que recomendamos se organicen proyectos similares en todas las provincias del país.In the treatment of beast cancer besides the surgical aggression occasionally mutilating followed or precedes by the molecules inherent to specific oncologic treatments, sometimes the "wounds" persist that although invisibles, not always are totally closed involving for much time or for life to a significant group of patients and close relatives.The project "Alas por la Vida" proposes

  19. 5-ALA Fluorescence in Native Pituitary Adenoma Cell Lines: Resection Control and Basis for Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemes, Andrei; Fortmann, Thomas; Poeschke, Stephan; Greve, Burkhard; Prevedello, Daniel; Santacroce, Antonio; Stummer, Walter; Senner, Volker; Ewelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas (PA), especially invasive ones, are often not completely resectable. Usage of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) for fluorescence guided surgery could improve the rate of total resection and, additionally, open the doors for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in case of unresectable or partially resected PAs. The aim of this study was to investigate the uptake of 5-ALA and the effect of 5-ALA based PDT in cell lines. GH3 and AtT-20 cell lines were incubated with different concentrations of 5-ALA, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence was measured by flow cytometry and fluorescencespectrometry. WST-1 assays were performed to determine the surviving fraction of cells after PDT. PPIX fluorescence intensities and PDT effect of the pituitary adenoma cells were compared to U373MG, a well-known glioblastoma cell line. Both cell lines showed a 5-ALA dependent intracellular PPIX fluorescence. Significant differences after 24hrs of incubation were observed in AtT-20 cells in comparison to GH3. Regardless of the incubation or metabolism time, there was a proliferation inhibiting effect after PDT, with no statistical significance. Since GH3 cells showed a heterogenous uptake of 5-ALA in the flow cytometry profile, but not constantly high concentrations they might have a 5-ALA efflux mechanism, which still needs to be determined. In the case of AtT-20, the cells might need a longer time for the uptake due to their size or slow metabolism. We showed that the different cell lines have different uptake and metabolism mechanisms, which needs to be further investigated. The general uptake of 5-ALA allows the possibility of resection control and PDT for pituitary adenomas. But, the role of PDT for unresectable pituitary adenomas deserves further investigations.

  20. X-linked sideroblastic anemia due to ALAS2 intron 1 enhancer element GATA-binding site mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Campagna, D.R.; Bie, C.I. De; Schmitz-Abe, K.; Sweeney, M.; Sendamarai, A.K.; Schmidt, P.J.; Heeney, M.M.; Yntema, H.G.; Kannengiesser, C.; Grandchamp, B.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Swart, S.; Marron, G.; Wijk, R. van

    2014-01-01

    X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is the most common form of congenital sideroblastic anemia. In affected males, it is uniformly associated with partial loss-of-function missense mutations in the erythroid-specific heme biosynthesis protein 5-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2). Here, we report five families with XLSA owing to mutations in a GATA transcription factor binding site located in a transcriptional enhancer element in intron 1 of the ALAS2 gene. As such, this study defines a new c...

  1. Assay for identification of heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphism (Ala67Thr in human poliovirus receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar Nandi

    2016-01-01

    Results: A new SNP assay for detection of heterozygous Ala67Thr genotype was developed and validated by testing 150 DNA samples. Heterozygous CD155 was detected in 27.33 per cent (41/150 of DNA samples tested by both SNP detection assay and sequencing. Interpretation & conclusions: The SNP detection assay was successfully developed for identification of Ala67Thr polymorphism in human PVR/CD155 gene. The SNP assay will be useful for large scale screening of DNA samples.

  2. Synthesis and Transformations of di-endo-3-Aminobicyclo-[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Palkó

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available all-endo-3-amino-5-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid (13 and all-endo-5-amino-6-(hydroxymethylbicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ol (10 were prepared via dihydro-1,3-oxazine or g-lactone intermediates by the stereoselective functionalization of an N-protected derivative of endo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid (2. Ring closure of b-amino ester 4 resulted in tricyclic pyrimidinones 15 and 16. The structures, stereochemistry and relative configurations of the synthesized compounds were determined by IR and NMR.

  3. Vabariigi presidendi, riigikogu esimehe ja peaministri ühisavaldus 8. mail 2007 / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Ene Ergma, Andrus Ansip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese, Riigikogu spiikri Ene Ergma ja peaminister Andrus Ansipi avaldus Teise maailmasõja lõpu 62. aastapäeva puhul. Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberežje 9. mai 2007, lk. 2; Eesti Elu 11. mai 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: Riigijuhtide ühisavaldus Teise maailmasõja mälestuspäeval, ingl. k. lk. 11, pealk.: Joint statement May 8, 2007; ingl. k. Vaba Eesti Sõna 10. mai 2007, lk. 12, pealk.: Joint statement of the President, Speaker of the Parliament and Prime Minister of the Republic of Estonia

  4. Comparsion of light dose on topical ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy for DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch premalignant lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Fu; Tseng, Meng-Ke; Liu, Chung-Ji; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer has becomes the most prominent male cancer disease due to the local betel nut chewing habit combing with smoking and alcohol-drinking lifestyle. In order to minimize the systemic phototoxic effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), this study was designed to use a topical ALA-mediated PDT for treatment of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch cancerous lesions. DMBA was applied to one of the buccal pouches of hamsters thrice a week for 8 to 10 weeks. Precancerous lesions were induced and proven by histological examination. These DMBA-induced cancerous lesions were used for testing the efficacy of topical ALA -mediated PDT. We found that ALA reached its peak level in cancerous lesions about 2.5 hrs after topical application of ALA gel. The precancerous lesions in hamsters were then treated with topical ALA -mediated PDT with light exposure dose of 75 and 100 J/cm2 using LED 635 nm Wonderlight device. It is suggesting that optimization of the given light dose is critical to the success of PDT results.

  5. Improvement of performance of InAs quantum dot solar cell by inserting thin AlAs layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPheeters Claiborne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new measure to enhance the performance of InAs quantum dot solar cell is proposed and measured. One monolayer AlAs is deposited on top of InAs quantum dots (QDs in multistack solar cells. The devices were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy. In situ annealing was intended to tune the QD density. A set of four samples were compared: InAs QDs without in situ annealing with and without AlAs cap layer and InAs QDs in situ annealed with and without AlAs cap layer. Atomic force microscopy measurements show that when in situ annealing of QDs without AlAs capping layers is investigated, holes and dashes are present on the device surface, while capping with one monolayer AlAs improves the device surface. On unannealed samples, capping the QDs with one monolayer of AlAs improves the spectral response, the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor. On annealed samples, capping has little effect on the spectral response but reduces the short-circuit current, while increasing the open-circuit voltage, the fill factor and power conversion efficiency.

  6. Thiol-ene and photo-cleavage chemistry for controlled presentation of biomolecules in hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Joseph C; Marozas, Ian A; Anseth, Kristi S

    2015-12-10

    photochemical methods have led to important advances in the tissue regeneration community, namely the thiol-ene photo-click reaction for bioconjugation and photocleavage reactions that allow for the removal of protecting groups. Specific examples will be highlighted where these methodologies have been used to engineer hydrogels that control and direct cell function with the aim of inspiring their use in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment of facial actinic keratoses with aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) or ingenol mebutate 0.015% gel with and without prior treatment with ALA-PDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Brian; Nestor, Mark S; Newburger, Jessica; Park, Huynhee; Swenson, Nicole

    2014-11-01

    This randomized, 3-group study compared the efficacy and tolerability of 3 treatment modalities for facial actinic keratoses. Twenty-four healthy adult male and female subjects who had 4 to 8 clinically visible and discrete actinic keratoses on the face in a contiguous 25cm2 treatment area. Subjects were randomized into one of three treatment groups: 2 treatments with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and photodynamic therapy (PDT), 1 ALA-PDT treatment and 1 course of ingenol mebutate (ingenol mebutate) 0.015% gel daily for 3 consecutive days, or 1 course of ingenol mebutate gel alone. Actinic keratoses in the treatment field were counted at the baseline visit, and at the completion of the study (day 57 or day 71). At the site of application, local site reactions were graded at each visit. Subjects in the two ALA-PDT treatment group had a 97.5% mean reduction (PPDT plus ingenol mebutate gel group had an 86.7% mean reduction (PPDT group, 10.375 for the ALA-PDT followed by ingenol mebutate gel group, and 12.625 for the ingenol mebutate gel alone group (P=0.0004 and 0.001, respectively). ALA-PDT, ingenol mebutate gel, and a combination of the two treatment modalities are successful topical therapies for the reduction of actinic keratoses on the face. The group of subjects receiving 2 consecutive treatments with ALA-PDT, compared to treatment with ingenol mebutate gel alone or sequentially after one course of ALA-PDT had a significantly lower mean composite LSR score and a non-significant trend for greater efficacy.

  8. A neutral polyacrylate copolymer coating for surface modification of thiol-ene microchannels for improved performance of protein separation by microchip electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mesbah, Kiarach; Mai, T.D.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the behavior of thiol-ene substrates that is a class of promising materials for lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis applications. Two polymeric materials were prepared by copolymerization of N, N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), (3-(methacryloyl-oxy)propyl)trimethoxysilane (PMA) and 3......-(DMA-PMAMAPS) copolymer were evaluated in terms of surface hydrophilicity, suppression and stability of electro-osmotic flow and prevention of protein adsorption. Surface modification of thiol-ene containing a 20 % excess of thiols with the terpolymer p-(DMA-PMA-MAPS) was found to offer the most stable coating and most...

  9. [Preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolith via thiol-ene click reaction for specific capture of glycoproteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Mao, Jie; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2013-06-01

    A novel strategy for the preparation of the organic-inorganic hybrid boronate affinity monolith was developed via the "thiol-ene" click reaction. A thiol group-modified silica monolith was first synthesized via the sol-gel process by the in situ co-condensation with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as precursors. Then 3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid (AAPBA) was covalently immobilized on the hybrid monolith via the "thiol-ene" click reaction to form AAPBA-silica hybrid affinity monolith. The reaction conditions for the preparation of AAPBA-silica hybrid affinity monolith were optimized, including the ratio of TMOS to MPTMS, the contents of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and methanol. The morphology and mechanical stability of the boronate affinity monolith were characterized and evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The obtained boronate affinity hybrid monolith exhibited excellent specificity toward the nucleosides containing cis-diols under neutral conditions. It was further applied to the specific capture of the glycoproteins ovalbumin and horseradish peroxidase. The method is novel and reliable, which has a great potential for the preparation of different kinds of the boronate affinity monoliths.

  10. One-pot preparation of an organic polymer monolith by thiol-ene click chemistry for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiannan; Shen, Shufen; Lu, Xin; Ye, Fanggui

    2017-08-01

    A novel organic monolith was successfully fabricated by a one-pot thiol-ene click reaction of triallyl isocyanurate with pentaerythritol tetrakis-(2-mercaptoacetate) and mercaptopropionic acid in the presence of porogens. We investigated the effects of the ratio of monomer and cross-linking agent, the type and ratio of porogen, and click reaction temperature on the permeability and morphology of the prepared poly triallyl isocyanurate-co-pentaerythritol tetrakis (2-mercaptoacetate) monoliths. The monolith was also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that the monoliths had continuous porous framework, good permeability, and high mechanical stability. A series of analytes with different properties such as alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, anilines, and phenols were used to evaluate the electrochromatographic performance of the prepared monoliths in pressurized capillary electrochromatography. The prepared polymer monolith showed typical reversed-phase electrochromatographic behavior for hydrophobic substances. Moreover, the prepared monolith showed a mix of reversed-phase and cation exchange interaction modes for basic aniline compounds. The minimum plate height of the monolith was 8.76 μm (132 100 plates/m) for propylbenzene. These results demonstrated that one-pot thiol-ene click chemistry can provide a simple and reliable method for the preparation of organic monoliths. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A colorimetric detection of acrylamide in potato chips based on nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinqin; Fu, Yingchun; Xu, Xiahong; Qiao, Zhaohui; Wang, Ronghui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanbin

    2016-02-07

    Acrylamide (AA), a neurotoxin and a potential carcinogen, has been found in various thermally processed foods such as potato chips, biscuits, and coffee. Simple, cost-effective, and sensitive methods for the rapid detection of AA are needed to ensure food safety. Herein, a novel colorimetric method was proposed for the visual detection of AA based on a nucleophile-initiated thiol-ene Michael addition reaction. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were aggregated by glutathione (GSH) because of a ligand-replacement, accompanied by a color change from red to purple. In the presence of AA, after the thiol-ene Michael addition reaction between GSH and AA with the catalysis of a nucleophile, the sulfhydryl group of GSH was consumed by AA, which hindered the subsequent ligand-replacement and the aggregation of AuNPs. Therefore, the concentration of AA could be determined by the visible color change caused by dispersion/aggregation of AuNPs. This new method showed high sensitivity with a linear range from 0.1 μmol L(-1) to 80 μmol L(-1) and a detection limit of 28.6 nmol L(-1), and especially revealed better selectivity than the fluorescence sensing method reported previously. Moreover, this new method was used to detect AA in potato chips with a satisfactory result in comparison with the standard methods based on chromatography, which indicated that the colorimetric method can be expanded for the rapid detection of AA in thermally processed foods.

  12. Synthesis of antibacterial amphiphilic elastomer based on polystyrene-block-polyisoprene-block-polystyrene via thiol-ene addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keleş, Elif, E-mail: elifkelesh@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak 67100 (Turkey); Hazer, Baki, E-mail: bhazer2@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak 67100 (Turkey); Cömert, Füsun B. [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bülent Ecevit University, 67600 Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2013-04-01

    A new type of amphiphilic antibacterial elastomer has been described. Thermoplastic elastomer, polystyrene–block-polyisoprene–block-polystyrene (PS–b-PI–b-PS) triblock copolymer was functionalized in toluene solution by free radical mercaptan addition in order to obtain an amphiphilic antibacterial elastomer. Thiol terminated PEG was grafted through the double bonds of PS–b-PI–b-PS via free radical thiol-ene coupling reaction. The antibacterial properties of the amphiphilic graft copolymers were observed. The original and the modified polymers were used to create microfibers in an electro-spinning process. Topology of the electrospun micro/nanofibers were studied by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical structures of the amphiphilic comb type graft copolymers were elucidated by the combination of elemental analysis, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, GPC and FTIR. - Graphical abstract: Double bonds of polyisoprene units in polystyrene–block-polyisoprene–block-polystyrene triblock copolymer were partially capped with PEG containing mercapto end group via thiol-ene addition in order to obtain antibacterial amphiphilic elastomer. Nano fibers from amphiphilic graft polymers solution were produced by electrospinning. The PEG grafted copolymer inhibits very effectively bacterial growth. Highlights: ► A commercial synthetic elastomer was grafted with PEG to obtain amphiphilic elastomer. ► Amphiphilic elastomer shows antibacterial properties. ► Electrospun micro fibers of the amphiphilic elastomer tend to globular formation.

  13. Functional characterization and stability improvement of a ‘thermophilic-like’ ene-reductase from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anika eRiedel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ene-reductases are widely applied for the asymmetric synthesis of relevant industrial chemicals. A novel ene-reductase OYERo2 was found within a set of 14 putative Old Yellow Enzymes (OYEs obtained by genome mining of the actinobacterium Rhodococcus opacus 1CP. Multiple sequence alignment suggested that the enzyme belongs to the group of ‘thermophilic-like’ OYEs. OYERo2 was produced in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. The enzyme is strongly NADPH dependent and uses non-covalently bound FMNH2 for the reduction of activated α,β-unsaturated alkenes. In the active form OYERo2 is a dimer. Optimal catalysis occurs at pH 7.3 and 37 °C. OYERo2 showed highest specific activities (4550 U mg-1 on maleimides, which are efficiently converted to the corresponding succinimides. The OYERo2-mediated reduction of prochiral alkenes afforded the (R-products with excellent optical purity (ee > 99%. OYERo2 is not as thermo-resistant as related OYEs. Introduction of a characteristic intermolecular salt bridge by site-specific mutagenesis raised the half-life of enzyme inactivation at 32 °C from 28 min to 87 min and improved the tolerance towards organic co-solvents. The suitability of OYERo2 for application in industrial biocatalysis is discussed.

  14. Statistical effects in the thermal deazetization reaction of 2,3-diazabicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorescu, Dan C.; Thompson, Donald L.; Raff, Lionel M.

    1995-10-01

    The deazetization reaction of 2,3-diazabicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ene-exo, exo-5,6-d2 is investigated using Monte Carlo classical variational transition-state theory, implemented by the efficient microcanonical sampling procedure. Comparison is made with the results of trajectory calculations performed on the same global potential-energy surface. The microcanonical reaction rates have been determined for both reaction channels, i.e., the stepwise and concerted cleavage of the two C-N bonds of the reactant. The results demonstrate that the thermal decomposition of 2,3-diazabicyclo (2.2.1)hept-2-ene-exo,exo-5,6-d2 is well described by statistical theories that assume equal weighting for all energetically accessible phase-space points. It is found that the rate coefficients of the statistical calculations are close upper bounds of the rates determined in trajectory calculations. Previously reported classical trajectory simulations have shown that the distribution of internal energy in the reactant configuration, at the transition state and beyond is very nearly microcanonical for the range of excitation energies analyzed (60-175 kcal/mol). Under such conditions, the agreement obtained between the present statistically computed rate coefficients and those extracted from the trajectory results is not surprising. It is suggested that nonstatistical post-transition-state events account for the nonunity ratio of the exo/endo reaction products observed experimentally. These events are not considered in the present statistical theories of the reaction rates.

  15. HYDROLOGIC MODELLING OF KATSINA-ALA RIVER BASIN: AN EMERGING SCENARIO FROM LAKE NYOS THREAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Akinyede

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the hydrologic system surrounding crater lakes is of great importance for prevention of flooding damages, conservation of ecological environment, and assessment of socio-economic impact of dam failure on the civilians in the downstream regions. Lake Nyos is a crater lake formed by volcanic activities at the Oku volcanic field on the Cameroon Volcanic Line. It is a freshwater lake with a maximum depth of 200 meter. In 1986, a limnic eruption at the lake emitted 1.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide from the bottom of saturated water into the air and suffocated up to 1,800 people and 3,500 livestock at nearby villages. The lake waters are held in place by a natural dam composed of loosely consolidated volcanic rock, which is now at the verge of collapse due to accelerated erosion. This study was carried out to determine the flood risks and vulnerability of population and infrastructure along Katsina-Ala drainage basins. The project integrated both satellite images and field datasets into a hydrologic model for Katsina-Ala River Basin and its vicinity including the Lake Nyos. ArcHydro was used to construct a hydrologic database as 'data models' and MIKE SHE was employed to conduct hydrologic simulations. Vulnerable infrastructures, population and socio-economic activities were identified to assist the Federal and State governments in disaster mitigation and management plans. The result of the project provides comprehensive knowledge of hydrologic system of Katsina-Ala drainage basin to mitigate potential future disasters from a potential dam failure and manage water resources against such disasters.

  16. Associations between MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism and risks of hepatitis and hepatitis-related liver cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiying; Zhao, Wenyuan; Dai, Dongwei; Li, Chengzhong

    2014-02-01

    Chronic infection of viral hepatitis is the main cause of liver cancer. There were many studies assessing the associations of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) Ala222Val polymorphism with risks of hepatitis and hepatitis-related liver cancer, but no consistent results were reported. To investigate the associations of MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism with risks of hepatitis and hepatitis-related liver cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of published case-control studies. Eligible studies were searched from PubMed and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) were used to assess the associations. Twenty-one individual studies with a total of 8,187 subjects were included. Overall, MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism was not significantly associated with risks of liver cancer, hepatitis-related liver cancer, and non-hepatitis-related liver cancer. However, MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism was significantly associated with risk of hepatitis infection (Val vs. Ala: OR = 1.15, 95 %CI 1.01-1.32, P = 0.03; ValVal/AlaVal vs. AlaAla: OR = 1.37, 95 %CI 1.11-1.68, P = 0.003). Therefore, MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism is significantly associated with risk of hepatitis infection but not liver cancer. More studies are needed to further assess the association between MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism and hepatitis-related liver cancer.

  17. A solid-phase approach to the phallotoxins: total synthesis of [Ala7]-phalloidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc O; Shelat, Anang A; Guy, R Kiplin

    2005-06-10

    Herein we report a solid-phase synthetic approach to [Ala7]-phalloidin (1). Prior syntheses of phallotoxins were carried out using solution-phase routes that required large scale and preclude library production. The route presented here consists of solution-phase preparation of key orthogonally protected amino acid building blocks, followed by a solid-phase peptide synthesis sequence, featuring two resin-bound macro-cyclization reactions. The final product mixture was composed of two atropisomeric compounds, one designated "natural" (1) and the other designated "non-natural" (1'). The structures of these species were modeled using restrained energy minimization with NMR-derived restraints.

  18. PPARγ Pro12Ala and ACE ID polymorphisms are associated with BMI and fat distribution, but not metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passaro Angela

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS results from the combined effect of environmental and genetic factors. We investigated the possible association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPARγ2 Pro12Ala and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE I/D polymorphisms with MetS and interaction between these genetic variants. Methods Three hundred sixty four unrelated Caucasian subjects were enrolled. Waist circumference, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI were recorded. Body composition was estimated by impedance analysis; MetS was diagnosed by the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. A fasting blood sample was obtained for glucose, insulin, lipid profile determination, and DNA isolation for genotyping. Results The prevalence of MetS did not differ across PPARγ2 or ACE polymorphisms. Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but lower systolic blood pressure compared with Pro/Pro homozygotes. A significant PPARγ2 gene-gender interaction was observed in the modulation of BMI, fat mass, and blood pressure, with significant associations found in women only. A PPARγ2-ACE risk genotype combination for BMI and fat mass was found, with ACE DD/PPARγ2 Ala subjects having a higher BMI (p = 0.002 and Fat Mass (p = 0.002. Pro12Ala was independently associated with waist circumference independent of BMI and gender. Conclusions Carriers of PPARγ2 Ala allele had higher BMI and fat-mass but not a worse metabolic profile, possibly because of a more favorable adipose tissue distribution. A gene interaction exists between Pro12Ala and ACE I/D on BMI and fat mass. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of Pro12Ala polymorphism in adiposity distribution.

  19. Improving the Specificity of the Prostate-Specific Antigen Substrate Glutaryl-Hyp-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln as a Promoiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, Herve; Hu, Longqin

    2015-10-01

    To develop PSA peptide substrates with improved specificity and plasma stability from the known substrate sequence glutaryl-Hyp-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln, systematic replacements of the N-terminal segment with D-retro-inverso-peptides were performed with the incorporation of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (7-AMC) after Gln for convenient fluorometric determination and ranking of the PSA substrate activity. The D-retro-inverso-peptide conjugates with P2-P5 D-amino acid substitutions were moderate but poorer PSA substrates as compared to the original peptide, suggesting that inversion of the amide bonds and/or incorporation of the additional atom as in the urea linker adversely affected PSA binding. However, P5 substitution of Hyp with Ser showed significant improvements in PSA cleavage rate; the resulting AMC conjugate, glutaryl-Ser-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln-AMC (11), exhibited the fastest PSA cleavage rate of 351 pmol/min/100 nmol PSA. In addition, GABA←mGly-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln-AMC (conjugate 6) was the second best PSA substrate and released 7-AMC at a rate of 225 pmol/min/100 nmol PSA as compared to 171 pmol/min/100 nmol PSA for the control conjugate glutaryl-Hyp-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln-AMC. Incubations of selected AMC conjugates with mouse and human plasma revealed that GABA←D-Ser-ψ[NH-CO-NH]-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln-AMC (5) and GABA←mGly-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln-AMC (6) were most stable to non-PSA-mediated proteolysis. Our results suggest that the PSA specificity of glutaryl-Hyp-Ala-Ser-Chg-Gln is improved with Ser and mGly substitutions of Hyp at the P5. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Effects of Ala-Gln feeding strategies on growth, metabolism, and crowding stress resistance of juvenile Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu-Mei; Guo, Gui-Liang; Sun, Li; Yang, Qiu-Shi; Wang, Gui-Qin; Qin, Gui-Xin; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different L-alanyl-l-glutamine (Ala-Gln) feeding strategies on the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance related parameters in juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) under crowded condition (80 g/L). Juvenile Jian carp (initial weight 26.1 ± 0.6 g) were distributed into five groups which fed with graded concentrations (0% or 1.0%) of Ala-Gln for eight weeks. Control group (I, 0/0) fed with control diet (0% Ala-Gln) throughout the feeding trial. The other four groups employed different control and experimental diet feeding strategies ranging from two weeks control diet fed and two weeks experimental diet (1% Ala-Gln) fed (II, 0/2) to eight weeks experimental diet fed (V, 4/4). Results revealed that Mean weight gain (MEG) under all different feeding strategies of Ala-Gln were significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and MEG of group II (201.90%) was even higher than that of group IV (184.70%). Liver glycogen and blood total protein of groups II, III and V were significantly higher than that in groups I and IV (p < 0.05). The highest level of serum thyroxine (10.07 ng/ml), insulin-like growth factor-I (52.40 ng/ml) and insulin (9.73 μ IU/mL) were observed in group V. However, diet supplemented with Ala-Gln did not affect the levels of serum glucose, cortisol and catecholamine in fish. The mRNA expression of GR1a, GR1b and GR2 were also significantly changed in Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). After fish intraperitoneally injected with virulent Aeromonas hydrophila, the fish survival rates were significantly increased in all Ala-Gln supplementation groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). Results from the present experiment showed the importance of dietary supplementation of Ala-Gln in benefaction of the growth performance, metabolism and crowding stress resistance in Jian carp breeding. The

  1. Fold deformations of the paleozoic basement roof in the Chunkurchak Trough, Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przhiyalgovskii, E. S.; Lavrushina, E. V.

    2017-07-01

    A structural-geological study has been performed on the northern slope of the Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range. Deformations of the peneplaned Paleozoic basement surface, structures of granite disintegration, and morphostructural manifestation of Late Cenozoic tectonic movements have been investigated. Based on the location of pre-Paleocene peneplain remnants with the retained weathering mantle partly overlapped by Paleocene-Miocene sedimentary complexes, we have reconstructed the morphology of the folded surface of the Chunkurchak Trough separated from the Chu Basin at the early Miocene. The dome-fold forms, the morphology and arrangement of which are controlled by disintegration of the basement, have been described for the basement surface. It has been established that granites are broken by systems of steeply dipping, fanshaped, and gently dipping faults and fractures. Variously oriented insignificant offsets along slickensides, as well as displacements deduced from the geometry of fracture intersections, are a result of volumetric cataclastic flow of rocks. The tectonic mobility of disintegrated granites, which are abundant in the Paleozoic-Precambrian basement, explains the complexity and scale of tectonic processes initiated by Cenozoic activation. In paleotectonic reconstructions, which take into consideration tectonic flow and the redistribution of basement masses, the estimates of Cenozoic relative rapprochement of the Chu Basin and the Kyrgyz Ala-Too Range decrease substantially to 4-6 km.

  2. AlaScan: A Graphical User Interface for Alanine Scanning Free-Energy Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Vijayaraj; Dehez, François; Chipot, Christophe

    2016-06-27

    Computation of the free-energy changes that underlie molecular recognition and association has gained significant importance due to its considerable potential in drug discovery. The massive increase of computational power in recent years substantiates the application of more accurate theoretical methods for the calculation of binding free energies. The impact of such advances is the application of parent approaches, like computational alanine scanning, to investigate in silico the effect of amino-acid replacement in protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes, or probe the thermostability of individual proteins. Because human effort represents a significant cost that precludes the routine use of this form of free-energy calculations, minimizing manual intervention constitutes a stringent prerequisite for any such systematic computation. With this objective in mind, we propose a new plug-in, referred to as AlaScan, developed within the popular visualization program VMD to automate the major steps in alanine-scanning calculations, employing free-energy perturbation as implemented in the widely used molecular dynamics code NAMD. The AlaScan plug-in can be utilized upstream, to prepare input files for selected alanine mutations. It can also be utilized downstream to perform the analysis of different alanine-scanning calculations and to report the free-energy estimates in a user-friendly graphical user interface, allowing favorable mutations to be identified at a glance. The plug-in also assists the end-user in assessing the reliability of the calculation through rapid visual inspection.

  3. Current methods for photodynamic therapy in the US: comparison of MAL/PDT and ALA/PDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter K; Kloser, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    There is some debate regarding the rate of progression of actinic keratosis (AK) into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).1-4 However, it is clear that treatment for AK lesions is warranted. Results from numerous studies with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of AKs, SCC, and Bowen's disease show high rates of clearance for these lesions. MAL/PDT provides similar efficacy to ALA/PDT with the benefits of shorter incubation times according to the approved FDA labeling, greater selectivity, reduced pain during and immediately following therapy, and fewer systemic side effects. Cosmetic outcomes are better with PDT than with cryosurgery or excisional surgery. A number of case reports show efficacy with ALA/PDT and MAL/PDT for acne, photorejuvenation, and other off-label indications. Side effects with PDT tend to be mild to moderate and transient in nature. Overall, ALA/PDT and MAL/PDT are effective for a variety of skin diseases and conditions. MAL/PDT provides some advantages over ALA/PDT.

  4. The Expressions of TGF-β1 and IL-10 in Cultured Fibroblasts after ALA-IPL Photodynamic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ga Youn; Choi, Hae Young; Myung, Ki Bum

    2011-01-01

    Background Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was originally used for treating superficial skin tumors. The application of PDT to other inflammatory dermatoses like acne vulgaris, psoriasis, granuloma annulare, localized scleroderma and lichen sclerosus has recently been introduced. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We've previously reported the induction of tumor growth factor (TGF)-β1 and interleukin (IL)-10 after PDT with ALA and intense pulsed light (IPL) in cultured HaCaT cells. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the expressions of TGF-β1 and IL-10 in cultured fibroblasts after PDT with using ALA and IPL. Methods Cultured fibroblasts were treated with ALA-IPL PDT (1µmol/L of ALA; 0, 4, 8 and 12 J/cm2 of IPL). The expressions of TGF-β1 and IL-10 were investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results TGF-β1 mRNA and protein were reduced down to 0.52- and 0.63-fold, respectively, after PDT and the IL-10 protein was increased up to 2.74-fold after PDT. Conclusion The reduction of TGF-β1 was prominent after PDT and so an antisclerotic effect can be expected after PDT. The induction of IL-10 may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect, which explains the therapeutic benefit of PDT for inflammatory dermatoses. PMID:21738358

  5. The Expressions of TGF-β(1) and IL-10 in Cultured Fibroblasts after ALA-IPL Photodynamic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ga Youn; Choi, Hae Young; Myung, Ki Bum; Choi, You Won

    2011-02-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) was originally used for treating superficial skin tumors. The application of PDT to other inflammatory dermatoses like acne vulgaris, psoriasis, granuloma annulare, localized scleroderma and lichen sclerosus has recently been introduced. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We've previously reported the induction of tumor growth factor (TGF)-β(1) and interleukin (IL)-10 after PDT with ALA and intense pulsed light (IPL) in cultured HaCaT cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expressions of TGF-β(1) and IL-10 in cultured fibroblasts after PDT with using ALA and IPL. Cultured fibroblasts were treated with ALA-IPL PDT (1µmol/L of ALA; 0, 4, 8 and 12 J/cm(2) of IPL). The expressions of TGF-β(1) and IL-10 were investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. TGF-β(1) mRNA and protein were reduced down to 0.52- and 0.63-fold, respectively, after PDT and the IL-10 protein was increased up to 2.74-fold after PDT. The reduction of TGF-β(1) was prominent after PDT and so an antisclerotic effect can be expected after PDT. The induction of IL-10 may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect, which explains the therapeutic benefit of PDT for inflammatory dermatoses.

  6. Molecular structure and conformations of 1-methoxy-2,3,3,4,4-pentafluorocyclobut-1-ene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frogner, Matthew; Hedberg, Kenneth; Hedberg, Lise; Lunelli, Bruno

    2010-08-01

    The structure of 1-monomethoxy-2,3,3,4,4-pentafluorocyclobut-1-ene (F5MCB) has been studied as a part of a series of investigations of the structures of substituted cyclobutenes. The experimental method was gas-phase electron diffraction (GED) augmented by molecular orbital calculations at the HF and B3LYP levels of theory with basis sets 6-31G(d), 6-311+G(3df,2p), and cc-pvtZ. The matter of most interest in these compounds is the length of the C3-C4 bond, which has been found to be significantly longer than the corresponding bond in cyclobutene itself when both ligands to the double bond are fluorine or chlorine atoms, but about the same as in cyclobutene when both substituents are methoxy groups. This result has been verified by the additional data provided by this study of F5MCB: the C3-C4 bond is about the same as in the dimethoxy compound and in cyclobutene. In the gas-phase at 25 °C, F5MCB exists as a mixture of two conformers, one with the methyl group cis to the double bond (about 70%) and one with it trans (about 30%), in good agreement with theory that predicts 63-70% cis. Some values (with estimated 2 σ uncertainties) of the more important parameters ( rg/Å; ∠ α/°) are for the cis/ trans forms r() = 1.101 (17)/1.121, r(C dbnd C) = 1.329 (36)/1.328, r(C1-C4) = 1.498 (19)/1.504, r(C2-C3) = 1.483 (19)/1.485, r(C3-C4) = 1.581 (21)/1.576, r(C2-F6)=1.346 (12)/1.339, r(C3-F7) = 1.347 (10)/1.349, r(C4-F9) = 1.344 (10)/1.350, r(C1-O5) = 1.337 (26)/1.343, r(O5-C11) = 1.469 (37)/1.493, ∠(C4C1C2) = 93.3 (8)/93.1, ∠(C1C2C3) = 96.4 (8)/96.6, ∠(C2C3C4) = 84.4 (8)/84.4, ∠(C3C4C1) = 85.0 (9)/85.9, ∠(C2C1O5) = 141.0 (14)/135.2, ∠(C1C2F6) = 135.4 (14)/135.1, ∠(C1O5C11) = 117.3 (33)/117.8, ∠(F9C4F10) = 108.3 (13)/107.7, ∠(F7C3F8) = 107.7 (13)/107.6, ∠(XC4C3) = 134.4 (15)/134.4, and ∠(X'C3C4) = 134.2 (15)/133.9, where X and X' are, respectively, the bisectors of the F9C4F10 and F7C3F8 angles. The structure is discussed with reference to the

  7. Combining ring-opening metathesis polymerization and thiol-ene coupling chemistries: facile access to novel functional linear and nonlinear macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Andrew B; Liu, Meina; van Hensbergen, Johannes Arend; Burford, Robert P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this article is to highlight recent examples in which two powerful synthetic tools, namely ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and thiol-ene (including the thiol-Michael variant) click chemistry have been combined to facilitate the preparation of novel functional materials of varying topology. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Azaspirene: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor containing a 1-oxa-7-azaspiro[4.4]non-2-ene-4,6-dione skeleton produced by the fungus Neosartorya sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Yukihiro; Kakeya, Hideaki; Onose, Rie; Yoshida, Arika; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2002-08-22

    [structure: see text] Azaspirene isolated from the fungus Neosartorya sp. is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor with a 1-oxa-7-azaspiro[4.4]non-2-ene-4,6-dione skeleton. Azaspirene inhibits the endothelial migration induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (ED100 = 27.1 microM).

  9. N-(3,4-Dimethoxyphenyl-4-oxo-2,3,7-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-1-ene-1-carboxamide Hydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seranthimata Samshuddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple and novel route for synthesis of new spirocyclic amide derivative is developed. The present work involves the oxidative cleavage of tert-butyl 1-(furan-2-yl-4-oxo-2,3,7-triazaspiro[4.5]dec-1-ene-7-carboxylate 1 followed by the amine coupling and deprotection of Boc.

  10. Noorsootöö Keskusel täitub kümnes tegevusaasta / Edgar Schlümmer ; kommenteerinud Irma Toodo, Ene Raid, Andres Lokk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlümmer, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    Eesti Noorsootöö Keskus (ENTK)tähistab kümnendat sünnipäeva. ENTK rolli tänapäeva noorsootöös kommenteerivad endine ENTK töötaja Irma Toodo ja praegused töötajad Ene Raid ning Andres Lokk

  11. Ene-Liis Semper: selle aasta puhkepäevad võib ühe käe sõrmedel kokku lugeda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Semper, Ene-Liis, 1969-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna kultuuripealinna projekti panustanud Ene-Liis Semper võtab 2011. aasta sündmused kokku ja selgitab, kuidas jõudsid publiku ette suurlavastused "The Rise and Fall of Estonia", "Three Kingdoms", Põhuteater ning isikunäitus Kumus

  12. (E-2-((4R,5R-5-((Benzyloxymethyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylbut-2-ene-1,4-diol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Carreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of (E-2-((4R,5R-5-((benzyloxymethyl-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-ylbut-2-ene-1,4-diol by a one-step reduction of the appropriate 2-substituted butenolide is reported. Product characterization was carried out by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, MS, elemental analysis and optical rotation.

  13. Joint statement of the President, Speaker of the Riigikogu and Prime Minister of the Republic of Estonia / Toomas Hendrik Ilves, Ene Ergma, Andrus Ansip

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ilves, Toomas Hendrik, 1953-

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese, Riigikogu spiikri Ene Ergma ja peaminister Andrus Ansipi ühisavaldus Teise maailmasõja lõpu 62. aastapäeva puhul 8. mail 2007, milles kinnitatakse, et hoolimata Teise maailmasõja ajaloolistest tõlgendustest on kõik Eestis elavad inimesed vabad ning jagavad ühist tulevikku

  14. Broadening the scope of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase activities toward α,β-unsaturated ketones: a promising route to chiral enol-lactones and ene-lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignier, T; de Berardinis, V; Petit, J-L; Mariage, A; Hamzé, K; Duquesne, K; Alphand, V

    2014-07-25

    Three regiodivergent Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenases (enantioselectively) oxidized a series of cyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones into (chiral) either enol-lactones or ene-lactones. An easy-to-use and efficient biocatalytic process based on a host-microorganism deprived of unwanted activities (knock-out mutant) was developed to enable the exclusive synthesis of unsaturated lactones.

  15. C27-C30 neohop-13(18)-enes and their saturated and aromatic derivatives in sediments: Indicators for diagenesis and water column stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Volkman, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    A limited suite of C27, C29 and C30 rearranged hopenes identified as neohop-13(18)-enes have been reported in immature Recent and ancient marine/lacustrine sediments and their presence has been explained by dehydration and isomerisation of ubiquitous hopanols or hopenes. Here we investigated the

  16. Controlled self-assembling structures of ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates composed of Ala-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriuchi, Toshiyuki; Nishiyama, Taiki; Tayano, Yoshiki; Hirao, Toshikazu

    2017-05-18

    Bioorganometallic ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates with the Ala-Pro-cysteamine chain, Fc-L-Ala-L-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH (2) and Fc-L-Ala-D-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH (4) (Fc=ferrocenoyl), were prepared by the reduction of the ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates, Fc-L-Ala-L-Pro-cystamine-L-Pro-L-Ala-Fc (1) or Fc-L-Ala-D-Pro-cystamine-D-Pro-L-Ala-Fc (3), respectively. Control of the self-assembling structures of the ferrocene-dipeptide conjugates was demonstrated by changing the chirality of the amino acid. The molecular structure of 2 composed of the L-Ala-L-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH chain confirmed the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond of N-H⋯N pattern between the NH of cysteamine moiety and the nitrogen of Pro moiety. Furthermore, intermolecular hydrogen bonds between NH (Ala) and CO (Pro of another molecule) and between NH (cysteamine) and CO (the ferrocenoyl moiety of another molecule) were formed, wherein each molecule is connected to four neighboring molecules by continuous intermolecular hydrogen bonds to form the hydrogen-bonded molecular assembling structure. On the contrary, the left-handed helical assembly through an intermolecular hydrogen-bonding network of 15-membered intermolecularly hydrogen-bonded ring between NH (Ala) and CO (the ferrocenoyl moiety of another molecule) and between NH (the cysteamine moiety of another molecule) and CO (Ala) was observed in the crystal packing of 4 composed of the L-Ala-D-Pro-NHCH2CH2SH chain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Properties of myelin altered peptide ligand cyclo(87-99)(Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 render it a promising drug lead for immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraos, George; Rodi, Maria; Kalbacher, Hubert; Chatzantoni, Kokona; Karagiannis, Fotios; Synodinos, Loukas; Plotas, Panayiotis; Papalois, Apostolos; Dimisianos, Nikolaos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis; Gatos, Dimitrios; Tselios, Theodore; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Matsoukas, John

    2015-08-28

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and it has been established that autoreactive T helper (Th) cells play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Myelin basic protein (MBP) epitopes are major autoantigens in MS, and the sequence MBP87-99 is an immunodominant epitope. We have previously reported that MBP87-99 peptides with modifications at principal T-cell receptor (TCR) contact sites suppressed the induction of EAE symptoms in rats and SJL/J mice, diverted the immune response from Th1 to Th2 and generated antibodies that did not cross react with the native MBP protein. In this study, the linear and cyclic analogs of the MBP87-99 epitope, namely linear (Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 (P2) and cyclo(87-99)(Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 (P3), were evaluated for their binding to HLA-DR4, stability to lysosomal enzymes, their effect on cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) derived from MS patients or healthy subjects (controls), and their effect in rat EAE. P1 peptide (wild-type, MBP87-99) was used as control. P2 and P3 did not alter significantly the cytokine secretion by control PBMC, in contrast to P1 that induced moderate IL-10 production. In MS PBMC, P2 and P3 induced the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ, with a simultaneous decrease of IL-10, whereas P1 caused a reduction of IL-10 secretion only. The cellular response to P3 indicated that cyclization did not affect the critical TCR contact sites in MS PBMC. Interestingly, the cyclic P3 analog was found to be a stronger binder to HLA-DR4 compared to linear P2. Moreover, cyclic P3 was more stable to proteolysis compared to linear P2. Finally, both P2 and P3 suppressed EAE induced by an encephalitogenic guinea pig MBP74-85 epitope in Lewis rats whereas P1 failed to do so. In conclusion, cyclization of myelin altered peptide ligand (Ala91,Ala96)MBP87-99 improved binding affinity to HLA-DR4, resistance to proteolysis and antigen-specific immunomodulation

  18. The PPAR gamma 2 Pro12Ala variant predicts ESRD and mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, A; Tarnow, L; Lajer, M

    2008-01-01

    The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma 2 gene is suggested to associate with diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the polymorphism in relation to diabetic nephropathy, end-stage renal...... frequencies (p=0.25). Cox regression analysis revealed a covariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in patients with the Ala/Ala genotype of 2.44 (1.23-4.84). The Pro12Ala polymorphism did not predict CVD events. However, the Ala/Ala genotype predicts ESRD (covariate-adjusted HR 2.60 (1.......11-6.07)). Furthermore, Carriers of the Ala-allele had a higher rate of decline in GFR (p=0.040). In conclusion, the Pro12Ala polymorphism is not associated with type 1 diabetic nephropathy. The Ala-allele is associated with enhanced decline in GFR and predicts ESRD and all-cause mortality in patients with nephropathy....

  19. The use of 5-ALA to assist complete removal of residual non-enhancing part of childhood medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Jane; Bøgeskov, Lars; Sehested, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood. Radical surgery in the non-metastatic stage is an important factor with respect to overall survival. In this case, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) was used at second-look surgery in order to improve surgical results....... METHODS: The child was pretreated with 3 × 4 mg dexamethasone for 4 days prior to the second surgery. At 5 a.m. on the day of surgery, a freshly prepared solution of 5-ALA (20 mg/kg body weight; Medac, Germany) was given orally. RESULTS: At surgery, through the original opening, the vague red fluorescence...... changed from the high-risk medulloblastoma regimen to the standard-risk regimen. CONCLUSIONS: In this particular difficult case of non-contrast-enhancing tumor, 5-ALA was of vital importance to improve rate of resection and change the aggressiveness needed in postsurgery radiation therapy....

  20. 1,25-(OH)2-16ene-23yne-D3 reduces secondary hyperparathyroidism in uremic rats with little calcemic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippuner, Kurt; Perrelet, Romain; Casez, Jean-Paul; Popp, Albrecht; Uskokovic, Milan R; Jaeger, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    To compare the effects of vitamin D analogs versus calcitriol on serum levels of Ca, P and parathyroid hormone (PTH). A compound better than calcitriol should increase the Ca x P product less than calcitriol for an equivalent decrease in PTH levels. Biological activity of 4 vitamin D analogs, 1,25-(OH)(2)-16ene- D(3) (RO(1)), 1,25-(OH)(2)-16ene-23yne-D(3) (RO(2)), 1,25-(OH)(2)-26,27-hexafluoro-16ene-23yne-D(3) (RO(3)) and 1,25-(OH)(2)-16ene-23yne-26,27-hexafluoro-19nor-D(3) (RO(4)) was tested vs. calcitriol in parathyroidectomized rats. In a second set of experiments, the effects of RO(2), RO(4) and calcitriol were studied in 5/6 nephrectomized rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism. In parathyroidectomized rats, all analogs (250 pmol/day) led calcemia to rise after 7 days. In uremic rats, all treatments reduced PTH levels. RO(4) revealed toxicity. RO(2) was as effective as calcitriol in suppressing PTH in a dose dependent manner. Mean plasma ionized calcium did not change from baseline to day 14 and day 28 on RO(2) (250 or 500 pmol/day) whereas it increased significantly on RO(2) (1,000 pmol/day) and calcitriol (125 or 250 pmol/day). Increasing the dose of calcitriol led Ca x P to rise more dramatically than increasing the dose of RO(2), which appears to have a wider therapeutic window than calcitriol. 1,25-(OH)(2)-16ene-23yne-D(3) (RO(2)) may represent a novel candidate for the treatment of renal osteodystrophy in humans. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Synthesis and preliminary bioevaluation of 99mTc(CO)3-17α-triazolylandrost-4-ene-3-one derivative prepared via click chemistry route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Manish V; Satpati, Drishty; Korde, Aruna; Banerjee, Sharmila

    2011-10-01

    Azolyl steroids are known to manifest antiprostate cancer and antiandrogenic activities. These azolyl steroids have been shown to express affinity toward androgen receptors (ARs) overexpressed on LNCaP (human prostate adenocarcinoma) cell line. Hence, suitably derivatized azolyl steroids can be envisaged as potential vectors for targeting overexpression of ARs in prostate cancer. In the present study, testosterone has been derivatized to 17α-azidoandrost-4-ene-3-one using microwave-mediated azidation of the mesylate. Subsequently, a facile one-pot Cu(I)-catalyzed Click reaction was carried out to synthesize (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-labeled 17α-triazolylandrost-4-ene-3-one, which was characterized by HPLC. The chemical characterization of (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-17α-triazolylandrost-4-ene-3-one was carried out by preparing its corresponding rhenium complex using [NEt(4)](2)[Re(CO)(3)Br(3)] precursor. The radiolabeled complex could be prepared in >95% radiochemical yield as determined by HPLC. In vitro studies of (99m)Tc(CO)(3)-17α-triazolylandrost-4-ene-3-one complex in LNCaP cell lines overexpressing ARs showed binding of 4.95%±1.2%, with inhibition of 8%±0.9%. In vivo biodistribution studies in male Wistar rats have shown uptake in the prostate to the extent of 0.48%±0.19% injected dose/g at 1 hpi and retention therein till 3 hpi. The present study demonstrates a novel and facile one-pot reaction for preparation of (99m)Tc-labeled 17α-triazolylandrost-4-ene-3-one complex using Click chemistry. The corresponding Re-analog has been prepared for purpose of comparative characterization with the (99m)Tc-labeled complex. The radiosynthetic strategy described in this article can be further extended toward preparation of radiolabeled complexes of other triazolyl steroidal derivatives.

  2. ALA-PDT elicits oxidative damage and apoptosis in UVB-induced premature senescence of human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing-Rong; Zhang, Li-Chao; Permatasari, Felicia; Liu, Juan; Xu, Yang; Luo, Dan

    2016-06-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) has been used for the treatment of skin photoaging. It can significantly improve the appearance of fine lines, dotted pigmentation, and roughness of photoaged skin. However, the mechanisms by which ALA-PDT yields rejuvenating effects on photoaged skin have not been well elucidated. Thus, in this study we explored the effects of ALA-PDT in photoaged fibroblasts. We established a stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) model by repeated exposures of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) to ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Cells were irradiated by red light laser at 635nm wavelength (50mW/cm(2)). Intracellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) was detected by confocal microscopy. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) change were detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Morphological changes were observed by optical microscopy. Proliferative activity was measured by a cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8). Cell apoptosis was detected by fluorescence microscopy using Hoechst staining and flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium Iodide double staining. Intracellular PpIX fluorescence in UVB-induced premature senescent HDFs (UVB-SIPS-HDFs) reached the highest intensity after incubation with 1.00mmol/L ALA for 6h (PPDT, which were positively correlated to ALA incubation time and red light laser dose. Our study demonstrated that ALA-PDT elicits oxidative damage and apoptosis in photoaged fibroblasts in vitro, which may be the basis for the rejuvenating effects on photoaged skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ALA-PDT combined with antibiotics for the treatment of atypical mycobacterial skin infections: Outcomes and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kedai; Yang, Hang; Huang, Xianqiong; Gong, Nanpeng; Qin, Qin; Lu, Weiping; Lei, Xia

    2017-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been shown to be a very successful therapy in clinical practice, and its usefulness as a treatment for bacterial infections has been gradually recognized by researchers, who believe it has very good clinical prospects. Atypical mycobacterial skin infections are a type of rare refractory infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) combined with antibiotics for the treatment of atypical mycobacterial skin infections. In this study, 4 patients with atypical mycobacterial skin infections were treated with ALA-PDT combined with antibiotic therapy. These patients were diagnosed with atypical mycobacterial skin infections by bacterial culture and microarray analysis, tests that were also useful for identifying the strains responsible for the infections. In addition to being treated with antibiotics, the skin was also treated locally with ALA-PDT (20% ALA was applied to the lesion and incubated in the dark, then, the lesion was irradiated with a red light with an energy density of 100J/cm 2 ) every 10days for a total of 3-5 sessions. All four patients enrolled in the study were cured with 100% efficiency after receiving combination therapy with ALA-PDT and antibiotics for three months. All patients experienced redness and pain during treatment but did not experience any other forms of severe discomfort and were satisfied with the results of their treatments. Local ALA-PDT combined with antibiotics is a safe and effective method of treating atypical mycobacterial skin infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of D-Ala(2)GIP, a stable GIP receptor agonist on MPTP-induced neuronal impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahip K; Goel, Rajan; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Nemmani, Kumar V S

    2017-06-05

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of D-Ala(2)GIP, a gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor agonist, to attenuate the behavioral phenotype of Parkinson's disease caused by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) administration in mice. In the behavioral studies, MPTP administration led to spontaneous locomotor activity deficits, impaired rotarod performance, akinesia, muscular rigidity and increased tremor amplitude, which was attenuated by pretreatment with D-Ala(2)GIP (50-100 nmol/kg, i.p.). This acute neuroprotective response by D-Ala(2)GIP was found to be blocked by a selective GIP receptor antagonist, (Pro(3))GIP (50 nmol/kg, i.p.), indicating that the observed effects are mediated through GIP receptor mediated signaling pathway. Biochemical studies revealed that D-Ala(2)GIP reduced the brain malondialdehyde levels and enhanced the brain glutathione levels, thereby mitigating the MPTP-induced oxidative stress. MPTP administration resulted in reduction of the striatal concentration of dopamine and its metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). Pretreatment with D-Ala(2)GIP attenuated the loss of striatal dopamine levels without affecting the normal dopamine catabolism. Thus, the observed effects in the MPTP-induced Parkinsonism model could be in part attributable to the antioxidant properties of D-Ala(2)GIP and enhanced turnover of dopamine in the nigrostriatal pathways in mouse brain. These findings together suggest that GIP receptor could be a therapeutic target in the management of symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The preparation and physical properties of polysulfide-based elastomers through one-pot thiol-ene click reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. W. Quan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, polysulfide-based elastomers were successfully prepared through a simple one-pot thiol-ene click reaction of the liquid polysulfide oligomer with bisphenol-A diacrylate resin. Real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis showed that the molecular weight of the liquid polysulfide oligomer had no effect on mercaptan functional group conversion. The obtained elastomers continued to keep low temperature flexibility of polysulfide except Elastomer-LP3, which was due to higher content of bisphenol-A structure. All the samples had a tensile strength of over 0.7 MPa, which was comparable to that of polysulfide polymer cured by metal oxide. Moreover, the samples exhibited higher thermal stability than metal oxide cured polysulfide. This vulcanization methodology will provide a fast, efficient, and environmentally friendly approach (without metal oxides and plasticizers for preparing polysulfide elastomers.

  6. Modifying surface resistivity and liquid moisture management property of keratin fibers through thiol-ene click reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Cai, Jackie Y; Church, Jeffrey S; Wang, Lijing

    2014-01-22

    This paper reports on a new method for improving the antistatic and liquid moisture management properties of keratinous materials. The method involves the generation of thiols by controlled reduction of cystine disulfide bonds in keratin with tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride and subsequent grafting of hydrophilic groups onto the reduced keratin by reaction with an acrylate sulfonate or acrylamide sulfonate through thiol-ene click chemistry. The modified substrates were characterized with Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy and evaluated for their performance changes in liquid moisture management, surface resistivity, and wet burst strength. The results have revealed that the thiol-acrylate reaction is more efficient than the thiol-acrylamide reaction, and the keratinous substrate modified with an acrylate sulfonate salt exhibits significantly improved antistatic and liquid moisture management properties.

  7. Preparation of a novel carboxyl stationary phase by "thiol-ene" click chemistry for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi-Tian; Liu, Tao; Ji, Shu-Xian; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    A novel carboxyl-bonded silica stationary phase was prepared by "thiol-ene" click chemistry. The resultant Thiol-Click-COOH phase was evaluated under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) mobile phase conditions. A comparison of the chromatographic performance of Thiol-Click-COOH and pure silica columns was performed according to the retention behaviors of analytes and the charged state of the stationary phases. The results indicated that the newly developed Thiol-Click-COOH column has a higher surface charge and stronger hydrophilicity than the pure silica column. Furthermore, the chromatographic behaviors of five nucleosides on the Thiol-Click-COOH phase were investigated in detail. Finally, a good separation of 13 nucleosides and bases, and four water-soluble vitamins was achieved. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Orthogonal dual thiol–chloroacetyl and thiol–ene couplings for the sequential one-pot assembly of heteroglycoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fiore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first one-pot orthogonal strategy to prepare well-defined cyclopeptide-based heteroglycoclusters (hGCs from glycosyl thiols. Both thiol–chloroactetyl coupling (TCC and thiol–ene coupling (TEC have been used to decorate cyclopeptides regioselectively with diverse combination of sugars. We demonstrate that the reaction sequence starting with TCC can be performed one-pot whereas the reverse sequence requires a purification step after the TEC reaction. The versatility of this orthogonal strategy has been demonstrated through the synthesis of diverse hGCs displaying alternating binary combinations of α-D-Man or β-D-GlcNAc, thus providing rapid access to attractive heteroglycosylated platforms for diverse biological applications.

  9. Photoinduced Thiol-ene Chemistry Applied to the Synthesis of Self-Assembling Elastin-Inspired Glycopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Germano; Pepe, Antonietta; Bedini, Emiliano; Bochicchio, Brigida

    2017-02-21

    Synthetic (glyco)peptides inspired by proteins able to self-assemble are appealing biomaterials in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Herein, for the first time, taking advantage of thiol-ene chemistry coupled to solid-phase peptide synthesis, a self-assembling peptide inspired by elastin protein was bioconjugated to three carbohydrates in order to obtain the corresponding glycopeptides. They were studied at the molecular and supramolecular level. The results show that the carbohydrate influences the molecular conformation of the glycopeptide and its self-aggregation properties as well. As future perspective, the results could enable us to tune the final self-aggregation properties of the glycopeptide by changing the sugar moiety. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Stereochemistry of 16a-Hydroxyfriedelin and 3-Oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene Established by 2D NMR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Fernandes Knupp

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Friedelin (1, 3b-friedelinol (2, 28-hydroxyfriedelin (3, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4, 30-hydroxyfriedelin (5 and 16a,28-dihydroxyfriedelin (6 were isolated through fractionation of the hexane extract obtained from branches of Salacia elliptica. After a week in CDCl3 solution, 16a-hydroxyfriedelin (4 reacted turning into 3-oxo-16-methylfriedel-16-ene (7. This is the first report of a dehydration followed by a Nametkin rearrangement of a pentacyclic triterpene in CDCl3 solution occurring in the NMR tube. These seven pentacyclic triterpenes was identified through NMR spectroscopy and the stereochemistry of compound 4 and 7 was established by 2D NMR (NOESY spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (GC-MS. It is also the first time that all the 13C-NMR and 2D NMR spectral data are reported for compounds 4 and 7.

  11. Molecular dynamics studies of the thermal decomposition of 2,3-diazabicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorescu, Dan C.; Thompson, Donald L.; Raff, Lionel M.

    1995-05-01

    The reaction dynamics of the thermal gas-phase decomposition of 2,3-diazabicyclo (2.2.1)hept-2-ene-exo, exo-5,6-d2 have been investigated using classical trajectory methods on a semiempirical potential-energy surface. The global potential is written as a superposition of different reaction channel potentials containing bond stretching, bending and torsional terms, connected by parametrized switching functions. Reaction channels for stepwise and concerted cleavage of the two C-N bonds of the reactant have both been considered in construction of the potential. The geometries of 2,3-diazabicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ene, the diazenyl biradical and of the transition state corresponding to breaking of the remaining C-N bond of diazenyl biradical have been determined at the second order Möller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2/6-31G*) and at Hartree-Fock (HF/6-31G*) levels, respectively. The bond dissociation energies have been estimated using the available thermochemical data and previously reported results for bicyclo(2.1.0)pentane [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 3729 (1994)]. The equilibrium geometries predicted by the semiempirical potential for reactants and products, the barrier height for thermal nitrogen extrusion from 2,3-diazabicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ene and the fundamental vibrational frequencies are in good to excellent agreement with the measured or ab initio calculated values. Using a projection method of the instantaneous Cartesian velocities onto the normal mode vectors and classical trajectory calculations, the dissociation dynamics of 2,3-diazabicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-ene-exo, exo-5,6-d2 are investigated at several excitation energies in the range 60-175 kcal/mol. The results show the following: (1) The thermal reaction takes place with a preference for inversion of configuration in the reaction products, the exo-labeled bicyclo(2.1.0) pentane being the major product. The exo/endo ratio of bicyclo(2.1.0) pentane isomers is found to vary between 1.8-2.2 for the energy range

  12. Unexpected Carbon-Carbon Coupling between Organic Cyanides and an Isopropyl β-Carbon in a Hafnium Ene Diamide Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bol, Johan E.; Hessen, Bart; Teuben, Jan H.; Smeets, Wilberth J.J.; Anthony L. Spek

    1992-01-01

    A reaction sequence involving two hydrogen transfers and a C-C coupling on the β-carbon of an isopropyl group leads to formation of a new dianionic tridentate ligand in the reaction of the ene diamide complex Cp*Hf(σ2,π-iPr-DAB)Cl (1; Cp* = η5-C5Me5, iPr-DAB = 1,4-diisopropyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene) with organic cyanides. The product Cp*Hf [iPrNCH=CHNC(Me)=CHC(tBu)=NH]Cl was structurally characterized (Pbca, a = 13.454 (1) Å, b = 11.470 (1) Å, c = 31.297 (2) Å, 100 K). The reaction sequence ...

  13. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDY OF INTERACTIONS OF POLYMYXIN B3 AND ITS ALA-MUTANTS WITH LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnyak Yu. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emergence of nosocomial bacterial pathogens (especially Gram-negative bacteria with multiple resistance against almost all available antibiotics is a growing medical problem. No novel drugs targeting multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been developed in recent years. In this context, there has been greatly renewed interest to cyclic lipodecapeptides polymyxins. Polymyxins exhibit rapid bactericidal activity, they are specific and highly potent against Gramnegative bacteria, but have potential nephrotoxic side effects. So polymyxins are attractive lead compounds to develop analogues with improved microbiological, pharmacological and toxicological properties. A detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of polymyxin interactions with its cell targets is a prerequisite for the purposeful improvement of its therapeutic properties. The primary cell target of a polymyxin is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The binding site of polymyxin on LPS has been supposed to be Kdo2-lipid A fragment. Methods. For all molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation experiments the YASARA suite of programs was used. Complex of antimicrobial peptide polymyxin В3 (PmB3 with Kdo2-lipid A portion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide was constructed by rigid docking with flexible side chains of the peptide. By alanine scanning of polymyxin В3 bound to LPS followed by simulated annealing minimization of the complexes in explicit water environment, the molecular aspects of PmB3-LPS binding have been studied by 20 ns molecular dynamics simulations at 298 K and pH 7.0. The AMBER03 force field was used with a 1.05 nm force cutoff. To treat long range electrostatic interactions the Particle Mesh Ewald algorithm was used. Results. Ala-mutations of polymyxin’s residues Dab1, Dab3, Dab5, Dab8 and Dab9 in the PmB3-LPS complex caused sustained structural changes resulting in the notable loss in stability of

  14. X-linked sideroblastic anemia due to ALAS2 intron 1 enhancer element GATA-binding site mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Dean R; de Bie, Charlotte I; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Sweeney, Marion; Sendamarai, Anoop K; Schmidt, Paul J; Heeney, Matthew M; Yntema, Helger G; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Grandchamp, Bernard; Niemeyer, Charlotte M; Knoers, Nine V A M; Swart, Sonia; Marron, Gordon; van Wijk, Richard; Raymakers, Reinier A; May, Alison; Markianos, Kyriacos; Bottomley, Sylvia S; Swinkels, Dorine W; Fleming, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is the most common form of congenital sideroblastic anemia. In affected males, it is uniformly associated with partial loss-of-function missense mutations in the erythroid-specific heme biosynthesis protein 5-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2). Here, we report five families with XLSA owing to mutations in a GATA transcription factor binding site located in a transcriptional enhancer element in intron 1 of the ALAS2 gene. As such, this study defines a new class of mutations that should be evaluated in patients undergoing genetic testing for a suspected diagnosis of XLSA. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. X-linked sideroblastic anemia due to ALAS2 intron 1 enhancer element GATA binding site mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagna, Dean R.; de Bie, Charlotte I.; Schmitz-Abe, Klaus; Sweeney, Marion; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Schmidt, Paul J.; Heeney, Matthew M.; Yntema, Helger G.; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Grandchamp, Bernard; Niemeyer, Charlotte M.; Knoers, Nine V.A.M.; Swart, Sonia; Marron, Gordon; van Wijk, Richard; Raymakers, Reinier A.; May, Alison; Markianos, Kyriacos; Bottomley, Sylvia S.; Swinkels, Dorine W.; Fleming, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is the most common form of congenital sideroblastic anemia. In affected males, it is uniformly associated with partial loss-of-function missense mutations in the erythroid-specific heme biosynthesis protein 5-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2). Here, we report five families with XLSA due to mutations in a GATA transcription factor binding site located in a transcriptional enhancer element in intron 1 of the ALAS2 gene. As such, this study defines a new class of mutations that should be evaluated in patients undergoing genetic testing for a suspected diagnosis of XLSA. PMID:24166784

  16. Facile preparation of organic-silica hybrid monolith for capillary hydrophilic liquid chromatography based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Luan; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zheng; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Yu, Qiong-Wei; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2013-04-05

    In this work, a one-step approach to facile preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths was successfully developed. After vinyl-end organic monomers and azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) were mixed with hydrolyzed tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), the homogeneous mixture was introduced into a fused-silica capillary for simultaneous polycondensation and "thiol-ene" click reaction to form the organic-silica hybrid monoliths. By employing this strategy, two types of organic-silica hybrid monoliths with positively charged quaternary ammonium and amide groups were prepared, respectively. The functional groups were successfully introduced onto the monoliths during the sol-gel process with "thiol-ene" click reaction, which was demonstrated by ζ-potential assessment, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The porous structure of the prepared monolithic columns was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement, and mercury intrusion porosimetry. These results indicate the prepared organic-silica hybrid monoliths possess homogeneous column bed, large specific surface area, good mechanical stability, and excellent permeability. The prepared monolithic columns were then applied for anion-exchange/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Different types of analytes, including benzoic acids, inorganic ions, nucleosides, and nucleotides, were well separated with high column efficiency around 80,000-130,000 plates/m. Taken together, we present a facile and universal strategy to prepare organic-silica hybrid monoliths with a variety of organic monomers using one-step approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Large-area broadband saturable Bragg reflectors by use of oxidized AlAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, S N; Gopinath, J T; Shen, H M; Petrich, G S; Kolodziejski, L A; Kärtner, F X; Ippen, E P

    2004-11-01

    Broadband saturable Bragg reflectors (SBRs) are designed and fabricated by monolithic integration of semiconductor saturable absorbers with broadband Bragg mirrors. The wet oxidation of AlAs creates low-index AlxOy layers for broadband, high-index-contrast AlGaAs/AlxOy or InGaAlP/AlxOy mirrors. SBR mirror designs indicate greater than 99% reflectivity over bandwidths of 294, 466, and 563 nm for center wavelengths of 800, 1300, and 1550 nm, respectively. Highly strained and unstrained absorbers are stably integrated with the oxidized mirrors. Large-scale lateral oxidation techniques permit the fabrication of SBRs with diameters of 500 microm. Large-area, broadband SBRs are used to self-start and mode lock a variety of laser systems at wavelengths from 800 to 1550 nm.

  18. A Study on the Photobleaching Effect of 5-ALA Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles in a CT26 Tumor Model During Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Sobhani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction During the process photodynamic therapy (PDT, bleaching of photosensitizer induced by irradiation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS can provide some information concerning the efficiency of treatment. Since gold nanoparticles (GNPs have been highlighted as efficient drug delivery systems, in this study, by utilizing GNPs conjugated with 5 aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA-GNPs, the photobleaching of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX was estimated on a colon carcinoma tumor model. Materials and Methods CT26 tumor models were prepared by subcutaneous injection of 5×105 cells into the right flank of Balb/c inbred mice. To estimate the time required to reach maximum concentration of PpIX in the tumors, the fluorescence signal of PpIX was monitored and PDT was performed by intratumoral injection of 5-ALA-GNPs, GNPs, and 5-ALA in separated groups for 15 min with a cycle of 5 min irradiation and 1 min darkness. The photobleaching rate was calculated from recorded fluorescence signals at the darkness intervals. Results The maximum fluorescence of PpIX was recorded 3 and 5 hr after injection of 5-ALA and 5-ALA-GNPs, respectively. Despite the low PpIX accumulation in tumors receiving conjugate, the photobleaching rate of PpIX was determined to be higher than 5-ALA. The reduction of the fluorescence signal due to 5-ALA-GNPs clearance was higher than that of 5-ALA. Conclusion Administration of 5-ALA-GNPs, intensification of ROS generating and the subsequent elevation of photobleaching results in higher treatment efficiency. Also, more rapid clearance of PpIX has an important implication in clinical application of 5-ALA-GNPs that decreases the undesirable effects on healthy tissues.

  19. N-Protonated Isomers and Coulombic Barriers to Dissociation of Doubly Protonated Ala8Arg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffner, Fredrik; Irikura, Karl K.

    2017-10-01

    Collision-induced dissociation (or tandem mass spectrometry, MS/MS) of a protonated peptide results in a spectrum of fragment ions that is useful for inferring amino acid sequence. This is now commonplace and a foundation of proteomics. The underlying chemical and physical processes are believed to be those familiar from physical organic chemistry and chemical kinetics. However, first-principles predictions remain intractable because of the conflicting necessities for high accuracy (to achieve qualitatively correct kinetics) and computational speed (to compensate for the high cost of reliable calculations on such large molecules). To make progress, shortcuts are needed. Inspired by the popular mobile proton model, we have previously proposed a simplified theoretical model in which the gas-phase fragmentation pattern of protonated peptides reflects the relative stabilities of N-protonated isomers, thus avoiding the need for transition-state information. For singly protonated Ala n ( n = 3-11), the resulting predictions were in qualitative agreement with the results from low-energy MS/MS experiments. Here, the comparison is extended to a model tryptic peptide, doubly protonated Ala8Arg. This is of interest because doubly protonated tryptic peptides are the most important in proteomics. In comparison with experimental results, our model seriously overpredicts the degree of backbone fragmentation at N9. We offer an improved model that corrects this deficiency. The principal change is to include Coulombic barriers, which hinder the separation of the product cations from each other. Coulombic barriers may be equally important in MS/MS of all multiply charged peptide ions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Aktivitas Manusia dan Distribusi Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Imron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Activities and Distribution of Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 in Alas Purwo National Park This study aims to comprehend whether human activities contribute to the presence of banteng (Bos sundaicus d’Alton 1836 in the Alas Purwo National Park (APNP. We laid continuous strip line transects from centre of human activities to the direction of core area of APNP. Three locations were selected: Sadengan grazing area, Giri Salaka Hinduism praying area, and Kutorejo village; representing low to high human disturbance respectively. We collected both direct and indirect presence of banteng as well as human activities within 20 metre strip lines with 10 metre width. Data were compiled each 100 metres and analyzed with means comparison to observe difference among locations. Correlation analyses were used to assess the relation between distance from centre of human activities, human activities and banteng presence. Regression analysis was used when  significant correlations found. Our non parametric test showed that human disturbances are significantly different among sites (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 6.220, p< 0.05. In similar tendency but different manner, it is showed that the different levels of human disturbance conveyed significant difference in number of banteng’s tracks (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 18.888, p< 0.05. The distance from centre of human activities is negatively related to number of human tracks (Spearman rho; r2= -0.307 N= 64, p<0.05* and also to number of banteng’s tracks (Spearman rho, r2= -0.728 N= 30, p<0.05**. The regression analysis showed that number of human tracks explained 18.6% of total variation on number of Banteng’s tracks, while distance from centre of human activities explained 59%.

  1. Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Martini, I A; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    Vegans do not consume meat and fish and have therefore low intakes of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCP). They may consequently have little negative feedback inhibition from dietary LCP on conversion of alpha -linolenic acid (ALA) to the LCP omega 3 eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and

  2. Comment: studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene in the Danish MONICA cohort: homozygosity of the Ala allele confers a decreased risk of the insulin resistance syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Laura; Brødbaek, Kasper; Fenger, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    The Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-gamma 2 has been shown to influence insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes in various ethnic populations. We examined whether the polymorphism was related to the insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) among nondiabetic Danish subjects. The Pro12Ala variant...... Resistance criteria enabling a classification of the study population in an IRS group and a non-IRS group. The allelic frequency of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the total study sample was 14% (95% confidence interval, 13-15%). Two hundred ninety-four subjects fulfilled the European Group for the Study...... of Insulin Resistance criteria defining the IRS. The frequency of the Ala allele was 12.6% in the IRS group and 14.2% among subjects classified as not having the IRS (P = 0.15). However, the frequency of the variant in the homozygous form was significantly lower in the IRS group [0.7% (0-1.6%)] compared...

  3. PENGARUH KARAKTERISTIK INDIVIDU TERHADAP SIKAP GOOD FORESTRY GOVERNANCE DI TAMAN NASIONAL ALAS PURWO (The influence of individual characteristic toward attitude to Good Forestry Governance in Alas Purwo National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Atmojo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Organisasi taman nasional di Indonesia mengalami berbagai permasalahan di berbagai simpul dan membutuhkan upaya perbaikan kelembagaan. Salah satu upaya pembenahan adalah perbaikan aspek perilaku organisasi yang mengarah kepada pembentukan good forestry governance. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendapatkan data dan penjelasan mengenai pengaruh karakteristik individu orang-orang yang bekerja di Taman Nasional (TN Alas Purwo terhadap sikap good forestry governance (GFG. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di TN Alas Purwo pada bulan November-Desember 2011 dengan menggunakan metode kuantitatif. Responden diambil secara purposive sampling terhadap personel TN Alas Purwo. Analisis data menggunakan uji regresi sederhana. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan karakteristik individu berpengaruh terhadap sikap good forestry governance. Persamaan regresi yang dihasilkan adalah GFG = 27,449 + 0,463 KI dengan nilai adjusted R2 0,287. Manajemen TN Alas Purwo perlu menaikan kualitas karakteristik individu personel taman nasional dengan melakukan berbagai tindakan manajemen. Implikasi disain organisasi yang tepat untuk tindakan manajemen ini adalah struktur organisasi organik. ABSTRACT In Indonesia, most of national parks have encountered several problems, which need efforts to improve their management. good forestry governance (GFG is one conceptualisation that can be used to improve aspects of organizational behavior in the management of conservation areas. In this research, we obtain data and explanation about influence of the individual characteristic (KI of Alas Purwo National Park with GFG attitude. Using quantitative methods, this study was conducted between November-December  2011. The respondents were staff of Alas Purwo National Park who taken by purposively. We perform data analysis with a simple regression test. The results indicate that the GFG attitude affected individual characteristic. The model is GFG attitude = 27.449 + 0.463 KI with adjusted R2 0,287. We

  4. Evaluation of single nucleotide polymorphisms of Pro12Ala in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and Gly308Ala in tumor necrosis factor-α genes in obese Asian Indians: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namita Bhagat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Namita Bhagat1,2, Mukta Agrawal1, Kalpana Luthra3, Naval K Vikram4, Anoop Misra4, Rajeev Gupta21Department of Home Science, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 2Department of Medicine, Fortis Escorts Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India; 3Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India; 4Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, IndiaBackground: A population-based case control study was performed to determine the associations of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG and Gly308Ala polymorphism in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA genes in obese subjects.Patients and methods: Of 1,400 eligible subjects, ≥20 years, we recruited only 1,127. For extreme phenotype case-control design, we evaluated 201 subjects with body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (Group 1 and 143 with BMI <20 kg/m2 (Group 2. Clinical, anthropometric, biochemical, and nutritional details and polymorphisms were estimated.Results: In Group 1, the dietary intake of calories and fats was higher, physical activity was lower, and prevalence of truncal obesity, hypertension, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and diabetes was greater than in Group 2. There were no homozygous polymorphisms of either gene. Heterozygous Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPARG was found in 15 (7.5% subjects in Group 1 and 3 (2.1% subjects in Group 2 (P = 0.028, and heterozygous Gly308Ala polymorphism in TNFA was found in 19 (9.5% in Group 1 and 7 (4.9% in Group 2 (P = 0.115. Presence of heterozygous polymorphism in PPARG and TNFA-predicted obesity with univariate odds ratio ([OR], 95% confidence intervals of 2.25 (1.32–3.84, P = 0.003 and 1.48 (1.10–1.99, P = 0.009 and with multivariate OR 1.74 (1.03–2.93, P = 0.038 and 1.46 (1.05–2.03, P = 0.024, respectively. The addition of dietary and physical activity variables did not result in significant change

  5. A new optical intra-tissue fiber irradiation ALA-PDT in the treatment of acne vulgaris in rabbit model: improved safety and tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Jiang, Can; Liu, Wei; Chen, Jin; Lin, Xinyu; Huang, Xiangning; Duan, Xiling

    2017-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy with topical aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) has been suggested to be effective in treatment of acne vulgaris. However, adverse events occur during and after treatment. To compare the efficacy and tolerability of optical intra-tissue fiber irradiation (OFI) ALA-PDT versus traditional ALA-PDT in treatment of acne vulgaris in rabbit models. Twenty-five rabbits of clean grade were used. Twenty rabbits were randomly selected to establish acne model and the other five were used as control. Rabbits in model group (40 ears) were further divided into four groups (10 ears/group): I, OFI-ALA-PDT with the head of optical fiber inserted into the target lesion (intra-tissue); II, traditional ALA-PDT group; III, OFI group; IV, blank control group without any treatment. Uncomfortable symptoms, adverse events, and effectiveness rates were recorded on post-treatment day 14, 30, and 45. On post-treatment day 14, the effectiveness rate in OFI-ALA-PDT group was obviously higher than that of the other three groups (PPDT group on day 30 and 45. During the period of treatment, the frequencies of uncomfortable symptoms in ALA-PDT group were obviously higher than those in the other three groups (PPDT group was obviously lower than that of the ALA-PDT group (PPDT group (intra-tissue irradiation) showed no improved efficacy on treating rabbit ear acne but had higher safety and better tolerability.

  6. Thr92Ala polymorphism in the type 2 deiodinase is not associated with T4 dose in athyroid patients or patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemstra, K. A.; Hoftijzer, H. C.; van der Deure, W. M.; Peeters, R. P.; Fliers, E.; Appelhof, B. C.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Corssmit, E. P. M.; Visser, T. J.; Smit, J. W. A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective: The type 2 deiodinase (D2)-Thr92Ala polymorphism has been associated with decreased D2 activity in some in vitro experiments but not in others. So far no association between the D2-Thr92Ala polymorphism and serum thyroid hormone levels has been observed in humans, but in a recent

  7. Tunnustati parimaid üliõpilasteadlasi / Elsa Suuster, Marit Alas, Annely Aleksejev ; küsitlenud Vilma Rauniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Putku, Elsa, 1984-

    2009-01-01

    Vestlus üliõpilaste teadustööde riikliku konkursi kolme laureaadiga, kelle uurimistöö oli tehtud Saare maakonnas. Nendeks on Elsa Suuster ja Annely Aleksejev Eesti Maaülikoolist ning Marit Alas Tallinna Ülikoolist

  8. [Ala12]MCD peptide: a lead peptide to inhibitors of immunoglobulin E binding to mast cell receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buku, A; Condie, B A; Price, J A; Mezei, M

    2005-09-01

    An effort was made to discover mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide analogs that bind with high affinity to mast cell receptors without triggering secretion of histamine or other mediators of the allergic reaction initiated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) after mast cell activation. Such compounds could serve as inhibitors of IgE binding to mast cell receptors. An alanine scan of MCD peptide reported previously showed that the analog [Ala12]MCD was 120-fold less potent in histamine-releasing activity and fivefold more potent in binding affinity to mast cell receptors than the parent MCD peptide. Because this analog showed marginal intrinsic activity and good binding affinity it was subsequently tested in the present study as an IgE inhibitor. In contrast to MCD peptide, [Ala12]MCD showed a 50% inhibition of IgE binding to the Fc epsilon RI alpha mast cell receptor by using rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) mast cells and fluorescence polarization. Furthermore, in a beta-hexosaminidase secretory assay, the peptide also showed a 50% inhibition of the secretion of this enzyme caused by IgE. An attempt was made to relate structural changes and biologic differences between the [Ala12]MCD analog and the parent MCD peptide. The present results show that [Ala12]MCD may provide a base for designing agents to prevent IgE/Fc epsilon RI alpha interactions and, consequently, allergic conditions.

  9. Isolation of L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 (Antho-KAamide), a novel neuropeptide from sea anemones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nothacker, H P; Rinehart, K L; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1991-01-01

    We have isolated and sequenced the neuropeptide L-3-phenyllactyl-Phe-Lys-Ala-NH2 from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima. This neuropeptide (named Antho-KAamide) has the unusual N-terminal L-3-phenyllactyl blocking group which has recently also been discovered in 2 other neuropeptides from...

  10. Met144Ala mutation of the copper-containing nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes xylosoxidans reverses the intramolecular electron transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Eady, Robert R; Sawers, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis has been employed to investigate the intramolecular electron transfer (ET) between the type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) copper sites in the Met144Ala Alcaligenes xylosoxidans nitrite reductase (AxCuNiR) mutant. This mutation increases the reduction potential of the T1 copper center...

  11. Stability, metabolism and transport of D-Asp(OBzl)-Ala--a model prodrug with affinity for the oligopeptide transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffansen, B; Lepist, E I; Taub, M E

    1999-01-01

    The model prodrug D-Asp(OBzl)-Ala has previously been shown to have affinity and to be transported by the oligopeptide transporter PepT1 expressed in Caco-2 cells. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the aqueous stability of D-Asp(OBzl)-Ala and its in vitro metabolism...... in different gastrointestinal media arising from rats and humans, as well as in human plasma. The second major aim of the study was to evaluate our previous study in Caco-2 cell culture, by determining the effective intestinal permeability (Peff) of D-Asp(OBzl)-Ala in situ using the single-pass rat perfusion...... model. The aqueous stability studies show water, general buffer, as well as specific acid and base catalysis of D-Asp(OBzl)-Ala. The degradation of the model prodrug was independent of ionic strength. The half-lives in rat jejunal fluid and homogenate were >3 h. In human gastric and intestinal fluids...

  12. Structural analysis of a phosphide-based epitaxial structure with a buried oxidized AlAs sacrificial layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englhard, M.; Reuters, B.; Baur, J.; Klemp, C.; Zaumseil, P.; Schroeder, T.; Skibitzki, O.

    2017-06-01

    Phosphide-based thin-film light-emitting diodes (TF-LEDs) lattice-matched to GaAs are well established in optoelectronics in the wavelength range between 550 and 650 nm. In this work, we investigate the impact of oxidized AlAs to overlying phosphide-based pseudomorphically grown epitaxial structures. Oxidation of a buried AlAs sacrificial layer allows the separation of the grown TF-LED epitaxy from its substrates and enables an oxidation lift-off process. To evaluate the strain effect of progressing oxidation on the structure of the chip, we perform high-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis on as-grown, mesa-structured, semi-oxidized, and completely laterally oxidized chips. At each state, a pseudomorphic phosphide-based InAlP layer is found. The InAlP layer exhibits a tensile out-of-plane strain of approximately 0.20% and a compressive in-plane strain of approx. -0.19%. Additionally, scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and μ-photoluminescence were used for investigation of the boundary zone of the oxidation front of AlAs, the interfaces between phosphide-based semiconductors (InAlP/InGaAlP) and oxidized amorphous AlAs and the light emission of InGaAlP multiple quantum wells.

  13. Improvement of DC vaccine with ALA-PDT induced immunogenic apoptotic cells for skin squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jie; Fan, Zhixia; Zhou, Feifan; Wang, Xiaojie; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Peiru; Yang, Degang; Zhang, Linglin; Chen, Wei R; Wang, Xiuli

    2015-07-10

    Dendritic cell (DC) based vaccines have emerged as a promising immunotherapy for cancers. However, most DC vaccines so far have achieved only limited success in cancer treatment. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an established cancer treatment strategy, can cause immunogenic apoptosis to induce an effective antitumor immune response. In this study, we developed a DC-based cancer vaccine using immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) mediated PDT. The maturation of DCs induced by PDT-treated apoptotic cells was evaluated using electron microscopy, FACS, and ELISA. The anti-tumor immunity of ALA-PDT-DC vaccine was tested with a mouse model. We observed the maturations of DCs potentiated by ALA-PDT treated tumor cells, including morphology maturation (enlargement of dendrites and increase of lysosomes), phenotypic maturation (upregulation of surface expression of MHC-II, DC80, and CD86), and functional maturation (enhanced capability to secrete IFN-γ and IL-12, and to induce T cell proliferation). Most interestingly, PDT-induced apoptotic tumor cells are more capable of potentiating maturation of DCs than PDT-treated or freeze/thaw treated necrotic tumor cells. ALA-PDT-DC vaccine mediated by apoptotic cells provided protection against tumors in mice, far stronger than that of DC vaccine obtained from freeze/thaw treated tumor cells. Our results indicate that immunogenic apoptotic tumor cells can be more effective in enhancing a DC-based cancer vaccine, which could improve the clinical application of PDT-DC vaccines.

  14. Manajemen Konflik Konservasi Banteng (Bos Javanicus D' Alton 1823) di Kawasan Taman Nasional Meru Betiri dan Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    OpenAIRE

    R Garsetiasih; Alikodra, Hadi S.

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian manajemen konflik Banteng dengan masyarakat sekitar Taman Nasional Meru Betiri (TNMB) dan Taman Nasional Alas Purwo (TNAP) telah dilakukan pada bulan Desember 2009 sampai Desember 2011. Tujuan penelitian untuk memformulasikan manajemen konservasi Banteng secara kolaboratif. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh dan kepentingan para pihak dilakukan analisis stakeholder melalui wawancara dengan para pihak terkait konflik yaitu Perum Perhutani, Perkebunan Bandealit, Balai Taman Nasional Meru Bet...

  15. Comparison of the crystal structure and function to wild-type and His25Ala mutant human heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Pu; Zhong, Wen-Wei; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zi-Li; Xia, Zhen-Wei

    2009-03-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in heme metabolism. It regulates serum bilirubin level. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that the proximal residue histidine 25 (His25) plays a key role in hHO-1 activity. A highly purified hHO-1 His25Ala mutant was generated and crystallized with a new expression system. The crystal structure of the mutant was determined by X-ray diffraction technology and molecular replacement at the resolution of 2.8 A, and the model of hHO-1 His25Ala mutant was refined. The final crystallographic and free R factors were 0.245 and 0.283, respectively. The standard bond length deviation was 0.007 A, and the standard bond angle deviation was 1.3 degrees . The mutation of His25 to Ala led to an empty pocket underneath the ferric ion in the heme, leading to loss of binding iron ligand. Although this did not cause an overall structural change, the enzymatic activity of the mutant hHO-1 was reduced by 90%. By supplementing imidazole, the HO-1 activity was restored approximately 90% to its normal level. These data suggest that Ala25 remains unchanged in the structure compared to His25, but the important catalytic function of hHO-1 is lost. Thus, it appears that His25 is a crucial residue for proper hHO-1 catalysis.

  16. X-linked sideroblastic anemia due to ALAS2 intron 1 enhancer element GATA-binding site mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campagna, D.R.; Bie, C.I. De; Schmitz-Abe, K.; Sweeney, M.; Sendamarai, A.K.; Schmidt, P.J.; Heeney, M.M.; Yntema, H.G.; Kannengiesser, C.; Grandchamp, B.; Niemeyer, C.M.; Knoers, N.V.A.M.; Swart, S.; Marron, G.; Wijk, R. van; Raymakers, R.A.P.; May, A.; Markianos, K.; Bottomley, S.S.; Swinkels, D.W.; Fleming, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is the most common form of congenital sideroblastic anemia. In affected males, it is uniformly associated with partial loss-of-function missense mutations in the erythroid-specific heme biosynthesis protein 5-aminolevulinate synthase 2 (ALAS2). Here, we report

  17. Studies of the common DIO2 Thr92Ala polymorphism and metabolic phenotypes in 7342 Danish white subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andersen, Mette K; Andreasen, Camilla H

    2007-01-01

    The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) catalyzes the conversion of T(4) to the active form of thyroid hormone, which is a critical regulator of thermogenesis and glucose metabolism. A Thr92Ala polymorphism in the gene encoding D2 (DIO2) has been reported to associate with insulin resistance....

  18. PPAR gamma Pro(12)Ala polymorphism and risk of acute coronary syndrome in a prospective study of Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Segel, Stine; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    -steroidal anti-inflammatory medicine. Methods: A case-cohort study including 1031 ACS cases and a sub-cohort of 1703 persons was nested within the population-based prospective study Diet, Cancer and Health of 57,053 individuals. Results: Homozygous male variant allele carriers of PPAR gamma 2 Pro(12)Ala were...

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) Pro12Ala polymorphism and risk for pediatric obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedoussis, George V; Vidra, Nikoleta; Butler, Johannah; Papoutsakis, Constantina; Yannakoulia, Mary; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lyon, Helen N; Vidra, Nikoletta

    BACKGROUND: Variation in the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) gene has been reported to alter the risk for adiposity in adults. METHODS: We investigated the gender related association between the Pro12Ala variant (rs1801282) in obesity and insulin resistance traits in 794

  20. Acute hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias: from ALA synthases 1 and 2 to new molecular bases and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceau, Hana; Gouya, Laurent; Puy, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    Many studies over the past decade have together identified new genes including modifier genes and new regulation and pathophysiological mechanisms in inherited inborn diseases of the heme biosynthetic pathway. A new porphyria has been characterized: X-linked protoporphyria and the perspective to have innovative treatment at very short-term became a reality. We will summarize how recent data on both ALAS1 and ALAS2 have informed our understanding of disease pathogenesis with an emphasis on how this information may contribute to new therapeutic strategies. The development of clinical and biological porphyria networks improved the long-term follow up of cohorts. The ageing of patients have allowed for the identification of novel recurrently mutated genes, and highlighted long-term complications in acute hepatic porphyrias. The treatment of hepatic porphyrias by an RNAi-targeting hepatic ALAS1 is actually tested and may lead to improve the management of acute attacks.In erythropoietic porphyrias, the key role of ALAS2 as a gate keeper of the heme and subsequently hemoglobin synthesis has been demonstrated. Its implication as a modifier gene in over erythroid disorders has also been documented. The knowledge of both the genetic abnormalities and the regulation of heme biosynthesis has increased over the last 5 years and open new avenues in the management of erythropoietic and acute hepatic porphyrias.

  1. Broadening the phenotype of TARDBP mutations: The TARDBP Ala382Thr mutation and Parkinson's disease in Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Quadri (Marialuisa); G. Cossu (Giovanni); V. Saddi (Valeria); E.J. Simons (Erik); D. Murgia (Daniela); M. Melis (Maurizio); A. Ticca (Anna); B.A. Oostra (Ben); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMutations in the TARDBP gene are a cause of autosomal dominant amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), but they have not been found so far in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A founder TARDBP mutation (p.Ala382Thr) was recently

  2. Proteomics and SSH analyses of ALA-promoted fruit coloration and evidence for the involvement of a MADS-box gene, MdMADS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Feng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA, a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels. A total of 85 differentially expressed proteins in apple skins between ALA and water treatment (control were identified by complementary gel-based and gel-freeseparation techniques. Most of these differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated by ALA. Function analysis suggested that 87.06% of the ALA-responsive proteins were associated with fruit ripening. To further screen ALA-responsive regulators, we constructed a subtracted cDNA library (tester: ALA treatment; driver: control and obtained 104 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 38 unigenes were indicators for the fruit ripening-related gene. The differentially changed proteins and transcripts did not correspond well at an individual level, but showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. Among the identified fruit ripening-related genes, the expression of MdMADS1, a developmental transcription regulator of fruit ripening, was positively correlated with expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (MdCHS, MdDFR, MdLDOX and MdUFGT in apple skin under ALA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of MdMADS1 enhanced anthocyanin content in transformed apple calli, which was further enhanced by ALA. The anthocyanin content in MdMADS1-silenced calli was less than that in the control with ALA treatment, but higher than that without ALA treatment. These results indicated that MdMADS1 is involved in ALA-induced anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, anthocyanin

  3. Proteomics and SSH Analyses of ALA-Promoted Fruit Coloration and Evidence for the Involvement of a MADS-Box Gene,MdMADS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinxin; An, Yuyan; Zheng, Jie; Sun, Miao; Wang, Liangju

    2016-01-01

    Skin color is a key quality attribute of fruits and how to improve fruit coloration has long been a major concern. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a natural plant growth regulator, can significantly increase anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin and therefore effectively improve coloration of many fruits, including apple. However, the molecular mechanism how ALA stimulates anthocyanin accumulation in fruit skin remains unknown. Here, we investigated the impact of ALA on apple skin at the protein and mRNA levels. A total of 85 differentially expressed proteins in apple skins between ALA and water treatment (control) were identified by complementary gel-based and gel-free separation techniques. Most of these differentially expressed proteins were up-regulated by ALA. Function analysis suggested that 87.06% of the ALA-responsive proteins were associated with fruit ripening. To further screen ALA-responsive regulators, we constructed a subtracted cDNA library (tester: ALA treatment; driver: control) and obtained 104 differentially expressed unigenes, of which 38 unigenes were indicators for the fruit ripening-related genes. The differentially changed proteins and transcripts did not correspond well at an individual level, but showed similar regulated direction in function at the pathway level. Among the identified fruit ripening-related genes, the expression of MdMADS1 , a developmental transcription regulator of fruit ripening, was positively correlated with expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes ( MdCHS, MdDFR, MdLDOX, and MdUFGT ) in apple skin under ALA treatment. Moreover, overexpression of MdMADS1 enhanced anthocyanin content in transformed apple calli, which was further enhanced by ALA. The anthocyanin content in MdMADS1- silenced calli was less than that in the control with ALA treatment, but higher than that without ALA treatment. These results indicated that MdMADS1 is involved in ALA-induced anthocyanin accumulation. In addition, anthocyanin

  4. Impact of an AlAs window layer upon the optical properties of Al x Ga1-x As photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, T.; Chen, X. J.; Johnson, E. B.; Christian, J. F.; Lee, K.; Hammig, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    Recently developed advanced scintillators, which have the ability to distinguish gamma-ray interaction events from those that accompany neutron impact, require improved quantum efficiency in the blue to near UV region of the spectrum. We utilize GaAs/Al0.8Ga0.2As photodiode elements as components in a wide band-gap solid-state photomultiplier as a lower-cost, lower logistical burden, and higher quantum efficiency replacement for the photomultiplier tube. An AlAs window layer is employed as a means to increase the diode’s optical performance. Relative to structures absent the window layer, simulations and measurements demonstrate that the AlAs layer produces a spatial coincidence between regions of large drift fields with regions of high photon absorption. In addition to the AlAs layer, secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that an unexpected high degree of inter-diffusion of GaAs and AlAs quenches the photon-detection efficiency, a decrease that can be avoided by its post-growth removal. With the AlAs layer, the peak external quantum efficiency of 49% is achieved at 450 nm with 10 V reverse bias, which does not fully deplete the device. Simulations show that full depletion can result in efficiencies exceeding 90%. In order to enhance the optical response, a simple anti-reflective coating layer is designed using the existing passivation layer components that successfully minimizes the reflection at the wavelength range of interest (300 nm-500 nm).

  5. Fibrinogen Aα Thr312Ala polymorphism specifically contributes to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension by increasing fibrin resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Feng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms are associated with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH and pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE, but no polymorphism specific to CTEPH but not PTE has yet been reported. Fibrin resistance is associated with CTEPH, but the mechanism has not been elucidated. METHODS: Polymorphisms were analyzed in 101 CTEPH subjects, 102 PTE subjects and 108 healthy controls by Massarray or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Plasmin-mediated cleavage of fibrin was characterized in 69 subjects (29 with CTEPH, 21 with PTE and 19 controls. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies and allele frequencies of fibrinogen Aα Thr312Ala were significantly higher in CTEPH subjects than in controls and PTE subjects, while there was no difference between PTE subjects and controls. The odd ratio (OR 2.037 and 95% confidence interval (95% CI, 1.262-3.289 showed that Thr312Ala polymorphism was a risk factor for CTEPH but not PTE. Fibrin from CTEPH subjects was more resistant to lysis than that from PTE subjects and controls. Fibrin resistance was significantly different between Aα Thr312Ala (A/G genotypes within CTEPH subjects, and the fibrin with GG genotype was more resistant than that with AA and AG genotype. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrinogen Aα Thr312Ala (A/G polymorphism was associated with CTEPH, but not PTE, suggesting that the fibrinogen Aα Thr312Ala polymorphism may act as a potential biomarker in identifying CTEPH from PTE. GG genotype polymorphism contributes to CTEPH through increasing fibrin resistance, implying that PTE subjects with fibrinogen Aα GG genotype may need long-term anticoagulation therapy.

  6. [S2-Ala-iliac screws for extended pelvic fixation in longer lumbar instrumentations : Description of a freehand technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattig, F; Weckbach, S

    2017-08-01

    To reduce the rate of implant failures at the lumbosacral junction in polysegmental lumbar fusions. Spinal fusion with deformity correction including L5/S1, revision surgery for pseudoarthrosis L5/S1, screw pull-out and pedicle fractures in S1, and S1/S2 fractures after polysegmental fusions. Osteosynthesis of complex pelvic ring fractures, tumors of the ilium. Relative contraindication: infection, to avoid contamination of the iliosacral joint. Conventional posterior approach to the lumbar spine. Positioning of the lumbar and S1 pedicle screws in common technique. Identification of the correct entrance point for one or two S2-Ala-iliac screws for each side and preparation of the drill holes in freehand technique. Connection of the lumbar and S1 pedicle screws and S2-Ala-iliac screws with one stress-free rod on each side without the use of connectors or special plates. Back-friendly mobilization beginning on day 1 after surgery with support of a physiotherapist. No sports for 12 weeks. In all, 25 patients were treated with an extended pelvic fixation using S2-Ala-iliac screws. A primary deformity correction was performed in 11 patients, whereas 14 patients underwent revision surgery. A total of 24 patients were clinically and radiologically followed for a mean of 16 months. Two patients showed a loosening of the S2-Ala-iliac screws on one side, and one patient had broken screw as well only on one side without clinical symptoms. So far, no patient has undergone revision surgery because of S2-Ala-iliac screw-associated complications.

  7. Brain docosahexaenoic acid (DHA levels of young rats are related to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA levels and fat matrix of the diet: impact of dairy fat*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delplanque Bernadette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dososahexaenoate (DHA is highly concentrated in mammalian nervous and visual systems and its deficiency during gestation, lactation and early life, could have dramatic impacts on brain functions and mental health. Achieving an appropriate DHA status in the neonatal brain is an important goal of neonatal nutrition. We evaluated how a-linolenic acid (ALA provided by different dietary fat matrices improved DHA content in the brains of both young male and female rats. Young rats born from dams fed during gestation and lactation with a low ALA diet (0.4% of fatty acids were subjected for 6 weeks after weaning to an anhydrous dairy fat blend-based diet that provided 1.5% ALA or to a palm oil blend-based diet that provided the same ALA level: either 1.5% ALA or 1.5% ALA and 0.12% DHA with 0.4% arachidonic acid (ARA. With each diet the n-6/ n-3 ratio was similar (10 to follow the values generally recommended for infant formula. Fatty acids analysis in whole brain showed that 1.5% ALA dairy fat blend was superior to both 1.5% ALA palm-oil blends, supplemented or not with dietary DHA, for increasing brain DHA. Females compared to males had significantly higher brain DHA with the 1.5% ALA palm-blend diet, but the dietary supplementation with DHA smoothed the differences by a specific increase of males DHA brain. In conclusion, dairy fat blend enriched with ALA appear to be an interesting strategy for achieving optimal DHA levels in the brain of post-weaning rats. Inclusion of dairy fat in infant formulas should be reconsidered.

  8. Relationship Between Occlusal Plane and Three Levels of Ala Tragus line in Dentulous and Partially Dentulous Patients in Different Age Groups: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saquib Ahmed; K, Lekha; Mathur, Gaurav

    2015-02-01

    Correct orientation of the occlusal plane plays a vital role in achieving optimal aesthetics, occlusal balance and function of complete dentures. The use of ala tragus line for determination of occlusal plane has been a topic of debate over past many years. Also, the effect of age on level of ala tragal line has not been investigated in the past. To determine the effect of age on location of Ala-Tragus line. A total of 180 patients (90 males and 90 females) were selected with complete dentition and were grouped according to their age in three age groups with 60 subjects in each age group (Group A: 20-35 y, Group B: 36-50 y, Group C: 51-65 y). Right lateral profile photographs were taken with subjects having fox plane placed intraorally parallel to occlusal plane. Reference points corresponding to inferior border, middle or superior border of tragus and inferior border of ala of nose were marked on photographs. These were joined to get three different levels of Ala-Tragus line. Images were analysed photometrically and most parallel relationship was determined in between arms of fox plane (that represented the occlusal plane) and three different levels of ala tragus line. Data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis using Pearson chi-square and Likelihood-ratio chi-square test. Significant correlation was found between age and level of Ala-Tragus line. The occlusal plane was found to be more parallel to Ala-tragus line when inferior border of tragus was considered as posterior reference point in young adult age group (20-35 y). In older age groups, occlusal plane was found to be more parallel to Ala-tragus line when middle of tragus was considered as posterior reference point. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that a definite relationship exists in between age and level of ala tragus line.

  9. The IS-ENES climate4impact portal: bridging the CMIP5 and CORDEX data to impact users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; Plieger, Maarten; Page, Christian; Tatarinova, Natalia; Hutjes, Ronald; de Jong, Fokke; Bärring, Lars; Sjökvist, Elin; Vega Saldarriaga, Manuel; Santiago Cofiño Gonzalez, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of climate4impact (climate4impact.eu) is to enhance the use of Climate Research Data and to enhance the interaction with climate effect/impact communities. The portal is based on 17 impact use cases from 5 different European countries, and is evaluated by a user panel consisting of use case owners. It has been developed within the IS-ENES European project and is currently operated and further developed in the IS ENES2 project. As the climate impact community is very broad, the focus is mainly on the scientific impact community. Climate4impact is connected to the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) nodes containing global climate model data (GCM data) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) and regional climate model data (RCM) data from the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX). This global network of climate model data centers offers services for data description, discovery and download. The climate4impact portal connects to these services using OpenID, and offers a user interface for searching, visualizing and downloading global climate model data and more. A challenging task is to describe the available model data and how it can be used. The portal informs users about possible caveats when using climate model data. All impact use cases are described in the documentation section, using highlighted keywords pointing to detailed information in the glossary. Climate4impact currently has two main objectives. The first one is to work on a web interface which automatically generates a graphical user interface on WPS endpoints. The WPS calculates climate indices and subset data using OpenClimateGIS/icclim on data stored in ESGF data nodes. Data is then transmitted from ESGF nodes over secured OpenDAP and becomes available in a new, per user, secured OpenDAP server. The results can then be visualized again using ADAGUC WMS. Dedicated wizards for processing of climate indices will be developed in close

  10. First example of stepwise, zwitterionic mechanism for bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene (norbornene) formation process catalyzed by the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiński, Radomir

    B3LYP/6-31++G(d) calculations indicated that the reaction of (2 E )-3-phenyl-2-nitroprop-2-enenitrile with cyclopentadiene catalyzed by cations of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium ionic liquid shall not take place according to the classical scheme of one-step [2+4] Diels-Alder cycloaddition. Along the path finally leading to bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene (norbornene) with a nitro group in endo orientation, the process of bicarbocyclic skeleton formation shall take place according to the domino mechanism, via [2+4] heterocycloadduct. On the other hand, along the path leading finally to bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene with a nitro group in exo orientation, acyclic adduct with a zwitterionic nature is formed in the first reaction, which undergoes cyclisation next in the second step of the reaction.

  11. Polysiloxane-Based Autonomic Self-Healing Elastomers Obtained through Dynamic Boronic Ester Bonds Prepared by Thiol-Ene "Click" Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yujing; Gou, Zhiming; Zhang, Changqiao; Feng, Shengyu

    2016-07-01

    Cross-linked silicone elastomers constructed with dynamic-covalent boronic esters are first synthesized by photoinitiated radical thiol-ene "click" chemistry. The resultant samples can be cut with a sharp knife into two pieces and then healed via the reversibility of the boronic ester cross-linkages to restore the original silicone sample within 30 min. Regulation of luminescent properties is achieved by incorporating organic dye into the elastomers through a "one-pot" thiol-ene reaction. The proposed synthesis procedure demonstrates a new strategy to produce boronic acid silicone materials capable of self-healing without external forces. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. [3,3]-Sigmatropic shifts and retro-ene rearrangements in cyanates, isocyanates, thiocyanates, and isothiocyanates of the form RX-YCN and RX-NCY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Rainer; Finnerty, Justin J; Murali, Sukumaran; Wentrup, Curt

    2012-02-17

    Retro-ene type [2π + 2π + 2σ] and [3,3]-sigmatropic shift reactions involving the substituent groups R in heteroatom-substituted cyanates and thiocyanates RX-YCN and the isomeric isocyanates and isothiocyanates of the type RX-NCY (X = CR(2), NR', O, or S; Y = O or S) have been investigated computationally at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. Retro-ene reactions of alkyl derivatives of the title compounds afford alkenes, imines, carbonyl and thiocarbonyl compounds together with HNCO (HNCS) or HOCN (HSCN). [3,3]-Sigmatropic shifts (hetero-Cope rearrangements) of the corresponding allyl, propargyl, benzyl, and aryl derivatives causes allylic rearrangements, propargyl-allenyl rearrangement, conversion of benzyl cyanates to o-isocyanatotoluenes, and conversion of N-cyanatoarylamines to o-isocyanatoanilines, etc. The corresponding rearrangements of allyl thiocyanates, arylamino thiocyanates and isothiocyanates, and arylsulfenyl thiocyanates and isothiocyanates are also described.

  13. Thiol-ene thermosets exploiting surface reactivity for layer-by-layer structures and control of penetration depth for selective surface reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Westh, Andreas; Pereira Rosinha Grundtvig, Ines

    Thiol-ene thermosets have been shown to be an efficient platform for preparation of functional polymer surfaces. Especially the effectiveness and versatility of the system has enabled a large variety of network properties to be obtained in a simple and straight-forward way. Due to its selectivity......, various thiols and allyl or other vinyl reactants can be used to obtain either soft and flexible1 or more rigid functional thermosets 2. The methodology permits use of etiher thermal or photochemical conditions both for matrix preparation as well as for surface functionalization. Due to excess reactive...... groups in thµe surface of thiol-ene thermosets, it is possible to prepare surface functional thermosets or to exploit the reactive groups for modular construction and subsequent chemical bonding. Here a different approach preparing monolithic layer-by-layer structures with controlled mechanical...

  14. Controlled release of silyl ether camptothecin from thiol-ene click chemistry-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yue; Fu, Jie; Wang, Tianfu; Lu, Xiuyang

    2017-03-15

    As efficient drug carriers, stimuli-responsive mesoporous silica nanoparticles are at the forefront of research on drug delivery systems. An acid-responsive system based on silyl ether has been applied to deliver a hybrid prodrug. Thiol-ene click chemistry has been successfully utilized for tethering this prodrug to mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Here, by altering the steric bulk of the substituent on the silicon atom, the release rate of a model drug, camptothecin, was controlled. The synthesized drug delivery system was investigated by analytical methods to confirm the functionalization and conjugation of the mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Herein, trimethyl silyl ether and triethyl silyl ether were selected to regulate the release rate. Under normal plasma conditions (pH 7.4), both types of camptothecin-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (i.e., MSN-Me-CPT and MSN-Et-CPT) did not release the model drug. However, under in vitro acidic conditions (pH 4.0), based on a comparison of the release rates, camptothecin was released from MSN-Me-CPT more rapidly than from MSN-Et-CPT. To determine the biocompatibility of the modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles and the in vivo camptothecin uptake behavior, MTT assays with cancer cells and confocal microscopy observations were conducted, with positive results. These functionalized nanoparticles could be useful in clinical treatments requiring controlled drug release. As the release rate of drug from drug-carrier plays important role in therapy effects, trimethyl silyl ether (TMS) and triethyl silyl ether (TES) were selected as acid-sensitive silanes to control the release rates of model drugs conjugated from MSNs by thiol-ene click chemistry. The kinetic profiles of TMS and TES materials have been studied. At pH 4.0, the release of camptothecin from MSN-Et-CPT occurred after 2h, whereas MSN-Me-CPT showed immediate drug release. The results showed that silyl ether could be used to control release rates of drugs from

  15. Vapor-liquid interfacial reaction to fabricate superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic thiol-ene/silica hybrid decorated fabric for oil/water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Liang, Tao; Lai, Xuejun; Su, Xiaojing; Zhang, Lin; Zeng, Xingrong

    2018-01-01

    With oil spill accidents and oil industrial wastewater increasing, oil/water separation has attracted much attention in recent years. Herein, we report the fabrication of superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic thiol-ene/silica hybrid decorated fabrics for oil/water separation via vapor-liquid interfacial reaction. It is based on sol-gel reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to generate silica and thiol-ene reaction between poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate) (TTMP) to form crosslinked hydrophilic polymer on polyester fabric under the catalysis of butylamine/ammonia vapor. The chemical structure of the surfaces on thiol-ene/silica hybrid decorated fabric was confirmed by FTIR and XPS, and obvious micro-nano morphology and roughness were observed with SEM and AFM. The water contact angle of the fabric attained 0° in 0.36 s, and the underwater oil contact angle reached up to 160°. Importantly, the fabric exhibited high separation efficiency at 99.5%, fast water flux above 71600 Lm-2h-1 and excellent recyclability in oil/water separation. Our findings open a new strategy to fabricate organic-inorganic hybrid superhydrophobic and underwater superoleophobic materials for oil/water separation.

  16. Is SOD2 Ala16Val polymorphism associated with migraine with aura phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Barbanti, Piero; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Egeo, Gabriella; Aurilia, Cinzia; Fofi, Luisa; Ialongo, Cristiano; Valente, Maria Giovanna; Ferroni, Patrizia; Della-Morte, David; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2015-01-20

    Several studies suggest a role of oxidative stress in the physiopathology of migraine, particularly in the form with aura. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between migraine and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) genes in a cohort of 490 consecutive unrelated Caucasian migraineurs (migraine with aura [MwA], n=107; migraine without aura [MwoA], n=246; chronic migraine [CM], n=137) and 246 healthy controls recruited at our Headache and Pain Unit and stored in the Interinstitutional Multidisciplinary BioBank (BioBIM). Migraine phenotype was carefully detailed using face-to-face interviews. We examined polymorphisms of SOD1 gene (A/C substitution-rs2234694) and SOD2 gene (C/T transition-rs4880-Ala16Val). The rs4880 TT (Val/Val) genotype was associated (p=0.042) with the presence of unilateral cranial autonomic symptoms (UAs) in MwA patients. We also found a mild correlation between SOD2 rs4880 genotype and the type of acute migraine treatment (p=0.048) in MwA patients. Our findings suggest that SOD2 is a disease-modifier gene influencing oxidative mechanisms in MwA. These observations lead to the hypothesis that SOD2 polymorphism may cause a defective control of the oxidative phenomena linked to cortical spreading depression, the neurophysiological hallmark of migraine aura, causing an overstimulation of trigeminal neurons and UAs triggering.

  17. Quiste subaracnoideo y displasia del ala mayor del esfenoides en neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cortés-Arreguín

    Full Text Available Los quistes subaracnoideos representan menos del 1% de los tumores de ocupación intracraneal. Hay pocas publicaciones acerca de quistes subaracnoideos del lóbulo temporal con remodelación de la cavidad orbitaria, pero no existen en relación al tratamiento reconstructivo de la cavidad orbitaria en esta patología. Presentamos el caso clínico de un varón de 44 años de edad con diagnóstico de neurofibromatosis tipo 1, aumento progresivo de volumen del ojo y párpado izquierdos de 40 años de evolución y dolor retro-ocular intermitente desde hacía 10 años, al que se le diagnostica un quiste subaracnoideo del lóbulo temporal que invade la cavidad orbitaria con displasia del ala mayor del esfenoides. Realizamos drenaje y cistocisternostomía del quiste subaracnoideo, con reconstrucción de paredes orbitarias con malla de titanio y cobertura con un colgajo de pericráneo así como elevación y reposicionamiento del globo ocular mediante cantopexias, seguida de una osteotomía de la órbita para reducir el volumen de la misma.

  18. KONSUMSI OKSIGEN IKAN PELAGIS DI MUARA SEGARA ANAK, TAMAN NASIONAL ALAS PURWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Made Malini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taman Nasional Alas Purwo (TNAP merupakan salah satu protected area yang ditetapkan sebagai kawasan untuk melestarikan keanekaragaman hayati dan ekosistem. Untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut maka perlu diadakan monitoring tentang kondisi dari kawasan tersebut, yaitu dengan cara mengamati biota perairan seperti ikan pelagis yang habitatnyadi sungai Segara Anak. Kelangsungan hidup ikan ditentukan oleh kondisi lingkungan dan kemampuan ikan untuk menggunakan oksigen dari lingkungannya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jumlah konsumsi oksigen ikan pelagis yang hidup di muara Segara Anak TNAP. Metode yang digunakan adalah observasi. Parameter yang diukur adalah konsumsi O2, kondisi fisik dan kimia dari habitat ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat 4 jenis ikan pelagis dengan masing-masing konsumsi O2 sebagai berikut Scatophagus argus (0,15 mg/l /h, Toxotes jaculatrix (0,052 mg/l/h, Nectamia fusca (0,052mg/l/h dan Ambassis macracanthus (0,095 mg/l/h. Tingkat konsumsi oksigen tertinggi ditunjukkan oleh S. argus. Hasil pengukuran parameter fisik dan kimia air adalah sebagai berikut: suhu 28oC, salinitas 33,3%; pH 8; dan oksigen terlarut 5 mg/l, sedangkan suhu udara 30,67oC. Tingkat konsumsi oksigen ikan tergantung pada jenis spesies, ukuran, dan kondisi fisik air.

  19. Similarities and differences in political opinions of Abul A'la Mawdudi and Sayyid Qutb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ejub Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the academic literature in the West, Abul A'la Mawdudi and Sayyid Qutb are often referred to as the thinkers who have, through their thinking and activism, set the foundations for radical Islamist ideas which are said to have served as the basis for the emergence of jihadist movements. Moreover, in the West their intellectual heritage and thought have been to a great extent identified as the same. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to show impartially the true nature of their political thought, and in addition to similarities in their thinking identify differences in their development, intellectual approach and activism. This attempt at differentiating opinions of the two Muslim intellectuals comes as a result of insight into the fact that scientists in the West are often inclined to a gross simplification and identifying of Islamic thinkers and movements for the sake of ideologically coloured academic prerequisites, and without deeper analyses. This paper will also provide terminology solutions for certain aspects of Islamic activism.

  20. Effect of ALA-enriched food supply on cardiovascular risk factors in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioen, Isabelle; Hacquebard, Mirjam; Hick, Gaëlle; Maindiaux, Veronique; Larondelle, Yvan; Carpentier, Yvon A; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2009-07-01

    The outcome of a total dietary approach using a wide range of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enriched food items on cardiovascular diseases called for further investigation. The study objective was to assess the effect of an ALA-enriched food supply on cardiovascular risk factors in healthy males. A dietary intervention (single-blind field trial with pre- and post-measurements) was performed with 59 healthy males in a Belgian prison. Over a period of 12 weeks they were supplied with an n-3 enriched diet (containing 6.5 g n-3 PUFA/day compared to 4 g n-3 PUFA/day in the standard diet) that was substituted for their regular diet, increasing mainly the alpha-linolenic acid intake (from 2.8 to around 5 g/day). The results indicated no impact on subjects waist circumference, weight and BMI or systolic blood pressure. In contrast, the diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased during the intervention period (from 74.6 +/- 8.2 to 71.7 +/- 10.1 mmHg; P level increased in non-smoking participants (from 0.97 +/- 0.25 to 1.06 +/- 0.23 mmol/l; P non-smokers).

  1. (RSS)-[N-Hydroxyethyloxy]-hexafluoroVal-MeLeu-Ala tert-butyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Marcel K; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Keese, Reinhart

    2009-10-28

    THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (2S,5S,8R)-tert-butyl 8-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-yl)-12-hydroxy-5-isobutyl-2,6-dimethyl-4,7-dioxo-10-oxa-3,6,9-triazadodecanoate], C(21)H(36)F(6)N(3)O(6), is a tripeptide crystallizing in the chiral ortho-rhom-bic spacegroup P2(1)2(1)2(1). The absolute configuration (R) of the chiral center in the hexa-fluoro-valine unit is based on the known stereochemistry of MeLeu and Ala (SS). The N-hydroxy-ethyl-oxy substituent of hexa-fluoro-valine is positionally disordered [occupancy ratio 0.543 (9):0.457 (9)]. In the solid state structure there are N-H⋯F and N-H⋯O intra-molecular hydrogen bonds supporting the coiled structure of this tripeptide with the three hydro-phobic substituents on the outside.

  2. Fibrinogen Seoul (FGG Ala341Asp): a novel mutation associated with hypodysfibrinogenemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyung Soon; Park, Noh Jin; Choi, Jong Rak; Doh, Hyun Joo; Chung, Kwang Hoe

    2006-07-01

    Dysfibrinogenemia is a coagulation disorder caused by a variety of structural abnormalities in the fibrinogen molecule that result in fibrinogen function. The molecular basis of hypodysfibrinogenemia was investigated in a 66-year-old woman with peripheral artery obstructive disease and in her family members. Plasma level of functional fibrinogen determined using the Clauss method was lower (75 mg/dL; normal, 140-460 mg/dL) than that measured with immunologic nephelometric assay (137 mg/dL; normal, 180-400 mg/dL). Similar results were also observed in two family members through two generations. DNA was extracted from whole blood, and the coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of gamma chain gene (FGG) were amplified. A novel (Fibrinogen Seoul) heterozygous FGG mutation (GCT->GAT, Ala341Asp) was identified in all three affected family members. Thrombin-catalyzed polymerization was found to be defective on the analysis of purified fibinogen from the propositus. Molecular modeling also showed a conformational change of fibrinogen structure.

  3. PENGEMBANGAN MANAJEMEN DAYA TARIK WISATA BERBASIS QUALITY EXPERIENCES DI OBJEK WISATA ALAS KEDATON TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayu Indrawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent days, to understanding the consumers behaviour is becoming a primary concern in marketing.This is also including in tourism marketing particularly tourism destination. The phenomenon of understandingthe consumer taste in tourism is popularly known as quality experience. It has a meaning that when tourist spendstheir money on a certain destination they expect for quality experience. It can be seen on their satisfaction thatappear on their willingness to revisit or giving the positive impression to their friends and relatives. Today, thereis a downward point in tourist destination in the last five years. Previously there were 1500 visitors per day, butlately it is only 10.000 both for international and domestic visitors. It is caused by the raise of competitor’s numberand the tourist responses towards Alas Kedaton site. Such impression comes from its cleanliness, the hospitalityof the staff, the price of entrance fee, and lack of facilities. Other instances are the uncomfortable way to get tothe site, as well as the absence of spiritual facilities for Muslim visitors for praying during their visit to this place.

  4. Crystal structure of Boc-(S-ABOC-(S-Ala-(S-ABOC-(S-Phe-OBn chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Wenger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, phenyl (S-2-[(S-(1-{2-[(S-(1-{[(tert-butoxycarbonyl]amino}bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ylformamido]propanamido}bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ylformamido]-3-phenylpropanoate chloroform monosolvate, C42H56N4O7·CHCl3, the α,β-hybrid peptide contains two non-proteinogenic amino acid residues of (S-1-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid [(S-ABOC], two amino acid residues of (S-2-aminopropanoic acid [(S-Ala] and (S-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid [(S-Phe], and protecting groups of tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc and benzyl ester (OBn. The tetramer folds into a right-handed mixed 11/9 helix stabilized by intramolecular i,i + 3 and i,i − 1 C=O...H—N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, the oligomers are linked by N—H...O=C hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction. The chloroform solvent molecules are intercalated between the folded chains via C—H...O=C interactions.

  5. Effects of ultrathin AlAs interfacial layer on the structure and optical properties of GaInP epilayer grown on germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, S.P. [Key Lab. for New Type of Functional Materials in Hebei Province, School of Material and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Chen, G.F. [Key Lab. for New Type of Functional Materials in Hebei Province, School of Material and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); He, W. [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Department of Teaching Basic Courses, The Chinese People' s Armed Police Force Academy, Langfang, Hebei Province 065000 (China); Dai, P.; Chen, J.X. [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Lu, S.L., E-mail: sllu2008@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yang, H. [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • GaInP with an ultrathin AlAs interfacial layers was grown on Ge by MOVPE. • The 5 Å AlAs results in a decrease of PL intensity from the Ge-based complexes. • The increase of AlAs thickness from 5 Å to 5 nm did not improve inhibiting effect. • The incorporation of AlAs results in an increased ordered degree of GaInP. - Abstract: Structure and optical properties of GaInP epilayer with the ultrathin interfacial layers grown on germanium by metal–organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), Raman as well as surface morphology measurement. A five angstroms (5 Å) AlAs interfacial layer results in the decrease of PL intensity arising from the emission of [Ge{sub (Ga,In)} − V{sub (Ga,In)}] complex. With the incorporation of AlAs interfacial layer, an increased ordered degree of GaInP epilayer is observed. On the basis of the combination of step–terrace-reconstruction (STR) mode with the dimer-induced-stress model, a CuPt-B type ordering of GaInP which is related to AlAs reconstruction with 2× periodicity process is proposed to explain this effect. Long range order occurs as a consequence of the minimization of the strain energy with increased interfacial layer thickness from 5 Å to 5 nm.

  6. Enantioselective Reduction of Citral Isomers in NCR Ene Reductase: Analysis of an Active-Site Mutant Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Nico; Rapp, Johanna; Hauer, Bernhard

    2017-04-18

    A deeper understanding of the >99 % S-selective reduction of both isomers of citral catalyzed by NCR ene reductase was achieved by active-site mutational studies and docking simulation. Though structurally similar, the E/Z isomers of citral showed a significantly varying selectivity response to introduced mutations. Although it was possible to invert (E)-citral reduction enantioselectivity to ee 46 % (R) by introducing mutation W66A, for (Z)-citral it remained ≥88 % (S) for all single-residue variants. Residue 66 seems to act as a lever for opposite binding modes. This was underlined by a W66A-based double-mutant library that enhanced the (E)-citral derived enantioselectivity to 63 % (R) and significantly lowered the S selectivity for (Z)-citral to 44 % (S). Formation of (R)-citronellal from an (E/Z)-citral mixture is a desire in industrial (-)-menthol synthesis. Our findings pave the way for a rational enzyme engineering solution. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of N-(6-Carboxyl Cyclohex-3-ene Carbonyl Chitosan with Different Degrees of Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. I. Badawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Five products of N-(6-carboxyl cyclohex-3-ene carbonyl chitosan as antimicrobial agents were prepared by reaction of chitosan with tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA at different degrees of substitution (DS. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against four plant bacteria and eight fungi. The results proved that the inhibitory property and water solubility of the synthesized chitosan derivatives, with increase of the DS, exhibited a remarkable improvement over chitosan. The product with a DS of 0.40 was the most active one with MIC of 510, 735, 240, and 385 mg/L against Erwinia carotovora, Ralstonia solanacearum, Rhodococcus fascians, and Rhizobium radiobacter, respectively, and also in mycelial growth inhibition against Alternaria alternata (EC50 = 683 mg/L, Botrytis cinerea (EC50 = 774 mg/L, Botryodiplodia theobromae (EC50 = 501 mg/L, Fusarium oxysporum (EC50 = 500 mg/L, F. solani (EC50 = 260 mg/L, Penicillium digitatum (EC50 = 417 mg/L, Phytophthora infestans (EC50 = 298 mg/L, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (EC50 = 763 mg/L. These compounds based on a biodegradable and biocompatible chitosan could be used as potentially antimicrobial agents in crop protection instead of hazardous synthetic pesticides.

  8. Olean-18-ene triterpenoids from Celastraceae species inhibit HIV replication targeting NF-kB and Sp1 dependent transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Alex A; Muñóz, Alejandro; Torres-Romero, David; Bedoya, Luis M; Perestelo, Nayra R; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Alcamí, José; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2012-06-01

    In the present study we report the isolation of nine new olean-18-ene triterpenes (1-9), along with three known ones (10-12), from Cassine xylocarpa and Maytenus jelskii. Their stereostructures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques (COSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC), and spectrometric methods. The natural compounds and derivatives 13-15 have been tested for their potential as inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication. Five compounds from this series displayed potent antiviral activity with IC(50)s in the micromolar range (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8) being 1 and 8 the most active compounds. The target of these compounds was different from antiretroviral drugs currently licensed as they act as inhibitors of enhancer-dependent transcription. The structure-activity relationships were established based on the regiosubstitution and oxidation degree of the triterpene scaffold, revealing that these aspects were able to modulate the selectivity and intensity of HIV inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-Cost Perovskite Solar Cells Employing Dimethoxydiphenylamine-Substituted Bistricyclic Aromatic Enes as Hole Transport Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakstys, Kasparas; Paek, Sanghyun; Grancini, Giulia; Gao, Peng; Jankauskas, Vygintas; Asiri, Abdullah M; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-10-09

    The synthesis, characterization and photovoltaic performance of series of novel molecular hole transport materials (HTMs) based on bistricyclic aromatic enes (BAEs) are presented. The new derivatives were obtained following a simple and straightforward procedure from inexpensive starting reagents mimicking the synthetically challenging 9,9'-spirobifluorene moiety of the well-studied spiro-OMeTAD. The novel HTMs were tested in mixed cations and anions perovskite solar cells (PSCs) yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 19.2 % under standard global 100 mW cm-2 AM1.5G illumination using 9-{2,7-bis[bis(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9H-fluoren-9-ylidene}-N2 ,N2 ,N7 ,N7 -tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)-9H-thioxanthene-2,7-diamine (coded as KR374). The power conversion efficiency data confirms the easily attainable heteromerous fluorenylidenethioxanthene structure as valuable core for low-cost and highly efficient HTM design and paves the way towards cost-effective PSC technology. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Thiol-Ene Photo-Click Collagen-PEG Hydrogels: Impact of Water-Soluble Photoinitiators on Cell Viability, Gelation Kinetics and Rheological Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róisín Holmes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thiol-ene photo-click hydrogels were prepared via step-growth polymerisation using thiol-functionalised type-I collagen and 8-arm poly(ethylene glycol norbornene-terminated (PEG-NB, as a potential injectable regenerative device. Type-I collagen was thiol-functionalised by a ring opening reaction with 2-iminothiolane (2IT, whereby up to 80 Abs.% functionalisation and 90 RPN% triple helical preservation were recorded via 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS colorimetric assay and circular dichroism (CD. Type, i.e., either 2-Hydroxy-1-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy phenyl]-2-methyl-1-propanone (I2959 or lithium phenyl-2,4,6-trimethylbenzoylphosphinate (LAP, and concentration of photoinitiator were varied to ensure minimal photoinitiator-induced cytotoxicity and to enable thiol-ene network formation of collagen-PEG mixtures. The viability of G292 cells following 24 h culture in photoinitiator-supplemented media was largely affected by the photoinitiator concentration, with I2959-supplemented media observed to induce higher toxic response (0.1 → 0.5% (w/v I2959, cell survival: 62 → 2 Abs.% compared to LAP-supplemented media (cell survival: 86 → 8 Abs.%. In line with the in vitro study, selected photoinitiator concentrations were used to prepare thiol-ene photo-click hydrogels. Gelation kinetics proved to be largely affected by the specific photoinitiator, with LAP-containing thiol-ene mixtures leading to significantly reduced complete gelation time (τ: 187 s with respect to I2959-containing mixtures (τ: 1683 s. Other than the specific photoinitiator, the photoinitiator concentration was key to adjusting the hydrogel storage modulus (G’, whereby 15-fold G’ increase (232 → 3360 Pa was observed in samples prepared with 0.5% (w/v compared to 0.1% (w/v LAP. Further thiol-ene formulations with 0.5% (w/v LAP and varied content of PEG-NB were tested to prepare photo-click hydrogels with porous architecture, as well as tunable storage modulus (G

  11. Tunteiden säätely liikuntatunneilla : oppilaiden kokemuksia kiusaamistilanteista ala- ja yläkoulun siirtymävaiheessa

    OpenAIRE

    Suominen, Suvi

    2014-01-01

    Suvi Suominen (2014). Tunteiden säätely liikuntatunneilla: Oppilaiden kokemuksia kiusaa- mistilanteista ala- ja yläkoulun siirtymävaiheessa. Liikuntakasvatuksen laitos, liikuntapeda- gogiikka ja opettajankoulutuslaitos, kasvatustiede. Jyväskylän yliopisto, pro gradu –tutkielma, 95 s., 3 liitettä. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli saada tietoa 6-7. luokan oppilaiden tunteiden säätelytaidoista liikuntatuntien yhteydessä tapahtuvissa kiusaamistilanteissa. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, miten kiusaam...

  12. Correlations between photoactivable porphyrins' fluorescence, erythema and the pain induced by PDT on normal skin using ALA-derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barge, Jérôme; Glanzmann, Thomas; Zellweger, Matthieu; Salomon, Denis; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnières, Georges

    2013-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with precursors of photoactivable porphyrins is a well-established treatment modality for skin pathologies as well as hair removal. Pain is a major side effect thereof, and it affects the treatment compliance and acceptance. Five male subjects underwent a PDT procedure on normal skin, either with a diode laser (635 nm) or a lamp (405 nm), 3 or 6h after application of various precursors of photoactivable porphyrins (ALA 1M; Metvix(®) 1M; ALA-DGME 1M; ALA-DGME 3.66 M). Light doses ranged from 30 to 150 J/cm(2) and irradiances were 100 or 180 mW/cm(2). Fluorescence measurements were performed just before PDT, pain was quantified during PDT, and erythema was determined 24h afterwards. Because precursor ALA-DGME was very selective for the pilosebaceous apparatus vs. the epidermis, we solely carried out the PDTs using this precursor. In the absence of light, no pain was reported. An increase in pain was observed when increasing the irradiance. A correlation was observed between the follicular fluorescence and the maximal pain score during PDT. A correlation was observed between follicular fluorescence and skin erythema, and between pain score and skin erythema. With our well-controlled PDT parameters and homogenous subjects' conditions, we showed that pain could be reduced by reducing irradiance during PDT procedures. With the various correlations observed, we conclude that both pain and PaP fluorescence are useful tools to predict the post-PDT tissue effects (side effects and outcome). We suggest that A∂ nerve fibres would be the best candidate as first generators of PDT-induced pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Resveratrol enhances the effects of ALA-PDT on skin squamous cells A431 through p38/ MAPK signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Xia; Kang, Shuxia; Liu, Caiyun; Hao, Yuqin

    2017-12-23

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common skin cancers. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment for SCC, but it is usually effective only on tumors just under the skin. Resveratrol (Res) is a polyphenolic compound, which is capable of promoting apoptosis of a variety of cancer cells. Res administration is non-invasive and effective on SCC, thus it may be used as an adjuvant for PDT. So far, there is no published study investigating the combination use of PDT with Res to improve clinical outcome of SCC. So in this study, we will examine the effectiveness of combined treatment of PDT and Res as well as its underlying mechanism. The human HaCaT keratinocytes and human A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells were treated with ALA-PDT or/and Res, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT and flow cytometry respectively afterwards. p-ERK, p38, p53 and caspase-3 protein expression was examined by western blot. Then a p38 inhibitor was added to test the involvement of p38 pathway in A431 cells responding to ALA-PDT and Res treatments. The results showed that Res could enhance the effect of ALA-PDT on cell proliferation and apoptosis in A431 cells. We also found that the expression of p-ERK, p-p38, p53 and caspase-3 was increased. However, inhibition of p38 pathway attenuated the effect of Res. Our study demonstrated that Res could enhance the effect of ALA-PDT against skin cancer cells through p38/ MAPK pathway.

  14. Insights on the structural perturbations in human MTHFR Ala222Val mutant by protein modeling and molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhinand, P A; Shaikh, Faraz; Bhakat, Soumendranath; Radadiya, Ashish; Bhaskar, L V K S; Shah, Anamik; Ragunath, P K

    2016-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) protein catalyzes the only biochemical reaction which produces methyltetrahydrofolate, the active form of folic acid essential for several molecular functions. The Ala222Val polymorphism of human MTHFR encodes a thermolabile protein associated with increased risk of neural tube defects and cardiovascular disease. Experimental studies have shown that the mutation does not affect the kinetic properties of MTHFR, but inactivates the protein by increasing flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) loss. The lack of completely solved crystal structure of MTHFR is an impediment in understanding the structural perturbations caused by the Ala222Val mutation; computational modeling provides a suitable alternative. The three-dimensional structure of human MTHFR protein was obtained through homology modeling, by taking the MTHFR structures from Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus as templates. Subsequently, the modeled structure was docked with FAD using Glide, which revealed a very good binding affinity, authenticated by a Glide XP score of -10.3983 (kcal mol(-1)). The MTHFR was mutated by changing Alanine 222 to Valine. The wild-type MTHFR-FAD complex and the Ala222Val mutant MTHFR-FAD complex were subjected to molecular dynamics simulation over 50 ns period. The average difference in backbone root mean square deviation (RMSD) between wild and mutant variant was found to be ~.11 Å. The greater degree of fluctuations in the mutant protein translates to increased conformational stability as a result of mutation. The FAD-binding ability of the mutant MTHFR was also found to be significantly lowered as a result of decreased protein grip caused by increased conformational flexibility. The study provides insights into the Ala222Val mutation of human MTHFR that induces major conformational changes in the tertiary structure, causing a significant reduction in the FAD-binding affinity.

  15. X-linked sideroblastic anemia associated with a novel ALAS2 mutation and unfortunate skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivado, Manuel; Gattermann, Norbert; Rong, Astrid; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Prall, Wolf C; Czibere, Akos; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Haas, Rainer; Bottomley, Sylvia S

    2006-01-01

    Historically X-linked sideroblastic anemia, with rare exceptions, was thought to be manifested only in males. Since the discovery of the erythroid-specific isoform of 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) and the cloning of its gene (ALAS2) 15 years ago, mutation analysis has revealed that clinical expression of this X-linked disorder is prevalent in females as well. However, presence of the disease in both genders within affected kindreds appears to be very uncommon. We report a unique family with the disorder in three women who have had widely disparate clinical courses. The anemia is associated with a previously unrecognized ALAS2 mutation (Arg436Trp) and is unresponsive to pyridoxine. To clarify the varied clinical courses of the patients, X-chromosome inactivation patterns were examined in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. We observed inactivation patterns supporting the conclusions that one daughter has a mild phenotype at age 31 because of moderate constitutive skewed X-chromosome inactivation, another daughter with clinical onset at age 16 is severely affected due to extreme constitutive X-skewing, whereas the mother developed progressive anemia in the fifth decade as she acquired an age-related non-random X-inactivation in hematopoietic cells. In addition, we observed random X-inactivation in reticulocytes of all three women that contrasted with a markedly skewed inactivation pattern in bone marrow erythroid cells. This discordance is attributable to apoptosis of erythroid precursors derived from progenitor cells with an active X-chromosome bearing the ALAS2 mutation. The features of the disorder in this family are also instructive in regard to the differential diagnosis of sideroblastic anemias in women.

  16. MANAJEMEN KONFLIK KONSERVASI BANTENG (Bos javanicus D' ALTON 1823) DI KAWASAN TAMAN NASIONAL MERU BETIRI DAN TAMAN NASIONAL ALAS PURWO

    OpenAIRE

    Garsetiasih, R; Hadi S Alikodra

    2016-01-01

    Penelitian manajemen konflik banteng dengan masyarakat sekitar Taman Nasional Meru Betiri (TNMB) dan Taman Nasional Alas Purwo (TNAP) telah dilakukan pada bulan  Desember 2009 sampai Desember 2011. Tujuan penelitian untuk memformulasikan manajemen konservasi banteng secara kolaboratif. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh dan kepentingan para pihak dilakukan analisis stakeholder melalui wawancara dengan para pihak terkait konflik yaitu Perum Perhutani, Perkebunan Bandealit, Balai Taman Nasional Meru Bet...

  17. A comparative study of normal inspection, autofluorescence and 5-ALA-induced PPIX fluorescence for oral cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Christian S; Stepp, Herbert; Janda, Philip; Arbogast, Susanne; Grevers, Gerhard; Baumgartner, Reinhold; Leunig, Andreas

    2002-01-10

    Fluorescence diagnosis aims to improve the management of oral cancer via early detection of the malignant lesions and better delimitation of the tumor margins. This paper presents a comparative study of normal inspection, combined fluorescence diagnosis (CFD) and its 2 main components, autofluorescence and 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) fluorescence. Biopsy-controlled fluorescence imaging and spectral analysis were performed on a total of 85 patients with suspected or histologically proven oral carcinoma both before and after topical administration of 5-ALA (200 mg 5-ALA dissolved in 50 ml of H(2)0). Fluorescence excitation was accomplished using filtered light of a xenon short arc lamp (lambda = 375-440 nm). As for CFD, a "streetlight" contrast (red to green) was readily found between malignant and healthy tissue on the acquired images. In terms of tumor localization and delimitation properties, CFD was clearly favorable over either normal inspection or its 2 components in fluorescence imaging. The performance of CFD was found to be impeded by tumor keratinization but to be independent of either tumor staging, grading or localization. In spectral analysis, cancerous tissue showed significantly higher PPIX fluorescence intensities and lower autofluorescence intensities than normal mucosa. There is a great potential for CFD in early detection of oral neoplasms and exact delimitation of the tumors' superficial margins and an advantage over white light inspection and each of its 2 main components. The method is noninvasive, safe and easily reproducible. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. EDUCACIÓN Y RESILIENCIA: ALAS DE LA TRANSFORMACIÓN SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana López Torres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tratándose de un nuevo paradigma de desarrollo, la resiliencia propone que no todas las personas que crecen en condiciones de adversidad, pobreza y desigualdad social serán adultos condenados al fracaso, a la delincuencia o a la locura; por el contrario, este concepto enfatiza en el potencial humano y hace un llamado a la esperanza y a la responsabilidad colectiva en la promoción de cambio social. El presente ensayo parte de una revisión analítica de literatura reciente sobre resiliencia, en el marco del trabajo realizado durante el año 2009 por el grupo "Esperanza y Vida", en la línea de investigación denominada "Resiliencia y contextos psicosociales", perteneciente al programa de Psicología de la Universidad Antonio Nariño (UAN Bogotá, Colombia. Este ejercicio reflexivo tiene como propósito analizar el concepto de resiliencia en el contexto escolar, considerando que este es uno de los primeros contactos de la infancia con la cultura, el lugar en donde las niñas y los niños van a preguntarse cómo funciona el mundo, el sitio donde pueden encontrar respuestas honestas y sugerencias útiles sobre cómo comprenderlo y cómo transformarlo; además, señala cómo acciones pedagógicas fundamentadas en el reconocimiento del estudiante como un agente responsable y activo en el proceso de aprendizaje, favorecen actitudes de compromiso en la promoción de la transformación social positiva.

  19. Functional IL6R 358Ala allele impairs classical IL-6 receptor signaling and influences risk of diverse inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Ferreira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, which is directly regulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6 signaling, is implicated in the etiology of several chronic diseases. Although a common, non-synonymous variant in the IL-6 receptor gene (IL6R Asp358Ala; rs2228145 A>C is associated with the risk of several common diseases, with the 358Ala allele conferring protection from coronary heart disease (CHD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA, atrial fibrillation (AF, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, and increased susceptibility to asthma, the variant's effect on IL-6 signaling is not known. Here we provide evidence for the association of this non-synonymous variant with the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D in two independent populations and confirm that rs2228145 is the major determinant of the concentration of circulating soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R levels (34.6% increase in sIL-6R per copy of the minor allele 358Ala; rs2228145 [C]. To further investigate the molecular mechanism of this variant, we analyzed expression of IL-6R in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in 128 volunteers from the Cambridge BioResource. We demonstrate that, although 358Ala increases transcription of the soluble IL6R isoform (P = 8.3×10⁻²² and not the membrane-bound isoform, 358Ala reduces surface expression of IL-6R on CD4+ T cells and monocytes (up to 28% reduction per allele; P≤5.6×10⁻²². Importantly, reduced expression of membrane-bound IL-6R resulted in impaired IL-6 responsiveness, as measured by decreased phosphorylation of the transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1 following stimulation with IL-6 (P≤5.2×10⁻⁷. Our findings elucidate the regulation of IL-6 signaling by IL-6R, which is causally relevant to several complex diseases, identify mechanisms for new approaches to target the IL-6/IL-6R axis, and anticipate differences in treatment response to IL-6 therapies based on this common IL6R variant.

  20. Tallinna sadama ümbruse maa-ala renoveerimise ideekonkurss 1996 = The area around the port of Tallinn : contest for renovation ideas 1996 / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo

    1999-01-01

    Tallinna sadamapiirkonnast. Linnaehituslik ideekava Tallinna kesklinna sadama ümbruse maa-ala renoveerimiseks (ideekonkursi võistlustöö arhitektuurne osa, 1996). Autorid: A. Alver, V. Kaasik, T. Trummal. Kaasautorid: T. Laht, S. Koppel, U. Mets

  1. Lead in Missouri Streams: Monitoring Pollution from Mining with an Assay for Erythrocyte [delta]-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase (ALA-D) in Fish Blood

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The activity of the erythrocyte enzyme d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) has long been used as a biomarker of lead exposure in humans and waterfowl and, more...

  2. Mobile and Prichard, Ala., Among 22 Communities Selected Nationally to Receive EPA Assistance to Advance Sustainability Goals and Foster Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLANTA - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that Mobile and Prichard, Ala., are among 22 communities selected to receive technical assistance to pursue development strategies that support smart growth and sustainability

  3. The role of the Ala746Thr variant in the ATP13A2 gene among Chinese patients with Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anne Y.Y.; Baum, Larry; Tang, Nelson L.S.; Lau, Christine Y.K.; Ng, Ping Wing; Hui, Kwok Fai; Mizuno, Yoshi; Kwan, Justin Y.; Mok, Vincent C.T.; Kuo, Sheng-Han

    2014-01-01

    The association between idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD)and the ATP13A2 (PARK9) Ala746Thr variant, associated with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome,iscontroversial. We investigated this association in 69 patients with early onset PD (EOPD; ≤50 years of age), 192 patients with late onset PD(LOPD; >50 years of age), and 180 healthy controls in the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The presence of the Ala746Thr variant in the ATP13A2 locus was examined in all participants. We detected the heterozygous Ala746Thr variant in one healthy control (0.6%), one patient with EOPD (1.4%, p = 0.50), and one patient with LOPD (0.5%, p = 0.96). We suggest that the ATP13A2 Ala746Thr variant is not acommon risk factor for PD in the Chinese population in Hong Kong. PMID:23522931

  4. The role of the Ala746Thr variant in the ATP13A2 gene among Chinese patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anne Y Y; Baum, Larry; Tang, Nelson L S; Lau, Christine Y K; Ng, Ping Wing; Hui, Kwok Fai; Mizuno, Yoshi; Kwan, Justin Y; Mok, Vincent C T; Kuo, Sheng-Han

    2013-05-01

    The association between idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and the ATP13A2 (PARK9) Ala746Thr variant, associated with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, is controversial. We investigated this association in 69 patients with early onset PD (EOPD; ≦50 years of age), 192 patients with late onset PD (LOPD; >50 years of age), and 180 healthy controls in the Chinese population in Hong Kong. The presence of the Ala746Thr variant in the ATP13A2 locus was examined in all participants. We detected the heterozygous Ala746Thr variant in one healthy control (0.6%), one patient with EOPD (1.4%, p=0.50), and one patient with LOPD (0.5%, p=0.96). We suggest that the ATP13A2 Ala746Thr variant is not a common risk factor for PD in the Chinese population in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ALA-PDT suppressing the cell growth and reducing the lipogenesis in human SZ95 sebocytes by mTOR signaling pathway in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuo, Jiang; Wang, Qianqian; Zouboulis, Christos C; Liu, Ye; Ma, Ying; Ma, Li; Ying, Jiayi; Zhang, Chengfeng; Xiang, Leihong

    2017-06-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid mediated -photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) is known to be effective in treating acne vulgaris and other sebaceous gland-related diseases. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of ALA-PDT still remain undetermined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of ALA-PDT on the cell growth and lipogenesis of human SZ95 sebocytes. Human SZ95 sebocytes were treated with different concentration of ALA-PDT.CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation activity. Fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry were used to observe the secretion of lipids in SZ95 cells after Nile red staining. Western blotting was used to detect and analyze the protein expression level of P-p70 S6K/p70 S6K, P-4E-BP1/4E-BP1, SREBP-1, PPARγ, P-mTOR/mTOR, and P-Raptor/Raptor. Mean while, mTOR pathway activator IGF-1 and mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin were added to observe the interferences on the ALA-PDT treatment of SZ95 cells. ALA-PDT suppressed the cell growth and reduced the secretion of lipids in a dose-dependent manner in SZ95 cells. ALA-PDT reduced the protein levels of P-p70 S6K (T389), SREBP-1, PPARγ, P-mTOR and P-Raptor. IGF-1 had counter effects on ALA-PDT, and rapamycin enhanced the effects of ALA-PDT in SZ95 cells in suppressing the cell growth and reducing the secretion of lipids. ALA-PDT suppressed the cell growth in SZ95 cells by mTOR-p70 S6K(T389) signaling and reduced the lipogenesis in SZ95 cells by mTOR-SREBP-1/PPARγ signaling. Sebaceous glands atrophy and reduction of sebum secretion after ALA-PDT may be caused by the suppression of lipogenesis and cell growth in sebocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of a putative corticosteroid, 17, 21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene, 3, 20-one, in sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W.; Didier, Wes; Satbir, Rai; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Libants, Scot V.; Sang-Seon, Yun; Close, David

    2013-01-01

    In higher vertebrates, in response to stress, the hypothalamus produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates cells in the anterior pituitary to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn stimulates production of either cortisol (F) or corticosterone (B) by the adrenal tissues. In lampreys, however, neither of these steroids is present. Instead, it has been proposed that the stress steroid is actually 17,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (11-deoxycortisol; S). However, there have been no studies yet to determine its mechanism of regulation or site of production. Here we demonstrate that (1) intraperitoneal injections of lamprey-CRH increase plasma S in a dose dependent manner, (2) intraperitoneal injections of four lamprey-specific ACTH peptides at 100 lg/kg, did not induce changes in plasma S concentrations in either males or females; (3) two lamprey-specific gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH I and III) and arginine-vasotocin (AVT), all at single doses, stimulated S production as well as, or to an even greater extent than CRH; (4) sea lamprey mesonephric kidneys, in vitro, converted tritiated 17a-hydroxyprogesterone (17a-P) into a steroid that had the same chromatographic properties (on HPLC and TLC) as S; (5) kidney tissues released significantly more immunoassayable S into the incubation medium than gill, liver or gonad tissues. One interpretation of these results is that the corticosteroid production of the sea lamprey, one of the oldest extant vertebrates, is regulated through multiple pathways rather than the classical HPI-axis. However, the responsiveness of this steroid to the GnRH peptides means that a reproductive rather than a stress role for this steroid cannot yet be ruled out.

  7. Pola Aktivitas Harian dan Interaksi Banteng dan Rusa dalam Pemanfaatan Kawasan Padang Rumput Sadengan di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo, Banyuwangi, Jawa Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Subeno -

    2013-01-01

    Daily Activities Pattern and InteractionBetween Banteng and Deerin Sadengan Grazing a Area in Alas Purwo National Park, Banyuwangi, East Java This research was aimed to compare the pattern of daily activities between banteng and deer, and their interaction on using feeding ground in Alas Purwo National Park, Banyuwangi, East Java. Methods used in this research were scan sampling, focused on groups of banteng and deer and focal animal sampling for four chosen individuals from each group. T...

  8. Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARγ2 gene interacts with a mediterranean diet to prevent telomere shortening in the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Calzón, Sonia; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Razquin, Cristina; Corella, Dolores; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez, J Alfredo; Zalba, Guillermo; Marti, Amelia

    2015-02-01

    The gene variant Pro/Ala (rs1801282) in the PPARγ2 has been associated with lower cardiovascular risk and greater benefit from lifestyle interventions. This polymorphism also seems to be associated with longer lifespan, but no information on telomere length (TL) is available. Our aim was to study the association between the Ala allele and changes in TL in high cardiovascular risk subjects and the potential interaction with a Mediterranean dietary pattern. A total of 521 subjects (55-80 years) participating in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea randomized trial were genotyped. Changes in TL, measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), were assessed over 5 years of a nutritional intervention, which promoted adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Interestingly, Ala carriers showed lower telomere shortening after 5 years compared with the Pro/Pro genotype (P=0.031). This association was modulated by MeDiet because those Ala carriers who reported better conformity to the MeDiet exhibited increased TL (P<0.001). Moreover, a reduction in carbohydrate intake (≤9.5 g/d) resulted in increased TL among Ala carriers. Notably, an apparent gene-diet interaction was found through the observed changes in the MUFA+PUFA/carbohydrates ratio: as this ratio increased, TL lengthening was detected to a greater extent in the Ala carriers compared with the Pro/Pro subjects (P for interaction <0.001). The Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with TL homeostasis after 5 years follow-up in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. In addition, a higher adherence to the MeDiet pattern strengthens the prevention of telomere shortening among Ala carriers. www.controlled-trials.com; Unique Identifier: ISRCTN35739639. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Identification of a novel erythroid-specific enhancer for the ALAS2 gene and its loss-of-function mutation which is associated with congenital sideroblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kiriko; Furuyama, Kazumichi; Fujiwara, Tohru; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Harigae, Hideo; Shibahara, Shigeki

    2014-02-01

    Erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) is the rate-limiting enzyme for heme biosynthesis in erythroid cells, and a missense mutation of the ALAS2 gene is associated with congenital sideroblastic anemia. However, the gene responsible for this form of anemia remains unclear in about 40% of patients. Here, we identify a novel erythroid-specific enhancer of 130 base pairs in the first intron of the ALAS2 gene. The newly identified enhancer contains a cis-acting element that is bound by the erythroid-specific transcription factor GATA1, as confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in vivo and by electrophoretic mobility shift assay in vitro. A promoter activity assay in K562 human erythroleukemia cells revealed that the presence of this 130-base pair region increased the promoter activity of the ALAS2 gene by 10-15-fold. Importantly, two mutations, each of which disrupts the GATA-binding site in the enhancer, were identified in unrelated male patients with congenital sideroblastic anemia, and the lower expression level of ALAS2 mRNA in bone marrow erythroblasts was confirmed in one of these patients. Moreover, GATA1 failed to bind to each mutant sequence at the GATA-binding site, and each mutation abolished the enhancer function on ALAS2 promoter activity in K562 cells. Thus, a mutation at the GATA-binding site in this enhancer may cause congenital sideroblastic anemia. These results suggest that the newly identified intronic enhancer is essential for the expression of the ALAS2 gene in erythroid cells. We propose that the 130-base pair enhancer region located in the first intron of the ALAS2 gene should be examined in patients with congenital sideroblastic anemia in whom the gene responsible is unknown.

  10. Sideroblastic anemia: molecular analysis of ALAS2 gene in a series of 29 probands and functional studies of ten missense mutations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ducamp, Sarah; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Touati, Mohamed; Garçon, Loïc; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Guichard, Jean François; Vermylen, Christiane; Dochir, Joaquim; Poirel, Hélène A; Fouyssac, Fanny; Mansuy, Ludovic; Leroux, Geneviève; Tertian, Gérard; Girot, Robert; Heimpel, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Abstract X-linked Sideroblastic Anemia (XLSA) is the most common genetic form of sideroblastic anemia, a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by iron deposits in the mitochondria of erythroid precursors. XLSA is due to mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene. Thirteen different ALAS2 mutations were identified in 16 out of 29 probands with sideroblastic anemia. One third of the patients were females with a highly skewed X-chromosome inac...

  11. SOD2 gene Val16Ala polymorphism is associated with macroalbuminuria in Mexican Type 2 Diabetes patients: a comparative study and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ascencio-Montiel, Iv?n de Jes?s; Parra, Esteban J.; Valladares-Salgado, Ad?n; G?mez-Zamudio, Jaime H; Kumate-Rodriguez, Jes?s; Escobedo-de-la-Pe?a, Jorge; Cruz, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies in type 2 diabetes patients have shown significant associations between the SOD2 gene Val16Ala polymorphism and albuminuria, but this association has not been explored in the Mexican population. Methods We evaluated the association between the SOD2 gene Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880) and macroalbuminuria in a sample of 994 unrelated Mexican type 2 diabetes patients. The study included 119 subjects with urinary albumin >300 mg/dL and 875 subjects with urinary albumin...

  12. Optimization and therapeutic effects of PDT mediated by ALA and MAL in the treatment of cutaneous malignant lesions: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Cassio Aparecido; Goulart, Viviane Pereira; Bechara, Etelvino Jose Henriques; Correa, Luciana; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2016-12-01

    5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and its methylated ester (MAL) are the most common topical agents used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) as precursors of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). The induction of newly PpIX depends on incubation time of each photosensitizer in the tissue and the presence of high intralesional porphyrin levels is an important parameter for the PDT effectiveness. This study used laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy to evaluate the optimum time to light exposure of PDT mediated by ALA (20% w/w) and MAL (10% w/w) to treat malignant lesions precursors of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma induced in mice. The therapeutic effects obtained by optimized ALA- and MAL-PDT were assessed 10 and 20 days after treatments. Higher PpIX levels were evidenced in the lesions photosensitized by ALA than MAL and according to LIF measurements the PDT irradiation was performed, respectively, at 300 and 330 minutes after ALA and MAL incubation. Histopathological analysis evidenced necrosis and epithelial atrophy after 10 days of PDT using both prodrugs, as well as reepitelization and collagen deposition at 20 days. Thus, despite the distinct concentration of ALA and MAL used in the formulation of each photosensitizing cream, PDT mediated by both photosensitizing agents obtained similar therapeutic outcomes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P₄-ATPase ALA3 reduces adaptability to temperature stresses and impairs vegetative, pollen, and ovule development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C McDowell

    Full Text Available Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to help create asymmetry in lipid bilayers by flipping specific lipids between the leaflets of a membrane. This asymmetry is believed to be central to the formation of vesicles in the secretory and endocytic pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a P4-ATPase associated with the trans-Golgi network (ALA3 was previously reported to be important for vegetative growth and reproductive success. Here we show that multiple phenotypes for ala3 knockouts are sensitive to growth conditions. For example, ala3 rosette size was observed to be dependent upon both temperature and soil, and varied between 40% and 80% that of wild-type under different conditions. We also demonstrate that ala3 mutants have reduced fecundity resulting from a combination of decreased ovule production and pollen tube growth defects. In-vitro pollen tube growth assays showed that ala3 pollen germinated ∼2 h slower than wild-type and had approximately 2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length. In genetic crosses under conditions of hot days and cold nights, pollen fitness was reduced by at least 90-fold; from ∼18% transmission efficiency (unstressed to less than 0.2% (stressed. Together, these results support a model in which ALA3 functions to modify endomembranes in multiple cell types, enabling structural changes, or signaling functions that are critical in plants for normal development and adaptation to varied growth environments.

  14. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA modulates expression of apoptosis associated proteins in hippocampus of rats exposed during postnatal period to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the role of exogenous alpha lipoic acid (ALA in amelioration of inorganic arsenic (iAs induced effects on apoptosis and apoptosis associated proteins in developing rat hippocampus. NaAsO2 (1.5/2.0 mg/kg bw alone or along with ALA (70 mg/kg bw was administered to rat pups (experimental groups by intraperitoneal (i.p. route from postnatal day (PND 4–15. Controls received no treatment/distilled water/ALA. On PND 16, the animals were perfusion fixed and the brains were processed for paraffin embedding (CV and TUNEL staining and cryopreservation (immunohistochemistry. The fresh brain tissue was used for Western blotting. Significant increase was observed in TUNEL positive cells and Bax (pro-apoptotic protein expression in hippocampal sub-regions of iAs alone treated groups, whereas Bcl-2 expression was intensified in animals receiving ALA with iAs. Densitometric analysis (Western blots revealed optimal restoration of Bax and Bcl-2 ratio in animals receiving ALA with iAs, thereby suggesting the protective role of ALA in iAs induced developmental neurotoxicity.

  15. A stepwise retro-imino-ene as a key step in the mechanism of allene formation via the Crabbé acetylene homologation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Marta; Rodríguez, Roi Álvarez; Cid, Maria Magdalena; López, Carlos Silva

    2012-05-15

    The mechanism of the acetylene homologation procedure accidentally discovered and further developed by Crabbé and coworkers is unknown. Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiments, however, suggest that an intramolecular hydrogen shift is the key step of the transformation. In this work, we present a computational study of this mechanism. We found that the reaction proceeds via an unexpected stepwise retro-imino-ene rearrangement. This mechanism justifies the role of Cu(I) as a reaction catalyst and is also compatible with the KIE experiments reported. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Facile synthesis of linear-dendritic cholesteryl-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-b-(L-lysine)(G2) by thiol-ene and azide-alkyne "click" reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javakhishvili, Irakli; Binder, W.H.; Tanner, S.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of a linear-dendritic block copolymer consisting of terminal cholesteryl moiety, poly(epsilon-caprolactone), and a second generation L-lysine dendron has been accomplished by the combination of copper(I) catalyzed azide-alkyne and UV-triggered thiol-ene "click" reactions. Ring......-opening polymerization of E-caprolactone initiated by 5-hexyn-1-ol and Mitsunobu coupling with 4-pentenoic acid provide hetero-telechelic poly(epsilon-caprolactone) bearing terminal alkyne and alkene groups. It is then employed in the sequential "click" reactions with the azide-functionalized dendritic wedge...

  17. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (VMSD1211, LB3980_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (VMSD1211, LB3980_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  18. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C12H16 Cyclohexylbenzene (HMSD1111, LB4068_H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C12H16 Cyclohexylbenzene (HMSD1111, LB4068_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  19. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 3-Methylthiophene C5H6S + C6H12 Hex-1-ene (EVLM1131, LB5703_E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 3-Methylthiophene C5H6S + C6H12 Hex-1-ene (EVLM1131, LB5703_E)' providing data from direct measurement of pressure and mole fraction in vapor phase at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant temperature.

  20. Heat of Mixing and Solution of 2-Methylpyridine C6H7N + C6H12 Hex-1-ene (HMSD1111, LB3864_H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of 2-Methylpyridine C6H7N + C6H12 Hex-1-ene (HMSD1111, LB3864_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  1. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C8H10 1,2-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1212, LB4577_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C8H10 1,2-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1212, LB4577_V)' providing data by calculation of molar excess volume from low-pressure density measurements at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  2. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C8H10 1,2-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1111, LB5004_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C8H10 1,2-Dimethylbenzene (VMSD1111, LB5004_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure measurement of mass density at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  3. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C12H16 Cyclohexylbenzene (VMSD1211, LB3987_V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C12H16 Cyclohexylbenzene (VMSD1211, LB3987_V)' providing data from direct low-pressure dilatometric measurement of molar excess volume at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  4. Heat of Mixing and Solution of Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (HMSD1111, LB4061_H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Hex-1-ene C6H12 + C10H12 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydronaphthalene (HMSD1111, LB4061_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

  5. Syntheses of Four Enantiomers of 2,3-Diendo- and 3-Endo-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-exo-carboxylic Acid and Their Saturated Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Palkó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl 2,3-diendo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylate ((±-1 was resolved with O,O'-dibenzoyltartaric acid via diastereomeric salt formation. The efficient synthesis of the enantiomers of 2,3-diendo-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-carboxylic acid ((+-7 and (–-7, 3-endo-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-ene-2-exo-carboxylic acid ((+-5 and (–-5, cis- and trans-3-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid ((+-6, (–-6, (+-8 and (–-8 was achieved via isomerization, hydrogenation and hydrolysis of the corresponding esters (–-1 and (+-1. The stereochemistry and relative configurations of the synthesized compounds were determined by NMR spectroscopy (based on the 3J(H,H coupling constants and X-ray crystallography.

  6. Ala67Thr polymorphism in the Agouti-related peptide gene is associated with inherited leanness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Daniel L; Boucher, Nathalie; Lanouette, Christian-Marc; Pérusse, Louis; Brookhart, Gregor; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Chagnon, Yvon C; Cone, Roger D

    2004-04-30

    A role for melanocortin signaling in the regulation of body weight in humans has been clearly established. Haploinsufficiency of the type 4 melanocortin receptor is associated with early-onset obesity, implying that this receptor provides an important tonic inhibition of weight gain. Agouti-related peptide (AGRP) is an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin signaling. Therefore, loss of AGRP function could lead to the expression of a lean phenotype. We investigated the potential role of AGRP in human weight regulation by examining the association between the Ala67Thr AGRP polymorphism and indices of body composition. Significant associations were found between homozygosity for this mutation (n = 8) and body composition phenotype in 874 subjects of the Quebec family study (QFS). By PCR-RFLP analysis, we have identified eight individuals who are homozygous for the 67Thr variant allele within the QFS population, where none were observed in SAFHS. The eight QFS homozygote individuals have lower weight (-16%; P = 0.02), body mass index (-17%; P = 0.01), fat free mass (-9%; P = 0.002), fat mass (FM) (-20%; P = 0.04), and leptin (-20%; P = 0.02) when compared to those carrying at least one 67Ala allele. Individuals homozygous for the 67Thr allele had a BMI that was either at or slightly below an ideal range for their age. Thus, the Ala67Thr AGRP polymorphism is associated with lower body weight in humans, with the largest effect being observed on body FM. We did not observe any difference in the stability or cellular distribution of the mutant protein in a heterologous expression system, thus the mechanism of this effect requires further investigation. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Comparaciones aerodinámicas de alas de Colibríes: Colibri coruscans, Metallura tyrianthina Y Acestrura mulsanti

    OpenAIRE

    Stiles Frank Gary; Quicazán Rubio Elsa Magnolia

    2006-01-01

    Se diseñó y construyó un aparato estable para medir las fuerzas de sustentación y de arrastre generadas por
    alas de colibríes girando. Las especies de colibríes estudiadas fueron Colibri coruscans, Metallura tyrianthina y Acestrura mulsanti. La morfología alar, la frecuencia de giro de cada especie, la magnitud de las fuerzas producidas al girar y el espacio ocupado por el flujo condicionaron la forma del aparato. Se analizaron mecanismos que disminuían la vibración y la fricción e...

  8. Porušena crkva Rođenja Blažene Djevice Marije u Silbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Motušić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Već otprije je bio poznat podatak da se godine 1828. u Silbi porušila stara crkva Rođenja B.D. Marije kako bi se dobivenim građevinskim materijalom dovršila prekinuta gradnja nove župne crkve koja naslijeđuje i njen titular. Prema arhivskim podacima rušenje je dozvolio zadarski nadbiskup Josip Nowak i odredio da se do izgradnje nove crkve kao župna koristi nekadašnja franjevačka Gospe od Karmela. Od čitavog je sklopa do danas sačuvan tek zvonik koji je ostao služiti novoj župnoj crkvi. Prema shematiziranim tlocrtu i dimenzijama porušene crkve, dokumentiranima u danas zagubljenom spisu iz župnog arhiva, razvidno je da se radilo o jednobrodnoj longitudinalnoj crkvi s pravokutnom, od lađe užom sakristijom na začelju, dvjema plitkim kapelama dograđenima uz pobočne zidove, te otvorenim predvorjem (ložom duž pročelja koje se svojim južnim uglom oslanjalo na ugao zvonika. Crkvena je dvorana osim glavnog oltara prislonjenog uz začelje lađe imala tri para pobočnih oltara. Analiza apostolskih i kanonskih vizitacija crkve, prvi puta spomenute 1579. godine, pokazuje da je još u drugoj četvrtini 17. stoljeća ona bila skromna građevina u kojoj se, radi udaljenosti tadašnje župne crkve sv. Marka od naselja, čuva ulje za bolesničko pomazanje. Ipak, crkva je tada imala pet pobočnih oltara koje podižu ugledniji pojedinci i laičke bratovštine od kojih se isticala ona Gospe od Ružarija po kojoj se i crkva tijekom 18. stoljeća pučki nazivala. Na temelju analize zapisa vizitacije nadbiskupa Evanđeliste Parzaghija iz 1670. godine, zaključuje se da je crkva netom prije njegova pohoda pregrađena, dok se prilikom opisa pojedinih oltara navodi da su u ovoj obnovi mijenjali poziciju. Godine 1678. prvi se put spominje zvonik – kampanel. Komparativnom analizom može se ustvrditi da je crkva Male Gospe u Silbi svojom tipologijom pripadala brojnoj skupini jednostavnih, prostranih, ali prema građevnim oblicima ruralnih crkava

  9. Metabolism of selective 20-epi-vitamin D3 analogs in rat osteosarcoma UMR-106 cells: Isolation and identification of four novel C-1 fatty acid esters of 1α,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-20-epi-vitamin D3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flarakos, Caroline Ceailles; Weiskopf, Andrew; Robinson, Matthew; Wang, Guoshun; Vouros, Paul; Sasso, Gino J; Uskokovic, Milan R; Reddy, G Satyanarayana

    2017-03-01

    Analogs of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (S1) with 20-epi modification (20-epi analogs) possess unique biological properties. We previously reported that 1α,25-dihydroxy-20-epi-vitamin D3 (S2), the basic 20-epi analog is metabolized into less polar metabolites (LPMs) in rat osteosarcoma cells (UMR-106) but not in a perfused rat kidney. Furthermore, we also noted that only selective 20-epi analogs are metabolized into LPMs. For example, 1α,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-20-epi-vitamin D3 (S4), but not 1α,25-dihydroxy-16-ene-23-yne-20-epi-vitamin D3 (S5) is metabolized into LPMs. In spite of these novel findings, the unequivocal identification of LPMs has not been achieved to date. We report here on a thorough investigation of the metabolism of S4 in UMR-106 cells and isolated two major LPMs produced directly from the substrate S4 itself and two minor LPMs produced from 3-epi-S4, a metabolite of S4 produced through C-3 epimerization pathway. Using GC/MS, ESI-MS and (1)H NMR analysis, we identified all the four LPMs of S4 as 25-hydroxy-16-ene-20-epi-vitamin D3-1-stearate and 25-hydroxy-16-ene-20-epi-vitamin D3-1-oleate and their respective C-3 epimers. We report here for the first time the elucidation of a novel pathway of metabolism in UMR-106 cells in which both 1α,25(OH)2-16-ene-20-epi-D3 and 1α,25(OH)2-16-ene-20-epi-3-epi-D3 undergo C-1 esterification into stearic and oleic acid esters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of MHTFR Ala222Val (rs1801133 polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility: An update meta-analysis based on 51 research studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between MHTFR Ala222Val polymorphism and breast cancer (BC risk are inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Methods A comprehensive search was conducted through researching MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases before August 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to estimate the strength of the association. Results A total of 51 studies including 20,907 cases and 23,905 controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Overall, significant associations were found between MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism and BC risk when all studies pooled into the meta-analysis (Ala/Ala vs Val/Val: OR=0.870, 95%CI=0.789–0.958,P=0.005; Ala/Val vs Val/Val: OR=0.895, 95%CI=0.821–0.976, P=0.012; dominant model: OR=0.882, 95%CI=0.808–0.963, P=0.005; and recessive model: OR = 0.944, 95%CI=0.898–0.993, P=0.026; Ala allele vs Val allele: OR = 0.935, 95%CI=0.887–0.986, P=0.013. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the same results were found in Asian populations, while no significant associations were found for all comparison models in other Ethnicity populations. Conclusion In conclusion, our meta-analysis provides the evidence that MTHFR Ala222Val gene polymorphisms contributed to the breast cancer development. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1966146911851976

  11. ATX-S10(Na)-PDT shows more potent effect on collagen metabolism of human normal and scleroderma dermal fibroblasts than ALA-PDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Komatsu, Shigetsuna; Ibe, Masaki; Ishida-Yamamoto, Akemi; Nakajima, Susumu; Sakata, Isao; Iizuka, Hajime

    2006-11-01

    Recent study revealed that photodynamic therapy (PDT) with a novel photosensitizer (ATX-S10(Na)) shows more potent effects for various skin diseases than ALA-PDT. The effect of ATX-S10(Na)-PDT on dermal fibroblasts is still unknown. Using dermal fibroblasts derived from normal and scleroderma patients, and mouse skin in vivo, we compared the effects of ATX-S10(Na)-PDT and ALA-PDT. Fibroblasts from normal, scleroderma patients or mice skin were treated with ATX-S10(Na)-PDT or ALA-PDT. After the PDT treatments, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and collagen synthesis was assayed using ELISA and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 was slightly decreased and collagen I mRNA was significantly increased in scleroderma fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts. Both ATX-S10(Na)-PDT and ALA-PDT increased the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in protein and mRNA levels in both normal and scleroderma fibroblasts with more potent effect by ATX-S10(N)-PDT. Collagen I synthesis was markedly decreased by ATX-S10(Na)-PDT and by ALA-PDT again with more potent effect by ATX-S10(Na)-PDT in both normal and scleroderma fibroblasts. In mice skin the effect of PDT for MMPs and collagen I was also detected and the effect was more potent in ATX-S10(Na)-PDT. In contrast, MMP-2, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, and collagen III expression was not affected by the ATX-S10(Na)-PDT or ALA-PDT treatment. ATX-S10(Na)-PDT is more potent modulator for dermal matrix components than ALA-PDT and might be useful for scleroderma patients.

  12. Systemic ALA-PDT effectively blocks the development of psoriasis-like lesions and alleviates leucocyte infiltration in the K14-VEGF transgenic mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T; Zhang, L-W; Fu, L-X; Wu, Y-B; Liu, X-Y; Guo, Z-P

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most common immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disorders. In spite of significant advances in the treatment of psoriasis, more effective and safer therapeutic strategies are still needed. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a method of light treatment that is being used increasingly in the treatment of dermatological diseases. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of systemic 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT on psoriasis and to explore its potential mechanism of action. We investigated the therapeutic effects of systemic ALA-PDT in K14-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transgenic homozygous mice, an animal model of psoriasis, which has many clinical and histopathological characteristics similar to those of human psoriasis. Using haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR respectively, we assessed the changes in psoriasis-like lesions, cellular infiltration of T cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and neutrophils, and the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the lesions. Systemic ALA-PDT blocked the development of psoriasis-like lesions and moderately attenuated the histopathological changes in K14-VEGF transgenic mice. Furthermore, systemic ALA-PDT produced an obvious reduction in infiltration of T cells, CD11c+ DCs and neutrophils in psoriasis-like lesions. In addition, systemic ALA-PDT also significantly decreased the mRNA expression of IL-17 and IFN-γ. We suggest that the mechanism of systemic ALA-PDT in this psoriasis-like model might be associated with selective damage to abnormal T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, and reduction of the inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IFN-γ. These observations partly explain the potential mechanism of systemic ALA-PDT in psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  13. Association between PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala genotype and insulin resistance is modified by circulating lipids in Mexican children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryjecki, Carolina; Peralta-Romero, Jesus; Alyass, Akram; Karam-Araujo, Roberto; Suarez, Fernando; Gomez-Zamudio, Jaime; Burguete-Garcia, Ana; Cruz, Miguel; Meyre, David

    2016-01-01

    The Pro12Ala (rs1801282) polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ2 (PPAR-γ2) has been convincingly associated with insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Europeans, in interaction with a high-fat diet. Mexico is disproportionally affected by obesity and T2D however, whether the Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with early metabolic complications in this population is unknown. We assessed the association of PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala with metabolic traits in 1457 Mexican children using linear regression models. Interactions between PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala and circulating lipids on metabolic traits were determined by adding an interaction term to regression models. We observed a high prevalence of overweight/obesity (49.2%), dyslipidemia (34.9%) and IR (11.1%). We detected nominally significant/significant interactions between lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol), the PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala genotype and waist-to-hip ratio, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and IR (9.30 × 10−4  ≤ Pinteraction ≤ 0.04). Post-hoc subgroup analyses evidenced that the association between the PPAR-γ2 Pro12Ala genotype and fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and IR was restricted to children with total cholesterol or LDL-cholesterol values higher than the median (0.02 ≤ P ≤ 0.03). Our data support an association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism with IR in Mexican children and suggest that this relationship is modified by dyslipidemia. PMID:27075119

  14. ALA-PpIX variability quantitatively imaged in A431 epidermoid tumors using in vivo ultrasound fluorescence tomography and ex vivo assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Flynn, Brendan P.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Anand, Sanjay; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2014-03-01

    Treatment monitoring of Aminolevunilic-acid (ALA) - Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) calls for superficial and subsurface imaging techniques. While superficial imagers exist for this purpose, their ability to assess PpIX levels in thick lesions is poor; additionally few treatment centers have the capability to measure ALA-induced PpIX production. An area of active research is to improve treatments to deeper and nodular BCCs, because treatment is least effective in these. The goal of this work was to understand the logistics and technical capabilities to quantify PpIX at depths over 1mm, using a novel hybrid ultrasound-guided, fiber-based fluorescence molecular spectroscopictomography system. This system utilizes a 633nm excitation laser and detection using filtered spectrometers. Source and detection fibers are collinear so that their imaging plane matches that of ultrasound transducer. Validation with phantoms and tumor-simulating fluorescent inclusions in mice showed sensitivity to fluorophore concentrations as low as 0.025μg/ml at 4mm depth from surface, as presented in previous years. Image-guided quantification of ALA-induced PpIX production was completed in subcutaneous xenograft epidermoid cancer tumor model A431 in nude mice. A total of 32 animals were imaged in-vivo, using several time points, including pre-ALA, 4-hours post-ALA, and 24-hours post-ALA administration. On average, PpIX production in tumors increased by over 10-fold, 4-hours post-ALA. Statistical analysis of PpIX fluorescence showed significant difference among all groups; p<0.05. Results were validated by exvivo imaging of resected tumors. Details of imaging, analysis and results will be presented to illustrate variability and the potential for imaging these values at depth.

  15. Ära söö kiles saia ehk kas poliitilist kunsti on võimalik mõista? = Do not eat white bread in plastic, or is it possible to understand political art? / Ene-Liis Semper, Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Semper, Ene-Liis, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Poliitillisest teatrist. NO99 lavastusest "Nafta" (lavastajad, autorid: Tiit Ojasoo, Ene-Liis Semper, kunstnik Ene-Liis Semper). Ettekanne Kaasaegse Kunsti Eesti Keskuse 4. ettekannete päeval "Kunstnike moraalsed valikud kultuurikonfliktides" Tallinna Kunstihoones 27.04.2006. Bibliograafia lk. 112

  16. Simultaneous substitution of Gly96 to Ala and Ala183 to Thr in 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene of E. coli (k12) and transformation of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) in order to make tolerance to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrizi, Danial; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Afshari, Afsoon; Moieni, Ahmad; Mousavi, Amir

    2007-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective broad-spectrum herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). This is a key enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway of microorganisms and plants. The manipulation of bacterial EPSPS gene in order to reduce its affinity for glyphosate, followed by its transfer to plants is one of the most effective approaches for the production of glyphosate-tolerant plants. In this study, we chose to focus on amino acid residues glycine96 and alanine183 of the E. coli (k12) EPSPS enzyme. These two amino acids are important residues for glyphosate binding. We used site directed mutagenesis (SDM) to induce point mutations in the E. coli EPSPS gene, in order to convert glycine96 to alanine (Gly96Ala) and alanine183 to threonine (Ala183Thr). After confirming the mutation by sequencing, the altered EPSPS gene was transferred to rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformed explants were screened in shoot induction medium containing 25 mg L-1 kanamycin. Glyphosate tolerance was assayed in putative transgenic plants. Statistical analysis of data showed that there was a significant difference between the transgenic and control plants. It was observed that transgenic plants were resistant to glyphosate at a concentration of 10 mM whereas the non-transformed control plants were unable to survive 1 mM glyphosate. The presence and copy numbers of the transgene were confirmed with PCR and Southern blotting analysis, respectively.

  17. Assessment of the role of in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-valproic acid in the toxicity of valproic acid and (E)-2-ene-valproic acid in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surendradoss, Jayakumar; Chang, Thomas K.H.; Abbott, Frank S., E-mail: frank.abbott@ubc.ca

    2012-11-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) undergoes cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation to form 4-ene-VPA, which subsequently yields (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by β-oxidation. Another biotransformation pathway involves β-oxidation of VPA to form (E)-2-ene-VPA, which also generates (E)-2,4-diene-VPA by cytochrome P450-mediated desaturation. Although the synthetic form of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is more hepatotoxic than VPA as shown in various experimental models, there is no conclusive evidence to implicate the in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA in VPA hepatotoxicity. The present study investigated the effects of modulating the in situ formation of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA on markers of oxidative stress (formation of 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein; DCF), steatosis (accumulation of BODIPY 558/568 C{sub 12}), necrosis (release of lactate dehydrogenase; LDH), and on cellular total glutathione (GSH) levels in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes treated with VPA or (E)-2-ene-VPA. Treatment with either of these chemicals alone increased each of the toxicity endpoints. In VPA-treated hepatocytes, (E)-2,4-diene-VPA was detected only at trace levels, even after phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment and there was no effect on the toxicity of VPA. Furthermore, pretreatment with a cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole (1-ABT), did not influence the extent of VPA toxicity in both PB-pretreated and vehicle-pretreated hepatocytes. However, in (E)-2-ene-VPA-treated hepatocytes, PB pretreatment greatly enhanced the levels of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and this was accompanied by a further enhancement of the effects of (E)-2-ene-VPA on DCF formation, BODIPY accumulation, LDH release, and GSH depletion. Pretreatment with 1-ABT reduced the concentrations of (E)-2,4-diene-VPA and the extent of (E)-2-ene-VPA toxicity; however, this occurred in PB-pretreated hepatocytes, but not in control hepatocytes. In conclusion, in situ generated (E)-2,4-diene-VPA is not responsible for the hepatocyte toxicity of VPA, whereas it

  18. Novel Anti-Biofouling Soft Contact Lens: l-Cysteine Conjugated Amphiphilic Conetworks via RAFT and Thiol-Ene Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengfeng; Liu, Ziyuan; Wang, Haiye; Feng, Xiaofeng; He, Chunju

    2017-07-01

    A unique l-cysteine conjugated antifouling amphiphilic conetwork (APCN) is synthesized through end-crosslinking of well-defined triblock copolymers poly(allyl methacrylate)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(allyl methacrylate) via a combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and thiol-ene "click" chemistry. The synthesized poly(ethylene glycol) macro-RAFT agent initiates the polymerization of allyl methacrylate in a controlled manner. The vinyl pendant groups of the precursor partially conjugate with l-cysteine and the rest fully crosslink with mercaptopropyl-containing siloxane via thiol-ene click chemistry under UV irradiation into APCNs, which show distinguished properties, that is, excellent biocompatibility, more than 39.6% water content, 101 barrers oxygen permeability, optimized mechanical properties, and more than 93% visible light transmittance. What's more, the resultant APCNs exhibit eminent resistance to protein adsorption, where the bovine serum albumin and lysozyme adsorption are decreased to 12 and 21 µg cm(-2) , respectively. The outstanding properties of APCNs depend on the RAFT controlled method, which precisely designs the hydrophilic/hydrophobic segments and eventually greatly improves the crosslinking efficiency and homogeneity. Meantime, the l-cysteine monolayer can effectively reduce the surface hydrophobicity and prevent protein adsorption, which exhibits the viability for antifouling surface over and under ophthalmic devices, suggesting a promising soft contact lens. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Facile one-pot preparation of a novel imidazolium-based monolith by thiol-ene click chemistry for capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Yang, Haiguan; Chen, Tao; Qin, Yuemei; Ye, Fanggui

    2017-11-01

    In this work, a novel imidazolium-based monolith was fabricated through a simple route. With 1-vinyl-3-octadecylimidazolium bromide and ethylene dimethacrylate as monomers, pentaerythritol tetra-(3-mercaptopropionate) as crosslinker, AIBN as thermal initiator, the monolith was facilely fabricated by one-pot thiol-ene click chemistry. The influences of both the content of monomer/crosslinker and porogenic systems on the morphology, and permeability of the monolith were studied. The optimal reaction conditions were used to prepare a homogeneous and permeable monolith. The optimal preparation of monolithic column was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. High efficiency and quick separation of alkylbenzenes, styrene and ethylbenzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenols, anilines, and aromatic acids were achieved. The minimum plate height of this monolith were determined as 11.42 μm for thiourea and 13.26 μm for benzene. All results indicated that thiol-ene click chemistry provides a quick way for the fabrication of imidazolium-based monolith. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Pyriculins A and B, two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols and other phytotoxic metabolites produced by Pyricularia grisea isolated from buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Górecki, Marcin; Mandoli, Alessandro; Di Bari, Lorenzo; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Cristofaro, Massimo; Clement, Suzette; Evidente, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    Pyricularia grisea has been identified as a foliar pathogen on buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in North America and was studied as a potential source of phytotoxins for buffelgrass control. Two monosubstituted hex-4-ene-2,3-diols, named pyriculins A and B, were isolated from its culture filtrate organic extract together with (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol, trans-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxy-1(2H)-napthalenone, and (4S)-(+)-isosclerone. Pyriculins A and B were characterized by spectroscopic (essentially nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR], High-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry [HRESIMS]) and chemical methods such as (4E)-1-(4-hydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-1-yl)hex-4-ene-2,3-diols. The relative and absolute configuration of these compounds was determined by a combination of spectroscopic (NMR, electronic circular dichroism [ECD]) and computational tools. When bioassayed in a buffelgrass coleoptile and radicle elongation test, (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol proved to be the most toxic compound. Seed germination was much reduced and slowed with respect to the control and radicles failed to elongate. All five compounds delayed germination, but only (10S,11S)-(-)-epipyriculol was able to prevent radicle development of buffelgrass seedlings. It had no effect on coleoptile elongation, while the other four compounds caused significantly increased coleoptile development relative to the control. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A combination of "thiol-ene" click chemistry and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization: Fabrication of boronic acid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide composite for enrichment of glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2018-04-01

    An efficient glycoproteins enrichment platform is one of vital preprocessing steps in biomarker research and in particular glycoproteomics. In this work, a well-defined boronic acid functionalized magnetic graphene oxide nanocomposite (Fe3O4-GO@PAAPBA) was synthesized for the selective enrichment of glycoproteins from complex biological samples via a novel strategy based on the "thiol-ene" click chemistry and surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The initiator of ATRP was anchored to the surface of substrate through "thiol-ene" click reaction. The product Fe3O4-GO@PAAPBA was successfully synthesized in following SI-ATRP. The Fe3O4-GO@PAAPBA nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorption capacity of Fe3O4-GO@PAAPBA towards ovalbumin (OVA) and transferrin (Trf) is 471mgg-1 and 450mgg-1, respectively. The nanocomposite also featured good selectivity to glycoproteins in the mixture of glycoproteins and non-glycoproteins at alkaline (pH 9.0) and physiological conditions (pH 7.4). Furthermore, it can be applied to extract glycoproteins directly from egg white samples. These results have indicated that Fe3O4-GO@PAAPBA was a potential affinity material in glycoprotein analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of the surface modification process of cross-linked polythiol-coated chiral stationary phases synthesized by a two-step thiol-ene click reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kristina; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2018-01-11

    A new platform technology for the preparation of stable chiral stationary phases was successfully optimized. The chiral selector tert-butylcarbamoylquinine was firstly covalently connected to the polymer poly(3-mercaptopropyl)methylsiloxane by thiol-ene click reaction. Secondly, the quinine carbamate functionalized polysiloxane conjugate was coated onto the surface of vinyl modified silica particles and cross-linked via thiol-ene click reaction. The amount of polysiloxane, chiral selector, radical initiator, reaction solvent (chloroform and methanol), reaction time, and pore size of the supporting silica particles were varied and systematically optimized in terms of achievable plate numbers while maintaining simultaneously enantioselectivity. The optimization was based on elemental analysis data, chromatographic results, and H/u-curves (Van Deemter) of the resultant chiral stationary phases. The results suggest that better chromatographic efficiency (higher plate numbers) at equal enantioselectivity can be achieved with methanol (a poor solvent for the polysiloxane that is dispersed rather than dissolved) and a lower film thickness of quinine carbamate functionalized polysiloxane. In this study, chiral stationary phases based on 100 Å silica slightly outperformed 200 Å silica particles (each 5 μm). The optimized two step material exhibited significantly reduced mass transfer resistance compared to the one step material and equal performance as a brush-type chiral stationary phase. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Modulation of telomerase and signal transduction proteins by hexyl-ALA-photodynamic therapy (PDT) in human doxorubicin resistant cancer cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ellie S M; Yow, Christine M N

    2012-09-01

    This study employed a doxorubicin resistant (MES-SA-Dx5) human uterine sarcoma cell line and its counterpart (MES-SA), to elucidate the efficacy of aminolevulinic acid-hexylester (hexyl-ALA) mediated PDT at molecular and transcriptional levels. Hexyl-ALA generated protoporphyrin IX in both cells were determined by molecular probes using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. The hexyl-ALA-PDT induced signal transduction proteins and mode of cell death were quantitated by CASE ELISA assays and DAPI staining. The modulation of hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity were investigated by TaqMan real-time PCR and ELISA respectively. Hexyl-ALA-PDT mediated cell migratory effect was determined by wound-healing assay. The results demonstrated that mitochondria were the major target of hexyl-ALA. At LD(30), hexyl-ALA-PDT significantly provoked an up-regulation of phosphorylated p38MAPK and JNK proteins in both cells. Hexyl-ALA-PDT down-regulated hTERT (a catalytic subunit of telomerase) mRNA expression and showed a strong correlation with diminished telomerase activity in both cells (MES-SA: r(2) = 0.9932; MES-SA-Dx5: r(2) = 0.9775). The suppression of cell migratory effect in both cells was obtained after hexyl-ALA-PDT. Further, 50% and 30% of apoptotic cells were attained at LD(50), for wild-type and drug resistant cells respectively. Unlike the wild-type, a higher PDT dose was crucial to induce apoptosis in the drug resistant cells. Our study provides the first evidence that p38MAPK and JNK kinases played a vital role in triggering hexyl-ALA-PDT-induced apoptosis, down-regulated hTERT mRNA expression and telomerase activity in both proposed cells. In vivo studies are worth examining for the benefit of clinical applications in drug resistant cancers and PDT development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Kultuskirjanik Pratchett / Ene Paaver

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paaver, Ene, 1963-

    2001-01-01

    Terry Pratchetti "Mort - Surma õpipoiss" Eesti Draamateatris, lavastaja Ain Prosa. Pratchetti kohta avaldavad arvamust lavakujundaja Maret Kukkur, dramatiseerija Urmas Vadi ja laulusõnade autor Villu Kangur. Esietendus 7. juunil

  5. Whats 'App-ening'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankersen, Dorit V; Weimers, Petra; Burisch, Johan

    2017-01-01

    in number. ehealth helps patients in coping with their disease by promoting self-management, which increases adherence to medical treatment and diets, and leads to an improved quality of life. For irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), there are multiple applications that provide dietary advice, for example, a low...

  6. Grunge kodukujunduses / Ene Vool

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vool, Ene, 1948-

    2004-01-01

    Low-tech, campi ja grunge ehitus- ja sisustusstiilidest meil ja mujal - kommenteerivad Andro Kööp ja Ain Nurmela. Tutvustatakse ka Mari-Mira projekti Pariisis, mis kujutab endast nn. mutant-küla, putka- ja onnikultuuri koketeriid. Artikli lõpus kommenteerib kunstiteadlane Karin Paulus grungestiili muusikas, riietuses ja sisekujunduses.

  7. Ene-Obong, HN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based Oral Rehydration Solution for Home Management of Diarrhoea in Children Abstract · Vol 33, No 1 (2012) - Articles Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 0189-0913.

  8. Taevo Gans / Ene Ammer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammer, Ene

    1998-01-01

    Sisearhitekt Taevo Gansist. Tudengipõlvest, selle aja projektidest, sõpruskonnast, tandemist Summatavet & Gans, Venemaa tellimustest, kaastöölistest. Üksinda Hommilkumaal vene tarbekunsti näitusega 1974. a. 1988. a. loodud perefirmast "GaDis" (omanikud Taevo, Helle Gans, Riia Oja), mis nõustab ka "Wermot" mööbli osas. "GaDise" sisekujundusprojektidest, millega Taevo ja Helle Gans tegelevad üheskoos

  9. Differences between β-Ala and Gly-Gly in the design of amino acids-based hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasc, Andreea; Obounou Akong, Firmin; Cosgun, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    Summary Despite the continuous interest in organogels and hydrogels of low molecular weight gelators (LMWG), establishing the relationship between the molecular structure and the gelation mechanism is still a challenge. In this paper our interest focuses on the consequences of slight molecular modifications on the self-assembling behaviour of β-Ala vs Gly-Gly-based hydrogelators. Previously, in our group, amino acid based amphiphiles i.e. Gly-Gly-His-EO2-Alk, a trimodular amphiphile (containing three domains: H-bond donor and acceptor/hydrophilic/hydrophobic domain, respectively) were reported to act as hydrogelators and that the gelation properties were related to hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and π-π stacking. Herein, β-Ala-His-EO2-Alk was fully characterised by FT-IR, NMR, SAXS and SEM and the gelation mechanism is discussed. It appears that the number of amide groups determines the self-assembling behaviour into 1D or 2D/3D networks as a result of intimate interactions between gelator molecules. PMID:21085509

  10. Downregulation of ALAS1 by nicarbazin treatment underlies the reduced synthesis of protoporphyrin IX in shell gland of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiullah, Sami; Roberts, Juliet; Wu, Shu-Biao

    2017-07-24

    Shell colour is an important trait for eggs and an understanding of pigment deposition will assist potential management of egg shell colour loss. We demonstrated that nicarbazin feeding down-regulated ALAS1 and reduced protoporphyrin IX (PP IX) in both shell gland and eggshell, indicating the role of nicarbazin in inhibiting the synthesis of PP IX. Additionally, the expression levels of the genes did not show sequential upregulation in the same order of diurnal time-points (TP) during egg formation. The gene SLC25A38, responsible for transporting glycine from cytoplasm to mitochondria, and the gene ALAS1, encoding rate-limiting enzyme (delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1), had higher expression at 15 hr, as compared with 2, 5 and 23.5 hrs postoviposition. Interestingly, ABCB6, a gene encoding an enzyme responsible for transporting coproporphyrinogen III, showed higher expression level at 2 and 5 hrs. However, the expression of CPOX that converts coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen III, and ABCG2 that transports PP IX out from mitochondria did not alter. Nevertheless, mitochondrial count per cell did not show consistent change in response to time-points postoviposition and nicarbazin feeding. The information obtained in the study sheds light on how nicarbazin disrupts the synthesis of PP IX.

  11. MANAJEMEN KONFLIK KONSERVASI BANTENG (Bos javanicus D' ALTON 1823 DI KAWASAN TAMAN NASIONAL MERU BETIRI DAN TAMAN NASIONAL ALAS PURWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Garsetiasih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian manajemen konflik banteng dengan masyarakat sekitar Taman Nasional Meru Betiri (TNMB dan Taman Nasional Alas Purwo (TNAP telah dilakukan pada bulan  Desember 2009 sampai Desember 2011. Tujuan penelitian untuk memformulasikan manajemen konservasi banteng secara kolaboratif. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh dan kepentingan para pihak dilakukan analisis stakeholder melalui wawancara dengan para pihak terkait konflik yaitu Perum Perhutani, Perkebunan Bandealit, Balai Taman Nasional Meru Betiri (BTMB, Balai Taman Nasional Alas Purwo (BTNAP dan masyarakat.Teknik AHP dipakai untuk menilai persepsi pakar, analisis SWOT digunakan dalam penentuan strategi untuk implementasi program kegiatan dan analisis tingkat comanagement. Stakeholders yang mempunyai pengaruh dan kepentingan terhadap pengelolaan TN dan banteng adalah BTNMB, LSM KAIL, masyarakat dan Perkebunan Bandealit, sedangkan di TNAP yaitu BTNAP, LSM binaan KAIL, masyarakat dan Perum Perhutani. Stakeholder tidak terkait  konflik, tetapi dapat berkontribusi dalam pengelolaan kolaboratif konservasi banteng yaitu Balai Besar Inseminasi Buatan (BBIB, Dinas Peternakan, Dinas Pertanian, Dinas Kehutanan dan Dinas Pariwisata. Hasil analisis menunjukkan prioritas program yang dapat dikolaborasikan dalam konservasi bantengadalah peningkatan kualitas habitat (instruktif, pengembangan penangkaran (kooperatif, pengembangan ekowisata (advokatif, pengembangan tanaman obat dan buah (kooperatif.

  12. A novel presenilin 1 mutation (Ala275Val) as cause of early-onset familial Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedecke, Daniel; Becktepe, Jos S; Lehmbeck, Jan T; Finckh, Ulrich; Yamamoto, Raina; Jahn, Holger; Boelmans, Kai

    2014-04-30

    Mutations in the presenilin 1 (PS1) gene (PSEN1) are associated with familial Alzheimer disease (FAD). Here, we report on a 50-year-old patient presenting with progressive deterioration of his short-term memory and a family history of early-onset dementia. Diagnostic workup included a neuropsychological examination, structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers including total tau, phosphorylated tau, and Aβ42 levels, as well as sequencing relevant fragments of the genes PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP. Additionally, we were able to obtain archival paraffin-embedded cerebellar tissue from the patient's father for cosegregation analysis. Clinical, neuropsychological and MR imaging data were indicative of early-onset Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, CSF biomarkers showed a typical pattern for Alzheimer disease. DNA sequencing revealed a heterozygous nucleotide transition (c.824C>T) in exon 8 of PSEN1, leading to an amino acid change from alanine to valine at codon 275 (Ala275Val). The same mutation was found in an archival brain specimen of the patient's demented father, but not in a blood sample of the non-demented mother. This mutation alters a conserved residue in the large hydrophilic loop of PS1, suggesting pathogenic relevance. Cosegregegation analysis and the structural as well as the presumed functional role of the mutated and highly conserved residue suggest FAD causing characteristics of the novel PSEN1 mutation Ala275Val. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences between β-Ala and Gly-Gly in the design of amino acids-based hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Pasc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the continuous interest in organogels and hydrogels of low molecular weight gelators (LMWG, establishing the relationship between the molecular structure and the gelation mechanism is still a challenge. In this paper our interest focuses on the consequences of slight molecular modifications on the self-assembling behaviour of β-Ala vs Gly-Gly-based hydrogelators. Previously, in our group, amino acid based amphiphiles i.e. Gly-Gly-His-EO2-Alk, a trimodular amphiphile (containing three domains: H-bond donor and acceptor/hydrophilic/hydrophobic domain, respectively were reported to act as hydrogelators and that the gelation properties were related to hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions and π-π stacking. Herein, β-Ala-His-EO2-Alk was fully characterised by FT-IR, NMR, SAXS and SEM and the gelation mechanism is discussed. It appears that the number of amide groups determines the self-assembling behaviour into 1D or 2D/3D networks as a result of intimate interactions between gelator molecules.

  14. PENGARUH KUALITAS PELAYANAN DAN KEPUASAN TERHADAP NIAT BERKUNJUNG KEMBALI WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA KE DAYA TARIK WISATA ALAS PALA SANGEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Noviana Putra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan membahas seberapa besar kualitas pelayanan dan kepuasan wisatawan mempengaruhi niat berkunjung kembali wisatawan mancanegara ke Daya Tarik Wisata Alas Pala Sangeh. Daya tarik wisata ini mempunyai sesuatu yang unik dibandingkan dengan daya tarik sejenis, yaitu penempatan ranger (pemandu lokal yang senantiasa akan menemani dalam melakukan perjalanan disekitar areal daya tarik wisata ini, ranger (pemandu lokal senantiasa memberikan kualitas pelayanan sesuai dengan standar prosedur. Metode penelitian dalam pengambilan sample dilakukan menggunakan teknik Purposive Sampling, penyebaran sampel menggunakan Accidental Sampling dengan menyebar 100 kuesioner kepada wisatawan yang sedang melakukan kunjungan ke Daya Tarik Wisata Alas Pala Sangeh dan dengan 22 indikator pertanyaan yang telah disesuaikan. Dalam Analisis data menggunakan analisis deskriptif kuantitatif, analisis pengujian instrument penelitian, analisis regresi berganda, dan analisis korelasi. Hasil akhir dalam penelitian, (1 Kualitas pelayanan berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap niat berkunjung kembali wisatawan, (2 Kepuasan berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap niat berkunjung kembali wisatawan, (3 Kualitas pelayanan dan kepuasan berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap niat berkunjung kembali wisatawan secara simultan atau bersama-sama dan memiliki hubungan yang kuat. Adapun saran yang dapat disampaikan yaitu pengelola perlu meningkatan fasilitas toilet, peningkatan penanganan keluhan serta semakin giat mengikuti perkembangan pariwisata.

  15. Probable effects of glutatione s-transferase p1 gene exon-6 (ala114val polimorphism on the etiology of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etem Akbaş

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Genetic susceptibility also has significanteffects on the etiology of lung cancer, besides smoking.Previously it has been reported that some genetic polymorphismshave important roles; especially Glutatyon STransferazP1 (GSTP1 gene for the development of lungcancer. GSTP1 gene has a role in phase II of xenobioticmetabolism. GSTP1 Exon-6 polymorphisms have functionaleffects on gene production and causes differencesin enzyme activity.The aim of this study was to investigateprobable effects of GSTP1gene exon-6 (ala114val polimorphismon the etiology of lung cancer.Materials and methods: Our research population consistsedof 160 subjects; 80 as control group and 80 sufferingfrom lung cancer. Genomic DNA was extractedfrom peripheral blood leukocytes and the genotypes havebeen determined by using PCR and RFLP methods.Results: No effect of exon 6 (ala114val polymorphismgenotype of GSTP1 gene were found on etiology of lungcancer in present study. This study showed that smoking,old age and being male are important risk factors forlung cancer. Additionally, our sample’s GSTP1 gene exon6 (ala114val polymorphism genotype frequencies weredetermined.Conclusions: Our data derived from present study didnot suggest an effect of GSTP1gene exon-6 (ala114valpolimorphism on the etiology of lung cancer.Key words: Polimorphism of GSTP1 - exon-6 (ala114val- lung cancer -

  16. The Pro12Ala Polymorphism of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene Modifies the Association of Physical Activity and Body Mass Changes in Polish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Zarebska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ is a key regulator of adipogenesis, responsible for fatty acid storage and maintaining energy balance in the human body. Studies on the functional importance of the PPARG Pro12Ala polymorphic variants indicated that the observed alleles may influence body mass measurements; however, obtained results were inconsistent. We have decided to check if body mass changes observed in physically active participants will be modulated by the PPARG Pro12Ala genotype. The genotype distribution of the PPARG Pro12Ala allele was examined in a group of 201 Polish women measured for selected body mass variables before and after the completion of a 12-week training program. The results of our experiment suggest that PPARG genotype can modulate training-induced body mass measurements changes: after completion of the training program, Pro12/Pro12 homozygotes were characterised by a greater decrease of body fat mass measurements in comparison with 12Ala allele carriers. These results indicate that the PPARG 12Ala variant may impair the training-induced positive effects on body mass measurements; however, the detailed mechanism of such interaction remained unclear and observed correlation between PPARG genotype and body mass differential effects should be interpreted with caution.

  17. The use of a novel intense pulsed light and heat source and ALA-PDT in the treatment of moderate to severe inflammatory acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Michael H; Bradshaw, Virginia L; Boring, Molly M; Bridges, Tancy M; Biron, Julie A; Carter, Leitha N

    2004-01-01

    The use of lasers and noncoherent light sources is becoming more commonplace in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is finding its niche as an enhancer to these laser and light sources. Twenty patients with moderate to severe inflammatory acne vulgaris were enrolled in a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of ALA-PDT with activation by a SkinStation LHE (Radiancy, Inc., Orangeburg, NY), a novel intense pulsed light (IPL) and heat source that emits 430-nm to 1100-nm radiation at 3 to 9 J/cm2 fluences. Patients were given topical ALA (Levulan Kerastick, Dusa Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Wilmington, MA) photosensitizing agent that remained in contact with skin for one hour before irradiation. Fifteen patients completed the trial and 12 responded to the treatment. Among respondents, reduction in active inflammatory acne lesions was, on average, 50.1% at the end of the 4-week treatment period, 68.5% 4 weeks after the final treatment, and 71.8% 12 weeks after the final treatment. ALA-PDT with IPL activation was well-tolerated by all patients. No treated lesion recurred at the end of the follow-up period. ALA-PDT with IPL activation is a treatment option for patients with moderate to severe inflammatory acne vulgaris.

  18. Revisiting the ALA/N (alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone) protocol for people with metastatic and nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer: a report of 3 new cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkson, Burton M; Rubin, Daniel M; Berkson, Arthur J

    2009-12-01

    The authors, in a previous article, described the long-term survival of a man with pancreatic cancer and metastases to the liver, treated with intravenous alpha-lipoic acid and oral low-dose naltrexone (ALA/N) without any adverse effects. He is alive and well 78 months after initial presentation. Three additional pancreatic cancer case studies are presented in this article. At the time of this writing, the first patient, GB, is alive and well 39 months after presenting with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with metastases to the liver. The second patient, JK, who presented to the clinic with the same diagnosis was treated with the ALA/N protocol and after 5 months of therapy, PET scan demonstrated no evidence of disease. The third patient, RC, in addition to his pancreatic cancer with liver and retroperitoneal metastases, has a history of B-cell lymphoma and prostate adenocarcinoma. After 4 months of the ALA/N protocol his PET scan demonstrated no signs of cancer. In this article, the authors discuss the poly activity of ALA: as an agent that reduces oxidative stress, its ability to stabilize NF(k)B, its ability to stimulate pro-oxidant apoptosic activity, and its discriminative ability to discourage the proliferation of malignant cells. In addition, the ability of lowdose naltrexone to modulate an endogenous immune response is discussed. This is the second article published on the ALA/N protocol and the authors believe the protocol warrants clinical trial.

  19. Utilizing non-ablative fractional photothermolysis prior to ALA-photodynamic therapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sarah; Lin, Jennifer Y

    2017-04-01

    Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging modality in the treatment of acne. While ablative fractional lasers have been used to enhance drug delivery into the epidermis, recent evidence suggests that non-ablative fractional photothermolysis may also improve uptake of ALA. We explored the use of non-ablative 1550 nm laser as a safe alternative in the delivery of ALA prior to red-light PDT for refractory inflammatory and cystic acne. Subjects referred for treatment of acne refractory to several topical and oral regimens, including isotretinoin, were pre-treated with non-ablative fractional photothermolysis (NAFP). This was followed by 20 % ALA application with an incubation time of 1-3 h and then exposure to 50-100 J/cm 2 red light. Follow-up was at 1, 3, and 6 months. In all three cases, patients demonstrated marked reduction in inflammatory lesions. Two subjects had remission of acne after a single combination treatment. Non-ablative fractional laser applied immediately prior to PDT may be used in the treatment of acne with minimal side effects and fewer sessions needed than PDT alone. This may be due to enhanced delivery of ALA from pre-treating the skin with non-ablative fractional photothermolysis.

  20. Association of PPARγ2 (Pro12Ala) and neuropeptide Y (Leu7Pro) gene polymorphisms with obstructive sleep apnea in obese Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Guleria, Randeep; Misra, Anoop; Luthra, Kalpana; Kumar, Guresh

    2011-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in 7.5% in urban Asian Indians. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma2 (PPARγ2) has been implicated in adipocyte differentiation. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is also considered as a candidate gene for excess body fat accumulation. The association of PPARγ2 (Pro12Ala)} and NPY (Leu7Pro) gene polymorphisms with OSA has not been studied in Asian Indians. To study the distribution of PPARγ2 (Pro12Ala) and NPY (Leu7Pro) polymorphism in Asian Indians with and without OSA. This study was carried out in 252 obese subjects [(body mass index (BMI > 25 kg/m2]; 142 with OSA and 110 without OSA. Measurements included anthropometric and biochemical parameters (fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, various circumferences and skin-fold thicknesses). PPARγ2 (Pro12Ala) and NPY (Leu7Pro) gene} polymorphisms were studied in all subjects. The frequency of the variant allele (Ala12) of PPARγ2 gene was significantly higher in subjects with OSA (14.4%) when compared with subjects without OSA (5.5%; χ2= 9.7; p = 0.001). The distribution of the variant allele (Pro7) of NPY gene was comparable in subjects with OSA (3.5%) and without OSA (3.6%; χ2= 0.001, p = 0.94). This study reveals a significantly higher frequency of PPARγ2 (Ala12) allele in obese Asian Indians with OSA when compared to obese Asian Indians without OSA.

  1. A trilogy on. delta. -aminolevulinic acid biosynthesis in plants and algae: I. Glutamate is the sole precursor to protoheme and heme a in maize. II. The UUC glutamate anticodon is a general feature of the tRNA required for ALA biosynthesis. III. Protein and ALA biosynthesis use the same tRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneegurt, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Specifically radiolabeled substrates can be used to determine whether the heme and chlorophyll precursor {delta}-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is synthesized via the fife-carbon pathway (incorporation from L-1-({sup 14}C)glutamate) or ALA synthase (incorporation from 2-({sup 14}C)glycine). In etiolated maize epicotyl sections, highly purified total cellular protoheme was labeled 29.7 times more effectively by glutamate than by glycine. Mitochondrial heme {alpha} was labeled 4.1 times more effectively by glutamate than by glycine. Cell-free plant and algal preparations require tRNA for the enzymatic conversion of glutamate to ALA. The tRNA required for ALA biosynthesis ahs been shown to contain the UUC glutamate anticodon, as determined by its specific retention through anticodon:anticodon interactions by tRNA{sup Phe(GAA)}-acrylamide. A fraction that was highly enriched in the RNA which supported ALA formation was obtained by affinity chromatography of RNA extracts from Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena garcilis, Cyanidium caldarium, Synechocystis, sp. PCC 6803, pea, and spinach. Other glutamate-accepting RNAs that were not retained by the affinity column were ineffective in supporting ALA formation.

  2. The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 requires a ß-subunit to function in phospholipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    The Arabidopsis P4-ATPase ALA3 requires a ß-subunit to function in phospholipid translocation and secretory vesicle formation   Lisbeth R. Poulsen1, Rosa L. López-Marqués1, Stephen C. McDowell2, Juha Okkeri3, Dirk Licht3, Alexander Schulz1, Thomas Pomorski3,  Jeffrey F. Harper2, and Michael G....... Palmgren1 1Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease - PUMPKIN, Danish National Research Foundation, Department of Plant Biology, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark 2Biochemistry Department MS200, University of Nevada Reno, NV 89557, USA 3Humboldt-University Berlin, Faculty...... and in inducing membrane curvature, which is a requirement for vesicle formation. We show that Aminophospholipid ATPase3 (ALA3), a member of the P4-ATPase subfamily in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, localizes to the Golgi apparatus and that genetic lesions of ALA3 result in impaired growth of roots and shoots...

  3. A Novel ALAS2 Mutation Resulting in Variable Phenotypes and Pyridoxine Response in a Family with X-linked Sideroblastic Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Soo; Gu, JaYoon; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Koh, Youngil; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2017-05-01

    We report a novel ALAS2 gene mutation c.1315A>G (p.Lys439Glu) identified in a family, which caused evidently different hematologic phenotypes. The proband was a 17-year-old man with severe microcytic hypochromic anemia, excessive ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow, and iron overload. A hemizygous ALAS2 mutation in exon 9, c.1315A>G (p.Lys439Glu), was identified through sequence analysis. We assume that this amino acid substitution affects the enzymatic activity of ALAS2 by affecting its interaction with the cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, since the patient was responsive to pyridoxine treatment. This novel mutation likely accounts for variable hematologic phenotypes in the family of this patient: his 15-year-old hemizygous brother was asymptomatic, while his heterozygous mother was mildly anemic. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  4. The Pro12Ala Polymorphism of PPAR-γ Gene Is Associated with Sepsis Disease Severity and Outcome in Chinese Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoda Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ is a ligand-binding nuclear receptor, and its activation plays a prominent role in regulating the inflammatory response. Therefore, PPAR-γ has been suggested as a candidate gene for sepsis. In the present study, we investigated the association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-γ and sepsis in a Han Chinese population. A total of 308 patients with sepsis and 345 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction (PCR-LDR method. No significant differences were detected in the allele and genotype distributions of the PPAR-γ Pro12Ala SNP between septic patients and controls (P=0.622 for genotype; P=0.629 for allele. However, stratification by subtypes (sepsis, septic shock, and severe sepsis revealed a statistically significant difference in the frequency of the Ala allele and Ala-carrier genotype between the patients with the sepsis subtype and the healthy controls (P=0.014 for allele and P=0.012, for genotype. Moreover, significant differences were found in the frequency of the Ala allele and genotype between the sepsis survivors and nonsurvivors (all P=0.002. In the survivors, the PPAR-γ Pro12Ala genotype was significantly associated with decreased disease severity and recovery time (all P<0.001. Thus, genetic polymorphism is thought to play a role in the development and outcome of sepsis.

  5. A Cephalometric Study on the Relationship between the Occlusal Plane, Ala-Tragus and Camper’s Lines, in Patients with Angle’s Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rostamkhani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Considering the importance of the occlusal plane orientation in complete denture prostheses, a study was conducted on the relationship between this plane with ala-tragus and Camper’s lines in soft tissue among individuals with class IIImalocclusion, in Mashhad School of Dentistry.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to define the best soft tissue index by which the location and inclination of the occlusal plane in complete dentures could be established.Materials and methods: The participants consisted of 13 males with Angle’s class III occlusal relationship. Radiopaque markers were attached to the intended points on soft tissue and then standard lateral cephalograms were obtained from each subject.The angles between the following lines were measured: Occlusal line (OL, Camper's line (ala-porion, AT1 (ala-superior border of tragus, AT2 (ala- mid-tragus and AT3 (ala-inferior border of tragus.Results: The mean values and standard deviations calculated from the measured variables are as follows: OL-^AT1, 5.65 (3.95 degrees; OL- ^AT2, 3.19 (2.45 degrees;OL- ^AT3, 2.92 (2.42 degrees and OL- ^Camper, 8.5 (3.83 degrees. Comparison of the results by the ANOVA test exhibited a significant difference (F=3.7, P=0.05. Asthe OL^-AT3 angle had the lowest value, the occlusal line had a stronger tendency to be parallel to the AT3 line.Conclusion: According to the present study, the inferior border of the tragus is suggested as the posterior point for ala-tragus line orientation.

  6. Comment: studies of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene in the Danish MONICA cohort: homozygosity of the Ala allele confers a decreased risk of the insulin resistance syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Laura; Brødbaek, Kasper; Fenger, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    diastolic blood pressure (79 +/- 8 mm Hg vs. 82 +/- 11 mm Hg; P = 0.01) compared with wild-type carriers. The same tendency was observed with regard to the homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (P = 0.16). There were no differences between genotype groups with respect to measures...... was examined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in a phenotypically well characterized population-based sample of 2245 nondiabetic subjects. The study participants were characterized by a number of anthropometric and biochemical measurements and the European Group for the Study of Insulin...... Resistance criteria enabling a classification of the study population in an IRS group and a non-IRS group. The allelic frequency of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the total study sample was 14% (95% confidence interval, 13-15%). Two hundred ninety-four subjects fulfilled the European Group for the Study...

  7. SLC6A3 coding variant Ala559Val found in two autism probands alters dopamine transporter function and trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowton, E; Saunders, C; Reddy, I A; Campbell, N G; Hamilton, P J; Henry, L K; Coon, H; Sakrikar, D; Veenstra-VanderWeele, J M; Blakely, R D; Sutcliffe, J; Matthies, H J G; Erreger, K; Galli, A

    2014-10-14

    Emerging evidence associates dysfunction in the dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT) with the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The human DAT (hDAT; SLC6A3) rare variant with an Ala to Val substitution at amino acid 559 (hDAT A559V) was previously reported in individuals with bipolar disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We have demonstrated that this variant is hyper-phosphorylated at the amino (N)-terminal serine (Ser) residues and promotes an anomalous DA efflux phenotype. Here, we report the novel identification of hDAT A559V in two unrelated ASD subjects and provide the first mechanistic description of its impaired trafficking phenotype. DAT surface expression is dynamically regulated by DAT substrates including the psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH), which causes hDAT trafficking away from the plasma membrane. The integrity of DAT trafficking directly impacts DA transport capacity and therefore dopaminergic neurotransmission. Here, we show that hDAT A559V is resistant to AMPH-induced cell surface redistribution. This unique trafficking phenotype is conferred by altered protein kinase C β (PKCβ) activity. Cells expressing hDAT A559V exhibit constitutively elevated PKCβ activity, inhibition of which restores the AMPH-induced hDAT A559V membrane redistribution. Mechanistically, we link the inability of hDAT A559V to traffic in response to AMPH to the phosphorylation of the five most distal DAT N-terminal Ser. Mutation of these N-terminal Ser to Ala restores AMPH-induced trafficking. Furthermore, hDAT A559V has a diminished ability to transport AMPH, and therefore lacks AMPH-induced DA efflux. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCβ or Ser to Ala substitution in the hDAT A559V background restores AMPH-induced DA efflux while promoting intracellular AMPH accumulation. Although hDAT A559V is a rare variant, it has been found in multiple probands with neuropsychiatric disorders associated with imbalances in DA neurotransmission

  8. Comparaciones aerodinámicas de alas de Colibríes: Colibri coruscans, Metallura tyrianthina Y Acestrura mulsanti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiles Frank Gary

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se diseñó y construyó un aparato estable para medir las fuerzas de sustentación y de arrastre generadas por
    alas de colibríes girando. Las especies de colibríes estudiadas fueron Colibri coruscans, Metallura tyrianthina y Acestrura mulsanti. La morfología alar, la frecuencia de giro de cada especie, la magnitud de las fuerzas producidas al girar y el espacio ocupado por el flujo condicionaron la forma del aparato. Se analizaron mecanismos que disminuían la vibración y la fricción entre las partes del aparato permitiendo una mejor medición de las fuerzas. Para generar el movimiento se usó un motor eléctrico DC por ser estable y generar poca vibración, su intervalo de frecuencias de giro comprendía las frecuencias de las tres alas. Se usó un colchón de aire para sostener el eje y disminuir la fricción que pudiera haber entre este y los demás elementos. Se usaron imanes para transmitir el movimiento magnéticamente y posibilitar la medición de las fuerzas de sustentación y de arrastre manteniendo el aparato siempre en la misma posición. Para la medición se usaron sensores
    de reflexión y su señal fue recogida por una tarjeta de  adquisición de datos de LabVIEW 7.0 ®. La tarjeta transmitió los datos a un computador y en él se elaboró un instrumento virtual de LabVIEW 7.0® que permitió adquirir los datos, manejarlos y filtrarlos. Se hicieron medidas preliminares de las fuerzas aerodinámicas generadas por tres alas de Metallura tyrianthina.

  9. The IL6R variation Asp(358)Ala is a potential modifier of lung function in subjects with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Gregory A; Robinson, Mac B; Hastie, Annette T; Li, Xingnan; Li, Huashi; Moore, Wendy C; Howard, Timothy D; Busse, William W; Erzurum, Serpil C; Wenzel, Sally E; Peters, Stephen P; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R

    2012-08-01

    The IL6R single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4129267 has recently been identified as an asthma susceptibility locus in subjects of European ancestry but has not been characterized with respect to asthma severity. The SNP rs4129267 is in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = 1) with the IL6R coding SNP rs2228145 (Asp(358)Ala). This IL6R coding change increases IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) shedding and promotes IL-6 transsignaling. We sought to evaluate the IL6R SNP rs2228145 with respect to asthma severity phenotypes. The IL6R SNP rs2228145 was evaluated in subjects of European ancestry with asthma from the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP). Lung function associations were replicated in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) cohort. Serum soluble IL-6R levels were measured in subjects from SARP. Immunohistochemistry was used to qualitatively evaluate IL-6R protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells and endobronchial biopsies. The minor C allele of IL6R SNP rs2228145 was associated with a lower percent predicted FEV(1) in the SARP cohort (P= .005), the CSGA cohort (P= .008), and in a combined cohort analysis (P= .003). Additional associations with percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV(1)/FVC ratio, and PC(20) were observed. The rs2228145 C allele (Ala(358)) was more frequent in severe asthma phenotypic clusters. Elevated serum soluble IL-6R levels were associated with lower percent predicted FEV(1) (P= .02) and lower percent predicted FVC (P= .008) (n= 146). IL-6R protein expression was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages, airway epithelium, vascular endothelium, and airway smooth muscle. The IL6R coding SNP rs2228145 (Asp(358)Ala) is a potential modifier of lung function in subjects with asthma and might identify subjects at risk for more severe asthma. IL-6 transsignaling might have a pathogenic role in the lung. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  10. The p.Ala510Val mutation in the SPG7 (paraplegin) gene is the most common mutation causing adult onset neurogenetic disease in patients of British ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Richard H; Marquis-Nicholson, Renate; Ashton, Fern; George, Alice M; Lea, Rod A; Eccles, David; Mossman, Stuart; Bird, Thomas; van Gassen, Koen L; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Love, Donald R

    2013-05-01

    The c.1529C >T change in the SPG7 gene, encoding the mutant p.Ala510Val paraplegin protein, was first described as a polymorphism in 1998. This was based on its frequency of 3 % and 4 % in two separate surveys of controls in the United Kingdom (UK) population. Subsequently, it has been found to co-segregate with disease in a number of different populations. Yeast expression studies support its having a deleterious effect. In this paper a consanguineous sibship is described in which four members who are homozygous for the p.Ala510Val variant present with a spectrum of disease. This spectrum encompasses moderately severe hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP) with more minor ataxia in two siblings, moderately severe ataxia without spasticity in the third, and a very mild gait ataxia in the fourth. Two of the siblings also manifest vestibular failure. The remaining eight unaffected siblings are either heterozygous for the p.Ala510Val variant, or do not carry it at all. Homozygosity mapping using a high-density SNP array across the whole genome found just 11 genes (on two regions of chromosome 3) outside the SPG7 region on chromosome 16, which were homozygously shared by the affected siblings, but not shared by the unaffected siblings; none of them are likely to be causative. The weight of evidence is strongly in favour of the p.Ala510Val variant being a disease-causing mutation. We present additional data from the Auckland City Hospital neurogenetics clinic to show that the p.Ala510Val mutation is prevalent amongst HSP patients of UK extraction belying any suggestion that European p.Ala510Val haplotypes harbour a disease-causing mutation which the UK p.Ala510Val haplotypes do not. Taken together with previous findings of a carrier frequency of 3-4 % in the UK population (giving a homozygosity rate of 20-40/100,000), the data imply that the p.Ala510Val is the most common mutation causing neurogenetic disease in adults of UK ancestry, albeit the penetrance may be low or

  11. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPase ALA3 Reduces Adaptability to Temperature Stresses and Impairs Vegetative, Pollen, and Ovule Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowell, Stephen C.; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura; Poulsen, Lisbeth Rosager

    2013-01-01

    ) to less than 0.2% (stressed). Together, these results support a model in which ALA3 functions to modify endomembranes in multiple cell types, enabling structural changes, or signaling functions that are critical in plants for normal development and adaptation to varied growth environments....... upon both temperature and soil, and varied between 40% and 80% that of wild-type under different conditions. We also demonstrate that ala3 mutants have reduced fecundity resulting from a combination of decreased ovule production and pollen tube growth defects. In-vitro pollen tube growth assays showed...

  12. Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof : espacio político y social y recuperación del ala norte de la Estación Central de Stuttgart

    OpenAIRE

    BUENO VICENTE, ALFREDO

    2015-01-01

    Proyecto de centro político y social en Stuttgart, con espacio público y recuperación del ala norte de la Estación Central de la ciudad. Se proyecta una plaza con tres volúmenes principales: edificio de oficinas y centro de coworking que sustituye la antigua ala norte; edificio comercial longitudinal que ofrece un frente continuo a la salida de la nave central; y volumen de aparcamiento e intercambiador, que permite una zona de parada de taxis, autobuses y coches, así como aparcamiento de bic...

  13. Limitations of the Neurological Evolutional Exam (ENE as a motor assessment for first graders Limitações do Exame Neurológico Evolutivo (ENE como um instrumento de avaliação motora para crianças da primeira série

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila M. Caçola

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many clinicians and researchers in Brazil consider the Neurological Developmental Exam (NDE, a valid and reliable assessment for Brazilian school-aged children. However, since its inception, several tests have emerged that, according to some researchers, provide more in-depth evaluation of motor ability and go beyond the detection of general motor status (soft neurological signs. OBJECTIVES: To highlight the limitations of the NDE as a motor skill assessment for first graders. METHODS: Thirty-five children were compared on seven selected items of the NDE, seven of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test (BOT, and seven of the Visual-Motor Integration test (VMI. Participants received a "pass" or "fail" score for each item, as prescribed by the respective test manual. RESULTS: Chi-square and ANOVA results indicated that the vast majority of children (74% passed the NDE items, whereas values for the other tests were 29% (BOT and 20% (VMI. Analysis of specific categories (e.g. visual, fine, and gross motor coordination revealed a similar outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that while the NDE may be a valid and reliable test for the detection of general motor status, its use as a diagnostic/remedial tool for identifying motor ability is questionable. One of our recommendations is the consideration of a revised NDE in light of the current needs of clinicians and researchers.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Muitos clínicos e pesquisadores brasileiros consideram o Exame Neurológico Evolutivo (ENE, um instrumento válido e confiável para crianças brasileiras em idade escolar. Entretanto, desde a sua criação, surgiram outros testes para uma avaliação mais profunda de habilidade motora, os quais vão além de detectar status motor geral em forma de sinais neurológicos leves. OBJETIVOS: Demonstrar os pontos fracos do ENE como teste de avaliação de habilidade motora para crianças de primeira série. MÉTODOS: Trinta e cinco crianças realizaram 7 itens

  14. ν =2 /3 fractional quantum Hall state in an AlAs quantum well probed by electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepetilnikov, A. V.; Frolov, D. D.; Nefyodov, Yu. A.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Tiemann, L.; Reichl, C.; Dietsche, W.; Wegscheider, W.

    2017-10-01

    The electron spin resonance (ESR) of two-dimensional electrons confined in a high-quality, 16-nm AlAs quantum well was investigated near the filling factor ν =2 /3 of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). The spin resonance was robust in the vicinity of the fractional filling ν =2 /3 , indicating that the ν =2 /3 state is at least partially spin polarized. The formation of the 2 /3 FQHE state did not result in any modifications of the ESR linewidth and, hence, of the electron spin relaxation rate. Yet the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate extracted from the time decay of the ESR Overhauser shift demonstrated a strong nonmonotonic dependence on the electron filling factor with a minimum near ν =2 /3 . This observation suggests the enhancement of the energy gap in the spin excitation spectrum of two-dimensional electrons at the ν =2 /3 state.

  15. Mechanism of the antistress action of d-ala/sup 2/-leu/sup 5/-arg/sup 6/-enkephalin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Maslov, L.N.; Titov, M.I.

    1986-02-01

    The authors study the effect of the arginine-containing hexapeptide analog of Leu-enkephalin - D-Ala/sup 2/-Leu/sup 5/-Ar/sup 6/--enkephalin (enkephalin) on blood plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol, and hormones of the pituitary-thyroid complex, and the cAMP concentration in adrenal and thymus tissues during stress induced by crushing the soft tissues (CST). The experiments were carried out on noninbred male albino rats. The plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were determined by radioimmunoassay using kits from France, thyroxine (T/sub 4/) and tri-iodothyronine (T/sub 3/), and pituitary thyrotropic hormone. A gamma-spectrometer and beta-scintillation counter were used.

  16. The Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-2 gene (PPARγ2 is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijun Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contradictory results have been reported regarding the association between Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARγ2 and coronary artery disease (CAD. We sought to estimate the inconsistent results by performing a comprehensive meta-analysis. METHODS: Studies in English or Chinese publications were identified by screening MEDLINE, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang and CBM. 22 studies including 8948 cases and 14427 controls were selected. A random-effects model was applied to combine the divergent outcomes of the individual studies, while addressing between-study heterogeneity and publication bias. RESULTS: The Pro12Ala polymorphism of control population followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for all studies (P>0.05. Overall, a marginal increased risk of CAD under the recessive genetic model (AlaAla vs ProAla+ProPro: P = 0.04, OR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.01-1.69, P(heterogeneity = 0.67, I(2 = 0% and the homozygote comparison (AlaAla vs ProPro: P = 0.04,OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.01-1.68, P(heterogeneity = 0.68, I(2 = 0% was observed. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, carriers of AlaAla homozygotes had a significant increased risk for CAD among Caucasians (AlaAla vs ProAla+ProPro: P = 0.01, OR = 1.45, 95%CI 1.08-1.96, P(heterogeneity = 0.48, I(2 = 0%; AlaAla vs ProPro: P = 0.02,OR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.07-1.93, P(heterogeneity = 0.46, I(2 = 0%. After dividing into population source, the CAD risk magnitude of hospital-based studies was distinctly strengthened under the recessive model (P = 0.03,OR = 1.85,95%CI 1.07-3.19, P(heterogeneity = 0.87,I(2 = 0% and the homozygote comparison (P = 0.03,OR = 1.83, 95%CI 1.06-3.16, P(heterogeneity = 0.88, I(2 = 0%. There was no observable publication bias as reflected by funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test (t = -0.12, P = 0.91. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that the PPARγ2 Pro12Ala polymorphism might be risk-conferring locus for the progression of CAD among Caucasians, but not among Asians.

  17. Evaluating the role of the FSH receptor gene Thr307-Ala and Asn680-Ser polymorphisms in male infertility and their association with semen quality and reproductive hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza; Shafiei, Nayyer; Safarinejad, Saba

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether Thr(307)-Asn(680) and Ala(307)-Ser(680) polymorphisms of the follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) gene are associated with male infertility, semen quality, and reproductive hormones. The FSH-R polymorphisms at codons 680 and 307 were analysed by restriction-fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) in 172 infertile men and in an equal number of age-matched healthy fertile men. Genotyping of the FSH-R gene was performed using the polymerase chain reaction RFLP technique. All of the participants underwent semen analysis, and reproductive hormones were also measured. Allelic frequencies were 29.7% serine (Ser) and 70.3% asparagine (Asn) for fertile men (the control group), and 33.1% Ser and 66.9% Asn for infertile men (P > 0.05). The FSH-R genotype at position 680 was 49.4% (Asn/Asn), 41.9% (Asn/Ser), and 8.7% (Ser/Ser) in the control group and 40.1% (Asn/Asn), 46.5% (Asn/Ser), and 13.4% (Ser/Ser) in infertile men, respectively (P > 0.05, chi-squared test). Allelic frequencies were 33.1% alanine (Ala) and 66.9% threonine (Thr) for the control group, and 37.8% Ala and 62.2% Thr for the infertile men. The frequencies of genotypes at position 307 were 45.5% Thr/Thr, 43% Thr/Ala, and 11.6% Ala/Ala for the control group and 36.1% Thr/Thr, 52.3% Thr/Ala, and 11.6% Ala/Ala for infertile men. No significant association between codon 680 and codon 307 genotypes and infertility was observed (P = 0.076 and P = 0.073, respectively). The odds ratio (OR) values indicated that individuals with the Thr/Thr + Asn/Ser combined genotypes had a > 50% decreased risk for developing infertility (OR = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22-0.77; P = 0.006). The patients with heterozygous Thr/Ala + Asn/Ser combined genotype were 2.65 times more susceptible to infertility than the control group (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.74-3.82; P = 0.0053). The FSH-R codon 680 and codon 307 genotypes did not result in different serum FSH levels either in men with normal spermatogenesis

  18. Association of PPARγ2 gene variant Pro12Ala polymorphism with hypertension and obesity in the aboriginal Qatari population known for being consanguineous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdulbari Bener,1,2 Sarah Darwish,3 Abdulla OAA Al-Hamaq,4 Ramzi M Mohammad,5,6 Mohammad T Yousafzai1 1Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar; 2Department of Evidence for Population Health Unit, School of Epidemiology and Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 3Department of Endocrinology, Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 4Qatar Diabetic Associations and Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar; 5Department of Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, School of Medicine, MI, USA; 6Department of Medicine, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2 gene with hypertension and obesity in a highly consanguineous aboriginal Qatari population. Design: A cross-sectional survey conducted from January 2011–December 2012. Setting: Primary health care clinics. Subjects: A random sample of 1,528 Qatari male and female population older than 20 years of age. Materials and methods: Data on age, sex, income, level of education, occupation status, body mass index, and blood pressure and lipid profile were obtained. The Pro12Ala in the PPARγ2 gene was detected on the LightCycler® using two specific probes: (Sensor [G] 5'-CTC CTA TTG ACG CAG AAA GCG-FL and PPAR Anchor 5' LC Red 640- TCC TTC ACT GAT ACA CTG TCT GCA AAC ATA TC-PH. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed. Result: Out of a total 1,528 participants, 220 were diagnosed with essential hypertension, and 420 were obese. Participants with consanguinity were significantly higher among hypertensive than normotensive (41.9% versus 30.8%; P=0.001. Altogether, more than three-fourths (89% of the participants had a wild genotype (Pro12Pro, 9.8% were

  19. L’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la recerca a Llatinoamèrica. Acostament des d’ALAS Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Torres Frías

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El present text inclou l’anàlisi de treballs presentats en el XXX Congreso Latinoamericano de Sociología ALAS Costa Rica, celebrat el 2015, coordinat per l’Asociación Latinoamericana de Sociología (ALAS. Es prenen en consideració vuit treballs relacionats amb el procés d’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la recerca i es recuperen les principals aportacions que han fet sobre el tema. Es discuteix sobre com s’aborda el procés d’ensenyament-aprenentatge de la recerca en el context llatinoamericà. S’evidencia que, malgrat les diferències contextuals i institucionals, a Llatinoamèrica prevalen problemàtiques compartides sobre formació per a la recerca. Alguns dels principals aspectes que es posen de manifest estan relacionats amb la dificultat que tenen els formadors per desenvolupar el procés d’ensenyament-aprenentatge en el marc de les ciències socials i humanitats. Altres aspectes es vinculen amb l’experiència en recerca del formador mateix, amb l’estil que té per dur a terme la seva pròpia recerca i guiar tesis, i amb l’estil de docència que utilitza. També són un factor de rellevància els estils dels estudiants, així com les creences que tots dos actors tenen sobre la formació per a la recerca. Finalment, l’existència o no d'una cultura de recerca s’aprecia com una problemàtica que cal tenir en compte.

  20. Poly[[(μ3-5,6-dicarboxybicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene-2,3-dicarboxylato(1,10-phenanthrolinecopper(II] monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Cheng Ma

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Cu(C12H10O8(C12H8N2]·H2O}n, the CuII ion is five-coordinated by two N atoms from one phenanthroline ligand and three O atoms from three different H2L2− anions (H4L is bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-7-ene-2,3,5,6-tetracarboxylic acid in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. Each H2L2− ion bridges three CuII atoms to form a zigzag sheet parallel to the ab plane. The crystal structure is consolidated by O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  1. Çene Eklemi Rahatsızlıklarında Teşhis ve Tedavi Yöntemleri (*)

    OpenAIRE

    YENGİN, Esengün

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETÇene ekleminin fonksiyon bozukluklarında romatoid artrit, osteoartrit ve travmatik artritlerin yanı sıra ruhi bunalımlar, akut eklem romatizması, neoplazmalar ve enfeksiyöz artrit gibi hastalıklar etkili olabilmektedir. Bu hastalıkların ayırıcı teşhisinde klinik muayenenin yanı sıra, TME radyografileri, çiğneme kaslarının elektromiyografik tetkiki ile klinik ve serolojik testler yapmakta fayda vardır.Hastalarda genellikle TME tıkırtısı ve ağrısı, masseler ve dış pterigoid kaslarda ağrı, k...

  2. C(10)-C(19) bond cleavage reaction of 19-oxygenated androst-4-ene-3,6-dione steroids under various conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Masao; Numazawa, Mitsuteru

    2004-08-01

    C(10)-C(19) bond cleavage reaction of 19-hydroxy- and 19-oxoandrost-4-ene-3,6,17-triones (5, 6) was explored under various conditions. Treatment of steroids 5 and 6 with KOH in MeOH gave the A-ring aromatized product 6-oxoestrone (11) in a fair yield, respectively, in contrast, the treatment with a weak base yielded 4-methyl steroid 17 (20%) in the case of 19-alcohol 5 or 19-nor-Delta(5(10))-steroid 9 (12-67%) along with compound 11 (6-27%) in the case of 19-aldehyde 6. Reaction of compound 6 with HCl in MeOH produced 3-methyl ethers of 6-oxoestrone and Delta(6)-estrone, compounds 12 and 14 (ca. 20% each). Thus, 6-oxosteroids 5 and 6 showed unique C(10)-C(19) bond cleavage reactions with a base or acid.

  3. A Rapid One-Pot Synthesis of Novel High-Purity Methacrylic Phosphonic Acid (PA-Based Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS Frameworks via Thiol-Ene Click Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karuppasamy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we demonstrate a facile methodology to synthesis a novel methacrylic phosphonic acid (PA-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSSs via thiol-ene click reaction using octamercapto thiol-POSS and ethylene glycol methacrylate phosphate (EGMP monomer. The presence of phosphonic acid moieties and POSS-cage structure in POSS-S-PA was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 29Si and 31P-NMR analyses. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrum of POSS-S-PA acquired in a dithranol matrix, which has specifically designed for intractable polymeric materials. The observed characterization results signposted that novel organo-inorganic hybrid POSS-S-PA would be an efficacious material for fuel cells as a proton exchange membrane and high-temperature applications due to its thermal stability of 380 °C.

  4. The Molecular Structure and Vibrational Spectrum of 6-bromo-8-thia-1,4-epoxybicyclo[4.3.0]non-2-ene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Demircan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Geometric parameters and FT-IR spectrum of 6-bromo-8-thia-1,4-epoxybicyclo[4.3.0]non-2-ene were computed by the HF, B3LYP, B3PW91 andmPW1PW91 methods in conjunction with the 6-31G(d,p basis set. The calculated IRspectra are in a good agreement with the observed FT-IR spectrum. A general betterperformance of B3LYP, B3PW91 and mPW1PW91 versus HF was quantitativelycharacterized by using PAVF 1.0 program. Optimal uniform scaling factors calculated forthe title compound are 0.8952, 0.9552, 0.9520 and 0.9456 for HF, B3LYP, B3PW91 andMPW1PW91 methods, respectively.

  5. One-pot synthesis of (3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium)-silica hybrid monolith via thiol-ene click chemistry for CEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huihui; Chen, Yingzhuang; Liu, Yixuan; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-02-01

    A novel (3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium)-silica hybrid monolithic column for CEC has been prepared by a simple one-pot approach based on efficient thiol-ene click chemistry. In this process, the polycondensation of hydrolyzed alkoxysilanes and in situ click reaction of vinyl groups on 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium and thiol groups on the precondensed siloxanes simultaneously occurred in a pretreated capillary. Homogeneous monolithic matrix with large through-pores tightly bonded to the inner wall of the capillary was shown by optical microscope and SEM. The minimum plate height of this hybrid monolithic column was determined as 3.9 μm for thiourea. Anilines, alkylbenzenes, and phenols were well separated on this hybrid monolithic column by CEC, which indicated typical reversed-phase and cation-exchange chromatographic retention mechanisms of the column. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Preparation of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-based hybrid monolith by ring-opening polymerization and post-functionalization via thiol-ene click reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongshan; Ou, Junjie; Lin, Hui; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-05-16

    A polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) hybrid monolith was simply prepared by using octaglycidyldimethylsilyl POSS (POSS-epoxy) and cystamine dihydrochloride as monomers via ring-opening polymerization. The effects of composition of prepolymerization solution and polycondensation temperature on the morphology and permeability of monolithic column were investigated in detail. The obtained POSS hybrid monolithic column showed 3D skeleton morphology and exhibited high column efficiency of ∼71,000 plates per meter in reversed-phase mechanism. Owing to this POSS hybrid monolith essentially possessing a great number of disulfide bonds, the monolith surface would expose thiol groups after reduction with dithiothreitol (DTT), which supplied active sites to functionalize with various alkene monomers via thiol-ene click reaction. The results indicated that the reduction with DTT could not destroy the 3D skeleton of hybrid monolith. Both stearyl methylacrylate (SMA) and benzyl methacrylate (BMA) were selected to functionalize the hybrid monolithic columns for reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), while [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl)-ammonium hydroxide (MSA) was used to modify the hybrid monolithic column in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC). These modified hybrid monolithic columns could be successfully applied for separation of small molecules with high efficiency. It is demonstrated that thiol-ene click reaction supplies a facile way to introduce various functional groups to the hybrid monolith possessing thiol groups. Furthermore, due to good permeability of the resulting hybrid monoliths, we also prepared long hybrid monolithic columns in narrow-bore capillaries. The highest column efficiency reached to ∼70,000 plates using a 1-m-long column of 75μm i.d. with a peak capacity of 147 for isocratic chromatography, indicating potential application in separation and analysis of complex biosamples. Copyright © 2014

  7. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous determination of valproic acid and its ene-metabolites in epilepsy patient plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Lu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple and high throughput method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of valproic acid and its two toxicant ene-metabolites, 2-enevalproic acid and 4-enevalproic acid in epilepsy patient plasma using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Probenecid was used as internal standard and solid-phase extraction was selected for sample preparation. A chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Poroshell SB-C18 column (50 mm×4.6 mm i.d., 2.7 μm by an optimized gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The total run time was 7 min. Electrospray ionization was used in negative ion mode by multiple reaction monitoring of the precursor-to-product ion transitions at m/z 143.0→143.0 for valproic acid, m/z 140.9→140.9 for 2-enevalproic acid and 4-enevalproic acid for their poor fragments, and m/z 283.9→239.9 for probenecid. The results showed good linearity of valproic acid, 2-enevalproic acid and 4-enevalproic acid in their respective linear ranges. The correlation coefficients were more than 0.998. The intra- and inter-day precision of the assay was less than 11.0% and the accuracy ranged from 2% to 12%. This analytical method was successfully applied to assay plasma concentrations of valproic acid and its two ene-metabolites in epilepsy patient plasma and used for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  8. Eksperimentalno ispitivanje aerodinamičkih karakteristika modela laserski vođene bombe / Experimental investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of the laser guided bomb model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Damljanović

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani rezultati merenja aerodinamičkih sila i momenata, kao i vizualizacija strujanja u graničnom sloju na krilima i krmilima modela laserski vođene bombe. Ispitivanje je izvršeno u aerotunelu T-38. Analiziranje uticaj rastojanja vrha konusa tela, u odnosu na sekciju krmila, na aerodinamičke karakteristike modela za dva Mahova broja M∞ = 0,8 i 0,9 i otklon krmila δ=15°. Normalne sile koje se javljaju na modelu i krmilu merene su unutrašnjim aerovagama. Dobijeni rezultati merenja normalne sile na modelu i posebno na krmilu povezani su sa rezultatima vizualizacije strujanja metodom uljnih premaza. Priložene fotografije vizualizacije strujanja ilustruju promene strujanja oko modela i potvrđuju rezultate aerodinamičkih merenja. / Aerodynamic test results and boundary layer flow visualization on the wings and fins of laser guided bomb model are presented in this article. Test was performed in the T-38 wind tunnel. Influence of fin position relative to conic top of the model on aerodynamic characteristics was analyzed. Analysis was performed on aerodynamic characteristics of the model for two Mach numbers M∞ = 0,8 and 0,9 and fin deflection δ=15°. Normal forces present on the model and fin were measured by internal strain gauge balances. Obtained test results of normal force on the model and especially on the fin were associated with flow visualization results, which were performed by oil emulsion method. Presented images of flow visualization show changes of the flow around the model and confirm the results of the aerodynamic measurements.

  9. One-pot preparation of glutathione-silica hybrid monolith for mixed-mode capillary liquid chromatography based on "thiol-ene" click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zian; Tan, Xiaoqing; Yu, Ruifang; Lin, Jiashi; Yin, Xiaofei; Zhang, Lan; Yang, Huanghao

    2014-08-15

    A novel glutathione (GSH)-silica hybrid monolithic column synthesized via a combination of thiol-ene click reaction and one-pot process was described, where thiol-end GSH organic monomer and 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) were mixed with hydrolyzed tetramethyloxysilane (TMOS) and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MAPS) and then introduced into a fused-silica capillary for simultaneous polycondensation and "thiol-ene" click reaction to form the GSH-silica hybrid monolith. The effects of the molar ratio of TMOS/γ-MAPS, the amount of GSH, and the volume of porogen on the morphology, permeability and pore properties of the prepared GSH-silica hybrid monoliths were studied in detail. A uniform monolithic network with high porosity was obtained. A series of test compounds including alkylbenzenes, amides, and anilines were used to evaluate the retention behaviors of the GSH-silica hybrid monolithic column. The results demonstrated that the prepared GSH-silica hybrid monolith exhibited multiple interactions including hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, as well as cation exchange interaction. The run-to-run, column-to-column and batch-to-batch reproducibilities of the GSH-silica hybrid monolith for phenols' retention were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 1.3% (n=5), 2.6% (n=3) and 3.2% (n=3), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. In addition, the GSH-silica hybrid monolith was applied to the separation of nucleotides, peptides and protein tryptic digests, respectively. The successful applications suggested the potential of the GSH-silica hybrid monolith in complex sample analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Study on association of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism with risk of obesity, body fat mass and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasibulina, É S; Borisova, A V; Akhmetov, I I

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease which depends on the interaction between genome and environment. Fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) regulates lipid transport, intestinal absorption and metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the interrelation between the FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism, body mass index and body fat mass and to study distribution of genotypes and alleles frequencies of FABP2 gene in athletes and individuals who are not involved in sports. 315 athletes of different sport disciplines and levels and 612 controls (predominantly students) participated in the study. Genotyping for the FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism was performed by PCR. Body composition was analyzed by bioimpedance method. The study did not confirm the association of FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism with the risk of obesity and body fat mass. However, the frequency of the Thr54 allele was significantly higher in elite stayers (50.0%, p = 0.025) and combat athletes (46.2%, p = 0.013) in comparison with controls (32.2%). Thus, FABP2 gene Ala54Thr polymorphism is associated with the predisposition to endurance athletic performance.

  11. Quantitative model calculation of the time-dependent protoporphyrin IX concentration in normal human epidermis after delivery of ALA by passive topical application or lontophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, Willem M.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Sac, Arnoldo; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a mathematical layer model to quantitatively calculate the diffusion of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in the skin in vivo, its uptake into the cells and its conversion to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) and subsequently to heme. The model is a modification and extension of a recently presented

  12. Posttranslational Control of ALA Synthesis Includes GluTR Degradation by Clp Protease and Stabilization by GluTR-Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apitz, Janina; Nishimura, Kenji; Schmied, Judith; Wolf, Anja; Hedtke, Boris; van Wijk, Klaas J; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the first committed substrate of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and is formed from glutamyl-tRNA by two enzymatic steps. Glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR) as the first enzyme of ALA synthesis is encoded by HEMA genes and tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranslational levels. Here, we show that the caseinolytic protease (Clp) substrate adaptor ClpS1 and the ClpC1 chaperone as well as the GluTR-binding protein (GBP) interact with the N terminus of GluTR Loss-of function mutants of ClpR2 and ClpC1 proteins show increased GluTR stability, whereas absence of GBP results in decreased GluTR stability. Thus, the Clp protease system and GBP contribute to GluTR accumulation levels, and thereby the rate-limiting ALA synthesis. These findings are supported with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hema1 mutants expressing a truncated GluTR lacking the 29 N-terminal amino acid residues of the mature protein. Accumulation of this truncated GluTR is higher in dark periods, resulting in increased protochlorophyllide content. It is proposed that the proteolytic activity of Clp protease counteracts GBP binding to assure the appropriate content of GluTR and the adequate ALA synthesis for chlorophyll and heme in higher plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Muscle-Specific IRS-1 Ser→Ala Transgenic Mice Are Protected From Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katsutaro Morino; Susanne Neschen; Stefan Bilz; Saki Sono; Dimitrios Tsirigotis; Richard M. Reznick; Irene Moore; Yoshio Nagai; Varman Samuel; David Sebastian; Morris White; William Philbrick; Gerald I. Shulman

    2008-01-01

    Muscle-Specific IRS-1 Ser→Ala Transgenic Mice Are Protected From Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle Katsutaro Morino 1 2 , Susanne Neschen 1 2 , Stefan Bilz 2 , Saki Sono 2 , Dimitrios Tsirigotis 2 3 , Richard M...

  14. XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms and digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on model-free approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guangsheng; Wang, Jianlu; Dong, Jiahong; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have reported the association between XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms and digestive system cancer susceptibility, but the results were inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis, using a comprehensive strategy based on the allele model and a model-free approach, to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms with digestive system cancer risk. For XPC Ala499Val, no significant cancer risk was found in the allele model (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.11) and with model-free approach (ORG = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.83-1.13). For XPG Asp1104His, there was also no association between this polymorphism and cancer risk in the allele model (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.96-1.11) and with the model-free approach (ORG = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.95-1.14). Therefore, this meta-analysis suggests that the XPC Ala499Val and XPG Asp1104His polymorphisms were not associated with digestive system cancer risk. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  15. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  16. Sideroblastic anemia: molecular analysis of the ALAS2 gene in a series of 29 probands and functional studies of 10 missense mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducamp, Sarah; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Touati, Mohamed; Garçon, Loïc; Guerci-Bresler, Agnès; Guichard, Jean François; Vermylen, Christiane; Dochir, Joaquim; Poirel, Hélène A; Fouyssac, Fanny; Mansuy, Ludovic; Leroux, Geneviève; Tertian, Gérard; Girot, Robert; Heimpel, Hermann; Matthes, Thomas; Talbi, Neila; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Beaumont, Carole; Puy, Hervé; Grandchamp, Bernard

    2011-06-01

    X-linked Sideroblastic Anemia (XLSA) is the most common genetic form of sideroblastic anemia, a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by iron deposits in the mitochondria of erythroid precursors. XLSA is due to mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene. Thirteen different ALAS2 mutations were identified in 16 out of 29 probands with sideroblastic anemia. One third of the patients were females with a highly skewed X-chromosome inactivation. The identification of seven novel mutations in the ALAS2 gene, six missense mutations, and one deletion in the proximal promoter extends the allelic heterogeneity of XSLA. Most of the missense mutations were predicted to be deleterious, and 10 of them, without any published functional characterization, were expressed in Escherichia coli. ALAS2 activities were assayed in vitro. Five missense mutations resulted in decreased enzymatic activity under standard conditions, and two other mutated proteins had decreased activity when assayed in the absence of exogenous pyridoxal phosphate and increased thermosensitivity. Although most amino acid substitutions result in a clearly decreased enzymatic activity in vitro, a few mutations have a more subtle effect on the protein that is only revealed by in vitro tests under specific conditions. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. An insulin receptor mutant (Asp707 → Ala), involved in leprechaunism, is processed and transported to the cell surface but unable to bind insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. 't Hart (Leen); D. Lindhout (Dick); G.C.M. van der Zon (Gerard); H. Kayserilli (Hülya); M.Y. Apak (Memnune); W.J. Kleijer (Wim); E.R. van der Vorm (Eric); J.A. Maassen (Johannes)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe have identified a homozygous mutation near the carboxyl terminus of the insulin receptor (IR) α subunit from a leprechaun patient, changing Asp707 into Ala. Fibroblasts from this patient had no high affinity insulin binding sites. To examine the effect of the mutation on IR

  18. Selective inhibition of cysteine proteinases by Z-Phe-AlaCH2F suppresses digestion of collagen by fibroblasts and osteoclasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.; Everts, V.

    1991-01-01

    Effects of the selective inhibitor of cathepsins B and L, Z-Phe-AlaCH2F were studied on the degradation of fibrillar collagen by fibroblasts and osteoclasts in cultured rabbit calvariae at the electron microscopic level. Periosteal fibroblasts from inhibitor-treated explants showed a dose-dependent

  19. Validation of semaphorin 7A and ala-β-his-dipeptidase as biomarkers associated with the conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantó, Ester; Tintoré, Mar; Villar, Luisa Maria; Borrás, Eva; Alvarez-Cermeño, Jose Carlos; Chiva, Cristina; Sabidó, Eduard; Rovira, Alex; Montalban, Xavier; Comabella, Manuel

    2014-11-13

    In a previous proteomics study using pooled cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, we proposed apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein AIV, vitronectin, plasminogen, semaphorin 7A, and ala-β-his-dipeptidase as candidate biomarkers associated with the conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) in patients with clinically isolated syndromes (CIS). Here, we aimed to validate these results in individual CSF samples using alternative techniques. In a first replication study, levels of apolipoproteins AI and AIV, vitronectin, and plasminogen were measured by ELISA in CSF and serum of 56 CIS patients (29 patients who converted to CDMS (MS converters) and 27 patients who remained with CIS during follow-up (MS non-converters)) and 26 controls with other neurological disorders. Semaphorin 7A and ala-β-his-dipeptidase levels were determined by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in CSF of 36 patients (18 MS converters, 18 non-converters) and 20 controls. In a second replication study, apolipoprotein AI levels were measured by ELISA in CSF of 74 CIS patients (47 MS converters, 27 non-converters) and 50 individual controls, and levels of semaphorin 7A and ala-beta-his-dipeptidase were determined by SRM in 49 patients (24 MS converters, 25 non-converters) and 22 controls. CSF levels of apolipoprotein AI were increased (P = 0.043) and levels of semaphorin 7A and ala-β-his-dipeptidase decreased (P = 4.4 × 10(-10) and P = 0.033 respectively) in MS converters compared to non-converters. No significant differences were found in serum levels for apolipoproteins AI and AIV, vitronectin, and plasminogen. Findings with semaphorin 7A and ala-β-his-dipeptidase were also validated in the second replication study, and CSF levels for these two proteins were again decreased in MS converters versus non-converters (P = 1.2 × 10(-4) for semaphorin 7A; P = 3.7 × 10(-8) for ala-β-his-dipeptidase). Conversely, apolipoprotein AI findings were not replicated and CSF levels for this

  20. H2O2mediates ALA-induced glutathione and ascorbate accumulation in the perception and resistance to oxidative stress in Solanum lycopersicum at low temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Hu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jiao; Zhang, Junheng; Du, Qingjie; Li, Jianming

    2018-02-15

    Low temperature is a crucial factor influencing plant growth and development. The chlorophyll precursor, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used to improve plant cold tolerance. However, the interaction between H 2 O 2 and cellular redox signaling involved in ALA-induced resistance to low temperature stress in plants remains largely unknown. Here, the roles of ALA in perceiving and regulating low temperature-induced oxidative stress in tomato plants, together with the roles of H 2 O 2 and cellular redox states, were characterized. Low concentrations (10-25 mg·L - 1 ) of ALA enhanced low temperature-induced oxidative stress tolerance of tomato seedlings. The most effective concentration was 25 mg·L - 1 , which markedly increased the ratio of reduced glutathione and ascorbate (GSH and AsA), and enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase. Furthermore, gene expression of respiratory burst oxidase homolog1 and H 2 O 2 content were upregulated with ALA treatment under normal conditions. Treatment with exogenous H 2 O 2 , GSH, and AsA also induced plant tolerance to oxidative stress at low temperatures, while inhibition of GSH and AsA syntheses significantly decreased H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress tolerance. Meanwhile, scavenging or inhibition of H 2 O 2 production weakened, but did not eliminate, GSH- or AsA- induced tomato plant tolerance to oxidative stress at low temperatures. Appropriate concentrations of ALA alleviated the low temperature-induced oxidative stress in tomato plants via an antioxidant system. The most effective concentration was 25 mg·L - 1 . The results showed that H 2 O 2 induced by exogenous ALA under normal conditions is crucial and may be the initial step for perception and signaling transmission, which then improves the ratio of GSH and AsA. GSH and AsA may then interact with H 2 O 2 signaling, resulting in enhanced antioxidant capacity

  1. The Ala54Thr Polymorphism of the Fatty Acid Binding Protein 2 Gene Modulates HDL Cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M. Salto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The alanine to threonine amino acid substitution at codon 54 (Ala54Thr of the intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2 has been associated with elevated levels of insulin and blood glucose as well as with dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of this FABP2 polymorphism in Mexican-Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D in the context of a three-month intervention to determine if the polymorphism differentially modulates selected clinical outcomes. For this study, we genotyped 43 participant samples and performed post-hoc outcome analysis of the profile changes in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, lipid panel and body composition, stratified by the Ala54Thr polymorphism. Our results show that the Thr54 allele carriers (those who were heterozygous or homozygous for the threonine-encoding allele had lower HDL cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels at baseline compared to the Ala54 homozygotes (those who were homozygous for the alanine-encoding allele. Both groups made clinically important improvements in lipid profiles and glycemic control as a response to the intervention. Whereas the Ala54 homozygotes decreased HDL cholesterol in the context of an overall total cholesterol decrease, Thr54 allele carriers increased HDL cholesterol as part of an overall total cholesterol decrease. We conclude that the Ala54Thr polymorphism of FABP2 modulates HDL cholesterol in Mexican-Americans with T2D and that Thr54 allele carriers may be responsive in interventions that include dietary changes.

  2. Determination of the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to three ala-tragal lines in various skeletal malocclusions: a cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Shashinandan K; SatishBabu, C L; Rani, M S

    2012-01-01

    Establishment of a proper occlusal plane is needed for developing an occlusion that is compatible with the biomechanics of a stomatognathic system. There has been a great deal of controversy regarding the anatomic reference point/s taken for identifying the Camper's plane (Ala-Tragus) to which the occlusal plane is oriented parallel in regular complete denture Prosthodontic practice. There has been no study in literature to correlate the occlusal plane to the Camper's plane in various skeletal malocclusions using landmarks on a lateral Cephalogram. The aim of the study is to determine the relative parallelism of the occlusal plane to ala-tragal lines in various malocclusions. A total of sixty subjects belonging to Class I, Class II and class III malocclusions were selected for the study. Markings with radiopaque marker of 1 mm diameter were adhered against the superior, middle and inferior border of the tragus and against the lower borer of ala of the nose. Lateral cephalograms were obtained for all of the patients. Tracing was performed for all of these radiographs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test and Post-Hoc test of Bonferroni were used to compare the angles formed at the superior, middle and inferior borders with the occlusal plane. The result from the present study showed that in Class I and Class III malocclusion, the line drawn from the lower border of ala of the nose to the inferior position of the tragus (Camper' plane C) was relatively parallel to occlusal plane; and, in Class II malocclusion, the line drawn from the lower border of ala of nose to middle border of tragus (Camper's plane B) was relatively parallel to occlusal plane.

  3. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of intraoperative imaging in high-grade glioma resection; a comparative review of intraoperative ALA, fluorescein, ultrasound and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljamel, M Sam; Mahboob, Syed Osama

    2016-12-01

    Surgical resection of high-grade gliomas (HGG) is standard therapy because it imparts significant progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). However, HGG-tumor margins are indistinguishable from normal brain during surgery. Hence intraoperative technology such as fluorescence (ALA, fluorescein) and intraoperative ultrasound (IoUS) and MRI (IoMRI) has been deployed. This study compares the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these technologies. Critical literature review and meta-analyses, using MEDLINE/PubMed service. The list of references in each article was double-checked for any missing references. We included all studies that reported the use of ALA, fluorescein (FLCN), IoUS or IoMRI to guide HGG-surgery. The meta-analyses were conducted according to statistical heterogeneity between studies. If there was no heterogeneity, fixed effects model was used; otherwise, a random effects model was used. Statistical heterogeneity was explored by χ(2) and inconsistency (I(2)) statistics. To assess cost-effectiveness, we calculated the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Gross total resection (GTR) after ALA, FLCN, IoUS and IoMRI was 69.1%, 84.4%, 73.4% and 70% respectively. The differences were not statistically significant. All four techniques led to significant prolongation of PFS and tended to prolong OS. However none of these technologies led to significant prolongation of OS compared to controls. The cost/QALY was $16,218, $3181, $6049 and $32,954 for ALA, FLCN, IoUS and IoMRI respectively. ALA, FLCN, IoUS and IoMRI significantly improve GTR and PFS of HGG. Their incremental cost was below the threshold for cost-effectiveness of HGG-therapy, denoting that each intraoperative technology was cost-effective on its own. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microneedles rollers as a potential device to increase ALA diffusion and PpIX production: evaluations by wide-field fluorescence imaging and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracielli Sousa, R. Phamilla; de Menezes, Priscila F. C.; Fujita, Alessandra K. L.; Requena, Michelle B.; Govone, Angelo Biassi; Escobar, André; de Nardi, Andrigo B.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2014-03-01

    One of the limitations of topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the poor ability to penetrate biological barriers of skin and the recurrence rates in treatments. This study aimed to identify possible signs of increased diffusion of ALA-induced PpIX by fluorescence images and fluorescence spectroscopy. The research was done using in vivo porcine skin model. Before the cream application, microholes was performed with microneedles rollers in only one direction, afterward the ALA cream was applied at a 2.5cm2 area in triplicate and an occlusive dressing was placed. PpIX production was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy collected at skin surface after 70, 100, 140, and 180 minutes of ALA incubation. About 100 fluorescence spectra of each treatment were collected, distributed by about five points for each site. Wide-field fluorescence imaging was made after 70, 90, and 170 minutes after treatment. The results obtained by imaging analysis indicated increase of the PpIX diffusion in the skin surface using the microneedles rollers (MNs) before ALA application. Circular regions of red fluorescence around the microholes were observed. In addition, the fluorescence spectra showed a greater intensity (2 times as many) in groups microneedles rollers associated. In conclusion, our data shown greater homogeneity and PpIX production in the groups pre-treated with microneedles indicating that the technique can be used to greater uniformity of PpIX production throughout the area to be treated reducing the chances of recurrent tumor as well as has potential for decreasing the time of therapy. (FUNDING SUPPORT:CAPES, CNPq and FAPESP)

  5. Implication of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma 2 gene in type 2 diabetes and obesity in the French population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Marie-Aline

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pro12Ala Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma 2 (PPAR-gamma 2 has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D and also inconsistently with obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this SNP with regards to T2D and childhood and adult obesity in the French Caucasian population. Methods We conducted three independent case/control studies encompassing 2126 cases and 1124 controls. Results We found a significant association between PPAR-gamma 2 Pro12Ala SNP and T2D (p = 0.04, OR = 1.37, which was stronger when the T2D cohort was stratified according to the obesity status (p = 0.03, OR = 1.81 in obese T2D subjects. In contrast, there was no association between the Pro12Ala SNP and childhood and adulthood obesity. In normal glucose tolerant obese adults (but not in lean subjects, the Pro12 allele was associated with a significant increase in fasting insulin levels (p = 0.01, and in insulin resistance estimated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR (p = 0.003, after adjustment for age, gender and BMI. We didn't detect evidence for an interaction effect between the Pro12Ala SNP and the obesity status with respect to the HOMA-IR index in normal glucose tolerant children, but we found a borderline interaction (p = 0.06 in normal glucose tolerant adults. Conclusion Our results showed that the Pro12Ala polymorphism is not associated with childhood or adult obesity in the French Caucasian population. In contrast, we confirm a contribution of the PPAR-gamma 2 Pro12 allele in the genetic risk forT2D, especially in obese subjects, where this allele worsens insulin resistanceand increases fasting insulin levels.

  6. Long-term (6 and 12 months) follow-up of two prospective, randomized, controlled phase III trials of photodynamic therapy with BF-200 ALA and methyl aminolaevulinate for the treatment of actinic keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirschka, T; Radny, P; Dominicus, R; Mensing, H; Brüning, H; Jenne, L; Karl, L; Sebastian, M; Oster-Schmidt, C; Klövekorn, W; Reinhold, U; Tanner, M; Gröne, D; Deichmann, M; Simon, M; Hübinger, F; Hofbauer, G; Krähn-Senftleben, G; Borrosch, F; Reich, K; Berking, C; Wolf, P; Lehmann, P; Moers-Carpi, M; Hönigsmann, H; Wernicke-Panten, K; Hahn, S; Pabst, G; Voss, D; Foguet, M; Schmitz, B; Lübbert, H; Szeimies, R-M

    2013-01-01

    Background Two phase III trials of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with BF-200 ALA, a recently approved nanoemulsion formulation of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) demonstrated high clearance rates in mild-to-moderate actinic keratosis (AK). The comparison to a registered methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) cream demonstrated significantly superior total patient clearance rates. Objectives To evaluate long-term efficacy and safety of PDT for AK 6 and 12 months after the last PDT with BF-200 ALA, MAL or placebo. Methods The follow-up phase (FUP) was performed with patients of two phase III studies. Both studies compared BF-200 ALA with placebo, one of the studies additionally with MAL. Overall recurrence rates and various subgroups (light source, lesion severity, lesion location, complete responders after first PDT) were assessed 6 and 12 months after the last PDT. Results Recurrence rates were similar for BF-200 ALA and MAL, with a tendency to lower recurrence rates for BF-200 ALA. The proportion of patients who were fully cleared during PDT and remained completely clear for at least 12 months after PDT were 47% for BF-200 ALA (both studies) and 36% for MAL treatment. The subgroup that was illuminated with narrow wavelength LED lamps reached 69% and 53% for BF-200 ALA (both studies, respectively) and 41% for MAL. No safety concerns were reported. Conclusions The FUP data confirmed the high efficacy and safety of PDT with BF-200 ALA. The slightly lower recurrence rates after BF-200 ALA treatment compared with MAL treatment enhanced the better treatment outcome due to the significantly superior efficacy. PMID:23252768

  7. Obtención de modelo matemático para el desarrollo del perfil del ala de una aeronave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cabrera Pedroso

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo está dirigido a brindar un modelo matemático que permita el cálculo y determinación de una función analítica para la obtención del perfil de un ala de geometría simétrica y variable de una aeronave con el empleo de métodos computacionales. En el artículo se analiza los métodos para la elaboración de sistemas de cálculo basados en modelos matemáticos obtenidos en MATLAB 7.0 e implementados con el software LabVIEW 6.0 a través de programas de diseños asistidos por computadoras en AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. Los diferentes tópicos abordados dan a los interesados una idea global del desarrollo de esta tecnología computacional y su aplicación a ramas de la mecánica, así como la metodología seguida para obtener el perfil aerodinámico de un ala. También se exponen aspectos generales del empleo de la función AUTOLISP y el código fuente del programa diseñado.Title: Obtaining a mathematical model for the development of an airship wing profile.This article was carried out to obtain a mathematical model that allows the calculation and determination of an analytic function of symmetrical geometry profile and variable. In the article it is analyzed the methods for the elaboration of system of calculations based on mathematical models obtained with the software language LabVIEW 6.0 and it is used to developing the program attended by the computers AUTOCAD (AUTOLISP. The approached topics give to the interested parties a global idea of the development it gives this technology and their application to branches of the mechanical specialties, as well as the followed methodology to obtain the aerofoil profile of a wing. General aspects are also exposed of the employment of the function AUTOLISP and the source code on the sketch program.

  8. Adsorption of Amino Acids (Ala, Cys, His, Met) on Zeolites: Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Cristine E. A.; de Santana, Henrique; Casado, Clara; Coronas, Joaquin; Zaia, Dimas A. M.

    2011-06-01

    Minerals adsorb more amino acids with charged R-groups than amino acids with uncharged R-groups. Thus, the peptides that form from the condensation of amino acids on the surface of minerals should be composed of amino acid residues that are more charged than uncharged. However, most of the amino acids (74%) in today's proteins have an uncharged R-group. One mechanism with which to solve this paradox is the use of organophilic minerals such as zeolites. Over the range of pH (pH 2.66-4.50) used in these experiments, the R-group of histidine (His) is positively charged and neutral for alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), and methionine (Met). In acidic hydrothermal environments, the pH could be even lower than those used in this study. For the pH range studied, the zeolites were negatively charged, and the overall charge of all amino acids was positive. The conditions used here approximate those of prebiotic Earth. The most important finding of this work is that the relative concentrations of each amino acid (X=His, Met, Cys) to alanine (X/Ala) are close to 1.00. This is an important result with regard to prebiotic chemistry because it could be a solution for the paradox stated above. Pore size did not affect the adsorption of Cys and Met on zeolites, and the Si/Al ratio did not affect the adsorption of Cys, His, and Met. ZSM-5 could be used for the purification of Cys from other amino acids (Student-Newman-Keuls test, pzeolites through the group, and methionine-zeolite interactions involve the COO, , and CH3 groups. FT-IR spectra show that the interaction between the zeolites and His is weak. Cys showed higher adsorption on all zeolites; however, the hydrophobic Van der Waals interaction between zeolites and Cys is too weak to produce any structural changes in the Cys groups (amine, carboxylic, sulfhydryl, etc.); thus, the FT-IR and Raman spectra are the same as those of solid Cys.

  9. Adsorption of amino acids (ALA, CYS, HIS, MET) on zeolites: fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Cristine E A; de Santana, Henrique; Casado, Clara; Coronas, Joaquin; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2011-06-01

    Minerals adsorb more amino acids with charged R-groups than amino acids with uncharged R-groups. Thus, the peptides that form from the condensation of amino acids on the surface of minerals should be composed of amino acid residues that are more charged than uncharged. However, most of the amino acids (74%) in today's proteins have an uncharged R-group. One mechanism with which to solve this paradox is the use of organophilic minerals such as zeolites. Over the range of pH (pH 2.66-4.50) used in these experiments, the R-group of histidine (His) is positively charged and neutral for alanine (Ala), cysteine (Cys), and methionine (Met). In acidic hydrothermal environments, the pH could be even lower than those used in this study. For the pH range studied, the zeolites were negatively charged, and the overall charge of all amino acids was positive. The conditions used here approximate those of prebiotic Earth. The most important finding of this work is that the relative concentrations of each amino acid (X=His, Met, Cys) to alanine (X/Ala) are close to 1.00. This is an important result with regard to prebiotic chemistry because it could be a solution for the paradox stated above. Pore size did not affect the adsorption of Cys and Met on zeolites, and the Si/Al ratio did not affect the adsorption of Cys, His, and Met. ZSM-5 could be used for the purification of Cys from other amino acids (Student-Newman-Keuls test, pzeolites through the [Formula: see text] group, and methionine-zeolite interactions involve the COO, [Formula: see text], and CH(3) groups. FT-IR spectra show that the interaction between the zeolites and His is weak. Cys showed higher adsorption on all zeolites; however, the hydrophobic Van der Waals interaction between zeolites and Cys is too weak to produce any structural changes in the Cys groups (amine, carboxylic, sulfhydryl, etc.); thus, the FT-IR and Raman spectra are the same as those of solid Cys.

  10. Both Perelmans Thrown Down Gauntlets Versus Would-Be ``Science'' But Alas Sadly Mere ``SEANCES'' Put Jargonial-Obfuscation Sociological-Dysfunctionality(S-D) Ridden/Dominated Would-Be ``Sciences'' But Alas Sadly Mere SEANCES in ``Peril, Man''!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J.; Young, F.; Clay, London; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig (Physical-Mathematicist/Mathsicist)

    2011-03-01

    Both Perelman (Grigory[Poincare-conjecture: partial(with Richard Hamilton!!!)-"sole"-prover: by turning down first the Fields Medal at International Congress of [S-D right there: not mathematICS, but mathematicIANS!!!] Mathematicians (2007: Madrid); then the million-dollar Clay-Institute of Mathemat"ICS" (but really mathematicIANS POLITICIANS: Carlson, Yau,...et. al.) millennium-problem prize, revealing that it and its INSIDER POLITICS/POLITICIANS has/have "Feet of Clay"!!!], as sumarized by Naser-Gruber[Manfold-Destiny, The New Yorker, (August, 2007)] and separately Carlos Castro[with Corredoira: Against the Tid (2008)] put, by revealing the Jargonial-Obfuscation(J.-O.) (Bradshaw[Healing the SHAME that BINDS You, Hazelden(1980s)]-Martin[Brian, Wollongong University]-...ad INFINITUM (i.e. most if not all scientists), ad NAUSEUM!!! (disgusted with "games people play!!!)) S-D ridden/ dominated "games people play" would-be "sciences" (maths, physics,...: ad infinitum; ad NAUSEUM!!!) but alas sadly only mere Bradshaw-Martin S-D DOMINATED "SEANCES"!!!, in "peril, man"!!!

  11. Survey of Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate Health Condition in Terms of Parasites and Microbes in Alas Purwo National Park, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurrota A'yunin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian waters have six types of turtles that can live, spawn and breed. Sea turtle conservation becomes an important and urgent program to be done in order to protect and save sea turtle population in Indonesia. One of the factors that most affect the turtle population is the cause of degradation of pathogenic factors. Alas Purwo National Park, East Java, there is some communities that have activities turtle conservation. Conservation is done by securing and protecting turtle eggs. Turtle eggs that have hatched are released into the sea once it is ready. This study aims was to determine the type of bacteria and fungi that infect hatchlings and environmental factors that influence. This research is descriptive method to Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricate is by way of random sampling. Sampling of microbes in sea turtle was conducted using cotton swab method and then microbes was cultured and indentified in laboratory. The results showed The kind of parasites and microbes which were indentified in hatching and adult Hawksbill sea turtles were fungus with genus Aspergillus sp., Geotrichum sp., Fusarium sp., and Gliocladium sp. ; bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloaceae; and parasite is Chelonibia testudinaria barnacles.  The parameter average value of water in pond indicated 28.1 – 29.2°C for temperature, 32 - 34 ‰ for salinity, 7.78 – 8.2 for pH, and 3.86 – 4.21 mg/L for DO.

  12. Pressure dependence of backbone chemical shifts in the model peptides Ac-Gly-Gly-Xxx-Ala-NH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlach, Markus Beck; Koehler, Joerg; Crusca, Edson; Kremer, Werner; Munte, Claudia E; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-06-01

    For a better understanding of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detected pressure responses of folded as well as unstructured proteins the availability of data from well-defined model systems are indispensable. In this work we report the pressure dependence of chemical shifts of the backbone atoms (1)H(α), (13)C(α) and (13)C' in the protected tetrapeptides Ac-Gly-Gly-Xxx-Ala-NH2 (Xxx one of the 20 canonical amino acids). Contrary to expectation the chemical shifts of these nuclei have a nonlinear dependence on pressure in the range from 0.1 to 200 MPa. The polynomial pressure coefficients B 1 and B 2 are dependent on the type of amino acid studied. The coefficients of a given nucleus show significant linear correlations suggesting that the NMR observable pressure effects in the different amino acids have at least partly the same physical cause. In line with this observation the magnitude of the second order coefficients of nuclei being direct neighbors in the chemical structure are also weakly correlated.

  13. Nonconserved Residues Ala287 and Ser290 of the Cryptosporidium hominis Thymidylate Synthase Domain Facilitate Its Rapid Rate of Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doan,L.; Martucci, W.; Vargo, M.; Atreya, C.; Anderson, K.

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidium hominis TS-DHFR exhibits an unusually high rate of catalysis at the TS domain, at least 10-fold greater than those of other TS enzymes. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have mutated residues Ala287 and Ser290 in the folate-binding helix to phenylalanine and glycine, respectively, the corresponding residues in human and most other TS enzymes. Our results show that the mutant A287F, the mutant S290G, and the double mutant all have reduced affinities for methylene tetrahydrofolate and reduced rates of reaction at the TS domain. Interestingly, the S290G mutant enzyme had the lowest TS activity, with a catalytic efficiency {approx}200-fold lower than that of the wild type (WT). The rate of conformational change of the S290G mutant is {approx}80 times slower than that of WT, resulting in a change in the rate-limiting step from hydride transfer to covalent ternary complex formation. We have determined the crystal structure of ligand-bound S290G mutant enzyme, which shows that the primary effect of the mutation is an increase in the distance between the TS ligands. The kinetic and crystal structure data presented here provide the first evidence explaining the unusually fast TS rate in C. hominis.

  14. Microstructural features associated with the effect of temperature on the dimensional stability of an automotive Al-A319 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Lopez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work an automotive Al-A319 was given a solid solution heat treatment (T4 at 753 K (480 °C for 4.5 hours and an ageing treatment (T7 at 513 K (240 °C for various times up to 3.0 h. The alloy in the T4 condition was dilatometrically tested at various temperatures in order to measure its relative dimensional changes. It was found that the dimensional changes are due to both, alloy thermal expansion and nucleation and growth of second phases. In addition, in the T7 condition the alloy strength and ductility were determined as a function of ageing times. Ageing promoted alloy strength but at the expenses of a rather poor alloy ductility (down to 1%. Apparently, Cu rich intermetallic phases and regions provided a brittle path for fracturing. In particular, microstructural characterization using high resolution transmission electron microscopy indicated that not all the Cu in the matrix was dissolved during the T4 treatment. Hence, after ageing (T7 these Cu-rich regions seemed to coarsen into spherical particles.

  15. Ala344Pro mutation in the FGFR2 gene and related clinical findings in one Chinese family with Crouzon syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Ai, Siming; Chen, Chuan; Liu, Xialin; Luo, Lixia; Ye, Shaobi; Liang, Xuanwei; Zhu, Yi; Yang, Huasheng; Liu, Yizhi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene in three Chinese patients with Crouzon syndrome and to characterize the related clinical features. A single family underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, and three patients were diagnosed with Crouzon syndrome. Genomic DNA was extracted from leukocytes of peripheral blood collected from members of the family as well as from 100 unrelated control subjects from the same population. Exons 8 and 10 of FGFR 2 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced. We performed ophthalmic examinations, including best-corrected visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, Pentacam, Goldmann perimetry, and computed tomography (CT) of the skull. The three patients were affected with shallow orbits and ocular proptosis, accompanied by mid-face hypoplasia and craniosynostosis, but had clinically normal hands and feet. A heterozygous FGFR2 missense mutation c.1030G>C (Ala344Pro) in exon 10 was identified in the affected individuals, but not in any of the unaffected family members or the normal controls. The mutation we identified has not previously been reported, either in China or abroad. Although FGFR2 mutations and polymorphisms have been reported in various ethnic groups, especially in the area of osteology, we report, for the first time, the identification of one new FGFR2 gene mutation in Chinese patients with Crouzon syndrome.

  16. Formation of 5-aminolevulinic-acid (ALA) induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and photodynamic effectiveness in human urothelial cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Juergen; Krieg, Rene C.; Rauch, Joachim; Waidelich, Raphaela M.; Stepp, Herbert G.; Knuechel, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Background: To optimize differential effectiveness of aminulevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX)- mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) on normal and tumor urothelial cells, aspects of PPIX formation and parameters responsible for treatment efficiency were examined in vitro. Material and Methods: Plateau phase cells of a bladder cancer and a normal urothelial cell line were incubated using various incubation conditions and analyzed with respect to their PPIX content and cellular sensitizer distribution. PDT was performed using incoherent light from a Xenon coldlight projector. Photo toxicity was investigated using flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide exclusion and analysis of cell size and number. Results: Following 3h incubation intervals, both cell lines showed similar PPIX localization with an amount of sensitizer three times higher in RT4 tumor cells. 1h incubation times resulted in the same ratio of PPIX amount but lead to different cellular PPIX distribution. After 3h incubation, PDT resulted in complete tumor cell kill accomplished by a marked fraction of damaged normal urothelial cells. TR4 cell kill with significantly reduced damage of UROtsa cells could be achieved using 1h incubation times. Discussion: Besides sensitizer amount, cellular localization is crucial for PDT effectiveness. Differential effectiveness of tumor and normal cells can be enhanced utilizing the finding of different PPIX distribution after short incubation times.

  17. The effect of 3β, 6β, 16β-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene lupane compound isolated from Combretum leprosum Mart. on peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacouth-Silva, Fabianne; Xavier, Caroline V; da S Setúbal, Sulamita; Pontes, Adriana S; Nery, Neriane M; de Castro, Onassis Boeri; Fernandes, Carla F C; Honda, Eduardo R; Zanchi, Fernando B; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M; Silva-Jardim, Izaltina; Facundo, Valdir A; Zuliani, Juliana P

    2015-11-25

    The Combretum leprosum Mart. plant, popularly known as mofumbo, is used in folk medicine for inflammation, pain and treatment of wounds. From this species, it is possible to isolate three triterpenes: (3β, 6β, 16β-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene) called lupane, arjunolic acid and molic acid. In this study, through preclinical tests, the effect of lupane was evaluated on the cytotoxicity and on the ability to activate cellular function by the production of TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine, and IL-10, an immuno regulatory cytokine was assessed. The effect of lupane on the enzymes topoisomerase I and II was also evaluated. For this reason, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained and cytotoxicity was assessed by the MTT method at three different times (1, 15 and 24 h), and different concentrations of lupane (0.3, 0.7, 1.5, 6, 3 and 12 μg/mL). The cell function was assessed by the production of TNF-α and IL-10 by PBMCs quantified by specific enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). The activity of topoisomerases was assayed by in vitro biological assays and in silico molecular docking. The results obtained showed that lupane at concentrations below 1.5 μg/mL was not toxic to the cells. Moreover, lupane was not able to activate cellular functions and did not alter the production of IL-10 and TNF-α. Furthermore, the data showed that lupane has neither interfered in the action of topoisomerase I nor in the action of topoisomerase II. Based on preclinical results obtained in this study, we highlight that the compound studied (lupane) has moderate cytotoxicity, does not induce the production of TNF-α and IL-10, and does not act on human topoisomerases. Based on the results of this study and taking into consideration the reports about the anti-inflammatory and leishmanicidal activity of 3β, 6β, 16β-trihydroxylup-20(29)-ene, we suggest that this compound may serve as a biotechnological tool for the treatment of leishmaniasis in the future.

  18. Origin and palaeoenvironmental significance of C25 and C27n-alk-1-enes in a 25,000-year lake-sedimentary record from equatorial East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bree, L. G. J.; Rijpstra, W. I. C.; Cocquyt, C.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Verschuren, D.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; de Leeuw, J. W.

    2014-11-01

    We studied the distribution of long-chain alkenes (n-C23 to n-C31) in well-dated sediments from Lake Challa, a deep crater lake near Mt. Kilimanjaro in equatorial East Africa, to reveal signatures of palaeo-environmental and palaeo-climatic changes affecting the production of these compounds during the last 25 kyr. The apolar fractions of organic sediment extracts dated to the last 16 kyr showed an unusual dominance of δ13C-depleted n-C25:1 and n-C27:1 alk-1-enes. These alkenes were not detected in soil and litter from near the shoreline and from the inner rim of the crater, pointing to an autochthonous, aquatic source. Analysis of suspended particulate matter indicated that the n-alk-1-enes are produced in the well-oxygenated upper 30 m of the water column, indicating a phytoplanktonic origin. Sedimenting particles collected monthly from December 2006 to November 2007 showed increased fluxes of n-alk-1-enes following the locally prominent short rain season in November-December. Green algae and/or cyanobacteria were identified as candidate sources of these alkenes. Production of the n-C25:1 and n-C27:1 alkenes in Lake Challa was much reduced during the Last Glacial Maximum and early late-glacial period, suggesting a temperature or CO2 effect on habitat suitability. We explored the potential of n-alk-1-ene accumulation rates, and of a derived Alkene Index [n-C27:1]/([n-C25:1] + [n-C27:1]), to record longer-term climatic changes. The Alkene Index record of Lake Challa over the past 25 kyr shows clear periodicity with a dominant frequency of ∼2.3 kyr, potentially indicative of monsoon variability directly or indirectly forced by variation in solar radiation.

  19. A Novel g.55040074delT in ALAS2 Gene Resulting in a Monomeric Protein and Severe Sideroblastic Anemia Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Prateek; Singh, Aditya; Hedge, Avani

    2017-08-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are a rare group of disorders resulting from defective iron incorporation during heme synthesis and hence characterized by anemia and presence of ringed sideroblasts in bone marrow. The most common form is an X-linked disorder caused by mutations in ALAS2 gene. In the current paper, a case of X-linked sideroblastic anemia caused by a novel homozygous deletional mutation in exon 10 of ALAS2 gene is presented. The female infant developed moderately severe anemia at 6 months of age, which did not improve despite adequate nutritional support. The diagnosis was suspected considering a high plasma ferritin of 740.9 μg/L. The protein structure as predicted by SWISS model was a monomeric form rather than wild-type homodimer, resulting in marked loss of function and protein instability.

  20. LA and ALA prevent glucose intolerance in obese male rats without reducing reactive lipid content, but cause tissue-specific changes in fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matravadia, Sarthak; Zabielski, Piotr; Chabowski, Adrian; Mutch, David M; Holloway, Graham P

    2016-04-01

    While the cause of Type 2 diabetes remains poorly defined, the accumulation of reactive lipids within white adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver have been repeatedly implicated as underlying mechanisms. The ability of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to prevent the development of insulin resistance has gained considerable interest in recent years; however, the mechanisms-of-action remain poorly described. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) in preventing insulin resistance and reactive lipid accumulation in key metabolic tissues of the obese Zucker rat. Obese Zucker rats displayed impaired glucose homeostasis and reduced n-3 and n-6 PUFA content in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT). After the 12-wk feeding intervention, both LA- and ALA-supplemented diets prevented whole body glucose and insulin intolerance; however, ALA had a more pronounced effect. These changes occurred in association with n-3 and n-6 accumulation in all tissues studied, albeit to different extents (EWAT > liver > muscle). Triacylglycerol (TAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), ceramide, and sphingolipid accumulation were not attenuated in obese animals supplemented with either LA or ALA, suggesting that preservation of glucose homeostasis occurred independent of changes in reactive lipid content. However, PUFA-supplemented diets differentially altered the fatty acid composition of TAGs, DAGs, and PLs in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting essential fatty acid metabolism differs between tissues. Together, our results indicate that remodeling of the fatty acid composition of various lipid fractions may contribute to the improved glucose tolerance observed in obese rats fed PUFA-supplemented diets. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Thr202Ala in thyA Is a Marker for the Latin American Mediterranean Lineage of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Rather than Para-Aminosalicylic Acid Resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Feuerriegel, S.

    2010-08-30

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in the development of resistance represent powerful markers for the rapid detection of first- and second-line resistance in clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates. However, the association between particular mutations and phenotypic resistance is not always clear-cut, and phylogenetic SNPs have been misclassified as resistance markers in the past. In the present study, we investigated the utility of a specific polymorphism in thyA (Thr202Ala) as a marker for resistance to para-aminosalicyclic acid (PAS). Sixty-three PAS-susceptible MTBC strains comprising all major phylogenetic lineages, reference strain H37Rv, and 135 multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains from Germany (comprising 8 PAS-resistant isolates) were investigated for the presence of Thr202Ala. In both strain collections, the Thr202Ala SNP was found exclusively in strains of the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) lineage irrespective of PAS resistance. Furthermore, PAS MICs (0.5 mg/liter) for selected LAM strains (all containing the SNP) and non-LAM strains (not containing the SNP), as well as the results of growth curve analyses performed in liquid 7H9 medium in the presence of increasing PAS concentrations (0 to 2.0 mg/liter), were identical. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the Thr202Ala polymorphism in thyA is not a valid marker for PAS resistance but, instead, represents a phylogenetic marker for the LAM lineage of the M. tuberculosis complex. These findings challenge some of the previous understanding of PAS resistance and, as a consequence, warrant further in-depth investigations of the genetic variation in PAS-resistant clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants.

  2. [Congenital sideroblastic anemia-a new family with identification of K156E mutation of ALAS2 gene and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rui; Xu, Zefeng; Qin, Tiejun; Zhang, Yue; Xiao, Zhijian

    2014-02-01

    To raise awareness of molecular pathogenesis and treatment of congenital sideroblastic anemia (CSA). A complete blood count and iron metabolism were detected from the proband and other members of the family. Mutation analysis was performed on the complete coding regions of ALAS2 gene by common polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA as a template from members the family. ALAS2 mutations were detected by direct sequencing and mutation types were confirmed by sequencing followed by plasmid cloning. The proband male presented with microcytic hypochromic anemia (hemoglobin 84 g/L, mean corpuscular volume 64 fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin 16.5 pg), and iron overload (serum iron 44.7 μmol/L, serum ferritin 3 123 μg/L and transferrin saturation 0.84). A mutation 466 A>G predicting a Lys156Glu amino acid change was identified in the proband and 3 females from the family. The proband was hemizygous for this mutation and presented with microcytic anemia and iron overload, while all 3 heterozygous females showed marginally increased red cell distribution width without any other symptoms. The proband treated with 300 mg of pyridoxine per day and iron chelation therapy with deferoxamine for one year had durable hematopoietic patients improvements, including increase in hemoglobin to 98 g/L and decrease in serum ferritin to 1 580 μg/L. This was a novel K156E substitution in ALAS2 gene identified in a 3-generation pedigree in China. Our findings emphasized the importance of gene based diagnosis of CSA, and CSA patient with ALAS2 mutation responded to pyridoxine treatment.

  3. Aspectos de la tradición clásica en La Regenta de Leopoldo Alas, "Clarín"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan Antonio López Férez

    2009-01-01

    ... de la literatura latina; personajes históricos griegos o romanos; notas de cultura greco- rromana; apunte sobre el léxico de origen griego o latino. Palabras clave: Tradición clásica - La Regenta - Clarín Abstract Leopoldo Alas, “Clarín”, often mentions the Greco-Roman classics, some- times with satyrical intention, demonstrating the ignora...

  4. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis targets cell division loci and specifically recognizes L-Ala2-cross-bridged peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jun; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced from clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and consists of two extracellular proteins, BacL1 and BacA. We previously reported that BacL1 protein (595 amino acids, 64.5 kDa) is a bacteriolytic peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase that induces cell lysis of E. faecalis when an accessory factor, BacA, is copresent. However, the target of BacL1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the targeting specificity of BacL1. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using fluorescent dye-conjugated recombinant protein demonstrated that BacL1 specifically localized at the cell division-associated site, including the equatorial ring, division septum, and nascent cell wall, on the cell surface of target E. faecalis cells. This specific targeting was dependent on the triple repeat of the SH3 domain located in the region from amino acid 329 to 590 of BacL1. Repression of cell growth due to the stationary state of the growth phase or to treatment with bacteriostatic antibiotics rescued bacteria from the bacteriolytic activity of BacL1 and BacA. The static growth state also abolished the binding and targeting of BacL1 to the cell division-associated site. Furthermore, the targeting of BacL1 was detectable among Gram-positive bacteria with an L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridging peptidoglycan, including E. faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, but not among bacteria with alternate peptidoglycan structures, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that BacL1 specifically targets the L-Ala-L-Ala-cross-bridged peptidoglycan and potentially lyses the E. faecalis cells during cell division. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene Ala222Val and susceptibility to ovary cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinwei; Lu, Yan; Long, Ying; Yao, Desheng

    2014-03-01

    Many studies have reported the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene Ala222Val polymorphism with ovary cancer risk, but the results remained controversial. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism and ovary cancer risk. A total of 8 studies including 3,723 cases and 4,001 controls were also involved in this meta-analysis. When all the eligible studies were pooled into this meta-analysis, no significant association between ovary cancer risk and MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism was found in all genetic models [codominant model: OR = 0.980, 95% CI = 0.756-1.270, P h = 0.088, P = 0.877; dominant model: OR = 1.022, 95% CI = 0.864-1.208, P h = 0.033, P = 0.803; recessive model: OR = 1.050, 95% CI = 0.803-1.373, P h = 0.032, P = 0.723; allele comparison model: OR = 1.028, 95% CI = 0.898-1.178, P h = 0.012, P = 0.685]. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, no evidence of any associations of this polymorphism with ovary cancer was found in the Caucasian populations. Our meta-analysis supports that the MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism is not contributed to the risk of ovary cancer from currently available evidence.

  6. Ala54Thr fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2 polymorphism in recurrent depression: associations with fatty acid concentrations and waist circumference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel J T Mocking

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fatty acid (FA-alterations may mediate the mutual association between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD and cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, etiology of observed FA-alterations in MDD and CVD remains largely unclear. An interesting candidate may be a mutation in the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2-gene, because it regulates dietary FA-uptake. Therefore, we aimed to test the hypotheses that in MDD-patients the FABP2 Ala54Thr-polymorphism would be (I more prevalent than in sex- and age-matched controls, (II associated with observed alterations in FA-metabolism, and (III associated with CVD-risk factor waist circumference. METHODS: We measured concentrations of 29 different erythrocyte FAs, FABP2-genotype, and waist circumference in recurrent MDD-patients and matched never-depressed controls. RESULTS: FABP2-genotype distribution did not significantly differ between the 137 MDD-patients and 73 matched controls. However, patients with the Ala54Thr-polymorphism had (I higher concentrations of especially eicosadienoic acid (C20:2ω6; P=.009 and other 20-carbon FAs, and associated (II lower waist circumference (P=.019. In addition, FABP2-genotype effects on waist circumference in patients seemed (I mediated by its effect on C20:2ω6, and (II different from controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although Ala54Thr-polymorphism distribution was not associated with recurrent MDD, our results indicate that FABP2 may play a role in the explanation of observed FA-alterations in MDD. For Ala54Thr-polymorphism patients, potentially adaptive conversion of increased bioavailable dietary precursors into eicosadienoic acid instead of arachidonic acid might be related to a low waist circumference. Because this is the first investigation of these associations, replication is warranted, preferably by nutrigenetic studies applying lipidomics and detailed dietary assessment.

  7. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals muscle of common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L, 1758) from Ala gul and Alma gul wetlands of Golestan and consumption risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Anoushiravan Mohseni Bandpei

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metals are importantly concerned due their biological accumulation and toxicity in terms of human health. Common carp is one of the most popular seafood in the North of Iran especially in Golestan province. In this descriptive-analytical research, about 30 samples of common carp were collected from Ala gul and (n: 24) and Alma gul (n: 6) wetlands. Once the samples were prepared by polarography device, the concentration of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper were measured in the muscle tissue...

  8. Bacteriocin Protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis Targets Cell Division Loci and Specifically Recognizes l-Ala2-Cross-Bridged Peptidoglycan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jun; Nakane, Daisuke; Nishizaka, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced from clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis and consists of two extracellular proteins, BacL1 and BacA. We previously reported that BacL1 protein (595 amino acids, 64.5 kDa) is a bacteriolytic peptidoglycan d-isoglutamyl-l-lysine endopeptidase that induces cell lysis of E. faecalis when an accessory factor, BacA, is copresent. However, the target of BacL1 remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the targeting specificity of BacL1. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using fluorescent dye-conjugated recombinant protein demonstrated that BacL1 specifically localized at the cell division-associated site, including the equatorial ring, division septum, and nascent cell wall, on the cell surface of target E. faecalis cells. This specific targeting was dependent on the triple repeat of the SH3 domain located in the region from amino acid 329 to 590 of BacL1. Repression of cell growth due to the stationary state of the growth phase or to treatment with bacteriostatic antibiotics rescued bacteria from the bacteriolytic activity of BacL1 and BacA. The static growth state also abolished the binding and targeting of BacL1 to the cell division-associated site. Furthermore, the targeting of BacL1 was detectable among Gram-positive bacteria with an l-Ala-l-Ala-cross-bridging peptidoglycan, including E. faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus pneumoniae, but not among bacteria with alternate peptidoglycan structures, such as Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus hirae, Staphylococcus aureus, or Listeria monocytogenes. These data suggest that BacL1 specifically targets the l-Ala-l-Ala-cross-bridged peptidoglycan and potentially lyses the E. faecalis cells during cell division. PMID:25368300

  9. Effects of Bisphenol A Metabolite 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene on Lung Function and Type 2 Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Su, Chin-Chuan; Lee, Kuan-I; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2016-12-16

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is recognized as a major pollutant worldwide. 4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) is a major active metabolite of BPA. The epidemiological and animal studies have reported that BPA is harmful to lung function. The role of MBP in lung dysfunction after BPA exposure still remains unclear. This study investigated whether MBP would induce lung alveolar cell damage and evaluated the role of MBP in the BPA exposure-induced lung dysfunction. An in vitro type 2 alveolar epithelial cell (L2) model and an ex vivo isolated reperfused rat lung model were used to determine the effects of BPA or MBP on cell growth and lung function. MBP, but not BPA, dose-dependently increased the mean artery pressure (Pa), pulmonary capillary pressure (Pc), pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and wet/dry weight ratio in isolated reperfused rat lungs. MBP significantly reduced cell viability and induced caspases-3/7 cleavage and apoptosis and increased AMP-activated protein kinas (AMPK) phosphorylation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related molecules expression in L2 cells, which could be reversed by AMPK-siRNA transfection. These findings demonstrated for the first time that MBP exposure induced type 2 alveolar cell apoptosis and lung dysfunction through an AMPK-regulated ER stress signaling pathway.

  10. Fast preparation of a highly efficient organic monolith via photo-initiated thiol-ene click polymerization for capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianfang; Ou, Junjie; Liu, Zhongshan; Lin, Hui; Wang, Hongwei; Dong, Jing; Zou, Hanfa

    2015-05-15

    A novel organic monolith was firstly prepared in a UV-transparent fused-silica capillary by a single-step approach via photo-initiated thiol-ene click polymerization reaction of 1,2,4-trivinylcyclohexane (TVCH) and pentaerythriol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate) (4SH) within 10min. The effects of both composition of prepolymerization solution and polymerization time on the morphology and permeability of monolithic column were investigated in detail. Then, the optimal condition was acquired to fabricate a homogeneous and permeable organic monolith. The chemical groups of the monolithic column were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The SEM graphs showed the organic monolith possessed a uniform porous structure, which promotes the highest column efficiency of ∼133,000 plates per meter for alkylbenzenes at the linear velocity of 0.65mm/s in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Finally, the organic monolithic column was further applied for separation of basic compounds, pesticides and EPA610, indicating satisfactory separation ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The synthesis of weak acidic type hybrid monolith via thiol-ene click chemistry and its application in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiao; Liu, Shengquan; Wang, Menglin; Yao, Shouzhuo; Chen, Yingzhuang

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a porous structure and good permeability monolithic column was polymerized in UV transparent fused-silica capillaries via photo-initiated thiol-ene click polymerization of 2,4,6,8-tetravinyl-2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVS), pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate)(PETMP), itaconic acid, respectively, in the presence of porogenic solvents (tetrahydrofuranand methanol) and an initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) (DMPA) within 30 min. The physical properties of this monolith were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. For an overall evaluation of the monolith in chromatographic application, separations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, amides and bases were carried out. The column efficiency of this monolith could be as high as 112 560 N/m. It also possesses a potential application in fabrication of monoliths with high efficiency for c-LC. In addition, the resulting monolithic column demonstrated the potential use in analysis of environment waters. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Occurrence of (Z)-3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene in Different Types of Beer and Malt Beer as a Result of 3-Deoxyhexosone Interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Nobis, Arndt; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-06

    In beer, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) are important sugar degradation products, but little is known about the relevance of the interconversion reaction between these compounds in different types of beer. In the present study, 3-DG was quantitated at concentrations of 12.9-52.7 mg/L and 3-DGal at concentrations of 6.0-26.4 mg/L in different types of beer (pilsner, wheat, bock, dark, and alcohol-free beers). The concentrations in malt beer tended to be higher. Largely overlapping concentration ranges precluded a classification of beers by their 3-deoxyglycosone contents. 3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as an important intermediate and quantitated in beer and malt beer for the first time. The E and Z isomers of the corresponding quinoxaline were synthesized by a new synthetic approach and isolated by semipreparative HPLC. An assay was developed for quantitation of (E)- and (Z)-3,4-DGE by HPLC-MS/MS, and the Z isomer was determined at concentrations of 0.3-1.7 mg/L in beer and 0.5-4.8 mg/L in malt beer samples. The E isomer was shown to be of little importance. Concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were twice as high as those of (Z)-3,4-DGE in beer samples (0.4-3.7 mg/L) but much higher in malt beer samples (1.6-336 mg/L).

  13. "One-step" preparation of thiol-ene clickable PEG-based thermoresponsive hyperbranched copolymer for in situ crosslinking hybrid hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yixiao; Saeed, Aram Omer; Hassan, Waqar; Keigher, Catherine; Zheng, Yu; Tai, Hongyun; Pandit, Abhay; Wang, Wenxin

    2012-01-01

    A well-defined poly(ethylene glycol) based hyperbranched thermoresponsive copolymer with high content of acrylate vinyl groups was synthesized via a "one-pot and one-step" deactivation enhanced atom transfer radical polymerization approach, which provided an injectable and in situ crosslinkable system via Michael-type thiol-ene reaction with a thiol-modified hyaluronan biopolymer. The hyperbranched structure, molecular weight, and percentage of vinyl content of the copolymer were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and (1)H NMR. The lower critical solution temperature of this copolymer is close to body temperature, which can result in a rapid thermal gelation at 37 °C. The scanning electron microscopy analysis of crosslinked hydrogel showed the network formation with porous structure, and 3D cell culture study demonstrated the good cell viability after the cells were embedded inside the hydrogel. This injectable and in situ crosslinking hybrid hydrogel system offers great promise as a new class of hybrid biomaterials for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Critical Parameters and Critical-Region (p,ρ ,T) Data of trans-1,1,1,3-Tetrafluorobut-2-ene [HFO-1354mzy(E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takeru; Kayukawa, Yohei; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    This study presents the experimental measurement of the pρ T properties and critical parameters of a low GWP type refrigerant, trans-1,1,1,3-Tetrafluorobut-2-ene (HFO-1354mzy(E)). The sample purity of the substance was 99 area %. p ρ T property measurements and visual observations of the meniscus of HFO-1354mzy(E) were carried out using a metal-bellows volumometer with an optical cell. The critical temperature was determined by observation of the critical opalescence. The critical pressure and critical density were determined as the inflection point of the isothermal p ρ T property data at the critical temperature. For more precise clarification of the thermodynamic surface in the vicinity of the critical point, additional p ρ T property measurements were carried out on three isotherms in the supercritical region. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) in the temperature, pressure, and density measurements were estimated to be less than 3 mK, 1.2 kPa, and 0.32 \\hbox {kg} \\cdot \\hbox {m}^{-3}, respectively. The expanded uncertainties of the critical parameters were estimated to be less than 13 mK, 1.4 kPa, and 2.3 \\hbox {kg} \\cdot \\hbox {m}^{-3}, respectively. These values are the first reported for HFO-1354mzy(E) and are necessary for the development of its equation of state in the near future.

  15. Thiol-ene immobilisation of carbohydrates onto glass slides as a simple alternative to gold-thiol monolayers, amines or lipid binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Caroline I; Edmondson, Steve; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-01-01

    Carbohydrate arrays are a vital tool in studying infection, probing the mechanisms of bacterial, viral and toxin adhesion and the development of new treatments, by mimicking the structure of the glycocalyx. Current methods rely on the formation of monolayers of carbohydrates that have been chemically modified with a linker to enable interaction with a functionalised surface. This includes amines, biotin, lipids or thiols. Thiol-addition to gold to form self-assembled monolayers is perhaps the simplest method for immobilisation as thiolated glycans are readily accessible from reducing carbohydrates in a single step, but are limited to gold surfaces. Here we have developed a quick and versatile methodology which enables the use of thiolated carbohydrates to be immobilised as monolayers directly onto acrylate-functional glass slides via a 'thiol-ene'/Michael-type reaction. By combining the ease of thiol chemistry with glass slides, which are compatible with microarray scanners this offers a cost effective, but also useful method to assemble arrays.

  16. IN0523 (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol) a plant based derivative of boswellic acid protect Cisplatin induced urogenital toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amarinder; Arvinda, S; Singh, Surjeet; Suri, Jyotsna; Koul, Surinder; Mondhe, Dilip M; Singh, Gurdarshan; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2017-03-01

    The limiting factor for the use of Cisplatin in the treatment of different type of cancers is its toxicity and more specifically urogenital toxicity. Oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon associated with Cisplatin toxicity. However, in Cisplatin treated group, abnormal animal behavior, decreased body weight, cellular and sub-cellular changes in the kidney and sperm abnormality were observed. Our investigation revealed that Cisplatin when administered in combination with a natural product derivative (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol, labeled as IN0523) resulted in significant restoration of body weight and protection against the pathological alteration caused by Cisplatin to kidney and testis. Sperm count and motility were significantly restored near to normal. Cisplatin caused depletion of defense system i.e. glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase, which were restored close to normal by treatment of IN0523. Reduction in excessive lipid peroxidation induced by Cisplatin was also found by treatment with IN0523. The result suggests that IN0523 is a potential candidate for ameliorating Cisplatin induced toxicity in the kidney and testes at a dose of 100mg/kg p.o. via inhibiting the oxidative stress/redox status imbalance and may be improving the efflux mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation and characterization of hydrophilic hybrid monoliths via thiol-ene click polymerization and their applications in chromatographic analysis and glycopeptides enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jingyao; Liu, Zhongshan; Wang, Hongwei; You, Xin; Ou, Junjie; Shen, Yehua; Ye, Mingliang

    2017-05-19

    A macroporous hydrophilic organic-silica hybrid monolithic column was synthesized via photoinitiated thiol-ene click polymerization reaction of 1-thioglycerol-modified polyhedral oligomeric vinylsilsesquioxane (vinylPOSS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) in a binary porogenic system consisting of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dodecanol. 1-Thioglycerol was used to modify vinylPOSS in order to form a precursor with good solubility in the binary porogenic system. The influences of both the ratio of 1-thioglycerol/vinylPOSS and the porogenic solvents on the morphology and permeability of hybrid monoliths were studied in detail. The physical properties of hybrid monolith were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurement. The chromatographic performance was evaluated by separation of neutral polar compounds in capillary liquid chromatography (cLC). The resulting column possessed homogeneous macroporous structure and showed hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation mechanism with high efficiency of 65,000Nm -1 for formamide. Ultimately, the hybrid matrix was grafted with hydrazine groups and then exhibited the ability of glycopeptides enrichment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. One-Pot Multicomponent Synthesis of Glycopolymers through a Combination of Host-Guest Interaction, Thiol-ene, and Copper-Catalyzed Click Reaction in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Gao, Jinbo; Luo, Yan; Wei, Ting; Dong, Yishi; Chen, Gaojian; Chen, Hong

    2017-10-01

    There is a common phenomenon that the heterogeneity of natural oligosaccharides contains various sugar units, which can be used to enhance affinity and selectivity toward a specific receptor, so the synthesis of heterogeneous glycopolymers is always an important issue in the glycopolymer field. Herein, this study conducts a one-pot method to prepare polyrotaxane-based heteroglycopolymers anchored with different sugar units and fluorescent moieties via the combination of host-guest interaction, thiol-ene, and copper-catalyzed click chemistry in water. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and Ellman's assay test are used in the paper to characterize the compounds. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCD-D) experiments and bacterial adhesion assay are utilized to study the interactions of polyrotaxane-based heteroglycopolymers with Con A and Escherichia coli. The results reveal that polyrotaxanes (PRs) with mannose and glucose present better specificity toward Con A and E. coli than PRs with glucose due to synergistic effects. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. One-pot preparation of mercaptotetrazole-silica hybrid monoliths by the thiol-ene click reaction for mixed-mode capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haojiang; Hu, Wenli; Zheng, Qiong; Bian, Wei; Lin, Zian

    2017-06-01

    A novel mercaptotetrazole-silica hybrid monolithic column was prepared for capillary liquid chromatography, in which the thiol-end mercaptotetrazole was mixed with hydrolyzed γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane and tetramethyloxysilane for the co-polycondensation and thiol-ene click reaction in a one-pot process. The effects of the molar ratio of silanes, the amount of mercaptotetrazole, and the volume of porogen on the morphology, permeability and pore properties of the as-prepared mercaptotetrazole-silica hybrid monoliths were investigated in detail. A series of test compounds including alkylbenzenes, amides and anilines were employed for evaluating the retention behaviors of the mercaptotetrazole-silica hybrid monolithic columns. The results demonstrated that the mercaptotetrazole-silica hybrid monoliths exhibited hydrophobic, hydrophilic as well as ion-exchange interaction. The run-to-run, column-to-column and batch-to-batch reproducibilities of the mercaptotetrazole-silica hybrid monoliths were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations less than 1.4 (n = 5), 3.9 (n = 3) and 4.0% (n = 5), respectively. In addition, the mercaptotetrazole-silica hybrid monolith was further applied to the separation of sulfonamides, nucleobases and protein tryptic digests. These successful applications confirmed the promising potential of the mercaptotetrazole-silica hybrid monolith in the separation of complex samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Facile "one-pot" synthesis of poly(methacrylic acid)-based hybrid monolith via thiol-ene click reaction for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xumei; Tan, Wangming; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yingzhuang; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2016-07-08

    A novel sol-gel "one-pot" approach in tandem with a radical-mediated thiol-ene reaction for the synthesis of a methacrylic acid-based hybrid monolith was developed. The polymerization monomers, tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and 3-mercaptopropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTS), were hydrolyzed in high-concentration methacrylic acid solution that also served as a hydrophilic functional monomer. The resulting solution was then mixed with initiator (2, 2'-azobis (2-methylpropionamide) dihydrochloride) and porogen (urea, polyethylene glycol 20,000) in a capillary column and polymerized in water bath. The column had a uniform porous structure and a good permeability. The evaluation of the monolith was performed by separation of small molecules including nucleosides, phenols, amides, bases and Triton X-100. The calibration curves for uridine, inosine, adenosine and cytidine were determined. All the calibration curves exhibited good linear regressions (R(2)≥0.995) within the test ranges of 0.5-40μg/mL for four nucleosides. Additionaliy, atypical hydrophilic mechanism was proved by elution order from low to high according to polarity retention time increased with increases in the content of the organic solvent in the mobile phase. Further studies indicated that hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions existed between the polar analytes and the stationary phase. This was the mechanism of retention. The excellent separation of the BSA digest showed good hydrophility of the column and indicated the potential in separation of complex biological samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.